WorldWideScience

Sample records for reliability organization ero

  1. 76 FR 16263 - Revision to Electric Reliability Organization Definition of Bulk Electric System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ...; Order No. 743-A] Revision to Electric Reliability Organization Definition of Bulk Electric System AGENCY... certain provisions of the Final Rule. Order No. 743 directed the Electric Reliability Organization (ERO) to revise the definition of the term ``bulk electric system'' through the ERO's Reliability Standards...

  2. 77 FR 59745 - Delegation of Authority Regarding Electric Reliability Organization's Budget, Delegation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ...; Order No. 766] Delegation of Authority Regarding Electric Reliability Organization's Budget, Delegation... rule. SUMMARY: The Commission is issuing this Final Rule to revise its delegations of authority to... delegation agreements, and ERO policies and procedures. DATES: This rule is effective October 1, 2012. FOR...

  3. 76 FR 23171 - Electric Reliability Organization Interpretations of Interconnection Reliability Operations and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... Reliability Standards for the Bulk-Power System, Order No. 693, FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,242, order on reh'g...-Power System reliability may request an interpretation of a Reliability Standard.\\7\\ The ERO's standards... information in its reliability assessments. The Reliability Coordinator must monitor Bulk Electric System...

  4. Is liberal independent dental practice in danger? Assessing forms of dental practice in the European Regional Organization (ERO) zone of the FDI World Dental Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Thomas Gerhard; Seeberger, Gerhard Konrad; Callaway, Angelika; Briseño-Marroquín, Benjamín; Rusca, Philippe; Frank, Michael; Otterbach, Ernst-Jürgen

    2018-02-26

    A trend towards increasingly new forms of dental practice has been observed in the FDI World Dental Federation. Elementary foundations such as the free dentist and therapy choice, and independent, free, self-responsible professional practice may be undermined. The current study is aimed at analyzing the general training framework, organization, and professional types of dental practice in the European Regional Organization (ERO) zone and at critically discussing selected aspects of changes in the dental profession. A questionnaire was developed by the ERO Working-Group "Liberal Dental Practice." Information about dental schools, professional organizations, dental practice regulations, and ambulatory healthcare centers was analyzed. Self-employed dental practice is the most common type of practice (51.7%). Dentists are allowed to work independently immediately after graduation (72.7%). Approximately one-third are organized as compulsory members in chambers/corporations. The density of dentists has a mean of 1,570 inhabitants per dentist. In most countries, there are no special rules for founding dental ambulatory healthcare centers. In a total of 353 universities of the ERO countries surveyed, 16,619 dentists per year were trained, with a trend toward a higher percentage of female students (63%). Despite modern forms of dental practice, the charter of the individual liberal dental profession (CED et al, 2013) should be respected and taken into account on the basis of ethical principles. The commercialization of the dental profession can be neutralized only by establishing and following well-defined ethical principles; oral healthcare quality can thus be ensured without the influence of third parties.

  5. Eros / Aare Ermel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ermel, Aare, 1957-2013

    2006-01-01

    Kolmest iseseisvast armastusloost koosnev episoodfilm "Eros" : režissöörid Wong Kar-Wai ("Käsi"), Steven Soderbergh ("Tasakaal" / "Equilibrium"), Michelangelo Antonioni ("Asjade ohtlik käik") : Hongkong - Hiina - USA - Prantsuse - Itaalia 2004

  6. 78 FR 41339 - Electric Reliability Organization Proposal To Retire Requirements in Reliability Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ...] Electric Reliability Organization Proposal To Retire Requirements in Reliability Standards AGENCY: Federal... Reliability Standards identified by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC), the Commission-certified Electric Reliability Organization. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kevin Ryan (Legal Information...

  7. When and why are reliable organizations favored?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ethiraj, Sendil; Yi, Sangyoon

    of the ensuing work examined only corollary implications of this observation. We treat the observation as a research question and ask: when and why are reliable organizations favored by evolutionary forces? Using a simple theoretical model, we direct attention at a minimal set of variables that are implicated...... shocks, reliable organizations can in fact outperform their less reliable counterparts if they can take advantage of the knowledge resident in their historical choices. While these results are counter-intuitive, the caveat is that our results are only an existence proof for our theory rather than...

  8. 76 FR 58101 - Electric Reliability Organization Interpretation of Transmission Operations Reliability Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ....C. Cir. 2009). \\4\\ Mandatory Reliability Standards for the Bulk-Power System, Order No. 693, FERC... for maintaining real and reactive power balance. \\14\\ Electric Reliability Organization Interpretation...; Order No. 753] Electric Reliability Organization Interpretation of Transmission Operations Reliability...

  9. 75 FR 35021 - Reliability Standards Development and NERC and Regional Entity Enforcement; Notice of Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... Standards Development and NERC and Regional Entity Enforcement; Notice of Technical Conference June 15, 2010... Technical Conference to address industry perspectives on certain issues pertaining to the development and... Electric Reliability Organization's (ERO) standards development process; communication and interactions...

  10. 77 FR 7526 - Interpretation of Protection System Reliability Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... Federal Power Act (FPA) requires a Commission-certified Electric Reliability Organization (ERO) to develop.... Cir. 2009). \\8\\ Mandatory Reliability Standards for the Bulk-Power System, Order No. 693, FERC Stats... a person that is ``directly and materially affected'' by Bulk-Power System reliability may request...

  11. Learning Organizations in High Reliability Industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwalbe, D.; Wächter, C.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Humans make mistakes. Sometimes we learn from them. In a high reliability organization we have to learn before an error leads to an incident (or even accident). Therefore the “human factor” is most important as most of the time the human is the last line of defense. The “human factor” is more than communication or leadership skills. At the end, it is the personal attitude. This attitude has to be safety minded. And this attitude has to be self-reflected continuously. Moreover, feedback from others is urgently needed to improve one’s personal skills daily and learn from our own experience as well as from others. (author

  12. 76 FR 23222 - Electric Reliability Organization Interpretation of Transmission Operations Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ....3d 1342 (DC Cir. 2009). \\5\\ Mandatory Reliability Standards for the Bulk-Power System, Order No. 693... Reliability Standards for the Bulk-Power System. Action: FERC-725A. OMB Control No.: 1902-0244. Respondents...] Electric Reliability Organization Interpretation of Transmission Operations Reliability AGENCY: Federal...

  13. Seeking high reliability in primary care: Leadership, tools, and organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Robert R

    2015-01-01

    Leaders in health care increasingly recognize that improving health care quality and safety requires developing an organizational culture that fosters high reliability and continuous process improvement. For various reasons, a reliability-seeking culture is lacking in most health care settings. Developing a reliability-seeking culture requires leaders' sustained commitment to reliability principles using key mechanisms to embed those principles widely in the organization. The aim of this study was to examine how key mechanisms used by a primary care practice (PCP) might foster a reliability-seeking, system-oriented organizational culture. A case study approach was used to investigate the PCP's reliability culture. The study examined four cultural artifacts used to embed reliability-seeking principles across the organization: leadership statements, decision support tools, and two organizational processes. To decipher their effects on reliability, the study relied on observations of work patterns and the tools' use, interactions during morning huddles and process improvement meetings, interviews with clinical and office staff, and a "collective mindfulness" questionnaire. The five reliability principles framed the data analysis. Leadership statements articulated principles that oriented the PCP toward a reliability-seeking culture of care. Reliability principles became embedded in the everyday discourse and actions through the use of "problem knowledge coupler" decision support tools and daily "huddles." Practitioners and staff were encouraged to report unexpected events or close calls that arose and which often initiated a formal "process change" used to adjust routines and prevent adverse events from recurring. Activities that foster reliable patient care became part of the taken-for-granted routine at the PCP. The analysis illustrates the role leadership, tools, and organizational processes play in developing and embedding a reliable-seeking culture across an

  14. The infrared spectrum of asteroid 433 Eros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, H. P.; Fink, U.; Treffers, R. R.; Gautier, T. N., III

    1976-01-01

    The mineralogical composition of asteroid Eros has been determined from its infrared spectrum (0.9-2.7 micrometers; 28/cm resolution). Major minerals include metallic Ni-Fe and pyroxene; no spectroscopic evidence for olivine or plagioclase feldspar was found. The IR spectrum of Eros is most consistent with a stony-iron composition.

  15. Results from the EROS microlensing survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beaulieu, JP; Lamers, HJGLM; Chu, YH; Suntzeff, NB; Hesser, JE; Bohlender, DA

    1999-01-01

    We present a status report of the original EROS and the on-going EROS-2 microlensing surveys, which were created to search for dark matter in the Galactic halo via microlensing effects on LMC/SMC stars. Microlensing surveys provide long-term systematic observations of millions of stars in both

  16. Leadership in organizations with high security and reliability requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, F.

    2013-01-01

    Developing leadership skills in organizations is the key to ensure the sustainability of excellent results in industries with high requirements safety and reliability. In order to have a model of leadership development specific to this type of organizations, Tecnatom in 2011, we initiated a project internal, to find and adapt a competency model to these requirements.

  17. 75 FR 80391 - Electric Reliability Organization Interpretations of Interconnection Reliability Operations and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... transmission (G&T) cooperative or similar organization to accept compliance responsibility on behalf of its... be found on the Commission's Web site; see, e.g., the ``Quick Reference Guide for Paper Submissions... Electric Reliability Standards, Order No. 672, FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,204, order on reh'g, Order No. 672...

  18. Erosão Costeira em Vilankulos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Menete

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo pretende ser uma contribuição na identificação de áreas vulneráveis à erosão. No quadro metodológico figura o uso da Equação Universal de Perda de Solo (USLE para avaliar o peso relativo dos factores que atuam no processo de erosão na zona costeira do distrito de Vilankulo, a partir de dados obtidos no campo. A influência dos fatores práticas de maneio da terra, cobertura vegetal, R- erosividade da chuva e S- declive do terreno foi determinada através do cálculo do coeficiente de determinação – R2 usando dados referentes a dez lugares de ocorrência de erosão. O Sistema de Informação Geográfica (SIG foi usado para classificar e mapear as áreas de erosão. A rua da Marginal, os bairros Desse e Chibuene são as áreas mais vulneráveis à erosão, estando atualmente, marcadas por ravinamentos cada vez mais evidentes. O agravamento da erosão pode ser explicado por factores correlacionados nomeadamente as práticas de maneio da terra, aos níveis de cobertura vegetal e a erosividade da chuva. Para explicação do fenômeno erosivo na área de estudo proposto parece-nos pois importante considerar, em estudos subsequentes, aspectos ligados ao clima de agitação marítima.

  19. 18 CFR 39.4 - Funding of the Electric Reliability Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CERTIFICATION OF THE ELECTRIC RELIABILITY ORGANIZATION; AND PROCEDURES FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, APPROVAL, AND ENFORCEMENT OF ELECTRIC RELIABILITY STANDARDS § 39.4 Funding of the Electric Reliability Organization. (a) Any... Reliability Organization. 39.4 Section 39.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY...

  20. Educational Management Organizations as High Reliability Organizations: A Study of Victory's Philadelphia High School Reform Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David E.

    2013-01-01

    This executive position paper proposes recommendations for designing reform models between public and private sectors dedicated to improving school reform work in low performing urban high schools. It reviews scholarly research about for-profit educational management organizations, high reliability organizations, American high school reform, and…

  1. Compliance and High Reliability in a Complex Healthcare Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Maxine dellaBadia

    2018-01-01

    When considering the impact of regulation on healthcare, visualize a spider's web. The spider weaves sections together to create the whole, with each fiber adding to the structure to support its success or lead to its failure. Each section is dependent on the others, and all must be aligned to maintain the structure. Outside forces can cause a shift in the web's fragile equilibrium.The interdependence of the sections of the spider's web is similar to the way hospital departments and services work together. An organization's structure must be shaped to support its mission and vision. At the same time, the business of healthcare requires the development and achievement of operational objectives and financial performance goals. Establishing a culture that is flexible enough to permit creativity, provide resiliency, and manage complexity as the organization grows is fundamental to success. An organization must address each of these factors while maintaining stability, carrying out its mission, and fostering improvement.Nature's order maintains the spider's web. Likewise, regulation can strengthen healthcare organizations by initiating disruptive changes that can support efforts to achieve and sustain high reliability in the delivery of care. To that end, leadership must be willing to provide the necessary vision and resources.

  2. Cratering on Small Bodies: Lessons from Eros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, C. R.

    2003-01-01

    Cratering and regolith processes on small bodies happen continuously as interplanetary debris rains down on asteroids, comets, and planetary satellites. Butthey are very poorly observed and not well understood. On the one hand, we have laboratory experimentation at small scales and we have examination of large impact craters (e.g. Meteor Crater on Earth and imaging of abundant craters on terrestrial planets and outer planet moons). Understanding cratering on bodies of intermediate scales, tens of meters to hundreds of km in size, involves either extrapolation from our understanding of cratering phenomena at very different scales or reliance on very preliminary, incomplete examination of the observational data we now have for a few small bodies. I review the latter information here. It has been generally understood that the role of gravity is greatly diminished for smaller bodies, so a lot of cratering phenomena studied for larger bodies is less applicable. But it would be a mistake to imagine that laboratory experiments on gravitationless rocks (usually at 1 g) are directly applicable, except perhaps to those monolithic Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) some tens of meters in size that spin very rapidly and can be assumed to be "large bare rocks" with "negative gravity". Whereas it had once been assumed that asteroids smaller than some tens of km diameter would retain little regolith, it is increasingly apparent that regolith and megoregolith processes extend down to bodies only hundreds of meters in size, perhaps smaller. Yet these processes are very different from those that pertain to the Moon, which is our chief prototype of regolith processes. The NEAR Shoemaker spacecraft's studies of Eros provide the best evidence to date about small-body cratering processes, as well as a warning that our theoretical understanding requires anchoring by direct observations. Eros: "Ponds", Paucity of Small Craters, and Other Mysteries. Although Eros is currently largely detached

  3. 18 CFR 39.3 - Electric Reliability Organization certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... operators of the Bulk-Power System, and other interested parties for improvement of the Electric Reliability... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electric Reliability..., Reliability Standards that provide for an adequate level of reliability of the Bulk-Power System, and (2) Has...

  4. Are QSO2 hiding among EROs?

    OpenAIRE

    Brusa, Marcella

    2004-01-01

    We present the results of a deep (80 ks) XMM-Newton survey of one of the largest sample of near-infrared selected Extremely Red Objects (R-K>5) available to date (~300 objects, Daddi et al. 2000). The fraction of individually detected, X-ray emitting EROs is of the order of ~3.5%, down to F_x > 4x10^-15 cgs and Ks

  5. 78 FR 38851 - Electric Reliability Organization Proposal To Retire Requirements in Reliability Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... either: Provide little protection for Bulk-Power System reliability or are redundant with other aspects... for retirement either: (1) Provide little protection for Bulk-Power System reliability or (2) are... to assure reliability of the Bulk-Power System and should be withdrawn. We have identified 41...

  6. Understanding organic photovoltaic cells: Electrode, nanostructure, reliability, and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Su

    My Ph.D. research has focused on alternative renewable energy using organic semiconductors. During my study, first, I have established reliable characterization methods of organic photovoltaic devices. More specifically, less than 5% variation of power conversion efficiency of fabricated organic blend photovoltaic cells (OBPC) was achieved after optimization. The reproducibility of organic photovoltaic cell performance is one of the essential issues that must be clarified before beginning serious investigations of the application of creative and challenging ideas. Second, the relationships between fill factor (FF) and process variables have been demonstrated with series and shunt resistance, and this provided a chance to understand the electrical device behavior. In the blend layer, series resistance (Rs) and shunt resistance (Rsh) were varied by controlling the morphology of the blend layer, the regioregularity of the conjugated polymer, and the thickness of the blend layer. At the interface between the cathode including PEDOT:PSS and the blend layer, cathode conductivity was controlled by varying the structure of the cathode or adding an additive. Third, we thoroughly examined possible characterization mistakes in OPVC. One significant characterization mistake is observed when the crossbar electrode geometry of OPVC using PEDOT:PSS was fabricated and characterized with illumination which is larger than the actual device area. The hypothesis to explain this overestimation was excess photo-current generated from the cell region outside the overlapped electrode area, where PEDOT:PSS plays as anode and this was clearly supported with investigations. Finally, I incorporated a creative idea, which enhances the exciton dissociation efficiency by increasing the interface area between donor and acceptor to improve the power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic cells. To achieve this, nanoimprint lithography was applied for interface area increase. To clarify the

  7. 75 FR 72909 - Revision to Electric Reliability Organization Definition of Bulk Electric System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... Bulk-Power System. See Rules Concerning Certification of the Electric Reliability Organization; and... Bulk-Power System in North America because it protects the reliability of the bulk electric system and... Electric Reliability Organization Definition of Bulk Electric System; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register...

  8. 78 FR 29209 - Revisions to Electric Reliability Organization Definition of Bulk Electric System and Rules of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... Commission 18 CFR Part 40 Revisions to Electric Reliability Organization Definition of Bulk Electric System... local distribution'' as set forth in the Federal Power Act (FPA). \\1\\ Revisions to Electric Reliability... Reliability Organization Definition of Bulk Electric System, Order No. 743, 133 FERC ] 61,150, at P 16 (2010...

  9. 18 CFR 39.10 - Changes to an Electric Reliability Organization Rule or Regional Entity Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RULES CONCERNING CERTIFICATION OF THE ELECTRIC RELIABILITY ORGANIZATION; AND PROCEDURES FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, APPROVAL, AND ENFORCEMENT OF ELECTRIC RELIABILITY STANDARDS § 39.10 Changes to an Electric... Reliability Organization Rule or Regional Entity Rule. 39.10 Section 39.10 Conservation of Power and Water...

  10. Reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Condon, David; Revelle, William

    2017-01-01

    Separating the signal in a test from the irrelevant noise is a challenge for all measurement. Low test reliability limits test validity, attenuates important relationships, and can lead to regression artifacts. Multiple approaches to the assessment and improvement of reliability are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of several different approaches to reliability are considered. Practical advice on how to assess reliability using open source software is provided.

  11. Aion, Eros e Hades nei frammenti caldaici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Lenzi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The essay deals with some aspects of the knotty question concerning the presence of Aion, Eros and Hades in the variegated universe of the Chaldean Oracles, traditionally attributed to a collaboration between two “Hellenized Magi” of the second c. AD: Julian “the Chaldean” and his son Julian “the Theurgist” (even if the theurgical expertise of the elder Julian, the repository of a more ancient Chaldean tradition, might not involve a direct eastern origin but only his knowledge of “Chaldean” sciences such as astrology and divination”. Aion, who is examined here in terms of his relationship with Chronos, as a more or less autonomous divinity, is mentioned only in the context of some fragments, but his name never appears in the oracular verses. Eros (beloging also to the triad of fr. 46, along with “Faith” and “Truth” stands for an independent cosmological principle whose task is to preserve the universe and the armony of the cosmos. The Chaldean Oracles never make any explicit mention of Hades, who anyway is cited by the Byzantine scholar Psellos as an autonomous divinity of the Chaldeans.

  12. Hydrokinetic energy resource estimates of River ERO at Lafiagi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrokinetic energy resource estimates of River ERO at Lafiagi, Kwara State, ... cost-effective renewable energy solution without requiring the construction of a ... Keywords: Hydrokinetic Power, Energy Resource, River Ero, Water Resources ... (14); Eritrea (1); Ethiopia (30); Ghana (27); Kenya (29); Lesotho (1); Libya (2) ...

  13. 77 FR 39858 - Revisions to Electric Reliability Organization Definition of Bulk Electric System and Rules of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... bulk electric system reliability through steady state power flow, and contain a transient stability... Commission 18 CFR Part 40 Revisions to Electric Reliability Organization Definition of Bulk Electric System... definition of ``bulk electric system'' developed by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC...

  14. Eros: Shape, topography, and slope processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P.C.; Joseph, J.; Carcich, B.; Veverka, J.; Clark, B.E.; Bell, J.F.; Byrd, A.W.; Chomko, R.; Robinson, M.; Murchie, S.; Prockter, L.; Cheng, A.; Izenberg, N.; Malin, M.; Chapman, C.; McFadden, L.A.; Kirk, R.; Gaffey, M.; Lucey, P.G.

    2002-01-01

    Stereogrammetric measurement of the shape of Eros using images obtained by NEAR's Multispectral Imager provides a survey of the major topographic features and slope processes on this asteroid. This curved asteroid has radii ranging from 3.1 to 17.7 km and a volume of 2535 ?? 20 km3. The center of figure is within 52 m of the center of mass provided by the Navigation team; this minimal difference suggests that there are only modest variations in density or porosity within the asteroid. Three large depressions 10, 8, and 5.3 km across represent different stages of degradation of large impact craters. Slopes on horizontal scales of ???300 m are nearly all less than 35??, although locally scarps are much steeper. The area distribution of slopes is similar to those on Ida, Phobos, and Deimos. Regions that have slopes greater than 25?? have distinct brighter markings and have fewer large ejecta blocks than do flatter areas. The albedo patterns that suggest downslope transport of regolith have sharper boundaries than those on Phobos, Deimos, and Gaspra. The morphology of the albedo patterns, their lack of discrete sources, and their concentration on steeper slopes suggest transport mechanisms different from those on the previously well-observed small bodies, perhaps due to a reduced relative effectiveness of impact gardening on Eros. Regolith is also transported in talus cones and in connected, sinuous paths extending as much as 2 km, with some evident as relatively darker material. Talus material in at least one area is a discrete superposed unit, a feature not resolved on other small bodies. Flat-floored craters that apparently contain ponded material also suggest discrete units that are not well mixed by impacts. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  15. An examination of reliability critical items in liquid metal reactors: An analysis by the Centralized Reliability Data Organization (CREDO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphrys, B.L.; Haire, M.J.; Koger, K.H.; Manneschmidt, J.F.; Setoguchi, K.; Nakai, R.; Okubo, Y.

    1987-01-01

    The Centralized Reliability Data Organization (CREDO) is the largest repository of liquid metal reactor (LMR) component reliability data in the world. It is jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan. The CREDO data base contains information on a population of more than 21,000 components and approximately 1300 event records. A conservative estimation is that the total component operating hours is approaching 3.5 billion hours. Because data gathering for CREDO concentrates on event (failure) information, the work reported here focuses on the reliability information contained in CREDO and the development of reliability critical items lists. That is, components are ranked in prioritized lists from worst to best performers from a reliability standpoint. For the data contained in the CREDO data base, FFTF and JOYO show reliability growth; EBR-II reveals a slight unreliability growth for those components tracked by CREDO. However, tabulations of events which cause reactor shutdowns decrease with time at each site

  16. Development of the Centralized Reliability Data Organization (CREDO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.M.; Bott, T.F.; Knee, H.E.; Manning, J.J.; Hudson, S.D.; Greene, N.M.; Woodside, M.A.

    1979-01-01

    CREDO has been established to meet the needs of the US Breeder Reactor Program and the advanced reactor community for a centralized source of accurate reliability/maintainability data and data-related services. The center provides for a comprehensive program of collection, evaluation, and dissemination of data and for necessary user services. A steering committee of nationally recognized experts has been formed to guide CREDO development and operation. Historic data have been collected, analyzed, and published. Routine, continuous data collection and processing has been initiated at US sites. Interfaces with existing data bases have been established. Special user services are under development

  17. Reliability issues : a Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konow, H.

    2004-01-01

    A Canadian perspective of power reliability issues was presented. Reliability depends on adequacy of supply and a framework for standards. The challenges facing the electric power industry include new demand, plant replacement and exports. It is expected that demand will by 670 TWh by 2020, with 205 TWh coming from new plants. Canada will require an investment of $150 billion to meet this demand and the need is comparable in the United States. As trade grows, the challenge becomes a continental issue and investment in the bi-national transmission grid will be essential. The 5 point plan of the Canadian Electricity Association is to: (1) establish an investment climate to ensure future electricity supply, (2) move government and industry towards smart and effective regulation, (3) work to ensure a sustainable future for the next generation, (4) foster innovation and accelerate skills development, and (5) build on the strengths of an integrated North American system to maximize opportunity for Canadians. The CEA's 7 measures that enhance North American reliability were listed with emphasis on its support for a self-governing international organization for developing and enforcing mandatory reliability standards. CEA also supports the creation of a binational Electric Reliability Organization (ERO) to identify and solve reliability issues in the context of a bi-national grid. tabs., figs

  18. The thiol oxidant dipyridyl disulfide can supply the PDI-Ero1p pathway with additional oxidative equivalents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López-Mirabal, H Reynaldo; Winther, Jakob R

    2007-01-01

    Membrane-permeant oxidants have become a standard tool for studying eukaryotic organisms because they affect the redox state and the redox regulation of different compartments. The ero1-1 mutant is temperature sensitive (37 degrees C) and cannot grow under anaerobic conditions. Low micromolar con...

  19. The meaning of EROS/MACHO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.; Chicago Univ., IL

    1993-01-01

    Most of the mass density in the Universe and in the halo of our own galaxy -- exists in the form of dark matter. Overall, the contribution of luminous matter (in stars) to the mass density of the Universe is less than 1%; primordial nucleosynthesis indicates that baryons contribute between 1% and 10% of the critical density (0.01h -2 approx-lt Ω B approx-lt 0.02h -2 ; h = the Hubble constant in units of 100 kms -1 Mpc -1 ); and other evidence indicates that the total mass density is at least 10% of critical density, and likely much greater. If the universal density is as low as 10% of the critical density there may be but one kind of dark matter. More likely, the universal density is greater than 10%. and there are two kinds of dark matter, and thus two dark matter problems: In what form does the baryonic dark matter exist? and In what form does the nonbaryonic dark matter exist? The MACHO and EROS collaborations have presented evidence for the microlensing of stars in the LMC by 10 -1±1 M circle-dot dark objects in the halo of our own galaxy and may well have solved one of the dark matter puzzles by identifying the form of the baryonic dark matter. It is too early to make precise statements about the fraction of the mass density in the halo of our galaxy contributed by lensing objects (= f m ), though the EROS/MACHO data suggest that f m is probably 0.1 or larger. Taking our galaxy to be typical and taking account a fraction f m of the mass in the portion of the halo that contributes most significantly to microlensing (within 20 kpc of the galactic center), I estimate that lensing objects contribute a fraction 0.008f m /h of the critical density, and clearly cannot account for the bulk of the dark matter if Ω 0 much-gt 0.1

  20. Can we reliably benchmark health technology assessment organizations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Michael; Neumann, Peter; Jönsson, Bengt; Luce, Bryan; Schwartz, J Sanford; Siebert, Uwe; Sullivan, Sean D

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, there has been growth in the use of health technology assessment (HTA) for making decisions about the reimbursement, coverage, or guidance on the use of health technologies. Given this greater emphasis on the use of HTA, it is important to develop standards of good practice and to benchmark the various HTA organizations against these standards. This study discusses the conceptual and methodological challenges associated with benchmarking HTA organizations and proposes a series of audit questions based on a previously published set of principles of good practice. It is concluded that a benchmarking exercise would be feasible and useful, although the question of who should do the benchmarking requires further discussion. Key issues for further research are the alternative methods for weighting the various principles and for generating an overall score, or summary statement of adherence to the principles. Any weighting system, if developed, would need to be explored in different jurisdictions to assess the extent to which the relative importance of the principles is perceived to vary. Finally, the development and precise wording of the audit questions requires further study, with a view to making the questions as unambiguous as possible, and the reproducibility of the assessments as high as possible.

  1. Cohesion and device reliability in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells

    KAUST Repository

    Brand, Vitali

    2012-04-01

    The fracture resistance of P3HT:PC 60BM-based photovoltaic devices are characterized using quantitative adhesion and cohesion metrologies that allow identification of the weakest layer or interface in the device structure. We demonstrate that the phase separated bulk heterojunction layer is the weakest layer and report quantitative cohesion values which ranged from ∼1 to 20 J m -2. The effects of layer thickness, composition, and annealing treatments on layer cohesion are investigated. Using depth profiling and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy on the resulting fracture surfaces, we examine the gradient of molecular components through the thickness of the bulk heterojunction layer. Finally, using atomic force microscopy we show how the topography of the failure path is related to buckling of the metal electrode and how it develops with annealing. The research provides new insights on how the molecular design, structure and composition affect the cohesive properties of organic photovoltaics. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. 78 FR 30245 - Electric Reliability Organization Interpretation of Specific Requirements of the Disturbance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... contingency reserve policy; and (3) refers to the ERO rather than the NERC Operating Committee in Requirements... the proposed interpretation, Requirements R3 and R4 provide: R3. Each Balancing Authority or Reserve... Requirement R4 requires that: ``[A] Balancing Authority or Reserve Sharing Group shall meet the Disturbance...

  3. Reliability theory for repair service organization simulation and increase of innovative attraction of industrial enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolzhenkova, E. V.; Iurieva, L. V.

    2018-05-01

    The study presents the author's algorithm for the industrial enterprise repair service organization simulation based on the reliability theory, as well as the results of its application. The monitoring of the industrial enterprise repair service organization is proposed to perform on the basis of the enterprise's state indexes for the main resources (equipment, labour, finances, repair areas), which allows quantitative evaluation of the reliability level as a resulting summary rating of the said parameters and the ensuring of an appropriate level of the operation reliability of the serviced technical objects. Under the conditions of the tough competition, the following approach is advisable: the higher efficiency of production and a repair service itself, the higher the innovative attractiveness of an industrial enterprise. The results of the calculations show that in order to prevent inefficient losses of production and to reduce the repair costs, it is advisable to apply the reliability theory. The overall reliability rating calculated on the basis of the author's algorithm has low values. The processing of the statistical data forms the reliability characteristics for the different workshops and services of an industrial enterprise, which allows one to define the failure rates of the various units of equipment and to establish the reliability indexes necessary for the subsequent mathematical simulation. The proposed simulating algorithm contributes to an increase of the efficiency of the repair service organization and improvement of the innovative attraction of an industrial enterprise.

  4. Management systems for high reliability organizations. Integration and effectiveness; Managementsysteme fuer Hochzuverlaessigkeitsorganisationen. Integration und Wirksamkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Michael

    2015-03-09

    The scope of the thesis is the development of a method for improvement of efficient integrated management systems for high reliability organizations (HRO). A comprehensive analysis of severe accident prevention is performed. Severe accident management, mitigation measures and business continuity management are not included. High reliability organizations are complex and potentially dynamic organization forms that can be inherently dangerous like nuclear power plants, offshore platforms, chemical facilities, large ships or large aircrafts. A recursive generic management system model (RGM) was development based on the following factors: systemic and cybernetic Asepcts; integration of different management fields, high decision quality, integration of efficient methods of safety and risk analysis, integration of human reliability aspects, effectiveness evaluation and improvement.

  5. The Centralized Reliability Data Organization (CREDO); an advanced nuclear reactor reliability, availability, and maintainability data bank and data analysis center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knee, H.E.

    1991-01-01

    The Centralized Reliability Data Organization (CREDO) is a data bank and data analysis center, which since 1985 has been jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy's (US DOE's) Office of Technology Support Programs and Japan's Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). It focuses on reliability, availability and maintainability (RAM) data for components (e.g. valves, pumps, etc.) operating in advanced nuclear reactor facilities. As originally intended, the purpose of the CREDO system was to provide a centralized source of accurate, up-to-date data and information for use in RAM analyses necessary for meeting DOE's data needs in the areas of advanced reactor safety assessments, design and licensing. In particular, creation of the CREDO system was considered an essential element needed to fulfill the DOE Breeder Reactor Safety Program's commitment of 'identifying and exploiting areas in which probabilistic methods can be developed and used in making reactor safety Research and Development choices and optimizing designs of safety systems'. CREDO and its operation are explained. (author)

  6. The Stability and Reliability of a Modified Work Components Study Questionnaire in the Educational Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskel, Cecil; Heller, Leonard E.

    The investigation attempted to establish the factorial validity and reliability of an industrial selection device based on Herzberg's theory of work motivation related to the school organization. The questionnaire was reworded to reflect an educational work situation; and a random sample of 197 students, 118 administrators, and 432 teachers was…

  7. [Employees in high-reliability organizations: systematic selection of personnel as a final criterion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oubaid, V; Anheuser, P

    2014-05-01

    Employees represent an important safety factor in high-reliability organizations. The combination of clear organizational structures, a nonpunitive safety culture, and psychological personnel selection guarantee a high level of safety. The cockpit personnel selection process of a major German airline is presented in order to demonstrate a possible transferability into medicine and urology.

  8. Giorgio Perlasca, 'Giusto tra le nazioni' e 'eroe italiano'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Giorgio Perlasca che, fingendosi console spagnolo, nel 1944 salvò più di cinquemila ebrei ungheresi a Budapest, è stato proclamato “Giusto tra le Nazioni” a Yad Vashem nel 1989, dopo di che è seguito il suo riconoscimento all’estero ed in Italia come “uomo giusto” e come “eroe italiano”. Dopo il

  9. Patient safety in anesthesia: learning from the culture of high-reliability organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Suzanne M

    2015-03-01

    There has been an increased awareness of and interest in patient safety and improved outcomes, as well as a growing body of evidence substantiating medical error as a leading cause of death and injury in the United States. According to The Joint Commission, US hospitals demonstrate improvements in health care quality and patient safety. Although this progress is encouraging, much room for improvement remains. High-reliability organizations, industries that deliver reliable performances in the face of complex working environments, can serve as models of safety for our health care system until plausible explanations for patient harm are better understood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A face pedagógica de Eros The pedagogical face of Eros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene de Souza Dozol

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho busca descobrir a face pedagógica de Eros. Como ponto de partida, está o fato de a figura do educador/professor ser comumente representado por alguém cuja ocupação não suscita desejos de qualquer espécie. Não raras vezes assistimos a representações literárias e imagens televisivas ou cinematográficas nas quais o professor aparece comicamente como uma caricatura que fala, de modo monótono e sem parar, a alunos cujos rostos oscilam entre o tédio e o escárnio. No entanto, o que é de fato assustador é que, cada vez mais, as imagens que aparecem no discurso das novas gerações, numa tentativa de oposição à caricatura supracitada, associam a figura do professor à de um animador de auditório, performático, divertido, especialista em dinâmicas grupais catárticas, sem conteúdo e igualmente caricatural. Procurando, então, desviar-se de ambas as caricaturas e refletir sobre o gênero específico de libido pedagógica - compreendido como força ou energia espiritual para o progresso moral, intelectual e sensível -, o texto recupera o poder ilustrativo do mito, pensa sobre a força do imaginário na constituição de parâmetros modelares para a Educação e para o exercício da mestria (para isso, propõe notas socráticas, sofísticas e escolásticas com ênfase na linguagem e aponta para a importância dessa discussão diante dos problemas que habitam os espaços educativos contemporâneos.The present work seeks to uncover the pedagogical face of Eros. As a starting point, there is the fact that the figure of the educator/teacher is commonly represented by someone whose occupation does not elicit desires of any kind. It is not unusual to see literary representations and televised or cinema images in which the teacher appears comically as a caricature that talks continuously and monotonically to pupils whose countenances oscillate between boredom and scorn. But what is truly frightening is that, more and

  11. Safeprops: A Software for Fast and Reliable Estimation of Safety and Environmental Properties for Organic Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Mark Nicholas; Frutiger, Jerome; Abildskov, Jens

    We present a new software tool called SAFEPROPS which is able to estimate major safety-related and environmental properties for organic compounds. SAFEPROPS provides accurate, reliable and fast predictions using the Marrero-Gani group contribution (MG-GC) method. It is implemented using Python...... as the main programming language, while the necessary parameters together with their correlation matrix are obtained from a SQLite database which has been populated using off-line parameter and error estimation routines (Eq. 3-8)....

  12. Cross Cultural Perspectives of the Learning Organization: Assessing the Validity and Reliability of the DLOQ in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ji Hoon; Kim, Jin Yong; Chermack, Thomas J.; Yang; Baiyin

    2008-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to adapt the Dimensions of Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ) from Watkins and Marsick (1993, 1996) and examine its validity and reliability in a Korean context. Results indicate that the DLOQ produces valid and reliable scores of learning organization characteristics in a Korean cultural context.…

  13. FORMACIÓN DOCENTE. VISIÓN ESTÉTICA DESPLEGADA DESDE EL EROS TEACHER TRAINING. BEAUTY VISIÓN EXPANDED BY EROS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolimar Herrera Bastardo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article has as general theme the Teacher training and Eros. The purpose is to reflect on Teacher Education from an aesthetic point of view displayed by Eros. With a methodological critical-reflexive hermeneutic approach , addressing the themes: a situations onto-epistemological that since Modernity legitimized particular conditions of expression of human being, conceiving it as a one-dimensional being, a vision that reduced the training of teachers to the accumulation of academic knowledge, b emerging scenario to another view of teacher education. Since the idea of formation of Nietzsche and Larrosa, and Pausanias’ Eros, the human being expresses its multidimensionality, the freedom of thought and the transit through different knowledge as training areas. Eros transmutes the idea of Teacher Education towards the encounter of the human, the sharing of knowledge, and self- transformation. In conclusion, Eros is the force that transforms everything.

  14. reliability reliability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Corresponding author, Tel: +234-703. RELIABILITY .... V , , given by the code of practice. However, checks must .... an optimization procedure over the failure domain F corresponding .... of Concrete Members based on Utility Theory,. Technical ...

  15. Genetic interaction between the ero1-1 and leu2 mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López-Mirabal, H Reynaldo; Winther, Jakob R; Kielland-Brandt, Morten C

    2007-01-01

    of the ero1-1 mutation were carried out in a leu2 mutant. The ero1-1 leu2 strain does not grow in standard synthetic complete medium at 30 degrees C, a defect that can be remedied by increasing the L-leucine concentration in the medium or by transforming the ero1-1 leu2 strain with the LEU2 wild-type allele...

  16. Reliability and validity of the German version of the Structured Interview of Personality Organization (STIPO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The assessment of personality organization and its observable behavioral manifestations, i.e. personality functioning, has a long tradition in psychodynamic psychiatry. Recently, the DSM-5 Levels of Personality Functioning Scale has moved it into the focus of psychiatric diagnostics. Based on Kernberg’s concept of personality organization the Structured Interview of Personality Organization (STIPO) was developed for diagnosing personality functioning. The STIPO covers seven dimensions: (1) identity, (2) object relations, (3) primitive defenses, (4) coping/rigidity, (5) aggression, (6) moral values, and (7) reality testing and perceptual distortions. The English version of the STIPO has previously revealed satisfying psychometric properties. Methods Validity and reliability of the German version of the 100-item instrument have been evaluated in 122 psychiatric patients. All patients were diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) and were assessed by means of the STIPO. Moreover, all patients completed eight questionnaires that served as criteria for external validity of the STIPO. Results Interrater reliability varied between intraclass correlations of .89 and 1.0, Crohnbach’s α for the seven dimensions was .69 to .93. All a priori selected questionnaire scales correlated significantly with the corresponding STIPO dimensions. Patients with personality disorder (PD) revealed significantly higher STIPO scores (i.e. worse personality functioning) than patients without PD; patients cluster B PD showed significantly higher STIPO scores than patients with cluster C PD. Conclusions Interrater reliability, Crohnbach’s α, concurrent validity, and differential validity of the STIPO are satisfying. The STIPO represents an appropriate instrument for the assessment of personality functioning in clinical and research settings. PMID:23941404

  17. Influence of ITO patterning on reliability of organic light emitting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhaokui; Naka, Shigeki; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films are widely used for a transparent electrode of organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) because of its excellent conductivity and transparency. Two types of ITO substrates with different surface roughness were selected to use as anode of OLEDs. In addition, two types of etching process of ITO substrate, particularly the etching time, were also carried out. It was found that the surface roughness and/or the etching process of ITO substrate strongly influenced on an edge of ITO surface, further affected the operating characteristics and reliability of devices.

  18. CD-ROM technology at the EROS data center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madigan, Michael E.; Weinheimer, Mary C.

    1993-01-01

    The vast amount of digital spatial data often required by a single user has created a demand for media alternatives to 1/2" magnetic tape. One such medium that has been recently adopted at the U.S. Geological Survey's EROS Data Center is the compact disc (CD). CD's are a versatile, dynamic, and low-cost method for providing a variety of data on a single media device and are compatible with various computer platforms. CD drives are available for personal computers, UNIX workstations, and mainframe systems, either directly connected, or through a network. This medium furnishes a quick method of reproducing and distributing large amounts of data on a single CD. Several data sets are already available on CD's, including collections of historical Landsat multispectral scanner data and biweekly composites of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer data for the conterminous United States. The EROS Data Center intends to provide even more data sets on CD's. Plans include specific data sets on a customized disc to fulfill individual requests, and mass production of unique data sets for large-scale distribution. Requests for a single compact disc-read only memory (CD-ROM) containing a large volume of data either for archiving or for one-time distribution can be addressed with a CD-write once (CD-WO) unit. Mass production and large-scale distribution will require CD-ROM replication and mastering.

  19. Highly Conductive and Reliable Copper-Filled Isotropically Conductive Adhesives Using Organic Acids for Oxidation Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenjun; Deng, Dunying; Cheng, Yuanrong; Xiao, Fei

    2015-07-01

    The easy oxidation of copper is one critical obstacle to high-performance copper-filled isotropically conductive adhesives (ICAs). In this paper, a facile method to prepare highly reliable, highly conductive, and low-cost ICAs is reported. The copper fillers were treated by organic acids for oxidation prevention. Compared with ICA filled with untreated copper flakes, the ICA filled with copper flakes treated by different organic acids exhibited much lower bulk resistivity. The lowest bulk resistivity achieved was 4.5 × 10-5 Ω cm, which is comparable to that of commercially available Ag-filled ICA. After 500 h of 85°C/85% relative humidity (RH) aging, the treated ICAs showed quite stable bulk resistivity and relatively stable contact resistance. Through analyzing the results of x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis, we found that, with the assistance of organic acids, the treated copper flakes exhibited resistance to oxidation, thus guaranteeing good performance.

  20. The European reliability data system. An organized information exchange on the operation of European nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancini, G.; Amesz, J.; Bastianini, P.; Capobianchi, S.

    1983-01-01

    The paper revises the aims and objectives of the European Reliability Data System (ERDS), a centralized system collecting and organizing, at European level, information related to the operation of LWRs. The ERDS project was started in 1977 and after a preliminary feasibility study that ended in 1979 is now proceeding towards the final design and implementation stages. ERDS exploits information collected in national data systems and information deriving from single reactor sources. The paper describes first the development of the four data banks constituting the system: Component Event Data Bank, CEDB; Abnormal Occurrences Reporting System, AORS; Operating Unit Status Report, OUSR; and Generic Reliability Parameter Data Bank, GRPDB. Several typical aspects concerning the project are then outlined from the need of homogeneization of data and therefore the need for setting up reference classifications, to the problem of data transcoding and input into the system. Furthermore, the need is stressed of involving much more deeply nuclear power plant operators into the process of data acquisition by providing them with a useful feedback from the data analysis. (author)

  1. Improved Reliability of Small Molecule Organic Solar Cells by Double Anode Buffer Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pao-Hsun Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimized hybrid planar heterojunction (PHJ of small molecule organic solar cells (SM-OSCs based on copper phthalocyanine (CuPc as donor and fullerene (C60 as acceptor was fabricated, which obviously enhanced the performance of device by sequentially using both MoO3 and pentacene as double anode buffer layers (ABL, also known as hole extraction layer (HEL. A series of the vacuum-deposited ABL, acting as an electron and exciton blocking layer, were examined for their characteristics in SM-OSCs. The performance and reliability were compared between conventional ITO/ABL/CuPc/C60/BCP/Ag cells and the new ITO/double ABL/CuPc/C60/BCP/Ag cells. The effect on the electrical properties of these materials was also investigated to obtain the optimal thickness of ABL. The comparison shows that the modified cell has an enhanced reliability compared to traditional cells. The improvement of lifetime was attributed to the idea of double layers to prevent humidity and oxygen from diffusing into the active layer. We demonstrated that the interfacial extraction layers are necessary to avoid degradation of device. That is to say, in normal temperature and pressure, a new avenue for the device within double buffer layers has exhibited the highest values of open circuit voltage (Voc, fill factor (FF, and lifetime in this work compared to monolayer of ABL.

  2. Centralized Reliability Data Organization (CREDO) assessment of critical component unavailability in liquid metal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koger, K.H.; Haire, M.J.; Humphrys, B.L.; Manneschmidt, J.F.; Setoguchi, K.; Nakai, R.

    1988-01-01

    The Centralized Reliability Data Organization (CREDO) is the largest repository of liquid metal reactor (LMR) component reliability data in the world. It is jointly sponsored by the US Dept. of Energy (DOE) and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan. The CREDO data base contains information on a population of more than 20,000 components and approximately 1500 event records. A conservative estimation is that the total component operating hours is approaching 2.2 billion hours. The work reported here focuses on the availability information contained in CREDO and the development of availability critical items lists. That is, individual components are ranked in prioritized lists from worst to best performers from an availability standpoint. Availability as used here is an inherent characteristics of the component and is not necessarily related to plant operability. A major observation is that a few components have a much higher unavailability factor than the average. The top fifteen components contribute 93%, 77%, and 87% of the total system unavailability for EBR-II, FFTF, and JOYO respectively. Critical components common to all three sites are mechanical pumps and electromagnetic pumps. Application of resources to these components with the highest unavailability will have the greatest effect on overall availability. All three sites demonstrate that low maintainability (i.e., long repair times), rather than unreliability (i.e., high failure rates), are the main contributors, by about a two-to-one margin, to liquid metal system unavailability

  3. Leadership in organizations with high security and reliability requirements; Liderazgo en organizaciones con altos requisitos de seguridad y fiabilidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, F.

    2013-07-01

    Developing leadership skills in organizations is the key to ensure the sustain ability of excellent results in industries with high requirements safety and reliability. In order to have a model of leadership development specific to this type of organizations, Tecnatom in 2011, we initiated a project internal, to find and adapt a competency model to these requirements.

  4. Sylvia Plath - a woman between Eros and Thanatos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Galle

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The opposition between the Hughes family  and the radical feminists led to the emergence of two diametrically opposite Plath  myths: a mentally disturbed, manipulative woman, unstoppably driven towards suicide, or an innocent victim of a treacherous husband? Both sides interpret Plath's life and works in view of her untimely  death, neglecting the underlying life force that pervades her poetry and prose. Relying on the psychoanalytical theory of instincts, the author shows how Eros complements and even makes use of Thanatos on different levels of Plath's writing:  on the level of language asa meaningful structure, on the level of meaning, and in the function of language as therapy. The duality of instics is particulary evident in Sloveirian criticism; where the physicar  and temporal distance from political scandal enabled the development oftwo distinct critical currents: one following Hughes's morbid determinism, the other concentrating on Plath's intelligence and joyful observation of nature.

  5. JOSÉ DONOSO O EL EROS DE LA HOMOFOBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Náter

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available El artículo destaca la importancia de los "Papeles de Donoso", custodiados en la Universidad de Iwoa, en relación con las ideas de Julio Ortega sobre los mismos, vertidas en el periódico La Tercera de Chile. Además, se realiza una lectura de la homofobia como expresión del eros subrepticio en las novelas El lugar sin límites y El obsceno pájaro de la noche. En contraste con las exposiciones homoeróticas que Ortega señala en los documentos de Donoso, los narradores de las dos novelas más destacadas del escritor chileno expresan un rechazo continuo hacia los personajes marginales, o bien exponen la sodomía como un forma de expresar la inferioridad del subalternoThis article underscores the significance of José Donoso's "Papers", in the custody of Iowa University, in connection whith Julio Ortega's ideas about them, as made known by the newpaper "La Tercera", in Chile. In addition, a reading of homophobia as expression of a surreptitious eros, is made in the novels "El lugar sin límites" and in "El obsceno pájaro de la noche". In contrast to the homoerotic discourse that Ortega detects in Donoso, the narrators in the two best known novels of the Chilean writer express a constant rejection of the marginal characters, or otherwise expose sodomy as a form which expresses the inferiority of the underling

  6. The chronic toxicity of molybdate to marine organisms. I. Generating reliable effects data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijerick, D.G.; Regoli, L.; Stubblefield, W.

    2012-01-01

    A scientific research program was initiated by the International Molybdenum Association (IMOA) which addressed identified gaps in the environmental toxicity data for the molybdate ion (MoO 4 2− ). These gaps were previously identified during the preparation of EU-REACH-dossiers for different molybdenum compounds (European Union regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances; EC, 2006). Evaluation of the open literature identified few reliable marine ecotoxicological data that could be used for deriving a Predicted No-Effect Concentration (PNEC) for the marine environment. Rather than calculating a PNEC marine using the assessment factor methodology on a combined freshwater/marine dataset, IMOA decided to generate sufficient reliable marine chronic data to permit derivation of a PNEC by means of the more scientifically robust species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach (also called the statistical extrapolation approach). Nine test species were chronically exposed to molybdate (added as sodium molybdate dihydrate, Na 2 MoO 4 ·2H 2 O) according to published standard testing guidelines that are acceptable for a broad range of regulatory purposes. The selected test organisms were representative for typical marine trophic levels: micro-algae/diatom (Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Dunaliella tertiolecta), macro-alga (Ceramium tenuicorne), mysids (Americamysis bahia), copepod (Acartia tonsa), fish (Cyprinodon variegatus), echinoderms (Dendraster exentricus, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) and molluscs (Mytilus edulis, Crassostrea gigas). Available NOEC/EC 10 levels ranged between 4.4 mg Mo/L (blue mussel M. edulis) and 1174 mg Mo/L (oyster C. gigas). Using all available reliable marine chronic effects data that are currently available, a HC 5,50% (median hazardous concentration affecting 5% of the species) of 5.74 (mg Mo)/L was derived with the statistical extrapolation approach, a value that can be used for national and

  7. The chronic toxicity of molybdate to marine organisms. I. Generating reliable effects data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heijerick, D.G., E-mail: Dagobert.heijerick@arche-consulting.be [ARCHE - Assessing Risks of Chemicals, Stapelplein 70 Bus 104, Gent (Belgium); Regoli, L. [International Molybdenum Association, 4 Heathfield Terrace, London, W4 4JE (United Kingdom); Stubblefield, W. [Oregon State University, Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, 421 Weniger Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    A scientific research program was initiated by the International Molybdenum Association (IMOA) which addressed identified gaps in the environmental toxicity data for the molybdate ion (MoO{sub 4}{sup 2-}). These gaps were previously identified during the preparation of EU-REACH-dossiers for different molybdenum compounds (European Union regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances; EC, 2006). Evaluation of the open literature identified few reliable marine ecotoxicological data that could be used for deriving a Predicted No-Effect Concentration (PNEC) for the marine environment. Rather than calculating a PNEC{sub marine} using the assessment factor methodology on a combined freshwater/marine dataset, IMOA decided to generate sufficient reliable marine chronic data to permit derivation of a PNEC by means of the more scientifically robust species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach (also called the statistical extrapolation approach). Nine test species were chronically exposed to molybdate (added as sodium molybdate dihydrate, Na{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O) according to published standard testing guidelines that are acceptable for a broad range of regulatory purposes. The selected test organisms were representative for typical marine trophic levels: micro-algae/diatom (Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Dunaliella tertiolecta), macro-alga (Ceramium tenuicorne), mysids (Americamysis bahia), copepod (Acartia tonsa), fish (Cyprinodon variegatus), echinoderms (Dendraster exentricus, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) and molluscs (Mytilus edulis, Crassostrea gigas). Available NOEC/EC{sub 10} levels ranged between 4.4 mg Mo/L (blue mussel M. edulis) and 1174 mg Mo/L (oyster C. gigas). Using all available reliable marine chronic effects data that are currently available, a HC{sub 5,50%} (median hazardous concentration affecting 5% of the species) of 5.74 (mg Mo)/L was derived with the statistical extrapolation approach, a

  8. Determination of Eros Physical Parameters for Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous Orbit Phase Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. K.; Antreasian, P. J.; Georgini, J.; Owen, W. M.; Williams, B. G.; Yeomans, D. K.

    1995-01-01

    Navigation of the orbit phase of the Near Earth steroid Rendezvous (NEAR) mission will re,quire determination of certain physical parameters describing the size, shape, gravity field, attitude and inertial properties of Eros. Prior to launch, little was known about Eros except for its orbit which could be determined with high precision from ground based telescope observations. Radar bounce and light curve data provided a rough estimate of Eros shape and a fairly good estimate of the pole, prime meridian and spin rate. However, the determination of the NEAR spacecraft orbit requires a high precision model of Eros's physical parameters and the ground based data provides only marginal a priori information. Eros is the principal source of perturbations of the spacecraft's trajectory and the principal source of data for determining the orbit. The initial orbit determination strategy is therefore concerned with developing a precise model of Eros. The original plan for Eros orbital operations was to execute a series of rendezvous burns beginning on December 20,1998 and insert into a close Eros orbit in January 1999. As a result of an unplanned termination of the rendezvous burn on December 20, 1998, the NEAR spacecraft continued on its high velocity approach trajectory and passed within 3900 km of Eros on December 23, 1998. The planned rendezvous burn was delayed until January 3, 1999 which resulted in the spacecraft being placed on a trajectory that slowly returns to Eros with a subsequent delay of close Eros orbital operations until February 2001. The flyby of Eros provided a brief glimpse and allowed for a crude estimate of the pole, prime meridian and mass of Eros. More importantly for navigation, orbit determination software was executed in the landmark tracking mode to determine the spacecraft orbit and a preliminary shape and landmark data base has been obtained. The flyby also provided an opportunity to test orbit determination operational procedures that will be

  9. Highly Reliable Organizations in the Onshore Natural Gas Sector: An Assessment of Current Practices, Regulatory Frameworks, and Select Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, Jeffrey S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Paranhos, Elizabeth [Energy Innovation Partners, Seattle, WA (United States); Kozak, Tracy G. [Energy Innovation Partners, Seattle, WA (United States); Boyd, William [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-07-31

    This study focuses on onshore natural gas operations and examines the extent to which oil and gas firms have embraced certain organizational characteristics that lead to 'high reliability' - understood here as strong safety and reliability records over extended periods of operation. The key questions that motivated this study include whether onshore oil and gas firms engaged in exploration and production (E&P) and midstream (i.e., natural gas transmission and storage) are implementing practices characteristic of high reliability organizations (HROs) and the extent to which any such practices are being driven by industry innovations and standards and/or regulatory requirements.

  10. Application of SAW method for multiple-criteria comparative analysis of the reliability of heat supply organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmetova, I. G.; Chichirova, N. D.

