Sample records for reliability of equipment

  1. Reliable Electronic Equipment

    N. A. Nayak


    Full Text Available The reliability aspect of electronic equipment's is discussed. To obtain optimum results, close cooperation between the components engineer, the design engineer and the production engineer is suggested.

  2. Reliable design of electronic equipment an engineering guide

    Natarajan, Dhanasekharan


    This book explains reliability techniques with examples from electronics design for the benefit of engineers. It presents the application of de-rating, FMEA, overstress analyses and reliability improvement tests for designing reliable electronic equipment. Adequate information is provided for designing computerized reliability database system to support the application of the techniques by designers. Pedantic terms and the associated mathematics of reliability engineering discipline are excluded for the benefit of comprehensiveness and practical applications. This book offers excellent support

  3. Grey System Judgment on Reliability of Mechanical Equipment


    The Grey system theory was applied in reliability analysis of mechanical equip-ment. It is a new theory and method in reliability engineering of mechanical engineering of mechanical equipment. Through the Grey forecast of reliability parameters and the relia-bility forecast of parts and systems, decisions were made in the real operative state of e-quipment in real time. It replaced the old method that required mathematics and physical statistics in a large base of test data to obtain a pre-check, and it was used in a practical problem. Because of applying the data of practical operation state in real time, it could much more approach the real condition of equipment; it was applied to guide the procedure and had rather considerable economic and social benefits.

  4. Statistical Analysis of Human Reliability of Armored Equipment

    LIU Wei-ping; CAO Wei-guo; REN Jing


    Human errors of seven types of armored equipment, which occur during the course of field test, are statistically analyzed. The human error-to-armored equipment failure ratio is obtained. The causes of human errors are analyzed. The distribution law of human errors is acquired. The ratio of human errors and human reliability index are also calculated.

  5. [Criteria and methods for assessing the reliability of medical equipment. Part II: special requirements to reliability of medical equipment and methods for reliability improvement].

    Toporkov, A A


    Classification of medical equipment according to the failure effects is given. Methods for increasing the reliability of medical equipment are considered. The problem of organization of the technical state monitoring, maintenance and metrological support of medical equipment is considered from the viewpoint of legislative control.

  6. Reliability analysis of PLC safety equipment

    Yu, J.; Kim, J. Y. [Chungnam Nat. Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    FMEA analysis for Nuclear Safety Grade PLC, failure rate prediction for nuclear safety grade PLC, sensitivity analysis for components failure rate of nuclear safety grade PLC, unavailability analysis support for nuclear safety system.


    Vladimír Stuchlý; Roman Poprocký; Malgorzata Kaczmarek


    Quality assurance of production and the associated maintenance systems have changed a lot for recent decades and are subject to change requirements for reliabilityReliability and Availability of machinery and equipment subject to the optimal maintenance costs. The paper deals with design options and assessment of the maintenance system intended method of reliability-oriented maintenance and maintenance costs. They use the methods of statistical and probabilistic analyzes of data on failure...

  8. Application of FTA Method to Reliability Analysis of Vacuum Resin Shot Dosing Equipment


    Faults of vacuum resin shot dosing equipment are studied systematically and the fault tree of the system is constructed by using the fault tree analysis(FTA) method. Then the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the tree is carried out, respectively, and according to the results of the analysis, the measures to improve the system are worked out and implemented. As a result, the reliability of the equipment is enhanced greatly.

  9. Mathematical Model of Equipment Unit Reliability for Determination of Optimum Overhaul Periods

    M. A. Pasiouk


    Full Text Available The paper proposes a mathematical model of the equipment unit reliability with due account of operational mode effect and main influencing factors.Its application contributes to reduction of operating costs, optimization of overhaul periods, prolongation of life-service and rational usage of fleet resource.

  10. Reliability analysis of the control system of large-scale vertical mixing equipment


    The control system of vertical mixing equipment is a concentrate distributed monitoring system (CDMS).A reliability analysis model was built and its analysis was conducted based on reliability modeling theories such as the graph theory,Markov process,and redundancy theory.Analysis and operational results show that the control system can meet all technical requirements for high energy composite solid propellant manufacturing.The reliability performance of the control system can be considerably improved by adopting a control strategy combined with the hot spared redundancy of the primary system and the cold spared redundancy of the emergent one.The reliability performance of the control system can be also improved by adopting the redundancy strategy or improving the quality of each component and cable of the system.

  11. The concepts of leak before break and absolute reliability of NPP equipment and piping

    Getman, A.F.; Komarov, O.V.; Sokov, L.M. [and others


    This paper describes the absolute reliability (AR) concept for ensuring safe operation of nuclear plant equipment and piping. The AR of a pipeline or component is defined as the level of reliability when the probability of an instantaneous double-ended break is near zero. AR analysis has been applied to Russian RBMK and VVER type reactors. It is proposed that analyses required for application of the leak before break concept should be included in AR implementation. The basic principles, methods, and approaches that provide the basis for implementing the AR concept are described.

  12. Validity and reliability of a home environment inventory for physical activity and media equipment

    Pereira Mark A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about how the home environmental supports physical activity and screen media usage. The purpose of this study was to develop and test the reliability and validity of a self-report instrument to comprehensively reflect the availability and accessibility of physical activity and screen media equipment in the home environment. Methods Ten families participated in the initial field testing to provide feedback for instrument development. Thirty one adult participants, each of whom had at least one child 10–17 years old, completed two Physical Activity and Media Inventory (PAMI instruments. The first PAMI was completed simultaneously, but independently, with a research assistant to assess validity. A second PAMI was completed by the participant one week later to assess reliability. Results The adult participants were mostly mothers/female guardians, mean age 38 ± 7.2 years, mostly Caucasian (52%, college educated (65%, living in single family homes (74%. Test-retest reliability was acceptable to strong for all summary variables (physical activity equipment, ICC = 0.76 to 0.99; media equipment, ICC = 0.72 to 0.96. For validation, reports from participants and research assistants were strongly correlated (physical activity, 0.67 – 0.98; media, 0.79 – 0.96. Compared to participants, research assistants reported a greater percentage of physical activity equipment as "in plain view and easy to get to" and a smaller percentage of items as "put away and difficult to get to". Conclusion Our results indicate strong evidence for the reliability and validity of the variables calculated from the PAMI. This self report inventory may be useful in assessing the availability of physical activity and screen media equipment in the home environment and could be used in conjunction with other home assessment tools (food availability, parenting styles and feeding practices to identify obesogenic home environments.

  13. Solution to the problem of improving reliable operation of the compressor equipment

    Kamaleyev, Z.M.


    Questions are examined of improving the efficiency of using compressor equipment: decrease in material and labor outlays for its maintenance, improvement in the quality of repair, increase in the interrepair periods. Organizational forms and technical devices are examined on whose basis in the association ''Sibneftegazpererabotka'' a system is improved for preventive maintenance and improvement in reliability and durability of the compressor operation.

  14. Optimizing reliability, maintainability and testability parameters of equipment based on GSPN

    Yongcheng Xu


    Reliability, maintainability and testability (RMT) are important properties of equipment, since they have important influ-ence on operational availability and life cycle costs (LCC). There-fore, weighting and optimizing the three properties are of great significance. A new approach for optimization of RMT parameters is proposed. First of al , the model for the equipment operation pro-cess is established based on the generalized stochastic Petri nets (GSPN) theory. Then, by solving the GSPN model, the quantitative relationship between operational availability and RMT parameters is obtained. Afterwards, taking history data of similar equipment and operation process into consideration, a cost model of design, manufacture and maintenance is developed. Based on operational availability, the cost model and parameters ranges, an optimization model of RMT parameters is built. Final y, the effectiveness and practicability of this approach are validated through an example.


    H. Abdul Samat


    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Maintenance is an important process in a manufacturing system. Thus it should be conducted and measured effectively to ensure performance efficiency. A variety of studies have been conducted on maintenance as affected by factors such as productivity, cost, employee skills, resource utilisation, equipment, processes, and maintenance task planning and scheduling [1,2]. According to Coetzee [3], equipment is the most significant factor affecting maintenance performance because it is directly influenced by maintenance activities. This paper proposes an equipment performance and reliability (EPR model for measuring maintenance performance based on machine effectiveness. The model is developed in four phases, using Pareto analysis for machine selection, and failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA for failure analysis processes. Machine effectiveness is measured using the integration of overall equipment effectiveness and the reliability principle. The result is interpreted in terms of maintenance effectiveness, using five health index levels as bases. The model is implemented in a semiconductor company, and the outcomes confirm the practicality of the EPR model as it helps companies to measure maintenance effectiveness.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Instandhouding is ’n belangrike proses in ’n vervaardigingsomgewing. Dit moet dus effektief onderneem en bestuur word met die oog op doeltreffende werkverrrigting. Verskeie studies is reeds onderneem om die impak van faktore soos produktiwiteit, koste, werknemervaardighede, hulpbronbenutting, toerusting, prosesse en instandhoudingsbeplanning en skedulering op instandhouding te bepaal [1,2]. Volgens Coetzee [3] het toerusting die mees betekeninsvolle impak op instandhoudingswerkverrrigting aangesien dit direk beïnvloed word deur instandhoudingsaktiwiteite. Hierdie artikel hou ’n model voor vir toerustingwerkverrigting en betroubaarheid wat gebruik kan word om die

  16. Integrated Grease-pouring System Design and Reliability Assessment of Engineering Equipment

    ZHANG Xing; WANG Jian; DAI Ling; YANG Cheng-xian


    Because of poor lubrication,the abrasion of the engineering equipment's key connection position(the hinge joint and so on)has become the major factor that affects the mechanical benefit.The excavator WY60 is taken as an example in this paper.The automatic grease-pouring,the working state test,and the alarm for fault of every lubricating point on the machine is accomplished by the control sub-system,the lubricating system and other correlated components.The principle and functions of the system are described.The work condition is analyzed.Finally,we present the plan of the software and the hardware of the system,and.set up thefuzry ossessment model of reliability of the system.

  17. OREDA offshore and onshore reliability data volume 1 - topside equipment



    This handbook presents high quality reliability data for offshore equipment collected during phase VI to IX (project period 2000 – 2009) of the OREDA project. The intention of the handbook is to provide both quantitative and qualitative information as a basis for Performance Forecasting or RAMS (Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Safety) analyses. Volume 1 is about Topside Equipment. Compared to earlier editions, there are only minor changes in the reliability data presentation. To obtain a reasonable population for presenting reliability data for topside equipment in the 2015 edition, some data from phases VI and VII already issued in the previous 2009 handbook (5th edition) have also been included. The 2015 topside volume is divided into two parts. Part I describes the OREDA project, different data collection phases and the estimation procedures used to generate the data tables presented in Part II of the handbook. Topside data are in general not covering the whole lifetime of equipment, but ...

  18. Implementation of the project of equipment reliability in the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde; Implementacion del proyecto de confiabilidad de equipo en la Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde

    Rios O, J. E.; Martinez L, A. G. [CFE, Central Laguna Verde, Subgerencia General de Operacion, Veracruz (Mexico)]. e-mail:


    A equipment is reliable if it fulfills the function for which was designed and when it is required. To implement a project of reliability in a nuclear power plant this associate to a process of continuous analysis of the operation, of the conditions and faults of the equipment. The analysis of the operation of a system, of the equipment of the same faults and the parts that integrate to equipment take to identify the potential causes of faults. The predictive analysis on components and equipment allow to rectify and to establish guides to optimize the maintenance and to guarantee the reliability and function of the same ones. The reliability in the equipment is without place to doubts a wide project that embraces from the more small component of the equipment going by the proof of the parts of reserve, the operation conditions until the operative techniques of analysis. Without place of doubt for a nuclear power plant the taking of decisions based on the reliability of their systems and equipment will be the appropriate for to assure the operation and reliability of the same one. In this work would appear the project of reliability its processes, criteria, indicators action of improvement and the interaction of the different disciplines from the Nuclear Power Plant of Laguna Verde like a fundamental point for it put in operation. (Author)

  19. Influence of polymer aging on reliability indices of a typical printed-circuit assembly of radioelectronic equipment

    Kuznetsov, G. V.; Kravchenko, E. V.


    Mathematical modeling of nonlinear nonstationary temperature fields of a typical printed-circuit assembly of radioelectronic equipment has been performed in a three-dimensional formulation with account for the convective and radiative heat exchange with the environment. On the basis of the data of the numerical experiment the “aging” (degradation) indices of polymer materials under prolonged thermal action have been determined. It has been established that the reliability of an object modeled with account for the real temperature fields is five times lower compared to the realization of normalized thermal conditions.

  20. Process plant equipment operation, control, and reliability

    Holloway, Michael D; Onyewuenyi, Oliver A


    "Process Plant Equipment Book is another great publication from Wiley as a reference book for final year students as well as those who will work or are working in chemical production plants and refinery…" -Associate Prof. Dr. Ramli Mat, Deputy Dean (Academic), Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia "…give[s] readers access to both fundamental information on process plant equipment and to practical ideas, best practices and experiences of highly successful engineers from around the world… The book is illustrated throughout with numerous black & white p

  1. Simple, reliable, and nondestructive method for the measurement of vacuum pressure without specialized equipment.

    Yuan, Jin-Peng; Ji, Zhong-Hua; Zhao, Yan-Ting; Chang, Xue-Fang; Xiao, Lian-Tuan; Jia, Suo-Tang


    We present a simple, reliable, and nondestructive method for the measurement of vacuum pressure in a magneto-optical trap. The vacuum pressure is verified to be proportional to the collision rate constant between cold atoms and the background gas with a coefficient k, which can be calculated by means of the simple ideal gas law. The rate constant for loss due to collisions with all background gases can be derived from the total collision loss rate by a series of loading curves of cold atoms under different trapping laser intensities. The presented method is also applicable for other cold atomic systems and meets the miniaturization requirement of commercial applications.

  2. State-of-art Report on reliability assessment issue of the digital I and C equipment

    Lee, Dong Young; Hwang, In Koo; Cha, Kyung Ho; Kwon, Kee Choon; Ham, Chang Shik; Lee, Ki Young; Park, Jong Kyun


    As the operational life-time of nuclear power plants being currently developed is increasing with technology improvements, the life-time of instrumentation and control systems is also required to be met to this plant operational period. The electronic devices are usually expected to be available less than for 10 years. Therefore, an appropriate S and PM (surveillance and preventive maintenance) strategy should be established to secure the reliability and availability of the plants. EPRI-URD requires that the mean time between failures caused by any I and C system failure shall be more than 50 operating years. The methodology to access of the mean time between failures of I and C system is included in this report. (author)

  3. State-of-art Report on reliability assessment issue of the digital I and C equipment

    Lee, Dong Young; Hwang, In Koo; Cha, Kyung Ho; Kwon, Kee Choon; Ham, Chang Shik; Lee, Ki Young; Park, Jong Kyun


    As the operational life-time of nuclear power plants being currently developed is increasing with technology improvements, the life-time of instrumentation and control systems is also required to be met to this plant operational period. The electronic devices are usually expected to be available less than for 10 years. Therefore, an appropriate S and PM (surveillance and preventive maintenance) strategy should be established to secure the reliability and availability of the plants. EPRI-URD requires that the mean time between failures caused by any I and C system failure shall be more than 50 operating years. The methodology to access of the mean time between failures of I and C system is included in this report. (author)

  4. Distribution Equipment Reliability Data; Tillfoerlitlighetsdata paa komponent nivaa foer eldistributionsnaet

    Ying He (Vattenfall Research and Development AB, Stockholm (SE))


    In risk analysis of a power system, the risk for the system to fail power supply is calculated from the knowledge of the reliability data of individual system components. Meaningful risk analysis requires reasonable and acceptable data. The quality of the data has the fundamental importance for the analysis. However, the valid data are expensive to collect. The component reliability performance statistics are not easy to obtain. This report documents the distribution equipment reliability data developed by the project 'Component Reliability Data for Risk Analysis of Distribution Systems' within the Elforsk RandD program 'Risk Analysis 06-10'. The project analyzed a large sample size of distribution outages recorded by more than a hundred power utilities in Sweden during 2004-2005, and derived the equipment reliability data nationwide. The detailed summaries of these data are presented in the appendices of the report. The component reliability was also investigated at a number of power utilities including Vattenfall Eldistribution AB, Goeteborg Energi Naet AB, E.ON Elnaet Sverige AB, Fortum Distribution, and Linde Energi AB. The reliability data were derived for individual utilities. The detailed data lists and failure statistics are summarized in the appendices for each participating companies. The data provided in this report are developed based on a large sample size of field outage records and can be therefore used as generic data in system risk analysis and reliability studies. In order to provide more references and complementary data, the equipment reliability surveys conducted by IEEE were studied in the project. The most significant results obtained by the IEEE surveys are provided in the report. A summary of the reliability data surveyed by IEEE is presented in the appendix of the report. These data are suggested to use in the absence of better data being available. The reliability data estimates were derived for sustained failure rates

  5. 舰船电子设备可靠性理论研究%The theoretical research of reliability design for electronic equipment for ships

    李伟; 李燕


    This is the theoretical research of reliability design for electronic equipment for ships. In this paper, through the study of the theory of reliability analysis of ship electronic equipment, study the characteristics of reliability parameters, formulate the reliability allocation and expected scheme and improve ship the inherent reliability of electronic equipment in the development and production stage, so as to reduce ship electronic equipment failure rate, reduce the maintenance support resources, reduce the maintenance cost and prolong the service life of the equipment.%本文是对舰船电子设备可靠性设计的理论研究。本文通过对舰船电子设备进行可靠性理论分析,研究其可靠性参数特点,制定可靠性分配与预计方案,提高舰船电子设备在研制生产阶段的固有可靠性,从而达到降低舰船电子设备故障率、减少维修保障资源、降低维修费用和延长设备使用寿命的目的。

  6. Reliability increasing of the Cubatao refinery mechanical equipment yard. An application of the reliability engineering concepts; Aumento da confiabilidade do parque de equipamentos mecanicos da Refinaria de Cubatao. Uma aplicacao dos conceitos da engenharia de confiabilidade

    Afonso, Luiz Otavio Amaral [PETROBRAS, Cubatao, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Engenharia


    This paper reports the history of the reliability engineering applied to the reduction of failures quantity in mechanic equipment at the Cubatao, Brazil, refinery. The work describes the work system used for obtaining a 68 per cent reduction in the number of failures on the 1500 machines installed in a period of approximately seven years. Includes a brief description of the data bank or failure analysis in mechanic equipment (MICRO-SAFE), presently containing 5500 records, used to obtain statistical data on the equipment failures.

  7. Selection of Equipment Software Reliability Metrics Based on GQM%基于GQM的装备软件可靠性参数选取方法

    韩坤; 吴纬; 陈守华; 帅勇


    针对装备软件无可靠性定量要求以及开发过程缺少监管的问题,提出基于GQM(Goal-Question-Metric)的装备软件可靠性参数选取方法。首先构建了软件可靠性通用参数集和装备软件可靠性特有参数集,然后按照GQM方法的框架,从不同角度出发,制定装备软件可靠性度量目标,列出为实现目标需要回答的一系列问题,进而以回答问题的方式,确定不同情况下适用的软件可靠性参数,最终建立装备软件可靠性参数体系。%Aiming at the problem of no equipment software reliability quantitative requirement and lacking of supervision to development process,a method for selecting of equipment software reliability metrics based on GQM (Goal-Question-Metric)is proposed. Firstly,universal metrics of software reliability and specific metrics of equipment software reliability are set up separately. Secondly, following the framework of GQM,goals of equipment software reliability measurement are established from different point of view,and a series of questions are listed according to the goals. Software reliability metrics suitable for specific situation are selected in way of answering question,and system of equipment software reliability metrics is established finally.

  8. Guidelines for the selection and application of tantalum electrolytic capacitors in highly reliable equipment

    Holladay, A. M.


    Guidelines are given for the selection and application of three types of tantalum electrolytic capacitors in current use in the design of electrical and electronic circuits for space flight missions. In addition, the guidelines supplement requirements of existing military specifications used in the procurement of capacitors. A need exists for these guidelines to assist designers in preventing some of the recurring, serious problems experienced with tantalum electrolytic capacitors in the recent past. The three types of capacitors covered by these guidelines are; solid, wet foil, and tantalum cased wet slug.

  9. Methodological aspects of the operational reliability of the equipment of oil production. Information component of the methodology and formulation of the problem by the construction of an information system

    Dmitrii Antoniadi


    Full Text Available The article deals with methods for determining the reliability of the factors of oil production equipment, a study of reliability characteristics of the system "well - setting electric centrifugal pumps", shows the factors of reliability in terms of production complications. The preliminary generalizations on the classification of oil drilling equipment reliability factors leading to such practically relevant provisions of durability, forecasting and optimization of accident repairs. The principles of classification of the factors of reliability of equipment in the aspect of the efficiency of oil production

  10. Methodology Investigation. A Comparison of Reliability Tests for Avionics Equipment Onboard U.S. Army Helicopters


    electric motor driven cam mechanism. Operation of the motor was controlled by a timer. The heating and cooling auto- clave is not shown in the photograph...the laboratory methods is least expensive is debatable . TABLE 4. 0-11 ESTIMATED RELATIVE COST AND TIME REQUIREMENTS Type____Test I Relative Calendar

  11. Proceedings of third all union conference on dynamics, strength and reliability of oil field equipment. Materialy tret'yey vsesoyuznoy konferentsii po dinamike prochnosti i nadezhnosti neftepromyslovogo oborudovaniya


    Four sections participated in the conference: one on the dynamics of oil industry equipment; one on the durability of the oil industry equipment; one on the reliability of oil industry equipment and one on the optimal design of oil industry equipment.

  12. Analysis of Reliability of Electrical Automation Control Equipment%关于电气自动化控制设备可靠性问题的分析



    The author analyzes and researches on some problems related to reliability of the electrical automation equipment based on years of practical experience and professional knowledge and skills,mainly including significance of doing a good job of electrical automation equipment reliability analysis,problems in the analysis process of electrical automation control equipment reliability,and measures of solving the problems in electrical automation control equipment reliability analysis,aiming to offer ref-erence and promote better development of Chinaˊs electrical industry.%笔者结合自身多年的实践经验和所掌握的专业知识和技能,就电气自动化设备可靠性的相关问题进行了分析和研究,主要包括做好电气自动化设备可靠性分析工作的重要意义、电气自动化控制设备可靠性分析过程中存在的问题、解决电气自动化控制设备可靠性分析中存在问题及措施三个基础部分,希望能够起到一定参考和借鉴的作用,促进我国的电气行业实现更快更好的发展。

  13. A comparative study on the HW reliability assessment methods for digital I and C equipment

    Jung, Hoan Sung; Sung, T. Y.; Eom, H. S.; Park, J. K.; Kang, H. G.; Lee, G. Y. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea); Kim, M. C. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejeon (Korea); Jun, S. T. [KHNP, Taejeon (Korea)


    It is necessary to predict or to evaluate the reliability of electronic equipment for the probabilistic safety analysis of digital instrument and control equipment. But most databases for the reliability prediction have no data for the up-to-date equipment and the failure modes are not classified. The prediction results for the specific component show different values according to the methods and databases. For boards and systems each method shows different values than others also. This study is for reliability prediction of PDC system for Wolsong NPP1 as a digital I and C equipment. Various reliability prediction methods and failure databases are used in calculation of the reliability to compare the effects of sensitivity and accuracy of each model and database. Many considerations for the reliability assessment of digital systems are derived with the results of this study. 14 refs., 19 figs., 15 tabs. (Author)

  14. Improving the Efficiency of Administrative Decision-Making when Monitoring Reliability and Safety of Oil and Gas Equipment

    Zemenkova Maria


    Full Text Available Methodology of rapid assessment of reliability index was developed based on system analysis of technological parameters. Within functioning of on-line monitoring system of reliability index of industrial facility this method allows to increase efficiency of making managerial decisions on technical and preventive maintenance. The technique is based on the analysis of technological parameters of operational modes of pipeline transport facilities registered by dispatcher controls. The created technique can be used by the operating, research, design institutes and oil and gas transport enterprises when declaring industrial safety. The received mathematical models allow federal services of supervision, the independent expert organizations to predict the development of reliability in the registered block of dispatching data either in real time mode, or taking into account the dynamics of service conditions of the object.

  15. A reliability assessment method based on support vector machines for CNC equipment


    With the applications of high technology,a catastrophic failure of CNC equipment rarely occurs at normal operation conditions.So it is difficult for traditional reliability assessment methods based on time-to-failure distributions to deduce the reliability level.This paper presents a novel reliability assessment methodology to estimate the reliability level of equipment with machining performance degradation data when only a few samples are available.The least squares support vector machines(LS-SVM) are introduced to analyze the performance degradation process on the equipment.A two-stage parameter optimization and searching method is proposed to improve the LS-SVM regression performance and a reliability assessment model based on the LS-SVM is built.A machining performance degradation experiment has been carried out on an OTM650 machine tool to validate the effectiveness of the proposed reliability assessment methodology.

  16. A reliability assessment method based on support vector machines for CNC equipment

    WU Jun; DENG Chao; SHAO XinYu; XIE S Q


    With the applications of high technology, a catastrophic failure of CNC equipment rarely occurs at normal operation conditions. So it is difficult for traditional reliability assessment methods based on time-to-failure distributions to deduce the reliability level. This paper presents a novel reliability assessment methodology to estimate the reliability level of equipment with machining performance degradation data when only a few samples are available. The least squares support vector machines(LS-SVM) are introduced to analyze the performance degradation process on the equipment. A two-stage parameter optimization and searching method is proposed to improve the LS-SVM regression performance and a reliability assessment model based on the LS-SVM is built. A machining performance degradation experiment has been carried out on an OTM650 machine tool to validate the effectiveness of the proposed reliability assessment methodology.

  17. Design of thermal reliability platform for electronic equipment%电子设备的热可靠性平台设计



    本文是针对于电子设备的热属性测试和热设计优化建立一个可靠性应用研发平台。平台分为热测试和热设计两个模块,热测试半导体器件的热学属性的精确测量和外围散热设备的选型和验证,并结合热设计部分,保证仿真结果的准确性,并可进行结构和选型的优化,平台囊括电力电子产品化过程中热可靠性设计的所有环节。%This paper is aimed at the thermal property testing and thermal design optimization of electronic equipment to establish a reliable application research and development platform.Selection and validation of the platform is divided into two modules,thermal test and thermal design,thermal test semiconductor device thermal properties of accurate measurement and peripheral cooling equipment,combined with thermal design,ensure the accuracy of the simulation results,and can carry on the optimization of structure and selection,the platform include thermal reliability design in the course of power electronic products in all aspects.

  18. Equipment. Out of order.

    Connolly, C


    The NHS has underinvested in equipment for more than 20 years. Most hospitals have inadequate equipment inventories. More than half the anaesthetic machines in use are more than five years old and should be replaced. Almost a fifth of the equipment used in cancer treatment is obsolete. Current accounting systems act as a disincentive to replacing old equipment.

  19. Practical application of the benchmarking technique to increase reliability and efficiency of power installations and main heat-mechanic equipment of thermal power plants

    Rimov, A. A.; Chukanova, T. I.; Trofimov, Yu. V.


    Data on the comparative analysis variants of the quality of power installations (benchmarking) applied in the power industry is systematized. It is shown that the most efficient variant of implementation of the benchmarking technique is the analysis of statistical distributions of the indicators in the composed homogenous group of the uniform power installations. The benchmarking technique aimed at revealing the available reserves on improvement of the reliability and heat efficiency indicators of the power installations of the thermal power plants is developed in the furtherance of this approach. The technique provides a possibility of reliable comparison of the quality of the power installations in their homogenous group limited by the number and adoption of the adequate decision on improving some or other technical characteristics of this power installation. The technique provides structuring of the list of the comparison indicators and internal factors affecting them represented according to the requirements of the sectoral standards and taking into account the price formation characteristics in the Russian power industry. The mentioned structuring ensures traceability of the reasons of deviation of the internal influencing factors from the specified values. The starting point for further detail analysis of the delay of the certain power installation indicators from the best practice expressed in the specific money equivalent is positioning of this power installation on distribution of the key indicator being a convolution of the comparison indicators. The distribution of the key indicator is simulated by the Monte-Carlo method after receiving the actual distributions of the comparison indicators: specific lost profit due to the short supply of electric energy and short delivery of power, specific cost of losses due to the nonoptimal expenditures for repairs, and specific cost of excess fuel equivalent consumption. The quality loss indicators are developed

  20. Prepositioned Stocks: Marine Corps Needs to Improve Cost Estimate Reliability and Oversight of Inventory Systems for Equipment in Norway


    European and Eurasian Affairs, Washington, D.C. • U.S. Embassy, Oslo, Norway o Office of Defense Cooperation o Political and Economic Section Ministry...Connect with GAO on Facebook , Flickr, Twitter, and YouTube. Subscribe to our RSS Feeds or E-mail Updates. Listen to our Podcasts and read The

  1. Study on the Management for the Nuclear Power Plant Maintenance and Equipment Reliability

    Yoon, Kyeongseop; Lee, Sangheon; Kim, Myungjin; Lee, Unjang [ORIONENC Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    In our country, many studies on the regulatory policy of the plant maintenance have ever been performed since 1998, but the relevant regulatory requirements were not established yet. These background mentioned above request us to study on the regulation policy and maintenance plan to improve the safety, reliability and efficiency of NPP. To solve these problems, in this study, we deduct the management methodology for the improvement of NPP maintenance and equipment reliability that is essential to secure the safety and efficiency of the commercial NPP. For analysis the maintenance and equipment reliability management methodology in overseas NPP. We studied maintenance and equipment reliability of USA, Canada and Europe(France, England, German). We also studied status and application condition of Korean NPP maintenance management technical development. We deducted an effective maintenance methodology that is needed to Korean NPP, as a result of comparison on the technical trend of the maintenance management between overseas and Korean, such like following. - Regulation form ·Specific provision of regulation requirement and application of form that is clarifying application standard - Maintenance management methodology, Maintenance management program. This results of study could be applied for regulation policy, law and guideline establishment of NPP maintenance, operation, supervision and a system establishment for maintenance management, education data about maintenance for NPP employees.

  2. Research on the Correlation Model of Equipment Reliability and Life Cycle Cost%装备可靠性与寿命周期费用相关关系模型研究

    董芮寒; 罗涛


    In the face of increasingly complex international security situation, the army can’t avoid high investment in newly developed equipment in seeking weapon system performance. Based on the analysis of the importance of equipment reliability, this article further defined its effect on the cost of each life stage of the weapon equipment. The relation model is established to describe the effect of the adjustment of reliability index on weapon and equipment life cycle cost objectively and reasonably. The constraint relation between the reliability and life cycle cost at different stages is analyzed, and the reliability index that makes the equipment life cycle cost optimal is determined. Thus the effective management of reliability investment earnings is realized and the working efficiency of the equipment reliability is enhanced, laying a foundation for equipment reliability requirements and the cost comprehensive balance and subsequent index demonstration, and providing reference for other equipment characteristic index demonstration.%面对日益复杂的国际安全形势,各国军队在追求武器系统高性能的同时难以回避新研装备高经济成本的投入。在分析装备系统可靠性重要性的基础上,进一步明确其对武器装备各寿命阶段费用的影响。以此建立起相关关系模型,客观、合理地描述可靠性指标的调整对武器装备寿命周期费用的影响,对可靠性与寿命周期各阶段费用之间的权衡约束关系进行了分析,确定出使得装备寿命周期费用最佳的可靠性指标。从而实现了对可靠性投入收益的有效管理,提高装备可靠性工作效率,为装备可靠性要求与费用的综合权衡以及后续的指标论证奠定基础,并为装备其他特性指标的论证提供参考。

  3. 强化环境试验和可靠性试验推进装备研制质量持续提升%Enhance the Environment and the Reliability Test,Keep Improving the Quality of Equipment Manufacture

    舒斌; 刘亚军


    环境试验和可靠性试验,是对武器装备研制质量的重要考核验证,是武器装备环境适应性和可靠性的根本保障.介绍了军事代表在装备研制质量监督过程中,强化环境和可靠性试验,应牢牢把握研制过程设计方案评审、元器件选用、摸底试验、试验过程组织和技术能力提高等5个关键环节及相应的做法与体会.%Environment and the reliability tests are important verification for weapon equipment manufacture quality. They are the fundamental guarantee for weapon equipment environment adaptability and reliability. This article introduces some deeply research and experience of military representatives in the process of equipment manufacture. They enhance the environment and the reliability test, firmly grasp the five key links of equipment manufacture, such as research process design proposal review, components selection, assessment test, test organization and technological capacity improvement, and continually improving the quality of equipment manufacture.

  4. Reliability Analysis of Large Power Equipment Based on Nonlinear Forecast%基于非线性预估的大规模电力设备可靠性分析

    吴丽贤; 陈科师


    针对电力设备一旦规模较为庞大,会出现较为复杂的运行过程,使得信号分析过程中,非线性故障信号与其他故障信号失联。造成电力设备可靠性分析出现较大偏差。为此提出一种以无限传感网络配合故障估计分析算法的大规模电力设备可靠性分析系统的优化设计方案。通过运用无线传感网络对电力设备接口信号的快速采集,对其进行准确的非线性预测性估计,保证系统对电力设备可靠性分析的准确性。实验结果证明,优化后的系统对电力设备可靠性分析较为准确,性能有所提高。%In view of the power equipment once the scale is relatively large, signal analysis process, the nonlinear fault signal and other signal is lost. Electric power equipment reliability analysis appear large deviation. Therefore put forward a kind of fault estimation with infinite sensor network analysis algorithm of optimizing design scheme of large power e-quipment reliability analysis system. The wireless sensor network is used to power equipment interface signal fast acqui-sition, carry on the accurate nonlinear predictive estimate, it ensured the accuracy of the system for power equipment re-liability analysis. The experimental results show that the optimized system for power equipment reliability analysis is rela-tively accurate, the performance improved.

  5. 航空公司机队设备可靠性非线性动态评估模型%Nonlinear Dynamic Assessment Model of Airline Fleet Equipment Reliability

    陈勇刚; 罗晓利


    机队设备可靠性是实现航空公司“安全、正点和经济”目标的核心内容,对其进行评估是实现机队设备系统综合技术保障的重要手段.根据航空公司机队设备可靠性统计、数据采集和监控方式的关键技术与重要环节,应用物理-事理-人理(WSR)思想和Delphi法,建立了机械原因使用困难报告(SDR)和非计划停场率等航空公司机队设备可靠性的5大指标体系.基于灰色聚类方法和反步(BP)神经网络的优缺点,结合机队设备可靠性的随机性和波动性,设计了航空公司机队设备可靠性非线性动力学评估模型.航空公司机队设备可靠性评估实例的分析表明:该可靠性非线性动态评估模型是可行的,能够实现动态和静态的评估.%The reliability of the fleet equipment is at the core of an airline company's effort to achieve its goal of safety, punctuality and economy. The assessment of the reliability of the fleet equipment is an important means to realize the comprehensive technological guarantee of a fleet equipment system. In accordance with the key technology in statistics and data acquisition and the monitoring of the reliability of the fleet equipment, five indicator systems of the fleet equipment reliability, including service difficulty reports (SDR) and the rate of nonscheduled downtime etc. , are set up by the Wuli-Shili-Renli (WSR) theory and the Delphi method. In consideration of the features of randomness and volatility of fleet equipment reliability, a nonlinear dynamic assessment model of fleet equipment reliability is designed based on the advantages and disadvantages of grey clustering and back propagation (BP) neural network. The analysis of an application case of the model shows that the nonlinear dynamic assessment model is feasible and applicable to both static and dynamic assessments.

  6. Renewal of radiological equipment.


    In this century, medical imaging is at the heart of medical practice. Besides providing fast and accurate diagnosis, advances in radiology equipment offer new and previously non-existing options for treatment guidance with quite low morbidity, resulting in the improvement of health outcomes and quality of life for the patients. Although rapid technological development created new medical imaging modalities and methods, the same progress speed resulted in accelerated technical and functional obsolescence of the same medical imaging equipment, consequently creating a need for renewal. Older equipment has a high risk of failures and breakdowns, which might cause delays in diagnosis and treatment of the patient, and safety problems both for the patient and the medical staff. The European Society of Radiology is promoting the use of up-to-date equipment, especially in the context of the EuroSafe Imaging Campaign, as the use of up-to-date equipment will improve quality and safety in medical imaging. Every healthcare institution or authority should have a plan for medical imaging equipment upgrade or renewal. This plan should look forward a minimum of 5 years, with annual updates. Teaching points • Radiological equipment has a definite life cycle span, resulting in unavoidable breakdown and decrease or loss of image quality which renders equipment useless after a certain time period.• Equipment older than 10 years is no longer state-of-the art equipment and replacement is essential. Operating costs of older equipment will be high when compared with new equipment, and sometimes maintenance will be impossible if no spare parts are available.• Older equipment has a high risk of failure and breakdown, causing delays in diagnosis and treatment of the patient and safety problems both for the patient and the medical staff.• Every healthcare institution or authority should have a plan for medical imaging equipment upgrade or replacement. This plan should look forward a

  7. Appliance of Inertial Gas-Dynamic Separation of Gas-Dispersion Flows in the Curvilinear Convergent-Divergent Channels for Compressor Equipment Reliability Improvement

    Liaposhchenko, O. O.; Sklabinskyi, V. I.; Zavialov, V. L.; Pavlenko, I. V.; Nastenko, O. V.; Demianenko, M. M.


    The new methods of vibration and inertial gas-dynamic separation of gas-condensate and dusty flows and the corresponding separation devices are proposed in order to avoid emergencies and premature wear of parts and components of the compressor equipment. The formation of the gas flow and disperse particles in the curvilinear convergent-divergent channels are investigated. The optimizing hydrodynamic profiling of a geometrical configuration of curvilinear separation channels with rigid and flexible walls of baffles is carried out.

  8. Frontiers of reliability

    Basu, Asit P; Basu, Sujit K


    This volume presents recent results in reliability theory by leading experts in the world. It will prove valuable for researchers, and users of reliability theory. It consists of refereed invited papers on a broad spectrum of topics in reliability. The subjects covered include Bayesian reliability, Bayesian reliability modeling, confounding in a series system, DF tests, Edgeworth approximation to reliability, estimation under random censoring, fault tree reduction for reliability, inference about changes in hazard rates, information theory and reliability, mixture experiment, mixture of Weibul

  9. Cooling of electronic equipment

    A. Kristensen, Anders Schmidt


    Cooling of electronic equipment is studied. The design size of electronic equipment decrease causing the thermal density to increase. This affect the cooling which can cause for example failures of critical components due to overheating or thermal induced stresses. Initially a pin fin heat sink...... is considered as extruded profiles are inadequate for compact designs. An optimal pin fin shape and configuration is sought also taking manufacturing costs into consideration. Standard methods for geometrical modeling and thermal analysis are applied....

  10. Days individual equipment of protection and professional risks; Equipements de protection individuelle et risques professionnelles



    The personal protection equipment is studied in the legal way (legal liabilities, certification, European texts), technical way (ergonomics, painfulness of ventilated equipment wearing, reliability of a respirable air line, protection gloves against the chemical risk, exposure to nano particulates, working in hot area), human factors (hostile area and emotion management), studies on personal equipment such evaluation, efficiency, conception of new equipment, physiological tolerance, limit of use, and some general safety studies on the working places. (N.C.)

  11. Lifetime of Mechanical Equipment

    Leland, K.


    The gas plant at Kaarstoe was built as part of the Statpipe gas transport system and went on stream in 1985. In 1993 another line was routed from the Sleipner field to carry condensate, and the plant was extended accordingly. Today heavy additional supply- and export lines are under construction, and the plant is extended more than ever. The main role of the factory is to separate the raw gas into commercial products and to pump or ship it to the markets. The site covers a large number of well-known mechanical equipment. This presentation deals with piping, mechanical and structural disciplines. The lifetime of mechanical equipment is often difficult to predict as it depends on many factors, and the subject is complex. Mechanical equipment has been kept in-house, which provides detailed knowledge of the stages from a new to a 14 years old plant. The production regularity has always been very high, as required. The standard of the equipment is well kept, support systems are efficient, and human improvisation is extremely valuable.


    S. L. Rovin


    Full Text Available This article presents an automated cupola complex, developed by scientific-production enterprise «Technolit» together with GSTU named after P. O. Sukhoi, launched in the spring of 2015 at the plant «Stroiex» in the city of Chelyabinsk (the Russian Federation. The old cupolas (open type have been replaced by the new cupolas of the closed type, equipped with automatic control and management system and multistage wet gas treatment system. Cupolas are equipped with systems of post-combustion gases and the batch charging, the separate systems of air blast, systems of sludge removal and recirculation of water, the slag granulation installations, mechanized cleaning of cupola furnace and automatic safety system. These activities allowed the company to increase production and improve the quality of cast iron, reduce the coke consumption by 20% and reducing emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere almost 30 times.

  13. Reliability, Maintenance of Medical Equipment Maintenance Management Theory Application%医疗设备维修管理中的可靠性维修理论应用



    The so-caled reliability maintenance, namely the RCM, was to restore equipment technical performance, and effective way to increase the service life. At this stage, reliability maintenance theory gradualy atention by domestic and foreign counterparts. The reliability and maintenance as a standard maintenance principle and maintenance instructions, and to develop a scientiifc and reasonable maintenance scheme, used in the actual maintenance. RCM is to implement preventive maintenance, the balance of proactive maintenance and predictive maintenance, namely by predicting maintenance to provide accurate parameters for medical equipment running status, and to ensure that the balance of the active maintenance and preventive maintenance.%所谓可靠性维修,即R C M,就是恢复设备技术性能,并有效增加使用寿命的方式。目前阶段,可靠性维修理论逐渐被国内外的同行所关注。把可靠性维修当作标准的维修原则与维修指导,并制定出科学合理的维修方案,运用到实际的维修中。RCM就是实现预防维修、主动维修与预测维修的平衡,也就是通过预测维修为医疗设备运行状态提供准确的参数,并保证主动维修与预防维修的平衡。

  14. "Reliability Of Fiber Optic Lans"

    Code n, Michael; Scholl, Frederick; Hatfield, W. Bryan


    Fiber optic Local Area Network Systems are being used to interconnect increasing numbers of nodes. These nodes may include office computer peripherals and terminals, PBX switches, process control equipment and sensors, automated machine tools and robots, and military telemetry and communications equipment. The extensive shared base of capital resources in each system requires that the fiber optic LAN meet stringent reliability and maintainability requirements. These requirements are met by proper system design and by suitable manufacturing and quality procedures at all levels of a vertically integrated manufacturing operation. We will describe the reliability and maintainability of Codenoll's passive star based systems. These include LAN systems compatible with Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) and MAP (IEEE 802.4), and software compatible with IBM Token Ring (IEEE 802.5). No single point of failure exists in this system architecture.

  15. Incrementing the reliability of equipment through an Effective monitoring program in the health of the systems of the CLV; Incrementando la confiabilidad de equipos a traves de un programa de monitoreo efectivo en la salud de los sistemas de la CLV

    Barreda L, I.; Ortiz M, N. [CFE, Central Laguna Verde, Veracruz (Mexico)]. e-mail:


    The search of the excellence in the behavior of equipment is a continuous effort in the nuclear industry, it is for this reason that the readiness and dependability of equipment is of great importance in the Laguna Verde Central, today in day the equipment dependability has been affecting the capacity to generate power in the power station and any reduction in the power it affects the capacity factor of the plant and it increases the operation cost. With the continuous improvements that are carried out of the process of equipment reliability, by means of the identification of critical equipment, monitoring, effective maintenance and a long term planning in important equipment for the safety and dependability of the operation, are possible to prevent affectations of the plant and not planned stops. (Author)

  16. Reliability of fluid systems

    Kopáček Jaroslav


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the importance of detection reliability, especially in complex fluid systems for demanding production technology. The initial criterion for assessing the reliability is the failure of object (element, which is seen as a random variable and their data (values can be processed using by the mathematical methods of theory probability and statistics. They are defined the basic indicators of reliability and their applications in calculations of serial, parallel and backed-up systems. For illustration, there are calculation examples of indicators of reliability for various elements of the system and for the selected pneumatic circuit.