    2016-12-01

    Heat supply is the most energy-consuming sector of the economy. Approximately 30% of all used primary fuel-and-energy resources is spent on municipal heat-supply needs. One of the key indicators of activity of heat-supply organizations is the reliability of an energy facility. The reliability index of a heat supply organization is of interest to potential investors for assessing risks when investing in projects. The reliability indices established by the federal legislation are actually reduced to a single numerical factor, which depends on the number of heat-supply outages in connection with disturbances in operation of heat networks and the volume of their resource recovery in the calculation year. This factor is rather subjective and may change in a wide range during several years. A technique is proposed for evaluating the reliability of heat-supply organizations with the use of the simple additive weighting (SAW) method. The technique for integrated-index determination satisfies the following conditions: the reliability level of the evaluated heat-supply system is represented maximum fully and objectively; the information used for the reliability-index evaluation is easily available (is located on the Internet in accordance with demands of data-disclosure standards). For reliability estimation of heat-supply organizations, the following indicators were selected: the wear of equipment of thermal energy sources, the wear of heat networks, the number of outages of supply of thermal energy (heat carrier due to technological disturbances on heat networks per 1 km of heat networks), the number of outages of supply of thermal energy (heat carrier due to technologic disturbances on thermal energy sources per 1 Gcal/h of installed power), the share of expenditures in the cost of thermal energy aimed at recovery of the resource (renewal of fixed assets), coefficient of renewal of fixed assets, and a coefficient of fixed asset retirement. A versatile program is developed

  11. Nordic perspectives on safety management in high reliability organizations: Theory and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svenson, Ola; Salo, I.; Sjerve, A.B.; Reiman, T.; Oedewald, P.

    2006-04-01

    The chapters in this volume are written on a stand-alone basis meaning that the chapters can be read in any order. The first 4 chapters focus on theory and method in general with some applied examples illustrating the methods and theories. Chapters 5 and 6 are about safety management in the aviation industry with some additional information about incident reporting in the aviation industry and the health care sector. Chapters 7 through 9 cover safety management with applied examples from the nuclear power industry and with considerable validity for safety management in any industry. Chapters 10 through 12 cover generic safety issues with examples from the oil industry and chapter 13 presents issues related to organizations with different internal organizational structures. Although the many of the chapters use a specific industry to illustrate safety management, the messages in all the chapters are of importance for safety management in any high reliability industry or risky activity. The interested reader is also referred to, e.g., a document by an international NEA group (SEGHOF), who is about to publish a state of the art report on Systematic Approaches to Safety Management (cf., CSNI/NEA/SEGHOF, home page: www.nea.fr). (au)

  12. Nordic perspectives on safety management in high reliability organizations: Theory and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svenson, Ola; Salo, I; Sjerve, A B; Reiman, T; Oedewald, P [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

    2006-04-15

    The chapters in this volume are written on a stand-alone basis meaning that the chapters can be read in any order. The first 4 chapters focus on theory and method in general with some applied examples illustrating the methods and theories. Chapters 5 and 6 are about safety management in the aviation industry with some additional information about incident reporting in the aviation industry and the health care sector. Chapters 7 through 9 cover safety management with applied examples from the nuclear power industry and with considerable validity for safety management in any industry. Chapters 10 through 12 cover generic safety issues with examples from the oil industry and chapter 13 presents issues related to organizations with different internal organizational structures. Although the many of the chapters use a specific industry to illustrate safety management, the messages in all the chapters are of importance for safety management in any high reliability industry or risky activity. The interested reader is also referred to, e.g., a document by an international NEA group (SEGHOF), who is about to publish a state of the art report on Systematic Approaches to Safety Management (cf., CSNI/NEA/SEGHOF, home page: www.nea.fr). (au)

  13. Endoplasmic reticulum transport of glutathione by Sec61 is regulated by Ero1 and Bip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponsero, Alise J.; Igbaria, Aeid; Darch, Maxwell A.

    2017-01-01

    In the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Ero1 catalyzes disulfide bond formation and promotes glutathione (GSH) oxidation to GSSG. Since GSSG cannot be reduced in the ER, maintenance of the ER glutathione redox state and levels likely depends on ER glutathione import and GSSG export. We used quantitative...... oxidation through Ero1 reductive activation, which inhibits glutathione import in a negative regulatory loop. During ER stress, transport is activated by UPR-dependent Ero1 induction, and cytosolic glutathione levels increase. Thus, the ER redox poise is tuned by reciprocal control of glutathione import...... by reduction, causing Bip oxidation and inhibition of glutathione transport. Coupling of glutathione ER import to Ero1 activation provides a basis for glutathione ER redox poise maintenance....

  14. Dynamic Regulation of Ero1α and Peroxiredoxin 4 Localization in the Secretory Pathway*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakihana, Taichi; Araki, Kazutaka; Vavassori, Stefano; Iemura, Shun-ichiro; Cortini, Margherita; Fagioli, Claudio; Natsume, Tohru; Sitia, Roberto; Nagata, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    In the early secretory compartment (ESC), a network of chaperones and enzymes assists oxidative folding of nascent proteins. Ero1 flavoproteins oxidize protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), generating H2O2 as a byproduct. Peroxiredoxin 4 (Prx4) can utilize luminal H2O2 to oxidize PDI, thus favoring oxidative folding while limiting oxidative stress. Interestingly, neither ER oxidase contains known ER retention signal(s), raising the question of how cells prevent their secretion. Here we show that the two proteins share similar intracellular localization mechanisms. Their secretion is prevented by sequential interactions with PDI and ERp44, two resident proteins of the ESC-bearing KDEL-like motifs. PDI binds preferentially Ero1α, whereas ERp44 equally retains Ero1α and Prx4. The different binding properties of Ero1α and Prx4 increase the robustness of ER redox homeostasis. PMID:23979138

  15. Are We Hoping For A Bounce A Study On Resilience And Human Relations In A High Reliability Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    negatively impact the organization’s resilience when faced with workplace stressors (Gittell, 2008, p. 26). Consequently, this reduces an organization’s...2014). Organizational resilience and the challenge for human resource management: Conceptualizations and frameworks for theory and practice. Paper...A BOUNCE? A STUDY ON RESILIENCE AND HUMAN RELATIONS IN A HIGH RELIABILITY ORGANIZATION by Robert D. Johns March 2016 Thesis Advisor

  16. Reliably Modeling the Mechanical Stability of Rigid and Flexible Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogge, Sven M J; Waroquier, Michel; Van Speybroeck, Veronique

    2018-01-16

    Over the past two decades, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have matured from interesting academic peculiarities toward a continuously expanding class of hybrid, nanoporous materials tuned for targeted technological applications such as gas storage and heterogeneous catalysis. These oft-times crystalline materials, composed of inorganic moieties interconnected by organic ligands, can be endowed with desired structural and chemical features by judiciously functionalizing or substituting these building blocks. As a result of this reticular synthesis, MOF research is situated at the intriguing intersection between chemistry and physics, and the building block approach could pave the way toward the construction of an almost infinite number of possible crystalline structures, provided that they exhibit stability under the desired operational conditions. However, this enormous potential is largely untapped to date, as MOFs have not yet found a major breakthrough in technological applications. One of the remaining challenges for this scale-up is the densification of MOF powders, which is generally achieved by subjecting the material to a pressurization step. However, application of an external pressure may substantially alter the chemical and physical properties of the material. A reliable theoretical guidance that can presynthetically identify the most stable materials could help overcome this technological challenge. In this Account, we describe the recent research the progress on computational characterization of the mechanical stability of MOFs. So far, three complementary approaches have been proposed, focusing on different aspects of mechanical stability: (i) the Born stability criteria, (ii) the anisotropy in mechanical moduli such as the Young and shear moduli, and (iii) the pressure-versus-volume equations of state. As these three methods are grounded in distinct computational approaches, it is expected that their accuracy and efficiency will vary. To date

  17. La agonía del Eros, Han (2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Díaz Traversa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Byung-Chul Han, Dr. en Filosofía de origen coreano, realizó sus estudios en Alemania, donde reside actualmente y se desempeña como docente de Filosofía y Estudios Culturales en la Universidad de las Artes de Berlín. Desde el punto de vista teórico-académico se inscribe en el Pensamiento Crítico de la escuela de Frankfurt, siendo alumno privilegiado de Honneth. Es considerado una de las voces filosóficas más prestigiosas de dicho país, y sus obras se caracterizan por ser breves, de fácil lectura, sorprendiendo al público por su fuerza y pertinencia en la actualidad. La agonía del Eros es la tercera obra del autor traducida al castellano y promete seguir el mismo camino que las anteriores, es decir, convertirse en una obra fundamental del Pensamiento Crítico.

  18. 75 FR 52528 - Mandatory Reliability Standards for the Bulk-Power System; Notice of Technical Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ...] Mandatory Reliability Standards for the Bulk-Power System; Notice of Technical Conference August 19, 2010... Order No. 693 the Commission approved Reliability Standard BAL-003-0 as mandatory and enforceable and directed the ERO to develop a modification to BAL-003-0 through the Reliability Standards development...

  19. 75 FR 14097 - Revision to Electric Reliability Organization Definition of Bulk Electric System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... electrical failure of a 138 kV motor operated switch on a 138 kV-13 kV transformer located in the ReliabilityFirst region resulted in the tripping of two transformers, one due to the electrical failure and the... Commission 18 CFR Part 40 [Docket No. RM09-18-000; 130 FERC ] 61,204] Revision to Electric Reliability...

  20. FAD oxidizes the ERO1-PDI electron transfer chain: The role of membrane integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, Eszter; Nardai, Gabor; Mandl, Jozsef; Banhegyi, Gabor; Csermely, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The molecular steps of the electron transfer in the endoplasmic reticulum from the secreted proteins during their oxidation are relatively unknown. We present here that flavine adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is a powerful oxidizer of the oxidoreductase system, Ero1 and PDI, besides the proteins of rat liver microsomes and HepG2 hepatoma cells. Inhibition of FAD transport hindered the action of FAD. Microsomal membrane integrity was mandatory for all FAD-related oxidation steps downstream of Ero1. The PDI inhibitor bacitracin could inhibit FAD-mediated oxidation of microsomal proteins and PDI, but did not hinder the FAD-driven oxidation of Ero1. Our data demonstrated that Ero1 can utilize FAD as an electron acceptor and that FAD-driven protein oxidation goes through the Ero1-PDI pathway and requires the integrity of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Our findings prompt further studies to elucidate the membrane-dependent steps of PDI oxidation and the role of FAD in redox folding

  1. Iconografía textil q'ero como texto: leyendo el rombo dualista Hatun Inti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available L'ICONOGRAPHIE TEXTILE Q'ERO VUE EN TANT QUE TEXTE: LECTURE DU LOSANGE DUALISTE HATUN INTI. Les Q'ero, ainsi que les autres natifs du département de Cusco, lisent le motif géométrique dualiste Hatun Inti en l'associant à des conceptions spatiales. Les éléments graphiques qui forment ce losange ont des noms et des significations spécifiques, et créent un véritable lexique graphique. Los Q’ero y otros nativos del departamento del Cusco leen el motivo geométrico dualista Hatun Inti, con referencia a concepciones espaciales. Los elementos gráficos que forman este rombo toman nombres y significados específicos, creando un verdadero léxico gráfico. Q'ERO TEXTILE ICONOGRAPHY PERCEIVED AS TEXT: READING THE HALVED HATUN INTI. The Q’ero and other natives who live in the Department of Cusco read halved diamond motif as it refers to spatial concepts. The graphic elements which form this motif have specific names and meanings, creating a true graphic lexicon.

  2. THE FORMS OF EROS IN THE NOVEL “BARBARIUS” BY CONSTANTIN ȚOIU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela-Viviana LUCA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available After a true initiatory journey, with dramatic sequences when it seemed that he lost his identity, Barbarius manages to return to his own self, the real man who can love and be loved. At the end of the novel, the protagonist achieves that much desired inner balance along with Dr. Zamfirita Micescu. However, we can not speak of eros without taking into account the desire, because the place where desire appears, also appears the needs to satisfy it. The feeling of fullness, inner balance, satisfaction manages to materialize through the harmonious fusion between the two forms of eros, namely sexuality and spiritual love. Therefore, we can state that along with Dr. Micescu, Caesar achieves a high hypostasis of eros. The narrator admirably manages to capture the reader's attention from the first chapter of the novel, which describes a passionate scene, of heartbreaking love that ends in a perverse cruelty and murder.

  3. TOXICITY BEHAVIORS IN ORGANIZATIONS: STUDY OF RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF TOXIC EMOTIONAL EXPERIENCES SCALE

    OpenAIRE

    Bektas, Meral; Erkal, Pinar

    2016-01-01

    In toxic organizations which are mostly destructive instead of being constrictive towards its employees, toxicity behaviors emerge as a result of the formal and informal relationships. Toxicity behaviors are often negatively affect motivation, job satisfaction or performance of the employees in workplace. Basic toxicity behaviors in organizations are: extreme jealousy, biting words, emphasis  superiority emphasis, getting angry, offending employees, strict control, heavy job workload, limited...

  4. Human reliability and human factors in complex organizations: epistemological and critical analysis - practical avenues to action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llory, A.

    1991-08-01

    This article starts out with comment on the existence of persistent problems inherent to probabilistic safety assessments (PSA). It first surveys existing American documents on the subject which make a certain number of criticisms on human reliability analyses, e.g. limitations due to the scant quantities of data available, lack of a basic theoretical model, non-reproducibility of analyses, etc. The article therefore examines and criticizes the epistemological bases of these analyses. One of the fundamental points stressed is that human reliability analyses do not take account of all the special features of the work situation which result in human error (so as to draw up statistical data from a sufficiently representative number of cases), and consequently lose all notion of the 'relationships' between human errors and the different aspects of the working environment. The other key points of criticism concern the collective nature of work which is not taken into account, and the frequent confusion between what operatives actually do and their formally prescribed job-tasks. The article proposes aspects to be given thought in order to overcome these difficulties, e.g. quantitative assessment of the social environment within a company, non-linear model for assessment of the accident rate, analysis of stress levels in staff on off-shore platforms. The method approaches used in these three studies are of the same type, and could be transposed to human-reliability problems. The article then goes into greater depth on thinking aimed at developing a 'positive' view of the human factor (and not just a 'negative' one, i.e. centred on human errors and organizational malfunctions), applying investigation methods developed in the occupational human sciences (occupational psychodynamics, ergonomics, occupational sociology). The importance of operatives working as actors of a team is stressed

  5. First evidence on the validity and reliability of the Safety Organizing Scale-Nursing Home version (SOS-NH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausserhofer, Dietmar; Anderson, Ruth A; Colón-Emeric, Cathleen; Schwendimann, René

    2013-08-01

    The Safety Organizing Scale is a valid and reliable measure on safety behaviors and practices in hospitals. This study aimed to explore the psychometric properties of the Safety Organizing Scale-Nursing Home version (SOS-NH). In a cross-sectional analysis of staff survey data, we examined validity and reliability of the 9-item Safety SOS-NH using American Educational Research Association guidelines. This substudy of a larger trial used baseline survey data collected from staff members (n = 627) in a variety of work roles in 13 nursing homes (NHs) in North Carolina and Virginia. Psychometric evaluation of the SOS-NH revealed good response patterns with low average of missing values across all items (3.05%). Analyses of the SOS-NH's internal structure (eg, comparative fit indices = 0.929, standardized root mean square error of approximation = 0.045) and consistency (composite reliability = 0.94) suggested its 1-dimensionality. Significant between-facility variability, intraclass correlations, within-group agreement, and design effect confirmed appropriateness of the SOS-NH for measurement at the NH level, justifying data aggregation. The SOS-NH showed discriminate validity from one related concept: communication openness. Initial evidence regarding validity and reliability of the SOS-NH supports its utility in measuring safety behaviors and practices among a wide range of NH staff members, including those with low literacy. Further psychometric evaluation should focus on testing concurrent and criterion validity, using resident outcome measures (eg, patient fall rates). Copyright © 2013 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The chronic toxicity of molybdate to freshwater organisms. I. Generating reliable effects data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Schamphelaere, K.A.C., E-mail: karel.deschamphelaere@Ugent.be [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University (Belgium); Stubblefield, W. [Oregon State University, Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, 421 Weniger Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Rodriguez, P. [Centro de Investigacion Minera y Metalurgica (CIMM), Santiago (Chile); Vleminckx, K. [Department for Molecular Biomedical Research, Ghent University (Belgium); Janssen, C.R. [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University (Belgium)

    2010-10-15

    The European Union regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances (REACH) (EC, 2006) requires the characterization of the chronic toxicity of many chemicals in the aquatic environment, including molybdate (MoO{sub 4}{sup 2-}). Our literature review on the ecotoxicity of molybdate revealed that a limited amount of reliable chronic no observed effect concentrations (NOECs) for the derivation of a predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) existed. This paper presents the results of additional ecotoxicity experiments that were conducted in order to fulfill the requirements for the derivation of a PNEC by means of the scientifically most robust species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach (also called the statistical extrapolation approach). Ten test species were chronically exposed to molybdate (added as sodium molybdate dihydrate, Na{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O) according to internationally accepted standard testing guidelines or equivalent. The 10% effective concentrations (EC10, expressed as measured dissolved molybdenum) for the most sensitive endpoint per species were 62.8-105.6 (mg Mo)/L for Daphnia magna (21 day-reproduction), 78.2 (mg Mo)/L for Ceriodaphnia dubia (7 day-reproduction), 61.2-366.2 (mg Mo)/L for the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (72 h-growth rate), 193.6 (mg Mo)/L for the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus (48 h-population growth rate), 121.4 (mg Mo)/L for the midge Chironomus riparius (14 day-growth), 211.3 (mg Mo)/L for the snail Lymnaea stagnalis (28 day-growth rate), 115.9 (mg Mo)/L for the frog Xenopus laevis (4 day-larval development), 241.5 (mg Mo)/L for the higher plant Lemna minor (7 day-growth rate), 39.3 (mg Mo)/L for the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas (34 day-dry weight/biomass), and 43.2 (mg Mo)/L for the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (78 day-biomass). These effect concentrations are in line with the few reliable data currently available in the open literature. The data

  7. The chronic toxicity of molybdate to freshwater organisms. I. Generating reliable effects data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Schamphelaere, K.A.C.; Stubblefield, W.; Rodriguez, P.; Vleminckx, K.; Janssen, C.R.

    2010-01-01

    The European Union regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances (REACH) (EC, 2006) requires the characterization of the chronic toxicity of many chemicals in the aquatic environment, including molybdate (MoO 4 2- ). Our literature review on the ecotoxicity of molybdate revealed that a limited amount of reliable chronic no observed effect concentrations (NOECs) for the derivation of a predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) existed. This paper presents the results of additional ecotoxicity experiments that were conducted in order to fulfill the requirements for the derivation of a PNEC by means of the scientifically most robust species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach (also called the statistical extrapolation approach). Ten test species were chronically exposed to molybdate (added as sodium molybdate dihydrate, Na 2 MoO 4 .2H 2 O) according to internationally accepted standard testing guidelines or equivalent. The 10% effective concentrations (EC10, expressed as measured dissolved molybdenum) for the most sensitive endpoint per species were 62.8-105.6 (mg Mo)/L for Daphnia magna (21 day-reproduction), 78.2 (mg Mo)/L for Ceriodaphnia dubia (7 day-reproduction), 61.2-366.2 (mg Mo)/L for the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (72 h-growth rate), 193.6 (mg Mo)/L for the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus (48 h-population growth rate), 121.4 (mg Mo)/L for the midge Chironomus riparius (14 day-growth), 211.3 (mg Mo)/L for the snail Lymnaea stagnalis (28 day-growth rate), 115.9 (mg Mo)/L for the frog Xenopus laevis (4 day-larval development), 241.5 (mg Mo)/L for the higher plant Lemna minor (7 day-growth rate), 39.3 (mg Mo)/L for the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas (34 day-dry weight/biomass), and 43.2 (mg Mo)/L for the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (78 day-biomass). These effect concentrations are in line with the few reliable data currently available in the open literature. The data presented in this

  8. The design organization test: further demonstration of reliability and validity as a brief measure of visuospatial ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgore, William D S; Gogel, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychological assessments are frequently time-consuming and fatiguing for patients. Brief screening evaluations may reduce test duration and allow more efficient use of time by permitting greater attention toward neuropsychological domains showing probable deficits. The Design Organization Test (DOT) was initially developed as a 2-min paper-and-pencil alternative for the Block Design (BD) subtest of the Wechsler scales. Although initially validated for clinical neurologic patients, we sought to further establish the reliability and validity of this test in a healthy, more diverse population. Two alternate versions of the DOT and the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) were administered to 61 healthy adult participants. The DOT showed high alternate forms reliability (r = .90-.92), and the two versions yielded equivalent levels of performance. The DOT was highly correlated with BD (r = .76-.79) and was significantly correlated with all subscales of the WASI. The DOT proved useful when used in lieu of BD in the calculation of WASI IQ scores. Findings support the reliability and validity of the DOT as a measure of visuospatial ability and suggest its potential worth as an efficient estimate of intellectual functioning in situations where lengthier tests may be inappropriate or unfeasible.

  9. Reliable measurement of the Seebeck coefficient of organic and inorganic materials between 260 K and 460 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beretta, D.; Lanzani, G. [Center for Nano Science and Technology @PoliMi, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Pascoli 70/3, 20133 Milano (MI) (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, P.zza Leonardo da Vinci 32, Politecnico di Milano, 20133 Milano (MI) (Italy); Bruno, P.; Caironi, M., E-mail: mario.caironi@iit.it [Center for Nano Science and Technology @PoliMi, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Pascoli 70/3, 20133 Milano (MI) (Italy)

    2015-07-15

    A new experimental setup for reliable measurement of the in-plane Seebeck coefficient of organic and inorganic thin films and bulk materials is reported. The system is based on the “Quasi-Static” approach and can measure the thermopower in the range of temperature between 260 K and 460 K. The system has been tested on a pure nickel bulk sample and on a thin film of commercially available PEDOT:PSS deposited by spin coating on glass. Repeatability within 1.5% for the nickel sample is demonstrated, while accuracy in the measurement of both organic and inorganic samples is guaranteed by time interpolation of data and by operating with a temperature difference over the sample of less than 1 K.

  10. Linking Quality Assurance to Performance Improvement to Produce a High Reliability Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvey, Andrea B.; Warrick, Louise H.

    2008-01-01

    Three basic change management models are currently used in healthcare to produce and sustain quality improvement. We have presented the context to determine where any particular organization stands within these paradigms. We also have introduced a change-management tool used to assess, plan, and monitor leadership effort and commitment to quality improvement and culture change activities, tracked as 'momentum for change.' This 'momentum' is measured at eight discrete levels, from recognizing a performance gap to officially implementing changes intended to improve quality

  11. The reliability of financial information of charitable organizations: an exploratory study based on the Benford’s Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Figueiredo Milani Filho

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Benford's Law (BL is a logarithmic distribution which is useful to detect abnormal patterns of digits in number sets. It is often used as a primary data auditing method for detecting traces of errors, illegal practices or undesired occurrences, such as fraud and earning management. In this descriptive study, I analyzed the financial information (revenue and expenditure of the registered charitable hospitals located in Ontario and Quebec, which have the majority (71.4% of these organizations within Canada. The aim of this study was to verify the reliability of the financial data of the respective hospitals, using the probability distribution predicted by Benford’s Law as a proxy of reliability. The sample was composed by 1,334 observations related to 339 entities operating in the tax year 2009 and 328 entities in 2010, gathered from the Canada Revenue Agency’s database. To analyze the discrepancies between the actual and expected frequencies of the significant-digit, two statistics were calculated: Z-test and Pearson’s chi-square test. The results show that, with a confidence level of 95%, the data set of the organizations located in Ontario and Quebec have similar distribution to the BL, suggesting that, in a preliminary analysis, their financial data are free from bias.

  12. Disulphide production by Ero1a-PDI relay is rapid and effectively regulated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appenzeller-Herzog, Christian; Riemer, Jan; Zito, Ester

    2010-01-01

    The molecular networks that control endoplasmic reticulum (ER) redox conditions in mammalian cells are incompletely understood. Here, we show that after reductive challenge the ER steady-state disulphide content is restored on a time scale of seconds. Both the oxidase Ero1a and the oxidoreductase...

  13. EROS and MACHO combined limits on planetary-mass dark matter in the galactic halo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alcock, C; Allsman, RA; Alves, D; Ansari, R; Aubourg, E; Axelrod, TS; Bareyre, P; Beaulieu, JP; Becker, AC; Bennett, DP; Brehin, S; Cavalier, F; Char, S; Cook, KH; Ferlet, R; Fernandez, J; Freeman, KC; Griest, K; Grison, P; Gros, M; Gry, C; Guibert, J; Lachieze-Rey, M; Laurent, B; Lehner, MJ; Lesquoy, E; Magneville, C; Marshall, SL; Maurice, E; Milsztajn, A; Minniti, D; Moniez, M; Moreau, O; Moscoso, L; Palanque-Delabrouille, N; Peterson, BA; Pratt, MR; Prevot, L; Queinnec, F; Quinn, PJ; Renault, C; Rich, J; Spiro, M; Stubbs, CW; Sutherland, W; Tomaney, A; Vandehei, T; Vidal-Madjar, A; Vigroux, L; Zylberajch, S

    1998-01-01

    The EROS and MACHO collaborations have each published upper limits on the amount of planetary-mass dark matter in the Galactic halo obtained from gravitational microlensing searches. In this Letter, the two limits are combined to give a much stronger constraint on the abundance of low-mass MACHOs.

  14. Eros in the first century’s Christian theology. Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Adrian Marica

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available For among most contemporaries, the concept of Eros seems to have nothing to do with Christianity. Sifting through the psychoanalysis of sexual fantasy, theologically it says nothing. Our study gives reasons showing that for theologians since the dawn of the Christian era, Eros-love plays a fundamental role.. The connotations of this concept, however, are different from those of today, when its sensory meaning is more restricted to sexuality. Greek theologians of the first centuries after Christ, taught the concept of Plato enshrined as a unifying enthusiasm, the attraction of inferior to superior states, as “hungry and thirsty” for something continuously higher, developing, and enriching the connotation. The work of Dionysius ((Pseudo Areopagite, the Idea of Good, leads us step by step up the ascent of the erotically chaste, and is identified with the One-God, who is the very source of love. Consequently, Eros-love originates from God, Eros- love being not only an ascending but firstly a descending love, which calls for a reciprocal communion.

  15. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center-fiscal year 2010 annual report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Janice S.

    2011-01-01

    The Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center is a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) facility focused on providing science and imagery to better understand our Earth. The work of the Center is shaped by the earth sciences, the missions of our stakeholders, and implemented through strong program and project management, and application of state-of-the-art information technologies. Fundamentally, EROS contributes to the understanding of a changing Earth through 'research to operations' activities that include developing, implementing, and operating remote-sensing-based terrestrial monitoring capabilities needed to address interdisciplinary science and applications objectives at all levels-both nationally and internationally. The Center's programs and projects continually strive to meet, and where possible exceed, the changing needs of the USGS, the Department of the Interior, our Nation, and international constituents. The Center's multidisciplinary staff uses their unique expertise in remote sensing science and technologies to conduct basic and applied research, data acquisition, systems engineering, information access and management, and archive preservation to address the Nation's most critical needs. Of particular note is the role of EROS as the primary provider of Landsat data, the longest comprehensive global land Earth observation record ever collected. This report is intended to provide an overview of the scientific and engineering achievements and illustrate the range and scope of the activities and accomplishments at EROS throughout fiscal year (FY) 2010. Additional information concerning the scientific, engineering, and operational achievements can be obtained from the scientific papers and other documents published by EROS staff or by visiting our web site at http://eros.usgs.gov. We welcome comments and follow-up questions on any aspect of this Annual Report and invite any of our customers or partners to contact us at their convenience. To

  16. Improvement in Device Performance and Reliability of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes through Deposition Rate Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Wei Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated a fabrication technique to reduce the driving voltage, increase the current efficiency, and extend the operating lifetime of an organic light-emitting diode (OLED by simply controlling the deposition rate of bis(10-hydroxybenzo[h]qinolinato beryllium (Bebq2 used as the emitting layer and the electron-transport layer. In our optimized device, 55 nm of Bebq2 was first deposited at a faster deposition rate of 1.3 nm/s, followed by the deposition of a thin Bebq2 (5 nm layer at a slower rate of 0.03 nm/s. The Bebq2 layer with the faster deposition rate exhibited higher photoluminescence efficiency and was suitable for use in light emission. The thin Bebq2 layer with the slower deposition rate was used to modify the interface between the Bebq2 and cathode and hence improve the injection efficiency and lower the driving voltage. The operating lifetime of such a two-step deposition OLED was 1.92 and 4.6 times longer than that of devices with a single deposition rate, that is, 1.3 and 0.03 nm/s cases, respectively.

  17. Near-misses are an opportunity to improve patient safety: adapting strategies of high reliability organizations to healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Spall, Harriette; Kassam, Alisha; Tollefson, Travis T

    2015-08-01

    Near-miss investigations in high reliability organizations (HROs) aim to mitigate risk and improve system safety. Healthcare settings have a higher rate of near-misses and subsequent adverse events than most high-risk industries, but near-misses are not systematically reported or analyzed. In this review, we will describe the strategies for near-miss analysis that have facilitated a culture of safety and continuous quality improvement in HROs. Near-miss analysis is routine and systematic in HROs such as aviation. Strategies implemented in aviation include the Commercial Aviation Safety Team, which undertakes systematic analyses of near-misses, so that findings can be incorporated into Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). Other strategies resulting from incident analyses include Crew Resource Management (CRM) for enhanced communication, situational awareness training, adoption of checklists during operations, and built-in redundancy within systems. Health care organizations should consider near-misses as opportunities for quality improvement. The systematic reporting and analysis of near-misses, commonplace in HROs, can be adapted to health care settings to prevent adverse events and improve clinical outcomes.

  18. Variabilidade espacial de fatores de erosão em Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico sob cultivo de cana-de-açúcar Spatial variability of the erosion factors in eutrudox Red Latosol under sugarcane crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zigomar M. de Souza

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Visando a avaliar a variabilidade espacial de fatores de erosão em Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico, foram obtidas amostras do solo em intervalos regulares de 50 m, em forma de grid, totalizando 206 pontos de amostragem. Foram coletadas amostras nas profundidades de 0,0-0,2 m para a determinação da composição granulométrica e do conteúdo de matéria orgânica. Os fatores de erosão locais, como erosividade (R, erodibilidade (K, relevo (LS, perda de solo (A, potencial natural de erosão (PNE, risco de erosão (RE e expectativa de erosão (EE, foram avaliados. A variabilidade do solo medida pelo coeficiente de variação registrou-se média para K, alta para o RE e EE e muito alta para A, LS e PNE. As variáveis estudadas apresentaram estrutura de dependência espacial com grau moderado para as variáveis K, A, PNE e RE, e forte para o LS e EE. Mapas obtidos por krigagem foram apresentados para descrição dos padrões de distribuição dos fatores de erosão na paisagem.The objective of this work was to evaluate the spatial variability of soil erosion factors on a Dark Red Oxisol under sugarcane conventional tillage. Soil samples were collected in 206 points, in a depth of 0.0-0.2 m, located in a 50 m regular grid for obtaining the soil texture and organic matter content. The local erosion factors were determined: erosivity (R, erodibility (K, relief (LS, soil erosion (A, natural potential of erosion (PNE, erosion risk (RE and erosion expectation (EE. Geostatistical analysis was performed to measure and model the spatial variability of soil erosion factors. The soil variability was moderate with K, A, and PNE while the soil variability was higher with LS, RE, and EE. K, A, and PNE exhibited moderate spatial dependence, but spatial dependence of LS, RE and EE was strong. Kriging maps were presented for understanding of soil erosion factors distribution patterns within the landscape.

  19. Event-related oscillations (EROs) and event-related potentials (ERPs) comparison in facial expression recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Pozzoli, Uberto

    2007-09-01

    The study aims to explore the significance of event-related potentials (ERPs) and event-related brain oscillations (EROs) (delta, theta, alpha, beta, gamma power) in response to emotional (fear, happiness, sadness) when compared with neutral faces during 180-250 post-stimulus time interval. The ERP results demonstrated that the emotional face elicited a negative peak at approximately 230 ms (N2). Moreover, EEG measures showed that motivational significance of face (emotional vs. neutral) could modulate the amplitude of EROs, but only for some frequency bands (i.e. theta and gamma bands). In a second phase, we considered the resemblance of the two EEG measures by a regression analysis. It revealed that theta and gamma oscillations mainly effect as oscillation activity at the N2 latency. Finally, a posterior increased power of theta was found for emotional faces.

  20. Caos, Gea y Eros. Desde el desorden a la armonía de la Paz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco A. Muñoz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La cosmogonía griega antigua, al igual que muchas otras, sitúa a Caos como el origen primigenio del Universo. Desde el inicio de los tiempos es acompañada (es femenino por Gea (la Tierra y Eros (el Amor. Con esta explicación se consigue incardinar el Universo, la Tierra, la naturaleza, la vida y los seres humanos con los dioses y las fuerzas sobrenaturales. Eros representaba el deseo que trae la vida, preocupado por conseguir las mejores condiciones para satisfacer las necesidades y procurar el desarrollo de las potencialidades humanas. Desde el comienzo de la historia, para que existiera armonía y paz era necesario gestionar el caos, la complejidad y la conflictividad, y buscar los equilibrios más justos y duraderos posibles.

  1. A bibliography of research conducted by the Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Office, U.S. Geological Survey : 1975-1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Helen L.

    1984-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Program was established in 1967 by Secretarial order to plan and develop techniques for collecting and analyzing remotely sensed data, and to apply these techniques to the resource inventory and management responsibilities of the Department of the Interior. U.S. Geological Survey scientists, realizing the potential benefits of synoptic views of the Earth, were among the first members of America's scientific community to press for the launch of civilian Earth-surface observation satellites. Under the leadership of Director William T. Pecora, U.S. Geological Survey initiatives greatly influenced the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) development of the Landsat program.As part of the Landsat program, an agreement between NASA and the Geological Survey was signed to provide Landsat archiving and data production capabilities at the EROS Data Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. This partnership with NASA began in 1972 and continued until Presidential Directive 54 designated the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of the Department of Commerce as the manager of U.S. civil operational land remote-sensing activities. NOAA has managed the Landsat program since Fiscal Year 1983, and EROS continues to process, archive, reproduce, and distribute Landsat data under a Memorandum of Understanding between NOAA and the Geological Survey. Archives at the EROS Data Center include over 2 million worldwide Landsat scenes and over 5 million aerial photographs, primarily of U.S. sites. Since the launch of Landsat 1, global imaging of the Earth's surface has become an operational tool for resource exploration and land management. As technology evolved, so did the EROS Program mission. Research and applications efforts began at the EROS Headquarters Office in the Washington metropolitan area in 1966; at the EROS Data Center in 1971; and at the EROS Field Office in Anchorage

  2. Energy Return on Energy Invested (ERoEI) for photovoltaic solar systems in regions of moderate insolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferroni, Ferruccio; Hopkirk, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Many people believe renewable energy sources to be capable of substituting fossil or nuclear energy. However there exist very few scientifically sound studies, which apply due diligence to substantiating this impression. In the present paper, the case of photovoltaic power sources in regions of moderate insolation is analysed critically by using the concept of Energy Return on Energy Invested (ERoEI, also called EROI). But the methodology for calculating the ERoEI differs greatly from author-to-author. The main differences between solar PV Systems are between the current ERoEI and what is called the extended ERoEI (ERoEI EXT ). The current methodology recommended by the International Energy Agency is not strictly applicable for comparing photovoltaic (PV) power generation with other systems. The main reasons are due to the fact that on one hand, solar electricity is very material-intensive, labour-intensive and capital-intensive and on the other hand the solar radiation exhibits a rather low power density. - Highlights: •Data are available from several years of photovoltaic energy experience in northern Europe. •These are used to show the way to calculate a full, extended ERoEI. •The viability and sustainability in these latitudes of photovoltaic energy is questioned. •Use of photovoltaic technology is shown to result in creation of an energy sink.

  3. Reliability and Validity of the Turkish Version of Brandes, Dharwadkar, and Dean’s (1999) Organizational Cynicism Scale: The Case of Organized Industrial Zone, Kayseri

    OpenAIRE

    Karacaoglu, Korhan; Ince, Fatma

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate the validity and reliability of Turkish version of Organizational Cynicism Scale developed by Brandes et al. (1999). The research was conducted on 300 workers employed in the manufacturing entreprises of Kayseri Organized Industrial Zone. The psychometric properties of the scale were examined by cronbach alpha and item-total corelations for the reliability, and exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses for the validity. As a result of the factor a...

  4. Targeting helicase-dependent amplification products with an electrochemical genosensor for reliable and sensitive screening of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura-Melo, Suely; Miranda-Castro, Rebeca; de-Los-Santos-Álvarez, Noemí; Miranda-Ordieres, Arturo J; Dos Santos Junior, J Ribeiro; da Silva Fonseca, Rosana A; Lobo-Castañón, Maria Jesús

    2015-08-18

    Cultivation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and their use in food and feed is constantly expanding; thus, the question of informing consumers about their presence in food has proven of significant interest. The development of sensitive, rapid, robust, and reliable methods for the detection of GMOs is crucial for proper food labeling. In response, we have experimentally characterized the helicase-dependent isothermal amplification (HDA) and sequence-specific detection of a transgene from the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S Promoter (CaMV35S), inserted into most transgenic plants. HDA is one of the simplest approaches for DNA amplification, emulating the bacterial replication machinery, and resembling PCR but under isothermal conditions. However, it usually suffers from a lack of selectivity, which is due to the accumulation of spurious amplification products. To improve the selectivity of HDA, which makes the detection of amplification products more reliable, we have developed an electrochemical platform targeting the central sequence of HDA copies of the transgene. A binary monolayer architecture is built onto a thin gold film where, upon the formation of perfect nucleic acid duplexes with the amplification products, these are enzyme-labeled and electrochemically transduced. The resulting combined system increases genosensor detectability up to 10(6)-fold, allowing Yes/No detection of GMOs with a limit of detection of ∼30 copies of the CaMV35S genomic DNA. A set of general utility rules in the design of genosensors for detection of HDA amplicons, which may assist in the development of point-of-care tests, is also included. The method provides a versatile tool for detecting nucleic acids with extremely low abundance not only for food safety control but also in the diagnostics and environmental control areas.

  5. ASTER and USGS EROS disaster response: emergency imaging after Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Kenneth A.; Abrams, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The value of remotely sensed imagery during times of crisis is well established, and the increasing spatial and spectral resolution in newer systems provides ever greater utility and ability to discriminate features of interest (International Charter, Space and Major Disasters, 2005). The existing suite of sensors provides an abundance of data, and enables warning alerts to be broadcast for many situations in advance. In addition, imagery acquired soon after an event occurs can be used to assist response and remediation teams in identifying the extent of the affected area and the degree of damage. The data characteristics of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Refl ection Radiometer (ASTER) are well-suited for monitoring natural hazards and providing local and regional views after disaster strikes. For this reason, and because of the system fl exibility in scheduling high-priority observations, ASTER is often tasked to support emergency situations. The Emergency Response coordinators at the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) work closely with staff at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) at EROS and the ASTER Science Team as they fulfi ll their mission to acquire and distribute data during critical situations. This article summarizes the role of the USGS/EROS Emergency Response coordinators, and provides further discussion of ASTER data and the images portrayed on the cover of this issue

  6. Q’eros, peru: the regeneration of cosmological relationships and specific identities through Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Wissler

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the principal purposes of Q’eros music is to actively regenerate and re-create good relationships with the cosmos and the spirit world they believe in. In this paper, I explore how both the Q’eros’ indigenous songs as well as their newly-adopted music and dance for Peru’s largest pilgrimage, Qoyllurit’i, achieve efficacy of purpose through similar techniques of sound production and aesthetics. Even though the specific musical traits (structure, scale, and instrumentation of both musical styles are significantly different, I address how Q’eros’ musical production of both types share the same focus and serve the same end-goals, whether the ritual is an intimate one within the community or shared with thousands of other people from the greater region. In addition, the performance of both styles of music serve as specific identity markers for the Q’eros depending on their contextual use and the identity desired at the time. In other words, the Q’eros’ musical choices allow them to shift identities between traditional Q’eros in their home community and misti (mestizo in Qoyllurit’i.

  7. The Danubian Eros and Thanatos in Mihail Sebastian’s Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Beatrice Chesca

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper approaches two psychoanalytical concepts – the EROS and the THANATOS – which are extremely complex and, at the same time, fascinating due to their implications and the way they relate to the biography and work of Mihail Sebastian – the writer from the Danube. Art and biography meet in this danubian writer’s work, who tried to fight against his traumas and to heal himself through writing. The Eros and the Thanatos are omnipresent in the fiction of Sebastian’s obsessions and, when he faced destruction at an objective level, this fight resulted in anxiety and anguish. Along one’s life, there are two types of anxiety: the fear of life and the fear of death. The main theme of Sebastian’s work is that the human universe proves its strength only by suffering and that human beings can reach the ultimate dignity through their ability to endure. However, the instinct of death – the Thanatos – is always connected to the instinct of life – the Eros. We do not intend to reduce the latter one to the idea of love or passion, but we will interpret it in a broader sense – that of life, of creative energy, of light. Sebastian himself said: ”Life starts in darkness. There is a night for every day, there is a shadow for every light”.

  8. A Study of the Readiness of Hospitals for Implementation of High Reliability Organizations Model in Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyed Mohammad Hadi; Dargahi, Hossein; Mohammadi, Sara

    2016-10-01

    Creating a safe of health care system requires the establishment of High Reliability Organizations (HROs), which reduces errors, and increases the level of safety in hospitals. This model focuses on improving reliability through higher process design, building a culture of accreditation, and leveraging human factors. The present study intends to determine the readiness of hospitals for the establishment of HROs model in Tehran University of Medical Sciences from the viewpoint of managers of these hospitals. This is a descriptive-analytical study carried out in 2013-2014. The research population consists of 105 senior and middle managers of 15 hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The data collection tool was a 55-question researcher-made questionnaire, included six elements of HROs to assess the level of readiness for establishing HROS model from managers' point of view. The validity of the questionnaire was calculated through the content validity method using 10 experts in the area of hospitals' accreditation, and its reliability was calculated through test-retest method with a correlation coefficient of 0.90. The response rate was 90 percent. The Likert scale was used for the questions, and data analysis was conducted through SPSS version 21 Descriptive statistics was presented via tables and normal distributions of data and means. Analytical methods, including t-test, Mann-Whitney, Spearman, and Kruskal-Wallis, were used for presenting inferential statistics. The study showed that from the viewpoint of senior and middle managers of the hospitals considered in this study, these hospitals are indeed ready for acceptance and establishment of HROs model. A significant relationship was showed between HROs model and its elements with demographic details of managers like their age, work experience, management experience, and level of management. Although the studied hospitals, as viewed by their managers, are capable of attaining the goals of HROs, it

  9. Reliability engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chi Woo; Kim, Sun Jin; Lee, Seung Woo; Jeong, Sang Yeong

    1993-08-01

    This book start what is reliability? such as origin of reliability problems, definition of reliability and reliability and use of reliability. It also deals with probability and calculation of reliability, reliability function and failure rate, probability distribution of reliability, assumption of MTBF, process of probability distribution, down time, maintainability and availability, break down maintenance and preventive maintenance design of reliability, design of reliability for prediction and statistics, reliability test, reliability data and design and management of reliability.

  10. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center-Fiscal Year 2009 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Janice S.

    2010-01-01

    The Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center is a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) facility focused on providing science and imagery to better understand our Earth. As part of the USGS Geography Discipline, EROS contributes to the Land Remote Sensing (LRS) Program, the Geographic Analysis and Monitoring (GAM) Program, and the National Geospatial Program (NGP), as well as our Federal partners and cooperators. The work of the Center is shaped by the Earth sciences, the missions of our stakeholders, and implemented through strong program and project management and application of state-of-the-art information technologies. Fundamentally, EROS contributes to the understanding of a changing Earth through 'research to operations' activities that include developing, implementing, and operating remote sensing based terrestrial monitoring capabilities needed to address interdisciplinary science and applications objectives at all levels-both nationally and internationally. The Center's programs and projects continually strive to meet and/or exceed the changing needs of the USGS, the Department of the Interior, our Nation, and international constituents. The Center's multidisciplinary staff uses their unique expertise in remote sensing science and technologies to conduct basic and applied research, data acquisition, systems engineering, information access and management, and archive preservation to address the Nation's most critical needs. Of particular note is the role of EROS as the primary provider of Landsat data, the longest comprehensive global land Earth observation record ever collected. This report is intended to provide an overview of the scientific and engineering achievements and illustrate the range and scope of the activities and accomplishments at EROS throughout fiscal year (FY) 2009. Additional information concerning the scientific, engineering, and operational achievements can be obtained from the scientific papers and other documents published by

  11. Searching gravitational microlensing events in the galaxy spiral arms by EROS II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derue, Frederic

    1999-01-01

    The EROS II experiment is searching for microlensing events due to compact massive objects passing through the line-of-sight of luminous stars. These objects are candidates to explain the baryonic component of Dark Matter in our Galaxy. EROS II was dedicated to different lines-of-sight: Small and Large Magellanic Clouds, Galactic Centre and 4 directions towards the Spiral Arms of the Galaxy. This thesis presents the first search for microlensing towards these last lines-of-sight (about 9 million stars). Simple criteria based on the search for significant fluctuations allowed one to discover a low noise sample of 7 candidates to the microlensing effect, with an average timescale of 50 days. A detailed analysis of the light curve of one candidate allows us to give a confidence interval on its mass 2.7 x 10 -3 0 0 = 50 ± 3 days. To improve the knowledge of the distance of the target stars, we have combined observations of EROS II with bibliographic sources on associations of stars linked with the spiral arm features, and we have developed a program to find variable stars. Ten cepheids have thus been found. Distances obtained with different methods are in rough agreement with each other. The average optical depth measured towards the four directions is τ-bar = 0.45 0.11 +0.23 x 10 -6 . It is compatible with expectations from simple galactic models. The long duration of most events favours interpretation of lensing by objects belonging to the disk instead of the halo. It also seems that some events due to bulge lenses have influenced measurements towards the line-of-sight which is closest to the Galactic Centre. Observation continue towards spiral arms. More accurate measurements should be obtained with increase of statistics, allowing one to estimate the disk contribution to the optical depth towards the bulge and the Magellanic Clouds. (author)

  12. Efectos de la hipoxia en montañeros expuestos a altitudes extremas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Aceña Medina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available La práctica del montañismo goza en la actualidad de una gran popularidad entre nuestros deportistas. Los montañeros que se mueven en grandes altitudes se ven expuestos frecuentemente a climatologías muy adversas y vías de gran dificultad física y técnica, pero posiblemente el enemigo más temible al que se tienen que enfrentar tiene que ver con los indeseables efectos de la hipoxia. La presente investigación se centra en constatar posibles deterioros en las habilidades del pensamiento de un grupo de montañeros expuesto a altitudes extremas (por encima de los 5.500 metros, sin ayuda de oxígeno suplementario. Para ello hemos contado con la participación de montañeros de tres expediciones a los “ochomiles” Manaslu, Makalu y Gasherbrum II a los que se aplicaron pruebas de aptitudes mentales antes, durante y después de cada expedición. La singularidad de nuestro estudio reside en haber incorporado resultados de pruebas realizadas en altitudes extremas, en concreto a 5.800, 6.200 y 6.000 metros respectivamente. Los resultados ponen de manifiesto que de todas las áreas y funciones cognitivas evaluadas, parece ser que las más afectadas por los efectos de la hipoxia han sido las relacionadas con la capacidad de razonamiento abstracto, espacial y verbal. Los deterioros más evidentes se observaron en altitud, persistiendo estos a la semana de regresar. Tras seis meses dichos déficits se recuperaron por completo.

  13. Eros thanático en Paradiso de José Lezama Lima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edinson Aladino

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Los personajes en la novelística de José Lezama Lima no son simples tipologías que devienen bajo la estructura del lenguaje. Los personajes lezamianos son su circunstancia atravesada por la alineación de un destino noble o aciago. Eugenio Foción encara en Paradiso la circunstancia de un destino aciago, arquetipo fundamental en el decurso de la novela que viene a representar la fijeza del deseo como fragmentación de vida. Querencia de muerte o Eros thanático que rodea al corazón del cuerpo para impeler su pulsión vital.

  14. Violencia sexual entre compañeros y violencia en parejas adolescentes

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega Ruiz, Rosario; Ortega Rivera, Francisco Javier; Sánchez Jiménez, Virginia

    2008-01-01

    El presente estudio ha analizado la presencia de violencia sexual entre compañeros y en las parejas adolescentes y jóvenes. Específicamente se han estudiado las diferencias por sexo, edad y estadio de la relación sentimental tanto en violencia sexual entre iguales como en las parejas, en una muestra de 490 adolescentes (55,7% chicos, 44,3% chicas, edad media 16.08 años). Los resultados descriptivos mostraron la misma incidencia de violencia sexual entre iguales y en las pa...

  15. ERO modeling of Cr sputtering in the linear plasma device PSI-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eksaeva, A.; Borodin, D.; Kreter, A.; Nishijima, D.; Pospieszczyk, A.; Schlummer, T.; Ertmer, S.; Terra, A.; Unterberg, B.; Kirschner, A.; Romazanov, J.; Brezinsek, S.; Rasinski, M.; Henderson, S.; O'Mullane, M.; Summers, H.; Bluteau, M.; Marenkov, E.

    2017-12-01

    The prediction of the first wall deterioration and possible plasma contamination by impurities is a high priority task for ITER. 3D Monte-Carlo code ERO is a tool for modeling of eroded impurity transport and spectroscopy in plasma devices useful for experiment interpretation. Chromium (Cr) is a fusion-relevant reactor wall element (e.g. component of RAFM steels expected for use in DEMO). Linear plasma devices including PSI-2 are effective tools for investigations of plasma-surface interaction effects, allowing continuous plasma operation and good control over irradiation parameters. Experiments on Cr sputtering were conducted at PSI-2. In these experiments the Cr erosion was measured by three techniques: mass loss of the sample, quartz micro-balance of deposited impurities at a distance from it and optical emission spectroscopy. Experiments were modeled with the 3D Monte-Carlo code ERO, previously validated by application to similar experiments with tungsten (W). The simulations are demonstrated to reproduce the main experimental outcomes proving the quality of the sputtering data used. A significant focuses of the paper is the usage and validation of atomic data (resent metastable-resolved dataset from ADAS) for interpretation of Cr spectroscopy. Initial population of quasi-metastable state was fitted by matching the modeling with the experimental line intensity profiles.

  16. La sfida al labirinto sessuale. L’eros nell’opera di Italo Calvino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elio Baldi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Challenge of the Sexual Labyrinth Sensuality in the Work of Italo CalvinoIn this article, the novels, stories and essays of Italo Calvino are being studied from the perspective of sensuality and Eros. In literary criticism Calvino’s work is rarely being associated with sexuality, even though the subject did fuel the imagination of the writer himself. Calvino recognized the importance of the theme of sexuality in literature as well as the challenge inherent in trying to depict faithfully a similar ineffable subject, that has, moreover, been covered by society under a thick layer of clichés and repetitive language and therefore been emptied of meaning. The importance of a non-banal, renewing sexuality in literature inspired Calvino to experiment in a light, humorous, surprising way with a myriad of forms of literary sensuality. Calvino has searched Eros in space, as the prime mover in evolution, amongst animals and celestial bodies (instead of the usual heavenly bodies, in rituals and objects, in the heads of his characters, but seldom there where the reader would expect it to be. In a mild and often indirect way Calvino integrates his reflections on the subject in his short stories and comments on the role of sexuality in modern society and literature.

  17. Eros e paz nas comédias de Aristófanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria César Pompeu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aristophanes links Eros to peace in his comedies. In Acharnians, 425 BC, Dikaeopolis, an Athenian citizen, obtains private truce with the Spartans for himself and his family. He does not share his peace with anyone else, except with a bride, because she is  a woman and not is blamed for the war. It will have part of the fiance in their wedding. In Peace, 421 BC, Trigeu a grape-gatherer solves fly in a scarab beetle, who eats feces, to speak to the gods for peace, and ends up rescuing the Eirene goddess (Peace, contained in a cave by Polemos (War. Peace brings the goddess Opora (Autumnal or Harvest, with whom the protagonist marries, and the goddess Theoria (Feast, which is given to prytanes in the theater itself. In Lysistrata, in 411 BC, the women of Greece under the leadership of the Athenian Lysistrata make a sex strike to force their husbands to end up the war. The Myrrhine character and her husband, Kinesias, demonstrate how is the seduction and the refusal of women compared to men. We propose to link Eros to peace in the three pieces presented and Thesmoforiazusai (Demeterkoreazusai, the same year of Lysistrata and very close to it in some important ways, such as bringing a female choir, performing the separation of couples, making the apology of women and promote peace, because it is a religious festival of fertility, the Thesmophoria, parties in honor of the goddesses Demeter and Kore.

  18. Remotely sensed data available from the US Geological Survey EROS Data Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, John L.; Qu, J.J.; Gao, W.; Kafatos, M.; Murphy , R.E.; Salomonson, V.V.

    2006-01-01

    The Center for Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) is a field center of the geography discipline within the US geological survey (USGS) of the Department of the Interior. The EROS Data Center (EDC) was established in the early 1970s as the nation’s principal archive of remotely sensed data. Initially the EDC was responsible for the archive, reproduction, and distribution of black-and-white and color-infrared aerial photography acquired under numerous mapping programs conducted by various Federal agencies including the USGS, Department of Agriculture, Environmental Protection Agency, and NASA. The EDC was also designated the central archive for data acquired by the first satellite sensor designed for broad-scale earth observations in support of civilian agency needs for earth resource information. A four-band multispectral scanner (MSS) and a return-beam vidicon (RBV) camera were initially flown on the Earth Resources Technology Satellite-1, subsequently designated Landsat-1. The synoptic coverage, moderate spatial resolution, and multi-spectral view provided by these data stimulated scientists with an unprecedented perspective from which to study the Earth’s surface and to understand the relationships between human activity and natural systems.

  19. Eros and Thanatos: A Nondualistic Interpretation: The Dynamic of Drives in Personal and Civilizational Development From Freud to Marcuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kli, Maria

    2018-02-01

    The Freudian theory of drives gave prominence to the idea that there is an inherent principle of entropy, a tendency for dissolution of life, referred to as the Death drive, or Thanatos. Freud recognized a counterbalancing tendency for sustaining life, known as the Life drive, or Eros. The psychoanalytical expounding of the struggle of Eros and Thanatos in the context of the civilizational process sparked the philosophical critique of civilization. Although Freud tended to consider repression an indispensable dimension of this process, the author proposes in this paper that Herbert Marcuse's political critique took Freud's metapsychology further philosophically, suggesting a nondualistic interpretation of Freud's position.

  20. ETV REPORT: REMOVAL OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER — ECOWATER SYSTEMS, INC. ERO-R450E WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EcoWater Systems ERO-R450E POU drinking water treatment system was tested for removal of aldicarb, benzene, cadmium, carbofuran, cesium, chloroform, dichlorvos, dicrotophos, fenamiphos, mercury, mevinphos, oxamyl, strontium, and strychnine. The ERO-R450E employs a reverse os...

  1. A semântica de Eros no tempo patrístico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulysses Roberto Lio Tropia

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é mostrar a semântica da palavra Eros dentro da tradição cristã. Limita-se a algumas dessas significações. A reflexão mostra a limitação dessa expressão na língua portuguesa. Seu significado é muito mais rico na língua grega. Se a tradição cristã carregou esta palavra de forma negativa, outros Padres leram-na em sintonia com Ágape e com outros significados. A relação mística a interpreta como uma relação “erótica” entre homem e Deus. Esta intimidade procura explicar o aspecto do desejo de Deus e da relação mútua entre aquele que ama e o amado, que tem sua raiz na busca mais íntima da humanidade. Negar por preconceitos palavras carregadas de desejos não divinos e nem dignos da humanidade, como na Antigüidade, é reduzir demais seu campo semântico na história. Esta palavra reflete o amor da alma para com Deus numa perspectiva mística, assume variações significativas, dentre tantas, como o amor de Jesus Cristo, como sinônimas de Ágape, do amor de Deus para com os homens, como amor individual ligado a Deus, o Eros como virtude e como castidade. A compreensão das dimensões do amor se realiza na capacidade de ver que todas elas são positivas e importantes para obtermos o equilíbrio da vida humana, numa harmonia destas dimensões constitutivas e importantes para a vida.Palavras-chave: Eros; Patrística; Amor; Alma; Mística; Virtude; Castidade e Ágape.ABSTRACTThis article aims at demonstrating the semantics of the term Eros in Christian tradition, pointing out the limitations of the term in Portuguese. The scope of its meaning is much wider in Greek. If Christian tradition has charged the word with a negative feature, other priests have read it in tune with Agape and other meanings. The mystical perspective interprets it as an ‘erotic’ relationship between man and God. Such intimacy attempts to explain God’s desire and the mutual relation between the one who loves and the

  2. The Use of Questionnaires in Safety Culture Studies in High Reliability Organizations. Literature Review and an Application in the Spanish Nuclear Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German, S.; Navajas, J.; Silla, I.

    2014-01-01

    This report examines two aspects related to the use of questionnaires in safety culture research conducted in high reliability organizations. First, a literature review of recent studies that address safety culture through questionnaires is presented. Literature review showed that most studies used only questionnaires as a research technique, were cross-sectional, applied paper-based questionnaires, and were conducted in one type of high reliability organization. Second, a research project on safety culture that used electronic surveys in a sample of experts on safety culture is discussed. This project, developed by CISOT-CIEMAT research institute, was carry out in the Spanish nuclear sector and illustrates relevant aspects of the methodological design and administration processes that must be considered to encourage participation in the study.. (Author)

  3. Reliability Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Yong

    1992-07-01

    This book is about reliability engineering, which describes definition and importance of reliability, development of reliability engineering, failure rate and failure probability density function about types of it, CFR and index distribution, IFR and normal distribution and Weibull distribution, maintainability and movability, reliability test and reliability assumption in index distribution type, normal distribution type and Weibull distribution type, reliability sampling test, reliability of system, design of reliability and functionality failure analysis by FTA.

  4. ERO modeling and sensitivity analysis of locally enhanced beryllium erosion by magnetically connected antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasa, A.; Borodin, D.; Canik, J. M.; Klepper, C. C.; Groth, M.; Kirschner, A.; Airila, M. I.; Borodkina, I.; Ding, R.; Contributors, JET

    2018-01-01

    Experiments at JET showed locally enhanced, asymmetric beryllium (Be) erosion at outer wall limiters when magnetically connected ICRH antennas were in operation. A first modeling effort using the 3D erosion and scrape-off layer impurity transport modeling code ERO reproduced qualitatively the experimental outcome. However, local plasma parameters—in particular when 3D distributions are of interest—can be difficult to determine from available diagnostics and so erosion / impurity transport modeling input relies on output from other codes and simplified models, increasing uncertainties in the outcome. In the present contribution, we introduce and evaluate the impact of improved models and parameters with largest uncertainties of processes that impact impurity production and transport across the scrape-off layer, when simulated in ERO: (i) the magnetic geometry has been revised, for affecting the separatrix position (located 50-60 mm away from limiter surface) and thus the background plasma profiles; (ii) connection lengths between components, which lead to shadowing of ion fluxes, are also affected by the magnetic configuration; (iii) anomalous transport of ionized impurities, defined by the perpendicular diffusion coefficient, has been revisited; (iv) erosion yields that account for energy and angular distributions of background plasma ions under the present enhanced sheath potential and oblique magnetic field, have been introduced; (v) the effect of additional erosion sources, such as charge-exchange neutral fluxes, which are dominant in recessed areas like antennas, has been evaluated; (vi) chemically assisted release of Be in molecular form has been included. Sensitivity analysis highlights a qualitative effect (i.e. change in emission patterns) of magnetic shadowing, anomalous diffusion, and inclusion of neutral fluxes and molecular release of Be. The separatrix location, and energy and angular distribution of background plasma fluxes impact erosion

  5. «Strong as Death is Love»: Eros and Education at the End of Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel D Rocha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay is an extended reflection on the relationship between death and love expressed in a fragment from Song of Songs 8:6: «Strong as death is love». The passage will be analyzed through a Jewish, Orthodox, and Catholic exegesis and literary reflection. In particular, the essay describes the role of a particular form of love (eros within a particular form of education (education at the end of time. While eros has frequently been ignored or resigned to a purely sexualized role, we will look closely at Augustine’s eulogy of his mother, Monica, in the Confessions, suggesting that perhaps the most visceral expression of eros is to be found in the phenomenology of death. We will also draw on the phenomenological manifestation of death by looking to the rich description of dying provided by Leo Tolstoy in his novella, The Death of Ivan Ilych. Together these investigations of eros and education yield a «curriculum of death», which draws on the re-conceptualist notion of curriculum. Our claim is that this curriculum of death offers a sense of urgency and seriousness found lacking in schools today, where death abounds, but is rarely if ever addressed in a humanistic way. This final methodological emphasis on the humanities elucidates more directly and critically the role of research for a curriculum of death within the dominance of social science in the field of education.

  6. The Education of Eros: A History of Education and the Problem of Adolescent Sexuality. Studies in Curriculum Theory Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Dennis L.

    2012-01-01

    "The Education of Eros: is the first and only comprehensive history of sexuality education and the "problem" of adolescent sexuality from the mid-20th century to the beginning of the 21st. It explores how professional health educators, policy makers, and social and religious conservatives differed in their approaches, and battled over what gets…

  7. Methodology of comprehensive evaluation of the effectiveness and reliability of production lines of preparation of sea water for the cultivation of aquatic organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Ugryumova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The factors affecting the efficiency and reliability of technical systems. Set stages of development and modernization of production lines that correspond to specific stages of evaluating the effectiveness and reliability. Considered several methods of definition of indicators of indicators of efficiency and reliability of the equipment in technological lines of fisheries sector: forecasting methods, structural methods, physical methods, logical-probability method (method by I.A. Ryabinin and topological method. Advantages and disadvantages, allowing you to work out the most suitable method, process lines preparation of sea water for the cultivation of aquatic organisms, connected in series. Modernized technological line of preparation of sea water for the cultivation of aquatic organisms differing from the typical line of seawater in hatcheries (Far East, as the presence of a large number of instrumentation: sensors, salinity and temperature; motomeru that continuously monitor turbidity in the range of 50÷100 EMF (30÷60 mg/1 by kaolin; signaling the flow sensors volume level of the filtrate and the backfill layer; analyzers of chemical composition of sea water; analyzers of suspended mechanical impurities; signaling sensors of acidity and oxygen content and replacement filters coarse, fine cleaning and auxiliary equipment. A program of comprehensive evaluation of the effectiveness and reliability of production lines, revealed that conducted the modernization of production line preparation of sea water for the cultivation of aquatic organisms has improved its efficiency by an average of 1.71% to reduce the amount of manual labor by 15.1%; control the process; provide the most rapid, efficient purification of sea water; reduce the cost of replacement filter media.

  8. Reliability data banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, A.G.; Bendell, A.

    1991-01-01

    Following an introductory chapter on Reliability, what is it, why it is needed, how it is achieved and measured, the principles of reliability data bases and analysis methodologies are the subject of the next two chapters. Achievements due to the development of data banks are mentioned for different industries in the next chapter, FACTS, a comprehensive information system for industrial safety and reliability data collection in process plants are covered next. CREDO, the Central Reliability Data Organization is described in the next chapter and is indexed separately, as is the chapter on DANTE, the fabrication reliability Data analysis system. Reliability data banks at Electricite de France and IAEA's experience in compiling a generic component reliability data base are also separately indexed. The European reliability data system, ERDS, and the development of a large data bank come next. The last three chapters look at 'Reliability data banks, - friend foe or a waste of time'? and future developments. (UK)

  9. ERO modeling of beryllium erosion by helium plasma in experiments at PISCES-B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Borodin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The beryllium erosion by helium plasma irradiation is studied at the PISCES-B linear plasma device and interpreted using the accompanying simulations by the ERO code. The influence of plasma conditions and varying negative biasing of the Be plasma target on BeI and BeII absolute line intensities are reproduced in detail by the simulations. The synthetic axial line intensity shapes and line ratios match with experiment. This indicates that atomic data are quite accurate. The initial population state of quasi-metastable 3P level in BeI is found to be MS:GS= 0.33:1 for all conditions. The yields determined by the modeling interpretation are compared to the SDTrimSP code simulations in the binary collision approximation.

  10. The TESIS Project: Are Type 2 QSO Hidden in X-Ray Emitting EROs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severgnini, P.; Della Ceca, R.; Braito, V.; Saracco, P.; Longhetti, M.; Bender, R.; Drory, N.; Feulner, G.; Hopp, U.; Mannucci, F.; Maraston, C.

    X-ray selected EROs are, on average, the hardest X-ray sources in medium and deep X-ray fields. This coupled with their extremely red colors (R-K > 5) suggest that they represent one of the most promising population where looking for high-luminosity (LX > 1044 erg s-1) and X-ray obscured (NH > 1022 cm-2) type2 AGNs, the so called QSO2 (e.g., [5]; [4]; Mignoli et al. submitted to A&A). These latter are predicted in large density by the synthesis model of the Cosmic X-ray background [9] even if only few observational evidences have been found so far (e.g., [1] and references therein; Caccianiga et al. A&A accepted).

  11. Un abrazo de amigo y compañero para Alejandro Casona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Díaz Díaz

    1965-10-01

    Full Text Available El título de este escrito podría parecer vanidoso y logrero si esas hermosas palabras, "un abrazo de amigo y compañero", no estuvieran de puño y letra de Casona en una tarjeta dirigida a mí desde Buenos Aires, con ocasión de haberle enviado dos de mis comedias para someterlas a su autorizado parecer. Ni esta es la primera vez que escribo a propósito del teatro de Alejandro Casona, pues en 1941, en la revista titulada España que editó fugazmente en Bogotá un grupo entusiasta de españoles exilados de su patria, como lo estuvo mucho tiempo Casona, apareció un artículo mío con análogo título y que hoy me sirve de guia para empezar este recuerdo.

  12. Reliability of organic mouthwash in comparison to chlorhexidine mouthwash on Streptococcus mutans in early phase of orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitish Abrol

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test the hypothesis that there are no differences in Streptococcus mutans count in the early phase of orthodontic treatment between organic and chlorhexidine mouthwash. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients were divided into two groups: Group I: Organic mouthwash and Group II: Chlorhexidine mouthwash. The gingival index (GI, plaque index (PI, gingival bleeding index, pocket depths, and level of S. mutans counts were calculated at the different intervals of time. Paired t-test in SPSS software was used for statistical evaluations. Results: There was a significant difference in the values of GI, PI, gingival bleeding index, and pocket depth as well as in the level of streptococcal count (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Null hypothesis is rejected. This study indicates that organic mouthwash showed the lesser level of S. mutans count as compared to chlorhexidine mouthwash hence it is recommended to use organic mouthwash.

  13. How does organic matter occurrence set limit onto the use of Ce anomaly as a reliable proxy of redox conditions in shallow groundwaters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dia, A.; Gruau, G.; Davranche, M.; Vidy, A.; Henin, O.; Petitjean, P.; Le Coz-Bouhnik, M.

    2003-04-01

    This study is dedicated to the effects of organic matter on the hydrochemistry of Rare Earth Elements (REE) and the ability of using the Ce anomaly as a reliable proxy of redox conditions in surface waters when organic matter occurs. The data include a : i) two-year survey of SREE and Ce anomalies in organic-rich waters recovered from a catchment located in Brittany (western Europe) and (ii) experimental incubation of organic soils from this catchment set under controlled conditions, as well as, (iii) a REE speciation calculation in both the natural organic-rich waters from the wetlands and the experimental solutions. Field and experimental data appear to be extremely coherent, displaying good correlation between the SREE, the Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) contents and the redox state. The field data show a strong increase of the SREE and DOC concentrations in soil waters when the environment becomes more reducing. The onset of DOC and SREE contents is seen to be in phase with the increase of dissolved Fe and Mn. The role of Fe-, Mn-oxyhydroxides is confirmed by the experimental data as the maximum of DOC and SREE content is reached when Fe2+ reaches a maximum in the soil solution, suggesting that reductive dissolution of Fe, Mn-oxyhydroxides happens. Despite the strong redox changes and the known redox sensitive behaviour of Ce as compared to other REE, none Ce anomaly variation is observed during either, the experimental procedure, or the field survey through time. Speciation calculations were performed showing that in both such pH range and moderately oxidizing waters in DOC-rich waters, REE should have an organic speciation. Such an organic speciation prevents the formation of Ce(IV) and therefore the development of any Ce anomaly. However, since the studied waters are highly oxidizing (high nitrate contents), the nitrates impose the redox formation of Ce(IV) and a Ce anomaly should appear. Therefore, Ce(IV) is not formed in these waters either because (i) the

  14. Comunicació de crisi en conflictes laborals : la comunicació durant l’ERO de Coca-Cola Iberian Partners

    OpenAIRE

    Garcés González, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Un conflicte laboral com un ERO pot derivar en una veritable crisi per a una empresa. En aquest context, la comunicació pren un paper rellevant en l'organització, emmarcada en la comunicació de crisi. Un cas recent és la crisi soferta per l'ERO de Coca-Cola Iberian Partners, embotelladora per a la marca Coca-Cola a territori espanyol. Aquesta investigació se centra en la comunicació que es va produir durant aquest conflicte laboral, a través d'una anàlisi de contingut de notícies sobre l'ERO ...

  15. Erosão entre sulcos em diferentes condições de cobertura do solo, sob cultivo da cana-de-açúcar Interrill erosion under different conditions of soil cover of sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Augusto Bezerra

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A erosão entressulcos acontece pela desagregação originada do impacto das gotas de chuva e pelo transporte do escoamento superficial, por arraste e suspensão das partículas superficiais do solo desagregadas, onde se encontram a matéria orgânica e os nutrientes fundamentais para a produção agrícola. O trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito de diferentes coberturas do solo em área de cultivo de cana-de-açúcar sob o escoamento superficial na erosão entressulcos. As condições avaliadas foram: solo descoberto; resíduo em contato direto com o solo; dossel da cana-de-açúcar e efeito somado do dossel da cana-de-açúcar e do resíduo em contato com o solo, para três e 12 meses após o corte da cana-planta. Os regimes de escoamento na erosão entressulcos foram laminar lento, e a erodibilidade para o Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo foi de 1,87 x 10(6 kg s m-4, por conta da presença de mica e caulinita. O resíduo da cana em contato direto com o solo destacou-se no aumento da rugosidade hidráulica, e o dossel pela interceptação da chuva que retardou o início do escoamento superficial, possibilitando maiores taxas de infiltração de água no solo e menores taxas da erosão entressulcos.Interrill erosion occurs as a result of detachment of soil surface particles caused by raindrop impact and their transportation by overland flow (drag and suspension, which contain the organic matter and nutrients that are essential for agricultural production. An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of different soil cover types on the overland flow in interrill erosion in an area of sugarcane cultivation. The following situations were evaluated: bare soil; sugarcane straw mulch; sugarcane canopy cover; sugarcane canopy cover + sugarcane straw mulch three and 12 months after sugarcane harvest. The laminar flow regimes were slow and interrill soil erodibility of the Red-Yellow Argisol was 1.87 x 10(6 kg s m-4 due to the occurrence of kaolinite

  16. Bibliometria, história e geografia da pesquisa brasileira em erosão acelerada do solo Bibliometrics, history and geography of Brazilian research on accelerated soil erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Giaroli de Oliveira Pereira Barretto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Há poucos estudos sobre a história da ciência do solo e, no Brasil, essa matéria ainda não recebeu maior atenção por parte de sua comunidade científica. Este trabalho focaliza a formação histórica da pesquisa brasileira em erosão acelerada do solo a partir de uma análise bibliométrica e geográfica, com base numa ampla compilação de artigos científicos publicados sobre o tema por autores vinculados a instituições brasileiras. A metodologia envolveu o armazenamento, em um banco de dados dimensional, estruturado especificamente para esse objetivo, de informações espaciais e bibliométricas. Indicadores quantitativos foram calculados, e a geografia da pesquisa foi mapeada por meio de consultas SQL e ferramentas de geoprocessamento. Os resultados apontaram para gênese recente da pesquisa brasileira em erosão acelerada do solo e centralização da produção científica e formação de linhas em instituições e autores do Sul e Sudeste do Brasil. Ainda, a análise dos dados temáticos indicou predominância do enfoque da erosão a partir de uma perspectiva agrícola e grande ênfase na pesquisa dos fatores do modelo USLE de estimativa de erosão.Soil science history studies are rare and the Brazilian scientific community has not given substantial attention to this subject yet. The present study focused on the formation of research on accelerated soil erosion in the Brazil from a bibliometric perspective. A comprehensive database of published scientific papers was organized in a relational database and analyzed by SQL queries and GIS tools. These data were used to calculate quantitative indicators and spatial distribution patterns. Results indicate a recent development of research on accelerated soil erosion in Brazil by few institutions and authors in the South and Southeast regions. Moreover, a thematic analysis indicated the agricultural perspective as the main focus of erosion studies, with a great emphasis on the USLE

  17. Did Geomagnetic Activity Challenge Electric Power Reliability During Solar Cycle 23? Evidence from the PJM Regional Transmission Organization in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Kevin F.; Cyr, Chris St

    2012-01-01

    During solar cycle 22, a very intense geomagnetic storm on 13 March 1989 contributed to the collapse of the Hydro-Quebec power system in Canada. This event clearly demonstrated that geomagnetic storms have the potential to lead to blackouts. This paper addresses whether geomagnetic activity challenged power system reliability during solar cycle 23. Operations by PJM Interconnection, LLC (hereafter PJM), a regional transmission organization in North America, are examined over the period 1 April 2002 through 30 April 2004. During this time PJM coordinated the movement of wholesale electricity in all or parts of Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia in the United States. We examine the relationship between a proxy of geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) and a metric of challenged reliability. In this study, GICs are proxied using magnetometer data from a geomagnetic observatory located just outside the PJM control area. The metric of challenged reliability is the incidence of out-of-economic-merit order dispatching due to adverse reactive power conditions. The statistical methods employed make it possible to disentangle the effects of GICs on power system operations from purely terrestrial factors. The results of the analysis indicate that geomagnetic activity can significantly increase the likelihood that the system operator will dispatch generating units based on system stability considerations rather than economic merit.

  18. High reliable and stable organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memory with a poly(4-vinyl phenol) charge trapping layer based on a pn-heterojunction active layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Lanyi; Ying, Jun; Han, Jinhua; Zhang, Letian, E-mail: zlt@jlu.edu.cn, E-mail: wwei99@jlu.edu.cn; Wang, Wei, E-mail: zlt@jlu.edu.cn, E-mail: wwei99@jlu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2016-04-25

    In this letter, we demonstrate a high reliable and stable organic field-effect transistor (OFET) based nonvolatile memory (NVM) with a polymer poly(4-vinyl phenol) (PVP) as the charge trapping layer. In the unipolar OFETs, the inreversible shifts of the turn-on voltage (V{sub on}) and severe degradation of the memory window (ΔV{sub on}) at programming (P) and erasing (E) voltages, respectively, block their application in NVMs. The obstacle is overcome by using a pn-heterojunction as the active layer in the OFET memory, which supplied a holes and electrons accumulating channel at the supplied P and E voltages, respectively. Both holes and electrons transferring from the channels to PVP layer and overwriting the trapped charges with an opposite polarity result in the reliable bidirectional shifts of V{sub on} at P and E voltages, respectively. The heterojunction OFET exhibits excellent nonvolatile memory characteristics, with a large ΔV{sub on} of 8.5 V, desired reading (R) voltage at 0 V, reliable P/R/E/R dynamic endurance over 100 cycles and a long retention time over 10 years.

  19. Reliability and Validity of the English-, Chinese- and Malay-Language Versions of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) Questionnaire in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Yin Bun; Yeo, Khung Keong; Chong, Kok Joon; Khoo, Eric Yh; Wee, Hwee Lin

    2017-12-01

    The World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire is a 26-item questionnaire that evaluates 4 domains of quality of life (QoL), namely Physical, Psychological, Social Relationships and Environment. This study aimed to evaluate the validity and reliability of the WHOQOL-BREF among Singapore residents aged 21 and above. We recruited participants from the general population by using multistage cluster sampling and participants from 2 hospitals by using convenience sampling. Participants completed either English, Chinese or Malay versions of the WHOQOL-BREF and the EuroQoL 5 Dimension 5 Levels (EQ-5D-5L) questionnaires. Confirmatory factor analysis, known-group validity, internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) and test-retest reliability using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were performed. Data from 1316 participants were analysed (Chinese: 46.9%, Malay: 41.0% and Indian: 11.7%; 57.5% mean, mean standard deviation [SD, range] age: 51.9 [15.68, 24 to 90] years); 154 participants took part in the retest in various languages (English: 60, Chinese: 49 and Malay: 45). Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI) was 0.919, 0.913 and 0.909 for the English, Chinese and Malay versions, respectively. Cronbach's alpha exceeded 0.7 and ICC exceeded 0.4 for all domains in all language versions. The WHOQOL-BREF is valid and reliable for assessing QoL in Singapore. Model fit is reasonable with room for improvement.

  20. Final Report on LDRD project 130784 : functional brain imaging by tunable multi-spectral Event-Related Optical Signal (EROS).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speed, Ann Elizabeth; Spahn, Olga Blum; Hsu, Alan Yuan-Chun

    2009-09-01

    Functional brain imaging is of great interest for understanding correlations between specific cognitive processes and underlying neural activity. This understanding can provide the foundation for developing enhanced human-machine interfaces, decision aides, and enhanced cognition at the physiological level. The functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) based event-related optical signal (EROS) technique can provide direct, high-fidelity measures of temporal and spatial characteristics of neural networks underlying cognitive behavior. However, current EROS systems are hampered by poor signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) and depth of measure, limiting areas of the brain and associated cognitive processes that can be investigated. We propose to investigate a flexible, tunable, multi-spectral fNIRS EROS system which will provide up to 10x greater SNR as well as improved spatial and temporal resolution through significant improvements in electronics, optoelectronics and optics, as well as contribute to the physiological foundation of higher-order cognitive processes and provide the technical foundation for miniaturized portable neuroimaging systems.

  1. Improved ERO modelling for spectroscopy of physically and chemically assisted eroded beryllium from the JET-ILW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Borodin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical and chemical assisted physical sputtering were characterised by the BeI and BeII line and BeD band emission in the observation chord measuring the sightline integrated emission in front of the inner beryllium limiter at the torus midplane. The 3D local transport and plasma-surface interaction Monte-Carlo modelling (ERO code [18] is a key for the interpretation of the observations in the vicinity of the shaped solid Be limiter. The plasma parameter variation (density scan in limiter regime has provided a useful material for the simulation benchmark. The improved background plasma parameters input, the new analytical expression for particle tracking in the sheath region and implementation of the BeD release into ERO has helped to clarify some deviations between modelling and experiments encountered in the previous studies [4,5]. Reproducing the observations provides additional confidence in our ‘ERO-min’ fit for the physical sputtering yields for the plasma-wetted areas based on simulated data.

  2. The search for reliable aqueous solubility (Sw) and octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) data for hydrophobic organic compounds; DDT and DDE as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontolillo, James; Eganhouse, R.P.

    2001-01-01

    The accurate determination of an organic contaminant?s physico-chemical properties is essential for predicting its environmental impact and fate. Approximately 700 publications (1944?2001) were reviewed and all known aqueous solubilities (Sw) and octanol-water partition coefficients (Kow) for the organochlorine pesticide, DDT, and its persistent metabolite, DDE were compiled and examined. Two problems are evident with the available database: 1) egregious errors in reporting data and references, and 2) poor data quality and/or inadequate documentation of procedures. The published literature (particularly the collative literature such as compilation articles and handbooks) is characterized by a preponderance of unnecessary data duplication. Numerous data and citation errors are also present in the literature. The percentage of original Sw and Kow data in compilations has decreased with time, and in the most recent publications (1994?97) it composes only 6?26 percent of the reported data. The variability of original DDT/DDE Sw and Kow data spans 2?4 orders of magnitude, and there is little indication that the uncertainty in these properties has declined over the last 5 decades. A criteria-based evaluation of DDT/DDE Sw and Kow data sources shows that 95?100 percent of the database literature is of poor or unevaluatable quality. The accuracy and reliability of the vast majority of the data are unknown due to inadequate documentation of the methods of determination used by the authors. [For example, estimates of precision have been reported for only 20 percent of experimental Sw data and 10 percent of experimental Kow data.] Computational methods for estimating these parameters have been increasingly substituted for direct or indirect experimental determination despite the fact that the data used for model development and validation may be of unknown reliability. Because of the prevalence of errors, the lack of methodological documentation, and unsatisfactory data

  3. Reactor physical experimental program EROS in the frame of the molten salt applying reactor concepts development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hron, Miloslav; Kyncl, Jan; Mikisek, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    After the relatively broad program of experimental activities, which have been involved in the complex R and D program for the Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) - SPHINX (SPent Hot fuel Incinerator by Neutron fluX) concept development in the Czech Republic, there has been a next stage (namely large-scale experimental verification of design inputs by use of MSR-type inserted zones into the existing light water moderated experimental reactor LR-0 called EROS project) started, which will be focused to the experimental verification of the rector physical or neutronic properties of other types of reactor concepts applying molten salts in the role of liquid fuel and/or coolant. This tendency is based on the recently accepted decision of the MSR SSC of GIF to consider for further period of its activity two baseline concepts- fast neutron molten salt reactor non-moderated (FMSR-NM) as a long-term alternative to solid fuelled fast neutron reactors and simultaneously, advanced high temperature reactor (AHTR) with pebble bed type solid fuel cooled by liquid salts. There will be a brief description of the prepared and performed experimental programs in these directions (as well as the preliminary results obtained so far) introduced in the paper. (author)

  4. Self-transcendence and Eros: The human condition between desire and the infinite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel W. du Toit

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article treats self-transcendence – like all transcendence – as a fact of human life. Inter alia this means that the human mind perforce operates in terms of binary concepts such as finitude–infinity, inner world–outside world, self–other, desire–fulfilment, separation–union and the like. We find these concepts in most myths of origin. The concept of desire (Eros, combining unfulfilment and the infinite, particularly epitomises self-transcendence. Ralph Waldo Emerson is cited as a precursor of the mid-19th century transcendentalists, whose ideas are resurfacing in present-day secular spirituality. In this article, we examined desire in the Christian conception of the Fall as envisioned by the Jewish philosopher Martin Buber and by Hegel, who integrates mind and nature in his philosophy of Spirit. The works of Emmanuel Levinas and Paul Ricoeur are used as points of reference to help us understand self and other in a framework of self-transcendence. The impact of these ideas on a postmetaphysical epistemology was also explored. Affectivity is a neglected area in Western thought and displays the same infinitude as rationality. The article concluded with present-day strategies of self-construction in a techno-scientific consumer culture.

  5. Elemental Composition of 433 Eros: New Calibration of the NEAR-Shoemaker XRS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, L. F.; Nittler, L. R.; Starr, R. D.; McClanahan, T. P.

    2005-01-01

    We present relative elemental abundances for six elements (Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, Fe) in the surface layer of 433 Eros, derived from a new analysis of the solar induced fluorescence measured by the NEARShoemaker X ray Spectrometer (XRS).XRS derived elemental abundances have been presented before. However, calibration of XRS data depends critically on knowledge of the incident solar spectrum, which varies greatly on time scales of seconds to minutes. Unfortunately, the gas solar monitor carried by NEAR was inadequately calibrated prior to launch. The previously published XRS results were based partly on broadband measurements by the Earthorbiting GOES8 (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites) Xray detectors and partly on a preliminary solar monitor calibration carried out by the present authors. The new solar monitor calibration is based on a more recent set of physical models of the solar spectrum at various temperatures, an improved fitting procedure, analysis of a large number of flight spectra, and comparison with concurrent data from the GOES Xray detectors. In addition, the new analysis includes data from three solar flares not considered in earlier papers.

  6. La presencia de Afrodita y Eros en la música rock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Villalba Álvarez.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo claramente divulgativo pretendemos recopilar unas cuantas menciones a Afrodita y Eros (junto con sus correspondientes nombres latinos, Venus y Cupido en la música de nuestro tiempo. Fijamos nuestra atención, más concretamente, en el género musical que se conoce con el nombre de rock, un género que nace en Norteamérica a finales de los años 50 como consecuencia de la fusión de otros muchos géneros musicales como el jazz, el country & western o el rhythm & blues. En un principio y por su misma naturaleza, las letras de rock eran poco profundas, basando toda su fuerza en el ritmo. Pero poco a poco, con la consolidación del género y su legitimación como música apta para cualquier público, los letristas buscaron argumentos en campos tan a priori alejados de la música popular de nuestro tiempo como puede ser la mitología clásica, con su acervo de imágenes, temas y personajes que han terminado convirtiéndose en recurrentes; y qué duda cabe de que en las canciones de tema amoroso –de las más comunes que aparecen en el rock-, Cupido y Venus junto con todos sus atributos afloran con bastante asiduidad.

  7. LOS RECUERDOS DEL MALTRATO ENTRE COMPAÑEROS EN LA VIDA ESCOLAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Reátiga

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se muestran los resultados de una investigación descriptiva, que buscaba desde una mirada retrospectiva describir la experiencia que se haya vivido en relación a la situación de intimidación o rechazo por compañeros escolares en 648 estudiantes de primer semestre de estrato socioeconómico medio-alto, de una institución universitaria privada. En general, se halló a través del cuestionario RBQ, que el 41.8% recuerda que fue básicamente observador de esta situación; el 12% recuerda haber sido el victimario o agresor; el 4.8% de la muestra recuerda haber sido víctima y el 13% fue tanto víctima como agresor. Se pudo constatar que el maltrato como tal o agresión y específicamente la victimización en general aumentan en la secundaria, en el caso de la victimización se expresa en este período de modo menos activo, más larvado y mudo por medio del hablar mal y la exclusión.

  8. 18 CFR 39.5 - Reliability Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reliability Standards... RELIABILITY STANDARDS § 39.5 Reliability Standards. (a) The Electric Reliability Organization shall file each Reliability Standard or modification to a Reliability Standard that it proposes to be made effective under...

  9. Interaction of CREDO [Centralized Reliability Data Organization] with the EBR-II [Experimental Breeder Reactor II] PRA [probabilistic risk assessment] development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.S.; Ragland, W.A.

    1989-01-01

    The National Academy of Sciences review of US Department of Energy (DOE) class 1 reactors recommended that the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), operated by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), develop a level 1 probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) and make provisions for level 2 and level 3 PRAs based on the results of the level 1 PRA. The PRA analysis group at ANL will utilize the Centralized Reliability Data Organization (CREDO) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to support the PRA data needs. CREDO contains many years of empirical liquid-metal reactor component data from EBR-II. CREDO is a mutual data- and cost-sharing system sponsored by DOE and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuels Development Corporation of Japan. CREDO is a component based data system; data are collected on components that are liquid-metal specific, associated with a liquid-metal environment, contained in systems that interface with liquid-metal environments, or are safety related for use in reliability/availability/maintainability (RAM) analyses of advanced reactors. The links between the EBR-II PRA development effort and the CREDO data collection at EBR-II extend beyond the sharing of data. The PRA provides a measure of the relative contribution to risk of the various components. This information can be used to prioritize future CREDO data collection activities at EBR-II and other sites

  10. Simple, stable and reliable modeling of gas properties of organic working fluids in aerodynamic designs of turbomachinery for ORC and VCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakubo, T.

    2016-05-01

    A simple, stable and reliable modeling of the real gas nature of the working fluid is required for the aerodesigns of the turbine in the Organic Rankine Cycle and of the compressor in the Vapor Compression Cycle. Although many modern Computational Fluid Dynamics tools are capable of incorporating real gas models, simulations with such a gas model tend to be more time-consuming than those with a perfect gas model and even can be unstable due to the simulation near the saturation boundary. Thus a perfect gas approximation is still an attractive option to stably and swiftly conduct a design simulation. In this paper, an effective method of the CFD simulation with a perfect gas approximation is discussed. A method of representing the performance of the centrifugal compressor or the radial-inflow turbine by means of each set of non-dimensional performance parameters and translating the fictitious perfect gas result to the actual real gas performance is presented.

  11. Software reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Bendell, A

    1986-01-01

    Software Reliability reviews some fundamental issues of software reliability as well as the techniques, models, and metrics used to predict the reliability of software. Topics covered include fault avoidance, fault removal, and fault tolerance, along with statistical methods for the objective assessment of predictive accuracy. Development cost models and life-cycle cost models are also discussed. This book is divided into eight sections and begins with a chapter on adaptive modeling used to predict software reliability, followed by a discussion on failure rate in software reliability growth mo

  12. Erotic subset for the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS ERO): cross-sexual comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzba, Małgorzata; Riegel, Monika; Pucz, Anna; Leśniewska, Zuzanna; Dragan, Wojciech Ł; Gola, Mateusz; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Research on the processing of sexual stimuli has proved that such material has high priority in human cognition. Yet, although sex differences in response to sexual stimuli were extensively discussed in the literature, sexual orientation was given relatively little consideration, and material suitable for relevant research is difficult to come by. With this in mind, we present a collection of 200 erotic images, accompanied by their self-report ratings of emotional valence and arousal by homo- and heterosexual males and females (n = 80, divided into four equal-sized subsamples). The collection complements the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS) and is intended to be used as stimulus material in experimental research. The erotic images are divided into five categories, depending on their content: opposite-sex couple (50), male couple (50), female couple (50), male (25) and female (25). Additional 100 control images from the NAPS depicting people in a non-erotic context were also used in the study. We showed that recipient sex and sexual orientation strongly influenced the evaluation of erotic content. Thus, comparisons of valence and arousal ratings in different subject groups will help researchers select stimuli set for the purpose of various experimental designs. To facilitate the use of the dataset, we provide an on-line tool, which allows the user to browse the images interactively and select proper stimuli on the basis of several parameters. The NAPS ERO image collection together with the data are available to the scientific community for non-commercial use at http://naps.nencki.gov.pl.

  13. Erotic subset for the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS ERO: cross-sexual comparison study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata eWierzba

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on the processing of sexual stimuli has proved that such material has high priority in human cognition. Yet, although sex differences in response to sexual stimuli were extensively discussed in the literature, sexual orientation was given relatively little consideration, and material suitable for relevant research is difficult to come by. With this in mind, we present a collection of 200 erotic images, accompanied by their self-report ratings of emotional valence and arousal by homo- and heterosexual males and females (n = 80, divided into four equal-sized subsamples. The collection complements the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS and is intended to be used as stimulus material in experimental research. The erotic images are divided into five categories, depending on their content: opposite-sex couple (50, male couple (50, female couple (50, male (25 and female (25. Additional 100 control images from the NAPS depicting people in a non-erotic context were also used in the study. We showed that recipient sex and sexual orientation strongly influenced the evaluation of erotic content. Thus, comparisons of valence and arousal ratings in different subject groups will help researchers select stimuli set for the purpose of various experimental designs. To facilitate the use of the dataset, we provide an on-line tool, which allows the user to browse the images interactively and select proper stimuli on the basis of several parameters. The NAPS ERO image collection together with the data are available to the scientific community for non-commercial use at http://naps.nencki.gov.pl.

  14. Human reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embrey, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Concepts and techniques of human reliability have been developed and are used mostly in probabilistic risk assessment. For this, the major application of human reliability assessment has been to identify the human errors which have a significant effect on the overall safety of the system and to quantify the probability of their occurrence. Some of the major issues within human reliability studies are reviewed and it is shown how these are applied to the assessment of human failures in systems. This is done under the following headings; models of human performance used in human reliability assessment, the nature of human error, classification of errors in man-machine systems, practical aspects, human reliability modelling in complex situations, quantification and examination of human reliability, judgement based approaches, holistic techniques and decision analytic approaches. (UK)

  15. Reliability Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kurt Erling

    1986-01-01

    Risk and reliability analysis is increasingly being used in evaluations of plant safety and plant reliability. The analysis can be performed either during the design process or during the operation time, with the purpose to improve the safety or the reliability. Due to plant complexity and safety...... and availability requirements, sophisticated tools, which are flexible and efficient, are needed. Such tools have been developed in the last 20 years and they have to be continuously refined to meet the growing requirements. Two different areas of application were analysed. In structural reliability probabilistic...... approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis of very...

  16. Distribuição espacial da erosão potencial e atual do solo na Bacia Hidrográfica do Rio Sapucaí, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Fonseca Durães

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este estudo avalia a distribuição espacial do potencial natural e atual do solo à erosão hídrica na Bacia do Rio Sapucaí, sul de Minas Gerais, utilizando a equação universal de perda de solos revisada, através de modelagem cartográfica, para a obtenção da erosão potencial (EP e da erosão atual (EA. Os resultados indicaram que a EP para a Bacia do Rio Sapucaí variou de "Muito forte", na sua região de cabeceira (Serra da Mantiqueira, a "Fraca", nas áreas com topografia mais suavizada e menor erosividade da chuva. Em relação à EA, mais de 55,17 % da Bacia do Rio Sapucaí apresenta perdas de solo abaixo de 10 t.ha-1.ano-1, significando baixo potencial atual de erosão. A identificação de áreas de risco associadas à erosão acelerada, realizadas neste estudo, fornecem subsídios fundamentais para medidas associadas ao manejo, conservação e planejamento do uso do solo.

  17. El Eros platónico, lo Numinoso Ottoniano y la nostalgia espiritual de la Cultura Otaku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph.D. Adam Brakman

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Thus, in this paper I would like to explore the idea of spiritual longing in otaku culture, firstly, by elucidating Plato’s eros and Otto’s numinous, and then, secondly, by examining a few examples from anime and manga which have instilled in me, or others I know, a deep desire for something that can only be described as mysterious, irreducible and spiritual. Used examples are drawn from the family-orientated anime My Neighbor Totoro, the shōnen anime Gundam, and the shōjo manga Sailor Moon.

  18. Validación de la Environmental Reward Observation Scale (EROS) en población Colombiana

    OpenAIRE

    Valderrama Diaz, Mario Andrés; Konrad Lorenz Fundación Universitaria; Bianchi Salguero, Javier Mauricio; Konrad Lorenz Fundación Universitaria; Villalba Garzon, Javier Andres

    2016-01-01

    Se estimaron las propiedades psicométricas de la Environmental Reward Observation Scale (EROS) en población colombiana, con dos muestras: población comunitaria y clínica. Para la primera se evaluaron 507 personas en 22 departamentos del país con edades entre los 18 y los 72 años, 60,5% son mujeres y restante hombres, la segunda muestra estuvo compuesta por 68 personas con edades comprendidas entre los 18 y 72 años que se atendidas en el momento de la evaluación por profesionales en salud men...

  19. AECL's reliability and maintainability program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, W.A.; Nieuwhof, G.W.E.

    1976-05-01

    AECL's reliability and maintainability program for nuclear generating stations is described. How the various resources of the company are organized to design and construct stations that operate reliably and safely is shown. Reliability and maintainability includes not only special mathematically oriented techniques, but also the technical skills and organizational abilities of the company. (author)

  20. Reliability Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Lazzaroni, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    This book gives a practical guide for designers and users in Information and Communication Technology context. In particular, in the first Section, the definition of the fundamental terms according to the international standards are given. Then, some theoretical concepts and reliability models are presented in Chapters 2 and 3: the aim is to evaluate performance for components and systems and reliability growth. Chapter 4, by introducing the laboratory tests, puts in evidence the reliability concept from the experimental point of view. In ICT context, the failure rate for a given system can be

  1. Reliability training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, Vincent R. (Editor); Malec, Henry A. (Editor); Dillard, Richard B.; Wong, Kam L.; Barber, Frank J.; Barina, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    Discussed here is failure physics, the study of how products, hardware, software, and systems fail and what can be done about it. The intent is to impart useful information, to extend the limits of production capability, and to assist in achieving low cost reliable products. A review of reliability for the years 1940 to 2000 is given. Next, a review of mathematics is given as well as a description of what elements contribute to product failures. Basic reliability theory and the disciplines that allow us to control and eliminate failures are elucidated.

  2. Sol-gel-based SPME fiber as a reliable sampling technique for studying biogenic volatile organic compounds released from Clostridium tetani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghader, Masoud; Shokoufi, Nader; Es-Haghi, Ali; Kargosha, Kazem

    2017-11-01

    A novel and efficient headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) method, followed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), was developed to study volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emerging from microorganisms. Two homemade SPME fibers, a semi-polar poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) fiber, and a polar polyethylene glycol (PEG) fiber, along with two commercial fibers (PDMS and PDMS/DVB) were used to collect VOCs emerging from Clostridium tetani which was cultured in different media. The adsorbed VOCs were desorbed and identified, in vitro, using GC-MS. The adsorption efficiency was improved by optimizing the time duration of adsorption and desorption. About 50 components were identified by the proposed method. The main detected compounds appeared to be sulfur containing compounds such as butanethioic acid S-methyl ester, dimethyl trisulfide, and dimethyl tetrasulfide. These volatile sulfur containing compounds are derived from amino acids containing the sulfur element, which probably coexist in the mentioned bacterium or are added to the culture media. The developed HS-SPME-GC-MS method allowed the determination of the chemical fingerprint of Clostridium tetani volatile constituents, and thus provides a new, simple, and reliable tool for studying the growth of microorganisms. Graphical abstract Investigation of biogenic VOCs released from Clostridium tetani using SPME-GC-MS.

  3. Reliable Prediction with Tuned Range-Separated Functionals of the Singlet-Triplet Gap in Organic Emitters for Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence (TADF)

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Haitao

    2015-07-09

    The thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) mechanism has recently attracted much interest in the field of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). TADF relies on the presence of a very small energy gap between the lowest singlet and triplet excited states. Here, we demonstrate that time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) in the Tamm-Dancoff Approximation can be very successful in the calculations of the lowest singlet and triplet excitation energies and the corresponding singlet-triplet gap when using nonempirically tuned range-separated functionals. Such functionals provide very good estimates in a series of 17 molecules used in TADF-based OLED devices, with mean absolute deviations of 0.15 eV for the vertical singlet excitation energies and 0.09 eV [0.07 eV] for the adiabatic [vertical] singlet-triplet energy gaps as well as low relative errors and high correlation coefficients compared to the corresponding experimental values. They significantly outperform conventional functionals, a feature which is rationalized on the basis of the amount of exact-exchange included and the delocalization error. The present work provides a reliable theoretical tool for the prediction and development of novel TADF-based materials with low singlet-triplet energetic splittings.

  4. Inhibition of the functional interplay between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) oxidoreduclin-1α (Ero1α) and protein-disulfide isomerase (PDI) by the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Masaki; Kadokura, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Shoko; Yutani, Katsuhide; Kanemura, Shingo; Hikima, Takaaki; Hidaka, Yuji; Ito, Len; Shiba, Kohei; Masui, Shoji; Imai, Daiki; Imaoka, Susumu; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Inaba, Kenji

    2014-09-26

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor that may have adverse effects on human health. We recently isolated protein-disulfide isomerase (PDI) as a BPA-binding protein from rat brain homogenates and found that BPA markedly inhibited PDI activity. To elucidate mechanisms of this inhibition, detailed structural, biophysical, and functional analyses of PDI were performed in the presence of BPA. BPA binding to PDI induced significant rearrangement of the N-terminal thioredoxin domain of PDI, resulting in more compact overall structure. This conformational change led to closure of the substrate-binding pocket in b' domain, preventing PDI from binding to unfolded proteins. The b' domain also plays an essential role in the interplay between PDI and ER oxidoreduclin 1α (Ero1α), a flavoenzyme responsible for reoxidation of PDI. We show that BPA inhibited Ero1α-catalyzed PDI oxidation presumably by inhibiting the interaction between the b' domain of PDI and Ero1α; the phenol groups of BPA probably compete with a highly conserved tryptophan residue, located in the protruding β-hairpin of Ero1α, for binding to PDI. Consistently, BPA slowed down the reoxidation of PDI and caused the reduction of PDI in HeLa cells, indicating that BPA has a great impact on the redox homeostasis of PDI within cells. However, BPA had no effect on the interaction between PDI and peroxiredoxin-4 (Prx4), another PDI family oxidase, suggesting that the interaction between Prx4 and PDI is different from that of Ero1α and PDI. These results indicate that BPA, a widely distributed and potentially harmful chemical, inhibits Ero1-PDI-mediated disulfide bond formation. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Inhibition of the Functional Interplay between Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Oxidoreduclin-1α (Ero1α) and Protein-disulfide Isomerase (PDI) by the Endocrine Disruptor Bisphenol A*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Masaki; Kadokura, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Shoko; Yutani, Katsuhide; Kanemura, Shingo; Hikima, Takaaki; Hidaka, Yuji; Ito, Len; Shiba, Kohei; Masui, Shoji; Imai, Daiki; Imaoka, Susumu; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Inaba, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor that may have adverse effects on human health. We recently isolated protein-disulfide isomerase (PDI) as a BPA-binding protein from rat brain homogenates and found that BPA markedly inhibited PDI activity. To elucidate mechanisms of this inhibition, detailed structural, biophysical, and functional analyses of PDI were performed in the presence of BPA. BPA binding to PDI induced significant rearrangement of the N-terminal thioredoxin domain of PDI, resulting in more compact overall structure. This conformational change led to closure of the substrate-binding pocket in b′ domain, preventing PDI from binding to unfolded proteins. The b′ domain also plays an essential role in the interplay between PDI and ER oxidoreduclin 1α (Ero1α), a flavoenzyme responsible for reoxidation of PDI. We show that BPA inhibited Ero1α-catalyzed PDI oxidation presumably by inhibiting the interaction between the b′ domain of PDI and Ero1α; the phenol groups of BPA probably compete with a highly conserved tryptophan residue, located in the protruding β-hairpin of Ero1α, for binding to PDI. Consistently, BPA slowed down the reoxidation of PDI and caused the reduction of PDI in HeLa cells, indicating that BPA has a great impact on the redox homeostasis of PDI within cells. However, BPA had no effect on the interaction between PDI and peroxiredoxin-4 (Prx4), another PDI family oxidase, suggesting that the interaction between Prx4 and PDI is different from that of Ero1α and PDI. These results indicate that BPA, a widely distributed and potentially harmful chemical, inhibits Ero1-PDI-mediated disulfide bond formation. PMID:25122773

  6. First ERO2.0 modeling of Be erosion and non-local transport in JET ITER-like wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romazanov, J.; Borodin, D.; Kirschner, A.; Brezinsek, S.; Silburn, S.; Huber, A.; Huber, V.; Bufferand, H.; Firdaouss, M.; Brömmel, D.; Steinbusch, B.; Gibbon, P.; Lasa, A.; Borodkina, I.; Eksaeva, A.; Linsmeier, Ch; Contributors, JET

    2017-12-01

    ERO is a Monte-Carlo code for modeling plasma-wall interaction and 3D plasma impurity transport for applications in fusion research. The code has undergone a significant upgrade (ERO2.0) which allows increasing the simulation volume in order to cover the entire plasma edge of a fusion device, allowing a more self-consistent treatment of impurity transport and comparison with a larger number and variety of experimental diagnostics. In this contribution, the physics-relevant technical innovations of the new code version are described and discussed. The new capabilities of the code are demonstrated by modeling of beryllium (Be) erosion of the main wall during JET limiter discharges. Results for erosion patterns along the limiter surfaces and global Be transport including incident particle distributions are presented. A novel synthetic diagnostic, which mimics experimental wide-angle 2D camera images, is presented and used for validating various aspects of the code, including erosion, magnetic shadowing, non-local impurity transport, and light emission simulation.

  7. Reliability calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, K.E.

    1986-03-01

    Risk and reliability analysis is increasingly being used in evaluations of plant safety and plant reliability. The analysis can be performed either during the design process or during the operation time, with the purpose to improve the safety or the reliability. Due to plant complexity and safety and availability requirements, sophisticated tools, which are flexible and efficient, are needed. Such tools have been developed in the last 20 years and they have to be continuously refined to meet the growing requirements. Two different areas of application were analysed. In structural reliability probabilistic approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis of very complex systems. In order to increase the applicability of the programs variance reduction techniques can be applied to speed up the calculation process. Variance reduction techniques have been studied and procedures for implementation of importance sampling are suggested. (author)

  8. Systems reliability/structural reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    The question of reliability technology using quantified techniques is considered for systems and structures. Systems reliability analysis has progressed to a viable and proven methodology whereas this has yet to be fully achieved for large scale structures. Structural loading variants over the half-time of the plant are considered to be more difficult to analyse than for systems, even though a relatively crude model may be a necessary starting point. Various reliability characteristics and environmental conditions are considered which enter this problem. The rare event situation is briefly mentioned together with aspects of proof testing and normal and upset loading conditions. (orig.)

  9. Water erosion in soils under eucalyptus forest as affected by development stages and management systems Erosão hídrica em solos sob floresta de eucalipto em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento e sistemas de manejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Hoffmann Oliveira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The constant increasing of eucalyptus forest areas in Brazil requires an accurate monitoring of water erosion. The present study aimed to evaluate soil, nutrients and organic carbon losses occasioned by water erosion in eucalyptus planted forests (EPF at different development stages (2, 3 and 7 years old. Soil erosion sediments were measured and sampled from standard erosion plots installed on Red Argisol-RA (Ultisol and Haplic Cambisol-HC (Inceptisol. Soil loss decreased as the age of plants increased; at the beginning of plant development, the canopy barely covered the soil surface, exposing the soil to higher erosion at young EPF plantations. Furrow planting system was used in the Red Argisol area and caused higher soil losses (1.1 to 6.2 Mg ha-1 year-1 as compared to pit planting system that was used in the Cambisol area (1.1 Mg ha-1 year-1. It is known that Cambisol is less resistant to erosion than Argisol. However, using pit system in this EPF, resulted in lower erosion and, therefore, nutrients and carbon losses than the traditional furrow system used in Argisol. Concerning the soil loss, this work points to the need of improving soil conservation practices to prevent soil erosion at the earlier stages of eucalyptus plantation. The amount of calcium and potassium were higher than magnesium in the soil sediment.The relatively high amount of carbon found in the erosion sediments raises additional concerns about the environmental sustainability and deserves future research.O aumento constante das áreas de florestas de eucalipto no Brasil impõe um monitoramento acurado da erosão hídrica. No presente estudo, objetivou-se avaliar as perdas de solo, nutrientes e carbono orgânico ocasionadas pela erosão hídrica em florestas plantadas de eucalipto em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento (2, 3 e 7 anos. Os sedimentos de erosão foram medidos e amostrados por parcelas-padrão instaladas em Argissolo Vermelho (Ultisol e Cambissolo H

  10. Searching gravitational microlensing events in the galaxy spiral arms by EROS II; Recherche d'evenements de microlentille gravitationnelle dans les bras spiraux de la galaxie avec EROS II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derue, Frederic [Paris-11 Univ., 91 Orsay (France)

    1999-04-15

    The EROS II experiment is searching for microlensing events due to compact massive objects passing through the line-of-sight of luminous stars. These objects are candidates to explain the baryonic component of Dark Matter in our Galaxy. EROS II was dedicated to different lines-of-sight: Small and Large Magellanic Clouds, Galactic Centre and 4 directions towards the Spiral Arms of the Galaxy. This thesis presents the first search for microlensing towards these last lines-of-sight (about 9 million stars). Simple criteria based on the search for significant fluctuations allowed one to discover a low noise sample of 7 candidates to the microlensing effect, with an average timescale of 50 days. A detailed analysis of the light curve of one candidate allows us to give a confidence interval on its mass 2.7 x 10{sup -3} < M/M{sub 0} < 0.84 at 95% CL. The amplification curve of another candidate shows a modulation which can be interpreted as a microlensing effect acting on a binary source, with an orbital period of P{sub 0} = 50 {+-} 3 days. To improve the knowledge of the distance of the target stars, we have combined observations of EROS II with bibliographic sources on associations of stars linked with the spiral arm features, and we have developed a program to find variable stars. Ten cepheids have thus been found. Distances obtained with different methods are in rough agreement with each other. The average optical depth measured towards the four directions is {tau}-bar = 0.45{sub 0.11}{sup +0.23} x 10{sup -6}. It is compatible with expectations from simple galactic models. The long duration of most events favours interpretation of lensing by objects belonging to the disk instead of the halo. It also seems that some events due to bulge lenses have influenced measurements towards the line-of-sight which is closest to the Galactic Centre. Observation continue towards spiral arms. More accurate measurements should be obtained with increase of statistics, allowing one to

  11. Human reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubb, H.

    1992-01-01

    This book resulted from the activity of Task Force 4.2 - 'Human Reliability'. This group was established on February 27th, 1986, at the plenary meeting of the Technical Reliability Committee of VDI, within the framework of the joint committee of VDI on industrial systems technology - GIS. It is composed of representatives of industry, representatives of research institutes, of technical control boards and universities, whose job it is to study how man fits into the technical side of the world of work and to optimize this interaction. In a total of 17 sessions, information from the part of ergonomy dealing with human reliability in using technical systems at work was exchanged, and different methods for its evaluation were examined and analyzed. The outcome of this work was systematized and compiled in this book. (orig.) [de

  12. Microelectronics Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-17

    inverters  connected in a chain. ................................................. 5  Figure 3  Typical graph showing frequency versus square root of...developing an experimental  reliability estimating methodology that could both illuminate the  lifetime  reliability of advanced devices,  circuits and...or  FIT of the device. In other words an accurate estimate of the device  lifetime  was found and thus the  reliability  that  can  be  conveniently

  13. Erosão em sulcos em diferentes preparos e estados de consolidação do solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Schäfer

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O preparo e a consolidação do solo alteram a sua capacidade em resistir à erosão em sulcos. Com o objetivo de estudar a erosão em sulcos em diferentes preparos e consolidação do solo, conhecer o diâmetro mediano dos sedimentos transportados e determinar a erodibilidade em sulcos (Kr e a tensão crítica de cisalhamento (τc do solo, foi realizado um experimento no campo, em 1997/98, em um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico arênico. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com seis repetições. Os tratamentos constaram de: preparo convencional recente (CR, preparo convencional consolidado (consolidação de dois meses (CC, plantio direto sem palha (PDS e plantio direto com palha (PDC, 94% de cobertura. Usou-se chuva simulada de intensidade constante (65 mm h-1 até escoamento aproximadamente constante de água no solo. Em seguida, na extremidade superior do sulco, foram adicionadas descargas líquidas (Q crescentes de 0,0002 m³ s-1 até 0,0010 m³ s-1, para os tratamentos CR e CC, e de 0,0004 m³ s-1 até 0,0020 m³ s-1, para os tratamentos PDS e PDC, sendo as amostras coletadas na parte inferior de cada sulco. As parcelas foram delimitadas por chapas metálicas cravadas no solo no sentido do declive (0,20 m de largura por 6,00 m de comprimento. O valor de Kr determinado foi de 0,012 kg N-1 s-1 e o τc foi de 2,61 N m-2. A desagregação, as perdas de solo e o diâmetro mediano dos sedimentos apresentaram a seguinte seqüência em magnitude: CR, CC, PDS e PDC, particularmente nas maiores Q. O regime de escoamento foi turbulento supercrítico, com exceção da primeira Q aplicada, onde o regime foi laminar subcrítico, para o PDC, graças à presença de resíduos culturais, e laminar supercrítico, para os demais tratamentos. A consolidação e a cobertura do solo alteram o regime do escoamento e reduzem a erosão em sulcos e seus efeitos são complementares.