  17. Principles of Bridge Reliability

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Nowak, Andrzej S.

    The paper gives a brief introduction to the basic principles of structural reliability theory and its application to bridge engineering. Fundamental concepts like failure probability and reliability index are introduced. Ultimate as well as serviceability limit states for bridges are formulated...

  18. Reliability assessment of continuous mining technological systems


    Article is devoted to the analysis of reliability of parameters of continuous system of extraction with use of various approaches with the purpose of performance of a fast estimation of general efficiency of the equipment of such industrial systems, as Monte-Carlo and stress-force of intervention. Article is devoted to the analysis of reliability of parameters of continuous system of extraction with use of various approaches with the purpose of performance of a fast estimation of general e...

  19. Reliability of power connections

    BRAUNOVIC Milenko


    Despite the use of various preventive maintenance measures, there are still a number of problem areas that can adversely affect system reliability. Also, economical constraints have pushed the designs of power connections closer to the limits allowed by the existing standards. The major parameters influencing the reliability and life of Al-Al and Al-Cu connections are identified. The effectiveness of various palliative measures is determined and the misconceptions about their effectiveness are dealt in detail.




    The International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Department of Safeguards uses complex instrumentation for the application of safeguards at nuclear facilities around the world. Often, this equipment is developed through cooperation with member state support programs because the Agency's requirements are unique and are not met by commercially available equipment. Before approving an instrument or system for routine inspection use, the IAEA subjects it to a series of tests designed to evaluate its reliability. In 2000, the IAEA began to observe operational failures in digital surveillance systems. In response to the observed failures, the IAEA worked with the equipment designer and manufacturer to determine the cause of failure. An action plan was developed to correct the performance issues and further test the systems to make sure that additional operational issues would not surface later. This paper addresses the steps taken to address operation issues related to digital image surveillance systems and the lessons learned during this process.

  1. Modern Maintenance Strategy of Electronic Equipment in Complex Electromechanical System

    LIU Xiao-fang; CHEN Gui-ming; YANG Bao-li; ZHANG Xue-tao; WANG Han-gong


    In this paper, the failure mechanism of electronic equipment was analysed. Aiming at the limitation of traditional maintenance modes, moderu maintenance strategy was put forward on the basis of reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) combined with condition-based maintenance (CBM)aud maintenance efficiency review (MER). A maintenance management information system was constructed for electronic equipment for the purpose of failure analysis, reliability evaluation, and maintenance decisions such as time, mode, and plan. The best maintenance time could be predicted with failure analysis and reliability evaluation, which was mainly influenced by environmental stress. Suitable maintenance modes should be determined fiom equipment importance, failure aftereffect, maintenance condition, and economical power so as to ensure equipment reliability and decrease the requirement of the maintenance source.

  2. Sensitivity Analysis of Component Reliability



    In a system, Every component has its unique position within system and its unique failure characteristics. When a component's reliability is changed, its effect on system reliability is not equal. Component reliability sensitivity is a measure of effect on system reliability while a component's reliability is changed. In this paper, the definition and relative matrix of component reliability sensitivity is proposed, and some of their characteristics are analyzed. All these will help us to analyse or improve the system reliability.


    Popescu V.S.


    Full Text Available Power distribution systems are basic parts of power systems and reliability of these systems at present is a key issue for power engineering development and requires special attention. Operation of distribution systems is accompanied by a number of factors that produce random data a large number of unplanned interruptions. Research has shown that the predominant factors that have a significant influence on the reliability of distribution systems are: weather conditions (39.7%, defects in equipment(25% and unknown random factors (20.1%. In the article is studied the influence of random behavior and are presented estimations of reliability of predominantly rural electrical distribution systems.

  4. The value of reliability

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Karlström, Anders


    We derive the value of reliability in the scheduling of an activity of random duration, such as travel under congested conditions. Using a simple formulation of scheduling utility, we show that the maximal expected utility is linear in the mean and standard deviation of trip duration, regardless...

  5. Reliability of semiology description.

    Heo, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Seo-Young; Cho, Jinwhan; Lee, Sang-Kun; Nam, Hyunwoo


    Seizure semiology is important for classifying patients' epilepsy. Physicians usually get most of the seizure information from observers though there have been few reports on the reliability of the observers' description. This study aims at determining the reliability of observers' description of the semiology. We included 92 patients who had their habitual seizures recorded during video-EEG monitoring. We compared the semiology described by the observers with that recorded on the videotape, and reviewed which characteristics of the observers affected the reliability of their reported data. The classification of seizures and the individual components of the semiology based only on the observer-description was somewhat discordant compared with the findings from the videotape (correct classification, 85%). The descriptions of some ictal behaviors such as oroalimentary automatism, tonic/dystonic limb posturing, and head versions were relatively accurate, but those of motionless staring and hand automatism were less accurate. The specified directions by the observers were relatively correct. The accuracy of the description was related to the educational level of the observers. Much of the information described by well-educated observers is reliable. However, every physician should keep in mind the limitations of this information and use this information cautiously.

  6. 75 FR 81152 - Interpretation of Protection System Reliability Standard


    ... Systems that affect the reliability of the BES. The program shall include: R1.1. Maintenance and testing... provide a complete framework for maintenance and testing of equipment necessary to ensure the reliability... maintenance and testing of Protection Systems affecting the reliability of the Bulk-Power System. 13. If...

  7. Reliability Characteristic Analysis for Ship Mechanical Equipment%船舶机械设备可靠性特点分析

    罗梅杰; 耿俊豹; 谢强


    论文对可靠性的基本要点和船舶机械设备的共性特点进行了分析和阐述。着重归纳总结了船舶机械可靠性方面的特点和研究现状,最后结论得出只有改变传统的可靠性研究思维,依据机械设备可靠性特点,将多学科、新技术融入到机械设备的可靠性试验中,形成船舶机械甚至机械类系统化、综合化的可靠性试验方法,方能推动机械设备的可靠性研究更上一层。%The basic points of the reliability and common characteristics of ship mechanical equipment are analyzed and expounded in this paper .Characteristics and research status of mechanical reliability of ship are emphatically summarized .Fi‐nally ,a conclusion can be draw only by changing the traditional reliability research thinking w hich is based on mechanical e‐quipment reliability characteristics and blended in multidisciplinary new technology to the mechanical equipment reliability tests .Ship mechanical equipment and mechanical reliability of systematic integration test method are found ,so that it can promote the reliability of the mechanical equipment research progress .

  8. Research on Selection of Equipment Maintenance Modes

    SHANG Wen-li; SHI Hai-bo; HE Bai-tao


    The development of equipment maintenance management is introduced, and equipment maintenance concept is defined. Equipment maintenance modes are classified, analyzed and compared, which merits and demerits are pointed out. At last, a decision-making frame to select equipment maintenance modes is advanced, and steps to select and implement equipment maintenance are given.

  9. Telehealth language assessments using consumer grade equipment in rural and urban settings: Feasible, reliable and well tolerated.

    Sutherland, Rebecca; Trembath, David; Hodge, Antoinette; Drevensek, Suzi; Lee, Sabrena; Silove, Natalie; Roberts, Jacqueline


    Introduction Telehealth can be an effective way to provide speech pathology intervention to children with speech and language impairments. However, the provision of reliable and feasible standardised language assessments via telehealth to establish children's needs for intervention and to monitor progress has not yet been well established. Further, there is limited information about children's reactions to telehealth. This study aimed to examine the reliability and feasibility of conducting standardised language assessment with school-aged children with known or suspected language impairment via a telehealth application using consumer grade computer equipment within a public school setting. Method Twenty-three children (aged 8-12 years) participated. Each child was assessed using a standardised language assessment comprising six subtests. Two subtests were administered by a speech pathologist face-to-face (local clinician) and four subtests were administered via telehealth. All subtests were completed within a single visit to the clinic service, with a break between the face to face and telehealth sessions. The face-to-face clinician completed behaviour observation checklists in the telehealth and face to face conditions and provided feedback on the audio and video quality of the application from the child's point of view. Parent feedback about their child's experience was elicited via survey. Results There was strong inter-rater reliability in the telehealth and face-to-face conditions (correlation coefficients ranged from r = 0.96-1.0 across the subtests) and good agreement on all measures. Similar levels of attention, distractibility and anxiety were observed in the two conditions. Clinicians rated only one session of 23 as having poor audio quality and no sessions were rated as having poor visual quality. Parent and child reactions to the use of telehealth were largely positive and supportive of using telehealth to assess rural children. Discussion The

  10. Development of a database about equipment reliability for management of mechanical integrity of the installations of the Abreu e Lima refinery; Desenvolvimento de um banco de dados de confiabilidade e falha de equipamentos para gestao da integridade mecanica e confiabilidade das instalacoes da Refinaria Abreu e Lima

    Araujo, Nicia Valeria Silva da; Nunes, Katia Chagas [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Droguett, Enrique Andres Lopez; Moura, Marcio Jose das Chagas; Oliveira, Paulo Estevao Lemos [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), PE (Brazil)


    The present article aims at presenting the methodology of implementing of the Reliability Data Base (BDConf) of the Abreu e Lima Oil Refinery (RNEST). The data that will be recorded into the BDConf will provide the basis for the planning of maintenance, reliability and inspections and SMES e also are important information for the decision making with focus on the asset management. For the maintenance department, the information generated at the BDConf will support decisions and the intervention planning of the UO. For reliability and inspection areas, the failure frequencies used in QRA (which, for example, determine the frequency of leaking) are defined from general RDB of other equipment (not necessarily from an oil refinery), of another plant where operation, management and meteorological conditions are completely different from RNEST (e.g., North Sea). For SMES in turn, the elaboration of the emergency and contingency plans (for inner and surrounding areas) is the last step of the project and is based on the risk analysis of the process which is initially done qualitatively and for parts of the subsystems of the units/areas of the RNEST. Therefore, the features of the BDConf will be here presented regarding the development of the taxonomy of inventory of equipment and categories of failures and (preventive and corrective) maintenance. Thus, BDConf will allow recording failure of equipment in the context of the RNEST e can estimate failure frequencies in a more customized way in order to develop QRA and RAM analyses in a more precise manner aiming at the stable operation of the plant. Moreover, BDConf can be widely used for other techniques and concepts from Reliability Engineering such as the optimization of the process unity and the asset management with back up on reliability (breakdowns, spare parts). (author)

  11. Reliability of Circumplex Axes

    Micha Strack


    Full Text Available We present a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA procedure for computing the reliability of circumplex axes. The tau-equivalent CFA variance decomposition model estimates five variance components: general factor, axes, scale-specificity, block-specificity, and item-specificity. Only the axes variance component is used for reliability estimation. We apply the model to six circumplex types and 13 instruments assessing interpersonal and motivational constructs—Interpersonal Adjective List (IAL, Interpersonal Adjective Scales (revised; IAS-R, Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP, Impact Messages Inventory (IMI, Circumplex Scales of Interpersonal Values (CSIV, Support Action Scale Circumplex (SAS-C, Interaction Problems With Animals (IPI-A, Team Role Circle (TRC, Competing Values Leadership Instrument (CV-LI, Love Styles, Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI, Customer Orientation Circle (COC, and System for Multi-Level Observation of Groups (behavioral adjectives; SYMLOG—in 17 German-speaking samples (29 subsamples, grouped by self-report, other report, and metaperception assessments. The general factor accounted for a proportion ranging from 1% to 48% of the item variance, the axes component for 2% to 30%; and scale specificity for 1% to 28%, respectively. Reliability estimates varied considerably from .13 to .92. An application of the Nunnally and Bernstein formula proposed by Markey, Markey, and Tinsley overestimated axes reliabilities in cases of large-scale specificities but otherwise works effectively. Contemporary circumplex evaluations such as Tracey’s RANDALL are sensitive to the ratio of the axes and scale-specificity components. In contrast, the proposed model isolates both components.

  12. Calculation and Updating of Reliability Parameters in Probabilistic Safety Assessment

    Zubair, Muhammad; Zhang, Zhijian; Khan, Salah Ud Din


    The internal events of nuclear power plant are complex and include equipment maintenance, equipment damage etc. These events will affect the probability of the current risk level of the system as well as the reliability of the equipment parameter values so such kind of events will serve as an important basis for systematic analysis and calculation. This paper presents a method for reliability parameters calculation and their updating. The method is based on binomial likelihood function and its conjugate beta distribution. For update parameters Bayes' theorem has been selected. To implement proposed method a computer base program is designed which provide help to estimate reliability parameters.

  13. Thermal analysis and control of electronic equipment

    Kraus, A. D.; Bar-Cohen, A.

    The application of thermal control techniques to the cooling of electronic components is examined from theoretical and practical points of view. The electronic-thermal-control (ETC) problem and the physical and conceptual restraints on its solution are characterized, with a focus on the goal of system reliability. The fundamentals of heat transfer and fluid mechanics are discussed, including steady-state and transient conduction, convection, radiation, phase-change processes, contact resistance, heat exchangers, air handling, and dimensional analysis. Mathematical models and empirical correlations are explored for such ETC techniques as direct air cooling, extended surfaces, cold plates, immersion cooling, heat pipes, and thermoelectric coolers. Specific ETC applications to inertial equipment, transistors, vacuum tubes, microwave equipment, microelectronics, and printed-circuit boards are considered.

  14. Another donation of computer equipment

    Anaïs Schaeffer


    On Thursday 27 February, CERN was pleased to donate computer equipment to a physics institute in the Philippines.   H.E. Leslie J. Baja and Rolf Heuer. Following donations of computer equipment to institutes in Morocco, Ghana, Bulgaria, Serbia and Egypt, CERN is to send 50 servers and 4 network switches to the National Institute of Physics at the University of the Philippines Diliman. CERN’s Director-General Rolf Heuer and the Ambassador of the Philippines to Switzerland and Lichtenstein, H.E. Leslie J. Baja, spoke of their enthusiasm for the project during an official ceremony. The equipment will be used for various high energy physics research programmes in the Philippines and for the University’s development of digital resources for science.

  15. Equipment Reliability Improvement for Koeberg Nuclear Power Plant Auxiliary Feedwater System

    Noloyiso, Gloria Mtoko; Oh, Seungjong [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)


    This paper investigated how the performance of the Koeberg Auxiliary Feedwater System could be improved using the 'maintenance rule'. As a conclusion, this paper figured out AFWS pumps and the TDP control circuit need special attention in improving the reliability of the AFWS, this lead to an improved maintenance strategy for the system. The purpose of this study is to apply maintenance rule to enhance the Auxiliary Feedwater System (AFWS) maintenance strategy at Koeberg Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP). Currently, Koeberg AFWS health status is red, needing an improvement. This study seeks to use maintenance rule to identify components that enable AFWS to fulfill its essential functions so as to focus maintenance resources and have the greatest beneficial impact on improving reliability and availability of the system.

  16. Donation of LEP Equipment


    In accordance with CERN's Financial Rules, the Management hereby notifies Finance Committee of the gift of a LEP copper cavity to the town of Meyrin (CH) following a request from the Meyrin municipal authorities.

  17. An Engineering Equipment Quality Detection Method Based on Theorem of Nested Interval


    This paper, for the reliability theory of the engineering equipment quality management, based on the perspective of reliability theory, having application of related knowledge of mathematical statistics and mathematical analysis, especially for small and

  18. Equipment, exposure, emission review--specification of process equipment for worker exposure control.

    Bowes, Stephen M


    Worker exposure to chemical agents may occur from equipment leaks in closed processes and from open system activities and maintenance (e.g., sampling, tank gauging, line breaking, equipment flushing, and drainage). To prevent worker overexposure to chemical agents, an Equipment, Exposure, Emission Review (EEER) was developed to consistently match equipment properties to the leakage-related inhalation risk posed by each stream. For streams where gas or liquid leakage could cause worker exposure above occupational exposure limits (OEL), the EEER recommended a high performance, low leakage equipment category. Conversely, where standard engineering offered reliable containment for lower health risk streams, the EEER did not recommend over-control. The EEER matched equipment to stream health hazard as follows: (1) the composition of each stream was determined, with particular attention to chemical substances with stringent exposure limits; (2) a mixture exposure limit was calculated for each stream based on stream composition and the OEL for stream constituent chemicals; (3) each stream was classified as to its respiratory exposure hazard on the basis of the stream exposure limit; (4) equipment was recommended as a function of respiratory exposure hazard class using an Equipment Selection Matrix. Equipment options were based, in part, on the emission performance of the equipment and a near-field dispersion model that was used to relate equipment emissions to an OEL. Over a 5-yr implementation period, nearly 1700 streams of 78 refining process units were reviewed. Standard engineering practice was selected for about 70% of the streams reviewed. Benzene, hydrogen sulfide, ethanolamine, and high boiling aromatic oil streams were the primary chemical agents responsible for more stringent controls. Although the EEER criteria for stream classification and control options were arranged in order of magnitude--a form of control banding--the correct selection of control

  19. Management of Transportation Equipment.


    Medium (10,000 up to 18,999 GVW) 96-00000 Truck, Heavy (Over 19,000 GVW) 97-00000 Trailer 98-00000 Motorcycle and Scooter 8-3 ~ ’ .j...certifications as may be required in testing personnel for issuing the SF 46, or for suspending or revoking the SF 46. Suspension or revocation of the SF 46 for...valid state license. DoD Components shall not provide the Department of Transportation with data on SF 46 suspensions or revocation action. DoD Components

  20. Acquisition of Scientific Equipment

    Noland, Lynn [Director, Sponsored Programs


    Whitworth University constructed a 63,00 sq. ft. biology and chemistry building which opened in the Fall of 2011. This project provided for new state-of-the-art science instrumentation enabling Whitworth students to develop skills and knowledge that are directly transferable to practical applications thus enhancing Whitworth student's ability to compete and perform in the scientific workforce. Additionally, STEM faculty undertake outreach programs in the area schools, bringing students to our campus to engage in activities with our science students. The ability to work with insturmentation that is current helps to make science exciting for middle school and high school students and gets them thinking about careers in science. 14 items were purchased following the university's purchasing policy, that benefit instruction and research in the departments of biology, chemistry, and health sciences. They are: Cadaver Dissection Tables with Exhaust Chamber and accessories, Research Microscope with DF DIC, Phase and Fluorescence illumination with DP72 Camera, Microscope with Fluorescence, Microcomputer controlled ultracentrifuge, Ultracentrifuge rotor, Variable Temperature steam pressure sterilizer, Alliance APLC System, DNA Speedvac, Gel Cocumentation System, BioPac MP150, Glovebox personal workstation,Lyophilizer, Nano Drop 2000/2000c Spectrophotometer, C02 Incubator.

  1. Deep Space Network equipment performance, reliability, and operations management information system

    Cooper, T.; Lin, J.; Chatillon, M.


    The Deep Space Mission System (DSMS) Operations Program Office and the DeepSpace Network (DSN) facilities utilize the Discrepancy Reporting Management System (DRMS) to collect, process, communicate and manage data discrepancies, equipment resets, physical equipment status, and to maintain an internal Station Log. A collaborative effort development between JPL and the Canberra Deep Space Communication Complex delivered a system to support DSN Operations.

  2. New criteria of serviceability of aerodrome lighting equipment

    С. Г. Ванецян


    Full Text Available Analyzed are the criteria of lighting equipment serviceability of various categories of aerodromes according to the materials of normative technical documentation of Ukrainian and Russian civil aviation and recommendations of ICAO. Proposed are new substantiated criteria of lighting equipment serviceability of various categories, under different atmospheric conditions which are based on recommendations and standards ICAO adapted to the conditions of new criteria in Ukraine. The advantages and correctness of new criteria are proved by calculation of reliability of imported modem lighting equipment by means of the worked out criteria

  3. Beyond the glitz of new equipment

    Stolberg, H.O. [McMaster Univ. Medical Centre, Dept. of Radiology, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Nahmias, C. [McMaster Univ. Medical Centre, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)


    Canadian radiologists were informed by the press on Mar. 17, 2001, about an important initiative of their national organization. The CAR had commissioned a Montreal law firm to provide a legal opinion about the use of 'obsolete equipment'. The lawyer of the law firm opined that 'it is imperative that the patient be advised and understand the risks and uncertainties associated with the reliability of such an examination'. The 5-page legal opinion (available at also recommended that radiologists inform patients that they should consider shopping around for a hospital or clinic with newer machines, even if it means travelling out of the country. When summarizing the legal advice for the media, the Chief Executive Officer of the CAR said radiologists should advise patients if better equipment is available in other facilities, including 'private facilities', or in other jurisdictions, such as the United States. These developments should be of great concern to Canadian radiologists who are well aware of the problems associated with aging equipment and the lack of and limited access to newer imaging modalities. The legal initiative of the CAR, however, makes it imperative for individual radiologists to provide comments and for the CAR executive to answer a number of questions and address a number of priorities, including the following. (author)

  4. Concurrent Design Study of the Petroleum Equipment CAD System


    Military petroleum equipment, as the special device a nd tool for petroleum storage, transportation, filling, chemical analysis, detec tion and maintenance for the army, is an important means and basis of petroleum indemnificatory. To adapt to modern war in high-tech conditions, the petroleum equipment have to develop towards higher reliability, adaptability, maneuverabil ity, standardization, container and cell type with versatile multi-functions. As a new design theory and design process, concur...

  5. Synthesis of Reliable Telecommunication Networks

    Dusan Trstensky


    Full Text Available In many application, the network designer may to know to senthesise a reliable telecommunication network. Assume that a network, denoted Gm,e has the number of nodes n and the number of edges e, and the operational probability of each edge is known. The system reliability of the network is defined to be the reliability that every pair of nodes can communicate with each other. A network synthesis problem considered in this paper is to find a network G*n,e, that maximises system reliability over the class of all networks for the classes of networks Gn,n-1, Gn,m and Gn,n+1 respectively. In addition an upper bound of maximum reliability for the networks with n-node and e-edge (e>n+2 is derived in terms of node. Computational experiments for the reliability upper are also presented. the results show, that the proposed reliability upper bound is effective.

  6. Reliability prediction for the vehicles equipped with advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS and passive safety systems (PSS

    Balbir S. Dhillon


    Full Text Available The human error has been reported as a major root cause in road accidents in today’s world. The human as a driver in road vehicles composed of human, mechanical and electrical components is constantly exposed to changing surroundings (e.g., road conditions, environmentwhich deteriorate the driver’s capacities leading to a potential accident. The auto industries and transportation authorities have realized that similar to other complex and safety sensitive transportation systems, the road vehicles need to rely on both advanced technologies (i.e., Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS and Passive Safety Systems (PSS (e.g.,, seatbelts, airbags in order to mitigate the risk of accidents and casualties. In this study, the advantages and disadvantages of ADAS as active safety systems as well as passive safety systems in road vehicles have been discussed. Also, this study proposes models that analyze the interactions between human as a driver and ADAS Warning and Crash Avoidance Systems and PSS in the design of vehicles. Thereafter, the mathematical models have been developed to make reliability prediction at any given time on the road transportation for vehicles equipped with ADAS and PSS. Finally, the implications of this study in the improvement of vehicle designs and prevention of casualties are discussed.

  7. High reliability DC/DC converter module for electronic boards equipped with FPGAs

    Viganò, W.; Boccardi, A.; Zamantzas, C.


    The Beam Instrumentation Group at CERN is designing a new general-purpose VME carrier module utilising several PTH04T230W DC/DC converters. These off-the-shelf converters are built with unshielded inductors and need to be mounted on the printed circuit board as stand-alone components. Thus, reducing the global manageability and increasing the total cost of the carrier module. The new design aims to develop a module with better power dissipation, efficiency and reliability. In the future, it should be also possible to be directly integrated on the mainboard. For this reason, a Buck DC/DC converter has been implemented with the following main characteristics: input range from 3.0 V to 5.5 V; output range from 0.6 V to 3.3 V, settable by means of an external resistor; output current protection at 6 A; maximum output ripple ± 50 mVpp; switching frequency of 300KHz; short circuit protection; On/Off function; EMI reduction with frequency spread spectrum; soft-start function and thermal shutdown, in a 16 × 19 mm compact size. The selected buck controller is the TPS40303 integrated circuit and drives the CSD16321 power MOSFET, both from Texas Instruments. All selected components have been used at a minimum derating of 50% to reduce component stress and increase the reliability of this module. The selected inductors, i.e. Bourns SRP1055, are the main contributor for the high efficiency (95%), due to their very low equivalent series resistance. On the 4-layer PCB comprising all the components of this module, a snubber circuit, for further reduction of the output ripple due to the MOSFET ringing, can be mounted optionally. It is left as an option due to its effect on the total efficiency. The board layout has been optimized for maximum heat transfer and it can be used without active cooling. The board can maintain the maximum temperature on its surface, while at maximum current output, below 55°C at 25°C ambient temperature. An example of the electrical performance

  8. Used energy-related laboratory equipment grant program for institutions of higher learning. Eligible equipment catalog


    This is a listing of energy related equipment available through the Energy-Related Laboratory Equipment Grant Program which grants used equipment to institutions of higher education for energy-related research. Information included is an overview of the program, how to apply for a grant of equipment, eligibility requirements, types of equipment available, and the costs for the institution.

  9. Application of a truncated normal failure distribution in reliability testing

    Groves, C., Jr.


    Statistical truncated normal distribution function is applied as a time-to-failure distribution function in equipment reliability estimations. Age-dependent characteristics of the truncated function provide a basis for formulating a system of high-reliability testing that effectively merges statistical, engineering, and cost considerations.

  10. Formulação estratégica da manutenção industrial com base na confiabilidade dos equipamentos Strategic formulation of industrial maintenance supported by equipment's reliability

    Miguel Afonso Sellitto


    Full Text Available Este trabalho relata o uso da confiabilidade e da manutenibilidade na formulação de estratégias de manutenção industrial. O método utilizado foi o estudo de dois casos. Inicia-se revisando conceitos ligados a variáveis e processos aleatórios como base para definir conceitos e características de estudos de confiabilidade e de modelagem aplicados na gestão da manutenção industrial. A seguir se descrevem os casos estudados, em que se aplicam técnicas de modelagem de tempos até a falha e até o reparo no estabelecimento de estratégias de manutenção em fábricas do setor metal-mecânico. Com base nos resultados, discute-se o caso, estabelecendo condições para o uso da confiabilidade na formulação estratégica da manutenção, principalmente quanto ao sistema de informações necessárias.This paper reports the use of reliability and maintainability assessments in the strategic formulation of industrial maintenance. The method was a double case study. The paper begins by a theoretical review of related concepts of stochastic variables and processes as a basis to address concepts and features from reliability studies and modeling, suited to use in managing the industrial maintenance. One then describes the two studied cases, in which the reliability techniques were applied, in modeling the times to failure and times to the repair for the sake of settling the strategic formulation of industrial maintenance in metal-mechanic plants. Supported by results, this paper discusses the cases, arising requirements to the use of the reliability, mainly related to the information system.

  11. Modernization of Deployable Airfield Debris Removal Equipment


    measurements and to calculate volumes. A market survey of available loading and sweeping equipment was conducted to populate a database of physical...1 1.2 Objective and scope...Equipment ............................................................................................................................. 4 3 Market

  12. Hybrid reliability model for fatigue reliability analysis of steel bridges

    曹珊珊; 雷俊卿


    A kind of hybrid reliability model is presented to solve the fatigue reliability problems of steel bridges. The cumulative damage model is one kind of the models used in fatigue reliability analysis. The parameter characteristics of the model can be described as probabilistic and interval. The two-stage hybrid reliability model is given with a theoretical foundation and a solving algorithm to solve the hybrid reliability problems. The theoretical foundation is established by the consistency relationships of interval reliability model and probability reliability model with normally distributed variables in theory. The solving process is combined with the definition of interval reliability index and the probabilistic algorithm. With the consideration of the parameter characteristics of theS−N curve, the cumulative damage model with hybrid variables is given based on the standards from different countries. Lastly, a case of steel structure in the Neville Island Bridge is analyzed to verify the applicability of the hybrid reliability model in fatigue reliability analysis based on the AASHTO.

  13. Proceedings of FED remote maintenance equipment workshop

    Sager, P.; Garin, J.; Hager, E.R.; Spampinato, P.T.; Tobias, D.; Young, N.


    A workshop was convened in two sessions in January and March 1981, on the remote maintenance equipment for the Fusion Engineering Device (FED). The objectives of the first session were to familiarize the participants with the status of the design of the FED and to develop a remote maintenance equipment list for the FED. The objective of the second session was to have the participants present design concepts for the equipment which had been identified in the first session. The equipment list was developed for general purpose and special purpose equipment. The general purpose equipment was categorized as manipulators and other, while the special purpose equipment was subdivided according to the reactor subsystem it serviced: electrical, magnetic, and nuclear. Both mobile and fixed base manipulators were identified. Handling machines were identified as the major requirement for special purpose equipment.

  14. Reliability Assessment Of Wind Turbines

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard


    Reduction of cost of energy for wind turbines are very important in order to make wind energy competitive compared to other energy sources. Therefore the turbine components should be designed to have sufficient reliability but also not be too costly (and safe). This paper presents models...... for uncertainty modeling and reliability assessment of especially the structural components such as tower, blades, substructure and foundation. But since the function of a wind turbine is highly dependent on many electrical and mechanical components as well as a control system also reliability aspects...... of these components are discussed and it is described how there reliability influences the reliability of the structural components. Two illustrative examples are presented considering uncertainty modeling, reliability assessment and calibration of partial safety factors for structural wind turbine components exposed...

  15. Development of automatic Ultrasonic testing equipment for reactor pressure vessel

    Kim, Kor R.; Kim, Jae H.; Lee, Jae C.


    The selected weld areas of a reactor pressure vessel and adjacent piping are examined by the remote mechanized ultrasonic testing (MUT) equipment. Since the MUT equipment was purchased from southwest Research Institute (SwRI) in April 1985, 15 inservice inspections and 5 preservice inspections are performed with this MUT equipment. However due to the old age of the equipment and frequent movements to plant sites, the reliability of examination was recently decreased rapidly and it is very difficult to keep spare parts. In order to resolve these problems and to meet the strong request from plant sites, we intend to develop a new 3-axis control system including hardware and software. With this control system, we expect more efficient and reliable examination of the nozzle to shell weld areas, which is specified in ASME Code Section XI. The new 3-axis control system hardware and software were designed and development of our own control system, the advanced technologies of computer control mechanism were established and examination reliability of the nozzle to shell weld area was improved. With the development of our 3-axis control system for PaR ISI-2 computer control system, the reliability of nozzle to shell weld area examination has been improved. The established technologies from the development and detailed analysis of existing control system, are expected to be applied to the similar control systems in nuclear power plants. (author). 12 refs., 4 tabs., 33 figs.

  16. A survey on life prediction of equipment

    Hu Changhua


    Full Text Available Once in the hands of end users, such durable equipment as spacecraft, aircraft, ships, automobiles, computers, etc. are in a state of debugging, working or storage. In either state, availability, reliability and super-efficiency are the ultimate goals, which have been achieved through constant monitoring as well as regular, preventive, routine and corrective maintenance. Although some advanced instruments can visualize certain invisible malfunctioning phenomena into visible ones, deeply hidden troubles cannot be found unless monitoring and testing data are addressed using tools that process the data statistically, analytically and mathematically. Some state-of-the-art trouble-shooting and life-predicting techniques and approaches are introduced in this paper.

  17. A survey on life prediction of equipment

    Hu Changhua; Zhou Zhijie; Zhang Jianxun; Si Xiaosheng


    Once in the hands of end users, such durable equipment as spacecraft, aircraft, ships, automobiles, computers, etc. are in a state of debugging, working or storage. In either state, avail-ability, reliability and super-efficiency are the ultimate goals, which have been achieved through constant monitoring as well as regular, preventive, routine and corrective maintenance. Although some advanced instruments can visualize certain invisible malfunctioning phenomena into visible ones, deeply hidden troubles cannot be found unless monitoring and testing data are addressed using tools that process the data statistically, analytically and mathematically. Some state-of-the-art trouble-shooting and life-predicting techniques and approaches are introduced in this paper.

  18. Proposal for the donation of LEP equipment


    CERN has announced that LEP equipment will become available for donations to educational and scientific research institutes, to museums and public bodies in Member States and non-member States. A number of requests for a limited amount of equipment have been received. CERN has no further use for this equipment. The Finance Committee is invited to approve these donations.

  19. A study on reliability of power customer in distribution network

    Liu, Liyuan; Ouyang, Sen; Chen, Danling; Ma, Shaohua; Wang, Xin


    The existing power supply reliability index system is oriented to power system without considering actual electricity availability in customer side. In addition, it is unable to reflect outage or customer’s equipment shutdown caused by instantaneous interruption and power quality problem. This paper thus makes a systematic study on reliability of power customer. By comparing with power supply reliability, reliability of power customer is defined and extracted its evaluation requirements. An indexes system, consisting of seven customer indexes and two contrast indexes, are designed to describe reliability of power customer from continuity and availability. In order to comprehensively and quantitatively evaluate reliability of power customer in distribution networks, reliability evaluation method is proposed based on improved entropy method and the punishment weighting principle. Practical application has proved that reliability index system and evaluation method for power customer is reasonable and effective.

  20. Evaluation of field dental equipment in a deployment environment.

    Charlton, David G; Ehrlich, A Dale; Ragain, James C; Lyles, Mark B; Roberts, Howard W


    Dental officers and technicians must have reliable, durable, well-performing field dental equipment to enable them to provide dental care to deployed troops in operational environments. Unfortunately, no organized program exists to test such equipment before its purchase and use in the field. This article presents the results of a project conducted by the Naval Institute for Dental and Biomedical Research and the Air Force Dental Evaluation and Consultation Service to evaluate commercially available field dental equipment through laboratory testing and clinical-user evaluations in theater. The purpose of this 2-year project was to identify the best-performing and most cost-effective field dental equipment for possible future procurement. Initial laboratory testing was performed at the Naval Institute for Dental and Biomedical Research, and the equipment was then shipped to Kuwait for in-theater environmental and clinical-user testing. A seven-member scientific team of military dental officers and technicians was deployed for 1 month to perform in-theater testing under regional environmental conditions and to coordinate clinical-user evaluations. The testing provided beneficial results by identifying equipment that performed properly and equipment that exhibited shortcomings serious enough to render it inadequate for operational use. It is recommended that the project serve as a model for future testing and evaluation of medical/dental equipment by all of the military services.

  1. The TDCPR Management Mode of Engineering Equipment


    The Three Gorges Project is a very large project, and its structure is very complex. International advanced engineering equipment is broadly used. The state of equipment running directly influences project building qualities and limited time. According to the factual conditions of the Three Gorges Project, the characteristics of engineering equipment are analyzed. At the same time, some theories about equipment management are induced, and the TDCPR management mode of engineering equipmeat of the Three Gorges Project is put forward in order to gain the aim of managing and using equipment well and speeding up the project construction.

  2. The Validity of Reliability Measures.

    Seddon, G. M.


    Demonstrates that some commonly used indices can be misleading in their quantification of reliability. The effects are most pronounced on gain or difference scores. Proposals are made to avoid sources of invalidity by using a procedure to assess reliability in terms of upper and lower limits for the true scores of each examinee. (Author/JDH)

  3. Reliability 'H' scheme of HV/MV substations

    Perić Dragoslav M.


    Full Text Available Substations (HV/MV connect transmission and distribution systems with consumers of electric energy. The selective search method was used for calculation of substation reliability, where all arrangement elements were grouped into blocks. Subject of the analysis was H-arrangements comprising air-insulated switchgears on the high voltage side of HV/MV substations with different number of feeder and transformer bays and diverse scope of the installed switching equipment. Failure rate and duration were used as main HV/MV substation equipment reliability indices. A large number of arrangements were classified into groups, and within a group the arrangements were ranked with the use of multiple criteria. It is shown that the reliability of the electricity transit depends on the equipment of field for the transit of electricity, which favors poorly equipped field. On the other hand, the reliability of transformation of the full power depends mostly on the equipment in coupling field. It is essential that in the coupling field, there are at least two disconnectors. Installation of the switch in the coupling field is meaningful only with appropriate protection, because it further improves reliability. Conclusions are drawn for phased construction and expansion of the single pole diagram with an additional field for the transmission line.


    B.Anni Princy


    Full Text Available A software reliability exemplary projects snags the random process as disillusionments which were the culmination yield of two progressions: emerging faults and initial state values. The predominant classification uses the logistic analysis effort function mounting efficient software on the real time dataset. The detriments of the logistic testing were efficaciously overcome by Pareto distribution. The estimated outline ventures the resolved technique for analyzing the suitable communities and the preeminent of fit for a software reliability progress model. Its constraints are predictable to evaluate the reliability of a software system. The future process will permit for software reliability estimations that can be used both as prominence Indicator, but also for planning and controlling resources, the development times based on the onslaught assignments of the efficient computing and reliable measurement of a software system was competent.

  5. Down time analysis of longwall face equipment - a case study

    Kundu, M.; Ral, P.; Nath, R. [Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India). Inst. of Technology, Dept. of Mining Engineering


    The fully mechanized longwall method of underground coal mining is the only technology that can offer stiff competition to surface mining methods in terms of production and productivity. It is yet to realize its full potential in India. Indian experience with mechanized longwall faces has been a mixed one with several failures and only meagre success owing to difficult geomining conditions, mismatch of equipment vis-a-vis geomining conditions, poor machine running time, inadequate maintenance strategies, lack of availability of spares on time, poor utilization, etc. A perceptible gap exists between the actual performance and potential capacity of the equipment due to frequent breakdown and, subsequently, the reduced availability of equipment package. The study analysed the down time of longwall face equipment during operation in the field. It was conducted for eight months on shearers, automated flexible conveyors, powered supports, stage loader, belt conveyors, etc. Analysis in the form of tables and pie charts illustrates the down time of each equipment. Critical components in the system that require attention were systematically identified. The equipment down time studies are beneficial on mechanized longwall faces and they must be conducted for a long period of time in the field to arrive at meaningful results. Breakdown appears to be a function of duty conditions under which a particular equipment operates. Powered supports are most prone to breakdown on a mechanized longwall face followed by shearer and automated flexible conveyors. Belt conveyors are the most reliable in operation. 7 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Reliability of Power Units in Poland and the World

    Józef Paska


    Full Text Available One of a power system’s subsystems is the generation subsystem consisting of power units, the reliability of which to a large extent determines the reliability of the power system and electricity supply to consumers. This paper presents definitions of the basic indices of power unit reliability used in Poland and in the world. They are compared and analysed on the basis of data published by the Energy Market Agency (Poland, NERC (North American Electric Reliability Corporation – USA, and WEC (World Energy Council. Deficiencies and the lack of a unified national system for collecting and processing electric power equipment unavailability data are also indicated.

  7. Development of ion/proton beam equipment for industrial uses

    Choi, Byung Ho; Lee, J. H.; Cho, Y. S.; Joo, P. K.; Kang, S. S.; Song, W. S.; Kim, H. J.; Chang, G. H.; Bang, S. W


    KAERI has possessed design and fabrication technologies of various ion sources including Duoplasmatron and DuoPiGatron developed by R and D projects of the long-term nuclear technology development program. In order to industrialize ion beam equipments utilizing these ion sources, a technology transfer project for a technology transfer project for a domestic firm has been performed. Under this project, engineers of the firm have been trained through classroom lectures of ion beam principles and OJT, an ion/proton beam equipment (DEMO equipment) has been designed, assembled and commissioned jointly with the engineers. Quality of the ion sources has been quantified, and technologies for ion beam equipment construction, functional test and application research have been developed. The DEMO equipment, which consists of an ion source, power supplies, vacuum, cooling and target systems, has been fabricated and tested to secure stability and reliability for industrial uses. Various characteristic tests including high voltage insulation, beam extraction, beam current measuring, etc. have been performed. This DEMO can be utilized for ion sources development as well as ion beam process development for various industrial products. Engineers of the firm have been trained for the industrialization of ion beam equipment and joined in beam application technology development to create industrial needs of beam equipment. (author)

  8. Export of electronics equipment waste.

    LaDou, Joseph; Lovegrove, Sandra


    Electronics equipment waste ("e-waste") includes discarded computers, computer monitors, television sets, and cell phones. Less than 10% of e-waste is currently recycled. The United States and other developed countries export e-waste primarily to Asia, knowing it carries a real harm to the poor communities where it will be discarded. A 2006 directive bans the use of lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, and certain brominated flame retardants in most electronics products sold in the EU. A similar directive facilitates the development and design of clean electronics products with longer lifespans that are safe and easy to repair, upgrade, and recycle, and will not expose workers and the environment to hazardous chemicals. These useful approaches apply only regionally and cover only a fraction of the hazardous substances used in electronics manufacture, however. There is an urgent need for manufacturers of electronics products to take responsibility for their products from production to end-of-life, and for much tighter controls both on the transboundary movement of e-waste and on the manner in which it is recycled. Manufacturers must develop clean products with longer lifespans that are safe and easy to repair, upgrade, and recycle and will not expose workers and the environment to hazardous chemicals.

  9. Reliability Modeling of Wind Turbines

    Kostandyan, Erik

    and uncertainties are quantified. Further, estimation of annual failure probability for structural components taking into account possible faults in electrical or mechanical systems is considered. For a representative structural failure mode, a probabilistic model is developed that incorporates grid loss failures...... components. Thus, models of reliability should be developed and applied in order to quantify the residual life of the components. Damage models based on physics of failure combined with stochastic models describing the uncertain parameters are imperative for development of cost-optimal decision tools...... for Operation & Maintenance planning. Concentrating efforts on development of such models, this research is focused on reliability modeling of Wind Turbine critical subsystems (especially the power converter system). For reliability assessment of these components, structural reliability methods are applied...

  10. Reliability Analysis of Wind Turbines

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard


    In order to minimise the total expected life-cycle costs of a wind turbine it is important to estimate the reliability level for all components in the wind turbine. This paper deals with reliability analysis for the tower and blades of onshore wind turbines placed in a wind farm. The limit states...... consideres are in the ultimate limit state (ULS) extreme conditions in the standstill position and extreme conditions during operating. For wind turbines, where the magnitude of the loads is influenced by the control system, the ultimate limit state can occur in both cases. In the fatigue limit state (FLS......) the reliability level for a wind turbine placed in a wind farm is considered, and wake effects from neighbouring wind turbines is taken into account. An illustrative example with calculation of the reliability for mudline bending of the tower is considered. In the example the design is determined according...

  11. Reliability Assessment of Wind Turbines

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard


    (and safe). In probabilistic design the single components are designed to a level of reliability, which accounts for an optimal balance between failure consequences, cost of operation & maintenance, material costs and the probability of failure. Furthermore, using a probabilistic design basis...... but manufactured in series production based on many component tests, some prototype tests and zeroseries wind turbines. These characteristics influence the reliability assessment where focus in this paper is on the structural components. Levelized Cost Of Energy is very important for wind energy, especially when...... comparing to other energy sources. Therefore much focus is on cost reductions and improved reliability both for offshore and onshore wind turbines. The wind turbine components should be designed to have sufficient reliability level with respect to both extreme and fatigue loads but also not be too costly...

  12. Detection of Equipment Faults Before Beam Loss

    Galambos, J.


    High-power hadron accelerators have strict limits on fractional beam loss. In principle, once a high-quality beam is set up in an acceptable state, beam loss should remain steady. However, in practice, there are many trips in operational machines, owing to excessive beam loss. This paper deals with monitoring equipment health to identify precursor signals that indicate an issue with equipment that will lead to unacceptable beam loss. To this end, a variety of equipment and beam signal measurements are described. In particular, several operational examples from the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) of deteriorating equipment functionality leading to beam loss are reported.

  13. MEMS reliability: coming of age

    Douglass, Michael R.


    In today's high-volume semiconductor world, one could easily take reliability for granted. As the MOEMS/MEMS industry continues to establish itself as a viable alternative to conventional manufacturing in the macro world, reliability can be of high concern. Currently, there are several emerging market opportunities in which MOEMS/MEMS is gaining a foothold. Markets such as mobile media, consumer electronics, biomedical devices, and homeland security are all showing great interest in microfabricated products. At the same time, these markets are among the most demanding when it comes to reliability assurance. To be successful, each company developing a MOEMS/MEMS device must consider reliability on an equal footing with cost, performance and manufacturability. What can this maturing industry learn from the successful development of DLP technology, air bag accelerometers and inkjet printheads? This paper discusses some basic reliability principles which any MOEMS/MEMS device development must use. Examples from the commercially successful and highly reliable Digital Micromirror Device complement the discussion.