  14. Violencia perpetrada por compañeros íntimos en mujeres Intimate partner violence against women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Casique Casique

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tuvo como objetivos identificar la violencia física, psicológica y social entre mujeres y su relación con la autoestima. Fueron entrevistadas 300 mujeres que asistieron al CENAVI -México, en 2003/4 víctimas de violencia por su compañero íntimo. Se utilizaron 2 instrumentos para colectar los datos: QIVM - Cuestionario de identificación de la violencia en la Mujer y la Escala de Autoestima. De las 300 mujeres entre 16 y 65 años, 66% son casadas, 75% están con el mismo compañero. La escolaridad estuvo distribuida en todos los niveles y 88% son católicas. Con el Coeficiente de Correlación de Spearman y el análisis multivariado se observó que existe relación entre violencia y autoestima; se encontró que las mujeres con más edad tienen más violencia y corresponden a los menores índices de auto-estima, además existe relación entre el tiempo de convivencia con su compañero y los antecedentes familiares de violencia con la autoestima de las mujeres maltratadas.This study aimed to identify physical, psychological and social violence among among, its relation to self-esteem and the experience of living with violence. We interviewed 300 women who atended the CENAVI -Mexico in 2003/4 and were victims of intimate partner violence. Two data collection instruments were used: QIVM - Questionnaire for the identification of violence in women and the Self-Esteem Scale. Participants were between 16 and 65 years old; possessed different education levels; 66% were married; 75% were living with the same partner and 88% were Catholic. Spearman’s test and multivariate analysis revealed a relation between violence and self-esteem; the higher the age and violence levels, the lower these women’s self-esteem. We also found a relation between time spent living with the aggressor, family antecedents of violence and the victims’ self-esteem.

  15. Search for type Ia supernovae within the EROS2 collaboration. Photometric study of nearby SNIa and measurement of H_0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regnault, Nicolas

    2000-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) are powerful distance indicators. The comparison of nearby (z ∼ 0:1) and distant (z ∼ 1) SNIa apparent magnitudes leads to the determination of the large scale geometry of the universe. Cosmological parameters such as the Hubble constant H_0, the matter density Ω_m and the cosmological constant Ω_Λ can thus be determined. The EROS2 experiment devotes about 10% of its observing time to the detection of nearby SNIa. In the spring of 1999, EROS2 participated in a worldwide search conducted by the Supernova Cosmology Project. This campaign resulted in the discovery of 50 supernovae. Among these, 20 turned out to be SNIa discovered within 10 days from maximum. The thesis work is divided into 3 parts. First, we present a quick overview of the standard cosmological model and the main techniques used for measuring the cosmological parameters (SNIa, rich clusters properties, and anisotropies of the cosmological background radiation). We then describe the physics and observational properties of SNIa. In particular, we show that the peak absolute luminosity of these objects is uniform (within 30%), and correlates with other observables. Using these correlations, we can construct a corrected peak luminosity, which exhibits a lower dispersion (∼10%). The second part is devoted to the description of the EROS2 setup, and our SNe search techniques. In the last part, we present the analysis of the spring 1999 SNIa's photometric follow-up data. We describe the photometry software developed for this analysis as well as the complex intercalibration process of the follow-up images taken with 10 different telescopes. In the last chapter, we show how the peak luminosity and the decline rate of each SN can be reconstructed. Using these quantities, we study the correlations between the peak luminosity the decline rate and the color of SNIa, which leads to a value of H_0: H_0 = 67.4 ± 2(int)"+"5"."8_-_6_._4(ext.). (author) [fr

  16. Dios, Patria y Rey José de la Riva-Agüero y Javier Prado (1904-1905

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Samuel Rivera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo es una presentación de una de las obras más emblemáticas del pensamiento político peruano de inicios del siglo XX: Carácter de la literatura del Perú independiente (1905, la primera obra de José de la Riva-Agüero y Osma (1885-1944. La historiografía ha considerado este texto como una obra de historia de la literatura; también como un trabajo "liberal". Carácter de la literatura sería en realidad una obra de filosofía social positivista. Pero sería además una versión peruana del positivismo monarquista royaliste. Riva-Agüero habría tenido un referente oculto: el libro de filosofía social positivista de Javier Prado, Estado social del Perú durante la dominación española (1894, que habría puesto de cabeza. Tres temas básicos eran el eje de una oculta polémica político-conceptual: la religión, la monarquía y la tradición. Una oculta teoría de psicología colectiva le serviría de sustento: los peruanos tendrían un carácter pragmatista y un sentimiento social empático con el pasado, más apropiado para reivindicar la tradición que para condenarla. La Guerra del Pacífico y un baile social de la aristocracia de la Lima de 1904 serán el escenario de la controversia.

  17. Redefining reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulson, S.L.

    1995-01-01

    Want to buy some reliability? The question would have been unthinkable in some markets served by the natural gas business even a few years ago, but in the new gas marketplace, industrial, commercial and even some residential customers have the opportunity to choose from among an array of options about the kind of natural gas service they need--and are willing to pay for. The complexities of this brave new world of restructuring and competition have sent the industry scrambling to find ways to educate and inform its customers about the increased responsibility they will have in determining the level of gas reliability they choose. This article discusses the new options and the new responsibilities of customers, the needed for continuous education, and MidAmerican Energy Company's experiment in direct marketing of natural gas

  18. Organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  19. Organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a…

  20. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from......Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  1. An Introduction To Reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyoung Su

    1993-08-01

    This book introduces reliability with definition of reliability, requirement of reliability, system of life cycle and reliability, reliability and failure rate such as summary, reliability characteristic, chance failure, failure rate which changes over time, failure mode, replacement, reliability in engineering design, reliability test over assumption of failure rate, and drawing of reliability data, prediction of system reliability, conservation of system, failure such as summary and failure relay and analysis of system safety.

  2. Potencial de erosão da bacia do Rio Uberaba Potential of erosion in Uberaba River watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato F. do Valle Júnior

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo identificar qualitativamente as áreas suscetíveis à erosão laminar na bacia do Rio Uberaba, localizada em Uberaba -MG, apoiado no modelo matemático da Equação Universal de Perda de Solo (EUPS. Foram utilizadas cartas de: solos, uso e ocupação das terras, redes de drenagem, declividade e dados pluviográficos, utilizando-se de um Sistema de Informação Geográfica (SIG -IDRISI. A espacialização do potencial de erosão só foi possível a partir da estimativa da tolerância às perdas laminares para cada tipo de solo da bacia, e da profundidade dos solos, por entender que as perdas são mais significativas em solos mais rasos do que em solos muito profundos. Na análise dos resultados, verificou-se que 37% da área total da bacia do Rio Uberaba (905,24 km² sofrem perdas de solos acima do limite de tolerância, sendo 12% em solos profundos e 25% em muito profundos, e a espacialização deste evento favorece a adoção de ações efetivas quanto à conservação dos solos da bacia.This work aimed to identify qualitatively the areas susceptive to laminar erosion in Uberaba river watershed, located in Uberaba-MG, Brazil, based on the mathematical model of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE. The following maps had been used: soil, land use, drainage net, slope and rainfall data, using a Geographic Information System (GIS - IDRISI to analyze and manage the data that are linked to the location. The spatiality of the potential of erosion was possible from the estimative of the tolerance to laminar losses for each kind of soil in the watershed and soil depth, to understand that the losses are more significant in flatter soil than in very deep ones. In the analysis of the results, it was verified that 37% of the total area of the watershed of the Uberaba river (905,24 km² showed losses above the tolerance limit, being 12% in deep soil and 25% in very deeply ones, and the spatiality of this event, regards to

  3. Domain architecture of protein-disulfide isomerase facilitates its dual role as an oxidase and an isomerase in Ero1p-mediated disulfide formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulp, M. S.; Frickel, E. M.; Ellgaard, Lars

    2006-01-01

    reduction/rearrangement of non-native disulfides is poorly understood. We analyzed the role of individual PDI domains in disulfide bond formation in a reaction driven by their natural oxidant, Ero1p. We found that Ero1p oxidizes the isolated PDI catalytic thioredoxin domains, A and A' at the same rate......Native disulfide bond formation in eukaryotes is dependent on protein-disulfide isomerase (PDI) and its homologs, which contain varying combinations of catalytically active and inactive thioredoxin domains. However, the specific contribution of PDI to the formation of new disulfides versus...... catalytic (A) domain. The specific order of thioredoxin domains in PDI is important in establishing the asymmetry in the rate of oxidation of the two active sites thus allowing A and A', two thioredoxin domains that are similar in sequence and structure, to serve opposing functional roles as a disulfide...

  4. A Percepção dos Fatores de Erosão no Processo de Construção da Marca Samsung no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila da Silva Schmitt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Devido a hipercompetitividade no mercado, a preocupação e necessidade de se planejar adequadamente as estratégias mercadológicas são essenciais (Too, Harvey & Too, 2010. Nesse domínio as marcas são utilizadas pelas empresas como estratégia para criar valor e diferenciação, para que possam se distanciar dessa concorrência. Marcas fortes tendem a criar uma vantagem competitiva duradoura (Tavares, 1998; Bedbury, 2002; Keller & Machado, 2006; Aaker, 2007; Scharf, 2007. Porém, mesmo consolidadas no mercado, marcas sólidas estão vulneráveis aos fatores que causam sua erosão. Nesse contexto, este artigo pretendeu estabelecer a percepção dos fatores de erosão no processo de construção de marcas sólidas, analisando as ações estratégicas incorporadas e trabalhadas pela marca Samsung no Brasil. Para responder as indagações ostentadas, foram utilizados dados primários instaurados nas entrevistas realizadas com executivos estrategistas da marca, e informações advindas também de dados secundários com análise documental de artigos publicados sobre a marca investigada. Quanto aos fatores de erosão estabelecidos, alguns foram percebidos integralmente como erosivo pelos executivos, como é o caso da Proliferação de concorrentes e Pressão por resultados a curto prazo. Com a análise das informações se abarcou o estabelecimento de outros fatores que causam erosão na perspectiva de marca no contexto brasileiro. 

  5. Modelo multicritério aditivo na geração de mapas de suscetibilidade à erosão em área rural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Souza Valladares

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a geração de um mapa de suscetibilidade à erosão, em área rural, no Município de Guararapes, SP, por meio de modelo multicritério aditivo. Foram utilizados mapas digitais dos temas: relevo (declividade e comprimento das rampas; pedologia (obtida em campo; uso e cobertura das terras da região; e interpretação do modelo digital de elevação. Os mapas digitais foram tratados em ambiente de sistema de informação geográfica, por meio do método multicritério aditivo, e validados pelo modelo da equação universal de perda de solo (USLE. Foram geradas cinco classes de suscetibilidade à erosão: baixa, moderada, alta, muito alta e altíssima. O mapa de risco obtido por multicritério aditivo teve boa correspondência com o modelo USLE. O mapa de suscetibilidade à erosão pode ser aplicado ao planejamento agrícola e ambiental da área rural do Município de Guararapes.

  6. Search for brown dwarfs by gravitational microlensing effect with the pixels method. Analysis of AGAPE and EROS collaborations data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melchior, Anne-Laure

    1995-01-01

    This work is involved in baryonic dark matter search in galactic halos. An important collect of observational data has been initiated to test the hypothesis that this dark mass is made of compact objects such as brown dwarfs or small mass stars. The gravitational microlensing effect allows to probe this distribution of this mass type along the line of sight of nearby galaxies such as the Large Magellanic Cloud. A new way to detect these microlensing events has been proposed by P. Baillon et al.: the pixel method. The aim is to detect the amplification of stars which are unresolved or too faint to be seen by classical analysis. First, we present this method and the simulations which allow to establish its feasibility. Then, we describe the pixel analysis of the 91-92 EROS data on the Large Magellanic Cloud. The selection of luminosity variations with a shape compatible with microlensing events allows us to study the sensitivity of this analysis. We see how these results allow us to validate the pixel method applied on a large volume of data. This also shows the possibility to find luminosity variations which escape classical analysis research. Strengthened by these results, we finally describe the analysis of the AGAPE 94 data on the Andromeda galaxy which uses the same pixel method. Being ten times farther away than the Large Magellanic Cloud, the Andromeda galaxy has very few resolved stars, making the pixel method the only way of looking for microlensing events. (author) [fr

  7. Influence of annealing temperature on erbium ion electroluminescence in Si : (Er,O) diodes with (111) substrate orientation

    CERN Document Server

    Sobolev, N A; Nikolaev, Y A

    2001-01-01

    A study has been made of the influence of temperature of the second annealing that promotes formation of optically and electrically active centers o the erbium ion electroluminescence at lambda approx = 1.54 mu m wavelength in (111) Si : (Er,O) diodes. Doping has been performed by implantation of erbium and oxygen ions at 2.0, 1.6 MeV and 0.28, 0.22 MeV energies and 3 x 10 sup 1 sup 4 cm sup - sup 2 and 3 x 10 sup 1 sup 5 cm sup - sup 2 doses, respectively. The room temperature electroluminescence intensity under the breakdown regime increases with increasing annealing temperature from 700 to 950 deg C. After annealing in the range of 975-1100 deg C, erbium electroluminescence under the breakdown regime is not observed due to appearance of microplasmas. The injection electroluminescence intensity at 80 K decreases with increasing temperature from 700 to 1100 deg C

  8. The life-time concept as a tool for erosion tolerance definition O conceito de tempo-de-vida como ferramenta para a definição da tolerância de perda de terra por erosão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sparovek

    1997-06-01

    extreme soil degradation risk of the Ceveiro watershed in an integral and reliable form.Por definição, a tolerância de perda de terra por erosão deve considerar a preservação do solo como um recurso natural essencial para a produção das culturas. Taxas de erosão do solo superiores a sua renovação ocasionam diminuição da sua espessura. Uma espessura mínima foi definida como sendo a espessura abaixo da qual os insumos (fertilizantes, resíduos de culturas e a tecnologia de manejo (irrigação, culturas geneticamente melhoradas são insuficientes para manter economicamente a produtividade. Assim, taxas de erosão maiores do que a formação podem ser aceitas somente durante o tempo no qual não foi atingida a espessura mínima. Este período foi definido como tempo-de-vida. O conceito de tempo-de-vida foi aplicado na bacia do Ceveiro (1.945 ha, localizada em Piracicaba no sudeste do Brasil. O cálculo do tempo de vida foi realizado usando Sistema de Informações Geográficas. Para isto foram utilizadas estimativas das taxas de erosão pela Equação Universal de Perda de Solo e das profundidades do solo obtidas em levantamento de campo. Foram consideradas ainda uma taxa de formação de 0,2 mm ano-1, uma profundidade mínima do solo de 1,0m, e o cenário atual de uso da terra. Ò uso da terra se distribui em 1.319 ha (68% de cana-de-açúcar, 346 ha (18% de florestas e 278 ha (14% de pastagens. A área na qual a erosão foi menor do que a formação (área não associada a impactos irreversíveis representou 475 ha (24%. Esta área inclui o total de florestas, 48% das pastagens e nenhuma área de cana-de-açúcar. A área com taxas de erosão maiores do que a formação e profundidade do solo menor que 1,0 m, representou 832 ha (42%, nos quais o tempo de-vida é igual a zero (impactos irreversíveis da erosão no tempo atual. O uso da terra nesta situação se compõe de 702 ha de cana-de-açúcar e 130 ha de pastagens. Para a área restante de 638 ha (32% da

  9. Waste package reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, C.; Sastre, C.

    1983-01-01

    Proof of future performance of a complex system such as a high-level nuclear waste package over a period of hundreds to thousands of years cannot be had in the ordinary sense of the word. The general method of probabilistic reliability analysis could provide an acceptable framework to identify, organize, and convey the information necessary to satisfy the criterion of reasonable assurance of waste package performance according to the regulatory requirements set forth in 10 CFR 60. General principles which may be used to evaluate the qualitative and quantitative reliability of a waste package design are indicated and illustrated with a sample calculation of a repository concept in basalt. 8 references, 1 table

  10. 18 CFR 39.11 - Reliability reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Electric Reliability Organization shall conduct assessments of the adequacy of the Bulk-Power System in... assessments as determined by the Commission of the reliability of the Bulk-Power System in North America and... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reliability reports. 39...

  11. Reliability and Validity of the World Health Organization Quality of Life: Brief Version (WHOQOL-BREF) in a Homeless Substance Dependent Veteran Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Rea, Elizabeth A.; LePage, James P.

    2010-01-01

    With the high number of homeless, there is a critical need for rapid and accurate assessment of quality of life to assess program outcomes. The World Health Organization's WHOQOL-100 has demonstrated promise in accurately assessing quality-of-life in this population. However, its length may make large scale use impractical for working with a…

  12. Frontiers of reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Asit P; Basu, Sujit K

    1998-01-01

    This volume presents recent results in reliability theory by leading experts in the world. It will prove valuable for researchers, and users of reliability theory. It consists of refereed invited papers on a broad spectrum of topics in reliability. The subjects covered include Bayesian reliability, Bayesian reliability modeling, confounding in a series system, DF tests, Edgeworth approximation to reliability, estimation under random censoring, fault tree reduction for reliability, inference about changes in hazard rates, information theory and reliability, mixture experiment, mixture of Weibul

  13. Energy Return on Energy Invested (ERoEI) for photovoltaic solar systems in regions of moderate insolation: A comprehensive response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raugei, Marco; Sgouridis, Sgouris; Murphy, David; Fthenakis, Vasilis; Frischknecht, Rolf; Breyer, Christian; Bardi, Ugo; Barnhart, Charles; Buckley, Alastair; Carbajales-Dale, Michael; Csala, Denes; Wild-Scholten, Mariska de; Heath, Garvin; Jæger-Waldau, Arnulf; Jones, Christopher; Keller, Arthur; Leccisi, Enrica; Mancarella, Pierluigi

    2017-01-01

    A recent paper by asserts that the ERoEI (also referred to as EROI) of photovoltaic (PV) systems is so low that they actually act as net energy sinks, rather than delivering energy to society. Such claim, if accurate, would call into question many energy investment decisions. In the same paper, a comparison is also drawn between PV and nuclear electricity. We have carefully analysed this paper, and found methodological inconsistencies and calculation errors that, in combination, render its conclusions not scientifically sound. Ferroni and Hopkirk adopt ‘extended’ boundaries for their analysis of PV without acknowledging that such choice of boundaries makes their results incompatible with those for all other technologies that have been analysed using more conventional boundaries, including nuclear energy with which the authors engage in multiple inconsistent comparisons. In addition, they use out-dated information, make invalid assumptions on PV specifications and other key parameters, and conduct calculation errors, including double counting. We herein provide revised EROI calculations for PV electricity in Switzerland, adopting both conventional and ‘extended’ system boundaries, to contrast with their results, which points to an order-of-magnitude underestimate of the EROI of PV in Switzerland by Ferroni and Hopkirk. - Highlights: • A recent paper by Ferroni and Hopkirk estimated an EROI=0.8 for PV in Switzerland. • We identify several critical methodological and calculation flaws in that paper. • We discuss such flaws in detail and rebut Ferroni and Hopkirk's conclusions. • We provide revised EROI calculations with both conventional and extended boundaries.

  14. Safety and reliability in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains the papers presented at the ESRA Pre-Launching Meeting. The meeting was attended by about eighty European reliability and safety experts from industry, research organizations and universities. This meeting was dealing with the following subjects: the historical perspective of safety and reliability in Europe and to the aims of ESRA. Status and Trends in Research and Development; Codes, Standards and Regulations; Academic and Technical Training. National and international Organizations. Twenty six papers have been analyzed and abstracted for inclusion in the data base

  15. System Reliability Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Tae Jin

    2005-02-01

    This book tells of reliability engineering, which includes quality and reliability, reliability data, importance of reliability engineering, reliability and measure, the poisson process like goodness of fit test and the poisson arrival model, reliability estimation like exponential distribution, reliability of systems, availability, preventive maintenance such as replacement policies, minimal repair policy, shock models, spares, group maintenance and periodic inspection, analysis of common cause failure, and analysis model of repair effect.

  16. The effect of the labile organic fraction in food waste and the substrate/inoculum ratio on anaerobic digestion for a reliable methane yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Minako; Nagao, Norio; Tajima, Nobuaki; Niwa, Chiaki; Matsuyama, Tatsushi; Toda, Tatsuki

    2014-04-01

    Influence of the labile organic fraction (LOF) on anaerobic digestion of food waste was investigated in different S/I ratio of 0.33, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0g-VSsubstrate/g-VSinoculum. Two types of substrate, standard food waste (Substrate 1) and standard food waste with the supernatant (containing LOF) removed (Substrate 2) were used. Highest methane yield of 435ml-CH4g-VS(-1) in Substrate 1 was observed in the lowest S/I ratio, while the methane yield of the other S/I ratios were 38-73% lower than the highest yield due to acidification. The methane yields in Substrate 2 were relatively stable in all S/I conditions, although the maximum methane yield was low compared with Substrate 1. These results showed that LOF in food waste causes acidification, but also contributes to high methane yields, suggesting that low S/I ratio (food waste compared to other organic substrates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. La interacción entre compañeros y el feedback lingüístico en los COMA de lenguas extranjeras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Martín Monje

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo estudia las interacciones entre compañeros o interacciones peer-to-peer en el primer Curso Online Masivo y Abierto (COMA o MOOC en inglés de Inglés Profesional realizado para nativos hispanohablantes en paralelo en las plataformas en línea UNED Abierta y Miríada X, con la finalidad de fomentar la instrucción abierta en el ámbito de la educación superior de lenguas. Dadas las diferencias entre ambas plataformas, en este artículo nos centramos en el curso de la plataforma Miríada X, cuyo planteamiento se basó principalmente en una serie de actividades de lengua interculturales que buscaban la interacción y el feedback entre compañeros, con el objeto de fomentar la comunicación en línea en la lengua de destino y desviar el enorme desequilibrio en la proporción entre estudiantes (cerca de 30.000 y profesores (5: 2 curadores y 3 facilitadores y el elevado índice de abandono característico de este tipo de cursos. La información sobre el nivel de interacción alcanzado y el feedback proporcionado por los estudiantes se registró mediante la observación del seguimiento del curso y las opiniones de los estudiantes recogidas en un cuestionario final. El análisis realizado revela la necesidad de matizar algunos de los actuales criterios de calidad de estos cursos y de mejorar sustancialmente la percepción de los estudiantes de lenguas sobre la interacción con compañeros.

  18. A susceptibilidade à erosão como subsídio ao planejamento urbano: estudo de caso do município de Ubá - MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fillipe Tamiozzo Pereira Torres

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A inexistência de planejamento no que se refere à expansão urbana é uma realidade enfrentada por várias cidades brasileiras. A ocupação desordenada pode acarretar diversos problemas, a exemplo da erosão, que nas cidades tem se tornado um acontecimento cada vez mais frequente e intenso. A identificação das áreas que apresentam susceptibilidade à ocorrência de algum desastre é considerada um importante procedimento na gestão de riscos ambientais e, consequentemente, vem a colaborar de maneira relevante nas questões do planejamento urbano. É neste sentido que o presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar as diretrizes iniciais de crescimento da área urbana do município de Ubá, Minas Gerais, a partir da vulnerabilidade à erosão do seu perímetro urbano. Foi realizado o cruzamento de mapas de uso e ocupação do solo, geomorfologia, solos e declividade para obtenção do mapa de susceptibilidade à erosão da área de estudo. A partir deste mapa foram estabelecidas as diretrizes iniciais para o crescimento do município estudado. Os eixos norte, sul e oeste, em relação ao perímetro urbano, foram considerados inadequados para o crescimento da cidade. O eixo leste foi aquele mais adequado para o crescimento urbano desse município.

  19. Distúrbios alimentares e sua associação com erosão e cárie dentária em adolescentes

    OpenAIRE

    Brandt, Lorenna Mendes Temóteo

    2015-01-01

    Os prejuízos na saúde bucal de indivíduos portadores de distúrbios alimentares vêm sendo investigados, trazendo consigo questões discordantes quanto ao comprometimento dos dentes. Diante disso, realizou-se um estudo transversal controlado, com o objetivo de avaliar a ocorrência de erosão e cárie dentária em adolescentes mulheres, de 15 a 18 anos, em risco de estarem sofrendo de distúrbios alimentares e compará-las a adolescentes saudáveis. A amostra probabilística foi compos...

  20. Incertezas na predição da erosão com a usle: impactos e mitigação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Marinho Leite Chaves

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de haver significativa variabilidade espacial e temporal nas variáveis de modelos de predição de erosão, mesmo em áreas consideradas homogêneas, ela é raramente incorporada na análise e no planejamento conservacionista. As consequências dessa simplificação são predições incorretas de perda de solo, com implicações para a sustentabilidade agrícola e ambiental de glebas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: (a estimar o efeito da variabilidade espacial e temporal dos fatores da Equação Universal de Perdas de Solo - USLE na predição da erosão em uma área homogênea situada no Distrito Federal; (b incorporar a incerteza resultante no processo de tomada de decisão conservacionista; e (c propor medidas para sua mitigação. Os resultados indicam que, apesar do baixo coeficiente de variação médio dos fatores da USLE na área estudada, na faixa de 20 %, o coeficiente de variação da perda de solo (A estimada foi de 64 %, indicando significativa propagação de incerteza no modelo. A implicação disso é que, mesmo sendo o valor médio de A 19 % menor que o limite médio de tolerância à erosão na gleba (T, haveria ainda uma probabilidade de 43 % de que A fosse superior a T. Para reduzir esse risco, são sugeridas medidas que aumentem a margem de segurança do sistema, como a adoção de práticas conservacionistas. Com a introdução de terraços, a probabilidade de falha do sistema seria reduzida para 12 %. Os resultados reforçam a importância da incorporação das variabilidades e incertezas na estimativa da erosão e no planejamento conservacionista, por meio de análise estocástica.

  1. Incertezas na predição da erosão com a usle: impactos e mitigação

    OpenAIRE

    Chaves,Henrique Marinho Leite

    2010-01-01

    Apesar de haver significativa variabilidade espacial e temporal nas variáveis de modelos de predição de erosão, mesmo em áreas consideradas homogêneas, ela é raramente incorporada na análise e no planejamento conservacionista. As consequências dessa simplificação são predições incorretas de perda de solo, com implicações para a sustentabilidade agrícola e ambiental de glebas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: (a) estimar o efeito da variabilidade espacial e temporal dos fatores da Equação Un...

  2. Perdas por erosão e rendimentos de soja e de trigo em diferentes sistemas de preparo de um latossolo roxo de Dourados (MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Hernani

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as perdas de solo e de água por erosão, em um latossolo roxo muito argiloso, com 0,03 m m-1 de declividade, da área experimental da Embrapa-Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuária do Oeste, em Dourados (MS, entre junho de 1987 e maio de 1995. Os tratamentos, aplicados antes da semeadura de trigo e de soja, cultivados em sucessão, foram: (i escarificação + gradagem niveladora (ES, (ii gradagens pesada + niveladora (GP, (iii plantio direto (PD e (iv aração com arado de discos + duas gradagens niveladoras, sem cobertura vegetal (DE. O preparo de solo e a semeadura foram realizados no sentido do declive. O PD foi o tratamento mais eficiente, tanto no controle de perdas de solo e de água quanto em rendimentos de grãos de soja e de trigo. As perdas médias de solo e de água por erosão, relativas aos sistemas PD, ES, GP e DE, foram, respectivamente, de: 0,8; 2,8; 5,3 e 7,3 t ha-1 ano-1 e 27, 80, 112 e 149 mm ano-1. O PD, quando comparado ao DE, controlou 89% das perdas de solo e 82% das de água. O PD mostrou rendimentos médios de grãos, tanto de soja como de trigo, 17% superiores aos do GP. O ES apresentou rendimentos médios 5% superiores em soja e 12% superiores em trigo, quando comparados aos do GP. Este último, dos tratamentos cultivados, foi o menos eficaz, seja no controle à erosão, seja nos rendimentos de soja e trigo. O fator erosividade, R, foi estimado em 6.411 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 ano-1, e a erodibilidade, K, foi de 0,0045 t h MJ-1 mm-1. Entre junho/94 e maio/95, o período de maior intensidade de perdas por erosão por unidade de tempo foi do preparo de solo à semeadura da soja, e o de maiores perdas absolutas foi o de 30 a 60 dias após a semeadura dessa cultura. Isso demonstra a importância de adequada cobertura do solo, entre novembro e março, e reforça a recomendação do Sistema de Plantio Direto para a região de Dourados (MS.

  3. Power Industry Reliability Coordination in Asia in a Market Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Hammons, Thomas J.; Voropai, Nikolai I.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the problems of power supply reliability in a market environment. The specific features of economic interrelations between the power supply organization and consumers in terms of reliability assurance are examined and the principles of providing power supply reliability are formulated. The economic mechanisms of coordinating the interests of power supply organization and consumers to provide power supply reliability are discussed. Reliability of restructuring China's powe...

  4. AMSAA Reliability Growth Guide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Broemm, William

    2000-01-01

    ... has developed reliability growth methodology for all phases of the process, from planning to tracking to projection. The report presents this methodology and associated reliability growth concepts.

  5. Effect of organic-buffer-layer on electrical property and environmental reliability of Ga-doped ZnO films prepared by RF plasma assisted DC magnetron sputtering on plastic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinoki, Toshio; Kyuhara, Chika; Agura, Hideaki; Yazawa, Kenji; Kinoshita, Kentaro; Ohmi, Koutoku; Kishida, Satoru

    2010-01-01

    Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) transparent conductive films have been prepared by RF plasma assisted DC magnetron sputtering under a reductive atmosphere on organic-buffer-layer (OBL) coated polyethylene telephthalate (PET) substrates without intentionally heating substrates. Electrical and optical properties, crystallinity, and environmental reliability of the GZO films have been investigated. The distributional characteristic of resistivity is observed in the GZO film deposited on the OBL-coated PET substrates. The high resistivity at facing the erosion area in the source target is reduced by providing the RF plasma and H 2 gas near the substrate, resulting in a uniform distribution of the sheet resistance. It has been also found that the increase of resistivity by an accelerated aging test performed under a storage condition at 60 o C and at a relative humidity of 95% is suppressed by employing the OBL. The OBL suppresses the formation of cracks, which are induced by the aging test. These facts are thought to contribute to a high environmental reliability of GZO films on PET substrates. Values of resistivity, Hall mobility and carrier concentration are obtained: 5.0-20 x 10 -3 Ω cm, 4.0 cm 2 /Vs, and 3.8 x 10 20 cm -3 , respectively. An average transmittance of the GZO film including OBL and PET substrate is 78% in a visible region. The OBL enables to realize the practical use of GZO films on PET sheets.

  6. Benchmarking DFT and semi-empirical methods for a reliable and cost-efficient computational screening of benzofulvene derivatives as donor materials for small-molecule organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortorella, Sara; Talamo, Maurizio Mastropasqua; Cardone, Antonio; Pastore, Mariachiara; De Angelis, Filippo

    2016-02-24

    A systematic computational investigation on the optical properties of a group of novel benzofulvene derivatives (Martinelli 2014 Org. Lett. 16 3424-7), proposed as possible donor materials in small molecule organic photovoltaic (smOPV) devices, is presented. A benchmark evaluation against experimental results on the accuracy of different exchange and correlation functionals and semi-empirical methods in predicting both reliable ground state equilibrium geometries and electronic absorption spectra is carried out. The benchmark of the geometry optimization level indicated that the best agreement with x-ray data is achieved by using the B3LYP functional. Concerning the optical gap prediction, we found that, among the employed functionals, MPW1K provides the most accurate excitation energies over the entire set of benzofulvenes. Similarly reliable results were also obtained for range-separated hybrid functionals (CAM-B3LYP and wB97XD) and for global hybrid methods incorporating a large amount of non-local exchange (M06-2X and M06-HF). Density functional theory (DFT) hybrids with a moderate (about 20-30%) extent of Hartree-Fock exchange (HFexc) (PBE0, B3LYP and M06) were also found to deliver HOMO-LUMO energy gaps which compare well with the experimental absorption maxima, thus representing a valuable alternative for a prompt and predictive estimation of the optical gap. The possibility of using completely semi-empirical approaches (AM1/ZINDO) is also discussed.

  7. Benchmarking DFT and semi-empirical methods for a reliable and cost-efficient computational screening of benzofulvene derivatives as donor materials for small-molecule organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tortorella, Sara; Talamo, Maurizio Mastropasqua; Cardone, Antonio; Pastore, Mariachiara; De Angelis, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    A systematic computational investigation on the optical properties of a group of novel benzofulvene derivatives (Martinelli 2014 Org. Lett. 16 3424–7), proposed as possible donor materials in small molecule organic photovoltaic (smOPV) devices, is presented. A benchmark evaluation against experimental results on the accuracy of different exchange and correlation functionals and semi-empirical methods in predicting both reliable ground state equilibrium geometries and electronic absorption spectra is carried out. The benchmark of the geometry optimization level indicated that the best agreement with x-ray data is achieved by using the B3LYP functional. Concerning the optical gap prediction, we found that, among the employed functionals, MPW1K provides the most accurate excitation energies over the entire set of benzofulvenes. Similarly reliable results were also obtained for range-separated hybrid functionals (CAM-B3LYP and wB97XD) and for global hybrid methods incorporating a large amount of non-local exchange (M06-2X and M06-HF). Density functional theory (DFT) hybrids with a moderate (about 20–30%) extent of Hartree–Fock exchange (HFexc) (PBE0, B3LYP and M06) were also found to deliver HOMO–LUMO energy gaps which compare well with the experimental absorption maxima, thus representing a valuable alternative for a prompt and predictive estimation of the optical gap. The possibility of using completely semi-empirical approaches (AM1/ZINDO) is also discussed. (paper)

  8. Phonesis and Eros

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Finn Thorbjørn

    2008-01-01

    This research article investigate the use of the concept of Phronesis in contemporary educational research and it present five different approaches. Especially Hubert Dreyfus and his new competence theoty with a sixth and seventh level of competence is critical examined in light of Heidegger...

  9. Eros and politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helge Rønning

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There are many parallels between Henrik Ibsen’s Rosmersholm (1886 and Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson’s Paul Lange og Tora Parsberg (1898. Both dramas have as their protagonist a weak and noble man, who is offered love and an erotic relationship by a strong woman, and who is not able to reciprocate.              At the same time they are plays about how politics demand the ability to act and take a stand in a world where men are supposed to engage politically at the same time as women are supposed to stand in the background. In both dramas the political and the erotic are interwoven in a manner that drives the men into despair because they can neither satisfy the demands of love in the intimate arena nor the demands for power in the public arena of politics.             There are also other parallels between the plays, in relation to the role of the figures, that demand of the protagonists that they take a stand, and drop them and betray them when they do not. Both dramas also end in a final suicide. Though here the two plays differ in that in Ibsen’s play the drama ends in the double suicide of the man and the woman, while in Bjørnson’s it is only the man who sacrifices himself. This implies that the question of strength, power and the erotic are more consistently played out in Ibsen’s drama.

  10. Eros y cultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Amícola

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available It is a commonplace the almost non-existent Spanish contribution to erotic literature. This matter has to do, at the same time, with the consideration on what is regarded as "pornographic". However, it is necessary to consider here how far pornography implies the subject who decides to see something as such. Archaeology, on the other hand, has been giving evidences of the changes produced in ancient iconography's reception; and has come, by this way, to enlighten the consideration of the erotic in Spain itself, where the taboo imposed on sexuality by the ecclesiastical power has limited the erotic to a massive and trivial consume.

  11. Eros and phronesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Finn Thorbjørn

    2007-01-01

    Artiklen ser særlig nærmere på Hubert Dreyfus syn på phronesis-dimensionen i ekspertens arbejde og jeg kritiserer ham for at have et for ensidigt eksistentialistisk syn på phronesis-begrebet gennem Hannah Arendt læsning, der vægter den eksistensfilosofiske "meaning-receiving" dimension....

  12. Eros as 'Pteros'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluge, Sofie

    2010-01-01

    ’s view of myth with an estimation of his own qualities as a literary author: on one hand, negligence of the intrinsic aesthetico-philosophical interest of Platonic myth and unreserved or qualified subordination of poetic mythos to philosophical logos; on the other hand, recognition of the significance...... of Plato’s myths and relaxation of the dichotomy of philosophy and myth conducing in some cases even to evaluation of poetic myth over philosophical dialectic. In order to appreciate the fundamental interaction of literature and philosophy in these myths, I suggest that we approach them armed...

  13. Eros visitando La Luna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Disse

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La autora, quien dirige el estudio "Radio Artística Experimental" en radio La Luna de Quito, testimonia su experiencia y reflexiona sobre la radio erótica y la búsqueda de formas más adecuadas para que, en consonancia con el lema de la emisora quiteña, los oyentes y las producciones gocen con "el prohibido sonido del placer".

  14. Da Eros a Gaia

    CERN Document Server

    Dyson, Freeman

    1993-01-01

    L'emigrazione verso altri pianeti come mezzo di sopravvivenza umana, l'immagazzinaggio nello spazio delle scorie nucleari, un programma di rimboschimento per ripristinare l'equilibrio climatico, la bomba atomica, il comportamento delle tribù africane: sono alcuni dei temi affrontati dall'autore in questa raccolta di saggi, articoli, lezioni universitarie.

  15. Eros en seksuele natuur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Heyns

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to expose a dichotomy between the inter- and intrapersonal aspects of sexuality that haunt the current discourse on sexual normality. This division has led to a dual movement: in one direction to a moral relativism and in the other to an exclusive focus on sexual instincts. Thus, in the current discourse on sexuality, the interpersonal dimension o f sexuality is underplayed, while the intrapersonal dimension is overemphasized. I argue instead for a bridging of the gap between the inter- and intrapersonal dimensions of sexuality. The reason: neither moral relativism nor a rigid deterministic structure for sexual instincts represents an adequate view of, on the one hand the description of sexuality, and on the other the prescription o f the expression of that sexuality. In conclusion, I point to a few consequenses o f the integration o f both dimensions for sexual normality.

  16. Estrategia educativa sobre lactancia materna. Policlínico "Joaquín de Agüero". Marzo 2007 a Marzo 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoycet Ruiz de Villa Martínez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó que no todas las madres conocen la necesidad de lactar a sus hijos en los primeros meses de vida, lo cual obstaculiza el éxito de la lactancia materna exclusiva (al sexto mes, por lo que se realizó una estrategia de intervención educativa con el objetivo de incrementar el nivel de conocimientos en las madres del Grupo Básico de Trabajo No.2 del Policlínico "Joaquín de Agüero y Agüero". El universo estuvo constituido por 149 madres de niños de 0 a 6 meses de edad, aplicando una encuesta para identificar las necesidades de aprendizaje sobre la lactancia materna. Posteriormente se llevó a cabo un programa educativo, utilizándose técnicas participativas y demostrativas, aplicándose finalmente la misma encuesta para poder comparar, a través de la evaluación, los resultados de la intervención. Al inicio predominó la evaluación de regular lo cual fue modificada al final, mostrándose la eficacia del programa aplicado. Se concluyó que la intervención fue efectiva predominado un criterio muy satisfactorio de las madres participantes.

  17. A reliability simulation language for reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deans, N.D.; Miller, A.J.; Mann, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    The results of work being undertaken to develop a Reliability Description Language (RDL) which will enable reliability analysts to describe complex reliability problems in a simple, clear and unambiguous way are described. Component and system features can be stated in a formal manner and subsequently used, along with control statements to form a structured program. The program can be compiled and executed on a general-purpose computer or special-purpose simulator. (DG)

  18. Business of reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Pierre

    1999-12-01

    The presentation is organized around three themes: (1) The decrease of reception equipment costs allows non-Remote Sensing organization to access a technology until recently reserved to scientific elite. What this means is the rise of 'operational' executive agencies considering space-based technology and operations as a viable input to their daily tasks. This is possible thanks to totally dedicated ground receiving entities focusing on one application for themselves, rather than serving a vast community of users. (2) The multiplication of earth observation platforms will form the base for reliable technical and financial solutions. One obstacle to the growth of the earth observation industry is the variety of policies (commercial versus non-commercial) ruling the distribution of the data and value-added products. In particular, the high volume of data sales required for the return on investment does conflict with traditional low-volume data use for most applications. Constant access to data sources supposes monitoring needs as well as technical proficiency. (3) Large volume use of data coupled with low- cost equipment costs is only possible when the technology has proven reliable, in terms of application results, financial risks and data supply. Each of these factors is reviewed. The expectation is that international cooperation between agencies and private ventures will pave the way for future business models. As an illustration, the presentation proposes to use some recent non-traditional monitoring applications, that may lead to significant use of earth observation data, value added products and services: flood monitoring, ship detection, marine oil pollution deterrent systems and rice acreage monitoring.

  19. Reliability and optimization of structural systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoft-Christensen, P.

    1987-01-01

    The proceedings contain 28 papers presented at the 1st working conference. The working conference was organized by the IFIP Working Group 7.5. The proceedings also include 4 papers which were submitted, but for various reasons not presented at the working conference. The working conference was attended by 50 participants from 18 countries. The conference was the first scientific meeting of the new IFIP Working Group 7.5 on 'Reliability and Optimization of Structural Systems'. The purpose of the Working Group 7.5 is to promote modern structural system optimization and reliability theory, to advance international cooperation in the field of structural system optimization and reliability theory, to stimulate research, development and application of structural system optimization and reliability theory, to further the dissemination and exchange of information on reliability and optimization of structural system optimization and reliability theory, and to encourage education in structural system optimization and reliability theory. (orig./HP)

  20. Suncor maintenance and reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, S. [Suncor Energy, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Fleet maintenance and reliability at Suncor Energy was discussed in this presentation, with reference to Suncor Energy's primary and support equipment fleets. This paper also discussed Suncor Energy's maintenance and reliability standard involving people, processes and technology. An organizational maturity chart that graphed organizational learning against organizational performance was illustrated. The presentation also reviewed the maintenance and reliability framework; maintenance reliability model; the process overview of the maintenance and reliability standard; a process flow chart of maintenance strategies and programs; and an asset reliability improvement process flow chart. An example of an improvement initiative was included, with reference to a shovel reliability review; a dipper trip reliability investigation; bucket related failures by type and frequency; root cause analysis of the reliability process; and additional actions taken. Last, the presentation provided a graph of the results of the improvement initiative and presented the key lessons learned. tabs., figs.

  1. Erosão em entre sulcos em área cultivada com cana crua e queimada sob colheita manual e mecanizada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinícios Garbiate

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Embora existam vários estudos ligados às questões ambientais voltadas para a poluição atmosférica, ao uso crescente da biotecnologia e à mecanização do processo de colheita da cana-de-açúcar, a mesma atenção não tem sido dada aos impactos ambientais negativos promovidos pela erosão laminar. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a concentração de matéria orgânica (MO e nutrientes (P, K, Ca e Mg em sedimentos e na água da enxurrada proveniente de erosão entre sulcos em diferentes sistemas de manejo na colheita da cana-de-açúcar utilizados no Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul (cana crua e queimada, sob um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico de textura média. Os tratamentos estudados foram colheita manual de cana queimada, colheita mecanizada de cana crua e colheita mecanizada de cana queimada. Aplicou-se chuva simulada com intensidade de 60 mm h-1, durante 50 min. As concentrações de sedimentos na enxurrada resultantes da erosão entre sulcos, bem como de MO, P, K, Ca e Mg, foram maiores no sistema com colheita mecanizada de cana queimada e menores no sistema com colheita mecanizada de cana crua. A qualidade física do solo sofre influência negativa do sistema de manejo com colheita mecânica de cana queimada, devido ao efeito da pressão exercida pelo tráfego de máquinas na colheita. No entanto, os resíduos vegetais de colheita distribuídos na superfície do solo pela colheita mecânica de cana crua reduzem as perdas de nutrientes e de MO no sedimento, além de aumentarem a capacidade do solo em resistir à degradação física ocasionada pelo tráfego de máquinas na colheita mecanizada de cana.

  2. The Accelerator Reliability Forum

    CERN Document Server

    Lüdeke, Andreas; Giachino, R

    2014-01-01

    A high reliability is a very important goal for most particle accelerators. The biennial Accelerator Reliability Workshop covers topics related to the design and operation of particle accelerators with a high reliability. In order to optimize the over-all reliability of an accelerator one needs to gather information on the reliability of many different subsystems. While a biennial workshop can serve as a platform for the exchange of such information, the authors aimed to provide a further channel to allow for a more timely communication: the Particle Accelerator Reliability Forum [1]. This contribution will describe the forum and advertise it’s usage in the community.

  3. Human Reliability Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodin, Michael

    2012-09-25

    This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

  4. Power electronics reliability analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Mark A.; Atcitty, Stanley

    2009-12-01

    This report provides the DOE and industry with a general process for analyzing power electronics reliability. The analysis can help with understanding the main causes of failures, downtime, and cost and how to reduce them. One approach is to collect field maintenance data and use it directly to calculate reliability metrics related to each cause. Another approach is to model the functional structure of the equipment using a fault tree to derive system reliability from component reliability. Analysis of a fictitious device demonstrates the latter process. Optimization can use the resulting baseline model to decide how to improve reliability and/or lower costs. It is recommended that both electric utilities and equipment manufacturers make provisions to collect and share data in order to lay the groundwork for improving reliability into the future. Reliability analysis helps guide reliability improvements in hardware and software technology including condition monitoring and prognostics and health management.

  5. Reliability of software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopetz, H.

    1980-01-01

    Common factors and differences in the reliability of hardware and software; reliability increase by means of methods of software redundancy. Maintenance of software for long term operating behavior. (HP) [de

  6. Dental erosion and consumption of industrialized beverages in a group of children in Recife/Pernambuco, Brazil = Erosão dental e consumo de bebidas industrializadas em crianças de Recife/Pernambuco, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araújo, Natália Costa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Observar a ocorrência de erosão dental em um grupo de crianças de 5 a 12 anos de idade, da cidade do Recife/Pernambuco e sua associação com o consumo de bebidas industrializadas. Metodologia: A amostra foi composta por 970 crianças e a coleta de dados abrangeu entrevistas e exames clínicos. Considerou-se como erosão dental a presença de lesões cervicais em superfícies vestibulares com as seguintes características clínicas: lesões largas, rasas, sem ângulos nítidos, com superfície lisa e em forma de “U”. Para a análise estatística foi utilizado o teste Qui-quadrado de Pearson. Resultados: A ocorrência de erosão dental na amostra estudada foi de 3,4%, sendo 2,4% para a dentição decídua e 1,8% para a dentição permanente. Tanto na dentição decídua, quanto na permanente, a erosão dental foi associada ao consumo de bebidas industrializadas (P=0,02 e de refrigerantes especificamente (P=0,004. Conclusão: Neste estudo, a ocorrência de erosão dental foi baixa, sugerindo que este tipo de agravo não se configura em um problema de saúde pública para a população investigada

  7. Human factors reliability Benchmark exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poucet, A.

    1989-06-01

    The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission has organized a Human Factors Reliability Benchmark Exercise (HF-RBE) with the aim of assessing the state of the art in human reliability modelling and assessment. Fifteen teams from eleven countries, representing industry, utilities, licensing organisations and research institutes, participated in the HF-RBE. The HF-RBE was organized around two study cases: (1) analysis of routine functional Test and Maintenance (T and M) procedures: with the aim of assessing the probability of test induced failures, the probability of failures to remain unrevealed and the potential to initiate transients because of errors performed in the test; (2) analysis of human actions during an operational transient: with the aim of assessing the probability that the operators will correctly diagnose the malfunctions and take proper corrective action. This report contains the final summary reports produced by the participants in the exercise

  8. Reliable Design Versus Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation focuses on reliability and trust for the users portion of the FPGA design flow. It is assumed that the manufacturer prior to hand-off to the user tests FPGA internal components. The objective is to present the challenges of creating reliable and trusted designs. The following will be addressed: What makes a design vulnerable to functional flaws (reliability) or attackers (trust)? What are the challenges for verifying a reliable design versus a trusted design?

  9. Pocket Handbook on Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    exponencial distributions Weibull distribution, -xtimating reliability, confidence intervals, relia- bility growth, 0. P- curves, Bayesian analysis. 20 A S...introduction for those not familiar with reliability and a good refresher for those who are currently working in the area. LEWIS NERI, CHIEF...includes one or both of the following objectives: a) prediction of the current system reliability, b) projection on the system reliability for someI future

  10. Fundamentos para la determinación de la capacidad de carga de un remolque cañero durante su proceso de diseño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Álvarez-Sánchez

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se muestra como determinar el valor racional de la capacidad de carga de un remolque cañero durante su proceso de diseño, de modo que en el momento de su explotación los gastos de la actividad de transporte tiendan a un mínimo. El principio que se ha seguido para ello es el de modelar matemáticamente su requerimiento funcional fundamental, capacidad de carga, en función de los gastos de explotación con los que se vincula, que son los costos del combustible y los gastos de amortización. Como restricciones del modelo se analizaron: La potencia efectiva del motor (Ne, el tiempo sumario de traslado (Ttras y la fuerza tangencial de tracción máxima (Pφ.Palabras claves: diseño, remolque cañero, eficiencia, capacidad de carga, costos mínimos.In this work it is shown how to determine the rational value of load capacity in a CANE trolley during its design process, so at the exploitation moment the transportation costs are minimized. The principle followed in this research was the mathematical modeling of their fundamental functional requirement (load capacity as a function of the exploitation and other related expenses. For the restrictions of the model the following aspects were considered: The effective power of the engine (Ne, the summary time of transfer of the sugar cane (Ttras and the maximum tangential force of traction (Pφ.

  11. Principles of Bridge Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Nowak, Andrzej S.

    The paper gives a brief introduction to the basic principles of structural reliability theory and its application to bridge engineering. Fundamental concepts like failure probability and reliability index are introduced. Ultimate as well as serviceability limit states for bridges are formulated......, and as an example the reliability profile and a sensitivity analyses for a corroded reinforced concrete bridge is shown....

  12. Reliability in engineering '87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuma, M.

    1987-01-01

    The participants heard 51 papers dealing with the reliability of engineering products. Two of the papers were incorporated in INIS, namely ''Reliability comparison of two designs of low pressure regeneration of the 1000 MW unit at the Temelin nuclear power plant'' and ''Use of probability analysis of reliability in designing nuclear power facilities.''(J.B.)

  13. Reliability and Availability of Cloud Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Eric

    2012-01-01

    A holistic approach to service reliability and availability of cloud computing Reliability and Availability of Cloud Computing provides IS/IT system and solution architects, developers, and engineers with the knowledge needed to assess the impact of virtualization and cloud computing on service reliability and availability. It reveals how to select the most appropriate design for reliability diligence to assure that user expectations are met. Organized in three parts (basics, risk analysis, and recommendations), this resource is accessible to readers of diverse backgrounds and experience le

  14. Reliable computer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, L L; Pinkert, J R

    1993-11-01

    In this article, we looked at some decisions that apply to the design of reliable computer systems. We began with a discussion of several terms such as testability, then described some systems that call for highly reliable hardware and software. The article concluded with a discussion of methods that can be used to achieve higher reliability in computer systems. Reliability and fault tolerance in computers probably will continue to grow in importance. As more and more systems are computerized, people will want assurances about the reliability of these systems, and their ability to work properly even when sub-systems fail.

  15. Human factor reliability program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoblochova, L.

    2017-01-01

    The human factor's reliability program was at Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. (SE) nuclear power plants. introduced as one of the components Initiatives of Excellent Performance in 2011. The initiative's goal was to increase the reliability of both people and facilities, in response to 3 major areas of improvement - Need for improvement of the results, Troubleshooting support, Supporting the achievement of the company's goals. The human agent's reliability program is in practice included: - Tools to prevent human error; - Managerial observation and coaching; - Human factor analysis; -Quick information about the event with a human agent; -Human reliability timeline and performance indicators; - Basic, periodic and extraordinary training in human factor reliability(authors)

  16. Quantificação de erosão em sistemas agroflorais e convencionais na Zona da Mata de Minas Gerais Evaluation of erosion under agroforestry and conventional systems in Zona de Mata de Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Silveira Franco

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available A Zona da Mata de Minas Gerais é caracterizada por topografia forte ondulada, com solos intemperizados com baixa fertilidade natural e regime pluviométrico capaz de sustentar uma vegetação florestal. A ocupação da terra é minifundiária, predominando a agricultura familiar, que sofre as conseqüências da modernização da agricultura, exigindo uso intensivo do solo, o que, conseqüentemente, promove perdas de solo, água e nutrientes por erosão. Uma das alternativas propostas para redução das perdas por processos erosivos foi a implantação de sistemas agroflorestais. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar as perdas por erosão em sistemas agroflorestais implantados em propriedades de pequenos agricultores com as perdas em sistemas convencionais. Os sistemas foram implantados como unidades experimentais de observação das condições socioambientais dos agricultores, utilizando metodologias participativas. Estas unidades experimentais apresentam dificuldades para quantificação da erosão, quando são usadas metodologias convencionais. A dinâmica do manejo utilizado pelos agricultores dificulta o uso de métodos que exigem a implantação de equipamentos permanentes. Além disto, os métodos que exigem o isolamento das parcelas produzem efeitos de borda que mascaram os resultados, quando comparados com os do sistema aberto conduzido por agricultores. Desta forma, foi desenvolvido um coletor de água e solo para superar tais limitações. O equipamento é composto por uma "mesa", que é inserida no solo, acoplada a uma calha móvel que sustenta um saco plástico. A água e o solo coletados no saco plástico são quantificados e analisados. Foram instalados coletores em 25 unidades de observação, sendo 14 em sistemas convencionais e 11 em sistemas agroflorestais. A energia dos eventos erosivos foi calculada a partir de pluviogramas, para estimar as perdas potenciais anuais dos sistemas. Os dados foram coletados na estação chuvosa

  17. Avaliação da suscetibilidade natural e do potencial à erosão laminar na Bacia Hidrográfica do Ribeirão do Boqueirão, município de Davinópolis (GO)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Diego Emanoel

    2016-01-01

    As sociedades humanas ao longo do tempo desenvolveram e aumentaram a sua capacidade de reorganizar espacialmente os elementos do meio que as envolve. Dessa forma, a intervenção antrópica se tornou um dos agentes dinamizadores da paisagem, juntamente com os processos físicos e biológicos. Isso implica dizer que as atividades humanas influem e aceleram os processos de erosão. Especificamente, a erosão laminar é uma forma de manifestação da erosão hídrica que ocorre de forma silen...

  18. Equipment Reliability Program in NPP Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaler, F.; Djetelic, N.

    2006-01-01

    Operation that is safe, reliable, effective and acceptable to public is the common message in a mission statement of commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs). To fulfill these goals, nuclear industry, among other areas, has to focus on: 1 Human Performance (HU) and 2 Equipment Reliability (EQ). The performance objective of HU is as follows: The behaviors of all personnel result in safe and reliable station operation. While unwanted human behaviors in operations mostly result directly in the event, the behavior flaws either in the area of maintenance or engineering usually cause decreased equipment reliability. Unsatisfied Human performance leads even the best designed power plants into significant operating events, which can be found as well-known examples in nuclear industry. Equipment reliability is today recognized as the key to success. While the human performance at most NPPs has been improving since the start of WANO / INPO / IAEA evaluations, the open energy market has forced the nuclear plants to reduce production costs and operate more reliably and effectively. The balance between these two (opposite) goals has made equipment reliability even more important for safe, reliable and efficient production. Insisting on on-line operation by ignoring some principles of safety could nowadays in a well-developed safety culture and human performance environment exceed the cost of electricity losses. In last decade the leading USA nuclear companies put a lot of effort to improve equipment reliability primarily based on INPO Equipment Reliability Program AP-913 at their NPP stations. The Equipment Reliability Program is the key program not only for safe and reliable operation, but also for the Life Cycle Management and Aging Management on the way to the nuclear power plant life extension. The purpose of Equipment Reliability process is to identify, organize, integrate and coordinate equipment reliability activities (preventive and predictive maintenance, maintenance

  19. Perdas por erosão no estado de S. Paulo A study of soil losses due to erosion in São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Quintiliano A. Marques

    1961-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam, neste trabalho, os dados gerais obtidos na primeira fase de trabalhos da Seção de Conservação do Solo do Instituto Agronômico do Estado de São Paulo, do ano agrícola 1943/44 até o ano agrícola 1958/59. Tais dados foram obtidos em talhòcs experimentais munidos de coletores de material erodido, instalados em épocas diferentes, perfazendo, até o presente ano, um total de 108 talhões, dos quais 38 em Pindorama, 29 em Campinas, 13 em Mococa e 28 em Ribeirão Prêto. Na primeira parte são apresentados os dados originais obtidos em cada um dos grupos de talhõe experimentais sob a forma de médias de perdas de solo e água, juntamente com ama breve descrição dos sistemas coletores usados e das características gerais dos tratamentos em comparação. Na segunda parte, como conclusões gerais, são apresentados os dados médios para os principais tratamentos e práticas estudadas, mima tentativa para melhor representar as condições médias gerais do Estado de São Paulo. Foram, dessa forma, estudados os efeitos sôbre as perdas por erosão dos seguintes fatores, figurando os tratamentos discriminados em ordem decrescente de perdas de solo: (1 Tipo de solo (arenosa, massapé e roxa; (2 Sistema de preparo do solo em cultura de milho (duas arações com arado de aiveca comum, uma aração com arado de aiveca comum e uma aração com arado de subsuperfície; (3 Incorporção de matéria orgânica em cultura de milho (queima da palhaça, mucuna consorciada ao milho e enterrada, incorporação da palhaça, adubo verde transportado de fora da área e enterrado, mucuna consorciada ao milho e deixada na superfície, palhaça enterrada, e estêrco de curral; (4 Rotação de culturas (algodão, soja e milho; (5 Tipo de uso do solo (algodoal, cafêzal, pastagem e mata; (6 Tipo de cultura (mamona, feijão, mandioca, amendoim, arroz, algodão, soja. batatinha, cana-de-açúcai, milho, milho + feijão, e batata-doce; (7

  20. Reliability and safety engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, Ajit Kumar; Karanki, Durga Rao

    2016-01-01

    Reliability and safety are core issues that must be addressed throughout the life cycle of engineering systems. Reliability and Safety Engineering presents an overview of the basic concepts, together with simple and practical illustrations. The authors present reliability terminology in various engineering fields, viz.,electronics engineering, software engineering, mechanical engineering, structural engineering and power systems engineering. The book describes the latest applications in the area of probabilistic safety assessment, such as technical specification optimization, risk monitoring and risk informed in-service inspection. Reliability and safety studies must, inevitably, deal with uncertainty, so the book includes uncertainty propagation methods: Monte Carlo simulation, fuzzy arithmetic, Dempster-Shafer theory and probability bounds. Reliability and Safety Engineering also highlights advances in system reliability and safety assessment including dynamic system modeling and uncertainty management. Cas...

  1. Human reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, E.M.; Fragola, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present a treatment of human reliability analysis incorporating an introduction to probabilistic risk assessment for nuclear power generating stations. They treat the subject according to the framework established for general systems theory. Draws upon reliability analysis, psychology, human factors engineering, and statistics, integrating elements of these fields within a systems framework. Provides a history of human reliability analysis, and includes examples of the application of the systems approach

  2. Reliability of electronic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca, Jose L.

    2001-01-01

    Reliability techniques have been developed subsequently as a need of the diverse engineering disciplines, nevertheless they are not few those that think they have been work a lot on reliability before the same word was used in the current context. Military, space and nuclear industries were the first ones that have been involved in this topic, however not only in these environments it is that it has been carried out this small great revolution in benefit of the increase of the reliability figures of the products of those industries, but rather it has extended to the whole industry. The fact of the massive production, characteristic of the current industries, drove four decades ago, to the fall of the reliability of its products, on one hand, because the massively itself and, for other, to the recently discovered and even not stabilized industrial techniques. Industry should be changed according to those two new requirements, creating products of medium complexity and assuring an enough reliability appropriated to production costs and controls. Reliability began to be integral part of the manufactured product. Facing this philosophy, the book describes reliability techniques applied to electronics systems and provides a coherent and rigorous framework for these diverse activities providing a unifying scientific basis for the entire subject. It consists of eight chapters plus a lot of statistical tables and an extensive annotated bibliography. Chapters embrace the following topics: 1- Introduction to Reliability; 2- Basic Mathematical Concepts; 3- Catastrophic Failure Models; 4-Parametric Failure Models; 5- Systems Reliability; 6- Reliability in Design and Project; 7- Reliability Tests; 8- Software Reliability. This book is in Spanish language and has a potentially diverse audience as a text book from academic to industrial courses. (author)

  3. Erosão em entressulcos sob caatinga e culturas agrícolas Interrill erosion under shrub and crop systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José de Freitas

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as formas de erosão hídrica do solo, a erosão em entressulcos é uma das que causam maiores danos no processo produtivo dos solos utilizados na agricultura, por provocar perdas de solo, água e nutrientes. Frente a isso, o presente trabalho visou avaliar a proteção ambiental promovida pela cobertura vegetal da caatinga, do feijão-guandu (Cajanus cajan e da batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas Lam em relação ao solo descoberto, bem como o efeito das práticas de cultivos dessas culturas, por meio das taxas da erosão em entressulcos e das características hidráulicas do escoamento superficial vinculado à erosão em entressulcos, em um Luvissolo. Para isso, foi implementada uma série de 20 chuvas simuladas em Serra Talhada, município do semi-árido do Estado de Pernambuco, sob os seguintes tratamentos: (1 solo descoberto; (2 solo coberto pela cultura do feijão-guandu (Cajanus cajan; (3 solo coberto pela cultura da batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas Lam.; (4 solo coberto por Caatinga semi-arbustiva. Todos os regimes de escoamento superficial obtidos foram laminar lento. As coberturas vegetais proporcionadas pela Caatinga e pelo guandu, que deram origem aos maiores valores de cobertura do solo, responderam pelas menores taxas de concentração de sedimentos e desagregação do solo na erosão em entressulcos, em decorrência da maior rugosidade hidráulica da superfície do solo promovida por essas vegetações. As taxas de concentração de sedimentos no cultivo da batata-doce foram iguais às do solo descoberto, por conta do revolvimento do solo na preparação das leiras de plantio, e determinou as maiores taxas de desagregação do solo entre as coberturas vegetais; em contrapartida, as leiras permitiram retenção do escoamento superficial. As coberturas vegetais Caatinga, guandu e batata-doce e as respectivas rugosidades hidráulicas impostas ao escoamento superficial determinaram reduções exponenciais das perdas de solo. A cobertura

  4. Erosão hídrica em latossolo vermelho sob diversos sistemas de manejo do cafeeiro no Sul de Minas Gerais Water erosion in red latosol under diverse coffee plant management systems at South of Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Carvalho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A erosão hídrica contribui para a redução da sustentabilidade dos sistemas agrícolas. O presente estudo avaliou, sob condições de chuva natural, as perdas de solo, água, nutrientes e matéria orgânica em um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico típico, com 12 % de declividade, localizado na região de Lavras (MG. O trabalho foi conduzido em parcelas experimentais de perdas de solo. Os sistemas de manejo estudados foram: café sob cultivo convencional, com capina manual (CCC; cultivo convencional, com roçado (CCR; cultivo convencional, com utilização de herbicida (CCH; cultivo orgânico, com capina manual (COC; cultivo orgânico, com roçado (COR; e como referência parcela com solo descoberto (SD. Nos sistemas de manejo em que foi mantida a cobertura da vegetação espontânea (roçado, obteve-se maior eficiência de proteção do solo quando comparado aos sistemas onde houve exposição do solo (capina. No sistema com utilização de herbicida, observou-se um comportamento intermediário. Todos os sistemas de manejo estudados se mostraram conservacionistas quanto à proteção do solo em relação à erosão hídrica, onde o espaçamento adensado merece ser enfatizado.Water erosion reduces the sustainability of agricultural systems. The present study evaluated under natural rainfall, the soil, water, nutrients and organic carbon losses in a typic dystroferric Red Latosol, with 12 % slope, located at Lavras region, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The work was conducted in soil losses experimental plots. The studied treatments were: coffee under conventional cultivation with manual weeding (CCC; conventional cultivation with cleared undergrowth (CCR; conventional cultivation with herbicide use (CCH; organic cultivation with manual weeding (COC; organic cultivation with cleared undergrowth (COR; and test plot with bare soil (SD. In the systems where the expontaneous vegetation covers were maintained (cleared undergrowth there was more

  5. Operational safety reliability research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, R.E.; Boccio, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Operating reactor events such as the TMI accident and the Salem automatic-trip failures raised the concern that during a plant's operating lifetime the reliability of systems could degrade from the design level that was considered in the licensing process. To address this concern, NRC is sponsoring the Operational Safety Reliability Research project. The objectives of this project are to identify the essential tasks of a reliability program and to evaluate the effectiveness and attributes of such a reliability program applicable to maintaining an acceptable level of safety during the operating lifetime at the plant

  6. Circuit design for reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Yu; Wirth, Gilson

    2015-01-01

    This book presents physical understanding, modeling and simulation, on-chip characterization, layout solutions, and design techniques that are effective to enhance the reliability of various circuit units.  The authors provide readers with techniques for state of the art and future technologies, ranging from technology modeling, fault detection and analysis, circuit hardening, and reliability management. Provides comprehensive review on various reliability mechanisms at sub-45nm nodes; Describes practical modeling and characterization techniques for reliability; Includes thorough presentation of robust design techniques for major VLSI design units; Promotes physical understanding with first-principle simulations.

  7. Sistemas de manejo de solo e perdas de nutrientes e matéria orgânica por erosão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Hernani

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Perdas de nutrientes e matéria orgânica por erosão hídrica são fortemente influenciadas pelo manejo do solo. O uso de sistema de manejo inadequado pode causar poluição e eutroficação de mananciais, aumentar os custos com adubação e provocar a degradação de agroecossistemas. As perdas de cálcio, magnésio e potássio trocáveis e solúveis, fósforo disponível e matéria orgânica por erosão foram avaliadas, entre 1988 e 1994, em Latossolo Roxo álico epieutrófico muito argiloso, com 0,03 m m-1 de declividade, em Dourados (MS, sob condições de chuva natural, em diferentes sistemas de manejo do solo. Os tratamentos, aplicados na sucessão trigo-soja, foram: (a escarificação + gradagem niveladora, (b gradagem pesada + niveladora; (c plantio direto, e (d aração com arado de discos + duas gradagens niveladoras, sem cobertura vegetal. A enxurrada foi coletada diariamente e, em laboratório, separou-se o sobrenadante (solução do sedimento. O Ca2+, o Mg2+, o K+ e o P disponível foram determinados tanto na solução quanto no sedimento, e a matéria orgânica apenas no sedimento. Concentrações de Ca2+ e Mg2+ foram mais elevadas na solução, enquanto as de P e K+ foram maiores no sedimento. O plantio direto proporcionou a maior concentração média de P no sedimento entre os sistemas estudados; além disso, também resultou em maiores concentrações de Ca2+ em solução e taxa de enriquecimento em P no sedimento, em relação aos sistemas que envolveram preparo e cultivo de trigo-soja. Entretanto, o plantio direto foi o sistema mais eficaz no controle da erosão, perdendo as menores quantidades totais de nutrientes e de matéria orgânica. Dos sistemas que envolveram o cultivo da sucessão trigo-soja, o de gradagens (pesada + niveladora foi o menos eficaz, ficando o sistema de escarificação + gradagem niveladora em posição intermediária. Comparado ao plantio direto, o tratamento com gradagens perdeu cerca de 6,5 vezes

  8. Hawaii Electric System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loose, Verne William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers’ views of reliability “worth” and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers’ views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

  9. Hawaii electric system reliability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Loose, Verne William

    2012-09-01

    This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers' views of reliability %E2%80%9Cworth%E2%80%9D and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers' views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

  10. Improving machinery reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, Heinz P

    1998-01-01

    This totally revised, updated and expanded edition provides proven techniques and procedures that extend machinery life, reduce maintenance costs, and achieve optimum machinery reliability. This essential text clearly describes the reliability improvement and failure avoidance steps practiced by best-of-class process plants in the U.S. and Europe.

  11. LED system reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, W.D. van; Yuan, C.A.; Koh, S.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents our effort to predict the system reliability of Solid State Lighting (SSL) applications. A SSL system is composed of a LED engine with micro-electronic driver(s) that supplies power to the optic design. Knowledge of system level reliability is not only a challenging scientific

  12. Integrated system reliability analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gintautas, Tomas; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    Specific targets: 1) The report shall describe the state of the art of reliability and risk-based assessment of wind turbine components. 2) Development of methodology for reliability and risk-based assessment of the wind turbine at system level. 3) Describe quantitative and qualitative measures...

  13. Reliability of neural encoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrøm, Preben; Beierholm, Ulrik; Nielsen, Carsten Dahl

    2002-01-01

    The reliability with which a neuron is able to create the same firing pattern when presented with the same stimulus is of critical importance to the understanding of neuronal information processing. We show that reliability is closely related to the process of phaselocking. Experimental results f...

  14. Eros e Thanatos em “Tempos Sombrios”: aspectos da teoria pulsional em diálogo com Stefan Zweig e Hannah Arendt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Schlude Wels

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo reflete sobre aspectos ligados à propensão do homem pela destruição e domínio do outro por meio da violência.  Nesse sentido, elencamos reflexões sobre os conceitos psicanalíticos de Eros e Thanatos, além de contribuições do pensamento de Hannah Arendt  (1987; 1995; 1997, sobretudo o conceito de “Banalidade do Mal”;  O mal concretizado pelo nazismo é monstruosamente banal e burocrático, ao mesmo tempo que eficiente e sistemático, levado a cabo por agentes superficiais (LECHTE, 2002.  Buscar-se-á estabelecer um diálogo entre esse arcabouço teórico e três novelas do escritor austríaco Stefan Zweig, ele próprio uma vítima declaradamente pacifista do exílio imposto aos escritores judeus no período da Segunda Guerra:  “A coleção invisível” (2015, [1924], “O Livreiro Mendel” (1999, [1929]  e “Xadrez, uma novela” (2015, [1944] têm a guerra como pano-de-fundo; O presente trabalho objetiva explorar aspectos da chamada “mitologia psicanalítica”, campo definido por Freud como obscuro.  Além do caráter destruidor intrínseco à natureza humana, como postulado nos textos freudianos que abordam a guerra (1916; 1933, [1932], destacamos o protótipo da pulsão de morte: compulsão à repetição e ao retorno do inorgânico, movimento regressivo de retorno a um estado anterior (ROUDINESCO; PLON, 1998.  Ao explorar a teoria das pulsões em seu dualismo Eros/Thanatos, lançamos luzes sobre o que Arendt define como “Tempos sombrios”.

  15. Avaliação dos efeitos do pastoreio sobre a erosão em margens de canal fluvial em sistema de faxinal / Assessment of the grazing efects on the river bank erosion in faxinal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolliver Anderson Dias

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Brasil possui grande quantidade de áreas destinadas a pastagens, de modo que tal atividade influência consideravelmente nos processos geomorfológicos. O presente trabalho buscou avaliar os efeitos do pastoreio na erosão de margens de rio em áreas de Faxinal no município de Guarapuava – PR. Avaliou-se os efeitos do gado sobre os aspectos físicos das margens, bem como, utilizou-se de técnicas volumétricas e de avaliações na geometria do canal para se constatar a influencia do pastoreio sobre a erosão. Observou-se que o gado acelerou significativamente os processos geomorfológicos nas zonas ripárias, portando-se como importante agente modelador da paisagem.

  16. Patrones de diversidad de la fauna de mariposas del Parque Nacional de Cabañeros y su entorno (Ciudad Real, España central (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea, Hesperioidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez-Valverde, A.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Diversity patterns of the butterfly fauna of the Parque Nacional de Cabañeros and its surroundings (Ciudad Real, Central Spain (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea, Hesperioidea The butterfly species richness and faunistic composition in six plots with different land uses and dissimilar environmental diversity is studied in the Parque Nacional de Cabañeros and its surroundings (Ciudad Real, Central Spain. The holm-oak forest is the richest sampling plot, with a butterfly species composition that clearly differs from the rest of more humanized sampling plots. The pine plantation has the lowest values of species richness and abundances, with a faunistic composition quite similar to those of the sampling plots with a dominance of hostile habitats for butterflies (grasslands and crops, so the need to create clearings is emphasised. The importance of environmental diversity in humanized habitats and the need for proper management and conservation of woodlands is stressed in order to conserve butterfly biodiversity

  17. Design reliability engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Hunt, R.N.M.

    1989-01-01

    Improved design techniques are needed to achieve high reliability at minimum cost. This is especially true of space systems where lifetimes of many years without maintenance are needed and severe mass limitations exist. Reliability must be designed into these systems from the start. Techniques are now being explored to structure a formal design process that will be more complete and less expensive. The intent is to integrate the best features of design, reliability analysis, and expert systems to design highly reliable systems to meet stressing needs. Taken into account are the large uncertainties that exist in materials, design models, and fabrication techniques. Expert systems are a convenient method to integrate into the design process a complete definition of all elements that should be considered and an opportunity to integrate the design process with reliability, safety, test engineering, maintenance and operator training. 1 fig

  18. Bayesian methods in reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, P.; Badoux, R.

    1991-11-01

    The present proceedings from a course on Bayesian methods in reliability encompasses Bayesian statistical methods and their computational implementation, models for analyzing censored data from nonrepairable systems, the traits of repairable systems and growth models, the use of expert judgment, and a review of the problem of forecasting software reliability. Specific issues addressed include the use of Bayesian methods to estimate the leak rate of a gas pipeline, approximate analyses under great prior uncertainty, reliability estimation techniques, and a nonhomogeneous Poisson process. Also addressed are the calibration sets and seed variables of expert judgment systems for risk assessment, experimental illustrations of the use of expert judgment for reliability testing, and analyses of the predictive quality of software-reliability growth models such as the Weibull order statistics.

  19. “Ni vecinos ni compañeros: asambleistas” Trayectorias y prácticas políticas en las asambleas de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Triguboff

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available “Ni vecinos ni compañeros: asambleistas” Trayectorias y prácticas políticas en las asambleas de la Ciudad de Buenos AiresTesis de doctorado: Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Universidad de Buenos AiresDirectora: Dra. Mabel GrimbergCo-director: Dr. Juan Manuel Abal MedinaFecha de defensa: 26 de Junio de 2008

  20. Efectos en la percepción del clima motivacional generado por los entrenadores y compañeros sobre la diversión y el compromiso. Diferencias en función de género

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miquel Torregrosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se describe la percepción del clima motivacional generado por el entrenador y por los compañeros en una muestra de deportistas jóvenes y se analizan las diferencias en función del género así como el efecto de los climas motivacionales en la diversión y el compromiso. 121 deportistas con una media de edad de 14.39 años (DE= .96, 39 chicas y 82 chicos completaron las versiones españolas de los instrumentos de clima motivacional promovido por el entrenador, clima motivacional promovido por los compañeros y compromiso deportivo. Los resultados muestran que las chicas perciben climas motivacionales de implicación a la tarea significativamente más altos y de implicación al ego significativamente más bajos que los chicos tanto en el caso del generado por el entrenador como en el caso de los generados por los compañeros. Las deportistas se divierten significativamente más y están igualmente comprometidas con la práctica deportiva que los chicos. el principal predictor del compromiso es la generación de un clima de implicación a la tarea por parte de entrenadores y compañeros. en consecuencia cabría recomendar que los programas de intervención hagan especial hincapié en la generación de climas motivacionales de implicación a la tarea.

  1. Q’eros, Perú: la regeneración de relaciones cosmológicas e identidades específicas a través de la música

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Wissler

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los principales objetivos de la música de la comunidad andina Q’eros es re-generar y re-crear buenas relaciones con el cosmos y con el mundo espiritual en el que cree. En esta ponencia analizo el modo cómo tanto las canciones indígenas de Q’eros como la música y danza que la comunidad ha incorporado recientemente a la peregrinación más grande del Perú -Qoyllurit’i- logran la eficacia del propósito a través de similares técnicas de producción de sonido y estética. Aunque los rasgos específicos de ambos estilos (estructura, escala e instrumentación son significativamente diferentes, yo me ocupo de la forma en que la producción musical de ambos tipos comparte el mismo enfoque y sirve a la misma meta, ya sea que se trate de un ritual íntimo dentro de la comunidad o de uno compartido con miles de otras personas de la gran región. Además, la interpretación de los dos tipos de música sirve como indicador de identidad específica para los q’eros, dependiendo de su uso contextual y la identidad deseada en el momento. Es decir, las elecciones musicales les permiten cambiar de identidad entre la de q’eros tradicionales en su comunidad natal, y la de misti (mestizo en Qoyllurit’i.

  2. Computer-aided reliability and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leicht, R.; Wingender, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    Activities in the fields of reliability and risk analyses have led to the development of particular software tools which now are combined in the PC-based integrated CARARA system. The options available in this system cover a wide range of reliability-oriented tasks, like organizing raw failure data in the component/event data bank FDB, performing statistical analysis of those data with the program FDA, managing the resulting parameters in the reliability data bank RDB, and performing fault tree analysis with the fault tree code FTL or evaluating the risk of toxic or radioactive material release with the STAR code. (orig.)

  3. Assessment of physical server reliability in multi cloud computing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyani, B. J. D.; Rao, Kolasani Ramchand H.

    2018-04-01

    Business organizations nowadays functioning with more than one cloud provider. By spreading cloud deployment across multiple service providers, it creates space for competitive prices that minimize the burden on enterprises spending budget. To assess the software reliability of multi cloud application layered software reliability assessment paradigm is considered with three levels of abstractions application layer, virtualization layer, and server layer. The reliability of each layer is assessed separately and is combined to get the reliability of multi-cloud computing application. In this paper, we focused on how to assess the reliability of server layer with required algorithms and explore the steps in the assessment of server reliability.

  4. Reliability of construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, H.

    1976-01-01

    One can also speak of reliability with respect to materials. While for reliability of components the MTBF (mean time between failures) is regarded as the main criterium, this is replaced with regard to materials by possible failure mechanisms like physical/chemical reaction mechanisms, disturbances of physical or chemical equilibrium, or other interactions or changes of system. The main tasks of the reliability analysis of materials therefore is the prediction of the various failure reasons, the identification of interactions, and the development of nondestructive testing methods. (RW) [de

  5. Structural Reliability Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Madsen, H. O.

    The structural reliability methods quantitatively treat the uncertainty of predicting the behaviour and properties of a structure given the uncertain properties of its geometry, materials, and the actions it is supposed to withstand. This book addresses the probabilistic methods for evaluation...... of structural reliability, including the theoretical basis for these methods. Partial safety factor codes under current practice are briefly introduced and discussed. A probabilistic code format for obtaining a formal reliability evaluation system that catches the most essential features of the nature...... of the uncertainties and their interplay is the developed, step-by-step. The concepts presented are illustrated by numerous examples throughout the text....

  6. Reliability and mechanical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, Maurice

    1997-01-01

    A lot of results in mechanical design are obtained from a modelisation of physical reality and from a numerical solution which would lead to the evaluation of needs and resources. The goal of the reliability analysis is to evaluate the confidence which it is possible to grant to the chosen design through the calculation of a probability of failure linked to the retained scenario. Two types of analysis are proposed: the sensitivity analysis and the reliability analysis. Approximate methods are applicable to problems related to reliability, availability, maintainability and safety (RAMS)

  7. RTE - 2013 Reliability Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    RTE publishes a yearly reliability report based on a standard model to facilitate comparisons and highlight long-term trends. The 2013 report is not only stating the facts of the Significant System Events (ESS), but it moreover underlines the main elements dealing with the reliability of the electrical power system. It highlights the various elements which contribute to present and future reliability and provides an overview of the interaction between the various stakeholders of the Electrical Power System on the scale of the European Interconnected Network. (author)

  8. ERO-TEXTOR. 3D-Monte Carlo code for local impurity-modeling in the scrape-off-layer of TEXTOR. Version 2.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koegler, U.; Winter, J.

    1997-03-01

    The ERO-TEXTOR code is described in detail. The code solves the kinetic equations of impurities in the scrape-off layer of a tokamak plasma in the vicinity of material surfaces like limiters or divertors. A relaxation time ansatz in the traced impurity limit is chosen, taking the gyro-motion of the particles into account. Since the background plasma is slightly non-maxwellian at the plasma edge higher order corrections (thermal forces) to the relaxation time ansatz are also considered. Background plasma parameters are calculated from a simple plasma model, i.e. the one dimensional continuity and momentum equations are used to derive the local electron density, the local flow velocity and the pre-sheath and sheath electric fields. Since these calculations are not done in a selfconsistent way, the measured values of electron density and temperature are used as basic input to derive the dependency of these quantities. The regarded magnetic topology is still straight and uniform. Also detailed account is given to the plasma surface interaction and the erosion/deposition processes. A linear differential equation model for multi species impact on a material surface has been developed and is used in a discrete time step approximation. External databases include the ionization rates for atomic species, molecular processes of methane and silane molecules and the sputtering and reflection yields, which are taken from binary collision calculation codes (e.g. TRIM) or from semi-empirical fits (e.g. the Bodhansky and Yamamura fits). (orig.)

  9. Precise and Fast Computation of the Gravitational Field of a General Finite Body and Its Application to the Gravitational Study of Asteroid Eros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    In order to obtain the gravitational field of a general finite body inside its Brillouin sphere, we developed a new method to compute the field accurately. First, the body is assumed to consist of some layers in a certain spherical polar coordinate system and the volume mass density of each layer is expanded as a Maclaurin series of the radial coordinate. Second, the line integral with respect to the radial coordinate is analytically evaluated in a closed form. Third, the resulting surface integrals are numerically integrated by the split quadrature method using the double exponential rule. Finally, the associated gravitational acceleration vector is obtained by numerically differentiating the numerically integrated potential. Numerical experiments confirmed that the new method is capable of computing the gravitational field independently of the location of the evaluation point, namely whether inside, on the surface of, or outside the body. It can also provide sufficiently precise field values, say of 14–15 digits for the potential and of 9–10 digits for the acceleration. Furthermore, its computational efficiency is better than that of the polyhedron approximation. This is because the computational error of the new method decreases much faster than that of the polyhedron models when the number of required transcendental function calls increases. As an application, we obtained the gravitational field of 433 Eros from its shape model expressed as the 24 × 24 spherical harmonic expansion by assuming homogeneity of the object.

  10. Las estructuras de Emilio Pérez Piñero en la musealización de dos espacios singulares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Carmen Pérez Almagro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A principios de la década de los 70 del pasado siglo XX, el arquitecto español Emilio Pérez Piñero realiza dos estructuras para cubrir dos espacios museográficos que perduran hasta el presente como hitos de la musealización del patrimonio histórico-artístico español. Se trata de la Cúpula reticular poliédrica F-12 para el Teatro-Museo Dalí de Figueres (Girona y de la Cubierta para la Necrópolis Paleocristiana de Tarragona. Ambas obras se realizan como consecuencia de dos encargos oficiales del Ministerio de la Vivienda y del Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia, respectivamente. Por la prematura muerte del arquitecto, su hermano José María es quien finaliza el montaje de las estructuras, que pasan a ser iconos actuales de la arquitectura estructural utilizada para la musealización y la conservación del patrimonio.

  11. Regulación de la afectividad en el ámbito laboral: validez de las escalas de heteroregulación EROS y EIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia da Costaa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Una muestra de trabajadores y estudiantes de máster organizacional de dos universidades españolas respondió a las escalas de regulación interpersonal EROS y EIM, una sub-escala del test de inteligencia emocional MSCEIT, una escala de creatividad emocional, de auto-regulación, MARS, así como a la percepción de ajuste emocional después de episodios laborales estresantes. Todas mostraron en general fiabilidades satisfactorias. Un análisis factorial confirmatorio encontró que las dimensiones postuladas se adaptaban bien al perfil de datos. También confirmaron su validez de constructo. Las formas de hetero-regulación de mejora de las emociones de los demás, la alta modificación de la situación, la reevaluación cognitiva y la baja supresión y expresión emocional se asociaron al manejo de emociones evaluados por el MSCEIT, a la creatividad emocional y a formas de auto-regulación adaptativa. Se discuten los resultados en relación a la validez de constructo de las dimensiones de regulación interpersonal y a sus implicaciones para un clima emocional laboral positivo.

  12. Precise and Fast Computation of the Gravitational Field of a General Finite Body and Its Application to the Gravitational Study of Asteroid Eros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukushima, Toshio, E-mail: Toshio.Fukushima@nao.ac.jp [National Astronomical Observatory/SOKENDAI, Ohsawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2017-10-01

    In order to obtain the gravitational field of a general finite body inside its Brillouin sphere, we developed a new method to compute the field accurately. First, the body is assumed to consist of some layers in a certain spherical polar coordinate system and the volume mass density of each layer is expanded as a Maclaurin series of the radial coordinate. Second, the line integral with respect to the radial coordinate is analytically evaluated in a closed form. Third, the resulting surface integrals are numerically integrated by the split quadrature method using the double exponential rule. Finally, the associated gravitational acceleration vector is obtained by numerically differentiating the numerically integrated potential. Numerical experiments confirmed that the new method is capable of computing the gravitational field independently of the location of the evaluation point, namely whether inside, on the surface of, or outside the body. It can also provide sufficiently precise field values, say of 14–15 digits for the potential and of 9–10 digits for the acceleration. Furthermore, its computational efficiency is better than that of the polyhedron approximation. This is because the computational error of the new method decreases much faster than that of the polyhedron models when the number of required transcendental function calls increases. As an application, we obtained the gravitational field of 433 Eros from its shape model expressed as the 24 × 24 spherical harmonic expansion by assuming homogeneity of the object.

  13. L’immagine onirica come ‘feticcio’ dell’Eros. Uno sguardo sulla lirica del Rinascimento, tra Italia e Spagna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Acucella

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The theme of the dream of the beloved, object of special interest by the Spanish studies (Palley 1983; Maurier 1990, Alatorre 2003, links Iberian poets of the Siglo de Oro to Italian Petrarchist poetry, often through direct textual subsidiaries, both at a level of inventio and elocutio. The purpose of this study is to examine some cases in which the Petrarchist poetry, between Italy and Spain, expresses the dialectic between the desire for the real but coy and unattainable woman, and his dream ghost, more complacent and comforting. This research particularly focuses on the relationship between Eros and memory of the beloved woman body, the concept of the dream as deception, new for the Renaissance. Moreover, it would be pointed out a special cases of imitatio between Tasso and Góngora, in which the dream becomes maker of substitutive image of the beloved. Through a comparative analysis of some texts, the study highlights the constant and the variations with which Petrarchist poetry presents the theme of the dream ghost of beloved. Attention has been paid to the differences with the Petrarch RVF, as well as to the manner of reinventing and reinterpreting the theme of the maestros italianos by Spanish Petrarchism.

  14. ERO and PIC simulations of gross and net erosion of tungsten in the outer strike-point region of ASDEX Upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hakola

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We have modelled net and gross erosion of W in low-density l-mode plasmas in the low-field side strike point region of ASDEX Upgrade by ERO and Particle-in-Cell (PIC simulations. The observed net-erosion peak at the strike point was mainly due to the light impurities present in the plasma while the noticeable net-deposition regions surrounding the erosion maximum could be attributed to the strong E ×B drift and the magnetic field bringing eroded particles from a distance of several meters towards the private flux region. Our results also imply that the role of cross-field diffusion is very small in the studied plasmas. The simulations indicate net/gross erosion ratio of 0.2–0.6, which is in line with the literature data and what was determined spectroscopically. The deviations from the estimates extracted from post-exposure ion-beam-analysis data (∼0.6–0.7 are most likely due to the measured re-deposition patterns showing the outcomes of multiple erosion-deposition cycles.

  15. Approach to reliability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, A.E.; Bourne, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    Experience has shown that reliability assessments can play an important role in the early design and subsequent operation of technological systems where reliability is at a premium. The approaches to and techniques for such assessments, which have been outlined in the paper, have been successfully applied in variety of applications ranging from individual equipments to large and complex systems. The general approach involves the logical and systematic establishment of the purpose, performance requirements and reliability criteria of systems. This is followed by an appraisal of likely system achievment based on the understanding of different types of variational behavior. A fundamental reliability model emerges from the correlation between the appropriate Q and H functions for performance requirement and achievement. This model may cover the complete spectrum of performance behavior in all the system dimensions

  16. The rating reliability calculator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon David J

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rating scales form an important means of gathering evaluation data. Since important decisions are often based on these evaluations, determining the reliability of rating data can be critical. Most commonly used methods of estimating reliability require a complete set of ratings i.e. every subject being rated must be rated by each judge. Over fifty years ago Ebel described an algorithm for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data. While his article has been widely cited over the years, software based on the algorithm is not readily available. This paper describes an easy-to-use Web-based utility for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data using Ebel's algorithm. Methods The program is available public use on our server and the source code is freely available under GNU General Public License. The utility is written in PHP, a common open source imbedded scripting language. The rating data can be entered in a convenient format on the user's personal computer that the program will upload to the server for calculating the reliability and other statistics describing the ratings. Results When the program is run it displays the reliability, number of subject rated, harmonic mean number of judges rating each subject, the mean and standard deviation of the averaged ratings per subject. The program also displays the mean, standard deviation and number of ratings for each subject rated. Additionally the program will estimate the reliability of an average of a number of ratings for each subject via the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula. Conclusion This simple web-based program provides a convenient means of estimating the reliability of rating data without the need to conduct special studies in order to provide complete rating data. I would welcome other researchers revising and enhancing the program.

  17. Structural systems reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frangopol, D.

    1975-01-01

    For an exact evaluation of the reliability of a structure it appears necessary to determine the distribution densities of the loads and resistances and to calculate the correlation coefficients between loads and between resistances. These statistical characteristics can be obtained only on the basis of a long activity period. In case that such studies are missing the statistical properties formulated here give upper and lower bounds of the reliability. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Reliability and maintainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Several communications in this conference are concerned with nuclear plant reliability and maintainability; their titles are: maintenance optimization of stand-by Diesels of 900 MW nuclear power plants; CLAIRE: an event-based simulation tool for software testing; reliability as one important issue within the periodic safety review of nuclear power plants; design of nuclear building ventilation by the means of functional analysis; operation characteristic analysis for a power industry plant park, as a function of influence parameters

  19. Reliability data book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bento, J.P.; Boerje, S.; Ericsson, G.; Hasler, A.; Lyden, C.O.; Wallin, L.; Poern, K.; Aakerlund, O.

    1985-01-01

    The main objective for the report is to improve failure data for reliability calculations as parts of safety analyses for Swedish nuclear power plants. The work is based primarily on evaluations of failure reports as well as information provided by the operation and maintenance staff of each plant. In the report are presented charts of reliability data for: pumps, valves, control rods/rod drives, electrical components, and instruments. (L.E.)

  20. Multidisciplinary System Reliability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Sankaran; Han, Song; Chamis, Christos C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a new methodology for estimating the reliability of engineering systems that encompass multiple disciplines. The methodology is formulated in the context of the NESSUS probabilistic structural analysis code, developed under the leadership of NASA Glenn Research Center. The NESSUS code has been successfully applied to the reliability estimation of a variety of structural engineering systems. This study examines whether the features of NESSUS could be used to investigate the reliability of systems in other disciplines such as heat transfer, fluid mechanics, electrical circuits etc., without considerable programming effort specific to each discipline. In this study, the mechanical equivalence between system behavior models in different disciplines are investigated to achieve this objective. A new methodology is presented for the analysis of heat transfer, fluid flow, and electrical circuit problems using the structural analysis routines within NESSUS, by utilizing the equivalence between the computational quantities in different disciplines. This technique is integrated with the fast probability integration and system reliability techniques within the NESSUS code, to successfully compute the system reliability of multidisciplinary systems. Traditional as well as progressive failure analysis methods for system reliability estimation are demonstrated, through a numerical example of a heat exchanger system involving failure modes in structural, heat transfer and fluid flow disciplines.

  1. Analysis and Application of Reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hae Seong; Park, Dong Ho; Kim, Jae Ju

    1999-05-01

    This book tells of analysis and application of reliability, which includes definition, importance and historical background of reliability, function of reliability and failure rate, life distribution and assumption of reliability, reliability of unrepaired system, reliability of repairable system, sampling test of reliability, failure analysis like failure analysis by FEMA and FTA, and cases, accelerated life testing such as basic conception, acceleration and acceleration factor, and analysis of accelerated life testing data, maintenance policy about alternation and inspection.

  2. The Use of Questionnaires in Safety Culture Studies in High Reliability Organizations. Literature Review and an Application in the Spanish Nuclear Sector; El Uso de Cuestionarios en Estudios de Cultura de Seguridad en Organizaciones de Alta Fiabilidad. Revision de la Literatura y una Aplicacion en el Sector Nuclear Espanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, S.; Navajas, J.; Silla, I.

    2014-07-01

    This report examines two aspects related to the use of questionnaires in safety culture research conducted in high reliability organizations. First, a literature review of recent studies that address safety culture through questionnaires is presented. Literature review showed that most studies used only questionnaires as a research technique, were cross-sectional, applied paper-based questionnaires, and were conducted in one type of high reliability organization. Second, a research project on safety culture that used electronic surveys in a sample of experts on safety culture is discussed. This project, developed by CISOT-CIEMAT research institute, was carry out in the Spanish nuclear sector and illustrates relevant aspects of the methodological design and administration processes that must be considered to encourage participation in the study.. (Author)

  3. O empobrecimento causado pela erosão e pela cultura algodoeira no solo do arenito Bauru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Grohmann

    1949-01-01

    Full Text Available The empovrishment of the soil brought about by erosion and cultivation of cotton has been studied in experimental plots where catch tanks were employed to collect soil removed by erosion. These tests have been carried out by the Soil Conservation Department at the Experiment Station of the Instituto Agronômico of Campinas, in Pindorama, and on the "Arenito Bauru" soil type representative of the region. Actually sixty percent of all coffee and eighty percent of all cotton cultivation in the State of São Paulo is on the "Arenito Bauru" soil type. Thus the data collected, although preliminary, are of great interest, and indicate that the empovrishment of the "Arenito Bauru" soil by erosion is extremely rapid. It is also pointed out that the "Arenito Bauru" soils are the most highly erodable of all soil types in the State of São Paulo. A chemical analysis was made of representative samples of the original soils in the experimental plots and of samples of soil carried in the runoff, for the purpose of determining the losses due to erosion. It has been determined that the soil transported in the runoff is proportionally very much richer in mineral elements than was the original soil. The data obtained from analysis of samples showed that soil eroded from the experimental plots contained 2.0 times as much organic material, 2.8 times as much P2O5 ; 2.3 times as much K2O, and 1.9 times as much CaO, as was determined present in the samples obtained from the original soil of the experimental plots. In the runoff water it has determined that calcium was present in larger quantities than other elements. On the basis of data obtained from the experimental plots with cotton cultivation, an evaluation and comparison was made of the amount of mineral elements lost by erosion and the amount used by the cotton crop. It was found that the empovrishment of the soil by loss of organic material and chemical elements was due more to erosion than to utilization of

  4. Safety and reliability criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neil, R.

    1978-01-01

    Nuclear power plants and, in particular, reactor pressure boundary components have unique reliability requirements, in that usually no significant redundancy is possible, and a single failure can give rise to possible widespread core damage and fission product release. Reliability may be required for availability or safety reasons, but in the case of the pressure boundary and certain other systems safety may dominate. Possible Safety and Reliability (S and R) criteria are proposed which would produce acceptable reactor design. Without some S and R requirement the designer has no way of knowing how far he must go in analysing his system or component, or whether his proposed solution is likely to gain acceptance. The paper shows how reliability targets for given components and systems can be individually considered against the derived S and R criteria at the design and construction stage. Since in the case of nuclear pressure boundary components there is often very little direct experience on which to base reliability studies, relevant non-nuclear experience is examined. (author)

  5. Proposed reliability cost model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delionback, L. M.

    1973-01-01

    The research investigations which were involved in the study include: cost analysis/allocation, reliability and product assurance, forecasting methodology, systems analysis, and model-building. This is a classic example of an interdisciplinary problem, since the model-building requirements include the need for understanding and communication between technical disciplines on one hand, and the financial/accounting skill categories on the other. The systems approach is utilized within this context to establish a clearer and more objective relationship between reliability assurance and the subcategories (or subelements) that provide, or reenforce, the reliability assurance for a system. Subcategories are further subdivided as illustrated by a tree diagram. The reliability assurance elements can be seen to be potential alternative strategies, or approaches, depending on the specific goals/objectives of the trade studies. The scope was limited to the establishment of a proposed reliability cost-model format. The model format/approach is dependent upon the use of a series of subsystem-oriented CER's and sometimes possible CTR's, in devising a suitable cost-effective policy.

  6. Reliability Centered Maintenance - Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, Catherine C.

    2009-01-01

    Journal article about Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) methodologies used by United Space Alliance, LLC (USA) in support of the Space Shuttle Program at Kennedy Space Center. The USA Reliability Centered Maintenance program differs from traditional RCM programs because various methodologies are utilized to take advantage of their respective strengths for each application. Based on operational experience, USA has customized the traditional RCM methodology into a streamlined lean logic path and has implemented the use of statistical tools to drive the process. USA RCM has integrated many of the L6S tools into both RCM methodologies. The tools utilized in the Measure, Analyze, and Improve phases of a Lean Six Sigma project lend themselves to application in the RCM process. All USA RCM methodologies meet the requirements defined in SAE JA 1011, Evaluation Criteria for Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) Processes. The proposed article explores these methodologies.

  7. Issues in cognitive reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, D.D.; Hitchler, M.J.; Rumancik, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter examines some problems in current methods to assess reactor operator reliability at cognitive tasks and discusses new approaches to solve these problems. The two types of human failures are errors in the execution of an intention and errors in the formation/selection of an intention. Topics considered include the types of description, error correction, cognitive performance and response time, the speed-accuracy tradeoff function, function based task analysis, and cognitive task analysis. One problem of human reliability analysis (HRA) techniques in general is the question of what are the units of behavior whose reliability are to be determined. A second problem for HRA is that people often detect and correct their errors. The use of function based analysis, which maps the problem space for plant control, is recommended

  8. Reliability issues in PACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Ricky K.; Chan, Kelby K.; Stewart, Brent K.; Weinberg, Wolfram S.

    1991-07-01

    Reliability is an increasing concern when moving PACS from the experimental laboratory to the clinical environment. Any system downtime may seriously affect patient care. The authors report on the several classes of errors encountered during the pre-clinical release of the PACS during the past several months and present the solutions implemented to handle them. The reliability issues discussed include: (1) environmental precautions, (2) database backups, (3) monitor routines of critical resources and processes, (4) hardware redundancy (networks, archives), and (5) development of a PACS quality control program.

  9. Reliability Parts Derating Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    226-30, October 1974. 66 I, 26. "Reliability of GAAS Injection Lasers", De Loach , B. C., Jr., 1973 IEEE/OSA Conference on Laser Engineering and...Vol. R-23, No. 4, 226-30, October 1974. 28. "Reliability of GAAS Injection Lasers", De Loach , B. C., Jr., 1973 IEEE/OSA Conference on Laser...opnatien ot 󈨊 deg C, mounted on a 4-inach square 0.250~ inch thick al~loy alum~nusi panel.. This mounting technique should be L~ ken into cunoidur~tiou

  10. A comparison of Percutaneous femoral access in Endovascular Repair versus Open femoral access (PiERO): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierhout, Bastiaan P; Saleem, Ben R; Ott, Alewijn; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; de Kempenaer, Ties D van Andringa; Pierie, Maurice E N; Bottema, Jan T; Zeebregts, Clark J

    2015-09-14

    Access for endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (EVAR) is obtained through surgical cutdown or percutaneously. The only devices suitable for percutaneous closure of the 20 French arteriotomies of the common femoral artery (CFA) are the Prostar(™) and Proglide(™) devices (Abbott Vascular). Positive effects of these devices seem to consist of a lower infection rate, and shorter operation time and hospital stay. This conclusion was published in previous reports comparing techniques in patients in two different groups (cohort or randomized). Access techniques were never compared in one and the same patient; this research simplifies comparison because patient characteristics will be similar in both groups. Percutaneous access of the CFA is compared to surgical cutdown in a single patient; in EVAR surgery, access is necessary in both groins in each patient. Randomization is performed on the introduction site of the larger main device of the endoprosthesis. The contralateral device of the endoprosthesis is smaller. When we use this type of randomization, both groups will contain a similar number of main and contralateral devices. Preoperative nose cultures and perineal cultures are obtained, to compare colonization with postoperative wound cultures (in case of a surgical site infection). Furthermore, patient comfort will be considered, using VAS-scores (Visual analog scale). Punch biopsies of the groin will be harvested to retrospectively compare skin of patients who suffered a surgical site infection (SSI) to patients who did not have an SSI. The PiERO trial is a multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial designed to show the consequences of using percutaneous access in EVAR surgery and focuses on the occurrence of surgical site infections. NTR4257 10 November 2013, NL44578.042.13.

  11. Columbus safety and reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, F.; Wessels, H.

    1988-10-01

    Analyses carried out to ensure Columbus reliability, availability, and maintainability, and operational and design safety are summarized. Failure modes/effects/criticality is the main qualitative tool used. The main aspects studied are fault tolerance, hazard consequence control, risk minimization, human error effects, restorability, and safe-life design.

  12. Reliability versus reproducibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautzenheiser, C.E.

    1976-01-01

    Defect detection and reproducibility of results are two separate but closely related subjects. It is axiomatic that a defect must be detected from examination to examination or reproducibility of results is very poor. On the other hand, a defect can be detected on each of subsequent examinations for higher reliability and still have poor reproducibility of results

  13. Power transformer reliability modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.

    2010-01-01

    Problem description Electrical power grids serve to transport and distribute electrical power with high reliability and availability at acceptable costs and risks. These grids play a crucial though preferably invisible role in supplying sufficient power in a convenient form. Today’s society has

  14. Designing reliability into accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, A.

    1992-08-01

    For the next generation of high performance, high average luminosity colliders, the ''factories,'' reliability engineering must be introduced right at the inception of the project and maintained as a central theme throughout the project. There are several aspects which will be addressed separately: Concept; design; motivation; management techniques; and fault diagnosis

  15. Proof tests on reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, Yoshitsugu

    1983-01-01

    In order to obtain public understanding on nuclear power plants, tests should be carried out to prove the reliability and safety of present LWR plants. For example, the aseismicity of nuclear power plants must be verified by using a large scale earthquake simulator. Reliability test began in fiscal 1975, and the proof tests on steam generators and on PWR support and flexure pins against stress corrosion cracking have already been completed, and the results have been internationally highly appreciated. The capacity factor of the nuclear power plant operation in Japan rose to 80% in the summer of 1983, and considering the period of regular inspection, it means the operation of almost full capacity. Japanese LWR technology has now risen to the top place in the world after having overcome the defects. The significance of the reliability test is to secure the functioning till the age limit is reached, to confirm the correct forecast of deteriorating process, to confirm the effectiveness of the remedy to defects and to confirm the accuracy of predicting the behavior of facilities. The reliability of nuclear valves, fuel assemblies, the heat affected zones in welding, reactor cooling pumps and electric instruments has been tested or is being tested. (Kako, I.)

  16. Reliability and code level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasperski, M.; Geurts, C.P.W.

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the work of the IAWE Working Group WBG - Reliability and Code Level, one of the International Codification Working Groups set up at ICWE10 in Copenhagen. The following topics are covered: sources of uncertainties in the design wind load, appropriate design target values for the

  17. Reliability of Plastic Slabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    1989-01-01

    In the paper it is shown how upper and lower bounds for the reliability of plastic slabs can be determined. For the fundamental case it is shown that optimal bounds of a deterministic and a stochastic analysis are obtained on the basis of the same failure mechanisms and the same stress fields....

  18. Reliability based structural design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    According to ISO 2394, structures shall be designed, constructed and maintained in such a way that they are suited for their use during the design working life in an economic way. To fulfil this requirement one needs insight into the risk and reliability under expected and non-expected actions. A

  19. Travel time reliability modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This report includes three papers as follows: : 1. Guo F., Rakha H., and Park S. (2010), "A Multi-state Travel Time Reliability Model," : Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, n 2188, : pp. 46-54. : 2. Park S.,...

  20. Reliability and Model Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Leanne M.; Edwards, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the distinction between the reliability of test scores and the fit of psychometric measurement models, reminding readers why it is important to consider both when evaluating whether test scores are valid for a proposed interpretation and/or use. It is often the case that an investigator judges both the…

  1. Parametric Mass Reliability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, James P.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) systems are designed based upon having redundant systems with replaceable orbital replacement units (ORUs). These ORUs are designed to be swapped out fairly quickly, but some are very large, and some are made up of many components. When an ORU fails, it is replaced on orbit with a spare; the failed unit is sometimes returned to Earth to be serviced and re-launched. Such a system is not feasible for a 500+ day long-duration mission beyond low Earth orbit. The components that make up these ORUs have mixed reliabilities. Components that make up the most mass-such as computer housings, pump casings, and the silicon board of PCBs-typically are the most reliable. Meanwhile components that tend to fail the earliest-such as seals or gaskets-typically have a small mass. To better understand the problem, my project is to create a parametric model that relates both the mass of ORUs to reliability, as well as the mass of ORU subcomponents to reliability.

  2. Reliability Approach of a Compressor System using Reliability Block ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... This paper presents a reliability analysis of such a system using reliability ... Keywords-compressor system, reliability, reliability block diagram, RBD .... the same structure has been kept with the three subsystems: air flow, oil flow and .... and Safety in Engineering Design", Springer, 2009. [3] P. O'Connor ...