  14. Functioning condition monitoring of industrial equipment

    Ungureanu, N. S.; Petrovan, A.; Ungureanu, M.; Alexandrescu, M.


    The paper analyses the theoretical aspects related to monitoring industrial equipment. Are treated issues that concern the choosing of industrial equipment to be monitored, the parameters to be monitored, monitoring mode (local or remote) and the mode of collection and transmission of data.

  15. [Metrological software of laser medical equipment].

    Romashkov, A P; Glazov, A I; Tikhomirov, S V


    The paper considers the laser medical equipment situation that has established in Russia and that is characterized by the wide medical application of laser technologies and appropriate software and by inadequate development and imperfection of required metrological software and maintenance of laser equipment.

  16. Reliability of plantar pressure platforms.

    Hafer, Jocelyn F; Lenhoff, Mark W; Song, Jinsup; Jordan, Joanne M; Hannan, Marian T; Hillstrom, Howard J


    Plantar pressure measurement is common practice in many research and clinical protocols. While the accuracy of some plantar pressure measuring devices and methods for ensuring consistency in data collection on plantar pressure measuring devices have been reported, the reliability of different devices when testing the same individuals is not known. This study calculated intra-mat, intra-manufacturer, and inter-manufacturer reliability of plantar pressure parameters as well as the number of plantar pressure trials needed to reach a stable estimate of the mean for an individual. Twenty-two healthy adults completed ten walking trials across each of two Novel emed-x(®) and two Tekscan MatScan(®) plantar pressure measuring devices in a single visit. Intraclass correlation (ICC) was used to describe the agreement between values measured by different devices. All intra-platform reliability correlations were greater than 0.70. All inter-emed-x(®) reliability correlations were greater than 0.70. Inter-MatScan(®) reliability correlations were greater than 0.70 in 31 and 52 of 56 parameters when looking at a 10-trial average and a 5-trial average, respectively. Inter-manufacturer reliability including all four devices was greater than 0.70 for 52 and 56 of 56 parameters when looking at a 10-trial average and a 5-trial average, respectively. All parameters reached a value within 90% of an unbiased estimate of the mean within five trials. Overall, reliability results are encouraging for investigators and clinicians who may have plantar pressure data sets that include data collected on different devices.

  17. Equipment for the management of spent fuels and radioactive waste

    Bower, C. C. F.; Carter, C. C.; Doubt, H. A. [GEC Alsthom Engineering System Ltd., Leicester (United Kingdom)


    UK experience over the last thirty years with the design and implementation of equipment for the management of spent fuels and radioactive wastes has ranged from remote handling, through encapsulation and containerisation, to the medium-term storage of heat-producing fuels and wastes in the dry state. The design principles involved in handling, transporting and storing hazardous materials safely and reliably, while ensuring biological shielding, containment and cooling of radioactive materials, are common to the various kinds of equipment presented in this paper, even though the individual requirements may be very different. The UK nuclear programme over the last thirty years has encouraged the development of extensive expertise in the engineering of equipment for the management of spent fuel and radioactive waste. This expertise can be applied with benefit to the Korean nuclear programme.


    I. Gorlov


    Full Text Available The paper considers a problem pertaining to selection friction pair materials for plain bearings of mining equipment which are lubricated with  nano-dispersed magnetic oil. Methodology for equipment tests, technology for obtaining new anti-friction materials (polymer, ceramic, amorphous and investigation results are presented in the paper.

  19. Reliability Characteristics of Power Plants

    Zbynek Martinek


    Full Text Available This paper describes the phenomenon of reliability of power plants. It gives an explanation of the terms connected with this topic as their proper understanding is important for understanding the relations and equations which model the possible real situations. The reliability phenomenon is analysed using both the exponential distribution and the Weibull distribution. The results of our analysis are specific equations giving information about the characteristics of the power plants, the mean time of operations and the probability of failure-free operation. Equations solved for the Weibull distribution respect the failures as well as the actual operating hours. Thanks to our results, we are able to create a model of dynamic reliability for prediction of future states. It can be useful for improving the current situation of the unit as well as for creating the optimal plan of maintenance and thus have an impact on the overall economics of the operation of these power plants.

  20. Reliability of Tubular Joints

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    of the test is partly to obtain empirical data for the ultimate load-carrying capacity of tubular T-joints and partly to obtain some experience in performing tests with tubular joints. It is well known that tubular joints are usually designed in offshore engineering on the basis of empirical formulas obtained...

  1. Mechanization of hydraulic testing of chemical equipment

    Bannikov, M.T.; Fridman, R.N.; Petrovnin, A.I.


    The Institute VNIIPTKhimmash has worked out a comprehensive list of equipment for testing for strength and tightness containers and heat exchangers with jackets, with mixers, also of individual parts and subassemblies for this equipment. Points out that in the test stands developed for hydraulic testing of vessels both individual and centralized recirculating water supply can be used. Concludes that a reduction in labor consumption in hydraulic testing and in servicing of all the equipment used, an increase in the mechanization of this kind of chemical equipment, and the solution of the problem of standardization not only with regard to dimensions and parameters, but also with regard to the makes and types of the materials used, will make possible a considerable increase in labor productivity and product quality.

  2. Reliability of Railway Systems

    M.J.C.M. Vromans (Michiel)


    textabstractMichiel Vromans was born on January 31, 1976, in Veghel, the Netherlands. In 1994- 1995 he visited the Emporia State University, Emporia, Kansas, USA. His focus that year was on both geography and mathematics. In 1995 he started his study in Econometrics at the University of Groningen, w

  3. Metrological Reliability of Medical Devices

    Costa Monteiro, E.; Leon, L. F.


    The prominent development of health technologies of the 20th century triggered demands for metrological reliability of physiological measurements comprising physical, chemical and biological quantities, essential to ensure accurate and comparable results of clinical measurements. In the present work, aspects concerning metrological reliability in premarket and postmarket assessments of medical devices are discussed, pointing out challenges to be overcome. In addition, considering the social relevance of the biomeasurements results, Biometrological Principles to be pursued by research and innovation aimed at biomedical applications are proposed, along with the analysis of their contributions to guarantee the innovative health technologies compliance with the main ethical pillars of Bioethics.

  4. Reliability Modeling of Wind Turbines

    Kostandyan, Erik

    Cost reductions for offshore wind turbines are a substantial requirement in order to make offshore wind energy more competitive compared to other energy supply methods. During the 20 – 25 years of wind turbines useful life, Operation & Maintenance costs are typically estimated to be a quarter...... the actions should be made and the type of actions requires knowledge on the accumulated damage or degradation state of the wind turbine components. For offshore wind turbines, the action times could be extended due to weather restrictions and result in damage or degradation increase of the remaining...... for Operation & Maintenance planning. Concentrating efforts on development of such models, this research is focused on reliability modeling of Wind Turbine critical subsystems (especially the power converter system). For reliability assessment of these components, structural reliability methods are applied...

  5. Reliability of Wave Energy Converters

    Ambühl, Simon

    . Structural reliability considerations and optimizations impact operation and maintenance (O&M) costs as well as the initial investment costs. Furthermore, there is a control system for WEC applications which defines the harvested energy but also the loads onto the structure. Therefore, extreme loads but also...... WEPTOS. Calibration of safety factors are performed for welded structures at theWavestar device including different control systems for harvesting energy from waves. In addition, a case study of different O&M strategies for WECs is discussed, and an example of reliability-based structural optimization......There are many different working principles for wave energy converters (WECs) which are used to produce electricity from waves. In order for WECs to become successful and more competitive to other renewable electricity sources, the consideration of the structural reliability of WECs is essential...

  6. Reliability history of the Apollo guidance computer

    Hall, E. C.


    The Apollo guidance computer was designed to provide the computation necessary for guidance, navigation and control of the command module and the lunar landing module of the Apollo spacecraft. The computer was designed using the technology of the early 1960's and the production was completed by 1969. During the development, production, and operational phase of the program, the computer has accumulated a very interesting history which is valuable for evaluating the technology, production methods, system integration, and the reliability of the hardware. The operational experience in the Apollo guidance systems includes 17 computers which flew missions and another 26 flight type computers which are still in various phases of prelaunch activity including storage, system checkout, prelaunch spacecraft checkout, etc. These computers were manufactured and maintained under very strict quality control procedures with requirements for reporting and analyzing all indications of failure. Probably no other computer or electronic equipment with equivalent complexity has been as well documented and monitored. Since it has demonstrated a unique reliability history, it is important to evaluate the techniques and methods which have contributed to the high reliability of this computer.

  7. Reliability Assessment of Wind Turbines

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard


    Wind turbines can be considered as structures that are in between civil engineering structures and machines since they consist of structural components and many electrical and machine components together with a control system. Further, a wind turbine is not a one-of-a-kind structure...... but manufactured in series production based on many component tests, some prototype tests and zeroseries wind turbines. These characteristics influence the reliability assessment where focus in this paper is on the structural components. Levelized Cost Of Energy is very important for wind energy, especially when...... comparing to other energy sources. Therefore much focus is on cost reductions and improved reliability both for offshore and onshore wind turbines. The wind turbine components should be designed to have sufficient reliability level with respect to both extreme and fatigue loads but also not be too costly...

  8. Reliability assessment of Wind turbines

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard


    Wind turbines can be considered as structures that are in between civil engineering structures and machines since they consist of structural components and many electrical and machine components together with a control system. Further, a wind turbine is not a one-of-a-kind structure...... but manufactured in series production based on many component tests, some prototype tests and zeroseries wind turbines. These characteristics influence the reliability assessment where focus in this paper is on the structural components. Levelized Cost Of Energy is very important for wind energy, especially when...... comparing to other energy sources. Therefore much focus is on cost reductions and improved reliability both for offshore and onshore wind turbines. The wind turbine components should be designed to have sufficient reliability level with respect to both extreme and fatigue loads but also not be too costly...

  9. Electronic Equipment Reliability Data,


    z u C1 CO OIL 0) - .. 01 -0 <~ 0 =-C 1 0 . 0 0 79 Is~ W 11~ a44 00 k - 0I 3 ~ 0 K ’ 0 It 11 - L- td It wI u II mI II x - C IIv mII it It c, c, g Dit...u o o - -10A 2 a 1 . I 2 a2 -0 C L0 c- mU 42 w-t 0 0)’.5-L w 4 CL Li CL- &U ’U - (A -A 0 -. I Li tD *CZ EI IA LiI MI 3 L) X m II -. OX x 41 41 𔄃~ II...n0. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 1.-4- 0. 0- In I 1- 0 0 0 4’ 0 - n I 1 ~ Kl c (A 4 l𔃺C 1 LU C n 0KK t 0c C LLUCm m 1 - ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~ 1 - - U 0 .> I U- 1 - 0 0 V>0

  10. Reliability Assessment of Concrete Bridges

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Middleton, C. R.

    This paper is partly based on research performed for the Highways Agency, London, UK under the project DPU/9/44 "Revision of Bridge Assessment Rules Based on Whole Life Performance: concrete bridges". It contains the details of a methodology which can be used to generate Whole Life (WL) reliability...... profiles. These WL reliability profiles may be used to establish revised rules for concrete bridges. This paper is to some extend based on Thoft-Christensen et. al. [1996], Thoft-Christensen [1996] et. al. and Thoft-Christensen [1996]....

  11. Incidents of chemical reactions in cell equipment

    Baldwin, N.M.; Barlow, C.R. [Uranium Enrichment Organization, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    Strongly exothermic reactions can occur between equipment structural components and process gases under certain accident conditions in the diffusion enrichment cascades. This paper describes the conditions required for initiation of these reactions, and describes the range of such reactions experienced over nearly 50 years of equipment operation in the US uranium enrichment program. Factors are cited which can promote or limit the destructive extent of these reactions, and process operations are described which are designed to control the reactions to minimize equipment damage, downtime, and the possibility of material releases.

  12. Reliability of quantitative content analyses

    Enschot-van Dijk, R. van


    Reliable coding of stimuli is a daunting task that often yields unsatisfactory results. This paper discusses a case study in which tropes (e.g., metaphors, puns) in TV commercials were analyzed as well the extent and location of verbal and visual anchoring (i.e., explanation) of these tropes. After


    Dr Obe

    Evaluation of the reliability of a primary cell took place in three stages: 192 cells went through a ... CCV - Closed Circuit Voltage, the voltage at the terminals of a battery when it is under an electrical ... Cylindrical spirally wound cells have the.

  14. Reliability of subjective wound assessment

    M.C.T. Bloemen; P.P.M. van Zuijlen; E. Middelkoop


    Introduction: Assessment of the take of split-skin graft and the rate of epithelialisation are important parameters in burn surgery. Such parameters are normally estimated by the clinician in a bedside procedure. This study investigates whether this subjective assessment is reliable for graft take a


    E. Lazarevich


    Full Text Available The article is present new idea of the creation, developments and improvements of the electronic equipment of complex systems by means of the virtual electronic components. The idea of the virtual electronic components is a presentation and perception of the creation and developments of the equipment on two forming: real – in the manner of standard marketed block of the intellectual property and image – in the manner of virtual component. The real component in most cases slows the development of the electronic equipment. The imaginary component is the «locomotive» of development of the electronic equipment. The Imaginary component contains the scientific has brushed against developer. The scientific has brushed against developer reveals of itself in the manner of virtual component on the modern level of the design rates of microelectronics.

  16. Reliability-based optimization of engineering structures

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard


    The theoretical basis for reliability-based structural optimization within the framework of Bayesian statistical decision theory is briefly described. Reliability-based cost benefit problems are formulated and exemplitied with structural optimization. The basic reliability-based optimization prob...

  17. 47 CFR 15.607 - Equipment authorization of Access BPL equipment.


    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment authorization of Access BPL equipment. 15.607 Section 15.607 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Access Broadband Over Power Line (Access BPL) § 15.607 Equipment authorization of Access...

  18. Reliability of Arctic offshore installations

    Bercha, F.G. [Bercha Group, Calgary, AB (Canada); Gudmestad, O.T. [Stavanger Univ., Stavanger (Norway)]|[Statoil, Stavanger (Norway)]|[Norwegian Univ. of Technology, Stavanger (Norway); Foschi, R. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Sliggers, F. [Shell International Exploration and Production, Rijswijk (Netherlands); Nikitina, N. [VNIIG, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Nevel, D.


    Life threatening and fatal failures of offshore structures can be attributed to a broad range of causes such as fires and explosions, buoyancy losses, and structural overloads. This paper addressed the different severities of failure types, categorized as catastrophic failure, local failure or serviceability failure. Offshore tragedies were also highlighted, namely the failures of P-36, the Ocean Ranger, the Piper Alpha, and the Alexander Kieland which all resulted in losses of human life. P-36 and the Ocean Ranger both failed ultimately due to a loss of buoyancy. The Piper Alpha was destroyed by a natural gas fire, while the Alexander Kieland failed due to fatigue induced structural failure. The mode of failure was described as being the specific way in which a failure occurs from a given cause. Current reliability measures in the context of offshore installations only consider the limited number of causes such as environmental loads. However, it was emphasized that a realistic value of the catastrophic failure probability should consider all credible causes of failure. This paper presented a general method for evaluating all credible causes of failure of an installation. The approach to calculating integrated reliability involves the use of network methods such as fault trees to combine the probabilities of all factors that can cause a catastrophic failure, as well as those which can cause a local failure with the potential to escalate to a catastrophic failure. This paper also proposed a protocol for setting credible reliability targets such as the consideration of life safety targets and escape, evacuation, and rescue (EER) success probabilities. A set of realistic reliability targets for both catastrophic and local failures for representative safety and consequence categories associated with offshore installations was also presented. The reliability targets were expressed as maximum average annual failure probabilities. The method for converting these annual

  19. Reliability Analysis of Money Habitudes

    Delgadillo, Lucy M.; Bushman, Brittani S.


    Use of the Money Habitudes exercise has gained popularity among various financial professionals. This article reports on the reliability of this resource. A survey administered to young adults at a western state university was conducted, and each Habitude or "domain" was analyzed using Cronbach's alpha procedures. Results showed all six…

  20. Reliability Analysis of Money Habitudes

    Delgadillo, Lucy M.; Bushman, Brittani S.


    Use of the Money Habitudes exercise has gained popularity among various financial professionals. This article reports on the reliability of this resource. A survey administered to young adults at a western state university was conducted, and each Habitude or "domain" was analyzed using Cronbach's alpha procedures. Results showed all six…

  1. Integrated logistics management system for operation of machinery and equipment

    Józef Frąś


    Full Text Available Background: The main issue in the operations of machinery and equipment, which is the subject of theoretical and empirical research is to provide high reliability and durability with qualitative post-trade services of machinery and equipment. Quality of service can be achieved through planned maintenance activities supported by computer technology. The article presents the concept of an integrated system of logistics management operation of machinery and equipment, especially special one for stationary transport equipment. At the outset, it emphasized the importance and essence of technological transport and storage systems storage in modern manufacturing enterprise. Then the objective and the method of research have been set. An essential part of deliberations in the article is the concept of integrated logistics management system operation for stationary transport equipment. Authors of this article have presented the results the implementation and operation of the system. The results are presented in a descriptive and graphic form. Methods: The purpose of this article is to present the concept of implementing an integrated logistics management system for operation of stationary transport equipment. It goes through combination of planning, event logging service, warehouse management in the field of spare parts, account and records of the cost of service activities. The paper presents an analysis and evaluation method of brainstorming a new approach to logistics management operation stationary transport equipment. Authors takes into account the specific conditions of use of transport equipment and conduct the service, which have a significant impact on the time and place of cost and service as well. It should be noted that the developed system has been implemented. It was also carried out an assessment of its functionality and efficiency as the new IT tool for logistics management operation. Results and conclusions: The paper presents a new

  2. A Survey of Reliability, Maintainability, Supportability, and Testability Software Tools


    Industrial Reliability Program ABSTRACT: Program is utilized for analysis of industrial equipment for which military requirements are not applicable...Can communicate with other TECNASA software and has British or Portuguese menus. MACHINES: IBM PC POC: TECNASA Attn: Jose L. Barletta Electronica ...termed "performability". Models both repairable and nonrepairable systems. MACHINES: No Data POC: Industrial Technology Institute 20 NAME: METFAC

  3. Field surveys of office equipment operating patterns

    Webber, Carrie A.; Roberson, Judy A.; Brown, Richard E.; Payne, Christopher T.; Nordman, Bruce; Koomey, Jonathan G.


    This paper presents the results of 11 after-hours walk-throughs of offices in the San Francisco CA and Washington D.C. areas. The primary purpose of these walk-throughs was to collect data on turn-off rates for various types of office equipment (computers, monitors, printers, fax machines, copiers, and multifunction products). Each piece of equipment observed was recorded and its power status noted (e.g. on, off, low power). Whenever possible, we also recorded whether power management was enabled on the equipment. The floor area audited was recorded as well, which allowed us to calculate equipment densities. We found that only 44 percent of computers, 32 percent of monitors, and 25 percent of printers were turned off at night. Based on our observations we estimate success rates of 56 percent for monitor power management and 96 percent for enabling of power management on printers.

  4. Field surveys of office equipment operating patterns

    Webber, Carrie A.; Roberson, Judy A.; Brown, Richard E.; Payne, Christopher T.; Nordman, Bruce; Koomey, Jonathan G.


    This paper presents the results of 11 after-hours walk-throughs of offices in the San Francisco CA and Washington D.C. areas. The primary purpose of these walk-throughs was to collect data on turn-off rates for various types of office equipment (computers, monitors, printers, fax machines, copiers, and multifunction products). Each piece of equipment observed was recorded and its power status noted (e.g. on, off, low power). Whenever possible, we also recorded whether power management was enabled on the equipment. The floor area audited was recorded as well, which allowed us to calculate equipment densities. We found that only 44 percent of computers, 32 percent of monitors, and 25 percent of printers were turned off at night. Based on our observations we estimate success rates of 56 percent for monitor power management and 96 percent for enabling of power management on printers.

  5. The Reliability of College Grades

    Beatty, Adam S.; Walmsley, Philip T.; Sackett, Paul R.; Kuncel, Nathan R.; Koch, Amanda J.


    Little is known about the reliability of college grades relative to how prominently they are used in educational research, and the results to date tend to be based on small sample studies or are decades old. This study uses two large databases (N > 800,000) from over 200 educational institutions spanning 13 years and finds that both first-year…

  6. Manufacture and maintenance of laboratory equipment

    Hwang, Chang Kyu; Hwang, Bong Ha; Lee, Jong Wha; Kim, Jong Kyun; Yeum, Ki Eon; Park, Myung Ku; Hong, Soon Eon; Choi, Ho Young; An, Dae Kyu; An, Choon; Park, In Won; Kim, Kyung Sik; Lee, Won Jae; Yoon, Ki Byung; Kim, Heung Woo; Lee, In Bae; Yeom, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Chul Ku; Sin, Keon Ju; Oh, Wan Ho; Seo, Yong Chil; Yang, Song Yeul; Lee, Young Soon; Choi, Byung Kwon; Chang, Kyung Duk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    This report on the manufacture and maintenance of laboratory equipment contains working contents, scope and contents of request working to the machine shop, also records the principal production design, manufacture contents and a relevant working drawing. The working content and scope of the machine shop is to support the successful and convenient performance of the R and D by manufacture and maintenance of all sorts of laboratory equipment. 11 tabs., 3 figs. (Author) .new.

  7. Verification of the thermal design of electronic equipment

    Hienonen, R.; Karjalainen, M.; Lankinen, R. [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland). ProTechno


    The project `Verification of the thermal design of electronic equipment` studied the methodology to be followed in the verification of thermal design of electronic equipment. This project forms part of the `Cool Electronics` research programme funded by TEKES, the Finnish Technology Development Centre. This project was carried out jointly by VTT Automation, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Nokia Research Center and ABB Industry Oy VSD-Technology. The thermal design of electronic equipment has a significant impact on the cost, reliability, tolerance to different environments, selection of components and materials, and ergonomics of the product. This report describes the method for verification of thermal design. It assesses the goals set for thermal design, environmental requirements, technical implementation of the design, thermal simulation and modelling, and design qualification testing and the measurements needed. The verification method covers all packaging levels of electronic equipment from the system level to the electronic component level. The method described in this report can be used as part of the quality system of a corporation. The report includes information about the measurement and test methods needed in the verification process. Some measurement methods for the temperature, flow and pressure of air are described. (orig.) Published in Finnish VTT Julkaisuja 824. 22 refs.


    Adrian Stere PARIS


    Full Text Available The mechanical reliability uses many statistical tools to find the factors of influence and their levels inthe optimization of parameters on the basis of experimental data. Design of Experiments (DOE techniquesenables designers to determine simultaneously the individual and interactive effects of many factors that couldaffect the output results in any design. The state-of-the-art in the domain implies extended use of software and abasic mathematical knowledge, mainly applying ANOVA and the regression analysis of experimental data.

  9. Suitable features selection for monitoring thermal condition of electrical equipment using infrared thermography

    Huda, A. S. N.; Taib, S.


    Monitoring the thermal condition of electrical equipment is necessary for maintaining the reliability of electrical system. The degradation of electrical equipment can cause excessive overheating, which can lead to the eventual failure of the equipment. Additionally, failure of equipment requires a lot of maintenance cost, manpower and can also be catastrophic- causing injuries or even deaths. Therefore, the recognition processof equipment conditions as normal and defective is an essential step towards maintaining reliability and stability of the system. The study introduces infrared thermography based condition monitoring of electrical equipment. Manual analysis of thermal image for detecting defects and classifying the status of equipment take a lot of time, efforts and can also lead to incorrect diagnosis results. An intelligent system that can separate the equipment automatically could help to overcome these problems. This paper discusses an intelligent classification system for the conditions of equipment using neural networks. Three sets of features namely first order histogram based statistical, grey level co-occurrence matrix and component based intensity features are extracted by image analysis, which are used as input data for the neural networks. The multilayered perceptron networks are trained using four different training algorithms namely Resilient back propagation, Bayesian Regulazation, Levenberg-Marquardt and Scale conjugate gradient. The experimental results show that the component based intensity features perform better compared to other two sets of features. Finally, after selecting the best features, multilayered perceptron network trained using Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm achieved the best results to classify the conditions of electrical equipment.

  10. Life Cycle Reliability Management under the Background of How to Achieve Military Equipment Procurement Risk Supervision%全寿命周期背景下如何通过可靠性管理达到军事装备采购的风险监督



    全寿命费用的概念是由美国国防部于20世纪60年代初提出来的,经过几十年的发展目前在美国和其他一些西方国家,装备的全寿命费用管理已处于成熟阶段,其主要装备都通过全寿命费用分析、设计和监控来完成研制和生产,从而节约了大量资源和时间,我国从20世纪80年代开始研究装备的全寿命问题,目前全寿命费用控制管理已经运用到装备的全寿命周期管理中,本文结合军事供应链中可靠性管理的相关理论,浅析如何更好地在全寿命周期背景下做好军事装备采购的风险监督。%The concept of the whole life cost is brought out by United States Department of Defense in the 1960s. After decades of de-velopment, the management of the equipments' whole life cost has been into mature stage in the United States and some other west- ern countries. The main equipment is designed and monitored to complete the development and production through the whole life cost analysis, which can save a lot of resources and time. Our country has done the research of the whole life analysis since the 1980s. For the moment, the whole life cost control management has been applied to the equipment of all life cycle management. This study com-bines the military into the supply chain reliability management theory to analyze how to be better in risk supervision under the back-ground of the whole life cycle military equipment procurement.

  11. Storage Reliability of Reserve Batteries


    batteries – Environmental concerns, lack of business – Non-availability of some critical materials • Lithium Oxyhalides are systems of choice – Good...exhibit good corrosion resistance to neutral electrolytes (LiAlCl4 in thionyl chloride and sulfuryl chloride ) • Using AlCl3 creates a much more corrosive...Storage Reliability of Reserve Batteries Jeff Swank and Allan Goldberg Army Research Laboratory Adelphi, MD 301-394-3116 ll l


    Gabriel BURLACU,


    Full Text Available Axial lenticular compensators are made to take over the longitudinal heat expansion, shock , vibration and noise, made elastic connections for piping systems. In order to have a long life for installations it is necessary that all elements, including lenticular compensators, have a good reliability. This desire can be did by technology of manufactoring and assembly of compensators, the material for lenses and by maintenance.of compensator

  13. Reliability of Wave Energy Converters

    Ambühl, Simon

    for welded structures at the Wavestar device includingdifferent control systems for harvesting energy from waves. In addition, a casestudy of different O&M strategies for WECs is discussed, and an example ofreliability-based structural optimization of the Wavestar foundation ispresented. The work performed......There are many different working principles for wave energy converters (WECs) which are used to produce electricity from waves. In order for WECs tobecome successful and more competitive to other renewable electricity sources,the consideration of the structural reliability of WECs is essential.......Structural reliability considerations and optimizations impact operation andmaintenance (O&M) costs as well as the initial investment costs.Furthermore, there is a control system for WEC applications which defines theharvested energy but also the loads onto the structure. Therefore, extremeloads but also fatigue loads...

  14. Reliability of Wave Energy Converters

    Ambühl, Simon

    There are many different working principles for wave energy converters (WECs) which are used to produce electricity from waves. In order for WECs to become successful and more competitive to other renewable electricity sources, the consideration of the structural reliability of WECs is essential....... Structural reliability considerations and optimizations impact operation and maintenance (O&M) costs as well as the initial investment costs. Furthermore, there is a control system for WEC applications which defines the harvested energy but also the loads onto the structure. Therefore, extreme loads but also...... of the Wavestar foundation is presented. The work performed in this thesis focuses on the Wavestar and WEPTOS WEC devices which are only two working principles out of a large diversity. Therefore, in order to gain general statements and give advice for standards for structural WEC designs, more working principles...

  15. Reliability Analysis of Sensor Networks

    JIN Yan; YANG Xiao-zong; WANG Ling


    To Integrate the capacity of sensing, communication, computing, and actuating, one of the compelling technological advances of these years has been the appearance of distributed wireless sensor network (DSN) for information gathering tasks. In order to save the energy, multi-hop routing between the sensor nodes and the sink node is necessary because of limited resource. In addition, the unpredictable conditional factors make the sensor nodes unreliable. In this paper, the reliability of routing designed for sensor network and some dependability issues of DSN, such as MTTF(mean time to failure) and the probability of connectivity between the sensor nodes and the sink node are analyzed.Unfortunately, we could not obtain the accurate result for the arbitrary network topology, which is # P-hard problem.And the reliability analysis of restricted topologies clustering-based is given. The method proposed in this paper will show us a constructive idea about how to place energyconstrained sensor nodes in the network efficiently from the prospective of reliability.

  16. Predicting Reliability of Tactical Network Using RBFNN

    WANG Xiao-kai; HOU Chao-zhen


    A description of the reliability evaluation of tactical network is given, which reflects not only the non-reliable factors of nodes and links but also the factors of network topological structure. On the basis of this description, a reliability prediction model and its algorithms are put forward based on the radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) for the tactical network. This model can carry out the non-linear mapping relationship between the network topological structure, the nodes reliabilities, the links reliabilities and the reliability of network. The results of simulation prove the effectiveness of this method in the reliability and the connectivity prediction for tactical network.

  17. Exact reliability quantification of highly reliable systems with maintenance

    Bris, Radim, E-mail: radim.bris@vsb.c [VSB-Technical University Ostrava, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Department of Applied Mathematics, 17. listopadu 15, 70833 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic)


    When a system is composed of highly reliable elements, exact reliability quantification may be problematic, because computer accuracy is limited. Inaccuracy can be due to different aspects. For example, an error may be made when subtracting two numbers that are very close to each other, or at the process of summation of many very different numbers, etc. The basic objective of this paper is to find a procedure, which eliminates errors made by PC when calculations close to an error limit are executed. Highly reliable system is represented by the use of directed acyclic graph which is composed from terminal nodes, i.e. highly reliable input elements, internal nodes representing subsystems and edges that bind all of these nodes. Three admissible unavailability models of terminal nodes are introduced, including both corrective and preventive maintenance. The algorithm for exact unavailability calculation of terminal nodes is based on merits of a high-performance language for technical computing MATLAB. System unavailability quantification procedure applied to a graph structure, which considers both independent and dependent (i.e. repeatedly occurring) terminal nodes is based on combinatorial principle. This principle requires summation of a lot of very different non-negative numbers, which may be a source of an inaccuracy. That is why another algorithm for exact summation of such numbers is designed in the paper. The summation procedure uses benefits from a special number system with the base represented by the value 2{sup 32}. Computational efficiency of the new computing methodology is compared with advanced simulation software. Various calculations on systems from references are performed to emphasize merits of the methodology.


    A. I. Kotlabay


    Full Text Available Study of directions concerning development of military equipment, its modernization with the purpose to improve its military efficiency is an actual problem for the Armed Forces, military science, designers and researchers.The paper analyzes and estimates possibilities to use civil equipment for military purpose. Problems pertaining to technologies of double application, diversification of civil equipment in military engineering machinery are considered in the paper.

  19. Study on reliability technology of contactor relay

    LIU Guo-jin; ZHAO Jing-ying; WANG Hai-tao; YANG Chen-guang; SUN Shun-li


    In this paper, the reliability of contactor relay is studied. There are three main parts about reliability test and analysis. First, in order to analyze reliability level of contact relay, the failure ratio ranks are established as index base on the product level. Second, the reliability test method is put forward. The sample plan of reliability compliance test is gained from reliability sample theory. The failure criterion is ensured according to the failure modes of contactor relay. Third, after reliability test experiment, the analysis of failure physics is made and the failure reason is found.

  20. Automatization of welding for nuclear power equipments and facilities

    Tamai, Y.; Matsumoto, T.; Koyama, T. (Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan). Hitachi Works)


    For the requirement of high reliability in the construction of nuclear power plants and the reduction of radiation exposure in the modefying works of existing plants, the automation and remote operation of welding have increased their necessity. In this paper, the present state of the automation of welding for making machines, equipments and pipings for nuclear power plants in Hitachi Ltd. is described, and the aim of developing the automation, the features of the equipments and the state of application to actual plants are introduced, centering around the automation of welding for large structures such as reactor containment vessels and the remote type automatic welding system for pipings. By these automations, the large outcomes were obtained in the improvement of welding quality required for the machines and equipments for atomic energy. Moreover, the conspicuous results were also obtained in case of the peculiar works to nuclear power plants, in which the reduction of the radiation exposure related to human bodies and the welding of high quality are demanded. The present state of the automation of welding for nuclear installations in Hitachi Ltd., the development of automatic welding equipments and the present state of application to actual plants, and the development and application of the automatic pipe working machine for reducing radiation exposure are explained.

  1. Optimal placement of switching equipment in reconfigurable distribution systems

    Mijailović Vladica


    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative analysis of some measures that can improve the reliability of medium-voltage (MV distribution feeder. Strictly speaking, the impact of certain types of switching equipment installed on the feeder and possibilities of backup supply from the adjacent feeders were analyzed. For each analyzed case, equations for the calculation of System Average Interruption Duration Index and energy not delivered to the customers are given. The effects of certain measures are calculated for one real MV-feeder for radial supply to customers and in cases of possible backup supply to the customers. Installation locations of certain types of switching equipment for the given concept of energy supply are determined according to the criterion of minimum value of System Average Interruption Duration Index and according to the criterion of minimum value of energy not delivered to the customers.

  2. An improved probit method for assessment of domino effect to chemical process equipment caused by overpressure.

    Mingguang, Zhang; Juncheng, Jiang


    Overpressure is one important cause of domino effect in accidents of chemical process equipments. Damage probability and relative threshold value are two necessary parameters in QRA of this phenomenon. Some simple models had been proposed based on scarce data or oversimplified assumption. Hence, more data about damage to chemical process equipments were gathered and analyzed, a quantitative relationship between damage probability and damage degrees of equipment was built, and reliable probit models were developed associated to specific category of chemical process equipments. Finally, the improvements of present models were evidenced through comparison with other models in literatures, taking into account such parameters: consistency between models and data, depth of quantitativeness in QRA.


    Erhan F.


    Full Text Available In the article the analysis of the influence level current of the short circuit of the electrical equipment. It is designed the mathematical model allowing the modeling prototype reliability of the operation electrical equipment installed in nodes of the systems.

  4. Development and realization of the concept of an integrated system for the improvement of steam turbine plant reliability

    Murmanskii, B. E.


    Main works performed when implementing the concept of an integrated approach to the improvement of the steam turbine plant (STP) reliability were stated. The technique of an integrated approach to the collection and processing of data on the STP equipment reliability was presented. This technique is based on the information on damages resulting in equipment failures, damages revealed during the routine equipment maintenance, and on data concerning equipment faults occurred when operating the STP. There is an implementation example for the technique of defining main elements specifying the reliability of a specific unit based on the statistical analysis of STP operating data.

  5. Robust Reliability or reliable robustness? - Integrated consideration of robustness and reliability aspects

    Kemmler, S.; Eifler, Tobias; Bertsche, B.


    products are and vice versa. For a comprehensive understanding and to use existing synergies between both domains, this paper discusses the basic principles of Reliability- and Robust Design theory. The development of a comprehensive model will enable an integrated consideration of both domains...

  6. Development of nuclear equipment qualification technology

    Choi, Heon O; Kim, Wu Hyun; Kim, Jin Wuk; Kim, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Jeong Kyu; Kim, Yong Han; Jeong, Hang Keun [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Taejon (Korea)


    In order to enhance testing and evaluation technologies, which is one of the main works of the Chanwon branch of KIMM(Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials), in addition to the present work scope of the testing and evaluation in the industrial facilities such as petroleum and chemical, plants, the qualification technologies of the equipments important to safety used in the key industrial facilities such as nuclear power plants should be localized: Equipments for testing and evaluation is to be set up and the related technologies must be developed. In the first year of this study, of vibration aging qualification technologies of equipments important to safety used in nuclear power plants have been performed. (author). 27 refs., 81 figs., 17 tabs.

  7. Analysis of the Improvement Methods for Equipment Maintenance Support

    ZHANG Rui-chang; ZHAO Song-zheng


    According to military requirement, and based on the problems of equipment maintenance support methods in high-tech battles, each element supporting equipment maintenance is analyzed, and the methods for improving equipment maintenance are proposed.

  8. 76 FR 23812 - Reliability and Continuity of Communications Networks, Including Broadband Technologies; Effects...


    ... COMMISSION Reliability and Continuity of Communications Networks, Including Broadband Technologies; Effects on Broadband Communications Networks of Damage or Failure of Network Equipment or Severe Overload; Independent Panel Reviewing the Impact of Hurricane Katrina on Communications Networks AGENCY:...

  9. The PLC Control System of Vacuum Resin Shot Dosing Equipment

    ZHU Shao-ying; XU Yu; HE Zheng-wen


    The principle and working process of Vacuum Resin Shot Dosing Equipment(VRSDE) are analyzed and the characteristics of IP1612-220PLC (Programmable Logical Controller) are introduced briefly at first. Then the authors discuss the flow of program, the assignment of PLC I/O ports,the wiring diagram, and the ladder logic program of the PLC control system of VRSDE in detail.Some application issues of the system are accounted for in addition. Finally, according to the information acquired from users, the authors draw the conclusion: this system owns a high reliability and availability and greatly improves the automatic degree of VRDE.

  10. Reliability prediction techniques

    Whittaker, B.; Worthington, B.; Lord, J.F.; Pinkard, D.


    The paper demonstrates the feasibility of applying reliability assessment techniques to mining equipment. A number of techniques are identified and described and examples of their use in assessing mining equipment are given. These techniques include: reliability prediction; failure analysis; design audit; maintainability; availability and the life cycle costing. Specific conclusions regarding the usefulness of each technique are outlined. The choice of techniques depends upon both the type of equipment being assessed and its stage of development, with numerical prediction best suited for electronic equipment and fault analysis and design audit suited to mechanical equipment. Reliability assessments involve much detailed and time consuming work but it has been demonstrated that the resulting reliability improvements lead to savings in service costs which more than offset the cost of the evaluation.

  11. Emission of chemical substances from office equipment

    Joanna Kowalska


    Full Text Available A number of potentially harmful pollutants are emitted from office equipment. Printers and copiers are sources of volatile organic compounds (VOC, which at least partly, are generated from the heated toner and paper dust during printing process. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, styrene, and formaldehyde were detected in the blended emissions emitted from printing devices. Office printing devices are recognized to be the major sources of indoor fine and ultrafine aerosol particles. The emissions of certain pollutants from office equipment may be at relatively low level compared to other known sources (e.g. building materials. However, office equipment is potentially the important source of human exposure due to the short distance for the people operating them both at home and in the office.

  12. Contributions to Optimize the Operation of a Thermoelectric Conversion Equipment

    GORDAN Ioan Mircea


    Full Text Available Geothermal energy is an important renewable energy source, is accessible and clean. University of Oradea has important contributions in this area. Therefore we aimed to achieve a new method of converting geothermal energy into electricity. Studies have removed shortcomings in existing plants. As such a model was made functional, laboratory, fully automatic, low power, superior to existing technologies through: removal of harmful substances (e.g. CO2, increase equipment reliability and increase system efficiency. In the creation of this product is the invention of the University of Oradea which won the 2008 Inventions Exhibition in Cluj-Napoca, the gold medal.

  13. Reliability of steam generator tubing

    Kadokami, E. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Hyogo-ku (Japan)


    The author presents results on studies made of the reliability of steam generator (SG) tubing. The basis for this work is that in Japan the issue of defects in SG tubing is addressed by the approach that any detected defect should be repaired, either by plugging the tube or sleeving it. However, this leaves open the issue that there is a detection limit in practice, and what is the effect of nondetectable cracks on the performance of tubing. These studies were commissioned to look at the safety issues involved in degraded SG tubing. The program has looked at a number of different issues. First was an assessment of the penetration and opening behavior of tube flaws due to internal pressure in the tubing. They have studied: penetration behavior of the tube flaws; primary water leakage from through-wall flaws; opening behavior of through-wall flaws. In addition they have looked at the question of the reliability of tubing with flaws during normal plant operation. Also there have been studies done on the consequences of tube rupture accidents on the integrity of neighboring tubes.

  14. Planning and Selection of Heavy Construction Equipment in Civil Engineering

    Mr. Nilesh D. Chinchore


    Full Text Available Construction equipment planning and selection plays crucial role for the success of construction firms.Inadequate manual processes of equipmentplanning and selection and the subjective decisions of equipment managers usually result in major losses in construction firms. An indispensable item of resources, it produces output at accelerated speed, enables completion of task in limited time. Equipment saves manpower, which is becoming costly and more demanding day by day. Equipment improves quality, productivity and safety. Construction equipment planning aims at identifying construction equipment for executing project tasks, assessing equipment performance capability, forecasting date wise requirement of number and type of equipment and finally participating in the selection of equipment to be acquired. To derive full benefits from the equipment, there should be proper selection and good planning of its operations. This paper deals with the planning and selection procedure for equipment adopted by a company to achieve its objective of timely project completion.

  15. Longevity and Depreciation of Audiovisual Equipment.

    Post, Richard


    Describes results of survey of media service directors at public universities in Ohio to determine the expected longevity of audiovisual equipment. Use of the Delphi technique for estimates is explained, results are compared with an earlier survey done in 1977, and use of spreadsheet software to calculate depreciation is discussed. (LRW)

  16. Magnet measuring equipment of SC2

    CERN PhotoLab


    Checking the positioning of the magnet measuring equipment installed between the poles of SC2. The steel structure in front of the magnet is designed to house the rotary condenser and to shield it from the stray magnetic field of the accelerator.

  17. Magnet measuring equipment of SC2


    Checking the positioning of the magnet measuring equipment installed between the poles of SC2. The steel structure in front of the magnet is designed to house the rotary condenser and to shield it from the stray magnetic field of the accelerator. On the left, Marinus van Gulik. (See Photo Archive 7402005 and Annual Report 1974, p. 44.)

  18. Stopping of Ships Equipped with Azipods

    Jacek Nowicki


    Full Text Available The paper contains a description of different possibilities of stopping a large ship equipped with azipods. The model tests were carried out to compare the effectiveness of stopping the ship using the different methods. The ship model used in stopping tests reproduces a large LNG carrier of capacity ~150 000 m3

  19. An Overview of the Reliability and Availability Data System (RADS)

    T. E. Wierman; K. J. Kvarfordt; S. A. Eide; D. M. Rasmuson


    The Reliability and Availability Data System (RADS) is a database and analysis code, developed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). The code is designed to estimate industry and plant-specific reliability and availability parameters for selected components in risk-important systems and initiating events for use in risk-informed applications. The RADS tool contains data and information based on actual operating experience from U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. The data contained in RADS is kept up-to-date by loading the most current quarter's Equipment Performance and Information Exchange (EPIX) data and by yearly lods of initiating event data from licensee event reports (LERS). The reliability parameters estimated by RADS are (1) probability of failure on demand, (2) failure rate during operation (used to calculate failure to run probability) and (3) time trends in reliability parameters.

  20. Design of a rib impactor equipment

    Torres, C. R.; García, G.; Aguilar, L. A.; Martínez, L.


    The human ribs must be analyzed as long and as curved bones, due to their physiology. For the development of an experimental equipment that simulate the application of loads, over the rib in the moment of a frontal collision in an automobile with seat belt, it was applied a methodology that constituted in the identification of needs and the variables which led the design of 3D model, from this it was used the technique of fused deposition modeling for the development of the equipment pieces. The supports that hold the rib ends were design with two and three degrees of freedom that allows the simulation of rib movement with the spine and the breastbone in the breathing. For the simulation of the seat belt, it was determined to applied two loads over the front part of the rib from the sagittal and lateral plane respectively, for this it was made a displacement through a lineal actuator with a speed of 4mm/s. The outcomes shown a design of an equipment able to obtain the load parameters required to generate fractures in rib specimens. The equipment may be used for the study of specimens with nearby geometries to the rib taken as a reference.