  3. Perfil sociodemográfico de las mujeres afectadas por violencia del compañero íntimo en España Sociodemographic profile of women affected by intimate partner violence in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Vives-Cases

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de la violencia del compañero íntimo declarada y analizar sus principales características sociodemográficas. Métodos: Estudio transversal basado en la Encuesta Nacional de Salud de España de 2006 (ENS-06. La muestra son las 13.094 mujeres dispuestas a responder preguntas sobre malos tratos (87,2% del total de las encuestadas. Se realizó un análisis bivariado y multivariado, siendo la variable dependiente la violencia del compañero íntimo declarada y las independientes el nivel de estudios, el empleo, el estado civil, la situación de convivencia con la pareja o análogo, el número de menores en el hogar, el país de origen (españolas frente a extranjeras y la edad. Resultados: La violencia del compañero íntimo es reconocida por un 1% (n=128 de la muestra. La violencia declarada se asocia con tener estudios primarios o no tener estudios (odds ratio [OR]: 3,63 [1,90-6,92], tres o más menores (OR: 3,51 [1,78-6,90] y estar separada o divorciada (OR: 2,81 [1,89-4,97], una vez controlado el efecto del resto de las variables. La violencia del compañero íntimo declarada es mayor entre las mujeres nacidas fuera de España (OR: 2,83 [1,87-4,28]. Conclusiones: La violencia del compañero íntimo parece manifestarse de manera desigual entre las mujeres españolas y las extranjeras. El nivel educativo, el número de menores en el hogar y el estado civil son las características que más se asocian a la violencia declarada por las mujeres. Sería pertinente reflexionar sobre la sensibilidad de las medidas existentes contra la violencia del compañero íntimo en relación a las necesidades de las mujeres afectadas.Objective: To determine the prevalence of reported intimate partner violence (IPV and to analyze the main sociodemographic characteristics of affected women. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study based on the Spanish National Health Survey of 2006. The sample comprised 13,094 women who

  4. Reliability in the utility computing era: Towards reliable Fog computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Burtschy, Bernard; Albeanu, G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers current paradigms in computing and outlines the most important aspects concerning their reliability. The Fog computing paradigm as a non-trivial extension of the Cloud is considered and the reliability of the networks of smart devices are discussed. Combining the reliability...... requirements of grid and cloud paradigms with the reliability requirements of networks of sensor and actuators it follows that designing a reliable Fog computing platform is feasible....

  5. Demonstration of reliability centered maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwan, C.A.; Morgan, T.A.

    1991-04-01

    Reliability centered maintenance (RCM) is an approach to preventive maintenance planning and evaluation that has been used successfully by other industries, most notably the airlines and military. Now EPRI is demonstrating RCM in the commercial nuclear power industry. Just completed are large-scale, two-year demonstrations at Rochester Gas ampersand Electric (Ginna Nuclear Power Station) and Southern California Edison (San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station). Both demonstrations were begun in the spring of 1988. At each plant, RCM was performed on 12 to 21 major systems. Both demonstrations determined that RCM is an appropriate means to optimize a PM program and improve nuclear plant preventive maintenance on a large scale. Such favorable results had been suggested by three earlier EPRI pilot studies at Florida Power ampersand Light, Duke Power, and Southern California Edison. EPRI selected the Ginna and San Onofre sites because, together, they represent a broad range of utility and plant size, plant organization, plant age, and histories of availability and reliability. Significant steps in each demonstration included: selecting and prioritizing plant systems for RCM evaluation; performing the RCM evaluation steps on selected systems; evaluating the RCM recommendations by a multi-disciplinary task force; implementing the RCM recommendations; establishing a system to track and verify the RCM benefits; and establishing procedures to update the RCM bases and recommendations with time (a living program). 7 refs., 1 tab

  6. Organ dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, Dean C.; Egbert, Stephen D.; Otis, Mark D.; Kuhn, Thomas; Kerr, George D.; Eckerman, Keith F.; Cristy, Mark; Ryman, Jeffrey C.; Tang, Jabo S.; Maruyama, Takashi

    1987-01-01

    This chapter describes the technical approach, complicating factors, and sensitivities and uncertainties of calculations of doses to the organs of the A-bomb survivors. It is the object of the effort so described to provide data that enables the dosimetry system to determine the fluence, kerma, absorbed dose, and similar quantities in 14 organs and the fetus, specified as being of radiobiological interest. This object was accomplished through the use of adjoint Monte Carlo computations, which use a number of random particle histories to determine the relationship of incident neutrons and gamma rays to those transported to a target organ. The system uses these histories to correlate externally-incident energy- and angle-differential fluences with the fluence spectrum (energy differential only) within the target organ. In order for the system to work in the most efficient manner possible, two levels of data were provided. The first level, represented by approximately 6,000 random adjoint-particle histories, enables the computation of the fluence spectrum with sufficient precision to provide statistically reliable (± 6 %) mean doses within any given organ. With this limited history inventory, the system can be run rapidly for all survivors. Mean organ dose and dose uncertainty are obtainable in this mode. The second mode of operation enables the system to produce a good approximation to fluence spectrum within any organ or to produce the dose in each of an array of organ subvolumes. To be statistically reliable, this level of detail requires far more random histories, approximately 40,000 per organ. Thus, operation of the dosimetry system in this mode (i.e., with this data set) is intended to be on an as-needed, organ-specific basis, since the system run time is eight times that in the mean dose mode. (author)

  7. RTE - Reliability report 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-06-01

    Every year, RTE produces a reliability report for the past year. This document lays out the main factors that affected the electrical power system's operational reliability in 2016 and the initiatives currently under way intended to ensure its reliability in the future. Within a context of the energy transition, changes to the European interconnected network mean that RTE has to adapt on an on-going basis. These changes include the increase in the share of renewables injecting an intermittent power supply into networks, resulting in a need for flexibility, and a diversification in the numbers of stakeholders operating in the energy sector and changes in the ways in which they behave. These changes are dramatically changing the structure of the power system of tomorrow and the way in which it will operate - particularly the way in which voltage and frequency are controlled, as well as the distribution of flows, the power system's stability, the level of reserves needed to ensure supply-demand balance, network studies, assets' operating and control rules, the tools used and the expertise of operators. The results obtained in 2016 are evidence of a globally satisfactory level of reliability for RTE's operations in somewhat demanding circumstances: more complex supply-demand balance management, cross-border schedules at interconnections indicating operation that is closer to its limits and - most noteworthy - having to manage a cold spell just as several nuclear power plants had been shut down. In a drive to keep pace with the changes expected to occur in these circumstances, RTE implemented numerous initiatives to ensure high levels of reliability: - maintaining investment levels of euro 1.5 billion per year; - increasing cross-zonal capacity at borders with our neighbouring countries, thus bolstering the security of our electricity supply; - implementing new mechanisms (demand response, capacity mechanism, interruptibility, etc.); - involvement in tests or projects

  8. Erosão na cultura do milho em sucessão à aveia preta e pousio descoberto, em preparo convencional e plantio direto, com tração animal e tratorizada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Levien

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Empregando chuva simulada em Argissolo Vermelho distrófico arênico, com declividade média de 0,12 m m-1, avaliou-se a erosão na cultura do milho (Zea mays L. em preparo convencional e plantio direto, utilizando tração animal e tratorizada, antecedida de pousio descoberto e aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schieb no inverno, no período compreendido entre 1994 e 1995. Chuvas simuladas na intensidade de 64 mm h-1 e duração de 60 a 105 min foram aplicadas em quatro épocas: logo após a semeadura, 30 e 60 dias após a emergência e logo após a colheita do milho. A cobertura do solo propiciada pela cultura de inverno foi reduzida em 90% após o preparo convencional, independentemente da forma de tração. As perdas de solo e água medidas durante o desenvolvimento do milho foram sempre maiores sob preparo convencional do que sob plantio direto, independentemente da forma de tração, exceto logo após a colheita, quando a resteva estava uniformemente distribuída na superfície do solo. No preparo convencional, a erosão na cultura do milho foi, na média das formas de tração, 45% menor, quando antecedida de aveia preta no inverno do que quando antecedida de pousio descoberto. Por sua vez, a cultura do milho, por si só, reduziu a erosão em 60%, na média das formas de tração, comparada à do solo descoberto. A forma de tração influenciou a erosão somente no preparo convencional, com a animal apresentando perdas totais de solo 55 e 15% inferiores à tratorizada, respectivamente na cultura do milho e em solo descoberto. A perda de água por enxurrada foi mais afetada pela forma de tração no preparo convencional, totalizando, em média, 44% na animal e 57% na tratorizada, em relação ao volume total de chuva aplicado.

  9. Relações da erosão em entressulcos com o tipo e com a quantidade de resíduo vegetal na superfície do solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Braida

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Os resíduos vegetais na superfície do solo são muito efetivos em dissipar a energia de impacto das gotas de chuva, além de constituírem barreira física ao livre escoamento superficial da água. A presença desses resíduos em contato direto com a superfície do solo pode influenciar, decisivamente, a erosão em entressulcos. Este estudo objetivou avaliar as relações da erosão em entressulcos com a quantidade de resíduo vegetal em cobertura e verificar as diferenças nessas relações para palha de milho e palha de trigo. Um experimento de campo foi instalado no Centro de Pesquisa de Florestas e Conservação do Solo da FEPAGRO, em Santa Maria, RS, em Podzólico Vermelho-Escuro franco-arenoso. As parcelas experimentais mediam 0,50 x 0,75 m, com a maior dimensão no sentido do declive do terreno, que era de 0,17 m m-1, arranjadas em quatro blocos completos ao acaso. Palhas de milho e de trigo, picadas em fragmentos de 7,5 cm, foram distribuídas, nas parcelas, sobre solo recentemente preparado, em quantidades de 0,00, 0,05, 0,10, 0,20, 0,40 e 0,80 kg m-2. Em seguida, foi aplicada uma chuva simulada de intensidade média de 67 mm h-1 e duração de 90 min. As taxas de perdas de solo e água por erosão em entressulcos variaram ao longo da chuva, dependendo da quantidade de resíduo vegetal existente na superfície do solo, porém não foram observadas variações significativas em relação ao tipo de palha. A relação da erosão em entressulcos com a fração do solo coberto (dada em função da quantidade de palha pode ser expressa por meio de uma equação exponencial. Por ser um modelo simples, com medidas de fácil obtenção, sugere-se esse modelo para estimar o subfator cobertura do solo em entressulcos por resíduos em contato direto com a superfície.

  10. Accelerator reliability workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, L; Duru, Ph; Koch, J M; Revol, J L; Van Vaerenbergh, P; Volpe, A M; Clugnet, K; Dely, A; Goodhew, D

    2002-07-01

    About 80 experts attended this workshop, which brought together all accelerator communities: accelerator driven systems, X-ray sources, medical and industrial accelerators, spallation sources projects (American and European), nuclear physics, etc. With newly proposed accelerator applications such as nuclear waste transmutation, replacement of nuclear power plants and others. Reliability has now become a number one priority for accelerator designers. Every part of an accelerator facility from cryogenic systems to data storage via RF systems are concerned by reliability. This aspect is now taken into account in the design/budget phase, especially for projects whose goal is to reach no more than 10 interruptions per year. This document gathers the slides but not the proceedings of the workshop.

  11. Human Reliability Program Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landers, John; Rogers, Erin; Gerke, Gretchen

    2014-05-18

    A Human Reliability Program (HRP) is designed to protect national security as well as worker and public safety by continuously evaluating the reliability of those who have access to sensitive materials, facilities, and programs. Some elements of a site HRP include systematic (1) supervisory reviews, (2) medical and psychological assessments, (3) management evaluations, (4) personnel security reviews, and (4) training of HRP staff and critical positions. Over the years of implementing an HRP, the Department of Energy (DOE) has faced various challenges and overcome obstacles. During this 4-day activity, participants will examine programs that mitigate threats to nuclear security and the insider threat to include HRP, Nuclear Security Culture (NSC) Enhancement, and Employee Assistance Programs. The focus will be to develop an understanding of the need for a systematic HRP and to discuss challenges and best practices associated with mitigating the insider threat.

  12. Reliability and construction control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif S. AbdelSalam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the most reliable and efficient combination of design and construction methods required for vibro piles. For a wide range of static and dynamic formulas, the reliability-based resistance factors were calculated using EGYPT database, which houses load test results for 318 piles. The analysis was extended to introduce a construction control factor that determines the variation between the pile nominal capacities calculated using static versus dynamic formulae. From the major outcomes, the lowest coefficient of variation is associated with Davisson’s criterion, and the resistance factors calculated for the AASHTO method are relatively high compared with other methods. Additionally, the CPT-Nottingham and Schmertmann method provided the most economic design. Recommendations related to a pile construction control factor were also presented, and it was found that utilizing the factor can significantly reduce variations between calculated and actual capacities.

  13. Scyllac equipment reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutscher, W.D.; Johnson, K.J.

    1975-01-01

    Most of the failures in Scyllac can be related to crowbar trigger cable faults. A new cable has been designed, procured, and is currently undergoing evaluation. When the new cable has been proven, it will be worked into the system as quickly as possible without causing too much additional down time. The cable-tip problem may not be easy or even desirable to solve. A tightly fastened permanent connection that maximizes contact area would be more reliable than the plug-in type of connection in use now, but it would make system changes and repairs much more difficult. The balance of the failures have such a low occurrence rate that they do not cause much down time and no major effort is underway to eliminate them. Even though Scyllac was built as an experimental system and has many thousands of components, its reliability is very good. Because of this the experiment has been able to progress at a reasonable pace

  14. Improving Power Converter Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghimire, Pramod; de Vega, Angel Ruiz; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2014-01-01

    of a high-power IGBT module during converter operation, which may play a vital role in improving the reliability of the power converters. The measured voltage is used to estimate the module average junction temperature of the high and low-voltage side of a half-bridge IGBT separately in every fundamental......The real-time junction temperature monitoring of a high-power insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) module is important to increase the overall reliability of power converters for industrial applications. This article proposes a new method to measure the on-state collector?emitter voltage...... is measured in a wind power converter at a low fundamental frequency. To illustrate more, the test method as well as the performance of the measurement circuit are also presented. This measurement is also useful to indicate failure mechanisms such as bond wire lift-off and solder layer degradation...

  15. Accelerator reliability workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, L.; Duru, Ph.; Koch, J.M.; Revol, J.L.; Van Vaerenbergh, P.; Volpe, A.M.; Clugnet, K.; Dely, A.; Goodhew, D.

    2002-01-01

    About 80 experts attended this workshop, which brought together all accelerator communities: accelerator driven systems, X-ray sources, medical and industrial accelerators, spallation sources projects (American and European), nuclear physics, etc. With newly proposed accelerator applications such as nuclear waste transmutation, replacement of nuclear power plants and others. Reliability has now become a number one priority for accelerator designers. Every part of an accelerator facility from cryogenic systems to data storage via RF systems are concerned by reliability. This aspect is now taken into account in the design/budget phase, especially for projects whose goal is to reach no more than 10 interruptions per year. This document gathers the slides but not the proceedings of the workshop

  16. Safety and reliability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This report contains the papers delivered at the course on safety and reliability assessment held at the CSIR Conference Centre, Scientia, Pretoria. The following topics were discussed: safety standards; licensing; biological effects of radiation; what is a PWR; safety principles in the design of a nuclear reactor; radio-release analysis; quality assurance; the staffing, organisation and training for a nuclear power plant project; event trees, fault trees and probability; Automatic Protective Systems; sources of failure-rate data; interpretation of failure data; synthesis and reliability; quantification of human error in man-machine systems; dispersion of noxious substances through the atmosphere; criticality aspects of enrichment and recovery plants; and risk and hazard analysis. Extensive examples are given as well as case studies

  17. 75 FR 56082 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-725E); Comment Request; Submitted for OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... filing formats are available at http://www.ferc.gov/help/submission-guide/electronic-media.asp . To file... the reliability of the interstate grid through the granting of authority to provide for a system of mandatory Reliability Standards developed by the Electric Reliability Organization (ERO). Reliability...

  18. Reliability of Circumplex Axes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micha Strack

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA procedure for computing the reliability of circumplex axes. The tau-equivalent CFA variance decomposition model estimates five variance components: general factor, axes, scale-specificity, block-specificity, and item-specificity. Only the axes variance component is used for reliability estimation. We apply the model to six circumplex types and 13 instruments assessing interpersonal and motivational constructs—Interpersonal Adjective List (IAL, Interpersonal Adjective Scales (revised; IAS-R, Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP, Impact Messages Inventory (IMI, Circumplex Scales of Interpersonal Values (CSIV, Support Action Scale Circumplex (SAS-C, Interaction Problems With Animals (IPI-A, Team Role Circle (TRC, Competing Values Leadership Instrument (CV-LI, Love Styles, Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI, Customer Orientation Circle (COC, and System for Multi-Level Observation of Groups (behavioral adjectives; SYMLOG—in 17 German-speaking samples (29 subsamples, grouped by self-report, other report, and metaperception assessments. The general factor accounted for a proportion ranging from 1% to 48% of the item variance, the axes component for 2% to 30%; and scale specificity for 1% to 28%, respectively. Reliability estimates varied considerably from .13 to .92. An application of the Nunnally and Bernstein formula proposed by Markey, Markey, and Tinsley overestimated axes reliabilities in cases of large-scale specificities but otherwise works effectively. Contemporary circumplex evaluations such as Tracey’s RANDALL are sensitive to the ratio of the axes and scale-specificity components. In contrast, the proposed model isolates both components.

  19. The cost of reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilic, M.

    1998-01-01

    In this article the restructuring process under way in the US power industry is being revisited from the point of view of transmission system provision and reliability was rolled into the average cost of electricity to all, it is not so obvious how is this cost managed in the new industry. A new MIT approach to transmission pricing is here suggested as a possible solution [it

  20. Software reliability studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppa, Mary Ann; Wilson, Larry W.

    1994-01-01

    There are many software reliability models which try to predict future performance of software based on data generated by the debugging process. Our research has shown that by improving the quality of the data one can greatly improve the predictions. We are working on methodologies which control some of the randomness inherent in the standard data generation processes in order to improve the accuracy of predictions. Our contribution is twofold in that we describe an experimental methodology using a data structure called the debugging graph and apply this methodology to assess the robustness of existing models. The debugging graph is used to analyze the effects of various fault recovery orders on the predictive accuracy of several well-known software reliability algorithms. We found that, along a particular debugging path in the graph, the predictive performance of different models can vary greatly. Similarly, just because a model 'fits' a given path's data well does not guarantee that the model would perform well on a different path. Further we observed bug interactions and noted their potential effects on the predictive process. We saw that not only do different faults fail at different rates, but that those rates can be affected by the particular debugging stage at which the rates are evaluated. Based on our experiment, we conjecture that the accuracy of a reliability prediction is affected by the fault recovery order as well as by fault interaction.

  1. Investment in new product reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, D.N.P.; Rausand, M.; Virtanen, S.

    2009-01-01

    Product reliability is of great importance to both manufacturers and customers. Building reliability into a new product is costly, but the consequences of inadequate product reliability can be costlier. This implies that manufacturers need to decide on the optimal investment in new product reliability by achieving a suitable trade-off between the two costs. This paper develops a framework and proposes an approach to help manufacturers decide on the investment in new product reliability.

  2. 77 FR 24189 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-725); Comment Request; Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... of Section 215 of the Federal Power Act (FPA).\\2\\ \\1\\ ``Electric Reliability Organization'' or ``ERO... Reliability Standards for the Bulk-Power System, subject to Commission review. \\2\\ Section 215 was added by... information collection, FERC-725, Certification of Electric Reliability Organization; Procedures for Electric...

  3. Human reliability and human factors in complex organizations: epistemological and critical analysis - practical avenues to action; Fiabilite humaine et facteurs humains dans les organisations complexes: analyse epistemologique et critique voies pratiques pour l`action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llory, A

    1991-08-01

    This article starts out with comment on the existence of persistent problems inherent to probabilistic safety assessments (PSA). It first surveys existing American documents on the subject which make a certain number of criticisms on human reliability analyses, e.g. limitations due to the scant quantities of data available, lack of a basic theoretical model, non-reproducibility of analyses, etc. The article therefore examines and criticizes the epistemological bases of these analyses. One of the fundamental points stressed is that human reliability analyses do not take account of all the special features of the work situation which result in human error (so as to draw up statistical data from a sufficiently representative number of cases), and consequently lose all notion of the `relationships` between human errors and the different aspects of the working environment. The other key points of criticism concern the collective nature of work which is not taken into account, and the frequent confusion between what operatives actually do and their formally prescribed job-tasks. The article proposes aspects to be given thought in order to overcome these difficulties, e.g. quantitative assessment of the social environment within a company, non-linear model for assessment of the accident rate, analysis of stress levels in staff on off-shore platforms. The method approaches used in these three studies are of the same type, and could be transposed to human-reliability problems. The article then goes into greater depth on thinking aimed at developing a `positive` view of the human factor (and not just a `negative` one, i.e. centred on human errors and organizational malfunctions), applying investigation methods developed in the occupational human sciences (occupational psychodynamics, ergonomics, occupational sociology). The importance of operatives working as actors of a team is stressed.

  4. 18 CFR 39.6 - Conflict of a Reliability Standard with a Commission Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Reliability Standard with a Commission Order. 39.6 Section 39.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources..., APPROVAL, AND ENFORCEMENT OF ELECTRIC RELIABILITY STANDARDS § 39.6 Conflict of a Reliability Standard with... Transmission Organization determines that a Reliability Standard may conflict with a function, rule, order...

  5. Magnetism of Minor Bodies in the Solar System: From 433 Eros, passing Braille, Steins, and Lutetia towards Churyumov-Gerasimenko and 1999 JU3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hercik, David; Auster, Hans-Ulrich; Heinisch, Philip; Richter, Ingo; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz

    2015-04-01

    Minor bodies in the solar system, such as asteroids and comets, are important sources of information for our knowledge of the solar system formation. Besides other aspects, estimation of a magnetization state of such bodies might prove important in understanding the early aggregation phases of the protoplanetary disk, showing the level of importance of the magnetic forces in the processes involved. Meteorites' magnetization measurements suggest that primitive bodies consist of magnetized material. However, space observations from various flybys give to date diverse results for a global magnetization estimation. The flybys at Braille and Gaspra indicate possible higher magnetization (~ 10-3 Am2/kg), while flybys at Steins and Lutetia show no significant values in the global field change illustrating low global magnetization. Furthermore, the interpretation of remote (during flybys) measurements is very difficult. For correct estimates on the local magnetization one needs (in the best case) multi-point surface measurements. Single point observation has been done by NEAR-Shoemaker on 433 Eros asteroid, revealing no signature in magnetic field that could have origin in asteroid magnetization. Similar results, no magnetization observed, have been provided by evaluation of recent data from ROMAP (Philae lander) and RPC-MAG (Rosetta orbiter) instruments from comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The ROMAP instrument provided measurements from multiple points of the cometary surface as well as data along ballistic path between multiple touchdowns, which support the conclusion of no global magnetization. However, even in case of the in-situ on surface observations the magnetization estimate has a limiting spatial resolution that is dependent on the distance from the surface (~ 50 cm in case of ROMAP). To get information about possible smaller magnetized grains distribution and magnetization strength, the sensor shall be placed as close as possible to the surface. For such

  6. Efeitos de sistemas de preparo do solo na erosão e na produtividade da acácia-negra (Acacia mearnsii de Wild..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato A. Dedecek

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Os plantios homogêneos de acácia-negra nem sempre são feitos em solos adequados às exigências da espécie, seja pelo valor da terra ou proximidade da indústria. Diferentes sistemas de preparo podem melhorar as condições do solo, evitar problemas de erosão e diminuir custos de implantação. Em áreas de propriedade da TANAGRO S.A e da SETA S.A., nos municípios de Piratini e Butiá, RS, em dois tipos de solos distintos - Neossolo Litólico e Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo, foram testados sistemas de preparo do solo com diferentes níveis de movimentação para plantio de acácia-negra: plantio de mudas em covas e plantio após subsolagens com duas, três e cinco hastes e uso de gradagens. Foram avaliados o crescimento em DAP e altura, anualmente, e produção de biomassa aérea no corte raso. Os solos foram caracterizados química e fisicamente em seus horizontes superficiais. Nas plantas, após sete anos, foram coletadas amostras de discos em seis posições no tronco para avaliação das densidades básicas. Preparo do solo com subsolador de cinco hastes apresentou maiores perdas de solo, que foram mensuráveis apenas até 18 meses após o plantio. Essas perdas de solo são extremamente importantes na sustentabilidade da produção do Neossolo Litólico, composto em 80% de calhaus e cascalho. O preparo reduzido do solo, com a abertura de covas manual e mecanicamente para plantio da acácia negra, não diminuiu o crescimento das plantas em ambos os solos estudados. No entanto, o desenvolvimento inicial das plantas de acácia negra, plantadas em sistema de preparo reduzido, foi mais lento (altura e DAP, defasagem que permaneceu até os 24 meses após o plantio.

  7. Exploitation examination of reliability of coal dust systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dojchinovski, Ilija; Trajkovski, Kole

    1997-01-01

    Designers and operators wish is, long, failure free operation at designed parameters of every system. Always we know the system start up time, but we don't know how long this system will operate successfully. Because of that in this article is given a method how, step by step, to determine the reliability of the system. Reliability parameters are obtained from experimental and operational data. When reliability parameters are determined then it is very easy to compare reliability of similar systems, for example excavators, or different systems, such as truck and rubber band transport system. Practical use of the theory of reliability is by purchasing of the systems when manufacturers have to have and present reliability parameters and on this way we can decide which system satisfies our needs regarding the quality-price-reliability. Reliability can be practically used in system operation where: 1) system reliability is maintained with proper start, use and shutdown of the system; 2) a system reliability is maintained with good maintenance organization; 3) a system reliability is maintained with innovations and improvements with final purpose removing of the imperfections experienced through the operation. Reliability is very important parameter in power generation plants. (Author)

  8. Nuclear performance and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothwell, G.

    1993-01-01

    If fewer forced outages are a sign of improved safety, nuclear power plants have become safer and more productive. There has been a significant improvement in nuclear power plant performance, due largely to a decline in the forced outage rate and a dramatic drop in the average number of forced outages per fuel cycle. If fewer forced outages are a sign of improved safety, nuclear power plants have become safer and more productive over time. To encourage further increases in performance, regulatory incentive schemes should reward reactor operators for improved reliability and safety, as well as for improved performance

  9. [How Reliable is Neuronavigation?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieglitz, Lennart Henning

    2016-02-17

    Neuronavigation plays a central role in modern neurosurgery. It allows visualizing instruments and three-dimensional image data intraoperatively and supports spatial orientation. Thus it allows to reduce surgical risks and speed up complex surgical procedures. The growing availability and importance of neuronavigation makes clear how relevant it is to know about its reliability and accuracy. Different factors may influence the accuracy during the surgery unnoticed, misleading the surgeon. Besides the best possible optimization of the systems themselves, a good knowledge about its weaknesses is mandatory for every neurosurgeon.

  10. The value of reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Karlström, Anders

    2010-01-01

    We derive the value of reliability in the scheduling of an activity of random duration, such as travel under congested conditions. Using a simple formulation of scheduling utility, we show that the maximal expected utility is linear in the mean and standard deviation of trip duration, regardless...... of the form of the standardised distribution of trip durations. This insight provides a unification of the scheduling model and models that include the standard deviation of trip duration directly as an argument in the cost or utility function. The results generalise approximately to the case where the mean...

  11. The Eros of Counter Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzon, Pinhas

    2016-01-01

    Erotic Counter Education (ECE) is the educational position of the late Ilan Gur-Ze'ev. In ECE Gur-Ze'ev combines two opposing positions in the philosophy of education, one teleological and anti-utopian, the other teleological and utopian. In light of this unique combination, I ask what mediates between these two poles and suggest that the answer…

  12. Interactive reliability assessment using an integrated reliability data bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, R.N.; Whitehead, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    The logical structure, techniques and practical application of a computer-aided technique based on a microcomputer using floppy disc Random Access Files is described. This interactive computational technique is efficient if the reliability prediction program is coupled directly to a relevant source of data to create an integrated reliability assessment/reliability data bank system. (DG)

  13. Load Control System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudnowski, Daniel [Montana Tech of the Univ. of Montana, Butte, MT (United States)

    2015-04-03

    This report summarizes the results of the Load Control System Reliability project (DOE Award DE-FC26-06NT42750). The original grant was awarded to Montana Tech April 2006. Follow-on DOE awards and expansions to the project scope occurred August 2007, January 2009, April 2011, and April 2013. In addition to the DOE monies, the project also consisted of matching funds from the states of Montana and Wyoming. Project participants included Montana Tech; the University of Wyoming; Montana State University; NorthWestern Energy, Inc., and MSE. Research focused on two areas: real-time power-system load control methodologies; and, power-system measurement-based stability-assessment operation and control tools. The majority of effort was focused on area 2. Results from the research includes: development of fundamental power-system dynamic concepts, control schemes, and signal-processing algorithms; many papers (including two prize papers) in leading journals and conferences and leadership of IEEE activities; one patent; participation in major actual-system testing in the western North American power system; prototype power-system operation and control software installed and tested at three major North American control centers; and, the incubation of a new commercial-grade operation and control software tool. Work under this grant certainly supported the DOE-OE goals in the area of “Real Time Grid Reliability Management.”

  14. Microprocessor hardware reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, R I

    1982-01-01

    Microprocessor-based technology has had an impact in nearly every area of industrial electronics and many applications have important safety implications. Microprocessors are being used for the monitoring and control of hazardous processes in the chemical, oil and power generation industries, for the control and instrumentation of aircraft and other transport systems and for the control of industrial machinery. Even in the field of nuclear reactor protection, where designers are particularly conservative, microprocessors are used to implement certain safety functions and may play increasingly important roles in protection systems in the future. Where microprocessors are simply replacing conventional hard-wired control and instrumentation systems no new hazards are created by their use. In the field of robotics, however, the microprocessor has opened up a totally new technology and with it has created possible new and as yet unknown hazards. The paper discusses some of the design and manufacturing techniques which may be used to enhance the reliability of microprocessor based systems and examines the available reliability data on lsi/vlsi microcircuits. 12 references.

  15. Supply chain reliability modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Zaitsev

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today it is virtually impossible to operate alone on the international level in the logistics business. This promotes the establishment and development of new integrated business entities - logistic operators. However, such cooperation within a supply chain creates also many problems related to the supply chain reliability as well as the optimization of the supplies planning. The aim of this paper was to develop and formulate the mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Methods: The mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies were developed and formulated by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Results and conclusions: The problem of ensuring failure-free performance of goods supply channel analyzed in the paper is characteristic of distributed network systems that make active use of business process outsourcing technologies. The complex planning problem occurring in such systems that requires taking into account the consumer's requirements for failure-free performance in terms of supply volumes and correctness can be reduced to a relatively simple linear programming problem through logical analysis of the structures. The sequence of the operations, which should be taken into account during the process of the supply planning with the supplier's functional reliability, was presented.

  16. Propriedades físicas e químicas de cobertura superficial em encosta com erosão em túneis, Guarapuava (PR / Physical and chemical properties of surface coverage in hillslope with tunnel erosion, Guarapuava (PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Barbosa Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumoEm baixa encosta, a margem direita do rio das Pombas em Guarapuava (Paraná, foram identificados processos de erosão em túneis (pipes. Tratam-se de processos subsuperficiais de erosão que apresentam feições típicas, tais como, subsidência do teto do túnel e estruturas de abatimento, que tendem a evoluir para feições superficiais. Procurou-se com o presente trabalho reconhecer as propriedades físicas e químicas da encosta que apresenta o processo de erosão em túneis, com ênfase à textura, macroporosidade, densidade, porosidade e mineralogia de argilas. Foram realizadas análises granulométricas, de densidade aparente, real e porosidade total e análises químicas de difração de raios-X. Os resultados indicaram que o material que recobre o setor de baixa encosta, onde aparecem os túneis, apresenta textura arenosa devido às propriedades de microagregação gerada pelo argilomineral gibbsita, deixando o material com porosidade alta, favorecendo assim a circulação de água em subsuperfície. Os fluxos gerados tendem a ser exfiltrados para uma superfície de exposição, o que provoca a remoção de pequenas partículas de material (erosão por vazamento. Com a abertura de pequenos canais em subsuperfície, os fluxos tendem a se concentrar (escoamento por túnel e consequentemente ampliar os canais subsuperficiais pela ação mecânica da água. As características físicas e químicas encontradas na baixa encosta demonstram que a cobertura superficial é determinante para a instalação da erosão subsuperficial em túneis na área.AbstractIn lower hillslope, on the right bank of rio das Pombas, Paraná state, processes of tunnel erosion (pipes were identified. These are subsuperficial erosion processes with typical features, such as subsidence of the tunnel roof and rebate structures, which tend to evolve to superficial features. With emphasis on texture, macroporosity, bulk density, porosity and clay mineralogy, this

  17. Erosão hídrica pós-plantio em florestas de eucalipto na bacia do rio Paraná, no leste do Mato Grosso do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Moreira Cândido

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nas regiões tropicais, o desgaste provocado no solo por ação das águas da chuva, ou seja, a erosão hídrica é a mais importante forma de degradação do solo. Visto que os plantios florestais de eucalipto estão inseridos em ecossistemas sensíveis às perturbações antrópicas em razão de ocorrência de plantações em solos com baixos teores de argila, com baixa fertilidade natural e grande parte das plantações estabelecidas em antigas áreas agrícolas e de pastagens degradadas, surge a necessidade do entendimento dos processos que regem a erosão hídrica e suas relações com as perdas de solo e água nos sistemas florestais. Objetivaram-se com este trabalho calcular os valores de erosividade da chuva (fator R - EI30, estimar a tolerância de perda de solo (T para as classes representativas nas áreas de estudo, avaliar as perdas de solo e água por erosão hídrica e verificar a influência, por meio de análise de componentes principais (ACP, de atributos físicos e matéria orgânica do solo sobre a erosão hídrica em florestas de eucalipto no estádio de pós-plantio. Os tratamentos constituíram de diferentes sistemas de manejo dos resíduos e da disposição de plantio (nível e desnível, em dois biomas distintos, Cerrado e Floresta, e solo descoberto. Os solos foram classificados como Latossolo Vermelho distrófico típico textura média-alta fase floresta (LVd1 e Latossolo Vermelho distrófico típico textura média-baixa fase cerrado (LVd2. O estudo foi realizado em áreas experimentais de plantio de eucalipto localizadas no município de Três Lagoas, na bacia do Rio Paraná, no leste do Mato Grosso do Sul. O índice de erosividade anual obtido foi de 6.792,7 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 ano-1. Os valores de T variaram de 9,0 a 11,0 Mg ha-1 ano-1, para o LVd2 e LVd1, respectivamente. As perdas de solo apresentaram valores em torno de 0 a 0,505 Mg ha-1 no LVd1 e de 0 a 0,853 Mg ha-1, no LVd2. A ACP evidenciou-se eficiente na

  18. OSS reliability measurement and assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    This book analyses quantitative open source software (OSS) reliability assessment and its applications, focusing on three major topic areas: the Fundamentals of OSS Quality/Reliability Measurement and Assessment; the Practical Applications of OSS Reliability Modelling; and Recent Developments in OSS Reliability Modelling. Offering an ideal reference guide for graduate students and researchers in reliability for open source software (OSS) and modelling, the book introduces several methods of reliability assessment for OSS including component-oriented reliability analysis based on analytic hierarchy process (AHP), analytic network process (ANP), and non-homogeneous Poisson process (NHPP) models, the stochastic differential equation models and hazard rate models. These measurement and management technologies are essential to producing and maintaining quality/reliable systems using OSS.

  19. Transit ridership, reliability, and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    This project explores two major components that affect transit ridership: travel time reliability and rider : retention. It has been recognized that transit travel time reliability may have a significant impact on : attractiveness of transit to many ...

  20. Travel reliability inventory for Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The overarching goal of this research project is to enable state DOTs to document and monitor the reliability performance : of their highway networks. To this end, a computer tool, TRIC, was developed to produce travel reliability inventories from : ...

  1. 2017 NREL Photovoltaic Reliability Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-15

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Reliability Workshop (PVRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology -- both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  2. Human reliability. Is probabilistic human reliability assessment possible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosneron Dupin, F.

    1996-01-01

    The possibility of carrying out Probabilistic Human Reliability Assessments (PHRA) is often doubted. Basing ourselves on the experience Electricite de France (EDF) has acquired in Probabilistic Safety Assessments for nuclear power plants, we show why the uncertainty of PHRA is very high. We then specify the limits of generic data and models for PHRA: very important factors are often poorly taken into account. To account for them, you need to have proper understanding of the actual context in which operators work. This demands surveys on the field (power plant and simulator) all of which must be carried out with behaviours science skills. The idea of estimating the probabilities of operator failure must not be abandoned, but probabilities must be given less importance, for they are only approximate indications. The qualitative aspects of PHRA should be given greater value (analysis process and qualitative insights). That is why the description (illustrated by case histories) of the main mechanisms of human behaviour, and of their manifestations in the nuclear power plant context (in terms of habits, attitudes, and informal methods and organization in particular) should be an important part of PHRA handbooks. These handbooks should also insist more on methods for gathering information on the actual context of the work of operators. Under these conditions, the PHRA should be possible and even desirable as a process for systematic analysis and assessment of human intervention. (author). 24 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  3. Human reliability. Is probabilistic human reliability assessment possible?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosneron Dupin, F

    1997-12-31

    The possibility of carrying out Probabilistic Human Reliability Assessments (PHRA) is often doubted. Basing ourselves on the experience Electricite de France (EDF) has acquired in Probabilistic Safety Assessments for nuclear power plants, we show why the uncertainty of PHRA is very high. We then specify the limits of generic data and models for PHRA: very important factors are often poorly taken into account. To account for them, you need to have proper understanding of the actual context in which operators work. This demands surveys on the field (power plant and simulator) all of which must be carried out with behaviours science skills. The idea of estimating the probabilities of operator failure must not be abandoned, but probabilities must be given less importance, for they are only approximate indications. The qualitative aspects of PHRA should be given greater value (analysis process and qualitative insights). That is why the description (illustrated by case histories) of the main mechanisms of human behaviour, and of their manifestations in the nuclear power plant context (in terms of habits, attitudes, and informal methods and organization in particular) should be an important part of PHRA handbooks. These handbooks should also insist more on methods for gathering information on the actual context of the work of operators. Under these conditions, the PHRA should be possible and even desirable as a process for systematic analysis and assessment of human intervention. (author). 24 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab.

  4. Effects of Organic Matter on Soil Erosion and Runoff Peanuts and Green Pea in Cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Sukataatmaja, Sukandi; Sato, Yohei; Yamaji, Eiji; Ishikawa, Masaya

    2002-01-01

    Organic matter from manure are used not only for fertilizer but also can be used for preventing soil erosion and runoff. How to manage manure to soil for peanut and green pea CUltivation is especially important, because most farmers plant these crops. The objective of this research is to identify effect of: 1) organicmatter from chicken manure, cow manure and sheep manure on soil erosion and runoff in peanuts and green pea cultivations, 2) mulch from paddy, corn and leaf of banana on soil ero...

  5. Electronics reliability calculation and design

    CERN Document Server

    Dummer, Geoffrey W A; Hiller, N

    1966-01-01

    Electronics Reliability-Calculation and Design provides an introduction to the fundamental concepts of reliability. The increasing complexity of electronic equipment has made problems in designing and manufacturing a reliable product more and more difficult. Specific techniques have been developed that enable designers to integrate reliability into their products, and reliability has become a science in its own right. The book begins with a discussion of basic mathematical and statistical concepts, including arithmetic mean, frequency distribution, median and mode, scatter or dispersion of mea

  6. Mathematical reliability an expository perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzuchi, Thomas; Singpurwalla, Nozer

    2004-01-01

    In this volume consideration was given to more advanced theoretical approaches and novel applications of reliability to ensure that topics having a futuristic impact were specifically included. Topics like finance, forensics, information, and orthopedics, as well as the more traditional reliability topics were purposefully undertaken to make this collection different from the existing books in reliability. The entries have been categorized into seven parts, each emphasizing a theme that seems poised for the future development of reliability as an academic discipline with relevance. The seven parts are networks and systems; recurrent events; information and design; failure rate function and burn-in; software reliability and random environments; reliability in composites and orthopedics, and reliability in finance and forensics. Embedded within the above are some of the other currently active topics such as causality, cascading, exchangeability, expert testimony, hierarchical modeling, optimization and survival...

  7. High-reliability health care: getting there from here.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassin, Mark R; Loeb, Jerod M

    2013-09-01

    Despite serious and widespread efforts to improve the quality of health care, many patients still suffer preventable harm every day. Hospitals find improvement difficult to sustain, and they suffer "project fatigue" because so many problems need attention. No hospitals or health systems have achieved consistent excellence throughout their institutions. High-reliability science is the study of organizations in industries like commercial aviation and nuclear power that operate under hazardous conditions while maintaining safety levels that are far better than those of health care. Adapting and applying the lessons of this science to health care offer the promise of enabling hospitals to reach levels of quality and safety that are comparable to those of the best high-reliability organizations. We combined the Joint Commission's knowledge of health care organizations with knowledge from the published literature and from experts in high-reliability industries and leading safety scholars outside health care. We developed a conceptual and practical framework for assessing hospitals' readiness for and progress toward high reliability. By iterative testing with hospital leaders, we refined the framework and, for each of its fourteen components, defined stages of maturity through which we believe hospitals must pass to reach high reliability. We discovered that the ways that high-reliability organizations generate and maintain high levels of safety cannot be directly applied to today's hospitals. We defined a series of incremental changes that hospitals should undertake to progress toward high reliability. These changes involve the leadership's commitment to achieving zero patient harm, a fully functional culture of safety throughout the organization, and the widespread deployment of highly effective process improvement tools. Hospitals can make substantial progress toward high reliability by undertaking several specific organizational change initiatives. Further research

  8. High-Reliability Health Care: Getting There from Here

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassin, Mark R; Loeb, Jerod M

    2013-01-01

    Context Despite serious and widespread efforts to improve the quality of health care, many patients still suffer preventable harm every day. Hospitals find improvement difficult to sustain, and they suffer “project fatigue” because so many problems need attention. No hospitals or health systems have achieved consistent excellence throughout their institutions. High-reliability science is the study of organizations in industries like commercial aviation and nuclear power that operate under hazardous conditions while maintaining safety levels that are far better than those of health care. Adapting and applying the lessons of this science to health care offer the promise of enabling hospitals to reach levels of quality and safety that are comparable to those of the best high-reliability organizations. Methods We combined the Joint Commission's knowledge of health care organizations with knowledge from the published literature and from experts in high-reliability industries and leading safety scholars outside health care. We developed a conceptual and practical framework for assessing hospitals’ readiness for and progress toward high reliability. By iterative testing with hospital leaders, we refined the framework and, for each of its fourteen components, defined stages of maturity through which we believe hospitals must pass to reach high reliability. Findings We discovered that the ways that high-reliability organizations generate and maintain high levels of safety cannot be directly applied to today's hospitals. We defined a series of incremental changes that hospitals should undertake to progress toward high reliability. These changes involve the leadership's commitment to achieving zero patient harm, a fully functional culture of safety throughout the organization, and the widespread deployment of highly effective process improvement tools. Conclusions Hospitals can make substantial progress toward high reliability by undertaking several specific

  9. Of plants and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider Horst

    2009-01-01

    Behind the political statements made about the transformer event at the Kruemmel nuclear power station (KKK) in the summer of 2009 there are fundamental issues of atomic law. Pursuant to Articles 20 and 28 of its Basic Law, Germany is a state in which the rule of law applies. Consequently, the aspects of atomic law associated with the incident merit a closer look, all the more so as the items concerned have been known for many years. Important aspects in the debate about the Kruemmel nuclear power plant are the fact that the transformer is considered part of the nuclear power station under atomic law and thus a ''plant'' subject to surveillance by the nuclear regulatory agencies, on the one hand, and the reliability under atomic law of the operator and the executive personnel responsible, on the other hand. Both ''plant'' and ''reliability'' are terms focusing on nuclear safety. Hence the question to what extent safety was affected in the Kruemmel incident. The classification of the event as 0 = no or only a very slight safety impact on the INES scale (INES = International Nuclear Event Scale) should not be used to put aside the safety issue once and for all. Points of fact and their technical significance must be considered prior to any legal assessment. Legal assessments and regulations are associated with facts and circumstances. Any legal examination is based on the facts as determined and elucidated. Any other procedure would be tantamount to an inadmissible legal advance conviction. Now, what is the position of political statements, i.e. political assessments and political responsibility? If everything is done the correct way, they come at the end, after exploration of the facts and evaluation under applicable law. Sometimes things are handled differently, with consequences which are not very helpful. In the light of the provisions about the rule of law as laid down in the Basic Law, the new federal government should be made to observe the proper sequence of

  10. Multinomial-exponential reliability function: a software reliability model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiz de Bustamante, Amalio; Saiz de Bustamante, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    The multinomial-exponential reliability function (MERF) was developed during a detailed study of the software failure/correction processes. Later on MERF was approximated by a much simpler exponential reliability function (EARF), which keeps most of MERF mathematical properties, so the two functions together makes up a single reliability model. The reliability model MERF/EARF considers the software failure process as a non-homogeneous Poisson process (NHPP), and the repair (correction) process, a multinomial distribution. The model supposes that both processes are statistically independent. The paper discusses the model's theoretical basis, its mathematical properties and its application to software reliability. Nevertheless it is foreseen model applications to inspection and maintenance of physical systems. The paper includes a complete numerical example of the model application to a software reliability analysis

  11. Fatores relacionados à suscetibilidade da erosão em entressulcos sob condições de uso e manejo do solo Factors influencing susceptibility to interrill soil erosion under different land use and management conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio P. de Oliveira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram avaliados fatores relacionados com a suscetibilidade a erosão em entressulcos de um Neossolo Litólico submetido a diferentes intensidades de uso e manejo do solo. O experimento foi realizado em condições de laboratório, utilizando-se amostras deformadas de solo colocadas em parcelas experimentais (0,23 m2 e declividade de 0,09 m m-1. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados, em que foram aplicadas chuvas simuladas com intensidade de 100 mm h-1 para os seguintes tratamentos: (I solo cultivado com fumo sob preparo convencional (PC; (II solo cultivado com fumo sob plantio direto (PD e (III solo sob mata nativa (MN. Para avaliar a suscetibilidade a erosão em entressulcos utilizaram-se índices referentes à relação energia cinética total (chuva e escoamento sobre perda de solo, taxa média de desagregação e índice de estabilidade de agregados, cujos resultados mostraram que os fatores relacionados com a suscetibilidade a erosão em entressulcos estão associados não apenas com características e propriedades que conferem coesividade ao solo, mas, também, com condicionantes que afetam a hidráulica do escoamento e, consequentemente, a fase de transporte dos sedimentos.This study evaluated factors related to the suscetibility to the interrill soil erosion in an Entisol subjected to different degrees of soil use and management. The experiment was carried out under laboratory conditions using samples collected from tobacco fields and disturbed soil placed in erosion pans measuring (0.23 m2 with a slope of 0.09 m m-1. The experimental design was in randomized blocks. Simulated rainfall intensity of 100 mm h-1 was applied to the following treatments: (I conventionally tilled soil; (II no-till soil; and (III native forest soil. Total kinetic energy (rainfall and runoff to soil loss, average rate of detachment, and aggregate stability indexes were used to assess susceptibility to interrill erosion

  12. Risco de erosão no litoral Norte de Portugal: uma questão de ordenamento do território / Risk of erosion on the northern coast of Portugal: a question of territorial planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Sousa Pedrosa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Grande parte da costa noroeste de Portugal Continental compreende várias áreas em erosão acentuada, fato que tem vindo a contribuir para um agravamento da vulnerabilidade do território. Entendendo a faixa costeira uma área de interface entre os subsistemas terra-mar, constitui uma área dotada de grande mutabilidade, que se encontra em conflito com o atual cariz permanente da presença humana, pelo que a fragilidade tem a sua maior expressão na erosão e no recuo da linha de costa, fenómeno que tem vindo a resultar na perda de áreas de valor ecológico-ambiental e económico. Esta situação resulta de diversos fatores naturais que se relacionam com a subida do nível médio das águas do mar, mas também da atuação do homem sobre o território. A atuação antrópica nas áreas litorais nem sempre obedece a princípios de sustentabilidade ambiental e económica, fato explicado pela inexistência de uma estratégia bem definida de ordenamento do território. Apresentando-se como áreas de forte sensibilidade à ação antrópica, em especial relacionado com a pressão urbanística e, à implantação de infraestruturas relacionadas com o turismo e lazer, para além de estarem sujeitas a uma forte suscetibilidade de erosão provocada pelo avanço do mar, a forma de mitigação dos riscos seria a existência de planos de ordenamento que definissem uma estratégia de desenvolvimento não agressiva para as zonas de litoral em Portugal.

  13. Análise quantitativa do processo de erosão/deposição nas falésias da APA Tambaba e sua ocupação nos limites da APP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Regina Benevides Trigueiro Aranha

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available O litoral brasileiro é banhado pelo Oceano Atlântico e composto por diversas paisagens ao longo da costa. Entre elas encontram-se as falésias, que, por sua beleza, atraem a exploração turística o que, muitas vezes, compromete seu equilíbrio. Com a finalidade de proteger o meio ambiente das ações antrópicas, o poder público vem criando áreas para preservar e/ou conservar o meio ambiente, entre elas existem as APA e as APP. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi analisar a variabilidade espaço-temporal da linha de ruptura do relevo, na borda das falésias da APA Tambaba, entre os anos de 1985 e 2012; e identificar a existência de edificações dentro da APP no ano de 2012. Para tanto, foram utilizadas imagens do satélite Quickbird de 2012, do satélite IKONOS II de 2005 e fotos aéreas de 1985 para delimitação das linhas das falésias; o DSAS, que é uma extensão gratuita do ArcGIS, para obtenção de taxas de variação da linha de ruptura do relevo; e o software ArcGIS para delimitação e análise das APP. Como resultados, foram identificadas variações no movimento das linhas estudadas, tanto para erosão como para deposição nas falésias da APA Tambaba. No maior trecho da APA obteve-se uma média de -0,17m/ano para erosão e de 0,49m/ano para deposição, já no menor trecho a média de erosão foi -0,38m/ano e de deposição 0,14m/ano. Foi comprovada a existência de edificações irregulares correspondente a 22.818,91 m², o que equivale a aproximadamente 3% da área total da APP.

  14. Quantificação da erosão em pastagem com diferentes declives na microbacia do Ribeirão Salomea Erosion quantification in pastures with different slopes in the Ribeirão Salomea Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euzelina dos S. B. Inácio

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A erosão hídrica é uma das principais formas de degradação do solo e, dentre os diversos fatores que exercem influência sobre ela, dois se destacam: a cobertura do solo e a declividade do terreno. Com este trabalho, objetivou-se quantificar as perdas de solo por erosão hídrica sob chuva simulada em cobertura de pastagem comparando-as com solo descoberto em diferentes classes de declividade e avaliar a erodibilidade do solo estudado, visando avaliar a capacidade dessa cobertura vegetal em proteger o solo da erosão, bem como a influência da declividade da área nas perdas de solo, para as condições da microbacia do Ribeirão Salomea, sul da Bahia. Os tratamentos com quatro repetições foram: com e sem cobertura de pastagem em quatro classes de declive: The water erosion is one of the main forms of soil degradation and it is highly affected by the soil cover and landscape slope. The objective of this work was to quantify the detachment rate and the soil loss due to water erosion under simulated rains in pastures, as well as to study the effect of land cover and the slope classes (< 9, 10-15, 25-30 and 35-40% on soil loss in the Ribeirão Salomea wathershed. The treatments with four repetitions were: with and without pasture covering in four slope classes: < 9, 10-15, 25-30 and 35-40%. Thirty-two simulated rains were applied in plots delimited by galvanized metallic foils fixed in the soil and having a gutter at their lower part for runoff sampling. The results showed that the land cover influenced soil loss only within each slope classes. Soil losses increased with increasing slope classes. This phenomenon was higher in uncovered land than in the covered ones. The erodibility was 1.48 x 105 kg s m-4 for the evaluated Mollisol.

  15. Índice de Vulnerabilidade à Erosão para Uma Bacia na Mesorregião do São Francisco Pernambucano, d Partir das Relações entre Morfogênese e Pedogênese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Bezerra de Menezes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available No contexto semi-árido do Nordeste do Brasil os processos superficiais são comandados pela magnitude dos inputs pluviais, sua recorrência espaço-temporal e interação direta com as formações superficiais peculiares a este domínio e as práticas de uso da terra. De fato, na escala das micro-bacias a erosão hídrica representa a forma mais importante de ocorrência e constitui um problema ambiental nos espaços agrários tradicionais do semi-árido nordestino. Na bacia do riacho Mulungu, o panorama social da comunidade denota o baixo nível de desenvolvimento humano, enquanto o panorama ambiental reflete a pressão que esta exerce sobre o seu suporte natural, sendo observada erosão linear em sulcos e ravinas, formação de leques de dejeção assoreando o leito do rio, crostas salinas na superfície do solo e baixa densidade da cobertura vegetal nativa. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar um índice de vulnerabilidade à erosão para a bacia do riacho Mulungu, utilizando os princípios da Ecodinâmica de Tricart e técnicas de sistema de informção geográfica e sensoriamento remoto. A fim de se obter uma imagem sucinta da estruturação superficial da paisagem e sua dinâmica, foram superpostos em ambiente digital os mapas pedológico, geomorfológico, geológico, de vegetação, do modelo digital de elevação e de declividade da área. Em seguida, foram estimados índices de vulnerabilidade considerando a interação entre a geologia, a geomorfologia, os tipos de solo, a vegetação, a distribuição da precipitação e o uso do solo. A partir da análise desses parâmetros, foi estimado um índice geral de vulnerabilidade morfodinâmica para a bacia que correspondeu a 2,0, indicando que a área da bacia possui um grau de susceptibilidade intermediário.

  16. Influência da dieta líquida ácida no desenvolvimento de erosão dental Influence of the liquid acid diet on the development of dental erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angela Pita SOBRAL

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a importância do pH da dieta líquida na etiologia e prevenção das lesões de erosão dental, bem como conhecer o pH de algumas bebidas e sucos, supostamente ácidos, mais consumidos em nosso meio, para que fosse possível estabelecer uma comparação destes valores a fim de controlar a dieta dos pacientes portadores de lesões de erosão dental. Um único exemplar de cada fruta madura foi processado puro de modo a ser liquefeito e o pH foi medido utilizando-se um pH-metro, imediatamente e depois de 30 minutos. Posteriormente, a amostra de suco foi diluída em água na proporção de 1:2 e novas medidas foram tomadas. Para as bebidas industrializadas, as medidas de pH foram realizadas imediatamente após a abertura do frasco e depois de 30 minutos. As bebidas e sucos analisados mostraram valores abaixo do pH crítico de dissolução da estrutura dental, sugerindo a possibilidade de favorecerem a desmineralização. A orientação quanto à dieta ácida parece ser um fator importante no tratamento e prevenção das lesões de erosão dental.The aim of this paper was to evaluate the importance of the liquid diet pH in the etiology and prevention of dental erosion, so as to give dietary orientation to patients who present with these lesions, as well as to know the pH of the most consumed Brazilian fruit juices and industrialized beverages, which are supposably acid. A sample of each mature fruit was processed to be liquefied, and the pH was obtained through a pHmeter appliance, immediately after the juices were obtained and 30 minutes later. Afterward the juices were diluted in potable water in a 1:2 proportion and new pH values were obtained. For the industrialized beverages, pH measurements were carried out immediately after opening the bottles and 30 minutes later. The beverages and juices analyzed showed pH values below the critical pH for dental tissue dissolution (5.5. Therefore, they are expected to

  17. Quantificação das classes de erosão por tipo de uso do solo no município de Franca - SP Measurement of the erosion classes and land use in Franca Municipality - SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula F. Endres

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Impactos ambientais causados pelas atividades agropecuárias sobre o meio rural podem ser constatados quando são analisadas as paisagens da região. Vários estudos demonstraram que informações da paisagem obtidas a partir de imagens fotográficas são indispensáveis para o diagnóstico do processo erosivo do solo, aspecto indispensável no planejamento conservacionista. Neste trabalho, utilizando-se de técnicas de fotointerpretação, foi realizada a quantificação das classes de erosão acelerada no município de Franca - SP, relacionando-as com os tipos de cobertura vegetal. A coleção de fotografias aéreas empregadas foi produzida pela Base Aerofotogrametria e Projetos S.A., com escala aproximada 1:35.000, em outubro de 1990. Elaboraram-se cartas temáticas do uso/ocupação do solo e dos estados erosivos presentes em cada tipo de cobertura vegetal do solo, estabelecendo-se, em seguida, as relações entre a erosão acelerada e os tipos de comunidades vegetais do município de Franca. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que, nesse município, o solo agrícola encontra-se relativamente conservado, apresentando 74,23% da área com erosão laminar ligeira/moderada. Os diferentes usos/ocupações do solo influenciaram de modos distintos na manifestação do processo erosivo.Environment impacts caused by farming activities on agricultural management can be evidenced when the land use is analyzed. Some studies had demonstrated that, the information of the land use from photographic images is essential for identifying the erosive process, indispensable aspect in planning for better land management. In this work, using photointerpretation techniques, the measurement of the erosion classes in Franca Municipality - SP, Brazil, was carried through, relating them with the land uses. The BASE - Aerofotogrametria e Projetos S.A. took the used air photograph collection, with the approach scale of 1:35.000, in October of 1990. The thematic map of land

  18. Quality assurance and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normand, J.; Charon, M.

    1975-01-01

    Concern for obtaining high-quality products which will function properly when required to do so is nothing new - it is one manifestation of a conscientious attitude to work. However, the complexity and cost of equipment and the consequences of even temporary immobilization are such that it has become necessary to make special arrangements for obtaining high-quality products and examining what one has obtained. Each unit within an enterprise must examine its own work or arrange for it to be examined; a unit whose specific task is quality assurance is responsible for overall checking, but does not relieve other units of their responsibility. Quality assurance is a form of mutual assistance within an enterprise, designed to remove the causes of faults as far as possible. It begins very early in a project and continues through the ordering stage, construction, start-up trials and operation. Quality and hence reliability are the direct result of what is done at all stages of a project. They depend on constant attention to detail, for even a minor piece of poor workmanship can, in the case of an essential item of equipment, give rise to serious operational difficulties

  19. Reliability of Oronasal Fistula Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitzman, Thomas J; Allori, Alexander C; Matic, Damir B; Beals, Stephen P; Fisher, David M; Samson, Thomas D; Marcus, Jeffrey R; Tse, Raymond W

    2018-01-01

    Objective Oronasal fistula is an important complication of cleft palate repair that is frequently used to evaluate surgical quality, yet reliability of fistula classification has never been examined. The objective of this study was to determine the reliability of oronasal fistula classification both within individual surgeons and between multiple surgeons. Design Using intraoral photographs of children with repaired cleft palate, surgeons rated the location of palatal fistulae using the Pittsburgh Fistula Classification System. Intrarater and interrater reliability scores were calculated for each region of the palate. Participants Eight cleft surgeons rated photographs obtained from 29 children. Results Within individual surgeons reliability for each region of the Pittsburgh classification ranged from moderate to almost perfect (κ = .60-.96). By contrast, reliability between surgeons was lower, ranging from fair to substantial (κ = .23-.70). Between-surgeon reliability was lowest for the junction of the soft and hard palates (κ = .23). Within-surgeon and between-surgeon reliability were almost perfect for the more general classification of fistula in the secondary palate (κ = .95 and κ = .83, respectively). Conclusions This is the first reliability study of fistula classification. We show that the Pittsburgh Fistula Classification System is reliable when used by an individual surgeon, but less reliable when used among multiple surgeons. Comparisons of fistula occurrence among surgeons may be subject to less bias if they use the more general classification of "presence or absence of fistula of the secondary palate" rather than the Pittsburgh Fistula Classification System.

  20. Dependent systems reliability estimation by structural reliability approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostandyan, Erik; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of system reliability by classical system reliability methods generally assumes that the components are statistically independent, thus limiting its applicability in many practical situations. A method is proposed for estimation of the system reliability with dependent components, where...... the leading failure mechanism(s) is described by physics of failure model(s). The proposed method is based on structural reliability techniques and accounts for both statistical and failure effect correlations. It is assumed that failure of any component is due to increasing damage (fatigue phenomena...... identification. Application of the proposed method can be found in many real world systems....

  1. 75 FR 71678 - Commission Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ...-guide.asp . eFiling and eSubscription are not available for Docket No. IC11-725D-000, due to a system... Maintenance Reliability Standards'' (OMB Control No. 1902-0247), is required to implement the statutory... Electric Reliability Organization (ERO) to develop mandatory and enforceable reliability standards, which...

  2. 77 FR 2963 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-725F); Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... submitting the information collection FERC-725F, ``Mandatory Reliability Standards for Nuclear Plant...: Title: FERC-725F Mandatory Reliability Standards for Nuclear Plant Interface Coordination OMB Control No... Organization (ERO) to develop mandatory and enforceable Reliability Standards, which are subject to Commission...

  3. Automation of reliability evaluation procedures through CARE - The computer-aided reliability estimation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, F. P.

    1972-01-01

    Description of an on-line interactive computer program called CARE (Computer-Aided Reliability Estimation) which can model self-repair and fault-tolerant organizations and perform certain other functions. Essentially CARE consists of a repository of mathematical equations defining the various basic redundancy schemes. These equations, under program control, are then interrelated to generate the desired mathematical model to fit the architecture of the system under evaluation. The mathematical model is then supplied with ground instances of its variables and is then evaluated to generate values for the reliability-theoretic functions applied to the model.

  4. Developing a system engineering program to improve performance and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keuter, D.

    1985-01-01

    After several maintenance, operational, and equipment problems last year, Trojan set out on a mission to improve plant performance and reliability by strengthening its on-site engineering organization. This paper presents Trojan's plans in developing an on-site system engineering organization

  5. Reliability of reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toerroenen, K.; Aho-Mantila, I.

    1986-05-01

    This report is the final technical report of the fracture mechanics part of the Reliability of Reactor Materials Programme, which was carried out at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) through the years 1981 to 1983. Research and development work was carried out in five major areas, viz. statistical treatment and modelling of cleavage fracture, crack arrest, ductile fracture, instrumented impact testing as well as comparison of numerical and experimental elastic-plastic fracture mechanics. In the area of cleavage fracture the critical variables affecting the fracture of steels are considered in the frames of a statistical model, so called WST-model. Comparison of fracture toughness values predicted by the model and corresponding experimental values shows excellent agreement for a variety of microstructures. different posibilities for using the model are discussed. The development work in the area of crack arrest testing was concentrated in the crack starter properties, test arrangement and computer control. A computerized elastic-plastic fracture testing method with a variety of test specimen geometries in a large temperature range was developed for a routine stage. Ductile fracture characteristics of reactor pressure vessel steel A533B and comparable weld material are given. The features of a new, patented instrumented impact tester are described. Experimental and theoretical comparisons between the new and conventional testers indicated clearly the improvements achieved with the new tester. A comparison of numerical and experimental elastic-plastic fracture mechanics capabilities at VTT was carried out. The comparison consisted of two-dimensional linear elastic as well as elastic-plastic finite element analysis of four specimen geometries and equivalent experimental tests. (author)

  6. Field reliability of electronic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elm, T.

    1984-02-01

    This report investigates, through several examples from the field, the reliability of electronic units in a broader sense. That is, it treats not just random parts failure, but also inadequate reliability design and (externally and internally) induced failures. The report is not meant to be merely an indication of the state of the art for the reliability prediction methods we know, but also as a contribution to the investigation of man-machine interplay in the operation and repair of electronic equipment. The report firmly links electronics reliability to safety and risk analyses approaches with a broader, system oriented view of reliability prediction and with postfailure stress analysis. It is intended to reveal, in a qualitative manner, the existence of symptom and cause patterns. It provides a background for further investigations to identify the detailed mechanisms of the faults and the remedical actions and precautions for achieving cost effective reliability. (author)

  7. Reliability Assessment Of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of cost of energy for wind turbines are very important in order to make wind energy competitive compared to other energy sources. Therefore the turbine components should be designed to have sufficient reliability but also not be too costly (and safe). This paper presents models...... for uncertainty modeling and reliability assessment of especially the structural components such as tower, blades, substructure and foundation. But since the function of a wind turbine is highly dependent on many electrical and mechanical components as well as a control system also reliability aspects...... of these components are discussed and it is described how there reliability influences the reliability of the structural components. Two illustrative examples are presented considering uncertainty modeling, reliability assessment and calibration of partial safety factors for structural wind turbine components exposed...

  8. Reliability engineering theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Birolini, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    This book shows how to build in, evaluate, and demonstrate reliability and availability of components, equipment, systems. It presents the state-of-theart of reliability engineering, both in theory and practice, and is based on the author's more than 30 years experience in this field, half in industry and half as Professor of Reliability Engineering at the ETH, Zurich. The structure of the book allows rapid access to practical results. This final edition extend and replace all previous editions. New are, in particular, a strategy to mitigate incomplete coverage, a comprehensive introduction to human reliability with design guidelines and new models, and a refinement of reliability allocation, design guidelines for maintainability, and concepts related to regenerative stochastic processes. The set of problems for homework has been extended. Methods & tools are given in a way that they can be tailored to cover different reliability requirement levels and be used for safety analysis. Because of the Appendice...

  9. Reliability of Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dâmaso, Antônio; Rosa, Nelson; Maciel, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) consist of hundreds or thousands of sensor nodes with limited processing, storage, and battery capabilities. There are several strategies to reduce the power consumption of WSN nodes (by increasing the network lifetime) and increase the reliability of the network (by improving the WSN Quality of Service). However, there is an inherent conflict between power consumption and reliability: an increase in reliability usually leads to an increase in power consumption. For example, routing algorithms can send the same packet though different paths (multipath strategy), which it is important for reliability, but they significantly increase the WSN power consumption. In this context, this paper proposes a model for evaluating the reliability of WSNs considering the battery level as a key factor. Moreover, this model is based on routing algorithms used by WSNs. In order to evaluate the proposed models, three scenarios were considered to show the impact of the power consumption on the reliability of WSNs. PMID:25157553

  10. Sobrevivência e crescimento de mudas de sabiá em podzólico vermelho-amarelo sob erosão simulada Survival and growth of mimosa caesalpiniaefolia seedlings on a red-yellow podzolic soil under simulated erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ RONALDO COELHO SILVA

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar mudanças nas propriedades de um Podzólico Vermelho-Amarelo relacionadas à remoção gradual de sua camada arável por meio de erosão simulada e seus efeitos na sobrevivência e crescimento de mudas de sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, em 1990, no Departamento de Ciência do Solo, UFC, em Fortaleza, CE, em camadas do solo de 0-15, 5-20, 10-25, 15-30, 20-35 e 25-40 cm, as quais foram removidas e acondicionadas em sacos de plástico, onde as sementes foram plantadas e as mudas desenvolveram-se por 85 dias. Maiores valores de porcentagem de argila, de água disponível, de teores de K e Ca e da CTC determinados nas camadas mais profundas não reduziram o impacto negativo da erosão na sobrevivência e crescimento das mudas, pois eles estavam associados a aumentos da saturação por Al, bem como a significativos decréscimos no pH, na matéria orgânica, na saturação por bases e nos teores de N, P e Mg no solo. À medida que a profundidade das camadas removidas aumentava, a porcentagem de sobrevivência, a altura, o peso seco das raízes e da parte aérea, bem como a biomassa seca total das plantas gradualmente decrescia; esses decréscimos foram de 16,8, 66,3, 67,1, 82,0 e 79,6%, respectivamente, na camada de 25-40 cm, em relação aos dados da camada 0-15 cm.The objective of this research was to determine changes in properties of a Red-Yellow Podzolic soil, related to the gradual removal of the plow layer through simulated erosion and its effects on survival and growth of Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth seedlings. In 1990, the experiment was conducted in a greenhouse of the Universidade Federal do Ceará, in Fortaleza, CE, Brazil, in layers of 0-15, 5-20, 10-25, 15-30, 20-35 and 25-40 cm which were removed from a Red-Yellow Podzolic profile and contained in plastic bags where seeds were planted and seedlings were grown for 85 days. Higher values of

  11. The value of service reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Benezech , Vincent; Coulombel , Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    International audience; This paper studies the impact of service frequency and reliability on the choice of departure time and the travel cost of transit users. When the user has (α, β, γ) scheduling preferences, we show that the optimal head start decreases with service reliability, as expected. It does not necessarily decrease with service frequency, however. We derive the value of service headway (VoSH) and the value of service reliability (VoSR), which measure the marginal effect on the e...

  12. Distribution-Independent Reliable Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Kanade, Varun; Thaler, Justin

    2014-01-01

    We study several questions in the reliable agnostic learning framework of Kalai et al. (2009), which captures learning tasks in which one type of error is costlier than others. A positive reliable classifier is one that makes no false positive errors. The goal in the positive reliable agnostic framework is to output a hypothesis with the following properties: (i) its false positive error rate is at most $\\epsilon$, (ii) its false negative error rate is at most $\\epsilon$ more than that of the...

  13. Influência do nitrogênio adicionado por SHTPN na resistência à erosão por cavitação do aço inoxidável martensítico

    OpenAIRE

    Maftoum, Ricardo de Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Muitos estudos são realizados para melhorar a resistência à erosão por cavitação dos aços. Entre estes estudos, está a utilização de aços inoxidáveis enriquecidos com nitrogênio na superfície. O presente trabalho estudou o uso da técnica SHTPN (Solution Heat Treatment after Plasma Nitriding), que consiste em duas etapas. Primeiro utiliza-se a nitretação a plasma, para inserir o nitrogênio no material. Na sequência realiza-se o tratamento térmico de solubilização, para que o nitrogênio fique e...

  14. Variabilidade espacial de perdas de solo, do potencial natural e risco de erosão em áreas intensamente cultivadas Spatial variability of the soil loss, natural potential and erosion risk in intensively cultivated areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia de Mello

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi identificar a variabilidade espacial do potencial natural de erosão, das perdas de solo e do risco de erosão em duas áreas intensamente cultivadas, com o intuito de fornecer subsídios na descrição de padrões de ocorrência de erosão. O solo da área, localizado em Monte Alto, SP, foi classificado como Argissolo Vermelho Amarelo (PVA, relevo ondulado e sob diferentes manejos. O solo da área localizado em Jaboticabal, SP, foi classificado como Latossolo Vermelho (LV, relevo suave, cultivado com cana-de-açúcar. O esquema de amostragem constituiu em uma malha irregular. Amostras de solo foram obtidas na profundidade de 0-0,2 m, para cada malha: 88 amostras para a área de Monte Alto (1465 ha e 128 amostras para a área de Jaboticabal (2597 ha. Para obtenção dos valores das variáveis estudadas, empregou-se a EUPS para cada ponto amostrado. Os dados foram submetidos à análise estatística descritiva e geoestatística para definição dos semivariogramas. Para os modelos foi utilizada a interpolação por krigagem. Observou-se a ocorrência de dependência espacial para todas as variáveis. O solo PVA apresentou maiores riscos de erosão, devido ao relevo, uso atual e manejo, comparado com o solo LV.The objective of this work was to identify the spatial variability of the natural erosion potential, soil loss and erosion risk in two intensely cultivated areas, in order to assess the erosion occurrence patterns. The soil of the area located at Monte Alto, São Paulo state, was classified as Paleudalf (PVA with moderately slope, with different managements. The soil of the area located at Jaboticabal, São Paulo state, was classified as Haplortox(LV with gentle slope and cultivated with sugarcane. A irregular grid was imposed on the experimental areas. Soil samples were obtained from 0-0.2 m depth at each grid point: 88 samples in Monte Alto area (1465 ha and 128 samples at Jaboticabal area (2597 ha. In order

  15. RTE - 2015 Reliability Report. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Every year, RTE produces a reliability report for the past year. This report includes a number of results from previous years so that year-to-year comparisons can be drawn and long-term trends analysed. The 2015 report underlines the major factors that have impacted on the reliability of the electrical power system, without focusing exclusively on Significant System Events (ESS). It describes various factors which contribute to present and future reliability and the numerous actions implemented by RTE to ensure reliability today and in the future, as well as the ways in which the various parties involved in the electrical power system interact across the whole European interconnected network

  16. Human- and computer-accessible 2D correlation data for a more reliable structure determination of organic compounds. Future roles of researchers, software developers, spectrometer managers, journal editors, reviewers, publisher and database managers toward artificial-intelligence analysis of NMR spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeannerat, Damien

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of a universal data format to report the correlation data of 2D NMR spectra such as COSY, HSQC and HMBC spectra will have a large impact on the reliability of structure determination of small organic molecules. These lists of assigned cross peaks will bridge signals found in NMR 1D and 2D spectra and the assigned chemical structure. The record could be very compact, human and computer readable so that it can be included in the supplementary material of publications and easily transferred into databases of scientific literature and chemical compounds. The records will allow authors, reviewers and future users to test the consistency and, in favorable situations, the uniqueness of the assignment of the correlation data to the associated chemical structures. Ideally, the data format of the correlation data should include direct links to the NMR spectra to make it possible to validate their reliability and allow direct comparison of spectra. In order to take the full benefits of their potential, the correlation data and the NMR spectra should therefore follow any manuscript in the review process and be stored in open-access database after publication. Keeping all NMR spectra, correlation data and assigned structures together at all time will allow the future development of validation tools increasing the reliability of past and future NMR data. This will facilitate the development of artificial intelligence analysis of NMR spectra by providing a source of data than can be used efficiently because they have been validated or can be validated by future users. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Reliable avionics design for deep space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stephen B.

    The technical and organizational problems posed by the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) are discussed, and some possible solutions are examined. It is pointed out that SEI poses a whole new set of challenging problems in the design of reliable systems. These missions and their corresponding systems are far more complex than current systems. The initiative requires a set of vehicles and systems which must have very high levels of autonomy, reliability, and operability for long periods of time. It is emphasized that to achieve these goals in the face of great complexity, new technologies and organizational techniques will be necessary. It is noted that the key to a good design is good people. Not only must good people be found, but they must be placed in positions appropriate to their skills. It is argued that the atomistic and autocratic paradigm of vertical organizations must be replaced with more team-oriented and democratic structures.

  18. Sodium component reliability data collection at CREDO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bott, T.F.; Haas, P.M.; Manning, J.J.

    1979-01-01

    The Centralized Reliability Data Organization (CREDO) has been established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) by the Department of Energy to provide a national center for collection, evaluation and dissemination of reliability data for advanced reactors. While the system is being developed and continuous data collection at the two U.S. reactor sites (EBR-II and FFTF) is being established, data on advanced reactor components which have been in use at U.S. test loops and experimental reactors have been collected and analyzed. Engineering, operating and event data on sodium valves, pumps, flow meters, rupture discs, heat exchangers and cold traps have been collected from more than a dozen sites. The results of analyses of the data performed to date are presented

  19. Reliability and risk analysis methods research plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    This document presents a plan for reliability and risk analysis methods research to be performed mainly by the Reactor Risk Branch (RRB), Division of Risk Analysis and Operations (DRAO), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. It includes those activities of other DRAO branches which are very closely related to those of the RRB. Related or interfacing programs of other divisions, offices and organizations are merely indicated. The primary use of this document is envisioned as an NRC working document, covering about a 3-year period, to foster better coordination in reliability and risk analysis methods development between the offices of Nuclear Regulatory Research and Nuclear Reactor Regulation. It will also serve as an information source for contractors and others to more clearly understand the objectives, needs, programmatic activities and interfaces together with the overall logical structure of the program

  20. Reliability Estimation for Digital Instrument/Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yaguang; Sydnor, Russell

    2011-01-01

    Digital instrumentation and controls (DI and C) systems are widely adopted in various industries because of their flexibility and ability to implement various functions that can be used to automatically monitor, analyze, and control complicated systems. It is anticipated that the DI and C will replace the traditional analog instrumentation and controls (AI and C) systems in all future nuclear reactor designs. There is an increasing interest for reliability and risk analyses for safety critical DI and C systems in regulatory organizations, such as The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Developing reliability models and reliability estimation methods for digital reactor control and protection systems will involve every part of the DI and C system, such as sensors, signal conditioning and processing components, transmission lines and digital communication systems, D/A and A/D converters, computer system, signal processing software, control and protection software, power supply system, and actuators. Some of these components are hardware, such as sensors and actuators, their failure mechanisms are well understood, and the traditional reliability model and estimation methods can be directly applied. But many of these components are firmware which has software embedded in the hardware, and software needs special consideration because its failure mechanism is unique, and the reliability estimation method for a software system will be different from the ones used for hardware systems. In this paper, we will propose a reliability estimation method for the entire DI and C system reliability using a recently developed software reliability estimation method and a traditional hardware reliability estimation method

  1. Reliability Estimation for Digital Instrument/Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yaguang; Sydnor, Russell [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Digital instrumentation and controls (DI and C) systems are widely adopted in various industries because of their flexibility and ability to implement various functions that can be used to automatically monitor, analyze, and control complicated systems. It is anticipated that the DI and C will replace the traditional analog instrumentation and controls (AI and C) systems in all future nuclear reactor designs. There is an increasing interest for reliability and risk analyses for safety critical DI and C systems in regulatory organizations, such as The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Developing reliability models and reliability estimation methods for digital reactor control and protection systems will involve every part of the DI and C system, such as sensors, signal conditioning and processing components, transmission lines and digital communication systems, D/A and A/D converters, computer system, signal processing software, control and protection software, power supply system, and actuators. Some of these components are hardware, such as sensors and actuators, their failure mechanisms are well understood, and the traditional reliability model and estimation methods can be directly applied. But many of these components are firmware which has software embedded in the hardware, and software needs special consideration because its failure mechanism is unique, and the reliability estimation method for a software system will be different from the ones used for hardware systems. In this paper, we will propose a reliability estimation method for the entire DI and C system reliability using a recently developed software reliability estimation method and a traditional hardware reliability estimation method.

  2. Reliability in automotive ethernet networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Fabio L.; Campelo, Divanilson R.; Yan, Ying

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of in-vehicle communication networks and addresses the challenges of providing reliability in automotive Ethernet in particular.......This paper provides an overview of in-vehicle communication networks and addresses the challenges of providing reliability in automotive Ethernet in particular....

  3. Estimation of Bridge Reliability Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper it is shown how the so-called reliability distributions can be estimated using crude Monte Carlo simulation. The main purpose is to demonstrate the methodology. Therefor very exact data concerning reliability and deterioration are not needed. However, it is intended in the paper to ...

  4. Reliability of wind turbine subassemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinato, F.; Tavner, P.J.; Bussel, van G.J.W.; Koutoulakos, E.

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the reliability of more than 6000 modern onshore wind turbines and their subassemblies in Denmark and Germany over 11 years and particularly changes in reliability of generators, gearboxes and converters in a subset of 650 turbines in Schleswig Holstein, Germany. We first start

  5. Reliability engineering theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Birolini, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    Presenting a solid overview of reliability engineering, this volume enables readers to build and evaluate the reliability of various components, equipment and systems. Current applications are presented, and the text itself is based on the author's 30 years of experience in the field.

  6. Software reliability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.; Bradley, P.A.; Brewer, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    The increased usage and sophistication of computers applied to real time safety-related systems in the United Kingdom has spurred on the desire to provide a standard framework within which to assess dependable computing systems. Recent accidents and ensuing legislation have acted as a catalyst in this area. One particular aspect of dependable computing systems is that of software, which is usually designed to reduce risk at the system level, but which can increase risk if it is unreliable. Various organizations have recognized the problem of assessing the risk imposed to the system by unreliable software, and have taken initial steps to develop and use such assessment frameworks. This paper relates the approach of Consultancy Services of AEA Technology in developing a framework to assess the risk imposed by unreliable software. In addition, the paper discusses the experiences gained by Consultancy Services in applying the assessment framework to commercial and research projects. The framework is applicable to software used in safety applications, including proprietary software. Although the paper is written with Nuclear Reactor Safety applications in mind, the principles discussed can be applied to safety applications in all industries

  7. Reliability-Based Optimization in Structural Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, I.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1994-01-01

    In this paper reliability-based optimization problems in structural engineering are formulated on the basis of the classical decision theory. Several formulations are presented: Reliability-based optimal design of structural systems with component or systems reliability constraints, reliability...

  8. 18 CFR 375.303 - Delegations to the Director of the Office of Electric Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Director of the Office of Electric Reliability. 375.303 Section 375.303 Conservation of Power and Water... Delegations § 375.303 Delegations to the Director of the Office of Electric Reliability. The Commission... Electric Reliability Organization or Regional Entity rules or procedures; (ii) Reject an application...

  9. 78 FR 45447 - Revisions to Modeling, Data, and Analysis Reliability Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ...; Order No. 782] Revisions to Modeling, Data, and Analysis Reliability Standard AGENCY: Federal Energy... Analysis (MOD) Reliability Standard MOD- 028-2, submitted to the Commission for approval by the North... Organization. The Commission finds that the proposed Reliability Standard represents an improvement over the...

  10. Reliability-Based Code Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, M.H.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2003-01-01

    The present paper addresses fundamental concepts of reliability based code calibration. First basic principles of structural reliability theory are introduced and it is shown how the results of FORM based reliability analysis may be related to partial safety factors and characteristic values....... Thereafter the code calibration problem is presented in its principal decision theoretical form and it is discussed how acceptable levels of failure probability (or target reliabilities) may be established. Furthermore suggested values for acceptable annual failure probabilities are given for ultimate...... and serviceability limit states. Finally the paper describes the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS) recommended procedure - CodeCal - for the practical implementation of reliability based code calibration of LRFD based design codes....

  11. Photovoltaic performance and reliability workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrig, L. [ed.

    1993-12-01

    This workshop was the sixth in a series of workshops sponsored by NREL/DOE under the general subject of photovoltaic testing and reliability during the period 1986--1993. PV performance and PV reliability are at least as important as PV cost, if not more. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities, and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in the field were brought together to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this evolving field of PV reliability. The papers presented here reflect this effort since the last workshop held in September, 1992. The topics covered include: cell and module characterization, module and system testing, durability and reliability, system field experience, and standards and codes.

  12. Reliability of large superconducting magnets through design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    As superconducting magnet systems grow larger and become the central component of major systems involving fusion, magnetohydrodynamics, and high-energy physics, their reliability must be commensurate with the enormous capital investment in the projects. Although the magnet may represent only 15% of the cost of a large system such as the Mirror Fusion Test Facility, its failure would be catastrophic to the entire investment. Effective quality control during construction is one method of ensuring success. However, if the design is unforgiving, even an inordinate amount of effort expended on quality control may be inadequate. Creative design is the most effective way of ensuring magnet reliability and providing a reasonable limit on the amount of quality control needed. For example, by subjecting the last drawing operation is superconductor manufacture to a stress larger than the magnet design stress, a 100% proof test is achieved; cabled conductors offer mechanical redundancy, as do some methods of conductor joining; ground-plane insulation should be multilayered to prevent arcs, and interturn and interlayer insulation spaced to be compatible with the self-extinguishing of arcs during quench voltages; electrical leads should be thermally protected; and guard vacuum spaces can be incorporated to control helium leaks. Many reliable design options are known to magnet designers. These options need to be documented and organized to produce a design guide. Eventually, standard procedures, safety factors, and design codes can lead to reliability in magnets comparable to that obtained in pressure vessels and other structures. Wihout such reliability, large-scale applications in major systems employing magnetic fusion energy, magnetohydrodynamics, or high-energy physics would present unacceptable economic risks

  13. Avaliação experimental do escoamento e da erosão num Luvissolo Háplico de Mértola: impactos da fertilização em pastagens Experimental evaluation of runoff and erosion in an Haplic Luvisol of Mértola: impacts of fertilization in pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Martins

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Numa área experimental situada a meia encosta, na região de Mértola, Alentejo, com um Luvissolo Háplico (FAO, 2001 e um declive médio de 15%, procedeu-se à avaliação, de Outubro de 2001 a Junho de 2004, do escoamento de água superficial, provocado pela precipitação, e da perda de solo por erosão, em 3 ensaios designados por A (pastagem melhorada, B (pastagem semeada, ambos instalados em 1997, e D (pastagem semeada, estabelecido em 2001. A cobertura vegetal incorporava uma mistura de sementes constituída por azevém anual, panasco, algumas espécies de trevo, bisserula e serradela. Aqueles parâmetros foram quantificados através de pequenos talhões de erosão de 4?1 m², com a maior dimensão no sentido do declive, sobrepostos em 6 talhões de cada um dos ensaios (3 modalidades e 2 repetições, para cada ensaio. As 3 modalidades consideradas nos ensaios A e B foram as seguintes: 1 - Sem fertilização; 5 - Adubação completa, corrigida anualmente; 7 -Fertilização orgânica com 8 t/ha de lama residual urbana (LRU, aplicada em 1997 + adubação complementar. O ensaio D incluiu a aplicação de 3 níveis de LRU (L0 – 0, L1 – 12 e L2 – 24 t/ha, respectivamente. Em cada caixa de erosão, procedeu-se à medição do volume de água escoado e à quantificação de sedimentos, quando a capacidade de infiltração de água no solo era excedida pela quantidade de precipitação ocorrida em um ou vários dias consecutivos. Nos ensaios A e B, os valores mais altos do coeficiente de escoamento referem-se à modalidade 1 sendo a situação mais favorável correspondente à modalidade 7 do ensaio B. No ensaio D, os valores para aquele coeficiente situaram-se entre 0,07 e 0,10, para as 3 modalidades, que são manifestamente baixos. Quanto à perda de solo, observou-se que foi a modalidade 7 dos ensaios A e B a que registou os valores mais baixos, no conjunto dos 3 anos. No ensaio D, observaram-se valores superiores aos verificados nos

  14. Analysis of sodium valve reliability data at CREDO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bott, T.F.; Haas, P.M.

    1979-01-01

    The Centralized Reliability Data Organization (CREDO) has been established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) by the Department of Energy to provide a centralized source of data for reliability/maintainabilty analysis of advanced reactor systems. The current schedule calls for develoment of the data system at a moderate pace, with the first major distribution of data in late FY-1980. Continuous long-term collection of engineering, operating, and event data has been initiated at EBR-II and FFTF

  15. Reliability risks during the transition to competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    The Electricity Consumers Resource Council (ELCON) is a U.S. association representing industrial consumers of electricity, and is a long-standing advocate of competition in the electric power industry. However, because a reliable grid is necessary to support competitive wholesale markets, ELCON believes that the transmission system is an essential facility that must remain regulated. The initiatives discussed in this white paper represent significant steps that the National Electric Reliability Council (NERC) and the industry have taken to improve reliability in a competitive and restructured electric industry. Strategic manoeuvres of incumbent utilities to maintain market share were evaluated, as well as discrimination against potential competitors. It was suggested that, occasionally, indecisive federal policies have been taken advantage of by utilities. The unintended consequences of state restructuring policies that allow utilities to over-earn their revenue requirements were reviewed. NERC reliability standards will remain unenforceable until a new Electricity Reliability Organization has been certified. Flawed market designs and inadequate market power mitigation, as well as the financial distress of merchant generators, pose considerable risks. It was suggested that these risks could trigger transmission loading relief incidents, local outages or widespread outages. In the absence of mandatory reliability standards with penalties, and complementary market rules for mitigating generation and transmission market power, economic incentives will encourage other forms of opportunistic behavior that may be the root cause of other outages. Public concern regarding these risks to grid reliability may result in lost public support for competitive electricity markets. Proposed solutions include the certification of a new Electric Reliability Organization to establish and enforce mandatory reliability standards, and granting the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission

  16. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) Reliability Coordinators

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — ERC is an international regulatory authority that works to improve the reliability of the bulk power system in North America. NERC works with many different regional...

  17. Calculating system reliability with SRFYDO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morzinski, Jerome [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson - Cook, Christine M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Klamann, Richard M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    SRFYDO is a process for estimating reliability of complex systems. Using information from all applicable sources, including full-system (flight) data, component test data, and expert (engineering) judgment, SRFYDO produces reliability estimates and predictions. It is appropriate for series systems with possibly several versions of the system which share some common components. It models reliability as a function of age and up to 2 other lifecycle (usage) covariates. Initial output from its Exploratory Data Analysis mode consists of plots and numerical summaries so that the user can check data entry and model assumptions, and help determine a final form for the system model. The System Reliability mode runs a complete reliability calculation using Bayesian methodology. This mode produces results that estimate reliability at the component, sub-system, and system level. The results include estimates of uncertainty, and can predict reliability at some not-too-distant time in the future. This paper presents an overview of the underlying statistical model for the analysis, discusses model assumptions, and demonstrates usage of SRFYDO.

  18. New Approaches to Reliability Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    of energy. New approaches for reliability assessment are being taken in the design phase of power electronics systems based on the physics-of-failure in components. In this approach, many new methods, such as multidisciplinary simulation tools, strength testing of components, translation of mission profiles......, and statistical analysis, are involved to enable better prediction and design of reliability for products. This article gives an overview of the new design flow in the reliability engineering of power electronics from the system-level point of view and discusses some of the emerging needs for the technology...

  19. Some remarks on software reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Hernando, J.; Sanchez Izquierdo, J.

    1978-01-01

    Trend in modern NPPCI is toward a broad use of programmable elements. Some aspects concerning present status of programmable digital systems reliability are reported. Basic differences between software and hardware concept require a specific approach in all the reliability topics concerning software systems. The software reliability theory was initialy developed upon hardware models analogies. At present this approach is changing and specific models are being developed. The growing use of programmable systems necessitates emphasizing the importance of more adequate regulatory requirements to include this technology in NPPCI. (author)

  20. Reliability evaluation of power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Billinton, Roy

    1996-01-01

    The Second Edition of this well-received textbook presents over a decade of new research in power system reliability-while maintaining the general concept, structure, and style of the original volume. This edition features new chapters on the growing areas of Monte Carlo simulation and reliability economics. In addition, chapters cover the latest developments in techniques and their application to real problems. The text also explores the progress occurring in the structure, planning, and operation of real power systems due to changing ownership, regulation, and access. This work serves as a companion volume to Reliability Evaluation of Engineering Systems: Second Edition (1992).

  1. Aerospace reliability applied to biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, V. R.; Vargo, D. J.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis is presented that indicates that the reliability and quality assurance methodology selected by NASA to minimize failures in aerospace equipment can be applied directly to biomedical devices to improve hospital equipment reliability. The Space Electric Rocket Test project is used as an example of NASA application of reliability and quality assurance (R&QA) methods. By analogy a comparison is made to show how these same methods can be used in the development of transducers, instrumentation, and complex systems for use in medicine.

  2. Integrating reliability analysis and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmuson, D.M.

    1980-10-01

    This report describes the Interactive Reliability Analysis Project and demonstrates the advantages of using computer-aided design systems (CADS) in reliability analysis. Common cause failure problems require presentations of systems, analysis of fault trees, and evaluation of solutions to these. Results have to be communicated between the reliability analyst and the system designer. Using a computer-aided design system saves time and money in the analysis of design. Computer-aided design systems lend themselves to cable routing, valve and switch lists, pipe routing, and other component studies. At EG and G Idaho, Inc., the Applicon CADS is being applied to the study of water reactor safety systems

  3. Regional scale modeling of erosion related to land cover evolution: a case study in brazilian southeastern region Modelagem em escala regional da erosão relacionada com a evolução da cobertura do solo: um estudo de caso no sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Marco Da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated soil erosion is, at present, one of the most widespread environmental problems in the world. Geographic Information Systems (GIS have become an essential tool in soil erosion studies and consequently in the development of appropriate soil conservation strategies. The objective of this paper was to assess the degree of soil erosion associated with land cover dynamics through GIS analysis and to validate the modeling with indicators of soil erosion. Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE model, GIS technology and ground-truth dataset (erosion indicators were employed to elaborate the soil loss maps for four dates at Sorocaba Municipality (SP, Brazil. It was verified that, although the predicted soil loss rate is normally small along the study area, such rate is significantly greater than the soil formation rate. This shows a non-sustainable situation of soil and land cover management. Unplanned urban expansion seems be the main driving force that acts in increasing the erosion risk/occurrence along the study area.A erosão acelerada é um dos maiores problemas ambientais ocorrentes em larga escala na atualidade. Por sua vez, Sistemas de Informação Geográfica (SIG tornou-se uma ferramenta essencial em estudos de erosão e conseqüentemente no desenvolvimento de estratégias apropriadas para a conservação do solo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o grau de erosão do solo associada com a dinâmica da cobertura do solo através de uma análise geoespacial e validar a modelagem com indicadores de erosão. Utilizou-se a Equação Universal de Perda de Solo (EUPS, recursos de SIG e dados de campo (indicadores de erosão para elaborar os mapas de perda de solo para quatro datas para o município de Sorocaba (SP, Brasil. Verificou-se que, embora a taxa de perda de solo ao longo da área de estudo é normalmente baixa, esta taxa é expressivamente maior que as taxas de formação do solo. Isto mostra uma situação não sustentável de

  4. Aspectos financeiros relacionados às perdas de nutrientes por erosão hídrica em diferentes sistemas de manejo do solo Financial aspects of nutrient losses by water erosion in different soil management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildegardis Bertol

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A erosão hídrica é a forma mais séria de degradação do solo, pois, além de reduzir a capacidade produtiva deste para as culturas, causa prejuízos financeiros e ambientais em razão da perda de nutrientes a ela associada. A presente pesquisa foi realizada com o objetivo de quantificar as perdas de água e solo, de P, K, Ca e Mg na água e de P disponível e K, Ca e Mg trocáveis nos sedimentos da enxurrada perdida por erosão hídrica, em um experimento realizado sob chuva natural, entre novembro de 1992 e outubro de 2003, no sul do Planalto Catarinense. Calculou-se o custo financeiro desses nutrientes, expressos na forma de superfosfato triplo (P, cloreto de potássio (K e de calcário (Ca e Mg, perdidos na erosão hídrica, para um Cambissolo Húmico alumínico léptico com declividade média de 0,10 m m-1, em três sistemas de manejo do solo, com duas repetições: preparo convencional (PC, preparo mínimo (PM e semeadura direta (SD. Em uma das repetições dos tratamentos foram cultivados soja, trigo, milho, ervilhaca, feijão, aveia, soja e nabo forrageiro, em sistema de rotação de culturas, enquanto na outra se cultivaram soja, trigo, soja, trigo, soja, trigo, soja e trigo, em sistema de sucessão de culturas. Para efeito de realização deste trabalho, as duas parcelas experimentais com o mesmo tipo de manejo do solo foram consideradas como repetição, embora com diferentes espécies culturais (em rotação e em sucessão de culturas. As perdas de solo foram fortemente influenciadas pelo sistema de manejo e variaram com os anos de cultivo, enquanto as perdas de água variaram menos do que as de solo, tanto nos sistemas de manejo do solo quanto nos anos de cultivo. O valor monetário das perdas anuais de P expresso na forma de superfosfato triplo, de K expresso como cloreto de potássio e de Ca e Mg expressos na forma de calcário, por erosão hídrica, foi relativamente elevado, independentemente do sistema de manejo do solo. A

  5. Reliability analysis of shutdown system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, C. Senthil; John Arul, A.; Pal Singh, Om; Suryaprakasa Rao, K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results of reliability analysis of Shutdown System (SDS) of Indian Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor. Reliability analysis carried out using Fault Tree Analysis predicts a value of 3.5 x 10 -8 /de for failure of shutdown function in case of global faults and 4.4 x 10 -8 /de for local faults. Based on 20 de/y, the frequency of shutdown function failure is 0.7 x 10 -6 /ry, which meets the reliability target, set by the Indian Atomic Energy Regulatory Board. The reliability is limited by Common Cause Failure (CCF) of actuation part of SDS and to a lesser extent CCF of electronic components. The failure frequency of individual systems is -3 /ry, which also meets the safety criteria. Uncertainty analysis indicates a maximum error factor of 5 for the top event unavailability

  6. Measures of differences in reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doksum, K.A.

    1975-01-01

    Measures of differences in reliability of two systems are considered in the scale model, location-scale model, and a nonparametric model. In each model, estimates and confidence intervals are given and some of their properties discussed

  7. Transportation reliability and trip satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Travel delays and associated costs have become a major problem in Michigan over the : past several decades as congestion has continued to increase, creating significant negative : impacts on travel reliability on many roadways throughout the State. T...

  8. Reliability Analysis of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2008-01-01

    In order to minimise the total expected life-cycle costs of a wind turbine it is important to estimate the reliability level for all components in the wind turbine. This paper deals with reliability analysis for the tower and blades of onshore wind turbines placed in a wind farm. The limit states...... consideres are in the ultimate limit state (ULS) extreme conditions in the standstill position and extreme conditions during operating. For wind turbines, where the magnitude of the loads is influenced by the control system, the ultimate limit state can occur in both cases. In the fatigue limit state (FLS......) the reliability level for a wind turbine placed in a wind farm is considered, and wake effects from neighbouring wind turbines is taken into account. An illustrative example with calculation of the reliability for mudline bending of the tower is considered. In the example the design is determined according...

  9. Reliability issues at the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit; Gillies, James D

    2002-01-01

    The Lectures on reliability issues at the LHC will be focused on five main Modules on five days. Module 1: Basic Elements in Reliability Engineering Some basic terms, definitions and methods, from components up to the system and the plant, common cause failures and human factor issues. Module 2: Interrelations of Reliability & Safety (R&S) Reliability and risk informed approach, living models, risk monitoring. Module 3: The ideal R&S Process for Large Scale Systems From R&S goals via the implementation into the system to the proof of the compliance. Module 4: Some Applications of R&S on LHC Master logic, anatomy of risk, cause - consequence diagram, decomposition and aggregation of the system. Module 5: Lessons learned from R&S Application in various Technologies Success stories, pitfalls, constrains in data and methods, limitations per se, experienced in aviation, space, process, nuclear, offshore and transport systems and plants. The Lectures will reflect in summary the compromise in...

  10. On Bayesian System Reliability Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen Ringi, M

    1995-05-01

    The view taken in this thesis is that reliability, the probability that a system will perform a required function for a stated period of time, depends on a person`s state of knowledge. Reliability changes as this state of knowledge changes, i.e. when new relevant information becomes available. Most existing models for system reliability prediction are developed in a classical framework of probability theory and they overlook some information that is always present. Probability is just an analytical tool to handle uncertainty, based on judgement and subjective opinions. It is argued that the Bayesian approach gives a much more comprehensive understanding of the foundations of probability than the so called frequentistic school. A new model for system reliability prediction is given in two papers. The model encloses the fact that component failures are dependent because of a shared operational environment. The suggested model also naturally permits learning from failure data of similar components in non identical environments. 85 refs.

  11. On Bayesian System Reliability Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerensen Ringi, M.

    1995-01-01

    The view taken in this thesis is that reliability, the probability that a system will perform a required function for a stated period of time, depends on a person's state of knowledge. Reliability changes as this state of knowledge changes, i.e. when new relevant information becomes available. Most existing models for system reliability prediction are developed in a classical framework of probability theory and they overlook some information that is always present. Probability is just an analytical tool to handle uncertainty, based on judgement and subjective opinions. It is argued that the Bayesian approach gives a much more comprehensive understanding of the foundations of probability than the so called frequentistic school. A new model for system reliability prediction is given in two papers. The model encloses the fact that component failures are dependent because of a shared operational environment. The suggested model also naturally permits learning from failure data of similar components in non identical environments. 85 refs

  12. As reliable as the sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijtens, J. A. P.

    2017-11-01

    Fortunately there is almost nothing as reliable as the sun which can consequently be utilized as a very reliable source of spacecraft power. In order to harvest this power, the solar panels have to be pointed towards the sun as accurately and reliably as possible. To this extend, sunsensors are available on almost every satellite to support vital sun-pointing capability throughout the mission, even in the deployment and save mode phases of the satellites life. Given the criticality of the application one would expect that after more than 50 years of sun sensor utilisation, such sensors would be fully matured and optimised. In actual fact though, the majority of sunsensors employed are still coarse sunsensors which have a proven extreme reliability but present major issues regarding albedo sensitivity and pointing accuracy.

  13. Steam generator reliability improvement project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, J.C.; Green, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    Upon successful completion of its research and development technology transfer program, the Electric Power Research Institute's Steam Generator Owners Group (SGOG II) will disband in December 1986 and be replaced in January 1987 by a successor project, the Steam Generator Reliability Project (SGRP). The new project, funded in the EPRI base program, will continue the emphasis on reliability and life extension that was carried forward by SGOG II. The objectives of SGOG II have been met. Causes and remedies have been identified for tubing corrosion problems, such as stress corrosion cracking and pitting, and steam generator technology has been improved in areas such as tube wear prediction and nondestructive evaluation (NDE). These actions have led to improved reliability of steam generators. Now the owners want to continue with a centrally managed program that builds on what has been learned. The goal is to continue to improve steam generator reliability and solve small problems before they become large problems

  14. Steam generator reliability improvement project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, J.C.; Green, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    Upon successful completion of its research and development technology transfer program, the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI's) Steam Generator Owners Group (SGOG II) will disband in December 1986, and be replaced in January 1987, by a successor project, the Steam Generator Reliability Project (SGRP). The new project, funded in the EPRI base program, will continue to emphasize reliability and life extension, which were carried forward by SGOG II. The objectives of SGOG II have been met. Causes and remedies have been identified for tubing corrosion problems such as stress corrosion cracking and pitting, and steam generator technology has been improved in areas such as tube wear prediction and nondestructive evaluation. These actions have led to improved reliability of steam generators. Now the owners want to continue with a centrally managed program that builds on what has been learned. The goal is to continue to improve steam generator reliability and to solve small problems before they become large problems

  15. Reliability analysis in intelligent machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcinroy, John E.; Saridis, George N.

    1990-01-01

    Given an explicit task to be executed, an intelligent machine must be able to find the probability of success, or reliability, of alternative control and sensing strategies. By using concepts for information theory and reliability theory, new techniques for finding the reliability corresponding to alternative subsets of control and sensing strategies are proposed such that a desired set of specifications can be satisfied. The analysis is straightforward, provided that a set of Gaussian random state variables is available. An example problem illustrates the technique, and general reliability results are presented for visual servoing with a computed torque-control algorithm. Moreover, the example illustrates the principle of increasing precision with decreasing intelligence at the execution level of an intelligent machine.

  16. Innovations in power systems reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Santora, Albert H; Vaccaro, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    Electrical grids are among the world's most reliable systems, yet they still face a host of issues, from aging infrastructure to questions of resource distribution. Here is a comprehensive and systematic approach to tackling these contemporary challenges.

  17. Reliability analysis and operator modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollnagel, Erik

    1996-01-01

    The paper considers the state of operator modelling in reliability analysis. Operator models are needed in reliability analysis because operators are needed in process control systems. HRA methods must therefore be able to account both for human performance variability and for the dynamics of the interaction. A selected set of first generation HRA approaches is briefly described in terms of the operator model they use, their classification principle, and the actual method they propose. In addition, two examples of second generation methods are also considered. It is concluded that first generation HRA methods generally have very simplistic operator models, either referring to the time-reliability relationship or to elementary information processing concepts. It is argued that second generation HRA methods must recognise that cognition is embedded in a context, and be able to account for that in the way human reliability is analysed and assessed

  18. Reliability and Maintainability (RAM) Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, Vincent R. (Editor); Malec, Henry A. (Editor); Packard, Michael H. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The theme of this manual is failure physics-the study of how products, hardware, software, and systems fail and what can be done about it. The intent is to impart useful information, to extend the limits of production capability, and to assist in achieving low-cost reliable products. In a broader sense the manual should do more. It should underscore the urgent need CI for mature attitudes toward reliability. Five of the chapters were originally presented as a classroom course to over 1000 Martin Marietta engineers and technicians. Another four chapters and three appendixes have been added, We begin with a view of reliability from the years 1940 to 2000. Chapter 2 starts the training material with a review of mathematics and a description of what elements contribute to product failures. The remaining chapters elucidate basic reliability theory and the disciplines that allow us to control and eliminate failures.

  19. Development of reliable pavement models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The current report proposes a framework for estimating the reliability of a given pavement structure as analyzed by : the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG). The methodology proposes using a previously fit : response surface, in plac...

  20. Reliability of hospital cost profiles in inpatient surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenda, Tyler R; Krell, Robert W; Dimick, Justin B

    2016-02-01

    With increased policy emphasis on shifting risk from payers to providers through mechanisms such as bundled payments and accountable care organizations, hospitals are increasingly in need of metrics to understand their costs relative to peers. However, it is unclear whether Medicare payments for surgery can reliably compare hospital costs. We used national Medicare data to assess patients undergoing colectomy, pancreatectomy, and open incisional hernia repair from 2009 to 2010 (n = 339,882 patients). We first calculated risk-adjusted hospital total episode payments for each procedure. We then used hierarchical modeling techniques to estimate the reliability of total episode payments for each procedure and explored the impact of hospital caseload on payment reliability. Finally, we quantified the number of hospitals meeting published reliability benchmarks. Mean risk-adjusted total episode payments ranged from $13,262 (standard deviation [SD] $14,523) for incisional hernia repair to $25,055 (SD $22,549) for pancreatectomy. The reliability of hospital episode payments varied widely across procedures and depended on sample size. For example, mean episode payment reliability for colectomy (mean caseload, 157) was 0.80 (SD 0.18), whereas for pancreatectomy (mean caseload, 13) the mean reliability was 0.45 (SD 0.27). Many hospitals met published reliability benchmarks for each procedure. For example, 90% of hospitals met reliability benchmarks for colectomy, 40% for pancreatectomy, and 66% for incisional hernia repair. Episode payments for inpatient surgery are a reliable measure of hospital costs for commonly performed procedures, but are less reliable for lower volume operations. These findings suggest that hospital cost profiles based on Medicare claims data may be used to benchmark efficiency, especially for more common procedures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cost analysis of reliability investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, F.

    1981-01-01

    Taking Epsteins testing theory as a basis, premisses are formulated for the selection of cost-optimized reliability inspection plans. Using an example, the expected testing costs and inspection time periods of various inspection plan types, standardized on the basis of the exponential distribution, are compared. It can be shown that sequential reliability tests usually involve lower costs than failure or time-fixed tests. The most 'costly' test is to be expected with the inspection plan type NOt. (orig.) [de

  2. Nonparametric predictive inference in reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coolen, F.P.A.; Coolen-Schrijner, P.; Yan, K.J.

    2002-01-01

    We introduce a recently developed statistical approach, called nonparametric predictive inference (NPI), to reliability. Bounds for the survival function for a future observation are presented. We illustrate how NPI can deal with right-censored data, and discuss aspects of competing risks. We present possible applications of NPI for Bernoulli data, and we briefly outline applications of NPI for replacement decisions. The emphasis is on introduction and illustration of NPI in reliability contexts, detailed mathematical justifications are presented elsewhere

  3. Accelerator Availability and Reliability Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Suhring

    2003-05-01

    Maintaining reliable machine operations for existing machines as well as planning for future machines' operability present significant challenges to those responsible for system performance and improvement. Changes to machine requirements and beam specifications often reduce overall machine availability in an effort to meet user needs. Accelerator reliability issues from around the world will be presented, followed by a discussion of the major factors influencing machine availability.

  4. Power peaking nuclear reliability factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, H.A.; Pegram, J.W.; Mays, C.W.; Romano, J.J.; Woods, J.J.; Warren, H.D.

    1977-11-01

    The Calculational Nuclear Reliability Factor (CNRF) assigned to the limiting power density calculated in reactor design has been determined. The CNRF is presented as a function of the relative power density of the fuel assembly and its radial local. In addition, the Measurement Nuclear Reliability Factor (MNRF) for the measured peak hot pellet power in the core has been evaluated. This MNRF is also presented as a function of the relative power density and radial local within the fuel assembly

  5. Travel Time Reliability in Indiana

    OpenAIRE

    Martchouk, Maria; Mannering, Fred L.; Singh, Lakhwinder

    2010-01-01

    Travel time and travel time reliability are important performance measures for assessing traffic condition and extent of congestion on a roadway. This study first uses a floating car technique to assess travel time and travel time reliability on a number of Indiana highways. Then the study goes on to describe the use of Bluetooth technology to collect real travel time data on a freeway and applies it to obtain two weeks of data on Interstate 69 in Indianapolis. An autoregressive model, estima...

  6. Transmission reliability faces future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaty, W.

    1993-01-01

    The recently published Washington International Energy Group's 1993 Electric Utility Outlook states that nearly one-third (31 percent) of U.S. utility executives expect reliability to decrease in the near future. Electric power system stability is crucial to reliability. Stability analysis determines whether a system will stay intact under normal operating conditions, during minor disturbances such as load fluctuations, and during major disturbances when one or more parts of the system fails. All system elements contribute to reliability or the lack of it. However, this report centers on the transmission segment of the electric system. The North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) says the transmission systems as planned will be adequate over the next 10 years. However, delays in building new lines and increasing demands for transmission services are serious concerns. Reliability concerns exist in the Mid-Continent Area Power Pool and the Mid-America Interconnected Network regions where transmission facilities have not been allowed to be constructed as planned. Portions of the transmission systems in other regions are loaded at or near their limits. NERC further states that utilities must be allowed to complete planned generation and transmission as scheduled. A reliable supply of electricity also depends on adhering to established operating criteria. Factors that could complicate operations include: More interchange schedules resulting from increased transmission services. Increased line loadings in portions of the transmission systems. Proliferation of non-utility generators

  7. MEMS reliability: coming of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, Michael R.

    2008-02-01

    In today's high-volume semiconductor world, one could easily take reliability for granted. As the MOEMS/MEMS industry continues to establish itself as a viable alternative to conventional manufacturing in the macro world, reliability can be of high concern. Currently, there are several emerging market opportunities in which MOEMS/MEMS is gaining a foothold. Markets such as mobile media, consumer electronics, biomedical devices, and homeland security are all showing great interest in microfabricated products. At the same time, these markets are among the most demanding when it comes to reliability assurance. To be successful, each company developing a MOEMS/MEMS device must consider reliability on an equal footing with cost, performance and manufacturability. What can this maturing industry learn from the successful development of DLP technology, air bag accelerometers and inkjet printheads? This paper discusses some basic reliability principles which any MOEMS/MEMS device development must use. Examples from the commercially successful and highly reliable Digital Micromirror Device complement the discussion.