  1. The research of medical equipment on-line detection system based on Android smartphone

    Jiang, Junjie; Dong, Xinyu; Zhang, Hongjie; Liu, Mengjun


    With the unceasing enhancement of medical level, the expanding scale of medical institutions, medical equipment as an important tool for disease diagnosis, treatment and prevention, used in all levels of medical institutions. The quality and accuracy of the Medical equipment play a key role in the doctor's diagnosis and treatment effect, medical metrology as the important technical foundation is to ensure that the equipment, technology, material components are accurate and the application is safe and reliable. Medical equipment have the feature of variety, large quantity, long using cycle, expensive and multi-site, which bring great difficulty in maintenance, equipment management and verification. Therefore, how to get the medical measurement integrate deeply into the advanced internet technology, information technology and the new measuring method, for real-time monitoring of medical equipment, tracking, positioning, and query is particularly important.

  2. 78 FR 25916 - Authorization of Radiofrequency Equipment


    ..., while at the same time protecting against interference among radio services and devices using the RF... multitude of RF devices used in the United States operate effectively without causing harmful interference... provision of RF equipment, while at the same time protecting against interference among radio services and...

  3. Diagnosis of Equipment Failures by Pattern Recognition

    Pau, L. F.


    The main problems in relation to automatic fault finding and diagnosis in equipments or production systems are discussed: 1) compression of the syndrome and observation spaces for better discrimination between failure modes; 2) simultaneous display of the failure patterns and the failure instants...

  4. Reliability of Hydrox explosive blasting

    Chikunov, V.I.; Chulkov, O.G.; Domanov, V.P.


    The safest method of blasting in coal mines with methane and coal dust hazards is with the flameless Hydrox charges. The results of operational tests on Hydrox BV-A2U charges with a I-43 initiator in underground coal mines are discussed. Efficiency and reliability of blasting using Hydrox BV-A2U compared to BV-48 Hydrox charges is evaluated. Results of blasting and the percentage of charge failures are given in tables. It is suggested that BV-A2U Hydrox charges are superior to BV-48, as no charge failures occur, operational time of BV-A2U is up to 5 seconds and the maximum operational time spread is 1.8 sec (weight of initiator 0.05 kg). Blasting properties of BV-A2U are stable and do not change as a result of long storage. (In Russian)

  5. System Reliability of Timber Structures

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard


    For reduction of the risk of collapse in the event of loss of structural element(s), a structural engineer may take necessary steps to design a collapse-resistant structure that is insensitive to accidental circumstances e.g. by incorporating characteristics like redundancy, ties, ductility, key ...... elements, alternate load path(s) etc. in the structural design. In general these characteristics can have a positive influence on system reliability of a structure however, in Eurocodes ductility is only awarded for concrete and steel structures but not for timber structures. It is well......-know that structural systems can redistribute internal forces due to ductility of a connection, i.e. some additional loads can be carried by the structure. The same effect is also possible for reinforced concrete structures and structures of steel. However, for timber structures codes do not award that ductility...

  6. Estimation of Bridge Reliability Distributions

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper it is shown how the so-called reliability distributions can be estimated using crude Monte Carlo simulation. The main purpose is to demonstrate the methodology. Therefor very exact data concerning reliability and deterioration are not needed. However, it is intended in the paper to ...

  7. Development trends of machines and equipment for mine haulage in black coal mines

    Dembinski, C.; Gorol, S.; Janik, E.; Kotlarski, S.; Kowal, J.; Zeifert, S.


    This paper discusses development of equipment for mine haulage in underground black coal mines in Poland. Equipment type, selected aspects of its design, specifications, productivity and reliability are evaluated. The following equipment types are reviewed: chain conveyors (Rybnik-73, Samson, Supersamson, Supergrot), belt conveyors (Gwarek), mine cars (Granby mine cars with a capacity of 5.1 m/sup 3/), mine locomotives (with electric batteries, electric or pneumatic motors or diesel engines), equipment for railway track repair and maintenance, automatic systems for traffic control in underground mines, coal hoppers, coal handling systems for coal hoppers. Equipment developed in Poland since 1970 is discussed. Recommendations for research programs on haulage equipment and coal hoppers are made. 8 refs.

  8. Optimization of reliability allocation strategies through use of genetic algorithms

    Campbell, J.E.; Painton, L.A.


    This paper examines a novel optimization technique called genetic algorithms and its application to the optimization of reliability allocation strategies. Reliability allocation should occur in the initial stages of design, when the objective is to determine an optimal breakdown or allocation of reliability to certain components or subassemblies in order to meet system specifications. The reliability allocation optimization is applied to the design of a cluster tool, a highly complex piece of equipment used in semiconductor manufacturing. The problem formulation is presented, including decision variables, performance measures and constraints, and genetic algorithm parameters. Piecewise ``effort curves`` specifying the amount of effort required to achieve a certain level of reliability for each component of subassembly are defined. The genetic algorithm evolves or picks those combinations of ``effort`` or reliability levels for each component which optimize the objective of maximizing Mean Time Between Failures while staying within a budget. The results show that the genetic algorithm is very efficient at finding a set of robust solutions. A time history of the optimization is presented, along with histograms or the solution space fitness, MTBF, and cost for comparative purposes.

  9. Reliability and heterogeneity of railway services

    M.J.C.M. Vromans (Michiel); R. Dekker (Rommert); L.G. Kroon (Leo)


    textabstractReliability is one of the key factors in transportation, both for passengers and for cargo. This paper examines reliability in public railway systems. Reliability of railway services is a complex matter, since there are many causes for disruptions and at least as many causes for delays t

  10. Power electronics reliability analysis.

    Smith, Mark A.; Atcitty, Stanley


    This report provides the DOE and industry with a general process for analyzing power electronics reliability. The analysis can help with understanding the main causes of failures, downtime, and cost and how to reduce them. One approach is to collect field maintenance data and use it directly to calculate reliability metrics related to each cause. Another approach is to model the functional structure of the equipment using a fault tree to derive system reliability from component reliability. Analysis of a fictitious device demonstrates the latter process. Optimization can use the resulting baseline model to decide how to improve reliability and/or lower costs. It is recommended that both electric utilities and equipment manufacturers make provisions to collect and share data in order to lay the groundwork for improving reliability into the future. Reliability analysis helps guide reliability improvements in hardware and software technology including condition monitoring and prognostics and health management.

  11. A Study on Performance and Safety Tests of Electrosurgical Equipment

    Tavakoli Golpaygani A.


    Full Text Available Introduction: Modern medicine employs a wide variety of instruments with different physiological effects and measurements. Periodic verifications are routinely used in legal metrology for industrial measuring instruments. The correct operation of electrosurgical generators is essential to ensure patient’s safety and management of the risks associated with the use of high and low frequency electrical currents on human body. Material and Methods: The metrological reliability of 20 electrosurgical equipment in six hospitals (3 private and 3 public was evaluated in one of the provinces of Iran according to international and national standards. Results: The achieved results show that HF leakage current of ground-referenced generators are more than isolated generators and the power analysis of only eight units delivered acceptable output values and the precision in the output power measurements was low. Conclusion: Results indicate a need for new and severe regulations on periodic performance verifications and medical equipment quality control program especially in high risk instruments. It is also necessary to provide training courses for operating staff in the field of meterology in medicine to be acquianted with critical parameters to get accuracy results with operation room equipment.

  12. 76 FR 23222 - Electric Reliability Organization Interpretation of Transmission Operations Reliability


    ... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 40 Electric Reliability Organization Interpretation of Transmission Operations Reliability AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of Proposed... Commission (Commission) proposes to approve the North American Electric Reliability Corporation's...

  13. 76 FR 23171 - Electric Reliability Organization Interpretations of Interconnection Reliability Operations and...


    ... the system remains functional, the information can be compelled by the Reliability Coordinator. \\32... reliability coordinator and neighboring systems upon request, or when the loss of the communication channel... (Technical Information), Office of Electric Reliability, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, 888...


    Outhier, Maxime; Rydström, Vilhelm; Sanz, Imanol


    This Examination Thesis was done at the Blekinge Institute of Technology of Karlskrona. The work is a part of the education to Bachelor of Science in product development. The task consists of changing the steering wheel transmission of the DYNAPAC CA soil compactor machine made by Svedala Compaction Equipment AB. During the work we have followed the Fredy Olsson product development method. The work is divided in two parts: The Concept phase and The Primary Construction phase. In the Concept p...

  15. [Supply of medical equipment in Mexico].

    Arredondo, A; Cruz, C; Faba, G; Sánchez, E; Hernández, B; Damián, T


    This article covers the report on Supply of Medical Equipment in Mexico, presented during the Second National Congress of Public Health. The results are part of an investigation that dealt with the general conditions that currently prevail in the production and distribution of medical equipment. The information was obtained by means of a survey applied to 208 companies that comprised the sample study. The facts indicate that of the companies that correspond to this industrial sector in Mexico, 3.8 per cent are manufacturers, 69.7 per cent distributors, 19.2 per cent manufacturer-distributors, and the remaining 7.2 per cent correspond to corrective and preventive maintenance. Also, these companies pose serious problems of external dependence with regard to production costs and the commercialization of products. Furthermore, it became evident that there is a substantial need for financial support to optimally satisfy the demands of various institutions in the country's health sector.

  16. Reliability of Power Electronic Converter Systems

    -link capacitance in power electronic converter systems; wind turbine systems; smart control strategies for improved reliability of power electronics system; lifetime modelling; power module lifetime test and state monitoring; tools for performance and reliability analysis of power electronics systems; fault......-tolerant adjustable speed drive systems; mission profile oriented reliability design in wind turbine and photovoltaic systems; reliability of power conversion systems in photovoltaic applications; power supplies for computers; and high-power converters. Reliability of Power Electronic Converter Systems is essential...... reading for researchers, professionals and students working with power electronics and their applications, particularly those specializing in the development and application of power electronic converters and systems....

  17. Exploration of Complexity in Software Reliability

    CHU Yanming; XU Shiyi


    Traditionally, timing and the failure rate are the only two factors considered in software reliability formula, which is actually incomplete. Reliability should be redefined as a function of software complexity, test effectiveness, and operating environment. This paper focuses on software complexity with its relation to the software reliability. Today, many software complexity measurements have been proposed, but most of them treat the reliability model incompletely. This paper proposes a new method which considers a relatively complete view of software reliability including its complexity and test effectiveness of the software being tested.

  18. Surrogates of plutonium for detection equipment testing

    Peerani, Paolo; Tomanin, Alice


    Fight against illicit trafficking of nuclear material relies on the possibility to detect nuclear material concealed in vehicles, people or cargo containers. This is done by equipping and training law enforcement and security staff in border stations or other points of access to strategic places and critical infrastructures with radiation detection equipment. The design, development, testing and evaluation of these instruments ideally require the use of real nuclear material to assess, verify and certify their detection performance. Availability of special nuclear material may be an issue, especially for industry, since only few specialized laboratories are licensed for such material. This paper tries to analyse and describe the possibility to use suitable surrogates that may replace the use of real nuclear material in testing the detection capabilities of instruments used in nuclear security.

  19. Equipment Operation Statistics for Tianhuangping Pmnped-Storage Power Station and Its Reliability Analysis%天荒坪抽水蓄能电站设备运行统计与可靠性分析



    通过对发电投产12年来天荒坪电站设备运行和故障情况的统计,分析电站设备消缺和健康运行水平及影响可靠性指标的主要因素,提出相应对策,对设备运行监测重点提出建议。%The statistics was conducted on the equipment operation and failures in Tianhuangping Pumped-Storage Power Station for its 12-year power generation. This paper analyzes the main factors influencing the level of equipment faults elimination and healthy operation, as well as the reliability index, and proposes the corresponding countermeasures. Finally, the equipment operation monitoring focus was suggested.

  20. Estimation of the Reliability of Distributed Applications

    Marian Pompiliu CRISTESCU; Laurentiu CIOVICA


    In this paper the reliability is presented as an important feature for use in mission-critical distributed applications. Certain aspects of distributed systems make the requested level of reliability more difficult. An obvious benefit of distributed systems is that they serve the global business and social environment in which we live and work. Another benefit is that they can improve the quality of services, in terms of reliability, availability and performance, for the complex systems. The ...

  1. Improving the hygienic design of closed equipment

    Friis, Alan; Jensen, Bo Boye Busk


    Maintenance of proper hygiene in closed process equipment is in many ways a complex task. The interaction between the physical design and the nature of fluid flow is of main concern. During cleaning the main performance of the flow is to bring cleaning agents in the right doses to all parts of th...... computational fluid dynamics models to be able to predict the cleaning efficiency in especially complex parts of process plants has excellent potentials for desktop improvements and computer pre-validation of the hygienic performance of process plants.......Maintenance of proper hygiene in closed process equipment is in many ways a complex task. The interaction between the physical design and the nature of fluid flow is of main concern. During cleaning the main performance of the flow is to bring cleaning agents in the right doses to all parts...... of the process plant. In turn the adhesion mechanisms between the soil and the surface of the process equipment must be overcome. In closed processes validation proves rather difficult, as inspection often is not possible. Hence, we benefit from a greater basic understanding of the influence of the mechanical...

  2. Design and Development of Carborne Survey Equipment



    Full Text Available In most nuclear and radiological emergencies involving the release of radioactive materials to environment, it is important that data on the geographic distribution of potentially hazardous radioactive materials be quickly presented to the authorities. The mobile radiation detection system makes it possible to measure radioactive materials in the environment at random places because of its easy mobility from place to place. The purpose of the work is to develop a mobile radiation detection system to measure gamma exposure rate, radioactive material on the ground and airborne radioactive particulate in the environment quickly. In this work, we have developed a carborne survey equipment system consisting of three gamma ray detectors, one airbome radioactive particulate sampler, a GPS (Global Positioning System, meteorological sensors, a data acquisition system and an operation software. Performance of the carborne survey equipment has been successfully demonstrated to measure iodine and argon release from medical isotope production facility on Serpong in western Java, Indonesia.

  3. Reliability of the NINDS Myotatic Reflex Scale.

    Litvan, I; Mangone, C A; Werden, W; Bueri, J A; Estol, C J; Garcea, D O; Rey, R C; Sica, R E; Hallett, M; Bartko, J J


    The assessment of deep tendon reflexes is useful for localization and diagnosis of neurologic disorders, but only a few studies have evaluated their reliability. We assessed the reliability of four neurologists, instructed in two different countries, in using the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) Myotatic Reflex Scale. To evaluate the role of training in using the scale, the neurologists randomly and blindly evaluated a total of 80 patients, 40 before and 40 after a training session. Inter- and intraobserver reliability were measured with kappa statistics. Our results showed substantial to near-perfect intraobserver reliability, and moderate-to-substantial interobserver reliability of the NINDS Myotatic Reflex Scale. The reproducibility was better for reflexes in the lower than in the upper extremities. Neither educational background nor the training session influenced the reliability of our results. The NINDS Myotatic Reflex Scale has sufficient reliability to be adopted as a universal scale.

  4. Reliability of analog quantum simulation

    Sarovar, Mohan [Sandia National Laboratories, Digital and Quantum Information Systems, Livermore, CA (United States); Zhang, Jun; Zeng, Lishan [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Joint Institute of UMich-SJTU, Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing (MOE), Shanghai (China)


    Analog quantum simulators (AQS) will likely be the first nontrivial application of quantum technology for predictive simulation. However, there remain questions regarding the degree of confidence that can be placed in the results of AQS since they do not naturally incorporate error correction. Specifically, how do we know whether an analog simulation of a quantum model will produce predictions that agree with the ideal model in the presence of inevitable imperfections? At the same time there is a widely held expectation that certain quantum simulation questions will be robust to errors and perturbations in the underlying hardware. Resolving these two points of view is a critical step in making the most of this promising technology. In this work we formalize the notion of AQS reliability by determining sensitivity of AQS outputs to underlying parameters, and formulate conditions for robust simulation. Our approach naturally reveals the importance of model symmetries in dictating the robust properties. To demonstrate the approach, we characterize the robust features of a variety of quantum many-body models. (orig.)

  5. Donation of CERN computing equipment to Pakistan

    Anaïs Schaeffer


    An official ceremony marking the eighth donation of CERN computing equipment to an outside institute, this time a university in Pakistan, took place on Monday, 2 March.     From left to right: Sajjad Mohsin, Dean at the COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General, S. M. Junaid Zaidi, Rector of CIIT, Aumair Qayyum (CIIT) and Syed Ali Zahir Bukhari (CIIT).   On this occasion, 224 servers and 30 network hubs were donated to the CIIT (COMSATS Institute of Information Technology) in Islamabad, Pakistan, where they will be used by scientists working on the LHC’s ALICE experiment. For several years now, CERN has regularly donated computing equipment that no longer meets its highly specific requirements but is still more than adequate for less exacting environments. To date, a total of 1,149 servers and 79 hubs have been donated to eight countries, namely Bulgaria, Egypt, Ghana, Morocco, the Philippines, Senegal, Serbia and now P...

  6. Emission of chemical substances from office equipment

    Joanna Kowalska; Małgorzata Szewczyńska; Małgorzata Pośniak


    A number of potentially harmful pollutants are emitted from office equipment. Printers and copiers are sources of volatile organic compounds (VOC), which at least partly, are generated from the heated toner and paper dust during printing process. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, styrene, and formaldehyde were detected in the blended emissions emitted from printing devices. Office printing devices are recognized to be the major sources of indoor fine and ultrafi...


    A. A. Kotlobai


    Full Text Available Engineering machines being in operational service with military units of  engineer troops are fit to their purpose and their application is relevant in modern conditions. Maintenance of operating conditions in engineering equipment which was produced earlier by the USSR enterprises is considered as a rather complicated task due to lack of spare parts because their production has been discontinued.One of the approaches used for maintenance of engineering equipment combat capabilities is modernization of operating drive systems that presupposes replacement of mechanical systems in working element drives by hydrostatic drives which are realized while using modern element base. Usage of hydraulic units in drive systems being in mass production for replacement of mechanical systems manufactured earlier in small batches makes it possible to reduce labour inputs for maintenance and repair of machines. The paper presents some possibilities for development of operating drive systems in engineering equipment. The proposed approach is given through an example of  engineering obstacle-clearing vehicle (IMR-2M and excavation machines (MDK-3 and MDK-2M.Application of a hydraulic drive in working elements of the excavation machines permits to withdraw from cardan  shafts, a gear box, a rotary gear and an overload clutch. A hydraulic motor of the cutter and thrower drive is mounted  on a working element gearbox. While executing modernization of hydraulic systems in excavation machines a pump unit has been proposed for the cutter and thrower drive which consists of a controlled pump and a system for automatic maintenance of the pump operational parameters. While developing the operating drive systems in engineering equipment in accordance with the proposed requirements it is possible to simplify drive systems of working elements and  ensure reliable machinery operation in the units of engineer troops. 

  8. Temperature field simulation of laser homogenizing equipment

    Juanjuan WANG; Yunshan WANG; Fudong ZHU


    The laser homogenizing equipment was devised using the ring scanning principle. Its working principle is explained. A laser scanning ring facula is obtained when the laser beam goes through the equipment's optical system rotating with high-frequency. The scanning ring facula's mathematic model is established based on the temperature field's superposing principle. The ring facula's light intensity distribution and temperature distribution characteristics are achieved by simulating its temperature field. By studying the effect of parameters on the temperature field, the best parameters can be found. Results show that favorable temperature distribution characteristics can be attained by choosing appropriate parameters, and even the thermal effect can be realized by utilizing the circumference power compensating for the heat exchange lost in the horizontal direction. The uniform hardness layer and better process quality can be attained using the ring facula optimized for metal laser heat treatment.


    CAO Le; LIU Fei


    Efficient utilization of the equipment distributed in different enterprises and optimal allocation of these resources is an important concern for networked manufacturing. The third party based equipment sharing approach is put forward to optimize the utilization of distributed equipment for networked manufacturing; Taking advantage of the shared equipment offered by equipment providers by means of lease agreement, the third party carries out production by establishing networked virtual factory. Operational mechanism of the third party based equipment sharing is discussed, and characteristics of this approach in achieving resource allocation are analyzed. Shared equipment planning is formulated as an optimization problem with the objective of maximizing profits for equipment coordinator, a mathematical model for shared equipment planning is developed. Finally a case study is discussed to show the effectiveness of the planning model.

  10. Management of reliability and maintainability; a disciplined approach to fleet readiness

    Willoughby, W. J., Jr.


    Material acquisition fundamentals were reviewed and include: mission profile definition, stress analysis, derating criteria, circuit reliability, failure modes, and worst case analysis. Military system reliability was examined with emphasis on the sparing of equipment. The Navy's organizational strategy for 1980 is presented.

  11. Fundamental mechanisms of micromachine reliability



    Due to extreme surface to volume ratios, adhesion and friction are critical properties for reliability of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS), but are not well understood. In this LDRD the authors established test structures, metrology and numerical modeling to conduct studies on adhesion and friction in MEMS. They then concentrated on measuring the effect of environment on MEMS adhesion. Polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon) is the primary material of interest in MEMS because of its integrated circuit process compatibility, low stress, high strength and conformal deposition nature. A plethora of useful micromachined device concepts have been demonstrated using Sandia National Laboratories' sophisticated in-house capabilities. One drawback to polysilicon is that in air the surface oxidizes, is high energy and is hydrophilic (i.e., it wets easily). This can lead to catastrophic failure because surface forces can cause MEMS parts that are brought into contact to adhere rather than perform their intended function. A fundamental concern is how environmental constituents such as water will affect adhesion energies in MEMS. The authors first demonstrated an accurate method to measure adhesion as reported in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2 through 5, they then studied the effect of water on adhesion depending on the surface condition (hydrophilic or hydrophobic). As described in Chapter 2, they find that adhesion energy of hydrophilic MEMS surfaces is high and increases exponentially with relative humidity (RH). Surface roughness is the controlling mechanism for this relationship. Adhesion can be reduced by several orders of magnitude by silane coupling agents applied via solution processing. They decrease the surface energy and render the surface hydrophobic (i.e. does not wet easily). However, only a molecular monolayer coats the surface. In Chapters 3-5 the authors map out the extent to which the monolayer reduces adhesion versus RH. They find that adhesion is

  12. Development of Virtual Equipment for a Hydraulic Mechanics Experiment

    CHAN Ying-Chieh; CHEN Ya-Hsin; KANG Shih-Chung; LEE Tim-Hau


    Laboratory class is very important in the education of hydraulic mechanics. However, it usually requires a high expenditure on equipment purchase and maintenance. Virtual equipment that renders the equipment in a virtual world and provides an interactive interface for users can be an ideal solution to reduce costs. In this research, we focus on developing virtual equipment for a Venturi tube experiment. We em-ployed multiple paper-prototypes to gather user feedback on the preliminary design. Following the final pro-totype, we then implemented the virtual equipment on computers. Interactive functions have been built into the virtual equipment. Users are able to manipulate the equipment and obtain real-time feedback as if they were using actual equipment. The results show that the development of the virtual equipment is technically feasible.

  13. Reliability analysis of an associated system

    陈长杰; 魏一鸣; 蔡嗣经


    Based on engineering reliability of large complex system and distinct characteristic of soft system, some new conception and theory on the medium elements and the associated system are created. At the same time, the reliability logic model of associated system is provided. In this paper, through the field investigation of the trial operation, the engineering reliability of the paste fill system in No.2 mine of Jinchuan Non-ferrous Metallic Corporation is analyzed by using the theory of associated system.

  14. Chapter 15: Reliability of Wind Turbines

    Sheng, Shuangwen; O' Connor, Ryan


    The global wind industry has witnessed exciting developments in recent years. The future will be even brighter with further reductions in capital and operation and maintenance costs, which can be accomplished with improved turbine reliability, especially when turbines are installed offshore. One opportunity for the industry to improve wind turbine reliability is through the exploration of reliability engineering life data analysis based on readily available data or maintenance records collected at typical wind plants. If adopted and conducted appropriately, these analyses can quickly save operation and maintenance costs in a potentially impactful manner. This chapter discusses wind turbine reliability by highlighting the methodology of reliability engineering life data analysis. It first briefly discusses fundamentals for wind turbine reliability and the current industry status. Then, the reliability engineering method for life analysis, including data collection, model development, and forecasting, is presented in detail and illustrated through two case studies. The chapter concludes with some remarks on potential opportunities to improve wind turbine reliability. An owner and operator's perspective is taken and mechanical components are used to exemplify the potential benefits of reliability engineering analysis to improve wind turbine reliability and availability.

  15. Optymisation of equipment setup processes in enterprises

    K. Grzybowska


    Full Text Available Fast equipment setup in a machine on production line is the key precondition to increase the fl exibility of the production. Methodology of SMED (Single Minute Exchange of Die is an example which allows reducing the time of setup practically to the minimum. The article presents the theoretical bases and required rules as well as case study conducted in one of chosen enterprises. This paper also answers the question if SMED methodology is applicable in metallurgical sector, presenting the example of shortening the time between the production of various metallurgical products manufactured in the machine for continuous casting of steel (COS in Polish.

  16. Combination of structural reliability and interval analysis

    Zhiping Qiu; Di Yang; saac Elishakoff


    In engineering applications,probabilistic reliability theory appears to be presently the most important method,however,in many cases precise probabilistic reliability theory cannot be considered as adequate and credible model of the real state of actual affairs.In this paper,we developed a hybrid of probabilistic and non-probabilistic reliability theory,which describes the structural uncertain parameters as interval variables when statistical data are found insufficient.By using the interval analysis,a new method for calculating the interval of the structural reliability as well as the reliability index is introduced in this paper,and the traditional probabilistic theory is incorporated with the interval analysis.Moreover,the new method preserves the useful part of the traditional probabilistic reliability theory,but removes the restriction of its strict requirement on data acquisition.Example is presented to demonstrate the feasibility and validity of the proposed theory.

  17. Improving the hygienic design of closed equipment

    Friis, Alan; Jensen, Bo Boye Busk


    Maintenance of proper hygiene in closed process equipment is in many ways a complex task. The interaction between the physical design and the nature of fluid flow is of main concern. During cleaning the main performance of the flow is to bring cleaning agents in the right doses to all parts...... computational fluid dynamics models to be able to predict the cleaning efficiency in especially complex parts of process plants has excellent potentials for desktop improvements and computer pre-validation of the hygienic performance of process plants....

  18. Structural Reliability of Wind Turbine Blades

    Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov

    by developing new models and standards or carrying out tests The following aspects are covered in detail: ⋅ The probabilistic aspects of ultimate strength of composite laminates are addressed. Laminated plates are considered as a general structural reliability system where each layer in a laminate is a separate...... system component. Methods for solving the system reliability are discussed in an example problem. ⋅ Probabilistic models for fatigue life of laminates and sandwich core are developed and calibrated against measurement data. A modified, nonlinear S-N relationship is formulated where the static strength...... the reliability against several modes of failure in two different structures. This includes reliability against blade-tower collision, and the reliability against ultimate and fatigue failure of a sandwich panel. The results from the reliability analyses are then used for calibrating partial safety factors...

  19. Reliability of large and complex systems

    Kolowrocki, Krzysztof


    Reliability of Large and Complex Systems, previously titled Reliability of Large Systems, is an innovative guide to the current state and reliability of large and complex systems. In addition to revised and updated content on the complexity and safety of large and complex mechanisms, this new edition looks at the reliability of nanosystems, a key research topic in nanotechnology science. The author discusses the importance of safety investigation of critical infrastructures that have aged or have been exposed to varying operational conditions. This reference provides an asympt

  20. Safety management of software-based equipment

    Boulanger, Jean-Louis


    A review of the principles of the safety of software-based equipment, this book begins by presenting the definition principles of safety objectives. It then moves on to show how it is possible to define a safety architecture (including redundancy, diversification, error-detection techniques) on the basis of safety objectives and how to identify objectives related to software programs. From software objectives, the authors present the different safety techniques (fault detection, redundancy and quality control). "Certifiable system" aspects are taken into account throughout the book. C

  1. Simulation modeling of reliability and efficiency of mine ventilation systems

    Ushakov, V.K. (Moskovskii Gornyi Institut (USSR))


    Discusses a method developed by the MGI institute for computerized simulation of operation of ventilation systems used in deep underground coal mines. The modeling is aimed at assessment of system reliability and efficiency (probability of failure-free operation and stable air distribution). The following stages of the simulation procedure are analyzed: development of a scheme of the ventilation system (type, aerodynamic characteristics and parameters that describe system elements, e.g. ventilation tunnels, ventilation equipment, main blowers etc., dynamics of these parameters depending among others on mining and geologic conditions), development of mathematical models that describe system characteristics as well as external factors and their effects on the system, development of a structure of the simulated ventilation system, development of an algorithm, development of the final computer program for simulation of a mine ventilation system. Use of the model for forecasting reliability of air supply and efficiency of mine ventilation is discussed. 2 refs.

  2. Improved reliability of power modules

    Baker, Nick; Liserre, Marco; Dupont, Laurent


    Power electronic systems play an increasingly important role in providing high-efficiency power conversion for adjustable-speed drives, power-quality correction, renewable-energy systems, energy-storage systems, and electric vehicles. However, they are often presented with demanding operating env...... temperature cycling conditions on the system. On the other hand, safety requirements in the aerospace and automotive industries place rigorous demands on reliability....

  3. Design for Reliability of Power Electronic Systems

    Wang, Huai; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede


    Advances in power electronics enable efficient and flexible processing of electric power in the application of renewable energy sources, electric vehicles, adjustable-speed drives, etc. More and more efforts are devoted to better power electronic systems in terms of reliability to ensure high...... on a 2.3 MW wind power converter is discussed with emphasis on the reliability critical components IGBTs. Different aspects of improving the reliability of the power converter are mapped. Finally, the challenges and opportunities to achieve more reliable power electronic systems are addressed....

  4. Reliability and Availability of Cloud Computing

    Bauer, Eric


    A holistic approach to service reliability and availability of cloud computing Reliability and Availability of Cloud Computing provides IS/IT system and solution architects, developers, and engineers with the knowledge needed to assess the impact of virtualization and cloud computing on service reliability and availability. It reveals how to select the most appropriate design for reliability diligence to assure that user expectations are met. Organized in three parts (basics, risk analysis, and recommendations), this resource is accessible to readers of diverse backgrounds and experience le

  5. Design and Implementation of Equipment Interactive Electronic Technical Manuals


    Interactive electronic technical manuals (IETMs) can significantly improve the maintenance and logistics of modern weapon equipment. Main functiors and development strategies of IETMs are discussed. As an example, the IETM development of a certain equipment is demonstrated.


    A. Stepanov


    Full Text Available The ways of increasing of exploitation reliability of dump trucks with the aim of increasing of effectiveness of exploitation of transportation systems of rock heaps at coal mines.

  7. Quality and Reliability of Missile System

    Mr. Prahlada


    Full Text Available Missile system is a single-shot weapon system which requires very high quality and reliability. Therefore, quality and reliability have to be built into the system from designing to testing and evaluation. In this paper, the technological challenges encountered during development of operational missile system and the factors considered to build quality and reliability through the design, manufacture, assembly, testing and by sharing the knowledge with other aerospace agencies, industries and institutions, etc. have been presented.

  8. 10 CFR 20.1703 - Use of individual respiratory protection equipment.


    ... conditions of use. This must be demonstrated either by licensee testing or on the basis of reliable test... respirator use in the event of equipment malfunction, physical or psychological distress, procedural or... require such relief. (e) The licensee shall also consider limitations appropriate to the type and mode of...

  9. Reliability Survey of Military Acquisition Systems


    software-intensive sensor and weapons systems, ensuring that there are no open Category 1 or 2 deficiency reports prior to OT. There is also evidence...reliability growth curve used to develop intermediate reliability goal(s)? 5c3 Are the reliability growth goal(s) linked to OTs (e.g., IOT &E, FOT&E...the reliability growth potential? 8 Did your program have an operational test in FY12? 8a What type of operational test was it? (DT/OT, OA/LUT, IOT &E

  10. Response and Reliability Problems of Dynamic Systems

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    The present thesis consists of selected parts of the work performed by the author on stochastic dynamics and reliability theory of dynamically excited structures primarily during the period 1986-1996.......The present thesis consists of selected parts of the work performed by the author on stochastic dynamics and reliability theory of dynamically excited structures primarily during the period 1986-1996....

  11. System Reliability Assessment of Offshore Pipelines

    Mustaffa, Z.


    The title of this thesis, System Reliability Assessment of Offshore Pipelines, portrays the application of probabilistic methods in assessing the reliability of these structures. The main intention of this thesis is to identify, apply and judge the suitability of the probabilistic methods in evalua

  12. Some trial methods of plant protection equipments in Turkey.

    Erimgüner, G.


    The Plant Protection Equipments Laboratory of the: Institute for the Plant Protection Chemicals and Equipments in Ankara is handling the mechanical and practical testing of; the equipments intended to be put in Turkey's markets. The testing is carried out as a part of the procedure of the approval scheme. In this article the detailed information's covering the mechanical and practical features required from the «equipments is given.

  13. 25 CFR 117.10 - Purchase of automotive equipment.


    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purchase of automotive equipment. 117.10 Section 117.10... COMPETENCY § 117.10 Purchase of automotive equipment. The superintendent may disburse from the surplus funds of an adult Indian not to exceed $2,000 for the purchase of automotive equipment when the...

  14. Scaling for Shock Response of Equipment in Different Submarines

    O’Hara, G.J.; Cunniff, P.F.


    This article presents scaling rules developed to predict the response of submarine equipment subjected to underwater chemical explosions. The computer was used as a surrogate for shock tests. A simplified model of a hull section was used to contain frame-mounted single degree of freedom equipment. A general scaling rule has been developed to handle the spread in the shock response attributable to the charge weight, equipment weight, and equipment frequency, where the shock response is the abs...

  15. Lifetime Reliability Assessment of Concrete Slab Bridges

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    A procedure for lifetime assesment of the reliability of short concrete slab bridges is presented in the paper. Corrosion of the reinforcement is the deterioration mechanism used for estimating the reliability profiles for such bridges. The importance of using sensitivity measures is stressed. Fi...

  16. 46 CFR Sec. 12 - Disposition of removed equipment and scrap.


    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of removed equipment and scrap. Sec. 12... CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 12 Disposition of removed equipment and scrap. (a) Article 8 of the NSA... cause the Contractor to segregate all equipment, salvageable material and scrap, removed from a...

  17. Inventory of Tank Farm equipment stored or abandoned aboveground

    Hines, S.C.; Lakes, M.E.


    This document provides an inventory of Tank Farm equipment stored or abandoned aboveground and potentially subject to regulation. This inventory was conducted in part to ensure that Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) does not violate dangerous waste laws concerning storage of potentially contaminated equipment/debris that has been in contact with dangerous waste. The report identifies areas inventoried and provides photographs of equipment.

  18. [Application of information management system about medical equipment].

    Hang, Jianjin; Zhang, Chaoqun; Wu, Xiang-Yang


    Based on the practice of workflow, information management system about medical equipment was developed and its functions such as gathering, browsing, inquiring and counting were introduced. With dynamic and complete case management of medical equipment, the system improved the management of medical equipment.

  19. Remanufacturing strategy for chemical equipment

    ZHANG Xian-cheng; XU Bin-shi; WANG Hai-dou; JIANG Yi; WU Yi-xiong; GONG Jian-ming; TU Shan-dong


    Failure, especially induced by cracks, usually occurred in the service process of chemical equipment, which could cause the medium leakage, fire hazard and explosion and induced the personnel casualty and economic losses. To assure the long-term and safety service, it is necessary to apply the remanufacturing technology on the chemical equipment containing cracks. The recent research advances on the remanufacturing, the failure modes and the life extension technology for chemical equipment were reviewed. The engineering strategy of the remanufacturing for the chemical equipment was proposed, which could provide a reasonable and reliable technical route for the remanufacturing operation of chemical equipment. In the strategy, the redesign was also been considered.

  20. Reliability Based Optimization of Structural Systems

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard


    The optimization problem to design structural systems such that the reliability is satisfactory during the whole lifetime of the structure is considered in this paper. Some of the quantities modelling the loads and the strength of the structure are modelled as random variables. The reliability...

  1. Assessment of conducting polymer applications in power equipment technology

    Schoch, K.F. Jr.; Bennett, A.I.; Burghardt, R.R.; Cookson, A.H.; Kennedy, W.N.; Oommen, T.V.; Saunders, H.E.; Smith, J.D.B.; Voshall, R.E. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (USA)); Fort, E.M. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (USA)); Robbins, B. (Reynolds Metals Co., Richmond, VA (USA))


    This report describes for the first time the state-of-the-art in conducting polymer technology specifically relating to electric power apparatus for transmission, distribution and generation. Thirty-two new applications in power equipment are proposed and assessed. The areas of the proposed applications include solid dielectric cable, oil-filled cable, capacitors, transformers, rotating machines, bushings, surge supressors, vacuum interrupters, gas-insulated equipment, and miscellaneous applications. The best applications will result in improved reliability and efficiency, design innovations, and simpler manufacturing procedures by taking advantage of the particular characteristics of conducting polymers. These characteristics include good control of conductivity over a range of 10{sup {minus}8} to 10{sup 3} S/cm, compatibility with organic compounds, simple preparation and development of anisotropic conductivity by polymer orientation. The proposed applications were evaluated according to technical impact, probability of success, economic impact, and time frame for implementation. The state-of-the-art of conducting polymers is also reviewed and areas requiring further research for these applications are discussed. Because of substantial recent progress is developing more practical conducting polymer materials, now is an excellent time to pursue the additional research needed. 37 refs., 16 figs., 15 tabs.

  2. Reliability Centered Maintenance in Schedule Improvement of Automotive Assembly Industry

    Rizauddin Ramli


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Today, in many automotive manufacturing companies, maintenance management is an important factor to maintain the plant operation and production equipments. Approach: In this study, we present an implementation of Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM practice in one of the automotive manufacturing company in Malaysia. The RCM practice was used to assist the company in focusing their maintenance activities based on the criticalities of the equipments by applying the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA. The implementation of RCM was carried out in 4 stages; preparation, system analysis, decision making and feedback. The aim of RCM was to reduce the number of maintenance checklist and to improve significantly the integrity of maintenance practice. Results: As a result, the new RCM framework was generated where Class A equipment was at the top of the monthly maintenance frequency priority, followed by Class B and Class C equipment which had lesser critical value. Conclusion: The new RCM framework is used to conduct visible guideline and propose a new maintenance schedule. The guideline is useful for future maintenance strategy improvement. After the implementation, it can be ascertained that our proposed RCM is useful in reducing maintenance personnel burden and this leads to improvement of productivity.

  3. 46 CFR 105.30-5 - Grounding of electrical equipment.


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grounding of electrical equipment. 105.30-5 Section 105... VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Electrical Requirements § 105.30-5 Grounding of electrical equipment. (a) All electrical equipment shall be grounded to the vessel's...

  4. 47 CFR 2.945 - Sampling tests of equipment compliance.


    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sampling tests of equipment compliance. 2.945 Section 2.945 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO... An Equipment Authorization § 2.945 Sampling tests of equipment compliance. The Commission will,...

  5. Reliability of genetic networks is evolvable

    Braunewell, Stefan; Bornholdt, Stefan


    Control of the living cell functions with remarkable reliability despite the stochastic nature of the underlying molecular networks—a property presumably optimized by biological evolution. We ask here to what extent the ability of a stochastic dynamical network to produce reliable dynamics is an evolvable trait. Using an evolutionary algorithm based on a deterministic selection criterion for the reliability of dynamical attractors, we evolve networks of noisy discrete threshold nodes. We find that, starting from any random network, reliability of the attractor landscape can often be achieved with only a few small changes to the network structure. Further, the evolvability of networks toward reliable dynamics while retaining their function is investigated and a high success rate is found.

  6. Reliability of chemical analyses of water samples

    Beardon, R.


    Ground-water quality investigations require reliable chemical analyses of water samples. Unfortunately, laboratory analytical results are often unreliable. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project`s solution to this problem was to establish a two phase quality assurance program for the analysis of water samples. In the first phase, eight laboratories analyzed three solutions of known composition. The analytical accuracy of each laboratory was ranked and three laboratories were awarded contracts. The second phase consists of on-going monitoring of the reliability of the selected laboratories. The following conclusions are based on two years experience with the UMTRA Project`s Quality Assurance Program. The reliability of laboratory analyses should not be taken for granted. Analytical reliability may be independent of the prices charged by laboratories. Quality assurance programs benefit both the customer and the laboratory.

  7. Reliability of chemical analyses of water samples

    Beardon, R.


    Ground-water quality investigations require reliable chemical analyses of water samples. Unfortunately, laboratory analytical results are often unreliable. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project`s solution to this problem was to establish a two phase quality assurance program for the analysis of water samples. In the first phase, eight laboratories analyzed three solutions of known composition. The analytical accuracy of each laboratory was ranked and three laboratories were awarded contracts. The second phase consists of on-going monitoring of the reliability of the selected laboratories. The following conclusions are based on two years experience with the UMTRA Project`s Quality Assurance Program. The reliability of laboratory analyses should not be taken for granted. Analytical reliability may be independent of the prices charged by laboratories. Quality assurance programs benefit both the customer and the laboratory.

  8. Reliability assessment of wave Energy devices

    Ambühl, Simon; Kramer, Morten; Kofoed, Jens Peter


    Energy from waves may play a key role in sustainable electricity production in the future. Optimal reliability levels for components used for Wave Energy Devices (WEDs) need to be defined to be able to decrease their cost of electricity. Optimal reliability levels can be found using probabilistic...

  9. Implementation and Sustainability of the Russian Federation Ministry of Defense Nuclear Personnel Reliability Program

    LataPhD, Vasiliy [Aspect Conversion; Coates, Cameron W [ORNL


    Through a cooperative effort between the US Department of Energy and the Russian Federation (RF) Ministry of Defense (MOD) a Personnel Reliability Program (PRP) for the nuclear handlers within the RF MOD is at the stage of implementation. Sustaining the program is of major significance for long term success. This paper will discuss the elements of the RF PRP and the equipment needs for implementation. Program requirements, documentation needs, training, and assurances of appropriate equipment use will be addressed.

  10. Performance of FACTS equipment in Meshed systems

    Lerch, E.; Povh, D. [Siemens AG, Berlin (Germany)


    Modern power electronic devices such as thyristors and GTOs have made it possible to design controllable network elements, which will play a considerable role in ensuring reliable economic operation of transmission systems as a result of their capability to rapidly change active and reactive power. A number of FACTS elements for high-speed active and reactive power control will be described. Control of power system fluctuations in meshed systems by modulation of active and reactive power will be demonstrated using a number of examples. (author) 7 refs., 11 figs.

  11. On industrial application of structural reliability theory

    Thoft-Christensen, P


    In this paper it is shown that modern structural reliability theory is being successfully applied to a number of different industries. This review of papers is in no way complete. In the literature there is a large number of similar applications and also application not touched on in this presentation. There has been some concern among scientists from this area that structural reliability theory is not being used by industry. It is probably correct that structural reliability theory is not being used by industry as much as it should be used. However, the work by the ESReDA Working Group clearly shows the vary wide application of structural reliability theory by many different industries. One must also have in mind that industry often is reluctant to publish data related to safety and reliability. (au) 32 refs.

  12. Integration of Acoustic Detection Equipment into ANTARES

    Lahmann, R; Graf, K; Hoessl, J; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Katz, U; Naumann, C; Salomon, K


    The ANTARES group at the University of Erlangen is working towards the integration of a set of acoustic sensors into the ANTARES Neutrino Telescope. With this setup, tests of acoustic particle detection methods and background studies shall be performed. The ANTARES Neutrino Telescope, which is currently being constructed in the Mediterranean Sea, will be equipped with the infrastructure to accommodate a 3-dimensional array of photomultipliers for the detection of Cherenkov light. Within this infrastructure, the required resources for acoustic sensors are available: Bandwidth for the transmission of the acoustic data to the shore, electrical power for the off-shore electronics and physical space to install the acoustic sensors and to route the connecting cables (transmitting signals and power) into the electronics containers. It will be explained how the integration will be performed with minimal modifications of the existing ANTARES design and which setup is foreseen for the acquisition of the acoustic data.

  13. After-hours Power Status of Office Equipment and Inventory of Miscellaneous Plug-load Equipment

    Roberson, Judy A.; Webber, Carrie A.; McWhinney, Marla C.; Brown, Richard E.; Pinckard, Margaret J.; Busch, John F.


    This research was conducted in support of two branches of the EPA ENERGY STAR program, whose overall goal is to reduce, through voluntary market-based means, the amount of carbon dioxide emitted in the U.S. The primary objective was to collect data for the ENERGY STAR Office Equipment program on the after-hours power state of computers, monitors, printers, copiers, scanners, fax machines, and multi-function devices. We also collected data for the ENERGY STAR Commercial Buildings branch on the types and amounts of ''miscellaneous'' plug-load equipment, a significant and growing end use that is not usually accounted for by building energy managers. This data set is the first of its kind that we know of, and is an important first step in characterizing miscellaneous plug loads in commercial buildings. The main purpose of this study is to supplement and update previous data we collected on the extent to which electronic office equipment is turned off or automatically enters a low power state when not in active use. In addition, it provides data on numbers and types of office equipment, and helps identify trends in office equipment usage patterns. These data improve our estimates of typical unit energy consumption and savings for each equipment type, and enables the ENERGY STAR Office Equipment program to focus future effort on products with the highest energy savings potential. This study expands our previous sample of office buildings in California and Washington DC to include education and health care facilities, and buildings in other states. We report data from twelve commercial buildings in California, Georgia, and Pennsylvania: two health care buildings, two large offices (> 500 employees each), three medium offices (50-500 employees), four education buildings, and one ''small office'' that is actually an aggregate of five small businesses. Two buildings are in the San Francisco Bay area of California, five are in

  14. Component Reliability Assessment of Offshore Jacket Platforms

    V.J. Kurian


    Full Text Available Oil and gas industry is one of the most important industries contributing to the Malaysian economy. To extract hydrocarbons, various types of production platforms have been developed. Fixed jacket platform is the earliest type of production structure, widely installed in Malaysia’s shallow and intermediate waters. To date, more than 60% of these jacket platforms have operated exceeding their initial design life, thus making the re-evaluation and reassessment necessary for these platforms to continue to be put in service. In normal engineering practice, system reliability of a structure is evaluated as its safety parameter. This method is however, much complicated and time consuming. Assessing component's reliability can be an alternative approach to provide assurance about a structure’s condition in an early stage. Design codes such as the Working Stress Design (WSD and the Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD are well established for the component-level assessment. In reliability analysis, failure function, which consists of strength and load, is used to define the failure event. If the load acting exceeds the capacity of a structure, the structure will fail. Calculation of stress utilization ratio as given in the design codes is able to predict the reliability of a member and to estimate the extent to which a member is being utilised. The basic idea of this ratio is that if it is more than one, the member has failed and vice versa. Stress utilization ratio is a ratio of applied stress, which is the output reaction of environmental loadings acting on the structural member, to the design strength that comes from the member’s geometric and material properties. Adopting this ratio as the failure event, the reliability of each component is found. This study reviews and discusses the reliability for selected members of three Malaysian offshore jacket platforms. First Order Reliability Method (FORM was used to generate reliability index and

  15. Next generation of dock safety equipment.

    Swietlik, Walt


    OSHA and forklift manufacturers have made extensive efforts to improve the safety of forklift operation in and around industrial facilities and warehouses. However, the use of next-generation vehicle restraint and light communications technology will go much farther toward protecting forklift operators and pedestrians, reducing accidents, and improving productivity at the loading dock. While these new technologies mark a significant advance in loading dock safety, they cannot replace forklift and loading dock safety policies. Employers must continue to focus on forklift safety training and consider the use of multiple safety devices, such as strategically placed signs, painted aisles, and guarded walkways. The best practice is to seek the advice of safety consultants and qualified loading dock equipment representatives.

  16. Field power measurements of imaging equipment

    McWhinney, Marla; Homan, Gregory; Brown, Richard; Roberson, Judy; Nordman, Bruce; Busch, John


    According to the U.S. Department of Energy, electricity use by non-PC commercial office equipment is growing at an annual rate of nearly 5 percent (AEO 2003). To help address this growth in consumption, U.S. EPA periodically updates its ENERGY STAR specifications as products and markets change. This report presents background research conducted to help EPA update the ENERGY STAR specification for imaging equipment, which covers printers, fax machines, copiers, scanners, and multifunction devices (MFDs). We first estimated the market impact of the current ENERGY STAR imaging specification, finding over 90 percent of the current market complies with the specification. We then analyzed a sample of typical new imaging products, including 11 faxes, 57 printers and 19 copiers/MFD. For these devices we metered power levels in the most common modes: active/ready/sleep/off, and recorded features that would most likely affect energy consumption. Our metering indicates that for many products and speed bins, current models consume substantially less power than the current specification. We also found that for all product categories, power consumption varied most considerably across technology (i.e. inkjet vs. laser). Although inkjet printers consumed less energy than laser printers in active, ready and sleep-mode, they consumed more power on average while off, mostly due to the use of external power supplies. Based on these findings, we developed strategies for the ENERGY STAR program to achieve additional energy reductions. Finally, we present an assessment of manufacturer's ENERGY STAR labeling practices.

  17. Strategy for conformity of non-standard cryogenic equipment

    CERN. Geneva


    CERN as an intergovernmental organization establishes its own Safety Rules as necessary for its proper functioning. In particular, the CERN General Safety Instruction for cryogenic equipment requires that cryogenic pressure equipment at CERN shall comply with the European Pressure Equipment Directive (PED). However, due to the particular features of some of the cryogenic equipment required for the accelerators, as well as the existence of international collaborations with in-kind contributions from non-EU countries, full compliance with the PED may not always be achieved. This situation is foreseen in the Safety Rules, where CERN HSE will define the Safety requirements applicable to such equipment as well as any eventual additional compensatory measure as to ensure a commensurate level of Safety for our pressure equipment. Where compliance with PED may not be achieved, CERN HSE will become the de facto Notified Body and therefore be in charge of the assessment of the conformity of the equipment to the applica...

  18. Selection of Equipment by Using Saw and Vikor Methods



    Full Text Available Now a days, Lean manufacturing becomes a key strategy for global competition. In this environment the most important process is the selection of the equipment. Equipment selection is a very important issue for effective manufacturing companies due to the fact that improperly selected machines can negatively affect the overall performance of manufacturing system. The availability of large number of equipments are more hence, the selection of suitable equipment for certain operation/ product becomes difficult. On the other hand selecting the best equipment among many alternatives is a Multi-criteria decision making ( MCDM Problems. In this Paper an approach which employs SAW, VIKOR Methods proposed for the equipment selection problem. The SAW and VIKOR is used to analyze the structure of the equipment selection problem and to determine weights of criteria and to obtain Final Ranking.

  19. Reliability and maintenance analysis of the CERN PS booster

    Staff, P S B


    The PS Booster Synchrotron being a complex accelerator with four superposed rings and substantial additional equipment for beam splitting and recombination, doubts were expressed at the time of project authorization as to its likely operational reliability. For 1975 and 1976, the average down time was 3.2% (at least one ring off) or 1.5% (all four rings off). The items analysed are: operational record, design features, maintenance, spare parts policy, operating temperature, effects of thunderstorms, fault diagnostics, role of operations staff and action by experts. (15 refs).

  20. Development of seismic technology and reliability based on vibration tests

    Sasaki, Youichi [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper deals with some of the vibration tests and investigations on the seismic safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs) in Japan. To ensure the reliability of the seismic safety of nuclear power plants, nuclear power plants in Japan have been designed according to the Technical Guidelines for Aseismic Design of Nuclear Power Plants. This guideline has been developed based on technical date base and findings which were obtained from many vibration tests and investigations. Besides the tests for the guideline, proving tests on seismic reliability of operating nuclear power plants equipment and systems have been carried out. In this paper some vibration tests and their evaluation results are presented. They have crucially contributed to develop the guideline. (J.P.N.)

  1. a Reliability Evaluation System of Association Rules

    Chen, Jiangping; Feng, Wanshu; Luo, Minghai


    In mining association rules, the evaluation of the rules is a highly important work because it directly affects the usability and applicability of the output results of mining. In this paper, the concept of reliability was imported into the association rule evaluation. The reliability of association rules was defined as the accordance degree that reflects the rules of the mining data set. Such degree contains three levels of measurement, namely, accuracy, completeness, and consistency of rules. To show its effectiveness, the "accuracy-completeness-consistency" reliability evaluation system was applied to two extremely different data sets, namely, a basket simulation data set and a multi-source lightning data fusion. Results show that the reliability evaluation system works well in both simulation data set and the actual problem. The three-dimensional reliability evaluation can effectively detect the useless rules to be screened out and add the missing rules thereby improving the reliability of mining results. Furthermore, the proposed reliability evaluation system is applicable to many research fields; using the system in the analysis can facilitate obtainment of more accurate, complete, and consistent association rules.

  2. Economic Analysis on Rent of Equipment Lease of Coal Enterprise

    童磊; 王立杰


    Rent is the key factor in equipment lease. The business that equipment lease company of coal mining often engaged in can be divided into three kinds, that is sublease, operating lease and inter lease, in term of the difference of the role of lease, character of business, object of the trade and condition of t he market. The problem in rent calculating of the three kind s of lease that equipment lease company of coal mining often involved was an alyzed. Hope to b e helpful to the decision-making of the equipment lease company of coal mining.

  3. Reliability of Search and Rescue Action

    Burciu, Zbigniew


    Determination of the reliability of Search and Rescue action system allows the SAR Mission Coordinator to increase the effectiveness of the action through the proper selection of operational characteristics of the system elements, in particular the selection of the rescue units and auxiliary units. The paper presents the example of the influence of water temperature and time of the action on the reliability of search and rescue action in the case of rescuing a survivor in the water.

  4. Reliability Assessment of Wave Energy Devices

    Ambühl, Simon; Kramer, Morten; Kofoed, Jens Peter;


    This paper focuses on reliability assessment of Wave Energy Device (WED) substructures with respect to fatigue loading. Failure due to fatigue is an important failure mode of most offshore structures. The focus of the fatigue reliability assessment is in this paper on welded details in steel...... substructures. The methodology is illustrated using the Wavestar prototype located at Hanstholm (DK) as a case study. The stochastic model presented can be used for reliability assessment and for calibration of Fatigue Design Factors (FDF) of wave power plant substructures. The fatigue life is modeled using...

  5. Reliability and radiation tolerance of robots for nuclear applications

    Lauridsen, K. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Decreton, M. [SCK.CEN (Belgium); Seifert, C.C. [Siemens AG (Germany); Sharp, R. [AEA Technology (United Kingdom)


    The reliability of a robot for nuclear applications will be affected by environmental factors such as dust, water, vibrations, heat, and, in particular, ionising radiation. The present report describes the work carried out in a project addressing the reliability and radiation tolerance of such robots. A widely representative range of components and materials has been radiation tested and the test results have been collated in a database along with data provided by the participants from earlier work and data acquired from other sources. A radiation effects guide has been written for the use by designers of electronic equipment for robots. A generic reliability model has been set up together with generic failure strategies, forming the basis for specific reliability modelling carried out in other projects. Modelling tools have been examined and developed for the prediction of the performance of electronic circuits subjected to radiation. Reports have been produced dealing with the prediction and detection of upcoming failures in electronic systems. Operational experience from the use of robots in radiation work in various contexts has been compiled in a report, and another report has been written on cost/benefit considerations about the use of robots. Also the possible impact of robots on the safety of the surrounding plant has been considered and reported. (au) 16 ills., 236 refs.

  6. On the reliability of Seasonal Climate Forecasts

    Weisheimer, Antje


    Seasonal climate forecasts are being used increasingly across a range of application sectors. A recent UK governmental report asked: How good are seasonal climate forecasts on a scale of 1-5 (where 5 is very good), and how good can we expect them to be in 30 years time? Seasonal climate forecasts are made from ensembles of integrations of numerical models of climate. We argue that goodness should be assessed primarily in terms of the probabilistic reliability of these ensemble-based forecasts and that a 5 should be reserved for systems which are not only reliable overall, but where, in particular, small ensemble spread is a reliable indicator of low ensemble forecast error. We study the reliability of regional temperature and precipitation forecasts of the current operational seasonal forecast system of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, universally regarded as a world leading operational institute producing seasonal climate forecasts. A wide range of goodness rankings, depending on regio...

  7. 10 CFR Appendix J to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Uranium Conversion Plant Equipment and Plutonium Conversion Plant Equipment...


    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Illustrative List of Uranium Conversion Plant Equipment and Plutonium Conversion Plant Equipment Under NRC Export Licensing Authority J Appendix J to Part 110.... 110, App. J Appendix J to Part 110—Illustrative List of Uranium Conversion Plant Equipment...

  8. 78 FR 21879 - Improving 9-1-1 Reliability; Reliability and Continuity of Communications Networks, Including...


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Chapter I Improving 9-1-1 Reliability; Reliability and Continuity of Communications Networks, Including Broadband Technologies AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice...

  9. Operational reliability of standby safety systems

    Grant, G.M.; Atwood, C.L.; Gentillon, C.D. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others


    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is evaluating the operational reliability of several risk-significant standby safety systems based on the operating experience at US commercial nuclear power plants from 1987 through 1993. The reliability assessed is the probability that the system will perform its Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) defined safety function. The quantitative estimates of system reliability are expected to be useful in risk-based regulation. This paper is an overview of the analysis methods and the results of the high pressure coolant injection (HPCI) system reliability study. Key characteristics include (1) descriptions of the data collection and analysis methods, (2) the statistical methods employed to estimate operational unreliability, (3) a description of how the operational unreliability estimates were compared with typical PRA results, both overall and for each dominant failure mode, and (4) a summary of results of the study.


    Monica BALDEA


    Full Text Available The reliability defined through probability, reflects the measurement of the product's quality depending on time. We use the probability parameters as aleatory variables, the density functions of probability, the distribution functions

  11. Reliability of power electronic converter systems

    Chung, Henry Shu-hung; Blaabjerg, Frede; Pecht, Michael


    This book outlines current research into the scientific modeling, experimentation, and remedial measures for advancing the reliability, availability, system robustness, and maintainability of Power Electronic Converter Systems (PECS) at different levels of complexity.

  12. Generating function approach to reliability analysis of structural systems


    The generating function approach is an important tool for performance assessment in multi-state systems. Aiming at strength reliability analysis of structural systems, generating function approach is introduced and developed. Static reliability models of statically determinate, indeterminate systems and fatigue reliability models are built by constructing special generating functions, which are used to describe probability distributions of strength (resistance), stress (load) and fatigue life, by defining composite operators of generating functions and performance structure functions thereof. When composition operators are executed, computational costs can be reduced by a big margin by means of collecting like terms. The results of theoretical analysis and numerical simulation show that the generating function approach can be widely used for probability modeling of large complex systems with hierarchical structures due to the unified form, compact expression, computer program realizability and high universality. Because the new method considers twin loads giving rise to component failure dependency, it can provide a theoretical reference and act as a powerful tool for static, dynamic reliability analysis in civil engineering structures and mechanical equipment systems with multi-mode damage coupling.

  13. Reliability of lightning resistant overhead distribution lines

    Tolbert, L.M.; Cleveland, J.T.; Degenhardt, L.J.


    An assessment of the 32 year historical reliability of the 13.8 kV electrical distribution system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Tennessee has yielded several conclusions useful In the planning of Industrial power Systems. The system configuration at ORNL has essentially remained unchanged in the last 32 years which allows a meaningful comparison of reliability trends for the plant`s eight overhead distribution lines, two of which were built in the 1960`s with lightning resistant construction techniques. Meticulous records indicating the cause, duration, and location of 135 electric outages in the plant`s distribution system have allowed a reliability assessment to be performed. The assessment clearly shows how differences in voltage construction class, length, age, and maximum elevation above a reference elevation influence the reliability of overhead power distribution lines. Comparisons are also made between the ORNL historical data and predicted failure rates from ANSI and IEEE industry surveys.

  14. Design for Reliability of Power Electronic Systems

    Wang, Huai; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede


    availability, long lifetime, sufficient robustness, low maintenance cost and low cost of energy. However, the reliability predictions are still dominantly according to outdated models and terms, such as MIL-HDBK-217F handbook models, Mean-Time-To-Failure (MTTF), and Mean-Time-Between-Failures (MTBF......Advances in power electronics enable efficient and flexible processing of electric power in the application of renewable energy sources, electric vehicles, adjustable-speed drives, etc. More and more efforts are devoted to better power electronic systems in terms of reliability to ensure high......). A collection of methodologies based on Physics-of-Failure (PoF) approach and mission profile analysis are presented in this paper to perform reliability-oriented design of power electronic systems. The corresponding design procedures and reliability prediction models are provided. Further on, a case study...

  15. Reliability and diagnostic of modular systems

    J. Kohlas


    Full Text Available Reliability and diagnostic are in general two problems discussed separately. Yet the two problems are in fact closely related to each other. Here, this relation is considered in the simple case of modular systems. We show, how the computation of reliability and diagnostic can efficiently be done within the same Bayesian network induced by the modularity of the structure function of the system.

  16. High reliable internet hosting : a case study of handling unanticipated threats to reliability

    Wijnhoven, A.B.J.M.; Ehrenhard, M.L.; Alink, T.


    Internet hosting is pivotal for reliable access to internet resources. Yet, little research has been done on what threatens a hosting service’s reliability. Our analysis of reliability threatening incidents results in four causes of unreliability: the service’s technical architecture, service employ

  17. Effect of Maintenance on Computer Network Reliability

    Rima Oudjedi Damerdji


    Full Text Available At the time of the new information technologies, computer networks are inescapable in any large organization, where they are organized so as to form powerful internal means of communication. In a context of dependability, the reliability parameter proves to be fundamental to evaluate the performances of such systems. In this paper, we study the reliability evaluation of a real computer network, through three reliability models. The computer network considered (set of PCs and server interconnected is localized in a company established in the west of Algeria and dedicated to the production of ammonia and fertilizers. The result permits to compare between the three models to determine the most appropriate reliability model to the studied network, and thus, contribute to improving the quality of the network. In order to anticipate system failures as well as improve the reliability and availability of the latter, we must put in place a policy of adequate and effective maintenance based on a new model of the most common competing risks in maintenance, Alert-Delay model. At the end, dependability measures such as MTBF and reliability are calculated to assess the effectiveness of maintenance strategies and thus, validate the alert delay model.

  18. Reliability Analysis of DOOF for Weibull Distribution

    陈文华; 崔杰; 樊小燕; 卢献彪; 相平


    Hierarchical Bayesian method for estimating the failure probability under DOOF by taking the quasi-Beta distribution as the prior distribution is proposed in this paper. The weighted Least Squares Estimate method was used to obtain the formula for computing reliability distribution parameters and estimating the reliability characteristic values under DOOF. Taking one type of aerospace electrical connector as an example, the correctness of the above method through statistical analysis of electrical connector accelerated life test data was verified.

  19. Reliability of microtechnology interconnects, devices and systems

    Liu, Johan; Sarkka, Jussi; Tegehall, Per-Erik; Andersson, Cristina


    This text discusses the reliability of microtechnology products from the bottom up, beginning with devices and extending to systems. It covers many topics, and it addresses specific failure modes in solder and conductive adhesives at great length.




    Full Text Available Reliability is the probability that a system, component or device will perform without failure for a specified period of time under specified operating conditions. The concept of reliability is of great importance in the design of various machine members. Conventional engineering design uses a deterministic approach. It disregards the fact that the material properties, the dimensions of the components and the externally applied loads are statistical in nature. In conventional design this uncertainties are covered with a factor of safety, which is not always successful. The growing trend towards reducing uncertainty and increasing reliability is to use the probabilistic approach. In the present work a three shaft four speed gear box and six speed gear box are designed using reliability principles. For the specified reliability of the system (Gear box, component reliability (Gear pair is calculated by considering the system as a series system. Design is considered to be safe and adequate if the probability of failure of gear box is less than or equal to a specified quantity in each of the two failure modes. . All the parameters affecting the design are considered as random variables and all the random variables are assumed to follow normal distribution. A computer program in C++ is developed to calculate the face widths in bending and surface failure modes. The larger one out of the two values is considered. By changing the variations in the design parameters, variations in the face widths are studied.

  1. Reliability Analysis of High Rockfill Dam Stability

    Ping Yi


    Full Text Available A program 3DSTAB combining slope stability analysis and reliability analysis is developed and validated. In this program, the limit equilibrium method is utilized to calculate safety factors of critical slip surfaces. The first-order reliability method is used to compute reliability indexes corresponding to critical probabilistic surfaces. When derivatives of the performance function are calculated by finite difference method, the previous iteration’s critical slip surface is saved and used. This sequential approximation strategy notably improves efficiency. Using this program, the stability reliability analyses of concrete faced rockfill dams and earth core rockfill dams with different heights and different slope ratios are performed. The results show that both safety factors and reliability indexes decrease as the dam’s slope increases at a constant height and as the dam’s height increases at a constant slope. They decrease dramatically as the dam height increases from 100 m to 200 m while they decrease slowly once the dam height exceeds 250 m, which deserves attention. Additionally, both safety factors and reliability indexes of the upstream slope of earth core rockfill dams are higher than that of the downstream slope. Thus, the downstream slope stability is the key failure mode for earth core rockfill dams.

  2. Workshop on environmental qualification of electric equipment

    Lofaro, R.; Gunther, W.; Villaran, M.; Lee, B.S.; Taylor, J. [comps.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)


    Questions concerning the Environmental Qualification (EQ) of electrical equipment used in commercial nuclear power plants have recently become the subject of significant interest to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Initial questions centered on whether compliance with the EQ requirements for older plants were adequate to support plant operation beyond 40 years. After subsequent investigation, the NRC Staff concluded that questions related to the differences in EQ requirements between older and newer plants constitute a potential generic issue which should be evaluated for backfit, independent of license renewal activities. EQ testing of electric cables was performed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) under contract to the NRC in support of license renewal activities. Results showed that some of the environmentally qualified cables either failed or exhibited marginal insulation resistance after a simulated plant life of 20 years during accident simulation. This indicated that the EQ process for some electric cables may be non-conservative. These results raised questions regarding the EQ process including the bases for conclusions about the qualified life of components based upon artificial aging prior to testing.

  3. Analysis on Some of Software Reliability Models


    Software reliability & maintainability evaluation tool (SRMET 3.0) is introducted in detail in this paper,which was developed by Software Evaluation and Test Center of China Aerospace Mechanical Corporation. SRMET 3.0is supported by seven soft ware reliability models and four software maintainability models. Numerical characteristicsfor all those models are deeply studied in this paper, and corresponding numerical algorithms for each model are alsogiven in the paper.

  4. Fully Equipped Dynamic Model of a Bus

    I. Kowarska


    Full Text Available Nowadays, the time to market a new vehicle is crucial for every company as it is easier to meet the customers’ needs and expectations. However, designing a new vehicle is a long process which needs to take into account different performances. The most difficult is to predict a dynamic behavior of a vehicle especially when such a big vehicles as urban buses are considered. Therefore, there is a necessity to use a virtual model to investigate different performances. However, there is a lack of urban bus models that can fully reflect a dynamic behavior of the bus. This paper presents a fully equipped urban bus model which can be used to study a dynamic behavior of such vehicles. The model is based on innovative technique called cosimulation, which connects different modeling techniques (3D and 1D. Such a technique allows performing different analyses that require small deformations and large translations and rotations in shorter time and automatic way. The work has been carried out in a project EUREKA CHASING.

  5. Evaluation of short wave therapy equipment based on brazilian standards

    Cristiane Regina Gruber; Pedro Miguel Gewehr


    Short Wave Diathermy (SWD) equipment is used in physiotherapy and applied therapeutically using radio frequency (RF) radiation of 27.12 MHz. This article presents the results of a survey related to SWD, showing data about the equipment, conditions of use, visual inspection and analysis of accompanying documents, having as reference the requirements of the Brazilian standards NBR IEC 601-1 and NBR IEC 601-2-3. Electrical safety tests were also carried out for the equipment and the installation...

  6. Assurance of operate reliability of rolling stock

    Gubacheva; L.A.; Naish; N.; M.


    The safety of movement of rolling stock is mainly related to operate reliability of conjugated parts of running carriages which are characterized by their ability of no failure operation in complex conditions of service and have a sufficient high strength and wear resistance.……

  7. Assurance of operate reliability of rolling stock


    @@ The safety of movement of rolling stock is mainly related to operate reliability of conjugated parts of running carriages which are characterized by their ability of no failure operation in complex conditions of service and have a sufficient high strength and wear resistance.

  8. Qualification of Programmable Electronic System (PES) equipment based on international nuclear I and C standards

    De Grosbois, J.; Hepburn, G. A.; Olmstead, R. [Atomic Energy Canada Ltd., 2251 Speakman Drive, Mississauga, Ont. L5K 1B2 (Canada); Goble, W. [Exida, 64 N. Main St., Sellersville, PA 18960 (United States); Kumar, V. [Carleton Univ., 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ont. K1S 5B6 (Canada)


    Nuclear power plants (NPPs) are increasingly faced with the challenge of qualifying procured equipment, sub-components, and systems that contain digital programmed electronics for use in safety-related applications. Referred to as a 'programmable electronic system' (PES), such equipment typically contains both complex logic that is vulnerable to systematic design faults, and low voltage electronics hardware that is subject to random faults. Procured PES products or components are often only commercial grade, yet can offer reliable cost effective alternatives to custom-designed or nuclear qualified equipment, provided they can be shown to meet the quality assurance, functional safety, environmental, and reliability requirements of a particular application. The process of confirming this is referred to as application-specific product qualification (ASPQ) and can be challenging and costly. This paper provides an overview of an approach that has been developed at Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL) and successfully applied to PES equipment intended for use in domestic Candu R 6 nuclear power plants and special purpose reactors at Chalk River Laboratories. The approach has evolved over the past decade and has recently been adapted to be consistent with, and take advantage of new standards that are applicable to nuclear safety-related I and C systems. Also discussed are how recognized third-party safety-certifications of PES equipment to International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards, and the assessment methods employed, may be used to reduce ASPQ effort. (authors)

  9. 29 CFR 1926.432 - Environmental deterioration of equipment.


    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Electrical Safety-Related Maintenance and Environmental Considerations § 1926.432 Environmental deterioration of equipment....

  10. Pneumatic Muscle Actuated Rehabilitation Equipment of the Upper Limb Joints

    Deaconescu dr. eng. habil., Andrea, Prof.


    Rehabilitation equipment of the upper limb joints holds a key role in passive physical therapy. Within this framework, the paper presents two such pieces of equipment developed for the rehabilitation of elbow and of wrist and knuckles, respectively. The presented and discussed equipment is actuated by pneumatic muscles, its benefits being a low cost, simple and robust construction, as well as short response time to commands.

  11. Prediction of wear rates in comminution equipment

    Jensen, Lucas Roald Dörig; Fundal, Erling; Møller, Per


    Raw material comminution equipment may be exposed to excessive wear, which makes it difficult to operate minerals processing plants continuously because lengthy and unplanned shut-downs interrupt the overall process. In general, most comminution equipment is fine-tuned to operate at low vibrations......-resistant high chromium white cast iron (21988/JN/HBW555XCr21), a heat-treated wear resistant steel (Hardox 400) and a plain carbon construction steel (S235). Quartz, which accounts for the largest wear loss in the cement industry, was chosen as abrasive. Other process parameters such as velocity (1–7 m...

  12. A reliability measure of protein-protein interactions and a reliability measure-based search engine.

    Park, Byungkyu; Han, Kyungsook


    Many methods developed for estimating the reliability of protein-protein interactions are based on the topology of protein-protein interaction networks. This paper describes a new reliability measure for protein-protein interactions, which does not rely on the topology of protein interaction networks, but expresses biological information on functional roles, sub-cellular localisations and protein classes as a scoring schema. The new measure is useful for filtering many spurious interactions, as well as for estimating the reliability of protein interaction data. In particular, the reliability measure can be used to search protein-protein interactions with the desired reliability in databases. The reliability-based search engine is available at We believe this is the first search engine for interacting proteins, which is made available to public. The search engine and the reliability measure of protein interactions should provide useful information for determining proteins to focus on.

  13. Measurement of vapor-liquid-liquid phase equilibrium-Equipment and results

    Frost, Michael Grynnerup; von Solms, Nicolas; Richon, Dominique;


    -water-gas hydrate inhibitor systems, at temperatures ranging from 283 to 353 K and at pressures up to 40 MPa. The core of the equipment is an equilibrium cell, equipped with sapphire windows and connected to an analytical system by capillary samplers.New vapor-liquid-liquid equilibrium data are reported for methane......+ n-hexane + methanol + water at 296.2 K and pressures of 6 to 10 MPa. The Cubic-Plus-Association (CPA) equation of state is used to model the phase equilibria data measured. A good agreement between predictions and experimental data is observed, supporting the reliability of the new data. (C) 2015...

  14. Improvement of the reliability on nondestructive inspection

    Song, Sung Jin; Kim, Young H. [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyang Beom [Soongsil Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Young Kil [Kunsan National Univ., Gunsan (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Hyun Jo [Wonkwang Univ., Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ik Keun; Park, Eun Soo [Seoul Nationl Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Retaining reliabilities of nondestructive testing is essential for the life-time maintenance of Nuclear Power Plant. The nondestructive testing methods which are frequently used in the Nuclear Power Plant are eddy current testing for the inspection of steam generator tubes and ultrasonic testing for the inspection of weldments. In order to improve reliabilities of ultrasonic testing and eddy current testing, the subjects carried out in this study are as follows : development of BEM analysis technique for ECT of SG tube, development of neural network technique for the intelligent analysis of ECT flaw signals of SG tubes, development of RFECT technology for the inspection of SG tube, FEM analysis of ultrasonic scattering field, evaluation of statistical reliability of PD-RR test of ultrasonic testing and development of multi-Gaussian beam modeling technique to predict accurate signal of signal beam ultrasonic testing with the efficiency in calculation time.

  15. On the reliability of seasonal climate forecasts.

    Weisheimer, A; Palmer, T N


    Seasonal climate forecasts are being used increasingly across a range of application sectors. A recent UK governmental report asked: how good are seasonal forecasts on a scale of 1-5 (where 5 is very good), and how good can we expect them to be in 30 years time? Seasonal forecasts are made from ensembles of integrations of numerical models of climate. We argue that 'goodness' should be assessed first and foremost in terms of the probabilistic reliability of these ensemble-based forecasts; reliable inputs are essential for any forecast-based decision-making. We propose that a '5' should be reserved for systems that are not only reliable overall, but where, in particular, small ensemble spread is a reliable indicator of low ensemble forecast error. We study the reliability of regional temperature and precipitation forecasts of the current operational seasonal forecast system of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, universally regarded as one of the world-leading operational institutes producing seasonal climate forecasts. A wide range of 'goodness' rankings, depending on region and variable (with summer forecasts of rainfall over Northern Europe performing exceptionally poorly) is found. Finally, we discuss the prospects of reaching '5' across all regions and variables in 30 years time.

  16. Evolution of service company equipment for cementing and well stimulation

    Hurst, R.E.


    Equipment for performing the 2 vital services of cementing and stimulation of oil and gas wells have gone through many major advancements. They can be categorized into equipment for handling and blending of products to be pumped and equipment for delivery of mixed fluids into the well at a variety of rate and pressure conditions. To provide some chronological pattern to the unique developments, the following breakdown for discussion is outlined: (1) cement pumping equipment; (2) cement blending equipment; (3) stimulation pumping equipment; and (4) frac fluid blending equipment. While these categories represent the visible equipment found on location, it must be remembered that service companies have provided advancement in base facility equipment around the world which has made it possible to increase the quality and number of products which can be delivered quickly to any well location. Products in use have increased from less than 12 in the 1930s to nearly 1,000 in the 1970s. Each must be carefully prepared, transported, blended, and pumped to satisfy very unique well conditions.

  17. Some Aspects of Reliability of Offshore Structures

    Sigurdsson, Gudfinnur

    The use of modem structural reliability theory for modelling uncertainties in offshore engineering has gained widespread support. The uncertainties may relate to both physical quantities, e.g. material quantities and loads, and uncertainties in the mathematical modelling of the structural system....

  18. Verification criteria on the reliability of personal dosimetric services from x and gamma radiations

    Borasi, G; Kaftal, S


    The paper presents the methods used by Working Group ENEA-EDP (Experts in Personal Dosimetry) to control the reliability of the Dosimetric Services operating in Italy and asking for the above controls on voluntary basis. Testing and irradiation test methods are explained as well as the evaluation criteria. The paper includes suggestions and guide-lines to gain the status of 'Reliable Service'. Technical equipment and operating procedures needed to pass the test are also illustrated.

  19. Predictive maintenance of critical equipment in industrial processes

    Hashemian, Hashem M.

    This dissertation is an account of present and past research and development (R&D) efforts conducted by the author to develop and implement new technology for predictive maintenance and equipment condition monitoring in industrial processes. In particular, this dissertation presents the design of an integrated condition-monitoring system that incorporates the results of three current R&D projects with a combined funding of $2.8 million awarded to the author by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This system will improve the state of the art in equipment condition monitoring and has applications in numerous industries including chemical and petrochemical plants, aviation and aerospace, electric power production and distribution, and a variety of manufacturing processes. The work that is presented in this dissertation is unique in that it introduces a new class of condition-monitoring methods that depend predominantly on the normal output of existing process sensors. It also describes current R&D efforts to develop data acquisition systems and data analysis algorithms and software packages that use the output of these sensors to determine the condition and health of industrial processes and their equipment. For example, the output of a pressure sensor in an operating plant can be used not only to indicate the pressure, but also to verify the calibration and response time of the sensor itself and identify anomalies in the process such as blockages, voids, and leaks that can interfere with accurate measurement of process parameters or disturb the plant's operation, safety, or reliability. Today, process data are typically collected at a rate of one sample per second (1 Hz) or slower. If this sampling rate is increased to 100 samples per second or higher, much more information can be extracted from the normal output of a process sensor and then used for condition monitoring, equipment performance measurements, and predictive maintenance. A fast analog-to-digital (A

  20. System Reliability of Timber Structures

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard


    will result in a semirigid behavior plus higher level of safety due to a lower probability that premature brittle failures occur and possible redistribution of forces for statically undetermined structures either internally in the joint or to other structural elements. A redistribution of forces, a so...

  1. Dynamic reliability of digital-based transmitters

    Brissaud, Florent, E-mail: florent.brissaud.2007@utt.f [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), Parc Technologique Alata, BP 2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France) and Universite de Technologie de Troyes - UTT, Institut Charles Delaunay - ICD and UMR CNRS 6279 STMR, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); Smidts, Carol [Ohio State University (OSU), Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Scott Laboratory, 201 W 19th Ave, Columbus OH 43210 (United States); Barros, Anne; Berenguer, Christophe [Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), Institut Charles Delaunay (ICD) and UMR CNRS 6279 STMR, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)


    Dynamic reliability explicitly handles the interactions between the stochastic behaviour of system components and the deterministic behaviour of process variables. While dynamic reliability provides a more efficient and realistic way to perform probabilistic risk assessment than 'static' approaches, its industrial level applications are still limited. Factors contributing to this situation are the inherent complexity of the theory and the lack of a generic platform. More recently the increased use of digital-based systems has also introduced additional modelling challenges related to specific interactions between system components. Typical examples are the 'intelligent transmitters' which are able to exchange information, and to perform internal data processing and advanced functionalities. To make a contribution to solving these challenges, the mathematical framework of dynamic reliability is extended to handle the data and information which are processed and exchanged between systems components. Stochastic deviations that may affect system properties are also introduced to enhance the modelling of failures. A formalized Petri net approach is then presented to perform the corresponding reliability analyses using numerical methods. Following this formalism, a versatile model for the dynamic reliability modelling of digital-based transmitters is proposed. Finally the framework's flexibility and effectiveness is demonstrated on a substantial case study involving a simplified model of a nuclear fast reactor.

  2. Development of maintenance equipment for nuclear material fabrication equipment in a highly active hot cell

    Park, J. J.; Yang, M. S.; Kim, K. H. and others


    This report presents the development of a maintenance system for a highly contaminated nuclear material handling equipment at a hot-cell. This maintenance system has mainly three subsystems - a gamma-radiation measurement module for detecting a gamma-radiation level and identifying its distribution in-situ, a dry-type decontamination device for cleaning up contaminated particles, and a maintenance chamber for isolating contaminated equipment. The mechanical design considerations, controller, capabilities and remote operation and manipulation of the maintenance system are described. Such subsystems developed were installed and tested in the IMEF (Irradiated Material Examination Facility) M6 hot-cell after mock-up tests and performed their specific tasks successfully.

  3. Reliability of clinical ICD-10 schizophrenia diagnoses

    Jakobsen, Klaus D; Frederiksen, Julie N; Hansen, Thomas


    Concern has been expressed as to the reliability of clinical ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia. This study was designed to assess the diagnostic reliability of the clinical ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia in a random sample of Danish in- and outpatients with a history of psychosis. A sample...... value (87%) of ICD-10 schizophrenia and an overall good agreement between clinical and OPCRIT-derived diagnoses (kappa=0.60). An even higher positive predictive value was obtained when diagnoses were amalgamated into a diagnostic entity of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (98%). Near perfect agreement...... was seen between OPCRIT-derived ICD-10 and DSM-IV diagnoses (kappa=0.87). Thus, this study demonstrates high reliability of the clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia and even more so of the diagnosis of schizophrenia-spectrum disorder....

  4. Corrosion Reliability of Electronic Systems

    Ambat, Rajan; Jensen, Stine G.; Møller, Per


    Inherently two factors namely multi-material usage and potential bias makes electronic devices susceptible to corrosion if exposed to humid conditions. The problem is compounded today due to miniaturization and contamination effects. The reduction in size of the components and close spacing...... on a Printed Circuit Board (PCB) for high density packing has greatly increased the risk of corrosion under humid conditions. An important issue is the failures due to electrolytic metal migration. This paper describes an investigation of the electrolytic migration of Sn-Pb solder lines on PCBs in humid...

  5. Reliability Of Inspection By SLAM

    Roth, Don J.; Klima, Stanley J.; Kiser, James D.; Baaklini, George Y.


    Scanning laser acoustic microscopy finds flaws in ceramic specimens. Laser light used to detect distortions, on angstrom scale, produced on surface of specimen by ultrasonic waves transmitted through specimen. From distortion, SLAM creates picture on video monitor of such defects as voids, inclusions, and cracks.

  6. Analysis of Reliability of CET Band4



    CET Band 4 has been carried out for more than a decade. It becomes so large- scaled, so popular and so influential that many testing experts and foreign language teachers are willing to do research on it. In this paper, I will mainly analyse its reliability from the perspective of writing test and speaking test.



    performance of any structural system be eva ... by the Joint crete slabs, bending, shear, deflection, reliability, design codes. ement such as ... could be sensitive to this distribution. Table 1: ..... Ang, A. H-S and Tang, W. H. Probability Concepts in.

  8. Application of Reliability in Breakwater Design

    Christiani, Erik

    of approaching design problems in an early stage of breakwater design. The deterministic design of rubble mound breakwaters with emphasis on the armour layer, toe berm and crown wall, and conventional vertical breakwaters is reviewed. Breakwater failure modes are reviewed with emphasis on establishing new...... methods to design certain types of breakwaters. Reliability analyses of the main armour and toe berm interaction is exemplified to show the effect of a multiple set of failure mechanisms. First the limit state equations of the main armour and toe interaction are derived from laboratory tests performed...... by Bologna University. Thereafter a multiple system of failure for the interaction is established. Relevant stochastic parameters are characterized prior to the reliability evaluation. Application of reliability in crown wall design is illustrated by deriving relevant single foundation failure modes...

  9. Reliability-Based Design of Coastal Structures

    Burcharth, H. F.


    The objective of this paper is to introduce the application of reliability theory for conceptual design and evaluation of coastal structures. It is without the scope to discuss the validity and quality of the various design formulae available for coastal structures. The contents of the paper...... Engineering. Burcharth, H.F. (1993) Design of Breakwaters. Aalborg University. Department of Civil Engineering. Aalborg, Denmark. (Note). Burcbarth, H.F., Dalsgaard S9lrensen, J ., Cbristiani, E. (1995} Application for reliability analysis for optimal design of monolithic vertical wall breakwaters....... Proceedings Conference of Port and Coastal Engineering in developing countries. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1995....

  10. Reliability of Naval Radar Systems


    CONFIDENTIAL (THIS PACE IS UNCUIASSFIED) CONFIDENTIAL (U) For airborne radars, 3-M’(Maintenance and Material Management )and RISE (Readiness Improvement...of the 3-M Program reports (3-M from Maintenance and Material Management ) as well as Naval Air Systems Command RISE (Readi-. ness Improvement Summary...TRANSIT PULSE LE11CTR (;As): 12.8 ANTENNA UEIGHr (k 1058 (2331 lbs.) excluding pedestal COMPRESSED PLUE LENGTH (.is): 0.2 BEAN POSITIObiNG TECNIQUES : H)RZ

  11. Distribution Reliability of the Energy Supply Chain

    Hidayat Rachmad


    Full Text Available Reliability of an oil fuel distribution system can be achieved by considering multiple attributes. Load-point indicators consisted of the frequency of failures, average duration of an outage and average annual outage time. Indicators of system performance were SAIFI and SAIDI and the method of the study was the Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ. Decisions were made by considering the multi-attribute oil fuel distribution system to determine high reliability, which was simulated on the agent. The use of agents in the simulation to determine the oil fuel distribution system reliability helped visualize the oil fuel distribution in meeting the quality of fuels received by consumers and made it easier to learn the problems faced by oil fuel distribution.

  12. Modeling of reliable multicasting services

    Barkauskaite, Monika; Zhang, Jiang; Wessing, Henrik


    This paper addresses network survivability for Multicast transport over MPLS-TP ring topology networks. Protection mechanisms standardized for unicast are not fully suitable for multicast point-to-multipoint transmission and multicast schemes are not standardized yet. Therefore, this paper...... investigates one of the proficient protection schemes and uses OPNET Modeler for analyzing and designing networks with the chosen protection method. For failure detection and protection switching initiation, the OAM (Operation, Administration and Maintenance) functions will be added to the system model. From...

  13. Realization of an endoscope equipped with microprojection system for optogenetics

    Baumgartner, Ryan; Falk, Ryan; Pashaie, Ramin


    Optogenetics is the science where recent progresses in the field of photonics are combined with the techniques in molecular genetics to develop a methodology for modulation of neural activities.1-9 Despite enormous enthusiasm in using optogenetics for brain studies, little has been done on the engineering side such as technology development for light delivery or realization of reliable systems for optical monitoring of the induced activities. In this project, we have implemented a Digital Micromirror Device based microprojection system capable of delivering illumination patterns through a high-resolution imaging fiber bundle that guides the pattern to the region of interest on the surface or within the brain tissue. The system is also equipped with an imaging path for detection of calcium signals and monitoring the induced patterns of cellular activities. A very interesting application of the system is extracting topographic computational maps of cortex or cellular receptive fields in-vivo. It is known that such maps are the engine of information processing in the cortex. Better understanding of the structure of such maps will help to unravel the mysteries of brain higher level computations. Another application of this system is related to the high-resolution stimulation patterns that cannot be produced with electrode arrays. Production of high-resolution patterns is important in the study of specific modes of brain activities. We report the details of our optical design, preliminary results produced by testing the system on tissue, and we discuss our strategy to extract new data from the brain tissue.

  14. Perspectives of patients with disabilities on the accessibility of medical equipment: examination tables, imaging equipment, medical chairs, and weight scales.