  8. Fuel reliability experience in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kekkonen, L.

    2015-01-01

    Four nuclear reactors have operated in Finland now for 35-38 years. The two VVER-440 units at Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant are operated by Fortum and two BWR’s in Olkiluoto are operated by Teollisuuden Voima Oyj (TVO). The fuel reliability experience of the four reactors operating currently in Finland has been very good and the fuel failure rates have been very low. Systematic inspection of spent fuel assemblies, and especially all failed assemblies, is a good practice that is employed in Finland in order to improve fuel reliability and operational safety. Investigation of the root cause of fuel failures is important in developing ways to prevent similar failures in the future. The operational and fuel reliability experience at the Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant has been reported also earlier in the international seminars on WWER Fuel Performance, Modelling and Experimental Support. In this paper the information on fuel reliability experience at Loviisa NPP is updated and also a short summary of the fuel reliability experience at Olkiluoto NPP is given. Keywords: VVER-440, fuel reliability, operational experience, poolside inspections, fuel failure identification. (author)

  9. Column Grid Array Rework for High Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Atul C.; Bodie, Charles C.

    2008-01-01

    Due to requirements for reduced size and weight, use of grid array packages in space applications has become common place. To meet the requirement of high reliability and high number of I/Os, ceramic column grid array packages (CCGA) were selected for major electronic components used in next MARS Rover mission (specifically high density Field Programmable Gate Arrays). ABSTRACT The probability of removal and replacement of these devices on the actual flight printed wiring board assemblies is deemed to be very high because of last minute discoveries in final test which will dictate changes in the firmware. The questions and challenges presented to the manufacturing organizations engaged in the production of high reliability electronic assemblies are, Is the reliability of the PWBA adversely affected by rework (removal and replacement) of the CGA package? and How many times can we rework the same board without destroying a pad or degrading the lifetime of the assembly? To answer these questions, the most complex printed wiring board assembly used by the project was chosen to be used as the test vehicle, the PWB was modified to provide a daisy chain pattern, and a number of bare PWB s were acquired to this modified design. Non-functional 624 pin CGA packages with internal daisy chained matching the pattern on the PWB were procured. The combination of the modified PWB and the daisy chained packages enables continuity measurements of every soldered contact during subsequent testing and thermal cycling. Several test vehicles boards were assembled, reworked and then thermal cycled to assess the reliability of the solder joints and board material including pads and traces near the CGA. The details of rework process and results of thermal cycling are presented in this paper.

  10. Accountability for enhanced reliability for ALWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, M.O.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced nuclear units must compete with alternative generating technologies for inclusion in a utility's future planning. Operating reliability, or capacity factor, and operating cost are important factors in this competition. The ALWR Utility Requirements Document has established targets for both ALWR Capacity Factors (87%) and O ampersand M costs (13--16 mils/KWh), but recognizes that these O ampersand M cost targets need to be lower. The recently published USCEA cost study estimates O ampersand M costs on the order of 6 mils/kw. Meeting, or better yet improving on, these targets is essential for nuclear to be competitive. A number of specific items have been included in the Utility Requirements Document to improve reliability based on experience with operating units. For the most part, these include either avoiding known problems, or simplifying the design. Vendor design organizations are generally complying with the URD and this is expected to produce an improved design both in terms of reliability and ease of operation and maintenance. As one embarks on First-of-a-Kind Engineering (FOAKE), however, it is useful to revisit the issue of responsibility for assuring that reliability improvements are embodied in the new plant designs. The vendor design team must ultimately assume this responsibility. While utility operating and maintenance experience is an essential input to an effective design, decisions on how best to design for this experience remain a designer function. This poses a dilemma for the designer in that such decisions seem to invariably require a trade-off between the capital cost of the product and the ultimate O ampersand M cost. Since traditionally only capital cost has had a direct measurable impact on the vendor, it has received the greater weight. A more appropriate balance must be struck in the future, however, for nuclear to be competitive. Utilities must demand a balance in the design of ALWRs which truly reflects the total cost of power

  11. Cohesion and device reliability in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells

    KAUST Repository

    Brand, Vitali; Bruner, Christopher; Dauskardt, Reinhold H.

    2012-01-01

    that the phase separated bulk heterojunction layer is the weakest layer and report quantitative cohesion values which ranged from ∼1 to 20 J m -2. The effects of layer thickness, composition, and annealing treatments on layer cohesion are investigated. Using

  12. Leading Change: Transitioning the AFMS into a High Reliability Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    HROs, such as commercial aviation and nuclear power plants, make safety the focus of their organizational culture . Healthcare must become a high...nuclear industry and commercial aviation are examples of successful HROs. They achieve their goal of near zero errors by maintaining a culture of... Aviation Safety Network declared 2012 “the safest year for air travel since 1945.” There was only one fatal crash for every 2.5 million flights, an

  13. The Millennial Generation in High Reliability Organizations (HRO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-13

    protect, treat, and sustain the health of our service members. iv Abstract The Millennials (also known as Generation Y ) were born between...Introduction The Millennials (also known as Generation Y ) were born in the U.S. between 1981 and 1997, and comprise 30% of the U.S. population and 80...Soviet relations regardless of their religion or ethnic background is similar to other Baby boomers than it would be to a Millennial . The Baby boomers

  14. Safety and reliability in industrial organizations - The key factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, R.A.; Sarkis, H.D.

    1992-01-01

    A survey-based technique has been developed that measures and generates comparative data on important organizational, work group, and job-level variables that are directly related to on-the-job accidents. This paper describes the results of an analysis of data from more than 2,700 employees in the chemical, oil, construction, and wood products industries. These analyses indicate that several key variables are significantly related to accidents in the workplace

  15. Desintensificação do uso da terra e sua relação com a erosão do solo Disintensification of land use and its relation with soil erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre ten Caten

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A conservação dos recursos naturais tais como solo e água, deve ser preocupação de governos e instituições. Processos erosivos são responsáveis pela degradação desses recursos, em várias partes do globo. Objetivou-se, com este estudo, avaliar a dinâmica da cobertura da terra em uma região de topografia complexa e empregar a equação universal de perda de solos modificada (RUSLE para quantificar a perda de solos em decorrência da erosão. O uso da terra no distrito de Vale Vêneto, município de São João do Polêsine na região central do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, foi avaliado em imagens Landsat nos anos de 1988, 2000 e 2007. A análise espaço temporal do uso da terra indica que as áreas de floresta tiveram um aumento de 16,2% no período de 19 anos. As áreas de agricultura sofreram uma diminuição de 57,5%, no mesmo período. A erosão bruta específica sofreu uma redução de 44%, de 1988 a 2007. Verificou-se que a desintensificação do uso da terra leva a uma configuração mais favorável de conservação do solo e mitigação da erosão. É provável que as mudanças ocorridas no uso da terra estejam relacionadas à não reprodução das famílias rurais que, anteriormente, cultivavam áreas impróprias para a atividade agrícola nesta região.Conservation of natural resources such as soil and water should be a concern of governments and institutions. Erosion processes are responsible for the degradation of these important resources in many parts of the globe. The aim of this study was to assess the land cover dynamics in a region of complex landscape and employ the modified universal soil loss equation (RUSLE to quantify soil loss due to erosion. The land use in the district of Vale Veneto, São João do Polêsine in central region of Rio Grande do Sul, was evaluated in Landsat images of 1988, 2000 and 2007. The spatial and temporal analysis of the land use indicates that the forest areas had a 16.2% increase over

  16. Erosão hídrica em diferentes preparos do solo logo após as colheitas de milho e trigo, na presença e na ausência dos resíduos culturais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Bertol

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available O preparo do solo, o qual influencia o manejo dos resíduos culturais e a rugosidade superficial, associado ao tipo de cultura utilizada, é um dos fatores que afetam a suscetibilidade do solo à erosão hídrica. Utilizando chuvas simuladas na intensidade constante de 64 mm h-1, com durações suficientes para que o escoamento superficial atingisse taxa constante de descarga, foram avaliados, em Eldorado do Sul (RS, de 1992 a 1994, em condições de campo, os seguintes tratamentos de preparo do solo: semeadura direta, na presença e na ausência dos resíduos recém-colhidos de milho e trigo; escarificação, na presença e na ausência dos resíduos recém-colhidos de milho e trigo + milho logo após a colheita do trigo; e aração + gradagem, na presença e ausência dos resíduos recém-colhidos de milho e trigo + milho logo após a colheita do trigo. Utilizou-se um solo podzólico vermelho-amarelo franco-arenoso e declividade média de 0,066 m m-1. As perdas de solo e água foram fortemente influenciadas pela rugosidade e cobertura superficiais. Na semeadura direta e aração + gradagem, a manutenção dos resíduos culturais na superfície reduziu as perdas de solo em relação à sua remoção manual quase completa. A semeadura direta com os resíduos culturais foi o tratamento mais eficaz na redução da erosão e a aração + gradagem, sem os resíduos, o menos eficaz. A escarificação com os resíduos culturais na superfície apresentou maior perda de solo do que a semeadura direta e aração + gradagem também com os resíduos na superfície. Em geral, as perdas de água por escoamento superficial seguiram o mesmo comportamento das perdas de solo.

  17. Mapeamento do potencial de erosão laminar na bacia do rio Japaratuba, SE, via SIG Mapping the laminar erosion potential for the Japaratuba river basin, SE via GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo de Aragão

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A erosão do solo é a principal causa do empobrecimento precoce de terras produtivas e dentre as suas formas está a erosão laminar. Esta se caracteriza não apenas pela remoção de uma camada relativamente uniforme da superfície, mas também por seus nutrientes, sendo intensificada, portanto, pelas ações antrópicas. Para evitar ou reduzir seus impactos, fazem-se necessárias diretrizes para a adequação do uso e da ocupação às condições de cobertura vegetal, tipo de solo e topografia, através de mapas do potencial erosivo laminar da região de interesse, obtidos via sistemas de informações geográficas (SIG. Neste trabalho foi desenvolvido o mapeamento do potencial erosivo laminar da bacia do rio Japaratuba, SE (1685 km²; trata-se de uma região sujeita a intensa atividade agrícola, pecuária e de mineração, onde só restam 6% da vegetação nativa. Os resultados mostram que 48,71% da área da bacia ficam nas classes de médio e alto potencial erosivo, indicando que a bacia está bastante impactada devido aos usos inadequados para as condições de solo e declividades.Soil erosion is a natural phenomenon that reduces soil fertility and causes a great impact on agricultural areas. Laminar erosion is characterized by the removal of the top soil fairly uniformly as well as its nutrients, which is accelerated by human activities. To minimize the impacts it is necessary to adopt an adequate soil management that takes into account the type of the soil, relief, and vegetation cover. The soil management can be aided by mapping the erosive potential of a region using GIS tools. In this work, the technique that was used for mapping the erosive potential in the Japaratuba River Basin (1685 km² located in the State of Sergipe is presented. The results show that 48.71% of the basin area lie within medium and high erosive potentials zones, suggesting the inadequate land use for the soil types and relief within the basin.

  18. Reliability analysis techniques in power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, N.E.

    1981-01-01

    An overview of reliability analysis techniques is presented as applied to power plant design. The key terms, power plant performance, reliability, availability and maintainability are defined. Reliability modeling, methods of analysis and component reliability data are briefly reviewed. Application of reliability analysis techniques from a design engineering approach to improving power plant productivity is discussed. (author)

  19. Problems in diagnosing and forecasting power equipment reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popkov, V I; Demirchyan, K S

    1979-11-01

    This general survey deals with approaches to the resolution of such problems as the gathering, analysis and systematization of data on component defects in power equipment and setting up feedback with the manufacturing plants and planning organizations to improve equipment reliability. Such efforts on the part of designers, manufacturers and operating and repair organizations in analyzing faults in 300 MW turbogenerators during 1974-1977 reduced the specific fault rate by 20 to 25% and the downtime per failure by 35 to 40%. Since power equipment should operate for several hundreds of thousands of hours (20 to 30 years) and the majority of power components have guaranteed service lives of no more than 10/sup 5/ hours, an extremely difficult problem is the determination of the reliability of equipment past the 10/sup 5/ point. The present trend in the USSR Unified Power System towards increasing the number of shutdowns and startups, which in the case of turbogenerators of up 1200 MW power can reach 7500 to 10,000 cycles is noted. Other areas briefly treated are: MHD generator reliability and economy; nuclear power plant reliability and safety; the reliability of high-power high-voltage thyristor converters; the difficulties involved in scale modeling of power system reliability and the high cost of the requisite full-scale studies; the poor understanding of long term corrosion and erosion processes. The review concludes with arguments in favor of greater computerization of all aspects of power system management.

  20. Reliability analysis under epistemic uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nannapaneni, Saideep; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a probabilistic framework to include both aleatory and epistemic uncertainty within model-based reliability estimation of engineering systems for individual limit states. Epistemic uncertainty is considered due to both data and model sources. Sparse point and/or interval data regarding the input random variables leads to uncertainty regarding their distribution types, distribution parameters, and correlations; this statistical uncertainty is included in the reliability analysis through a combination of likelihood-based representation, Bayesian hypothesis testing, and Bayesian model averaging techniques. Model errors, which include numerical solution errors and model form errors, are quantified through Gaussian process models and included in the reliability analysis. The probability integral transform is used to develop an auxiliary variable approach that facilitates a single-level representation of both aleatory and epistemic uncertainty. This strategy results in an efficient single-loop implementation of Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) and FORM/SORM techniques for reliability estimation under both aleatory and epistemic uncertainty. Two engineering examples are used to demonstrate the proposed methodology. - Highlights: • Epistemic uncertainty due to data and model included in reliability analysis. • A novel FORM-based approach proposed to include aleatory and epistemic uncertainty. • A single-loop Monte Carlo approach proposed to include both types of uncertainties. • Two engineering examples used for illustration.

  1. Emergency diesel generator reliability program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serkiz, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    The need for an emergency diesel generator (EDG) reliability program has been established by 10 CFR Part 50, Section 50.63, Loss of All Alternating Current Power, which requires that utilities assess their station blackout duration and recovery capability. EDGs are the principal emergency ac power sources for coping with a station blackout. Regulatory Guide 1.155, Station Blackout, identifies a need for (1) an EDG reliability equal to or greater than 0.95, and (2) an EDG reliability program to monitor and maintain the required levels. The resolution of Generic Safety Issue (GSI) B-56 embodies the identification of a suitable EDG reliability program structure, revision of pertinent regulatory guides and Tech Specs, and development of an Inspection Module. Resolution of B-56 is coupled to the resolution of Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-44, Station Blackout, which resulted in the station blackout rule, 10 CFR 50.63 and Regulatory Guide 1.155, Station Blackout. This paper discusses the principal elements of an EDG reliability program developed for resolving GSI B-56 and related matters

  2. CERTS: Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions - Research Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph

    2003-07-30

    Historically, the U.S. electric power industry was vertically integrated, and utilities were responsible for system planning, operations, and reliability management. As the nation moves to a competitive market structure, these functions have been disaggregated, and no single entity is responsible for reliability management. As a result, new tools, technologies, systems, and management processes are needed to manage the reliability of the electricity grid. However, a number of simultaneous trends prevent electricity market participants from pursuing development of these reliability tools: utilities are preoccupied with restructuring their businesses, research funding has declined, and the formation of Independent System Operators (ISOs) and Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs) to operate the grid means that control of transmission assets is separate from ownership of these assets; at the same time, business uncertainty, and changing regulatory policies have created a climate in which needed investment for transmission infrastructure and tools for reliability management has dried up. To address the resulting emerging gaps in reliability R&D, CERTS has undertaken much-needed public interest research on reliability technologies for the electricity grid. CERTS' vision is to: (1) Transform the electricity grid into an intelligent network that can sense and respond automatically to changing flows of power and emerging problems; (2) Enhance reliability management through market mechanisms, including transparency of real-time information on the status of the grid; (3) Empower customers to manage their energy use and reliability needs in response to real-time market price signals; and (4) Seamlessly integrate distributed technologies--including those for generation, storage, controls, and communications--to support the reliability needs of both the grid and individual customers.

  3. Reliability and continuous regeneration model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pavlisková

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The failure-free function of an object is very important for the service. This leads to the interest in the determination of the object reliability and failure intensity. The reliability of an element is defined by the theory of probability.The element durability T is a continuous random variate with the probability density f. The failure intensity (tλ is a very important reliability characteristics of the element. Often it is an increasing function, which corresponds to the element ageing. We disposed of the data about a belt conveyor failures recorded during the period of 90 months. The given ses behaves according to the normal distribution. By using a mathematical analysis and matematical statistics, we found the failure intensity function (tλ. The function (tλ increases almost linearly.

  4. Reliability Based Ship Structural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dogliani, M.; Østergaard, C.; Parmentier, G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the development of different methods that allow the reliability-based design of ship structures to be transferred from the area of research to the systematic application in current design. It summarises the achievements of a three-year collaborative research project dealing...... with developments of models of load effects and of structural collapse adopted in reliability formulations which aim at calibrating partial safety factors for ship structural design. New probabilistic models of still-water load effects are developed both for tankers and for containerships. New results are presented...... structure of several tankers and containerships. The results of the reliability analysis were the basis for the definition of a target safety level which was used to asses the partial safety factors suitable for in a new design rules format to be adopted in modern ship structural design. Finally...

  5. Structural Optimization with Reliability Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    1986-01-01

    During the last 25 years considerable progress has been made in the fields of structural optimization and structural reliability theory. In classical deterministic structural optimization all variables are assumed to be deterministic. Due to the unpredictability of loads and strengths of actual......]. In this paper we consider only structures which can be modelled as systems of elasto-plastic elements, e.g. frame and truss structures. In section 2 a method to evaluate the reliability of such structural systems is presented. Based on a probabilistic point of view a modern structural optimization problem...... is formulated in section 3. The formulation is a natural extension of the commonly used formulations in determinstic structural optimization. The mathematical form of the optimization problem is briefly discussed. In section 4 two new optimization procedures especially designed for the reliability...

  6. Reliability assessment of Wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2015-01-01

    Wind turbines can be considered as structures that are in between civil engineering structures and machines since they consist of structural components and many electrical and machine components together with a control system. Further, a wind turbine is not a one-of-a-kind structure...... but manufactured in series production based on many component tests, some prototype tests and zeroseries wind turbines. These characteristics influence the reliability assessment where focus in this paper is on the structural components. Levelized Cost Of Energy is very important for wind energy, especially when...... comparing to other energy sources. Therefore much focus is on cost reductions and improved reliability both for offshore and onshore wind turbines. The wind turbine components should be designed to have sufficient reliability level with respect to both extreme and fatigue loads but also not be too costly...

  7. Reliability Modeling of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostandyan, Erik

    Cost reductions for offshore wind turbines are a substantial requirement in order to make offshore wind energy more competitive compared to other energy supply methods. During the 20 – 25 years of wind turbines useful life, Operation & Maintenance costs are typically estimated to be a quarter...... for Operation & Maintenance planning. Concentrating efforts on development of such models, this research is focused on reliability modeling of Wind Turbine critical subsystems (especially the power converter system). For reliability assessment of these components, structural reliability methods are applied...... to one third of the total cost of energy. Reduction of Operation & Maintenance costs will result in significant cost savings and result in cheaper electricity production. Operation & Maintenance processes mainly involve actions related to replacements or repair. Identifying the right times when...

  8. Component reliability for electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bajenescu, Titu-Marius I

    2010-01-01

    The main reason for the premature breakdown of today's electronic products (computers, cars, tools, appliances, etc.) is the failure of the components used to build these products. Today professionals are looking for effective ways to minimize the degradation of electronic components to help ensure longer-lasting, more technically sound products and systems. This practical book offers engineers specific guidance on how to design more reliable components and build more reliable electronic systems. Professionals learn how to optimize a virtual component prototype, accurately monitor product reliability during the entire production process, and add the burn-in and selection procedures that are the most appropriate for the intended applications. Moreover, the book helps system designers ensure that all components are correctly applied, margins are adequate, wear-out failure modes are prevented during the expected duration of life, and system interfaces cannot lead to failure.

  9. Reliable computation from contextual correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestereich, André L.; Galvão, Ernesto F.

    2017-12-01

    An operational approach to the study of computation based on correlations considers black boxes with one-bit inputs and outputs, controlled by a limited classical computer capable only of performing sums modulo-two. In this setting, it was shown that noncontextual correlations do not provide any extra computational power, while contextual correlations were found to be necessary for the deterministic evaluation of nonlinear Boolean functions. Here we investigate the requirements for reliable computation in this setting; that is, the evaluation of any Boolean function with success probability bounded away from 1 /2 . We show that bipartite CHSH quantum correlations suffice for reliable computation. We also prove that an arbitrarily small violation of a multipartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger noncontextuality inequality also suffices for reliable computation.

  10. Reliability Characteristics of Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbynek Martinek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the phenomenon of reliability of power plants. It gives an explanation of the terms connected with this topic as their proper understanding is important for understanding the relations and equations which model the possible real situations. The reliability phenomenon is analysed using both the exponential distribution and the Weibull distribution. The results of our analysis are specific equations giving information about the characteristics of the power plants, the mean time of operations and the probability of failure-free operation. Equations solved for the Weibull distribution respect the failures as well as the actual operating hours. Thanks to our results, we are able to create a model of dynamic reliability for prediction of future states. It can be useful for improving the current situation of the unit as well as for creating the optimal plan of maintenance and thus have an impact on the overall economics of the operation of these power plants.

  11. Product reliability and the reliability of its emanating operational processes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonnemans, P.J.M.; Geudens, W.H.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of proper reliability management in business operations today, facing increasing demands on essential business drivers such as time to market, quality and financial profit. In this paper a general method is described of how to achieve product quality in a highly

  12. Power Electronics Packaging Reliability | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packaging Reliability Power Electronics Packaging Reliability A photo of a piece of power electronics laboratory equipment. NREL power electronics packaging reliability research investigates the electronics packaging around a semiconductor switching device determines the electrical, thermal, and

  13. Reliability Assessment of Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Middleton, C. R.

    This paper is partly based on research performed for the Highways Agency, London, UK under the project DPU/9/44 "Revision of Bridge Assessment Rules Based on Whole Life Performance: concrete bridges". It contains the details of a methodology which can be used to generate Whole Life (WL) reliability...... profiles. These WL reliability profiles may be used to establish revised rules for concrete bridges. This paper is to some extend based on Thoft-Christensen et. al. [1996], Thoft-Christensen [1996] et. al. and Thoft-Christensen [1996]....

  14. Metrological Reliability of Medical Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Monteiro, E.; Leon, L. F.

    2015-02-01

    The prominent development of health technologies of the 20th century triggered demands for metrological reliability of physiological measurements comprising physical, chemical and biological quantities, essential to ensure accurate and comparable results of clinical measurements. In the present work, aspects concerning metrological reliability in premarket and postmarket assessments of medical devices are discussed, pointing out challenges to be overcome. In addition, considering the social relevance of the biomeasurements results, Biometrological Principles to be pursued by research and innovation aimed at biomedical applications are proposed, along with the analysis of their contributions to guarantee the innovative health technologies compliance with the main ethical pillars of Bioethics.

  15. The problem of software reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, G.M.

    1989-01-01

    The state of the art in safety and reliability assessment of the software of industrial computer systems is reviewed and likely progress over the next few years is identified and compared with the perceived needs of the user. Some of the current projects contributing to the development of new techniques for assessing software reliability are described. One is the software test and evaluation method which looked at the faults within and between two manufacturers specifications, faults in the codes and inconsistencies between the codes and specifications. The results are given. (author)

  16. Photovoltaic power system reliability considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, V. R.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes an example of how modern engineering and safety techniques can be used to assure the reliable and safe operation of photovoltaic power systems. This particular application was for a solar cell power system demonstration project in Tangaye, Upper Volta, Africa. The techniques involve a definition of the power system natural and operating environment, use of design criteria and analysis techniques, an awareness of potential problems via the inherent reliability and FMEA methods, and use of a fail-safe and planned spare parts engineering philosophy.

  17. Reliability in the design phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siahpush, A.S.; Hills, S.W.; Pham, H.; Majumdar, D.

    1991-12-01

    A study was performed to determine the common methods and tools that are available to calculated or predict a system's reliability. A literature review and software survey are included. The desired product of this developmental work is a tool for the system designer to use in the early design phase so that the final design will achieve the desired system reliability without lengthy testing and rework. Three computer programs were written which provide the first attempt at fulfilling this need. The programs are described and a case study is presented for each one. This is a continuing effort which will be furthered in FY-1992. 10 refs

  18. FRELIB, Failure Reliability Index Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkinson, D.B.; Oestergaard, C.

    1984-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: Calculation of the reliability index given the failure boundary. A linearization point (design point) is found on the failure boundary for a stationary reliability index (min) and a stationary failure probability density function along the failure boundary, provided that the basic variables are normally distributed. 2 - Method of solution: Iteration along the failure boundary which must be specified - together with its partial derivatives with respect to the basic variables - by the user in a subroutine FSUR. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: No distribution information included (first-order-second-moment-method). 20 basic variables (could be extended)

  19. Under Construction: Reviewing and Producing Information Reliability on the Web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Adams (Samantha)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractSince 1995, medical professionals, governments and independent organizations have been developing special tools to help lay-persons find websites that are guaranteed to give only reliable medical or health-related information. However, as these different actors also recognize, such a

  20. 75 FR 81152 - Interpretation of Protection System Reliability Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ..., generation and transmission (G&T) cooperative or similar organization to accept compliance responsibility on... Reliability Standards, Order No. 672, FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,204, order on reh'g, Order No. 672-A, FERC... reh'g & compliance, 117 FERC ] 61,126 (2006), aff'd sub nom. Alcoa, Inc. v. FERC, 564 F.3d 1342 (DC...

  1. Reliability of scored patient generated subjective global assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Establish the reliability of the scored Patient Generated-Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) in determining nutritional status among Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) naive HIV-infected adults. Methods: A descriptive, cross sectional study among outpatient medical clinics, in The AIDS Support Organization ...

  2. Interstellar organic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, C.

    1972-01-01

    Most of the interstellar organic molecules have been found in the large radio source Sagittarius B2 toward the galactic center, and in such regions as W51 and the IR source in the Orion nebula. Questions of the reliability of molecular identifications are discussed together with aspects of organic synthesis in condensing clouds, degradational origin, synthesis on grains, UV natural selection, interstellar biology, and contributions to planetary biology.

  3. Fatigue Reliability under Random Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talreja, R.

    1979-01-01

    We consider the problem of estimating the probability of survival (non-failure) and the probability of safe operation (strength greater than a limiting value) of structures subjected to random loads. These probabilities are formulated in terms of the probability distributions of the loads...... propagation stage. The consequences of this behaviour on the fatigue reliability are discussed....

  4. Forecasting reliability of transformer populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.; Wetzer, J.; Wouters, P.A.A.F.

    2007-01-01

    The expected replacement wave in the current power grid faces asset managers with challenging questions. Setting up a replacement strategy and planning calls for a forecast of the long term component reliability. For transformers the future failure probability can be predicted based on the ongoing

  5. Teaming up to improve reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, E.A.; Ayres, D.J.; Lear, R.C. van

    1989-01-01

    Responding to increasingly stringent regulatory requirements, Babcock and Wilcox has teamed up with three specialist companies to provide services for nuclear utilities aiming to improve the performance of their valves and actuators. The services, which are outlined here, include inspection, repair, overhaul and valve and actuator reliability programmes. (author)

  6. Nonelectronic Parts Reliability Data 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    Characterization & Failure Analysis Techniques 100.00 130.Ot_00, ______ MFAT_1 &2 Combined set ofMFAT-1_andMFAT-2 200 00 300,00 _ _ ____ FTA ...Device Reliability - 1988 10000 12000 ___ CRTA- FMD Failure Mode Distribution Critical Technology Review Assessment 10000 12000 ___ NONOP-1

  7. INCREASED RELIABILITY OF ELECTRIC BLASTING

    OpenAIRE

    Kashuba, Oleh Ivanovych; Skliarov, L I; Skliarov, A L

    2017-01-01

    The problems of improving reliability of an electric blasting method using electric detonators with nichrome filament bridges. It was revealed that in the calculation of the total resistance of the explosive network it is necessary to increase to 24% of the nominal value

  8. Reliability Analysis of Money Habitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgadillo, Lucy M.; Bushman, Brittani S.

    2015-01-01

    Use of the Money Habitudes exercise has gained popularity among various financial professionals. This article reports on the reliability of this resource. A survey administered to young adults at a western state university was conducted, and each Habitude or "domain" was analyzed using Cronbach's alpha procedures. Results showed all six…

  9. Proposed Reliability/Cost Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delionback, L. M.

    1982-01-01

    New technique estimates cost of improvement in reliability for complex system. Model format/approach is dependent upon use of subsystem cost-estimating relationships (CER's) in devising cost-effective policy. Proposed methodology should have application in broad range of engineering management decisions.

  10. Reliability in the Rasch Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martinková, Patrícia; Zvára, K.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 3 (2007), s. 315-326 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : Cronbach's alpha * Rasch model * reliability Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.552, year: 2007 http://dml.cz/handle/10338.dmlcz/135776

  11. On the NPP structural reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemin, A.I.; Polyakov, E.F.

    1980-01-01

    Reviewed are the main statements peculiarities and possibilities of the first branch guiding technical material (GTM) ''The methods of calculation of structural reliability of NPP and its systems at the stage of projecting''. It is stated, that in GTM presented are recomendations on the calculation of reliability of such specific systems, as the system of the reactor control and protection the system of measuring instruments and automatics and safe systems. GTM are based on analytical methods of modern theory of realibility with the Use of metodology of minimal cross sections of complex systems. It is stressed, that the calculations on the proposed methods permit to calculate a wide complex of reliability parameters, reflecting separately or together prorerties of NPP dependability and maintainability. For NPP, operating by a variable schedule of leading, aditionally considered are parameters, characterizing reliability with account of the proposed regime of power change, i.e. taking into account failures, caused by decrease of the obtained power lower, than the reguired or increase of the required power higher, than the obtained

  12. System reliability of corroding pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Wenxing

    2010-01-01

    A methodology is presented in this paper to evaluate the time-dependent system reliability of a pipeline segment that contains multiple active corrosion defects and is subjected to stochastic internal pressure loading. The pipeline segment is modeled as a series system with three distinctive failure modes due to corrosion, namely small leak, large leak and rupture. The internal pressure is characterized as a simple discrete stochastic process that consists of a sequence of independent and identically distributed random variables each acting over a period of one year. The magnitude of a given sequence follows the annual maximum pressure distribution. The methodology is illustrated through a hypothetical example. Furthermore, the impact of the spatial variability of the pressure loading and pipe resistances associated with different defects on the system reliability is investigated. The analysis results suggest that the spatial variability of pipe properties has a negligible impact on the system reliability. On the other hand, the spatial variability of the internal pressure, initial defect sizes and defect growth rates can have a significant impact on the system reliability.

  13. Organization within Organization Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    This paper explores how prevalent contemporary problematizations of organizations coincide with a widespread assessment that Organization Studies (OS) has run out of steam. This impasse, the paper argues, is largely due to the emergence of an organization-phobia that has come to seize several...... strands of theorizing. By attending to the wide-ranging and far-reaching history of this organization-phobia, the paper argues that OS has become increasingly incapable of speaking about its core object. I show how organizations went from being conceptualized as entities of major importance to becoming...... credibility and legitimacy to begin with, the organization-phobia resulting from this history has been implicated in dismantling organizations, and in making OS progressively irrelevant to a wider public....

  14. Exact reliability quantification of highly reliable systems with maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bris, Radim, E-mail: radim.bris@vsb.c [VSB-Technical University Ostrava, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Department of Applied Mathematics, 17. listopadu 15, 70833 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic)

    2010-12-15

    When a system is composed of highly reliable elements, exact reliability quantification may be problematic, because computer accuracy is limited. Inaccuracy can be due to different aspects. For example, an error may be made when subtracting two numbers that are very close to each other, or at the process of summation of many very different numbers, etc. The basic objective of this paper is to find a procedure, which eliminates errors made by PC when calculations close to an error limit are executed. Highly reliable system is represented by the use of directed acyclic graph which is composed from terminal nodes, i.e. highly reliable input elements, internal nodes representing subsystems and edges that bind all of these nodes. Three admissible unavailability models of terminal nodes are introduced, including both corrective and preventive maintenance. The algorithm for exact unavailability calculation of terminal nodes is based on merits of a high-performance language for technical computing MATLAB. System unavailability quantification procedure applied to a graph structure, which considers both independent and dependent (i.e. repeatedly occurring) terminal nodes is based on combinatorial principle. This principle requires summation of a lot of very different non-negative numbers, which may be a source of an inaccuracy. That is why another algorithm for exact summation of such numbers is designed in the paper. The summation procedure uses benefits from a special number system with the base represented by the value 2{sup 32}. Computational efficiency of the new computing methodology is compared with advanced simulation software. Various calculations on systems from references are performed to emphasize merits of the methodology.

  15. Reliability on the move: safety and reliability in transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guy, G.B.

    1989-01-01

    The development of transportation has been a significant factor in the development of civilisation as a whole. Our technical ability to move people and goods now seems virtually limitless when one considers for example the achievements of the various space programmes. Yet our current achievements rely heavily on high standards of safety and reliability from equipment and the human component of transportation systems. Recent failures have highlighted our dependence on equipment and human reliability. This book represents the proceedings of the 1989 Safety and Reliability Society symposium held at Bath on 11-12 October 1989. The structure of the book follows the structure of the symposium itself and the papers selected represent current thinking the the wide field of transportation, and the areas of rail (6 papers, three on railway signalling), air including space (two papers), road (one paper), road and rail (two papers) and sea (three papers) are covered. There are four papers concerned with general transport issues. Three papers concerned with the transport of radioactive materials are indexed separately. (author)

  16. Human Reliability Data Bank: evaluation results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comer, M.K.; Donovan, M.D.; Gaddy, C.D.

    1985-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and General Physics Corporation are conducting a research program to determine the practicality, acceptability, and usefulness of a Human Reliability Data Bank for nuclear power industry probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). As part of this program, a survey was conducted of existing human reliability data banks from other industries, and a detailed concept of a Data Bank for the nuclear industry was developed. Subsequently, a detailed specification for implementing the Data Bank was developed. An evaluation of this specification was conducted and is described in this report. The evaluation tested data treatment, storage, and retrieval using the Data Bank structure, as modified from NUREG/CR-2744, and detailed procedures for data processing and retrieval, developed prior to this evaluation and documented in the test specification. The evaluation consisted of an Operability Demonstration and Evaluation of the data processing procedures, a Data Retrieval Demonstration and Evaluation, a Retrospective Analysis that included a survey of organizations currently operating data banks for the nuclear power industry, and an Internal Analysis of the current Data Bank System

  17. Robust Reliability or reliable robustness? - Integrated consideration of robustness and reliability aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemmler, S.; Eifler, Tobias; Bertsche, B.

    2015-01-01

    products are and vice versa. For a comprehensive understanding and to use existing synergies between both domains, this paper discusses the basic principles of Reliability- and Robust Design theory. The development of a comprehensive model will enable an integrated consideration of both domains...

  18. Perdas de solo e água por erosão hídrica após mudança no tipo de uso da terra, em dois métodos de preparo do solo e dois tipos de adubação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Bagatini

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A mudança no tipo de uso da terra, se não devidamente planejada e conduzida, poderá resultar em solos com capacidade produtiva diminuída e com propensão à erosão aumentada, o que irá diminuir o rendimento das culturas e prejudicar a conservação do solo e da água. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar a erosão hídrica pluvial do solo em área originalmente de campo nativo, nos seus segundo e terceiro anos de cultivo com culturas anuais em fileira (respectivamente, feijão-miúdo - Vigna unguiculata - e sorgo - Sorghum bicolor, nos métodos de preparo do solo reduzido (escarificação e sem preparo (semeadura direta e nos tipos de adubação mineral (fertilizante NPK e orgânica (cama de aviário, além de uma condição sem adubação (tratamento testemunha. O estudo foi desenvolvido em campo, na EEA/UFRGS, em Eldorado do Sul (RS, nos verões de 2007/2008 e 2008/ 2009. Usou-se chuva simulada e um Argissolo Vermelho distrófico típico com textura franco-arenosa na camada superficial e declividade média de 0,13 m m- 1. Realizaram-se dois testes de erosão em cada ciclo cultural: o primeiro, logo após o preparo do solo e a semeadura das culturas; e o segundo, cerca de 90 dias mais tarde (estádio fenológico de enchimento de legumes, no caso do feijão-miúdo, e de maturação, no do sorgo. As chuvas foram aplicadas com o simulador de braços rotativos, na intensidade planejada de 64 mm h-1 e com duração de 1,5 h cada uma. Os resultados evidenciaram que a mudança no tipo de uso da terra, excluída a condição sem adubação, não ocasionou perdas relevantes de solo e água por erosão hídrica. A mobilização do solo pela escarificação, na maior parte dos casos, favoreceu a infiltração e a retenção superficial da água da chuva e, em decorrência, reduziu a enxurrada, ao mesmo tempo em que satisfatoriamente controlou a erosão. Por sua vez, a ausência de mobilização do solo na semeadura direta, também na maior parte

  19. 78 FR 38311 - Reliability Technical Conference Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... issues related to the reliability of the Bulk-Power System. The agenda for this conference is attached... Reliability Technical Docket No. AD13-6-000 Conference. North American Electric Docket No. RC11-6-004 Reliability Corporation. North American Electric Docket No. RR13-2-000 Reliability Corporation. Not...

  20. 78 FR 63036 - Transmission Planning Reliability Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... Reliability Standards for the Bulk Power System, 130 FERC ] 61,200 (2010). \\8\\ Mandatory Reliability Standards... electric system operations across normal and contingency conditions. We also find that Reliability Standard... Reliability Standards for the Bulk Power System, 131 FERC ] 61,231 at P 21. Comments 24. NERC supports the...

  1. Medical device reliability and associated areas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dhillon, Balbir S

    2000-01-01

    .... Although the history of reliability engineering can be traced back to World War II, the application of reliability engineering concepts to medical devices is a fairly recent idea that goes back to the latter part of the 1960s when many publications on medical device reliability emerged. Today, a large number of books on general reliability have been...

  2. Reliability technology and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrick, B.J.; Kaplan, S.

    1976-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the history and status of nuclear reliability and the evolution of this subject from art towards science. It shows that that probability theory is the appropriate and essential mathematical language of this subject. The authors emphasize that it is more useful to view probability not as a $prime$frequency$prime$, i.e., not as the result of a statistical experiment, but rather as a measure of state of confidence or a state of knowledge. They also show that the probabilistic, quantitative approach has a considerable history of application in the electric power industry in the area of power system planning. Finally, the authors show that the decision theory notion of utility provides a point of view from which risks, benefits, safety, and reliability can be viewed in a unified way thus facilitating understanding, comparison, and communication. 29 refs

  3. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Bearing Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Dam, J.

    2011-10-01

    NREL has initiated the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) to investigate the root cause of the low wind turbine gearbox reliability. The GRC follows a multi-pronged approach based on a collaborative of manufacturers, owners, researchers and consultants. The project combines analysis, field testing, dynamometer testing, condition monitoring, and the development and population of a gearbox failure database. At the core of the project are two 750kW gearboxes that have been redesigned and rebuilt so that they are representative of the multi-megawatt gearbox topology currently used in the industry. These gearboxes are heavily instrumented and are tested in the field and on the dynamometer. This report discusses the bearing calibrations of the gearboxes.

  4. RELIABILITY OF LENTICULAR EXPANSION COMPENSATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel BURLACU,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Axial lenticular compensators are made to take over the longitudinal heat expansion, shock , vibration and noise, made elastic connections for piping systems. In order to have a long life for installations it is necessary that all elements, including lenticular compensators, have a good reliability. This desire can be did by technology of manufactoring and assembly of compensators, the material for lenses and by maintenance.of compensator

  5. PWR system reliability improvement activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Yuichiro

    1985-01-01

    In Japan lacking in energy resources, it is our basic energy policy to accelerate the development program of nuclear power, thereby reducing our dependence. As referred to in the foregoing, every effort has been exerted on our part to improve the PWR system reliability by dint of the so-called 'HOMEMADE' TQC activities, which is our brain-child as a result of applying to the energy industry the quality control philosophy developed in the field of manufacturing industry

  6. Reliability of Composite Dichotomous Measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martinková, Patrícia; Zvára, Karel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2010), s. 103-109 ISSN 1801-5603 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : reliability * binary data * logistic regression * Cronbach alpha * Rasch model * myocardial perfusion diagnosis Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://www.ejbi.cz/articles/201012/65/1.html

  7. TFTR CAMAC power supplies reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camp, R.A.; Bergin, W.

    1989-01-01

    Since the expected life of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) has been extended into the early 1990's, the issues of equipment wear-out, when to refurbish/replace, and the costs associated with these decisions, must be faced. The management of the maintenance of the TFTR Central Instrumentation, Control and Data Acquisition System (CICADA) power supplies within the CAMAC network is a case study of a set of systems to monitor repairable systems reliability, costs, and results of action. The CAMAC network is composed of approximately 500 racks, each with its own power supply. By using a simple reliability estimator on a coarse time interval, in conjunction with determining the root cause of individual failures, a cost effective repair and maintenance program has been realized. This paper describes the estimator, some of the specific causes for recurring failures and their correction, and the subsequent effects on the reliability estimator. By extension of this program the authors can assess the continued viability of CAMAC power supplies into the future, predicting wear-out and developing cost effective refurbishment/replacement policies. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  8. Reliability in individual monitoring service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mod Ali, N

    2011-03-01

    As a laboratory certified to ISO 9001:2008 and accredited to ISO/IEC 17025, the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL)-Nuclear Malaysia has incorporated an overall comprehensive system for technical and quality management in promoting a reliable individual monitoring service (IMS). Faster identification and resolution of issues regarding dosemeter preparation and issuing of reports, personnel enhancement, improved customer satisfaction and overall efficiency of laboratory activities are all results of the implementation of an effective quality system. Review of these measures and responses to observed trends provide continuous improvement of the system. By having these mechanisms, reliability of the IMS can be assured in the promotion of safe behaviour at all levels of the workforce utilising ionising radiation facilities. Upgradation of in the reporting program through a web-based e-SSDL marks a major improvement in Nuclear Malaysia's IMS reliability on the whole. The system is a vital step in providing a user friendly and effective occupational exposure evaluation program in the country. It provides a higher level of confidence in the results generated for occupational dose monitoring of the IMS, thus, enhances the status of the radiation protection framework of the country.

  9. Reliability engineering theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Birolini, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    This book shows how to build in and assess reliability, availability, maintainability, and safety (RAMS) of components, equipment, and systems. It presents the state of the art of reliability (RAMS) engineering, in theory & practice, and is based on over 30 years author's experience in this field, half in industry and half as Professor of Reliability Engineering at the ETH, Zurich. The book structure allows rapid access to practical results. Methods & tools are given in a way that they can be tailored to cover different RAMS requirement levels. Thanks to Appendices A6 - A8 the book is mathematically self-contained, and can be used as a textbook or as a desktop reference with a large number of tables (60), figures (210), and examples / exercises^ 10,000 per year since 2013) were the motivation for this final edition, the 13th since 1985, including German editions. Extended and carefully reviewed to improve accuracy, it represents the continuous improvement effort to satisfy reader's needs and confidenc...

  10. Operator reliability assessment system (OPERAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.; Spurgin, A.J.; Martin, T.; Welsch, J.; Hallam, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    OPERAS is a personal-computer (PC) based software to collect and process simulator data on control-room operators responses during requalification training scenarios. The data collection scheme is based upon approach developed earlier during the EPRI Operator Reliability Experiments project. The software allows automated data collection from simulator, thus minimizing simulator staff time and resources to collect, maintain and process data which can be useful in monitoring, assessing and enhancing the progress of crew reliability and effectiveness. The system is designed to provide the data and output information in the form of user-friendly charts, tables and figures for use by plant staff. OPERAS prototype software has been implemented at the Diablo Canyon (PWR) and Millstone (BWR) plants and is currently being used to collect operator response data. Data collected from similator include plant-state variables such as reactor pressure and temperature, malfunction, times at which annunciators are activated, operator actions and observations of crew behavior by training staff. The data and systematic analytical results provided by the OPERAS system can contribute to increase objectivity by the utility probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) and training staff in monitoring and assessing reliability of their crews

  11. Human factors reliability benchmark exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poucet, A.

    1989-08-01

    The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission has organised a Human Factors Reliability Benchmark Exercise (HF-RBE) with the aim of assessing the state of the art in human reliability modelling and assessment. Fifteen teams from eleven countries, representing industry, utilities, licensing organisations and research institutes, participated in the HF-RBE. The HF-RBE was organised around two study cases: (1) analysis of routine functional Test and Maintenance (TPM) procedures: with the aim of assessing the probability of test induced failures, the probability of failures to remain unrevealed and the potential to initiate transients because of errors performed in the test; (2) analysis of human actions during an operational transient: with the aim of assessing the probability that the operators will correctly diagnose the malfunctions and take proper corrective action. This report summarises the contributions received from the participants and analyses these contributions on a comparative basis. The aim of this analysis was to compare the procedures, modelling techniques and quantification methods used, to obtain insight in the causes and magnitude of the variability observed in the results, to try to identify preferred human reliability assessment approaches and to get an understanding of the current state of the art in the field identifying the limitations that are still inherent to the different approaches

  12. Systems reliability Benchmark exercise part 1-Description and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendola, A.

    1986-01-01

    The report describes aims, rules and results of the Systems Reliability Benchmark Exercise, which has been performed in order to assess methods and procedures for reliability analysis of complex systems and involved a large number of European organizations active in NPP safety evaluation. The exercise included both qualitative and quantitative methods and was structured in such a way that separation of the effects of uncertainties in modelling and in data on the overall spread was made possible. Part I describes the way in which RBE has been performed, its main results and conclusions

  13. New advances in human reliability using the EPRIHRA calculator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julius, J. A.; Grobbelaar, J. F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes new advances in human reliability associated with the integration of HRA methods, lessons learned during the first few years of operation of the EPRI HRA / PRA Tools Users Group, and application of human reliability techniques in areas beyond the more traditional Level 1 internal events PRA. This paper is organized as follows. 1. EPRI HRA Users Group Overview (mission, membership, activities, approach) 2. HRA Methods Currently Used (selection, integration, and addressing dependencies) 3. New Advances in HRA Methods 4. Conclusions. (authors)

  14. Criteriom of efficiency of thermometric systems with increased reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sal'nikov, N.L.; Filimonov, E.V.

    1995-01-01

    Problems on metrological reliability of thermometric systems, intended for temperature regime control at nuclear power facilities are discussed. Thermoelectrical converters and resistance thermoconverters are the most utilized sources of thermometric information at nuclear power plants. Two or more transducers are proposed to be unified in one measurement system in order to increase the accuracy of temperature measurements through obtaining surplus values. Two versions of thermometric systems organization are considered. The first system combined various-type temperature transducers whereas the second system consists of two similar-type transducers. It is established that thermometric systems with various-type transducers are characterized by higher metrological reliability. 3 refs.; 2 figs

  15. Water erosion under simulated rainfall in different soil management systems during soybean growth Erosão hídrica sob chuva simulada em diferentes sistemas de manejo do solo durante o crescimento da soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luis Engel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil management influences soil cover by crop residues and plant canopy, affecting water erosion. The objective of this research was to quantify water and soil losses by water erosion under different soil tillage systems applied on a typical aluminic Hapludox soil, in an experiment carried out from April 2003 to May 2004, in the Santa Catarina highland region, Lages, southern Brazil. Simulated rainfall was applied during five soybean cropstages, at the constant intensity of 64.0 mm h-1. Treatments were replicated twice and consisted of: i conventional tillage on bare soil - control treatment (CTBS, ii conventional tillage on cultivated soil (CTCS, iii no-tillage on non tilled soil with burned crop residue (NTRB, iv no-tillage in non tilled soil with crop residue desiccated (NTRD, and v no-tillage on four-years interrupted soil tillage with crop residue desiccated - "traditional no tillage" (NTRT. Regardless of soybean cropstages, water losses were the highest for the CTCS than for the untilled soils, while soil losses were considerably higher in the CTCS treatment only until cropstage 3, in cultivated soil treatments. The NTRT was most effective treatment in terms of both water and soil loss reduction. Water infiltration should also be considered, when considering the soil erosion process caused by rainfall and its associated runoff, due to the management systems usually adopted in cultivated fields.O manejo do solo influencia a cobertura superficial pelo resíduo cultural e, juntamente com a cobertura do solo pela copa das plantas, afeta a erosao hídrica. O objetivo do estudo foi quantificar as perdas de água e solo por erosão hídrica em diferentes sistemas de manejo do solo, em diferentes estádios do cultivo da soja, em um experimento conduzido de abril de 2003 a maio de 2004, na região do Planalto Catarinense, em um Nitossolo Háplico alumínico. Chuvas simuladas foram aplicadas em cinco estádios do cultivo da soja, com intensidade

  16. Escoamento superficial na interação: cobertura vegetal e práticas de controle de erosão Erosion losses from runoff: interaction of soil cover and erosion control practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. R. de Carvalho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O escoamento da água oriunda das terras agricultadas é o principal fator poluente dos mananciais hídricos nas áreas rurais. Devido a esse fato, faz-se necessário o desenvolvimento e a aplicação de tecnologias que venham a reduzir descargas de resíduos indesejáveis. Nesse sentido, conduziu-se um experimento na área experimental do Departamento de Engenharia Rural - ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba - SP, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes condições de solo, (feijão, gramínea e solo nu e diferentes práticas de controle de erosão (sulco de infiltração, terraço de infiltração e sem práticas de controle de erosão, buscando-se estimar o escoamento superficial. O delineamento estatístico adotado foi o em blocos aleatorizados, em esquema fatorial 3x3, perfazendo 9 tratamentos com 3 repetições. O período de coleta de dados pluviométricos foi de 06 de dezembro de 2007 a 11 de abril de 2008; para isto, utilizou-se de um pluviômetro, com 21,1 cm de diâmetro, instalado na área experimental. Observando-se as perdas de água, em relação às estruturas, tem-se em ordem decrescente de eficiência: Terraço, Sulco e Rampa; e com relação às coberturas, tem-se em ordem decrescente de eficiência: Feijão, Capim e Solo Nu.The flow of sediment from cropped land is the main pollutant of water sources in rural areas. Due to this fact, it is necessary to develop and implement technologies that will reduce water and sediment discharges. Accordingly, an experiment was conducted in the Department of Biosystems Engineering - ESALQ / USP, Piracicaba - SP with the objective to evaluate the effect of different soil cover (bean, grass and bare ground and erosion control practices (wide base terraces and infiltration furrows in slopes (no practices to control erosion while measuring water losses in runoff. The statistical design adopted was randomized blocks in a 3x3 factorial scheme resulting in 9 treatments with 3 replicates (blocks. The

  17. Mortalidad por violencia del compañero íntimo en mujeres extranjeras residentes en España: (1999-2006 Mortality due to intimate partner violence in foreign women living in Spain: (1999-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Vives-Cases

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Describir la evolución de la mortalidad por violencia del compañero íntimo (VCI en las mujeres extranjeras residentes en España y explorar un posible mayor riesgo de este colectivo de morir por VCI. Métodos: Estudio ecológico retrospectivo basado en las muertes por VCI del Instituto de la Mujer (1999-2006. Cálculo de tasas de mortalidad y modelos de Poisson para el cálculo de riesgos relativos e intervalos de confianza del 95%. Resultados: El riesgo de morir por VCI de una mujer extranjera es 5,3 veces mayor que el de una española, y por años estudiados las extranjeras tienen un riesgo 2-8 veces mayor. Conclusión: Las mujeres extranjeras residentes en España son especialmente vulnerables ante la muerte por VCI. Se requiere una mayor investigación para profundizar en las causas y estrategias transversales que también impliquen al sector sanitario.Objectives: To describe the distribution of mortality due to intimate partner violence (IPV in foreign women living in Spain and to explore the potentially greater risk of dying from IPV in this group. Methods: We performed a retrospective ecological study of deaths from IPV registered by the Women’s Institute of Spain (1999-2006. Mortality rates and Poisson models for relative risk and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results: The average risk of dying from IPV in foreign women was 5.3 times greater than that in Spanish women. In the years studied, the increased risk in foreign women was 2 to 8 times greater than that in Spanish women. Conclusion: Foreign women living in Spain are especially vulnerable to death from IPV. Further research on the causes of this phenomena and strategies involving health services are needed.

  18. Notions of reliability: considering the importance of difference in guiding patients to health care Web sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, S A; De Bont, A A

    2003-01-01

    This article analyzes the efforts of three organizations to provide a standard that guides Internet users to reliable health care sites. Comparison of health Internet sites, interviews and document studies. In comparing these approaches, three different constructions of reliability are identified. The resulting possibilities and restrictions of these constructions for users that are searching for health information on the Internet are revealed.

  19. 76 FR 66055 - North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Order Approving Interpretation of Reliability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ...\\ Mandatory Reliability Standards for the Bulk-Power System, Order No. 693, FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,242... materially affected'' by Bulk-Power System reliability may request an interpretation of a Reliability... Electric Reliability Corporation; Order Approving Interpretation of Reliability Standard; Before...

  20. Improved reliability of power modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Nick; Liserre, Marco; Dupont, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Power electronic systems play an increasingly important role in providing high-efficiency power conversion for adjustable-speed drives, power-quality correction, renewable-energy systems, energy-storage systems, and electric vehicles. However, they are often presented with demanding operating...... environments that challenge the reliability aspects of power electronic techniques. For example, increasingly thermally stressful environments are seen in applications such as electric vehicles, where ambient temperatures under the hood exceed 150 °C, while some wind turbine applications can place large...