    Story, Molly Follette; Schwier, Erin; Kailes, June Isaacson


    In a prior survey, patients with disabilities reported difficulty using many common types of medical equipment. The purpose of this study was to conduct focus groups to explore in greater detail the most common difficulties mentioned by survey participants in order to identify critical issues related to accessibility and usability and to inform subsequent research. Participants of eight focus groups discussed medical equipment accessibility and safety issues experienced when using or attempting to access four specific categories of medical devices: examination tables, imaging equipment, medical chairs, and weight scales. Content of the transcript of each focus group was categorized according to five major themes: safety issues, equipment issues, health care provider issues, patient issues, and environmental issues. The results were then aggregated. The focus group participants reported that characteristics of the equipment's contact surfaces could cause difficulty and discomfort. Participants commented on lack of physical support for patients with disabilities to transfer their bodies onto and off the equipment and lack of support to achieve and maintain body positions while on the equipment. Wheelchair scales were reported as rarely available, and scales without voice output were inaccessible to blind individuals. Health care provider issues and patient issues are discussed in relation to the accessibility and safety of the equipment. Some types of medical devices and technologies present substantial barriers for some medical patients with disabilities, which may negatively affect their access to health care. Recommendations for improved designs are provided to enhance medical equipment accessibility and safety.

  15. The reliability of DSM impact estimates

    Vine, E.L. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Kushler, M.G. [Michigan Public Service Commission, Lansing, MI (United States)


    Demand-side management (DSM) critics continue to question the reliability of DSM program savings, and therefore, the need for funding such programs. In this paper, the authors examine the issues underlying the discussion of reliability of DSM program savings (e.g., bias and precision) and compare the levels of precision of DSM impact estimates for three utilities. Overall, the precision results from all three companies appear quite similar and, for the most part, demonstrate reasonably good precision levels around DSM savings estimate. The conclude by recommending activities for program managers and evaluators for increasing the understanding of the factors leading to DSM uncertainty and for reducing the level of DSM uncertainty.

  16. [Interrater reliability of the Braden scale].

    Kottner, Jan; Tannen, Antje; Dassen, Theo


    Pressure ulcer risk assessment scales can assist nurses in determining the individual pressure ulcer risk. Although the Braden scale is widely used throughout Germany, its psychometric properties are yet unknown. The aim of the study was to determine the interrater reliability of the Braden scale and to compare the results with those of published data. A literature review was conducted. 20 studies measuring the interrater reliability of the Braden scale were evaluated. Only three of those studies investigated the interrater reliability of single items. The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (0.80 to 1.00) was calculated in most studies for an evaluation of the Braden scale as a whole. However, the use of correlation coefficients is inappropriate for measuring the interrater reliability of the Braden scale. Measures of the intraclass correlation coefficient varied from 0.83 to 0.99. The investigation of the interrater reliability of the Braden scale's German version was conducted in a German nursing home in 2006. Nurses independently rated 18 and 32 residents twice. Nurses achieved the highest agreement when rating the items "friction and shear" and "activity" (overall proportion of agreement = 0.67 to 0.84, Cohen's Kappa = 0.57 to 0.73). The lowest agreement was achieved when the item "nutrition" (overall proportion of agreement = 0.47 to 0.51, Cohen's Kappa = 0.28 to 0.30) was rated. For 66% of the rated residents the difference in the obtained Braden scores was equal or less than one point. Intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.91 (95% confidence interval 0.82 to 0.96) and 0.88 (95% confidence interval 0.61 to 0.96). This indicates that the interrater reliability of the Braden scale was high in the examined setting.

  17. A model for estimation of potential generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment in Brazil.

    Araújo, Marcelo Guimarães; Magrini, Alessandra; Mahler, Cláudio Fernando; Bilitewski, Bernd


    Sales of electrical and electronic equipment are increasing dramatically in developing countries. Usually, there are no reliable data about quantities of the waste generated. A new law for solid waste management was enacted in Brazil in 2010, and the infrastructure to treat this waste must be planned, considering the volumes of the different types of electrical and electronic equipment generated. This paper reviews the literature regarding estimation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), focusing on developing countries, particularly in Latin America. It briefly describes the current WEEE system in Brazil and presents an updated estimate of generation of WEEE. Considering the limited available data in Brazil, a model for WEEE generation estimation is proposed in which different methods are used for mature and non-mature market products. The results showed that the most important variable is the equipment lifetime, which requires a thorough understanding of consumer behavior to estimate. Since Brazil is a rapidly expanding market, the "boom" in waste generation is still to come. In the near future, better data will provide more reliable estimation of waste generation and a clearer interpretation of the lifetime variable throughout the years.

  18. Scaling for Shock Response of Equipment in Different Submarines

    G.J. O’Hara


    Full Text Available This article presents scaling rules developed to predict the response of submarine equipment subjected to underwater chemical explosions. The computer was used as a surrogate for shock tests. A simplified model of a hull section was used to contain frame-mounted single degree of freedom equipment. A general scaling rule has been developed to handle the spread in the shock response attributable to the charge weight, equipment weight, and equipment frequency, where the shock response is the absolute maximum acceleration of the equipment mass as a function of the shock factor for a given charge weight. The article also examines those cases where a new hull is derived from an original hull by the linear scaling law. The solution of the shock response is well known when the internal equipment has also been linearly scaled. A new general scaling rule is developed for those cases when the equipment is not linearly scaled, that is, the equipment and charge weight used with the original hull remains unchanged when installed in the linearly scaled hull or a completely different equipment and charge weight are used with the new hull. It is emphasized that the test sections were short and devoid of typical equipment present in a real compartment. The results, nevertheless, provide trends and ratios in shock design values, not necessarily absolute design numbers. The approach taken in developing these scaling rules could be useful for enhancing field data that may exist for a given class of boat to allow greater usage of these data for different equipment subject to a variety of charge weights, attack geometries, and other boats.


    Yongdan Li; Dongfang Wu; Y.S. Lin


    The mechanical strength of solid catalysts is one of the key parameters for reliable and efficient performance of a fixed bed reactor. Some recent developments and their basic mechanics within this context are reviewed. The main concepts discussed are brittle fracture which leads to the mechanical failure of the catalyst pellets, measurement and statistical properties of the catalyst strength data, and mechanical reliability of the catalyst pellets and their packed bed. The scientific basis for the issues on the catalyst mechanical properties calls yet for further elucidation and advancement.

  20. Reliability of photovoltaic systems: A field report

    Thomas, M. G.; Fuentes, M. K.; Lashway, C.; Black, B. D.

    Performance studies and field measurements of photovoltaic systems indicate a 1 to 2% per year degradation in array energy production. The cause for much of the degradation has been identified as soiling, failed modules, and failures in interconnections. System performance evaluation continues to be complicated by the poor reliability of some power conditioning hardware that has greatly diminished the system availability and by inconsistent field ratings. Nevertheless, the current system reliability is consistent with degradation of less than 10% in 5 years and with estimates of less than 10% per year of the energy value for O and M.

  1. Reliability of photovoltaic systems - A field report

    Thomas, M. G.; Fuentes, M. K.; Lashway, C.; Black, B. D.

    Performance studies and field measurements of photovoltaic systems indicate a 1-2-percent/yr degradation in array energy production. The cause for much of the degradation has been identified as soiling, failed modules, and failures in interconnections. System performance evaluation continues to be complicated by the poor reliability of some power conditioning hardware (which greatly diminished system availability) and by inconsistent field ratings. Nevertheless, the current system reliability is consistent with degradation of less than 10 percent in 5 years and with estimates of less than 10 percent/yr of the energy value for O&M.

  2. Reliability Block Diagram (RBD) Analysis of NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) Flight Termination System and Power Supply

    Morehouse, Dennis V.


    In order to perform public risk analyses for vehicles containing Flight Termination Systems (FTS), it is necessary for the analyst to know the reliability of each of the components of the FTS. These systems are typically divided into two segments; a transmitter system and associated equipment, typically in a ground station or on a support aircraft, and a receiver system and associated equipment on the target vehicle. This analysis attempts to analyze the reliability of the NASA DFRC flight termination system ground transmitter segment for use in the larger risk analysis and to compare the results against two established Department of Defense availability standards for such equipment.

  3. Optimal Structural Reliability of Offshore Wind Turbines

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Tarp-Johansen, N.J.


    The main failure modes of modern large wind turbines are fatigue failure of wings, hub, shaft and main tower, local buckling of main tower, and failure of the foundation. This paper considers reliability-based optimal design of wind turbines. Compared to onshore wind turbines and building...... can be lower than for onshore wind turbines and other civil engineering structures and can be assessed by reliability-based cost-optimization. Specifically this paper considers the main tower and foundation. Both fatigue and ultimate strength failure modes are included. Different formulations...

  4. Reliability of Transcallosal Inhibition in Healthy Adults

    Fleming, Melanie K.; Newham, Di J.


    Transcallosal inhibition (TCI), assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation, can provide insight into the neurophysiology of aging and of neurological disorders such as stroke. However, the reliability of TCI using the ipsilateral silent period (iSP) has not been formally assessed, despite its use in longitudinal studies. This study aimed to determine the reliability of iSP onset latency, duration and depth in healthy young and older adults. A sample of 18 younger (mean age 27.7 years, range: 19–42) and 13 older healthy adults (mean age 68.1 years, range: 58–79) attended four sessions whereby the iSP was measured from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle of each hand. 20 single pulse stimuli were delivered to each primary motor cortex at 80% maximum stimulator output while the participant maintained an isometric contraction of the ipsilateral FDI. The average onset latency, duration of the iSP, and depth of inhibition relative to baseline electromyography activity was calculated for each hand in each session. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated for all four sessions, or the first two sessions only. For iSP onset latency the reliability ranged from poor to good. For iSP duration there was moderate to good reliability (ICC > 0.6). Depth of inhibition demonstrated variation in reproducibility depending on which hand was assessed and whether two or four sessions were compared. Bland and Altman analyses showed wide limits of agreement between the first two sessions, particularly for iSP depth. However, there was no systematic pattern to the variability. These results indicate that although iSP duration is reliable in healthy adults, changes in longitudinal studies should be interpreted with caution, particularly for iSP depth. Future studies are needed to determine reliability in clinical populations. PMID:28119588

  5. The adoption of innovative asphalt equipment in road construction

    Habets, Thijs; Voordijk, Hans; Sijde, van der Peter


    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into the adoption process of innovative asphalt equipment in road construction and how the level of knowledge as characterised by the level of education in the companies affects this process. The emphasis is on equipment used for transporting

  6. Illustrated glossary of process equipment. Chinese/English/French edition

    Paruit, B.


    Here is a volume of process equipment and terms in standard Mandarin Chinese, English, and French. As with the English/French/Spanish edition, each page illustrates a particular piece of equipment, with captions identifying the key components. Glossaries at the end of each major section include the Romanized pronunciation of the Chinese.

  7. On the use of NDT Data for Reliability-Based Assessment of Existing Timber Structures

    Sousa, Hélder S.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning


    is performed using First Order Reliability Methods (FORM). The results show that different degrees of belief in the updating data may significantly influence the reliability level. The updating data to be used are NDT results obtained with ultrasound, resistance drilling and pin penetration equipments......The objective of this paper is to address the possibilities of using non-destructive testing (NDT) data for updating information and obtaining adequate characterization of the reliability level of existing timber structures and, also, for assessing the evolution in time of performance...... of these structures when exposed to deterioration. By improving the knowledge upon the mechanical properties of timber, better and more substantiated decisions after a reliability safety assessment are aimed at. Bayesian methods are used to update the mechanical properties of timber and reliability assessment...

  8. Reliability of "Google" for obtaining medical information

    Mihir Kothari


    Full Text Available Internet is used by many patients to obtain relevant medical information. We assessed the impact of "Google" search on the knowledge of the parents whose ward suffered from squint. In 21 consecutive patients, the "Google" search improved the mean score of the correct answers from 47% to 62%. We found that "Google" search was useful and reliable source of information for the patients with regards to the disease etiopathogenesis and the problems caused by the disease. The internet-based information, however, was incomplete and not reliable with regards to the disease treatment.

  9. Fatigue Reliability of Offshore Wind Turbine Systems

    Marquez-Dominguez, Sergio; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard


    Optimization of the design of offshore wind turbine substructures with respect to fatigue loads is an important issue in offshore wind energy. A stochastic model is developed for assessing the fatigue failure reliability. This model can be used for direct probabilistic design and for calibration...... of appropriate partial safety factors / fatigue design factors (FDF) for steel substructures of offshore wind turbines (OWTs). The fatigue life is modeled by the SN approach. Design and limit state equations are established based on the accumulated fatigue damage. The acceptable reliability level for optimal...

  10. 30 CFR 77.309 - Visual check of system equipment.


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visual check of system equipment. 77.309... COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.309 Visual check of system equipment. Frequent visual checks shall be made by the operator of the thermal dryer system control station, or by some other competent person,...

  11. Delivery Time Reliability Model of Logistics Network

    Liusan Wu


    Full Text Available Natural disasters like earthquake and flood will surely destroy the existing traffic network, usually accompanied by delivery delay or even network collapse. A logistics-network-related delivery time reliability model defined by a shortest-time entropy is proposed as a means to estimate the actual delivery time reliability. The less the entropy is, the stronger the delivery time reliability remains, and vice versa. The shortest delivery time is computed separately based on two different assumptions. If a path is concerned without capacity restriction, the shortest delivery time is positively related to the length of the shortest path, and if a path is concerned with capacity restriction, a minimax programming model is built to figure up the shortest delivery time. Finally, an example is utilized to confirm the validity and practicality of the proposed approach.

  12. Reliability and Robustness Evaluation of Timber Structures

    Cizmar, Dean; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    In the last few decades there have been intensely research concerning reliability of timber structures. This is primarily because there is an increased focus on society on sustainability and environmental aspects. Modern timber as a building material is also being competitive compared to concrete...... parameters is given. System models (series and parallel) are discused and methods for reliability calculation are given. Special attention is drawn upon brittle/ductile modelling of timber and connections. In chapter 2 robustness requirements implemended in codes are presented. State of the art definitions...

  13. Reliability assessment of wave Energy devices

    Ambühl, Simon; Kramer, Morten; Kofoed, Jens Peter


    Energy from waves may play a key role in sustainable electricity production in the future. Optimal reliability levels for components used for Wave Energy Devices (WEDs) need to be defined to be able to decrease their cost of electricity. Optimal reliability levels can be found using probabilistic...... methods. Extreme loads during normal operation, but also extreme loads simultaneous with failure of mechanical and electrical components as well as the control system, are of importance for WEDs. Furthermore, fatigue loading needs to be assessed. This paper focus on the Wavestar prototype which is located...

  14. Reliability analysis of DOOF for Weibull distribution

    陈文华; 崔杰; 樊晓燕; 卢献彪; 相平


    Hierarchical Bayesian method for estimating the failure probability Pi under DOOF by taking the quasi-Beta distribution B(pi-1 , 1,1, b ) as the prior distribution is proposed in this paper. The weighted Least Squares Estimate method was used to obtain the formula for computing reliability distribution parameters and estimating the reliability characteristic values under DOOF. Taking one type of aerospace electrical connectoras an example, the correctness of the above method through statistical analysis of electrical connector acceler-ated life test data was verified.

  15. Analyzing sustainability of construction equipment in the state of California



    Construction equipment encompasses highly polluting machines adversely affecting the environment.Management tools are necessary for sustainability assessment of construction equipment fleets to allow contractors to reduce their emissions and comply with local or federal regulations.In addition to management tools,there is a need for a metrics that will allow companies to accurately assess the sustainability of their construction equipment fleets.The State of California USA is adopting innovative approaches to reduce adverse impact of humans on the environment.Once successfully implemented,the chances are that such practices attract other states to adopt similar approaches.This paper presents an evaluation of construction equipment fleets and data analysis.When measured and recorded,such results can be used along with decision support tools for selection and utilization of construction equipment.The metrics for construction equipment evaluation as well as the tool for sustainable decision making are developed based on readily available data from manufacturers or maintenance shops without a need for additional effort by contractors or government agencies for their adoption.The metrics developed and the decision support tool incorporate logical strategies of supply chain management for optimal selection of construction equip ment for construction site while taking into account the availability,cost,and mobilization related constraints.The metrics and the model can benefit both the government agencies responsible for inspection of fleets and owners of construction companies in their decision-making processes related to environmental sustainability.

  16. Lack of security of networked medical equipment in radiology.

    Moses, Vinu; Korah, Ipeson


    OBJECTIVE. There are few articles in the literature describing the security and safety aspects of networked medical equipment in radiology departments. Most radiologists are unaware of the security issues. We review the security of the networked medical equipment of a typical radiology department. MATERIALS AND METHODS. All networked medical equipment in a radiology department was scanned for vulnerabilities with a port scanner and a network vulnerability scanner, and the vulnerabilities were classified using the Common Vulnerability Scoring System. A network sniffer was used to capture and analyze traffic on the radiology network for exposure of confidential patient data. We reviewed the use of antivirus software and firewalls on the networked medical equipment. USB ports and CD and DVD drives in the networked medical equipment were tested to see whether they allowed unauthorized access. Implementation of the virtual private network (VPN) that vendors use to access the radiology network was reviewed. RESULTS. Most of the networked medical equipment in our radiology department used vulnerable software with open ports and services. Of the 144 items scanned, 64 (44%) had at least one critical vulnerability, and 119 (83%) had at least one high-risk vulnerability. Most equipment did not encrypt traffic and allowed capture of confidential patient data. Of the 144 items scanned, two (1%) used antivirus software and three (2%) had a firewall enabled. The USB ports were not secure on 49 of the 58 (84%) items with USB ports, and the CD or DVD drive was not secure on 17 of the 31 (55%) items with a CD or DVD drive. One of three vendors had an insecure implementation of VPN access. CONCLUSION. Radiologists and the medical industry need to urgently review and rectify the security issues in existing networked medical equipment. We hope that the results of our study and this article also raise awareness among radiologists about the security issues of networked medical equipment.


    Ladan Hassani


    Full Text Available OEE is one of the most popular methods of evaluation of the performance in the manufacturing process to identify and eliminate the causes of production losses. This study has a significant importance due to demonstrating the existing loss and identifying indicators of OEE and their impact on production losses. The main purpose of this study is to minimize the losses of equipment by utilizing the available resources. For this purpose, Moghan Cable & Wire Manufacturing Company was selected as a case study. After collecting equipment data, a questionnaire was designed that its validity was approved by group of experts and its reliability was calculated by using Cronbach's alpha method which was equal to 0.901. Data were analyzed by Structural Equation Model, in order to examine the relationship between variables. The results showed that the high levels of overall equipment effectiveness have a significant impact on the reduction of production losses.

  18. Reliability in automotive and mechanical engineering determination of component and system reliability

    Bertsche, Bernd


    In the present contemporary climate of global competition in every branch of engineering and manufacture it has been shown from extensive customer surveys that above every other attribute, reliability stands as the most desired feature in a finished product. To survive this relentless fight for survival any organisation, which neglect the plea of attaining to excellence in reliability, will do so at a serious cost Reliability in Automotive and Mechanical Engineering draws together a wide spectrum of diverse and relevant applications and analyses on reliability engineering. This is distilled into this attractive and well documented volume and practising engineers are challenged with the formidable task of simultaneously improving reliability and reducing the costs and down-time due to maintenance. The volume brings together eleven chapters to highlight the importance of the interrelated reliability and maintenance disciplines. They represent the development trends and progress resulting in making this book ess...

  19. The Concept of Reliability and Trustworthiness

    Atencio, Julian James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The objective of this presentation is to obtain an appreciation and understanding of human behavior as it relates to critical jobs; to understand the basics of the Department of Energy's Human Reliability Program; to understand the importance of monitoring and deterrence; and to understand the effects of "right-sized" reaction.

  20. Cost analysis for heavy equipment in earthfill work - An optimization of heavy equipment fleet (Case study: Jabung ring dike project)

    Arifin, Muhammad Faizal Ardhiansyah


    Earth fill work with large volumes of soil deposits will involve a lot of heavy equipment with a variety of functions and with different objectives. Where each machine will have different productivity anyway. So that in this paper discusses the calculation of the cost required to do the compacted earthfill work for embankment in accordance with the volume of work, the target date for implementation, and the number of heavy equipment needs. As the cost calculations used heavy equipment rental price per hour. In the cost analysis calculations use heavy equipment here there are several factors that we included in the calculation, are: 1.)Hauling distance; 2.)Effective hour a day; 3.)Change factor of Soil Volume; 4.)Effective Speed; 5.)Equipment efficiency factor; 6.)Equipment coefficient; 7.)Cycle Time.

  1. Applied research on reliable increase measures of CNC lathes

    YU Jie; JIA Ya-zhou


    According to the reliable data of sixteen CNC lathes, each reliable index of the serial CNC lathes is evaluated before tackling and after tackling. According to the failure analysis, reliable improvement measures of the serial CNC lathes are put forward.

  2. Assessment of power reliability and improvement potential by using ...

    Assessment of power reliability and improvement potential by using smart reclosers. ... Electric reliability has affected social well being, public health, water supply, ... of smart reclosers improves the reliability of the distribution network by 75% ...

  3. Non-invasive system for monitoring of the manufacturing equipment

    Mazăre, A. G.; Belu, N.; Ionescu, L. M.; Rachieru, N.; Misztal, A.


    The automotive industry is one of the most important industries in the world that concerns the economy and the world culture. High demand has resulted in increasing of the pressure on the production lines. In conclusion, it is required more careful in monitoring of the production equipment not only for maintenance but also for staff safety and to increase the quality of production. In this paper, we propose a solution for non-invasive monitoring of the industrial equipment operation by measuring the current consumption on energy supply lines. Thus, it is determined the utilization schedule of the equipment and operation mode. Based on these measurements, it’s built an activity report for that equipment, available to the quality management and maintenance team. The solution consists of the current measuring equipment, with self-harvesting capabilities and radio transceiver, and an embedded system which run a server. The current measuring equipment will transmit data about consumption of each energy supply network line where is placed the industrial equipment. So, we have an internal measuring radio network. The embedded system will collect data for the equipment and put in a local data base and it will provide via an intranet application. The entire system not requires any supplementary energy supply and interventions in the factory infrastructure. It is experimented in a company from the automotive industries.

  4. 29 CFR 1926.431 - Maintenance of equipment.


    ... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Electrical Safety-Related Maintenance and Environmental Considerations § 1926.431 Maintenance of equipment. The employer shall ensure that all wiring... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance of equipment. 1926.431 Section 1926.431...

  5. Reliability-Based Optimization of Structural Elements

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    In this paper structural elements from an optimization point of view are considered, i.e. only the geometry of a structural element is optimized. Reliability modelling of the structural element is discussed both from an element point of view and from a system point of view. The optimization...

  6. [Recommendations for metrological control of measuring equipments in the clinical laboratories].

    Dumontet, M; Giroud, C; Vassault, A; Guitel, F; Perrin, A; Braconnier, F; Férard, G; Beaudeux, J-L


    The control of the measuring equipment (balances, mass standards, micropipettes, dilutors, volumetric glassware, thermometers...) is essential to obtain reliable analytical results. This control requires knowledge and use of the main standards, instructions for use, metrological verifications and confirmations as well as creation of checking and standardizing certificates ensuring metrological traceability. These items should help to control the quality of the analytical performances (fidelity and trueness in particular).

  7. Bacteriological research for the contamination of equipment in chest radiography

    Choi, Seung Gu; Song, Woon Heung; Kweon, Dae Cheol [Shinhan University, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of)


    The purpose is to determine the degree of contamination of the equipment for infection control in chest radiography of the radiology department. We confirmed by chemical and bacterial identification of bacteria of the equipment and established a preventive maintenance plan. Chest X-ray radiography contact area on the instrument patients shoulder, hand, chin, chest lateral radiography patient contact areas with a 70% isopropyl alcohol cotton swab were compared to identify the bacteria before and after sterilization on the patient contact area in the chest radiography equipment of the department. The gram positive Staphylococcus was isolated from side shoots handle before disinfection in the chest radiography equipment. For the final identification of antibiotic tested that it was determined by performing the nobobiocin to the sensitive Staphylococcus epidermidis. Chest radiography equipment before disinfecting the handle side of Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria were detected using a disinfectant should be to prevent hospital infections.

  8. Reliability of NFV Using COTS Hardware

    Li Mo


    This paper describes a study on the feasibility of using com-mercial off -the -shelf (COTS) hardware for telecom equip-ment. The study outlines the conditions under which COTS hardware can be utilized in a network function virtualization environment. The concept of silent -error probability is intro-duced to account for software errors and/or undetectable hard-ware failures, and is included in both the theoretical work and simulations. Silent failures are critical to overall system availability. Site -related issues are created by combined site maintenance and site failure. Site maintenance does not no-ticeably limit system availability unless there are also site fail-ures. Because the theory becomes extremely involved when site failure is introduced, simulation is used to determine the impact of those facts that constitutes the undesirable features of using COTS hardware.

  9. Application of Diagnostic/Prognostic Methods to Critical Equipment for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Cleanup Program

    Casazza, Lawrence O.; Jarrell, Donald B.; Koehler, Theresa M.; Meador, Richard J.; Wallace, Dale E.


    The management of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) project at the Hanford K-Basin in the 100 N Area has successfully restructured the preventive maintenance, spare parts inventory requirements, and the operator rounds data requirements. In this investigation, they continue to examine the different facets of the operations and maintenance (O&M) of the K-Basin cleanup project in search of additional reliability and cost savings. This report focuses on the initial findings of a team of PNNL engineers engaged to identify potential opportunities for reducing the cost of O&M through the application of advanced diagnostics (fault determination) and prognostics (residual life/reliability determination). The objective is to introduce predictive technologies to eliminate or reduce high impact equipment failures. The PNNL team in conjunction with the SNF engineers found the following major opportunities for cost reduction and/or enhancing reliability: (1) Provide data routing and automated analysis from existing detection systems to a display center that will engage the operations and engineering team. This display will be operator intuitive with system alarms and integrated diagnostic capability. (2) Change operating methods to reduce major transients induced in critical equipment. This would reduce stress levels on critical equipment. (3) Install a limited sensor set on failure prone critical equipment to allow degradation or stressor levels to be monitored and alarmed. This would provide operators and engineers with advance guidance and warning of failure events. Specific methods for implementation of the above improvement opportunities are provided in the recommendations. They include an Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) decision support system, introduction of variable frequency drives on certain pump motors, and the addition of limited diagnostic instrumentation on specified critical equipment.

  10. Reliability-Based Optimization of Wind Turbines

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Tarp-Johansen, N.J.


    Reliability-based optimization of the main tower and monopile foundation of an offshore wind turbine is considered. Different formulations are considered of the objective function including benefits and building and failure costs of the wind turbine. Also different reconstruction policies in case...

  11. Reliability of the Advanced REACH Tool (ART)

    Schinkel, J.; Fransman, W.; McDonnell, P.E.; Entink, R.K.; Tielemans, E.; Kromhout, H.


    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of the Advanced REACH Tool (ART) by (i) studying interassessor agreement of the resulting exposure estimates generated by the ART mechanistic model, (ii) studying interassessor agreement per model parameters of the ART mechanistic model

  12. Reliability of the Advanced REACH Tool (ART)

    Schinkel, J.; Fransman, W.; McDonnell, P.E.; Entink, R.K.; Tielemans, E.; Kromhout, H.


    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of the Advanced REACH Tool (ART) by (i) studying interassessor agreement of the resulting exposure estimates generated by the ART mechanistic model, (ii) studying interassessor agreement per model parameters of the ART mechanistic

  13. Reliability analysis of flood defence systems

    Steenbergen, H.M.G.M.; Lassing, B.L.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.; Waarts, P.H.


    In recent years an advanced program for the reliability analysis of flood defence systems has been under development. This paper describes the global data requirements for the application and the setup of the models. The analysis generates the probability of system failure and the contribution of ea

  14. Reliability of Multi-Category Rating Scales

    Parker, Richard I.; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Davis, John L.


    The use of multi-category scales is increasing for the monitoring of IEP goals, classroom and school rules, and Behavior Improvement Plans (BIPs). Although they require greater inference than traditional data counting, little is known about the inter-rater reliability of these scales. This simulation study examined the performance of nine…

  15. Reliability Based Management of Marine Fouling

    Faber, Michael Havbro; Hansen, Peter Friis


    The present paper describes the results of a recent study on the application of methods from structural reliability to optimise management of marine fouling on jacket type structures.In particular the study addresses effects on the structural response by assessment and quantification of uncertain...

  16. Reliability of automotive and mechanical engineering. Determination of component and system reliability

    Bertsche, Bernd [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Maschinenelemente


    In the present contemporary climate of global competition in every branch of engineering and manufacture it has been shown from extensive customer surveys that above every other attribute, reliability stands as the most desired feature in a finished product. To survive this relentless fight for survival any organisation, which neglect the plea of attaining to excellence in reliability, will do so at a serious cost Reliability in Automotive and Mechanical Engineering draws together a wide spectrum of diverse and relevant applications and analyses on reliability engineering. This is distilled into this attractive and well documented volume and practising engineers are challenged with the formidable task of simultaneously improving reliability and reducing the costs and down-time due to maintenance. The volume brings together eleven chapters to highlight the importance of the interrelated reliability and maintenance disciplines. They represent the development trends and progress resulting in making this book essential basic material for all research academics, planners maintenance executives, who have the responsibility to implement the findings and maintenance audits into a cohesive reliability policy. Although, the book is centred on automotive engineering nevertheless, the examples and overall treatise can be applied to a wide range of professional practices. The book will be a valuable source of information for those concerned with improved manufacturing performance and the formidable task of optimising reliability. (orig.)

  17. Reliability of performance of elite Olympic weightlifters.

    McGuigan, Michael R; Kane, Melissa K


    There are no published data on the reliability of competitive strength performance, even though it has a pronounced effect on athletes' medal prospects and the ability of coaches and athletes to identify factors that affect competitive performance. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the reliability of elite olympic weightlifters over a series of international weightlifting meets. We obtained official results of international competitions over an 18-month period from 1999 until the 2000 Olympic Games at the International Weightlifting Federation website. The measure of reliability was the typical within-athlete variation, derived as the coefficient of variation (CV) by 2-way analysis of variance of log-transformed weights lifted for the snatch, clean and jerk, and total. The results of this analysis were (a) within-athlete variations were as follows: snatch, 2.7% (95% likely range, 2.4-3.2%); clean and jerk, 2.3% (1.7-3.6%); total weight lifted, 2.5% (2.2-2.9%); (b) men and women: the variation was higher for the women compared with the men in both snatch (ratio of CV, 1.4) and clean and jerk (ratio of CV, 1.5), and for the total weight lifted (ratio of CV, 1.3); and (c) the top 5 athletes were almost always more reliable than the bottom-half athletes. Recent work has shown that the smallest worthwhile performance is about half the within-athlete variation, so coaches and sport scientists should focus on enhancements of as little as 1.2% in total weight lifted for elite olympic weightlifters.

  18. [Stigma of tuberculosis scale: validity and reliability].

    Özpınar, Saliha; Taner, Şafak; Yıldırım, Gülay; Mahleç Anar, Ceyda; Altıparmak, Osman; Baydur, Hakan


    In many health conditions, stigma is receiving increasing attention. Public stigmatization toward social illness can affect particularly the patients and family memberships to help seeking behavior and treatment. This study, the aim of this study was to investigate the validity and reliability of the Turkish "Stigma of Tuberculosis Scale " which was developed to evaluate of perception of stigma with tuberkulosis patient. This methodological study was conducted with 150 with tuberculosis disease people who above 18 age and without known psychological and mental disability. In the study, "Stigma of Tuberculosis Scale" was used as data collection tool. During the study, language equivalence, content validity, reliability and construct validity of the scale was performed. The data was assessed by using mean, median, standard deviation, Spearman Correlation, Cronbach Alpha coefficient and confirmatory factor analysis. The mean age of study participants was 45.6 ± 16.1 (20 - 85). years. Spearman correlation coefficient of the scale for test-retest reliability was 0.853 and the Cronbach Alpha coefficient was 0.95. According to fit indexes of confirmatory factor analysis [x2/SD= 481.38/230= 2.09; RMSEA= 0.087; GFI= 0.776; CFI= 0.776; NNFI= 0.875] it was found that one factors were appropriate for the scale. The adoption of the translated "Stigma of Tuberculosis Scale"in Turkey is found reliable and valid to evaluate of perception of stigma with tuberkulosis patient.


    彭世济; 张达贤; 习永峰; 卢明银; 孙洪泉


    The method of reliability analysis of mineral reserve estimation, mining construction, mining technological system and surface mine investment in mine design is discussed in this paper. On the basis of this method, the questions, such as "whether the planned production and predicted economic effectiveness could be obtained", can be answered, and corresponding measures can be taken.

  20. An overview of non-road equipment emissions in China

    Wang, Fan; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Kaishan; Di, Baofeng; Hu, Baomei


    As the vehicle population has dramatically increased in China in the past two decades, vehicle emissions have become one of the major sources to air pollution across the entire country, especially for the metropolitan cities such as Beijing and Shanghai. Most of the non-road equipment are diesel-fueled and have been proved to be a key source for NOx and PM emissions, contributing significantly to the formation of haze/smog. Therefore, an accurate estimation of emission inventory from non-road equipment is essential for air quality improvement policy making, which mainly depends on the data availability of equipment population, activity, and emissions factor. Compared to on-road vehicles, less studies regarding emissions characterization have been conducted and investigated for non-road mobile sources in China. Thus, in order to identify the data gaps and future research needs, the objective of this study is to review the current status of research in non-road mobile emissions. Five types of non-road equipment were addressed in this study, including agricultural equipment, industrial equipment, river/ocean-going vessels, locomotives, and commercial airplanes, with a focus on the former two. The equipment are further classified mainly based on national standards and data availability to account for fuel type, job duties and others. This investigation has found that the research regarding emissions from non-road equipment is still at its early stage and there is a huge data gap for both activity and emissions factors. For most of the study, data used for emission inventory estimation were based on either literature with similar equipment or as-developed emissions models such as NONROAD or CORPERT. The representativeness of these data to the localities was not much discussed in those studies, which might have weakened the accuracy of the estimated emission inventory. For future study, real-world in-use measurements of activities and emissions for the non-road equipment

  1. The challenge of reliability in MEMS commercialization

    Miller, W.M.; Tanner, D.M.; Miller, S.L.


    MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) that think, sense, act and communicate will open up a broad new array of cost-effective solutions only if MEMS is demonstrated to be sufficiently reliable. This could prove to be a major challenge if it is not addressed concurrently with technology development. There are three requirements for a valid assessment of reliability: statistical significance, identification of fundamental failure mechanisms and development of techniques for accelerating them, and valid physical models to allow prediction of failures during actual use. While these already exist for the microelectronics portion of such integrated systems, the real challenge lies in the less well-understood micromachine portions and its synergistic effects with microelectronics. This requires the elicitation of a methodology focused on MEMS reliability, which the authors discuss. A new testing and analysis infrastructure must also be developed to meet the needs of this methodology. They describe their implementation of this infrastructure and its success in addressing the three requirements for a valid reliability assessment.

  2. MCTSSA Software Reliability Handbook, Volume III: Integration of Software Metrics with Quality and Reliability

    Schneidewind, Norman F.


    The purpose of this handbook is threefold. Specifically, it: (1) Serves as a reference guide for implementing standard software reliability practices at Marine Corps Tactical Systems Support Activity and aids in applying the software reliability model. (2) Serves as a tool for managing the software reliability program. (3) Serves as a training aid. U.S. Marine Corps Tactical Systems Support Activity, Camp Pendleton, CA. RLACH

  3. Reliability of photographic posture analysis of adolescents.

    Hazar, Zeynep; Karabicak, Gul Oznur; Tiftikci, Ugur


    [Purpose] Postural problems of adolescents needs to be evaluated accurately because they may lead to greater problems in the musculoskeletal system as they develop. Although photographic posture analysis has been frequently used, more simple and accessible methods are still needed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the inter- and intra-rater reliability of photographic posture analysis using MB-ruler software. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were 30 adolescents (15 girls and 15 boys, mean age: 16.4±0.4 years, mean height 166.3±6.7 cm, mean weight 63.8±15.1 kg) and photographs of their habitual standing posture photographs were taken in the sagittal plane. For the evaluation of postural angles, reflective markers were placed on anatomical landmarks. For angular measurements, MB-ruler (Markus Bader- MB Software Solutions, triangular screen ruler) was used. Photographic evaluations were performed by two observers with a repetition after a week. Test-retest and inter-rater reliability evaluations were calculated using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). [Results] Inter-rater (ICC>0.972) and test-retest (ICC>0.774) reliability were found to be in the range of acceptable to excellent. [Conclusion] Reference angles for postural evaluation were found to be reliable and repeatable. The present method was found to be an easy and non-invasive method and it may be utilized by researchers who are in search of an alternative method for photographic postural assessments.

  4. Reliability analysis of wastewater treatment plants.

    Oliveira, Sílvia C; Von Sperling, Marcos


    This article presents a reliability analysis of 166 full-scale wastewater treatment plants operating in Brazil. Six different processes have been investigated, comprising septic tank+anaerobic filter, facultative pond, anaerobic pond+facultative pond, activated sludge, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors alone and UASB reactors followed by post-treatment. A methodology developed by Niku et al. [1979. Performance of activated sludge process and reliability-based design. J. Water Pollut. Control Assoc., 51(12), 2841-2857] is used for determining the coefficients of reliability (COR), in terms of the compliance of effluent biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and fecal or thermotolerant coliforms (FC) with discharge standards. The design concentrations necessary to meet the prevailing discharge standards and the expected compliance percentages have been calculated from the COR obtained. The results showed that few plants, under the observed operating conditions, would be able to present reliable performances considering the compliance with the analyzed standards. The article also discusses the importance of understanding the lognormal behavior of the data in setting up discharge standards, in interpreting monitoring results and compliance with the legislation.



  6. Validation of Land Cover Products Using Reliability Evaluation Methods

    Wenzhong Shi


    Full Text Available Validation of land cover products is a fundamental task prior to data applications. Current validation schemes and methods are, however, suited only for assessing classification accuracy and disregard the reliability of land cover products. The reliability evaluation of land cover products should be undertaken to provide reliable land cover information. In addition, the lack of high-quality reference data often constrains validation and affects the reliability results of land cover products. This study proposes a validation schema to evaluate the reliability of land cover products, including two methods, namely, result reliability evaluation and process reliability evaluation. Result reliability evaluation computes the reliability of land cover products using seven reliability indicators. Process reliability evaluation analyzes the reliability propagation in the data production process to obtain the reliability of land cover products. Fuzzy fault tree analysis is introduced and improved in the reliability analysis of a data production process. Research results show that the proposed reliability evaluation scheme is reasonable and can be applied to validate land cover products. Through the analysis of the seven indicators of result reliability evaluation, more information on land cover can be obtained for strategic decision-making and planning, compared with traditional accuracy assessment methods. Process reliability evaluation without the need for reference data can facilitate the validation and reflect the change trends of reliabilities to some extent.

  7. Reliability Analysis of a Steel Frame

    M. Sýkora


    Full Text Available A steel frame with haunches is designed according to Eurocodes. The frame is exposed to self-weight, snow, and wind actions. Lateral-torsional buckling appears to represent the most critical criterion, which is considered as a basis for the limit state function. In the reliability analysis, the probabilistic models proposed by the Joint Committee for Structural Safety (JCSS are used for basic variables. The uncertainty model coefficients take into account the inaccuracy of the resistance model for the haunched girder and the inaccuracy of the action effect model. The time invariant reliability analysis is based on Turkstra's rule for combinations of snow and wind actions. The time variant analysis describes snow and wind actions by jump processes with intermittencies. Assuming a 50-year lifetime, the obtained values of the reliability index b vary within the range from 3.95 up to 5.56. The cross-profile IPE 330 designed according to Eurocodes seems to be adequate. It appears that the time invariant reliability analysis based on Turkstra's rule provides considerably lower values of b than those obtained by the time variant analysis.

  8. On Industrial Application of Structural Reliability Theory

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    For the last two decades we have seen an increasing interest in applying structural reliability theory to many different industries. However, the number of real applications is much smaller than what one would expect. At the beginning most applications were in the design/analyses area especially...

  9. The Reliability and Legality of Online Education

    Agbebaku, C. A.; Adavbiele, A. Justina


    Today, the classroom beyond the border through online Open University education in Nigeria has made it possible for many students to obtain university degrees. However, the reliability and legality of such degrees have become questionable. This paper is a descriptive exploratory case study regarding the public and private sector end-users, whose…

  10. Reliability of a Shuttle reaction timer

    Hays, Russell D.; Mazzocca, Augustus D.; Rashid, Michael; Siconolfi, Steven F.


    Reaction, movement, and task times refer to the times needed to initially respond to a stimulus, make the specific movement, and complete the entire task. This study evaluated the reliability of a simple reaction timer designed to mimic a Space Shuttle task (turning on an overhead switch).

  11. Reliability Analysis of an Offshore Structure

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Rackwitz, R.


    A jacket type offshore structure from the North Sea is considered. The time variant reliability is estimated for failure defined as brittie fradure and crack through the tubular roerober walls. The stochastic modeiling is described. The hot spot stress speetral moments as fundion of the stochastic...

  12. Reliability of agriculture universal joint shafts based on temperature measuring in universal joint bearing assemblies

    Asonja, A.; Desnica, E.


    This paper presents a research into reliability calculations of agriculture double universal joint shafts based on temperature measuring in cardan-type universal joint bearing assemblies. Special laboratory equipment was developed for this research which is presented in the paper. The objective of this research was to test the real life span of universal joint shafts in the laboratory and in field, to obtain the results which can be used to improve the reliability of universal joint shafts. If the presented research were used along with maintenance measures recommended in the paper and with proper use, the level of reliability of the shafts would be 2.1 times higher. The presented results of the research showed that needle bearings, i.e. bearing assemblies of the joints, are the most critical elements on universal joint shafts and are possible causes of their lower reliability. The second universal joint is the part with the lowest reliability in the observed technical system. . (Author)

  13. Reliability of large superconducting magnets through design

    Henning, C.D.


    As superconducting magnet systems grow larger and become the central component of major systems involving fusion, magnetohydrodynamics, and high-energy physics, their reliability must be commensurate with the enormous capital investment in the projects. Although the magnet may represent only 15% of the cost of a large system such as the Mirror Fusion Test Facility, its failure would be catastrophic to the entire investment. Effective quality control during construction is one method of ensuring success. However, if the design is unforgiving, even an inordinate amount of effort expended on quality control may be inadequate. Creative design is the most effective way of ensuring magnet reliability and providing a reasonable limit on the amount of quality control needed. For example, by subjecting the last drawing operation is superconductor manufacture to a stress larger than the magnet design stress, a 100% proof test is achieved; cabled conductors offer mechanical redundancy, as do some methods of conductor joining; ground-plane insulation should be multilayered to prevent arcs, and interturn and interlayer insulation spaced to be compatible with the self-extinguishing of arcs during quench voltages; electrical leads should be thermally protected; and guard vacuum spaces can be incorporated to control helium leaks. Many reliable design options are known to magnet designers. These options need to be documented and organized to produce a design guide. Eventually, standard procedures, safety factors, and design codes can lead to reliability in magnets comparable to that obtained in pressure vessels and other structures. Wihout such reliability, large-scale applications in major systems employing magnetic fusion energy, magnetohydrodynamics, or high-energy physics would present unacceptable economic risks.

  14. Reliability and structural integrity management of PETROBRAS UN-Rio

    Silva, Wallace B. e; Bessa, Guilherme de S. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Alves, Helio; Oliveira, Luiz F.; Alvarenga, Tobias V. [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    This paper aims to present the Integrity and Reliability Management Program developed by UN-Rio, Rio de Janeiro E and P business unit of PETROBRAS. The program was developed with the support of DNV and has been implemented on all subsea assets of this business unit, which includes flexible and carbon steel pipelines and their components, umbilicals as well as subsea equipment (manifolds, valves, etc.). Optimizing resources and systematizing inspection and maintenance activities according to a combined probability and consequence of failure matrix were the goals to be achieved. A specific risk analysis tool was conceived as a part of the scope of the program. In addition to the risk analysis, availability studies were also carried out so as to assess the present condition of this subsea system. The main results and benefits as well as the challenges faced along the implementation of the program will be part of this work. (author)

  15. Novel approach for evaluation of service reliability for electricity customers

    JIANG; John; N


    Understanding reliability value for electricity customer is important to market-based reliability management. This paper proposes a novel approach to evaluate the reliability for electricity customers by using indifference curve between economic compensation for power interruption and service reliability of electricity. Indifference curve is formed by calculating different planning schemes of network expansion for different reliability requirements of customers, which reveals the information about economic values for different reliability levels for electricity customers, so that the reliability based on market supply demand mechanism can be established and economic signals can be provided for reliability management and enhancement.

  16. Novel approach for evaluation of service reliability for electricity customers

    KANG ChongQing; GAO Yan; JIANG John N; ZHONG Jin; XIA Qing


    Understanding reliability value for electricity customer is important to market-based reliability man-agement. This paper proposes a novel approach to evaluate the reliability for electricity customers by using indifference curve between economic compensation for power interruption and service reliability of electricity. Indifference curve is formed by calculating different planning schemes of network ex-pansion for different reliability requirements of customers, which reveals the information about eco-nomic values for different reliability levels for electricity customers, so that the reliability based on market supply demand mechanism can be established and economic signals can be provided for reli-ability management and enhancement.

  17. A Model of Intelligent Fault Diagnosis of Power Equipment Based on CBR

    Gang Ma


    Full Text Available Nowadays the demand of power supply reliability has been strongly increased as the development within power industry grows rapidly. Nevertheless such large demand requires substantial power grid to sustain. Therefore power equipment’s running and testing data which contains vast information underpins online monitoring and fault diagnosis to finally achieve state maintenance. In this paper, an intelligent fault diagnosis model for power equipment based on case-based reasoning (IFDCBR will be proposed. The model intends to discover the potential rules of equipment fault by data mining. The intelligent model constructs a condition case base of equipment by analyzing the following four categories of data: online recording data, history data, basic test data, and environmental data. SVM regression analysis was also applied in mining the case base so as to further establish the equipment condition fingerprint. The running data of equipment can be diagnosed by such condition fingerprint to detect whether there is a fault or not. Finally, this paper verifies the intelligent model and three-ratio method based on a set of practical data. The resulting research demonstrates that this intelligent model is more effective and accurate in fault diagnosis.

  18. Development of equipment for fabricating DUPIC fuel powder

    Kim, Ki Ho; Yang, M. S.; Park, J. J.; Lee, J. W.; Kim, J. H.; Cho, K. H.; Lee, D. Y.; Lee, Y. S.; Na, S. H


    The powder fabrication processes, as the first stage of manufacturing DUPIC (Direct Use of PWR spent fuel In CANDU) fuel, consist of the slitting of spent PWR fuel rods, REOX (Oxidation and REduction of Oxide Fuels) processing to produce the powder feedstock, the milling of the produced powder, the granulation of the milled powder, and the mixing of the granulated powder with pressing lubricants. All these processes should be conducted by remote means in a hot-cell environment where the direct human access is limited to the strictest minimum due to the high radioactivity. This report describe the development of the equipment for fabricating DUPIC fuel powder. These equipment are Slitting Machine, Oxidation and Reduction (OREOX) Furnace, Mill, Roll Compactor, and Mixer. Remote design concept was applied to all the equipment for use in the M6 hot-cell of the IMEF. Mechanical design considerations and capabilities of the equipment for remote operation and maintenance are presented. First prototypes were developed and installed in the DUPIC full scale mock-up and tested using a master-slave manipulator. Redesign and reconstruction were made on each equipment based on mock-up test results. The remote technology acquired through this research was utilized in developing other equipment for DUPIC fuel fabrication, thereby improving safety and increasing productivity. This technology could also be extended to the area of remote handling equipment development for use in hazardous environments. (author). 14 refs., 9 tabs., 21 figs.

  19. Equipment Obsolescence Management Program

    Redmond, J.


    Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Operators are challenged with securing reliable supply channels for safety related equipment due to equipment obsolescence. Many Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) have terminated production of spare parts and product life-cycle support. The average component life cycles are much shorter than the NPP design life, which means that replacement components and parts for the original NPP systems are not available for the complete design life of the NPPs. The lack or scarcity of replacement parts adversely affects plant reliability and ultimately the profitability of the affected NPPs. This problem is further compounded when NPPs pursue license renewal and approval for plant-life extension. A reliable and predictable supply of replacement co components is necessary for NPPs to remain economically competitive and meet regulatory requirements and guidelines. Electrical and I and C components, in particular, have short product life cycles and obsolescence issues must be managed pro actively and not reactively in order to mitigate the risk to the NPP to ensure reliable and economic NPP operation. (Author)

  20. A Method of Reliability Allocation of a Complicated Large System

    WANG Zhi-sheng; QIN Yuan-yuan; WANG Dao-bo


    Aiming at the problem of reliability allocation for a complicated large system, a new thought is brought up. Reliability allocation should be a kind of decision-making behavior; therefore the more information is used when apportioning a reliability index, the more reasonable an allocation is obtained. Reliability allocation for a complicated large system consists of two processes, the first one is a reliability information reporting process fromt bottom to top, and the other one is a reliability index apportioning process from top to bottom. By a typical example, we illustrate the concrete process of reliability allocation algorithms.

  1. Reliability Estimation of the Pultrusion Process Using the First-Order Reliability Method (FORM)

    Baran, Ismet; Tutum, Cem C.; Hattel, Jesper H.


    In the present study the reliability estimation of the pultrusion process of a flat plate is analyzed by using the first order reliability method (FORM). The implementation of the numerical process model is validated by comparing the deterministic temperature and cure degree profiles with correspond

  2. Reliability-Based Optimization and Optimal Reliability Level of Offshore Wind Turbines

    Tarp-Johansen, N.J.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard


    Different formulations relevant for the reliability-based optimization of offshore wind turbines are presented, including different reconstruction policies in case of failure. Illustrative examples are presented and, as a part of the results, optimal reliability levels for the different failure m...

  3. Reliability-Based Optimization and Optimal Reliability Level of Offshore Wind Turbines

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Tarp-Johansen, N.J.


    Different formulations relevant for the reliability-based optimization of offshore wind turbines are presented, including different reconstruction policies in case of failure. Illustrative examples are presented and, as a part of the results, optimal reliability levels for the different failure...

  4. Consideration of demand rate in overall equipment effetiveness (OEE on equipment with constant process time

    Tay C.C.


    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper is primarily done on the purpose of introducing new concept in defining the Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE with the consideration of both machine utilization and customer demand requested. Previous literature concerning the limitation and difficulty of OEE implementation has been investigated in order to track out the potential opportunities to be improved, since the OEE has been widely accepted by most of the industries regardless their manufacturing environment.Design/methodology/approach: The paper is conducting the study based on literature review and the computerized data collection. In details, the novel definition and method of processing the computerized data are all interpreted based on similar studies performed by others and supported by related journals in proving the validation of the output. Over the things, the computerized data are the product amount and total time elapsed on each production which is automatically recorded by the system at the manufacturing site.Findings: The finding of this paper is firstly the exposure and emphasis of limitation exists in current implementation of OEE, which showing that high utilization of the machine is encouraged regardless of the customer demand and is having conflict with the inventory handling cost. This is certainly obvious with overproduction issue especially during low customer demand period. The second limitation in general implementation of OEE is the difficulty in obtaining the ideal cycle time, especially those equipments with constant process time. The section of this paper afterward comes out with the proposed solution in fixing this problem through the definition of performance ratio and then usage of this definition in measuring the machine utilization from time to time. Before this, the time available for the production is calculated incorporating the availability of OEE, which is then used to get the Takt time.Research limitations/implications: Future

  5. Decomposing the Cyclical Movements in the Real Price of Equipment

    Kwang Hwan Kim


    Full Text Available This paper raises warning flags about the current use of the real price of equipment as the driving process for investment-specific technology in the Real-Business-Cycle (RBC model. Using a structural VAR approach, this paper finds that a significant fraction of the real price of equipment is accounted for by other shocks besides investment-specific technology shocks (I-shocks. This finding indicates that the current RBC models which use the real price of equipment as the driving process of investment-specific technology might overstate the contribution of I-shocks to economic fluctuations.

  6. Analysis of bacterial contamination on surface of general radiography equipment and CT equipment in emergency room of radiology

    Hong, Dong Hee; KIm, Hyeong Gyun [Dept. of Radiological Science, Far East University, Eumseong (Korea, Republic of)


    We aim to offer basic materials about infection management through conducting bacterial contamination test about general radiography equipment and CT equipment installed in ER of three general hospitals with 100 sickbeds or more located in Gyeongsangbuk-do Province, and suggest management plan. It had been conducted from 1st December 2015 to 31st December, and objects were general radiography equipment and CT equipment of emergency room located in Gyeongsangbuk-do Province. For general radiography equipment, sources were collected from 4 places such as upper side of control box which employees use most, upper side of exposure button, whole upper side of table which is touching part of patient's skin, upper side of stand bucky's grid, and where patients put their jaws on. For CT equipment, sources were collected from 3 places such as upper side of control box which radiography room employees use most, X-ray exposure button, whole upper side of table which is touching part of patient's skin, and gantry inner. Surface contamination strain found at general radiography equipment in emergency room of radiology are Providencia stuartii(25%), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia(18%), Enterobacter cloacae(8%), Pseudomonas species(8%), Staphylococcus epidermidis(8%), Gram negative bacilli(8%), and ungrown bacteria at incubator after 48 hours of incubation (67%) which is the biggest. Most bacteria were found at upper side of stand bucky-grid and stand bucky of radiology's general radiography equipment, and most sources of CT equipment were focused at patient table, which means it is contaminated by patients who have various diseases, and patients who have strains with decreased immunity may get severe diseases. Thus infection prevention should be made through 70% alcohol disinfection at both before test and after test.

  7. 76 FR 66055 - North American Electric Reliability Corporation; Order Approving Interpretation of Reliability...


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal... Interpretation of Reliability Standard; Before Commissioners: Jon Wellinghoff, Chairman; Philip D. Moeller, John... Procedure, Appendix 3A, Reliability Standards Development Procedure, Version 6.1, at 27-29 (2010). II....

  8. Evaluation methodology for seismic base isolation of nuclear equipments

    Ebisawa, K. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)); Uga, T. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan))


    An evaluation methodology for seismic base isolated nuclear equipments is proposed. The evaluation can be classified into two steps. In the first step, the seismic functional failure probability during the lifetime of equipment without base isolation devices is quantified in order to decide the applicability of the base isolated structure. The second step is comparative and calculates the ratio of the seismic failure frequency of the equipment without base isolation devices to that with them in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the base isolated structure. The sample evaluation considers the case of high voltage type emergency transformer with ceramic tubes. (orig.)

  9. Reliability Analysis of Elasto-Plastic Structures


    . Failure of this type of system is defined either as formation of a mechanism or by failure of a prescribed number of elements. In the first case failure is independent of the order in which the elements fail, but this is not so by the second definition. The reliability analysis consists of two parts...... are described and the two definitions of failure can be used by the first formulation, but only the failure definition based on formation of a mechanism by the second formulation. The second part of the reliability analysis is an estimate of the failure probability for the structure on the basis...... are obtained if the failure mechanisms are used. Lower bounds can be calculated on the basis of series systems where the elements are the non-failed elements in a non-failed structure (see Augusti & Baratta [3])....

  10. Safety standards of electrical equipment in surface mines. [USSR

    Zhidkov, V.O.; Il' in, Yu.N.; Neyaskin, D.V.


    Modified safety regulations developed by the VostNII Institute are discussed. The safety regulations for electrical equipment used in surface coal mines are modifications of general safety regulations in coal surface mining. The modified regulations cover: improved protection from short circuits and grounds in electrical systems with voltage higher than 1000 V, protection systems for heavy-duty electric motors and motors with thyristor control, operation of power shovels on benches with contact systems (hazards of damage to electric cables caused by moving mining equipment), operation of electrical equipment and contact systems on benches at which trucks are used for mine haulage (hazards of damage to electric cables by moving trucks).

  11. Assessment of the Reliability of Concrete Bridges

    Middleton, C. R.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    a significant shift in emphasis for the highways authorities around the world away from the design of new structures over to maintaining the existing infrastructure. As a result, bridge owners are seeking improved ways of inspecting, assessing, maintaining and repairing their existing stock of bridges...... in the wake of ever increasing traffic loads and volumes, and an ageing population of bridges subject to various mechanisms of deterioration. The goal is to optimise the allocation of limited resources whilst maintaining their bridges in a safe and serviceable condition. Reliability analysis is one tool being...

  12. Reliability assessment of underground shaft closure

    Fossum, A.F. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Munson, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The intent of the WIPP, being constructed in the bedded geologic salt deposits of Southeastern New Mexico, is to provide the technological basis for the safe disposal of radioactive Transuranic (TRU) wastes generated by the defense programs of the United States. In determining this technological basis, advanced reliability and structural analysis techniques are used to determine the probability of time-to-closure of a hypothetical underground shaft located in an argillaceous salt formation and filled with compacted crushed salt. Before being filled with crushed salt for sealing, the shaft provides access to an underground facility. Reliable closure of the shaft depends upon the sealing of the shaft through creep closure and recompaction of crushed backfill. Appropriate methods are demonstrated to calculate cumulative distribution functions of the closure based on laboratory determined random variable uncertainty in salt creep properties.

  13. Towards a reliable animal model of migraine

    Olesen, Jes; Jansen-Olesen, Inger


    The pharmaceutical industry shows a decreasing interest in the development of drugs for migraine. One of the reasons for this could be the lack of reliable animal models for studying the effect of acute and prophylactic migraine drugs. The infusion of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) is the best validated...... and most studied human migraine model. Several attempts have been made to transfer this model to animals. The different variants of this model are discussed as well as other recent models....

  14. Personal protective equipment for registration purposes of pesticides

    Gerritsen-Ebben, M.G.; Brouwer, D.H.; Hemmen, J.J. van


    Regulatory authorities in North America, Europe and Australia use different approaches for the estimation of exposure reduction effectiveness of personal protective equipment (PPE) in registration processes of agrochemical pesticides. TNO has investigated current views and facts for the use of

  15. [The study of regional specification for the medical equipment acceptance].

    Cao, Shaoping; Zhang, Lifang; Su, Ying


    Standardization of medical equipment acceptance regional specification is elaborated., by virtue of regional resources to further improve the acceptance level, to strengthen the quality management of medical devices is strengthened through the improvement of acceptance level with regional shared resources.

  16. Survey of Soviet Work in Reliability.


    formulae for various characteristics of reliability for a special class of coherent structures (so called recurrent structures). A general study of... general assumptions about monitoring of the state of the standby components. Rubalsky (1984) has obtained a procedure which optimizes the standby...Volodin, N.A. (1981). On closeness to exponential distribution with monotone failure rate (in Russian), Teoria Verojatn. Primen. 26, 665. Barlow, R. E

  17. Fatigue reliability of cracked engineering structures

    Lanning, David Bruce, Jr.


    This study investigates the reliability of engineering structures containing fatigue cracks. Stress concentrations and welded joints are probable locations for the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks. Due to the many unknowns of loading, materials properties, crack sizes and crack shapes present at these locations, a statistics-based reliability analysis is valuable in the careful consideration of these many different random factors involved in a fatigue life analysis, several of which are expanded upon in this study. The basic problem of a crack near a stress concentration is first considered. A formulation for the aspect ratio (a/c) of a propagating semi-elliptical fatigue crack located at the toe of a welded T-joint is developed using Newman and Raju's stress intensity factor for a cracked flat plate with a weld magnification factor and compared to that of a cracked flat plate, and the reliability in terms of fatigue lifetime is calculated with the aid of Paris' crack propagation equation for membrane and bending loadings. Crack closure effects are then introduced in the consideration of short crack effects, where crack growth rates typically may exceed those found using traditional linear elastic fracture mechanics solutions for long cracks. The probability of a very small, microstructurally influenced crack growing to a size influenced by local plastic conditions is calculated utilizing the probability of a crack continuing to grow past an obstacle, such as a grain boundary. The result is then combined with the probability for failure defined using the crack closure-modified Paris equation to find an overall reliability for the structure. Last, the probability of fracture is determined when a crack front encounters regions of non-uniform toughness, such as typical in the heat affected zone of a welded joint. An expression for the effective crack lengths of the dissimilar regions is derived, and used in a weakest-link fracture model in the evaluation

  18. Maintainability design criteria for packaging of spacecraft replaceable electronic equipment.

    Kappler, J. R.; Folsom, A. B.


    Maintainability must be designed into long-duration spacecraft and equipment to provide the required high probability of mission success with the least cost and weight. The ability to perform repairs quickly and easily in a space environment can be achieved by imposing specific maintainability design criteria on spacecraft equipment design and installation. A study was funded to investigate and define design criteria for electronic equipment that would permit rapid removal and replacement in a space environment. The results of the study are discussed together with subsequent simulated zero-g demonstration tests of a mockup with new concepts for packaging.

  19. Prediction of hygiene in food processing equipment using flow modelling

    Friis, Alan; Jensen, Bo Boye Busk


    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been applied to investigate the design of closed process equipment with respect to cleanability. The CFD simulations were validated using the standardized cleaning test proposed by the European Hygienic Engineering and Design Group. CFD has been proven...... as a tool which can be used by manufacturers to facilitate their equipment design for high hygienic standards before constructing any prototypes. The study of hydrodynamic cleanability of closed processing equipment was discussed based on modelling the flow in a valve house, an up-stand and various...

  20. Maintainability design criteria for packaging of spacecraft replaceable electronic equipment.

    Kappler, J. R.; Folsom, A. B.


    Maintainability must be designed into long-duration spacecraft and equipment to provide the required high probability of mission success with the least cost and weight. The ability to perform repairs quickly and easily in a space environment can be achieved by imposing specific maintainability design criteria on spacecraft equipment design and installation. A study was funded to investigate and define design criteria for electronic equipment that would permit rapid removal and replacement in a space environment. The results of the study are discussed together with subsequent simulated zero-g demonstration tests of a mockup with new concepts for packaging.

  1. Reliability engineering theory and practice

    Birolini, Alessandro


    Presenting a solid overview of reliability engineering, this volume enables readers to build and evaluate the reliability of various components, equipment and systems. Current applications are presented, and the text itself is based on the author's 30 years of experience in the field.

  2. 大型工业企业设备租赁模式下设备综合评价研究%Study on equipment comprehensive evaluation of large industrial enterprises in equipment lease model



    Large industrial enterprises equipment lease model is provided and analyzed. Equipment comprehensive evaluation index based on equipment capital operation theory is established. Combined the characteristics of equipment, evaluation system is put forward from the device,reliability,economy in three ways. Finally,a specific methods of equipment comprehensive evaluation is proposed.%提出大型工业企业设备租赁组织结构模式,分析其存在的问题,建立基于设备资本运营管理理论为基础的设备综合评价指标体系,结合设备特征从设备系数、可靠性和经济性三个方面进行评价.给出了设备综合评价的具体方法.

  3. A new simulation estimator of system reliability

    Sheldon M. Ross


    Full Text Available A basic identity is proven and applied to obtain new simulation estimators concerning (a system reliability, (b a multi-valued system. We show that the variance of this new estimator is often of the order α2 when the usual raw estimator has variance of the order α and α is small. We also indicate how this estimator can be combined with standard variance reduction techniques of antithetic variables, stratified sampling and importance sampling.

  4. Reliability analysis of ceramic matrix composite laminates

    Thomas, David J.; Wetherhold, Robert C.


    At a macroscopic level, a composite lamina may be considered as a homogeneous orthotropic solid whose directional strengths are random variables. Incorporation of these random variable strengths into failure models, either interactive or non-interactive, allows for the evaluation of the lamina reliability under a given stress state. Using a non-interactive criterion for demonstration purposes, laminate reliabilities are calculated assuming previously established load sharing rules for the redistribution of load as the failure of laminae occur. The matrix cracking predicted by ACK theory is modeled to allow a loss of stiffness in the fiber direction. The subsequent failure in the fiber direction is controlled by a modified bundle theory. Results using this modified bundle model are compared with previous models which did not permit separate consideration of matrix cracking, as well as to results obtained from experimental data.

  5. Reliability of novel postural sway task test

    Milan Sedliak


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of parameters obtained from a novel postural sway task test based on body movements controlled by visual feedback. Fifty-nine volunteers were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of young (n = 32, 16 females and 16 males, age: 25.2 ± 3.4 years and the second group of elderly individuals (n = 27, 17 females and 10 males, age: 75.7 ± 6.9 years. Participants stood in parallel on a computer based stabilographic platform with the feet approximately a shoulder width apart, the toes slightly pointing outwards, the hands placed on the hips. The computer screen was placed approximately 1.5 meter from the platform at a height of subjects’ eyes. An instantaneous visual feedback of participant’s centre of pressure (COP was given in a form of a blue cross visible on the screen. Participants were instructed to keep the blue cross driven by movements of their hips as close as possible to a predefined curve flowing on the screen. Out of the 6 parameters studied, only the average distance of COP from the curve line and the sum of the COP crossings through the curve line showed high reliability. Correlation between these two highly reliable parameters was -0.89. There was also a statistical difference (p<0.001 between young and elderly in both the average distance of COP from the curve line and the sum of the COP crossings through the curve. To conclude, the novel postural sway task provides a simple tool with relatively low time burden needed for testing. The suggested output parameters measured are highly reliable and easy to interpret.

  6. Grinding efficiency improvement of hydraulic cylinders parts for mining equipment

    Aleksandr Korotkov; Vitaliy Korotkov; Leonid Mametyev; Lidia Korotkova; Tatiana Terjaeva


    The aim of the article is to find out ways to improve parts treatment and components of mining equipment on the example of hydraulic cylinders parts, used as pillars for mine roof supports, and other actuator mechanisms...

  7. Fatigue Reliability of Gas Turbine Engine Structures

    Cruse, Thomas A.; Mahadevan, Sankaran; Tryon, Robert G.


    The results of an investigation are described for fatigue reliability in engine structures. The description consists of two parts. Part 1 is for method development. Part 2 is a specific case study. In Part 1, the essential concepts and practical approaches to damage tolerance design in the gas turbine industry are summarized. These have evolved over the years in response to flight safety certification requirements. The effect of Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) methods on these methods is also reviewed. Assessment methods based on probabilistic fracture mechanics, with regard to both crack initiation and crack growth, are outlined. Limit state modeling techniques from structural reliability theory are shown to be appropriate for application to this problem, for both individual failure mode and system-level assessment. In Part 2, the results of a case study for the high pressure turbine of a turboprop engine are described. The response surface approach is used to construct a fatigue performance function. This performance function is used with the First Order Reliability Method (FORM) to determine the probability of failure and the sensitivity of the fatigue life to the engine parameters for the first stage disk rim of the two stage turbine. A hybrid combination of regression and Monte Carlo simulation is to use incorporate time dependent random variables. System reliability is used to determine the system probability of failure, and the sensitivity of the system fatigue life to the engine parameters of the high pressure turbine. 'ne variation in the primary hot gas and secondary cooling air, the uncertainty of the complex mission loading, and the scatter in the material data are considered.

  8. Reliability of procedures used for scaling loudness

    Jesteadt, Walt; Joshi, Suyash Narendra


    (ME, MP, CLS; MP, ME, CLS; CLS, ME, MP; CLS, MP, ME), and the order was reversed on the second visit. This design made it possible to compare the reliability of estimates of the slope of the loudness function across procedures in the same listeners. The ME data were well fitted by an inflected...... exponential (INEX) function, but a modified power law was used to obtain slope estimates for both ME and MP. ME and CLS were more reliable than MP. CLS results were consistent across groups, but ME and MP results differed across groups in a way that suggested influence of experience with CLS. Although CLS...... results were the most reproducible, they do not provide direct information about the slope of the loudness function because the numbers assigned to CLS categories are arbitrary. This problem can be corrected by using data from the other procedures to assign numbers that are proportional to loudness...

  9. Reliability Considerations for the Operation of Large Accelerator User Facilities

    Willeke, F J


    The lecture provides an overview of considerations relevant for achieving highly reliable operation of accelerator based user facilities. The article starts with an overview of statistical reliability formalism which is followed by high reliability design considerations with examples. The article closes with operational aspects of high reliability such as preventive maintenance and spares inventory.

  10. Climatic Reliability of Electronic Devices and Components

    Ambat, Rajan


    This article provides an overview of the climatic reliability issues of electronic devices and components with a focus on the metals/alloys usage on PCB a surface together with cleanliness issues, humidity interaction on PCB a surface, and PCB a design and device design aspects. The miniaturization...... of electronic systems and the explosive increase in their usage has increased the climatic reliability issues of electronics devices and components, especially when metal/alloy parts are exposed on the PCB assembly surface or embedded within the multilayer laminate. Problems are compounded by the fact...... that these systems are built by multi-material combinations and additional accelerating factors such as corrosion causing process related residues, bias voltage, and unpredictable user environment. Demand for miniaturised devices has resulted in higher-density packing, with reduction in component size and closer...

  11. Overcoming some limitations of imprecise reliability models

    Kozine, Igor; Krymsky, Victor


    The application of imprecise reliability models is often hindered by the rapid growth in imprecision that occurs when many components constitute a system and by the fact that time to failure is bounded from above. The latter results in the necessity to explicitly introduce an upper bound on time...... to failure which is in reality a rather arbitrary value. The practical meaning of the models of this kind is brought to question. We suggest an approach that overcomes the issue of having to impose an upper bound on time to failure and makes the calculated lower and upper reliability measures more precise....... The main assumption consists in that failure rate is bounded. Langrage method is used to solve the non-linear program. Finally, an example is provided....

  12. Quantifying reliability uncertainty : a proof of concept.

    Diegert, Kathleen V.; Dvorack, Michael A.; Ringland, James T.; Mundt, Michael Joseph; Huzurbazar, Aparna (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Lorio, John F.; Fatherley, Quinn (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Anderson-Cook, Christine (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Wilson, Alyson G. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Zurn, Rena M.


    This paper develops Classical and Bayesian methods for quantifying the uncertainty in reliability for a system of mixed series and parallel components for which both go/no-go and variables data are available. Classical methods focus on uncertainty due to sampling error. Bayesian methods can explore both sampling error and other knowledge-based uncertainties. To date, the reliability community has focused on qualitative statements about uncertainty because there was no consensus on how to quantify them. This paper provides a proof of concept that workable, meaningful quantification methods can be constructed. In addition, the application of the methods demonstrated that the results from the two fundamentally different approaches can be quite comparable. In both approaches, results are sensitive to the details of how one handles components for which no failures have been seen in relatively few tests.

  13. Knowledge modeling of coal mining equipments based on ontology

    Zhang, Baolong; Wang, Xiangqian; Li, Huizong; Jiang, Miaomiao


    The problems of information redundancy and sharing are universe in coal mining equipment management. In order to improve the using efficiency of knowledge of coal mining equipments, this paper proposed a new method of knowledge modeling based on ontology. On the basis of analyzing the structures and internal relations of coal mining equipment knowledge, taking OWL as ontology construct language, the ontology model of coal mining equipment knowledge is built with the help of Protégé 4.3 software tools. The knowledge description method will lay the foundation for the high effective knowledge management and sharing, which is very significant for improving the production management level of coal mining enterprises.

  14. Analysis on Technology Roadmap of Agricultural Equipment Industry in Chongqing

    Chongjing; TAN; Jin; YE; Shi; YANG


    Since the subsidizing agricultural machine purchase was launched in 2004,the agriculture equipment industry in Chongqing has progressed by leaps and bounds,but it is still faced with a few urgent problems,which requires the coordination of stakeholders,with an aim to establish a clear direction of the development of industry and a technology route. With planting industry as an example,this paper applies the principle and method of industry technology roadmap to analyse the market demand,industry target,technology barrier and R & D demand of agricultural equipment industry in Chongqing. Based on the results,the top technology R & D items of agricultural equipment industry in Chongqing are obtained. Finally,the following suggestions are put forward: integrating resources,constructing platform and improving innovation ability; constructing agricultural industry park and promoting clustered development of agricultural equipment industry; strengthening finance and taxation support; strengthening construction of agricultural mechanization infrastructure; substantially developing socialized service of agricultural machinery.

  15. Human reliability analysis of control room operators

    Santos, Isaac J.A.L.; Carvalho, Paulo Victor R.; Grecco, Claudio H.S. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Human reliability is the probability that a person correctly performs some system required action in a required time period and performs no extraneous action that can degrade the system Human reliability analysis (HRA) is the analysis, prediction and evaluation of work-oriented human performance using some indices as human error likelihood and probability of task accomplishment. Significant progress has been made in the HRA field during the last years, mainly in nuclear area. Some first-generation HRA methods were developed, as THERP (Technique for human error rate prediction). Now, an array of called second-generation methods are emerging as alternatives, for instance ATHEANA (A Technique for human event analysis). The ergonomics approach has as tool the ergonomic work analysis. It focus on the study of operator's activities in physical and mental form, considering at the same time the observed characteristics of operator and the elements of the work environment as they are presented to and perceived by the operators. The aim of this paper is to propose a methodology to analyze the human reliability of the operators of industrial plant control room, using a framework that includes the approach used by ATHEANA, THERP and the work ergonomics analysis. (author)

  16. Management of spare parts in the obsolescence of equipment. Experiences of TECNATOM

    Martin Frances, Antonio [Spares Engineering, TECNATOM, Ave. Montes de Oca 1, 28709, Madrid (Spain)


    Since 1957, Tecnatom is giving engineering specialized services to the Electric Power Generation Plants. These activities also extend to other industrial areas like aerospace sector. TECNATOM it's made up of highly qualified specialists with an extensive experience and dedicated spirit and a pool of young people who interact with them to ensure the continuity of the company as a great team. As an important part of our activities, the 'Spares Engineering', complements the reliability and guarantee of a committed company. Nowadays, because of different reasons, there is a growing problematic in the collection of safety equipment and its spares in the NPPs. Tecnatom has set several actions in motion directed to improve the availability of these equipment and spares, by means of life extension of equipment installed, by means of the development of equipment and spares alternatives to the originals, or by means of services in relation with the spare parts. The actions developed until now have provided satisfactory results in technical and economical terms for the Plants. We have developments at present in course, that we hope they will increase this contribution to solve the problems of obsolescence in NPP's. (authors)

  17. Reliable measurement of the receding contact angle.

    Korhonen, Juuso T; Huhtamäki, Tommi; Ikkala, Olli; Ras, Robin H A


    Surface wettability is usually evaluated by the contact angle between the perimeter of a water drop and the surface. However, this single measurement is not enough for proper characterization, and the so-called advancing and receding contact angles also need to be measured. Measuring the receding contact angle can be challenging, especially for extremely hydrophobic surfaces. We demonstrate a reliable procedure by using the common needle-in-the-sessile-drop method. Generally, the contact line movement needs to be followed, and true receding movement has to be distinguished from "pseudo-movement" occurring before the receding angle is reached. Depending on the contact angle hysteresis, the initial size of the drop may need to be surprisingly large to achieve a reliable result. Although our motivation for this work was the characterization of superhydrophobic surfaces, we also show that this method works universally ranging from hydrophilic to superhydrophobic surfaces.

  18. An audit of some health facilities and equipment for neonatal ...


    Apr 19, 2016 ... The child survival indices of 2012 especially the under-5 mortality rate has ... This audit of neonatal resuscitation equipments in health facilities in the state was, ..... sensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscita- tion and Emergency ...

  19. Challenges for High Voltage Testing of UHV Equipment

    Ernst Gockenbach


    The increase of voltage level for AC and DC transmission systems requires some changes in the high voltage testing for Ultra High Voltage (UHV) equipment. After a short description of the coordination work in the standard- ization bodies the requirements for UHV equipment are mentioned. The main points concerning high voltage testing of UHV equipment are the impulse shape of standard lightning impulse voltage, the evaluation of the test voltage for impulses with oscillations or overshoot near the peak and the time parameter of switching impulses. The linearity check of the measuring devices, the proximity effect, the wet tests and the atmospheric correction factors are further points to be discussed concerning testing of UHV equipment.

  20. 47 CFR 15.101 - Equipment authorization of unintentional radiators.


    ... initiation of marketing, as follows: Type of device Equipment authorization required TV broadcast receiver... external switching power supplies Verification. Other Class B digital devices & peripherals Verification. Class A digital devices, peripherals & external switching power supplies Verification. Access...

  1. The effect of using road safety equipment and systems and ...

    The effect of using road safety equipment and systems and determine their role on the ... signs and marks, inhibiting rules, safer vehicles, driver familiar with the rules. ... 0 and 100 and prioritize different levels were expressed in terms of risk.

  2. Problems of reliability of electronic components

    Vyacheslav A. Kharchenko


    Full Text Available This paper describes the problem of increasing the reliability of electronic components (EC used for the fabrication of high-tech products. Two main ways of solving the problem are considered based on analysis of published data. One approach is rejection of EC at the input control using special testing methods combined with burn-in test program. This testing reveals components with “hidden defects”, counterfeit parts and components with incompatible construction materials with both internal and external service conditions. The other approach considers the feature of creating EC with nanoscale parameters. In this case the modular principle is applied for the design of devices that allows significantly reducing the loads on single elements and malfunction of a discrete module causes its disconnection from the scheme followed by reconfiguration of the EC structure. We show that in general the problem of increasing reliability is a complex task related to developing an optimum structure of IC elements, informed choice of materials, testing and optimization of circuit solutions.

  3. The design and manufacture of the catalyst test equipment

    Cho, J. H.; Song, I. T. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)


    The object of this report is to design and manufacture of the catalyst test equipment for removing tritium(H3) included in heavy water for the heavy water reactor. The design conditions of the reactor with the test equipment are summarized as follows 1) Flow rate : 336 l/min. 2) Pressure : 1.15kg/cm{sup 2}. 3) Maximum Temperature : 80 deg C. The test equipment is composed of the water jacket reactor, water equilibrator, heaters, condensers, tanks and pumps. As well as, it is composed of the water, hydrogen, helium, vacuum, emergency operation and control systems. This report will be used important data for the design and manufacture of the equipment for removing tritium. 30 tabs. (Author)

  4. Contemporary Treatment of Reliability and Validity in Educational Assessment

    Dimitrov, Dimiter M.


    The focus of this presidential address is on the contemporary treatment of reliability and validity in educational assessment. Highlights on reliability are provided under the classical true-score model using tools from latent trait modeling to clarify important assumptions and procedures for reliability estimation. In addition to reliability,…

  5. Applying reliability models to the maintenance of Space Shuttle software

    Schneidewind, Norman F.


    Software reliability models provide the software manager with a powerful tool for predicting, controlling, and assessing the reliability of software during maintenance. We show how a reliability model can be effectively employed for reliability prediction and the development of maintenance strategies using the Space Shuttle Primary Avionics Software Subsystem as an example.

  6. Contemporary Treatment of Reliability and Validity in Educational Assessment

    Dimitrov, Dimiter M.


    The focus of this presidential address is on the contemporary treatment of reliability and validity in educational assessment. Highlights on reliability are provided under the classical true-score model using tools from latent trait modeling to clarify important assumptions and procedures for reliability estimation. In addition to reliability,…

  7. Reliability Analysis of Tubular Joints in Offshore Structures

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard


    Reliability analysis of single tubular joints and offshore platforms with tubular joints is" presented. The failure modes considered are yielding, punching, buckling and fatigue failure. Element reliability as well as systems reliability approaches are used and illustrated by several examples....... Finally, optimal design of tubular.joints with reliability constraints is discussed and illustrated by an example....

  8. Dynamic simulation on rubber spring supporting equipment of vibrating screen

    SU Rong-hua; PENG Chen-yu


    By ANSYS, dynamic simulation analysis of rubber spring supporting equipment used in vibrating screen was made. The modal frequency, mode, and harmonic displacement under working frequency were obtained. Variation of rubber spring supporting equipment's dynamic performance was discussed first, which is under the condition of existing spring stiffness difference and exciting force bias. Also, the quantitative calculation formulas were given. The results indicate that the performance of vibrating screen is closely related with rubber spring supporting equipment's dynamic performance. Differences of springs' stiffness coefficients reduce the modal frequency reduced, decrease the dynamic stiffness, and increase vibration displacement. Exciting force bias induces a larger lateral displacement. When rubber springs' stiffness coefficients exist, differences and lateral force accounts for 5% in total exciting force; rubber spring supporting equipment's side swing is larger than 1 mm, exceeding the side swing limit.

  9. On reliable discovery of molecular signatures

    Björkegren Johan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular signatures are sets of genes, proteins, genetic variants or other variables that can be used as markers for a particular phenotype. Reliable signature discovery methods could yield valuable insight into cell biology and mechanisms of human disease. However, it is currently not clear how to control error rates such as the false discovery rate (FDR in signature discovery. Moreover, signatures for cancer gene expression have been shown to be unstable, that is, difficult to replicate in independent studies, casting doubts on their reliability. Results We demonstrate that with modern prediction methods, signatures that yield accurate predictions may still have a high FDR. Further, we show that even signatures with low FDR may fail to replicate in independent studies due to limited statistical power. Thus, neither stability nor predictive accuracy are relevant when FDR control is the primary goal. We therefore develop a general statistical hypothesis testing framework that for the first time provides FDR control for signature discovery. Our method is demonstrated to be correct in simulation studies. When applied to five cancer data sets, the method was able to discover molecular signatures with 5% FDR in three cases, while two data sets yielded no significant findings. Conclusion Our approach enables reliable discovery of molecular signatures from genome-wide data with current sample sizes. The statistical framework developed herein is potentially applicable to a wide range of prediction problems in bioinformatics.

  10. Difficult airway equipment: a survey of standards across metropolitan Perth.

    Alakeson, N; Flett, T; Hunt, V; Ramgolam, A; Reynolds, W; Hartley, K; Hegarty, M; von Ungern-Sternberg, B S


    The importance of appropriate equipment to manage the difficult airway has been highlighted by the publication of the Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists (ANZCA) guidelines in 2012. We set out to audit compliance with these guidelines in all public and private sites providing general anaesthesia in metropolitan Perth. Public and private health care websites identified 39 sites of which 37 were studied. Institutional and ethics approval was obtained. A tick-box design audit tool, based on the ANZCA guidelines, was used to collect information regarding the dedicated difficult airway container (DDAC) at each site. As recommended in the guidelines, only equipment within the DDAC was considered. Further data about each site, including the number of theatre suites, satellite anaesthetic areas, use of capnography and categories of patients treated (adult, obstetric and paediatric) were collected. An adult DDAC was found at 92% of all sites, but none of the sites had all the essential equipment listed in the ANZCA guidelines. There was limited provision of adult difficult airway equipment within private sites compared to public, and less provision of paediatric difficult airway equipment across all sites treating paediatric patients in metropolitan Perth. Capnography was available in 76% of post anaesthesia care units and used regularly in 27%. Adherence to the ANZCA guidelines regarding the DDAC could be improved. Standardised equipment across a metropolitan region would be of value in the management of the difficult airway.

  11. 10 CFR 835.1101 - Control of material and equipment.


    ....1101 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Radioactive Contamination Control... section, material and equipment in contamination areas, high contamination areas, and airborne radioactivity areas shall not be released to a controlled area if: (1) Removable surface contamination levels on...

  12. Environmentally conscious management of waste electrical and electronic equipment

    Prades Costa, Natalia


    Rapid technological change, low initial cost, and the fast obsolescence of the electrical and electronic equipments have resulted in a fast‐growing surplus of electronic waste around the globe. Electronic waste, e‐waste, e‐scrap, or Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) describes loosely discarded, surplus, obsolete, broken, electrical or electronic devices. The processing of electronic waste in developing countries causes serious health and pollution problems because electronic...

  13. reliability reliability


    The design variables for the design of the sla. The design ... The presence of uncertainty in the analysis and de of engineering .... however, for certain complex elements, the methods ..... Standard BS EN 1990, CEN, European Committee for.

  14. Reliability-based congestion pricing model under endogenous equilibrated market penetration and compliance rate of ATIS

    钟绍鹏; 邓卫


    A reliability-based stochastic system optimum congestion pricing (SSOCP) model with endogenous market penetration and compliance rate in an advanced traveler information systems (ATIS) environment was proposed. All travelers were divided into two classes. The first guided travelers were referred to as the equipped travelers who follow ATIS advice, while the second unguided travelers were referred to as the unequipped travelers and the equipped travelers who do not follow the ATIS advice (also referred to as non-complied travelers). Travelers were assumed to take travel time, congestion pricing, and travel time reliability into account when making travel route choice decisions. In order to arrive at on time, travelers needed to allow for a safety margin to their trip. The market penetration of ATIS was determined by a continuous increasing function of the information benefit, and the ATIS compliance rate of equipped travelers was given as the probability of the actually experienced travel costs of guided travelers less than or equal to those of unguided travelers. The analysis results could enhance our understanding of the effect of travel demand level and travel time reliability confidence level on the ATIS market penetration and compliance rate; and the effect of travel time perception variation of guided and unguided travelers on the mean travel cost savings (MTCS) of the equipped travelers, the ATIS market penetration, compliance rate, and the total network effective travel time (TNETT).

  15. Development Trend of China's Petroleum and Petrochemical Equipment Manufacturing Industry%Development Trend of China's Petroleum and Petrochemical Equipment Manufacturing Industry


    The equipment manufacturing industry is a strategic and fundamental industry which provides equipment for all industries including the defense industry. The domestication of equipment manufacturing is a miniature of rapid development of China's national economy. For the petroleum and petrochemical industry, the quality of equipment is essential for the development of the oil and gas industry. In recent years,

  16. Electronics reliability calculation and design

    Dummer, Geoffrey W A; Hiller, N


    Electronics Reliability-Calculation and Design provides an introduction to the fundamental concepts of reliability. The increasing complexity of electronic equipment has made problems in designing and manufacturing a reliable product more and more difficult. Specific techniques have been developed that enable designers to integrate reliability into their products, and reliability has become a science in its own right. The book begins with a discussion of basic mathematical and statistical concepts, including arithmetic mean, frequency distribution, median and mode, scatter or dispersion of mea

  17. Grounding devices of electrical equipment's installation and check to maintain



    At this stage in real life,the incidents of electricity are increasing,the main reason is that the subjective sense is weak,non-importance,especially the operation and maintenance is more neglected,and even there is no sense in this area.In this paper,based on electrical equipment grounding system for use in practice,simple introdusing grounding device of electrical equipment's installation and maintenance checks.

  18. Discussion on Management Model of Medical Equipment Maintenance in Hospital

    ZHOU Qiang; DENG Wen-yan; CAI Kui


    With the development of technology, medical equipment plays a more important role in the modern hospital. Medical equipment provides images, physiological results or other schematics of the patients to help doctors deal with the routines. It is also the major tool to the lab assistant in the clinical teaching and studies. It becomes one of a symbol of the technological level in modern hospital. The director of the hospital should establish an efficacious management pattern to manage the medical equipment, so that it will be operated in good condition to insure the safety of the patients. Since the maintenance is an important part of medical equipment management, it is significant that the hospital should establish a system to fit for itself. The study reviews the issues in hospital medical equipment maintenance management, the development of the maintenance management model and the characteristics, as well as the status at home and abroad. The research has been finished by using literature research method, questionnaire survey method and data analysis method. Then we analyze the current status of hospital medical equipment maintenance management model to find the problems. Based on the authentic and effective data from the survey, we can deduce the overview about the maintenance model in Beijing. The paper discusses the advantages and the disadvantages between the different model, and it makes suggestions on the follow aspects, such as system management, quality management, personnel management, cost management, information management perspective.

  19. Edge QoS study of RPR equipment

    Wang, Xiaoling; Huang, Benxiong; Yu, Xin; Zhang, Fan


    The IEEE 802.17 Working Group has taken another step forward in providing standards to Resilient Packet Ring (RPR) architectures by approving draft 2.4 of the RPR standard. Some companies have already had their RPR equipments for good market perspectives before the final standardization of RPR specifications. These equipments can supply services such as Ethernet Private Line (EPL), Transparent LAN Service (TLS), Ethernet Line Aggregation (ELA) and so on. Quality of Service (QoS) is an important part implemented in these equipments. Only when there is promise of QoS for RPR equipment, can commercial clients put their key applications to its network. Both the edge and the ring of RPR equipment need take QoS into effect to get QoS guarantees. This paper mainly deals with edge QoS study of RPR equipment. Policing, classification, shaping, and scheduling that are used for edge QoS process are introduced in the paper. And a QoS process method for traffic across rings is discussed at the same time.

  20. Personal messages reduce vandalism and theft of unattended scientific equipment.

    Clarin, B-Markus; Bitzilekis, Eleftherios; Siemers, Björn M; Goerlitz, Holger R


    Scientific equipment, such as animal traps and autonomous data collection systems, is regularly left in the field unattended, making it an easy target for vandalism or theft. We tested the effectiveness of three label types, which differed in their information content and tone of the message, that is, personal,neutral or threatening, for reducing incidents of vandalism and theft of unattended scientific field equipment. The three label types were attached to 20 scientific equipment dummies each, which were placed semi-hidden and evenly distributed in four public parks in Munich, Germany. While the label type had no effect on the severity of the interactions with our equipment dummies, the personal label reduced the overall number of interactions by c. 40-60%, compared with the dummies showing the neutral or threatening label type. We suggest that researchers, in addition to securing their field equipment, label it with personal and polite messages that inform about the ongoing research and directly appeal to the public not to disturb the equipment. Further studies should extend these results to areas with different socio-economic structure.

  1. Personal messages reduce vandalism and theft of unattended scientific equipment

    Clarin, B-Markus; Bitzilekis, Eleftherios; Siemers, Björn M; Goerlitz, Holger R


    Scientific equipment, such as animal traps and autonomous data collection systems, is regularly left in the field unattended, making it an easy target for vandalism or theft. We tested the effectiveness of three label types, which differed in their information content and tone of the message, that is, personal,neutral or threatening, for reducing incidents of vandalism and theft of unattended scientific field equipment. The three label types were attached to 20 scientific equipment dummies each, which were placed semi-hidden and evenly distributed in four public parks in Munich, Germany. While the label type had no effect on the severity of the interactions with our equipment dummies, the personal label reduced the overall number of interactions by c. 40–60%, compared with the dummies showing the neutral or threatening label type. We suggest that researchers, in addition to securing their field equipment, label it with personal and polite messages that inform about the ongoing research and directly appeal to the public not to disturb the equipment. Further studies should extend these results to areas with different socio-economic structure. PMID:25866614

  2. An application of characteristic function in order to predict reliability and lifetime of aeronautical hardware

    Żurek, Józef; Kaleta, Ryszard; Zieja, Mariusz


    The forecasting of reliability and life of aeronautical hardware requires recognition of many and various destructive processes that deteriorate the health/maintenance status thereof. The aging of technical components of aircraft as an armament system proves of outstanding significance to reliability and safety of the whole system. The aging process is usually induced by many and various factors, just to mention mechanical, biological, climatic, or chemical ones. The aging is an irreversible process and considerably affects (i.e. reduces) reliability and lifetime of aeronautical equipment. Application of the characteristic function of the aging process is suggested to predict reliability and lifetime of aeronautical hardware. An increment in values of diagnostic parameters is introduced to formulate then, using the characteristic function and after some rearrangements, the partial differential equation. An analytical dependence for the characteristic function of the aging process is a solution to this equation. With the inverse transformation applied, the density function of the aging of aeronautical hardware is found. Having found the density function, one can determine the aeronautical equipment's reliability and lifetime. The in-service collected or the life tests delivered data are used to attain this goal. Coefficients in this relationship are found using the likelihood function.




    Full Text Available The paper has three parts, in the first one, is presented the theoretical concepts that refer on the grounding lines fault, the treating mode, and implemented solutions for their detection in electric stations. In the second part is presented the result of the operational reliability analyse in period of 2011 – 2015, as in the final part of the paper are given the conclusions and identified solutions regarding the improving of operational reliability of the protection equipment of detection of grounding lines.

  4. [Legionella pneumonia after the use of CPAP equipment].

    Stolk, Jaap M; Russcher, Anne; van Elzakker, Erika P M; Schippers, Emile F


    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) equipment can be colonised by Legionellae and might cause Legionella pneumonia in the user. However, there is no reported case of Legionella pneumonia related to CPAP equipment in which an identical Legionella was found in both the patient and the CPAP equipment. A 51-year-old man came to the Emergency Department with fever, confusion and dyspnoea that had been present for 3 days. His medical history included obstructive sleep apnoea, for which he had been using CPAP therapy at home for 10 weeks. The CPAP equipment showed signs of poor maintenance. Chest X-ray revealed a pulmonary consolidation. Laboratory investigation resulted in a positive urine antigen test for Legionella. Water from the CPAP equipment and sputum from the patient revealed Legionella pneumophila. Serotyping and sequence-based typing showed an identical L. pneumophila serotype 1 ST37. It is important to be aware that CPAP equipment can be colonised with Legionellae and might cause Legionella pneumonia. It is therefore necessary to ask about CPAP therapy in a patient with community-acquired pneumonia.

  5. Reliability of Mobile Agents for Reliable Service Discovery Protocol in MANET

    Neogy, Roshni; Neogy, Sarmistha; 10.5121/ijwmn.2011.3518


    Recently mobile agents are used to discover services in mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) where agents travel through the network, collecting and sometimes spreading the dynamically changing service information. But it is important to investigate how reliable the agents are for this application as the dependability issues(reliability and availability) of MANET are highly affected by its dynamic nature.The complexity of underlying MANET makes it hard to obtain the route reliability of the mobile agent systems (MAS); instead we estimate it using Monte Carlo simulation. Thus an algorithm for estimating the task route reliability of MAS (deployed for discovering services) is proposed, that takes into account the effect of node mobility in MANET. That mobility pattern of the nodes affects the MAS performance is also shown by considering different mobility models. Multipath propagation effect of radio signal is considered to decide link existence. Transient link errors are also considered. Finally we propose a metric t...

  6. GUI Database for the Equipment Store of the Department of Geomatic Engineering, KNUST

    J. A. Quaye-Ballard


    Full Text Available The geospatial analyst is required to apply art, science, and technology to measure relative positions of natural and man-made features above or beneath the earth’s surface, and to present this information either graphically or numerically. The reference positions for these measurements need to be well archived and managed to effectively sustain the activities in the spatial industry. The research herein described highlights the need for an information system for the Land Surveyor’s Equipment Store. Such a system is a database management system with a user-friendly graphical interface. This paper describes one such system that has been developed for the Equipment Store of the Department of Geomatic Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST, Ghana. The system facilitates efficient management and location of instruments, as well as easy location of beacons together with their attribute information; it provides multimedia information about instruments in an Equipment Store. Digital camera was used capture the pictorial descriptions of the beacons. A Geographic Information System (GIS software was employed to visualize the spatial location of beacons and to publish the various layers for the Graphical User Interface (GUI. The aesthetics of the interface was developed with user interface design tools and coded by programming. The developed Suite, powered by a reliable and fully scalable database, provides an efficient way of booking and analyzing transactions in an Equipment Store.

  7. [Reliability of Primary Care computerised medication records].

    García-Molina Sáez, Celia; Urbieta Sanz, Elena; Madrigal de Torres, Manuel; Piñera Salmerón, Pascual; Pérez Cárceles, María D


    To quantify and to evaluate the reliability of Primary Care (PC) computerised medication records of as an information source of patient chronic medications, and to identify associated factors with the presence of discrepancies. A descriptive cross-sectional study. General Referral Hospital in Murcia. Patients admitted to the cardiology-chest diseases unit, during the months of February to April 2013, on home treatment, who agreed to participate in the study. Evaluation of the reliability of Primary Care computerised medication records by analysing the concordance, by identifying discrepancies, between the active medication in these records and that recorded in pharmacist interview with the patient/caregiver. Identification of associated factors with the presence of discrepancies was analysed using a multivariate logistic regression. The study included a total of 308 patients with a mean of 70.9 years (13.0 SD). The concordance of active ingredients was 83.7%, and this decreased to 34.7% when taking the dosage into account. Discrepancies were found in 97.1% of patients. The most frequent discrepancy was omission of frequency (35.6%), commission (drug added unjustifiably) (14.6%), and drug omission (12.7%). Age older than 65 years (1.98 [1.08 to 3.64]), multiple chronic diseases (1.89 [1.04 to 3.42]), and have a narcotic or psychotropic drug prescribed (2.22 [1.16 to 4.24]), were the factors associated with the presence of discrepancies. Primary Care computerised medication records, although of undoubted interest, are not be reliable enough to be used as the sole source of information on patient chronic medications when admitted to hospital. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Reliability centered maintenance (RCM: quantitative analysis of an induction electric furnace

    Diego Santos Cerveira


    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to define a maintenance strategy for an electric induction furnace, installed on a special steels Foundry. The research method was the quantitative modeling. The proposed method is based on Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM, applied to industrial equipment. Quantitative analysis of reliability, availability and maintainability were used as support the definition of the maintenance strategy of the equipment. For research, historical data were collected from time-to-repair (TTR and time between failures (TBF of the equipment under consideration. Supported by ProConf 2000 software, most appropriate distributions have been identified and modeled to TTR (lognormal and TBF (Weibull. With the results, availability of equipment Av = 98,18% and form factor g = 1 of the Weibull distribution were calculated. It was possible to find a position for the equipment on the bathtub curve, in the maturity phase and define the best maintenance strategy for this case, the predictive maintenance. Finally, the current strategy was discussed and development suggestions were presented to this strategy.

  9. Validity and reliability of food security measures.

    Cafiero, Carlo; Melgar-Quiñonez, Hugo R; Ballard, Terri J; Kepple, Anne W


    This paper reviews some of the existing food security indicators, discussing the validity of the underlying concept and the expected reliability of measures under reasonably feasible conditions. The main objective of the paper is to raise awareness on existing trade-offs between different qualities of possible food security measurement tools that must be taken into account when such tools are proposed for practical application, especially for use within an international monitoring framework. The hope is to provide a timely, useful contribution to the process leading to the definition of a food security goal and the associated monitoring framework within the post-2015 Development Agenda.

  10. Reliability and Energy Output of Bifacial Modules

    Van Aken, B.B.; Jansen, M.J.; Dekker, N.J.J. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)


    Although flash tests under standard test conditions yields lower power due to transmittance of the back sheet, bifacial modules are expected to outperform their monofacial equivalents in terms of yearly energy output in the field. We compare flash tests for bifacial modules with and without a light scattering panel directly behind the modules: 3% more power output is obtained. We also report on the damp-heat reliability of modules with transparent back sheet. Finally we will present the results of an outdoor study comparing modules with transparent back sheet and modules with state-of-the-art AR coating on the front glass.

  11. Assessment of applications of conducting polymers in power equipment

    Schock, K.F.; Bennett, A.I.; Burghardt, R.R.; Cookson, A.H.; Saunders, H.E.; Smith, J.D.B (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)); Kennedy, W.N. (ABB Power Transmission and Distribution Co., Muncie, IN (United States)); Oommen, T.V. (ABB Power Transmission and Distribution Co., Raleigh, NC (United States)); Voshall, R.E. (Gannon Coll., Erie, PA (United States)); Fort, E.M. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States))


    A feasibility study has been completed to assess potential applications of conducting polymers in the manufacture of power equipment. Ten areas were studied: solid and liquid dielectric cables, capacitors, rotating machinery, transformers, bushings, surge suppressors, vacuum interrupters, gas-insulated equipment, and other miscellaneous applications. Each application was rated according to technical impact, probability of success, economic impact and time frame for implementation. of the 32 potential applications proposed, the top ranking areas were: coating of dielectric films for capacitors, conducting compounds to cover conductors in rotating machines, surface coatings to dissipate charges in bushing, coatings for controlled surface conductivity in gas insulated equipment and thermal history monitors. Finally, the issues that have to be resolved before conducting polymers can find use in the identified applications are discussed in this paper.

  12. Sampling for assurance of future reliability

    Klauenberg, Katy; Elster, Clemens


    Ensuring measurement trueness, compliance with regulations and conformity with standards are key tasks in metrology which are often considered at the time of an inspection. Current practice does not always verify quality after or between inspections, calibrations, laboratory comparisons, conformity assessments, etc. Statistical models describing behavior over time may ensure reliability, i.e. they may give the probability of functioning, compliance or survival until some future point in time. It may not always be possible or economic to inspect a whole population of measuring devices or other units. Selecting a subset of the population according to statistical sampling plans and inspecting only these, allows conclusions about the quality of the whole population with a certain confidence. Combining these issues of sampling and aging, raises questions such as: How many devices need to be inspected, and at least how many of them must conform, so that one can be sure, that more than 100p % of the population will comply until the next inspection? This research is to raise awareness and offer a simple answer to such time- and sample-based quality statements in metrology and beyond. Reliability demonstration methods, such as the prevailing Weibull binomial model, quantify the confidence in future reliability on the basis of a sample. We adapt the binomial model to be applicable to sampling without replacement and simplify the Weibull model so that sampling plans may be determined on the basis of existing ISO standards. Provided the model is suitable, no additional information and no software are needed; and yet, the consumer is protected against future failure. We establish new sampling plans for utility meter surveillance, which are required by a recent modification of German law. These sampling plans are given in similar tables to the previous ones, which demonstrates their suitability for everyday use.

  13. Optimization of the mechanism from equipment for overcoming obstacles with design of experiments

    Gheorghiță Vlad


    Full Text Available A data collection considers how the experimental factors, controlled and uncontrolled, fit together into a model that will meet the specific objectives of an experiment and satisfy the practical constraints of resource and time. Customizing any product to improve performance requires a reliable method to measure performance results, in order to accurately assess the effects that design changes have on them. This paper has the purpose to analyse the equipment for overcoming obstacles. A comprehensive approach to model equipment requires performance data related to the design parameters. Slipping, slanting, becoming unstable, sliding, overturning and blocking while climbing steps and stairs are common problems and may cause instability for the user of the equipment. The Taguchi Method is used to optimize several parameters of the proposed mechanism and to ensure the stability through horizontality of the equipment. This method provides an opportunity to reduce the number of required sample size and is implemented by an orthogonal experimental array which enables the effect of multiple parameters to be simultaneously assessed.

  14. Reliability of the impression replica technique.

    Falk, Anders; Vult von Steyern, Per; Fransson, Håkan; Thorén, Margareta Molin


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of the impression replica technique with a four-unit zirconia fixed dental prosthesis (FDP). Marginal and internal fit were measured by repeatedly placing the FDP on an epoxy cast using light-body silicone material corresponding to cement. All measured marginal and internal fit points showed varying values. The greatest variations were seen at the most distal margin (33 μm) and at the distal abutment of the FDP (77 μm). The results showed that the technique gives moderate variations and is a useful method to evaluate marginal and internal fit.

  15. Study Questions Reliability of Fingerprint Evidence

    James; Randerson; 陈易


    The reliability of fingerprint has been called into question by a study that tested whether forensic experts make consistent judgments on print matches.Despite the perceived infallibility of fingerprint evidence, the study found that experts do not always make the same judgment on whether a print matches a mark at a crime scene when presented with the same evidence twice.The findings come in the wake of two high profile cases in which fingerprint matches were subsequently shown to be wrong. The Scottish ...

  16. Mathematic Modeling of Complex Hydraulic Machinery Systems When Evaluating Reliability Using Graph Theory

    Zemenkova, M. Yu; Shipovalov, A. N.; Zemenkov, Yu D.


    The main technological equipment of pipeline transport of hydrocarbons are hydraulic machines. During transportation of oil mainly used of centrifugal pumps, designed to work in the “pumping station-pipeline” system. Composition of a standard pumping station consists of several pumps, complex hydraulic piping. The authors have developed a set of models and algorithms for calculating system reliability of pumps. It is based on the theory of reliability. As an example, considered one of the estimation methods with the application of graph theory.

  17. Problems of Outsourcing when Repairing and Servicing Production Equipment

    Medvedeva Marina I.


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the issue of calculation of stationary probabilities of states of the system of mass servicing with unreliable equipment, servicing and re-adjustment at the beginning of the production cycle. The article describes functioning both of the main and auxiliary material flow of the logistic system. It is supposed that the incoming flow for processing or orders has a Poisson distribution and the time of breakage of equipment, the time of re-adjustment and the time of servicing have indicative laws of distribution. Equipment is serviced by two crews: maintenance and service. The maintenance crew repairs broken equipment and the orders on the device are not lost but are serviced during the time left. The second crew deals only with servicing works. The article considers one of the possible schemes when the equipment required for completion of the production cycle is sent for servicing. There are no restrictions with respect to the length of the queue. The article finds main characteristics of the above described system, namely: probability that the device is not in working condition and is sent for servicing and re-adjustment. The found probabilities of states of the described system could be used for assessment of expediency of the repair outsourcing at industrial enterprises.

  18. Reliability of the Ego-Grasping Scale.

    Lester, David


    Research using Knoblauch and Falconer's Ego-Grasping Scale is reviewed. Using a sample of 695 undergraduate students, the scale had moderate reliability (Cronbach alpha, odd-even numbered items, and test-retest), but a principal-components analysis with a varimax rotation identified five components, indicating heterogeneity in the content of the items. Lower Ego-Grasping scores appear to be associated with better psychological health. The scale has been translated and used with Korean, Kuwaiti, and Turkish students, indicating that the scale can be useful in cross-cultural studies.

  19. The quantitative failure of human reliability analysis

    Bennett, C.T.


    This philosophical treatise argues the merits of Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) in the context of the nuclear power industry. Actually, the author attacks historic and current HRA as having failed in informing policy makers who make decisions based on risk that humans contribute to systems performance. He argues for an HRA based on Bayesian (fact-based) inferential statistics, which advocates a systems analysis process that employs cogent heuristics when using opinion, and tempers itself with a rational debate over the weight given subjective and empirical probabilities.

  20. Comparative analysis of methods for testing software of radio-electronic equipment

    G. A. Mirskikh


    Full Text Available The analysis of the concepts of quality and reliability of software products that are part of the radio-electronic equipment is making. Basis testing methods of software products that are used in the design of hardware and software systems, to ensure quality and reliability are given. We consider testing in accordance with the methodology of the "black box" and "white box" methods of integration testing from the bottom up and top down, as well as various modifications of these methods. Efficient criteria that allow you to select the method of testing programs based on their structure and organizational and financial factors that affect the quality of the implementation of the design process are leaded.

  1. Inspection of nuclear pressure equipment: principles, issues and perspectives; Le controle des equipements sous pression nucleaires: principes, enjeux et perspectives

    Limousin, S. [Autorite de Surete Nucleaire (ASN), Dir. des Equipements sous Pression Nucleaires, 75 - Paris (France)


    French regulations about nuclear pressure equipment (like steam generators and the reactor pressure vessel) take into account hazards due to the energy contained in the equipment but also add specific requirements due for instance to the radioactivity or safety for instance. ASN is in charge of the conformity assessment of the most important equipment and monitors the licensee who is responsible of in service inspection and maintenance. Because of the internationalization of nuclear component manufacturing, and consequently new comers in this area, a careful monitoring of subcontractors is needed. The major anomalies detected in steam generator over the past few years showed the necessity of being careful and humble towards degradation mechanisms. Nuclear pressure equipment regulations enables ASN to perform an efficient oversight of licensees and component manufacturer in a context of international manufacturing and licence renewal. (author)

  2. Diagnostics and reliability of pipeline systems

    Timashev, Sviatoslav


    The book contains solutions to fundamental problems which arise due to the logic of development of specific branches of science, which are related to pipeline safety, but mainly are subordinate to the needs of pipeline transportation.          The book deploys important but not yet solved aspects of reliability and safety assurance of pipeline systems, which are vital aspects not only for the oil and gas industry and, in general, fuel and energy industries , but also to virtually all contemporary industries and technologies. The volume will be useful to specialists and experts in the field of diagnostics/ inspection, monitoring, reliability and safety of critical infrastructures. First and foremost, it will be useful to the decision making persons —operators of different types of pipelines, pipeline diagnostics/inspection vendors, and designers of in-line –inspection (ILI) tools, industrial and ecological safety specialists, as well as to researchers and graduate students.

  3. 76 FR 36154 - In the Matter of Certain Equipment for Communications Networks, Including Switches, Routers...


    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Equipment for Communications Networks, Including Switches, Routers... United States after importation of certain equipment for communications networks, including switches... importation, or the sale within the United States after importation of certain equipment for...

  4. Reliability of Pulse Measurements in Videoplethysmography

    Rumiński Jacek


    Full Text Available Reliable, remote pulse rate measurement is potentially very important for medical diagnostics and screening. In this paper the Videoplethysmography was analyzed especially to verify the possible use of signals obtained for the YUV color model in order to estimate the pulse rate, to examine what is the best pulse estimation method for short video sequences and finally, to analyze how potential PPG-signals can be distinguished from other (e.g. background signals. The presented methods were verified using data collected from 60 volunteers.


    O.O. Matusevych


    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this paper is development of methodology for definition of a quality system of maintenance and repair (M and P power equipment of traction substations (TS of electrified railways operating under conditions of uncertainty based on expert information. Methodology. The basic tenets of the theory of fuzzy sets and marks, linguistic and interval estimates of experts were applied to solve this problem. Results. Analysis of the existing diversity of approaches to development of modern methods of improvement of M and P allows us to conclude that the improvement in the quality of the system is achieved by solving individual problems increase the operational reliability of power equipment of traction substations in the following main interrelated areas. There are technical, economic and organizational. The basis of the quality evaluation system is initial data and expertise developed version of the document formalized quality evaluation of electrical equipment of traction substations by experts. The choice of determining the level of Quality service system based on the marks, linguistic and interval estimates of experts, which are reflected in quantitative and / or qualitative form was done. The possible options for expert data presentation and their corresponding quantitative methods of calculating the integral index of quality improvement system maintenance and P of traction substations were described. The methodology and the method of assessing the quality of system maintenance and P of TS allows quickly respond to changing operating conditions of power equipment of traction substations, and to determine the most effective strategies for maintenance of electrical and P TS under conditions of uncertainty functioning distance electricity. Originality. The method of a systematic approach to improve the quality of the system maintenance and P of power equipment of traction substation under conditions of uncertainty based on expert

  6. Extending attributes page: a scheme for enhancing the reliability of storage system metadata*

    Juan WANG; Dan FENG; Fang WANG; Cheng-tao LU


    In an object-based storage system, a novel scheme named EAP (extending attributes page) is presented to enhance the metadata reliability of the system by adding the user object file information attributes page for each user object and storing the file-related attributes of each user object in object-based storage devices. The EAP scheme requires no additional hardware equipments compared to a general method which uses backup metadata servers to improve the metadata reliability. Leveraging a Markov chain, this paper compares the metadata reliability of the system using the EAP scheme with that using only metadata servers to offer the file metadata service. Our results demonstrate that the EAP scheme can dramatically enhance the reliability of storage system metadata.

  7. Behavioural Motives of Acquisition of Solar-driven Equipment

    Shkurupska Iryna O.


    Full Text Available The article identifies needs of the target group, namely structure of motives, which justify making a decision to buy, in order to create efficient marketing strategy of an enterprise, which sell solar-driven equipment in Ukraine. There are five segments in the domestic market of helio-systems: individual consumers, recreation industry, agrarian industry, construction and social spheres. The article allocates 15 motives of acquisition of the solar-driven equipment for these segments, the most important of which are price, availability of solar energy, alternative price and energy saving. Besides, the structure of such motives is determined for each segment individually. In order to choose specific marketing instruments in the policy of promotion of solar-driven equipment, the article identifies differences in the form of goals of use and motives of acquisition between the specified consumer segments. The article reveals certain barriers that interfere with acquisition of solar-driven equipment – low level of trust into helio-systems, conservatism of consumers, absence of free applications for consumers – overcoming which is only possible with the help of certain marketing actions.

  8. Reliable neuronal systems: the importance of heterogeneity.

    Johannes Lengler

    Full Text Available For every engineer it goes without saying: in order to build a reliable system we need components that consistently behave precisely as they should. It is also well known that neurons, the building blocks of brains, do not satisfy this constraint. Even neurons of the same type come with huge variances in their properties and these properties also vary over time. Synapses, the connections between neurons, are highly unreliable in forwarding signals. In this paper we argue that both these fact add variance to neuronal processes, and that this variance is not a handicap of neural systems, but that instead predictable and reliable functional behavior of neural systems depends crucially on this variability. In particular, we show that higher variance allows a recurrently connected neural population to react more sensitively to incoming signals, and processes them faster and more energy efficient. This, for example, challenges the general assumption that the intrinsic variability of neurons in the brain is a defect that has to be overcome by synaptic plasticity in the process of learning.


    Stefanko, D.; Herbert, J.


    Vibration analyses of equipment intended for use in the Savannah River Site (SRS) radioactive liquid waste storage tanks are performed during pre-deployment testing and has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing the life-cycle costs of the equipment. Benefits of using vibration analysis to identify rotating machinery problems prior to deployment in radioactive service will be presented in this paper. Problems encountered at SRS and actions to correct or lessen the severity of the problem are discussed. In short, multi-million dollar cost saving have been realized at SRS as a direct result of vibration analysis on existing equipment. Vibration analysis of equipment prior to installation can potentially reduce inservice failures, and increases reliability. High-level radioactive waste is currently stored in underground carbon steel waste tanks at the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site and at the Hanford Site, WA. Various types of rotating machinery (pumps and separations equipment) are used to manage and retrieve the tank contents. Installation, maintenance, and repair of these pumps and other equipment are expensive. In fact, costs to remove and replace a single pump can be as high as a half million dollars due to requirements for radioactive containment. Problems that lead to in-service maintenance and/or equipment replacement can quickly exceed the initial investment, increase radiological exposure, generate additional waste, and risk contamination of personnel and the work environment. Several different types of equipment are considered in this paper, but pumps provide an initial example for the use of vibration analysis. Long-shaft (45 foot long) and short-shaft (5-10 feet long) equipment arrangements are used for 25-350 horsepower slurry mixing and transfer pumps in the SRS HLW tanks. Each pump has a unique design, operating characteristics and associated costs, sometimes exceeding a million dollars. Vibration data are routinely

  10. Delivery Time Reliability Model of Logistics Network

    Liusan Wu; Qingmei Tan; Yuehui Zhang


    Natural disasters like earthquake and flood will surely destroy the existing traffic network, usually accompanied by delivery delay or even network collapse. A logistics-network-related delivery time reliability model defined by a shortest-time entropy is proposed as a means to estimate the actual delivery time reliability. The less the entropy is, the stronger the delivery time reliability remains, and vice versa. The shortest delivery time is computed separately based on two different assum...

  11. Selection of Technical Reactor Equipment for Modular, Continuous Small-Scale Plants

    Nicolai Krasberg


    Full Text Available Fast process development, flexible production and the utilization of advanced process conditions are the main goals of modular and continuous small-scale plants (MCSPs. A configurable layout of the modules and the use of predefined equipment enable a quick and reliable conceptual process development and scale-up of continuous processes. Therefore, a computer-assisted selection methodology was developed and is presented, which allows the quick selection of plug flow reactor equipment for homogeneous liquid phase reactions. It identifies a favorable technical apparatus and the configuration in the early stages of process development. This can lead to the effective planning and guiding of scale-up experiments and closes the gap between lab and process development.

  12. Survey of industrial coal conversion equipment capabilities: high-temperature, high-pressure gas purification

    Meyer, J. P.; Edwards, M. S.


    In order to ensure optimum operating efficiencies for combined-cycle electric generating systems, it is necessary to provide gas treatment equipment capable of operating at high temperatures (>1000/sup 0/F) and high pressure (>10 atmospheres absolute). This equipment, when assembled in a process train, will be required to condition the inlet stream to a gas turbine to suitable levels of gas purity (removal of particulate matter, sulfur, nitrogen, and alkali metal compounds) so that it will be compatible with both environmental and machine constraints. In this work, a survey of the available and developmental equipment for the removal of particulate matter and sulfur compounds has been conducted. In addition, an analysis has been performed to evaluate the performance of a number of alternative process configurations in light of overall system needs. Results from this study indicate that commercially available, reliable, and economically competitive hot-gas cleanup equipment capable of conditioning raw product gas to the levels required for high-temperatue turbine operation will not be available for some time.

  13. Research on Fault Evaluation of Armament Equipment Based on ADAMS


    The levels of simulation are introduced, and the importance of virtual prototyping of armament equipment is discussed and steps of virtual prototyping are outlined. The faults that affect firing performance are discussea, ADAMS is first to be introduced to armament equipment,and a virtual prototyping model of artillery is established with the help of Fortran language based on analysis of topology of artillery and forces applied on it. The plan of fault evaluation is brought forward, the modules are analyzed, and the concept of fault evaluation function is introduced Finally, the perspective of virtual technology is presented.

  14. The impact of reliability on the productivity of railroad companies

    Abate, Megersa Abera; Lijesen, Mark; Pels, Eric


    This paper studies the relationship between reliability (proxied by punctuality) and productivity in passenger railroad services. Increasing reliability may lower productivity, as it requires inputs, that can’t be used to produce outputs. The relationship between reliability and productivity also...... the productivity of railway operations and aiming to improve both may be a feasible strategy. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  15. Reliability of electrical power systems for coal mines

    Razgil' deev, G.I.; Kovalev, A.P.; Serkyuk, L.I.


    This is a method for evaluating the reliability of comprehensive mining power systems. The systems reliability is influenced by the selectivity of maximum protection, ground-short protection, the subdivision of the circuitry, the character of the systems failures, etc.

  16. Statistical analysis of the nuclear power plant equipment failure data in non-homogeneous flow of events

    A.V. Antonov


    Full Text Available Operation of technical equipment involves three consecutive stages, each of which is characterized by a particular trend in the behavior of the failure flow parameter (FFP. The FFP value is approximately constant during normal operation. In this case, the equipment operation process is assumed to be temporally homogeneous and the reliability indicators are calculated by conventional methods. At the burn-in stage, the FFP decreases with time while increasing at the aging stage. Therefore, the operating times between two successive failures at the burn-in and aging stages are not similarly distributed random values and the flow of events cannot be assumed to be recurrent. It shall be taken into account in the reliability performance calculation that the flow of failures is temporally inhomogeneous. The paper describes a method to estimate the NPP equipment reliability indicators allowing the potential inhomogeneity of the failure flow to be taken into account. The specific nature of incoming statistical data on failures is shown. The application of the normalizing flow function model for the calculation of required reliability indicators is described. A practical example of an analysis of data on the Bilibino NPP CPS KNK-56 component failures is presented.

  17. Review of Quantitative Software Reliability Methods

    Chu, T.L.; Yue, M.; Martinez-Guridi, M.; Lehner, J.


    The current U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing process for digital systems rests on deterministic engineering criteria. In its 1995 probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) policy statement, the Commission encouraged the use of PRA technology in all regulatory matters to the extent supported by the state-of-the-art in PRA methods and data. Although many activities have been completed in the area of risk-informed regulation, the risk-informed analysis process for digital systems has not yet been satisfactorily developed. Since digital instrumentation and control (I&C) systems are expected to play an increasingly important role in nuclear power plant (NPP) safety, the NRC established a digital system research plan that defines a coherent set of research programs to support its regulatory needs. One of the research programs included in the NRC's digital system research plan addresses risk assessment methods and data for digital systems. Digital I&C systems have some unique characteristics, such as using software, and may have different failure causes and/or modes than analog I&C systems; hence, their incorporation into NPP PRAs entails special challenges. The objective of the NRC's digital system risk research is to identify and develop methods, analytical tools, and regulatory guidance for (1) including models of digital systems into NPP PRAs, and (2) using information on the risks of digital systems to support the NRC's risk-informed licensing and oversight activities. For several years, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has worked on NRC projects to investigate methods and tools for the probabilistic modeling of digital systems, as documented mainly in NUREG/CR-6962 and NUREG/CR-6997. However, the scope of this research principally focused on hardware failures, with limited reviews of software failure experience and software reliability methods. NRC also sponsored research at the Ohio State University investigating the modeling of

  18. Use of personal protective equipment under occupational exposure to cytostatics

    Sylwia Krzemińska


    Full Text Available Background: A growing number of cancer cases enhances the usage of cytostatic agents and thereby contributes to the increase in the number of health care workers occupationally exposed to cytostatics. Material and Methods: This article presents the results of the survey aimed at obtaining data on the reduction of occupational exposure through using personal protective equipment by the medical and pharmaceutical personnel involved in handling cytostatics. The questionnaires were sent by mail or e-mail to oncology hospitals and pharmacies preparing cytostatic drugs. Responses were received from 94 people employed in these workplaces. The main questions concerned the forms of cytostatics; job activities; types of personal protective equipment used and working time under exposure to cytotoxic drugs. Results: The majority (over 90% of the healthcare personnel declared the use of personal protective equipment when working under conditions of exposure to cytostatic drugs. Depending on the type of protection, 15–35% of people reported that the most frequent time of their single use of the apron, the overalls, the gloves, the cap, the goggles or the respirators did not exceed few minutes. Gloves were changed most frequently. However, half of the responses indicated that the time after which the respondents removed protection equipment greatly differed. Conclusions: Almost the whole group of respondents applied personal protective equipment when working under exposure to cytostatics. However, personal protective equipment was not used every time in case of exposure. The medical and pharmaceutical staff worked under exposure to cytostatics for a few or even dozen hours during the working day. Med Pr 2016;67(4:499–508

  19. New overhead line equipment on existing structures of Great Eastern route

    Willi, Urs; Wittig, Mike [Furrer + Frey AG, Berne (Switzerland)


    The Great Eastern route, from London Liverpool Street via Shenfield to Chelmsford and South-end-on-Sea is equipped with 60-year old overhead line equipment with fixed termination conductors. For the 2012 Olympics the performance and reliability of the line have to be improved for the increasing number of trains and a speed of up to 160 km/h with three pantographs per train. This busy line can only afford a limited number and duration of service suspensions which would be insufficient to allow the complete renewal of the overhead line. For this reason, a new overhead line system had to be designed which can be mounted on the existing structures. (orig.)

  20. Managemet of Equipment Databases at CERN for the ATLAS Experiment

    Galvão, Kaio Karam; Molina-Pérez, Jorge; Maidantchik, Carmen; Fink Grael, Felipe


    The ATLAS experiment is about to finish its installation phase, entering into operation on the summer of 2008. This installation has represented an enormous challenge in terms of developing, setting up, and administrating the Equipment Databases, due to the large complexity of the detector, its associated services, and the necessary infrastructure. All major equipment is registered prior to installation including its electronic description and interconnectivity. This information is stored in Oracle databases. 3D visualization tools, user interfaces for portable devices, and generic retrieval/updating mechanisms have been developed in order to carry out the management of the sub-detectors databases. The full traceability of all installed equipment is crucial from ATLAS organizational point of view, and it is also a requirement by the French authorities to fulfill the INB (Installation Nucléaire de Base) protocol.

  1. Reliability and qualification of advanced microelectronics for space applications

    Kayali, S.


    This paper provides a discussion of the subject and an approach to establish a reliability and qualification methodology to facilitate the utilization of state-of-the-art advanced microelectronic devices and structures in high reliability applications.


    Yi Pengxing; Yang Shuzi; Du Runsheng; Wu Bo; Liu Shiyuan


    Taking into account the whole system structure and the component reliability estimation uncertainty, a system reliability estimation method based on probability and statistical theory for distributed monitoring systems is presented. The variance and confidence intervals of the system reliability estimation are obtained by expressing system reliability as a linear sum of products of higher order moments of component reliability estimates when the number of component or system survivals obeys binomial distribution. The eigenfunction of binomial distribution is used to determine the moments of component reliability estimates, and a symbolic matrix which can facilitate the search of explicit system reliability estimates is proposed. Furthermore, a case of application is used to illustrate the procedure, and with the help of this example, various issues such as the applicability of this estimation model, and measures to improve system reliability of monitoring systems are discussed.

  3. Implementation of a process of reliability of teams in ANAV; Implantacion de un proceso de fiabilidad de equipos en ANAV

    Tarrasa, F.; Bueno, J. M.; Miralles, F.


    The INPO AP-913 document has been the basis for the implementation of the reliability of equipment process in ANAV and constitutes one of the strategic objectives established by ANAV to achieve an excellent management of assets that ensure the safe operation of the plants, their design life, both for the lengthening of life.

  4. Test facility of thermal storage equipment for space power generation

    Inoue, T.; Nakagawa, M.; Mochida, Y.; Ohtomo, F.; Shimizu, K.; Tanaka, K.; Abe, Y.; Nomura, O.; Kamimoto, M.

    A thermal storage equipment test facility has been built in connection with developing solar dynamic power systems (SDPSs). The test facility consists of a recuperative closed Brayton cycle system (CBC), with a mixture of helium and xenon with a molecular weight of 39.9 serving as the working fluid. CBC has been shown to be the most attractive power generation system among several types of SDPSs because of its ability to meet the required high power demand and its thermal efficiency, about 30 percent. The authors present a description of this test facility and give results of the preliminary test and the first-stage test with heat storage equipment.

  5. Recommendations for a metrological equipment of agricultural biogas plants; Empfehlungen fuer die messtechnische Ausstattung landwirtschaftlicher Biogasanlagen

    Effenberger, Mathias; Aschmann, Volker [Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft (LfL), Freising (Germany). Inst. fuer Landtechnik und Tierhaltung; Herb, Cornelius [Agraferm Technologies AG, Pfaffenhofen (Germany); Helm, Markus [Gutachtergemeinschaft Biogas GmbH, Freising (Germany); Mueller, Josef Sebastian [ABB Automation Products GmbH (Germany)


    Any modern biogas plant cannot exist with measurement technology entirely. Operators of smaller biogas plants often are afraid of additional costs of measuring equipment, and have doubts about the necessity and reliability of measurement components. Under this aspect, the contribution under consideration reports on the appropriate selection and evaluation of the measurement technology for biogas plants. The most important metrological components are described and evaluated in the light of expert knowledge and practical experiences as well as in the light of selected bibliographical references.


    C.J. Fourie


    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The investment in advanced manufacturing equipment must be evaluated on two levels, ie. a general technical investigation, and an in-depth technical and economical analysis if necessary. This is especially true for a country like South Africa where new technologies like robotics are relatively untried . It is therefore important to choose a suitable framework for both technical and economic analyses. This framework forms the foundation of the discussed evaluation model. For practical use, the evaluation and choice process is programmed for use on a PC.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Belegging in toerusting vir gevorderde vervaardiging word gewoonlik op twee vlakke geevalueer, nl. 'n algemene tegniese ondersoek en 'n deeglike tegniese en ekonomiese ontleding, indien vereis. Dit is veral waar in 'n land soos Suid-Afrika waar nuwe ontwikkelings soos robotika nag relatief onbekend is. Dit is dus belangrik om 'n gepaste raamwerk te kies vir beide die tegniese en die ekonomiese ontledings. Hierdie raamwerk is die basis van die ontledingsmodel wat bespreek word. Om toepassing te vergemaklik, word die ontledings- en keuseprosesse geprogrammeer vir 'n mikrorekenaar.

  7. Opportunistic maintenance and adaptation of warranty maintenance tasks for Power Plant equipment

    P. McGibney


    Full Text Available This paper makes a link between opportunistic maintenance literature and warranty analysis of a power plant. A new plant warranty maintenance tasks are observed over a two year period. The main aim is to see how opportunistic maintenance could be incorporated when the warranty period has elapsed. The paper examine the warranty period maintenance task list and propose adequate methods for assessing opportunistic maintenance as a preventive maintenance task in order to ensure reliability and availability of the plant equipment. Statistical approach is used to give an insight to the plant equipment status and a modeling approach is proposed to also assess maintenance information defined by experts in the context of actual operating regimes. This study focuses on the power plant‟s critical equipment. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA is conducted on the power plant Booster Fans. This gives an insight about equipment failure mode patterns and maintenance requirements. A simulation example is presented based in the failure modes results obtained and a graphical display of optimum preventive maintenance schedule cost curves is also presented.

  8. Reliable processing of graphene using metal etchmasks

    Peltekis Nikos


    Full Text Available Abstract Graphene exhibits exciting properties which make it an appealing candidate for use in electronic devices. Reliable processes for device fabrication are crucial prerequisites for this. We developed a large area of CVD synthesis and transfer of graphene films. With patterning of these graphene layers using standard photoresist masks, we are able to produce arrays of gated graphene devices with four point contacts. The etching and lift off process poses problems because of delamination and contamination due to polymer residues when using standard resists. We introduce a metal etch mask which minimises these problems. The high quality of graphene is shown by Raman and XPS spectroscopy as well as electrical measurements. The process is of high value for applications, as it improves the processability of graphene using high-throughput lithography and etching techniques.


    韩金炎; 孙小彦; 彭世济


    The optimal decision theory and exploitation reliability of large scale mining area have heen studied in China since the late 1980′s. Researches have been carried out under the thought of mannature-machine system, and encouraging results have been obtained. The reliability evaluation of mining engineering includes the reliability evaluation of natural resources, mining technology and mine economics etc. And the geological reliability of deposit, as a natural condition, is the basis of all other evaluation works. The paper summarizes the method for evaluating the geological reliability of deposit, discusses the reliability of estimating methods for coal reserves and coal quality, evaluates the natural resources reliability of the Pit 1 of Antaibao, Surface Coal Mine, Pingsuo, Shanxi Province. which was taken as a case study.

  10. Seismic analyses of equipment in 2736-Z complex. Revision 1

    Ocoma, E.C.


    This report documents the structural qualification for the existing equipment when subjected to seismic loading in the Plutonium Storage Complex. It replaces in entirety Revision 0 and reconciles the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) comments on Revision 0. The Complex consists of 2736-Z Building (plutonium storage vault), 2736-ZA Building (vault ventilation equipment building), and 2736-ZB Building (shipping/receiving, repackaging activities). The existing equipment structurally qualified in this report are the metal storage racks for 7 inch and lard cans in room 2 of Building 2736-Z; the cubicles, can holders and pedestals in rooms 1, 3, and 4 of Building 2736-Z; the ventilation duct including exhaust fans/motors, emergency diesel generator, and HEPA filter housing in Building 2736-ZA; the repackaging glovebox in Building 2736-ZB; and the interface duct between Buildings 2736-Z and 2736-ZA.

  11. Comparison between two models of elbow rehabilitation equipment

    Vetrice Georgiana


    Full Text Available International studies have revealed that using continuous passive motion (CPM equipment as part of a rehabilitation program improves the recovery period and also diminishes the rehabilitation costs by about 50%. This explains the need for conceiving elbow joint rehabilitation equipment to help persons suffering from posttraumatic disabilities. In order to create the best model to meet the patients’ requirements this paper presents two constructive solutions of such equipment and a comparison between their designs. Both achieve the desired movements of the elbow joint: flexion-extension and pronation-supination and are actuated by pneumatic muscles, due to the multiple advantages of pneumatic actuation: low cost, compliance and favorable response to commands.

  12. Survey of industrial coal conversion equipment capabilities: rotating components

    Williams, W. R.; Horton, J. R.; Boudreau, W. F.; Siman-Tov, M.


    At the request of the Major Facilities Project Management Division of the Energy Research and Development Administration, Fossil Energy Division, a study was undertaken to determine the capabilities of U.S. industry to supply the rotating equipment needed for future coal conversion facilities. Furthermore, problem areas were to be identified and research and development needs determined for producing advanced designs of the required equipment: Pumps, compressors, hydraulic turbines, and gas expanders. It has been concluded that equipment for essentially all clean-stream applications likely to be encountered in coal conversion facilities is generally available except high-pressure oxygen compressors. These oxygen compressors as well as slurry pumps need to be developed or significantly upgraded. Also, fans and blower for dirty-gas streams need developmental work, as do expanders for high-temperature service. Hydraulic turbines, which were not specified but which might be used for slurry applications in future coal conversion plants, are not available.

  13. The choice of homogenisation equipment affects lipid oxidation in emulsions

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard


    in emulsions has been shown to be affected by the emulsification conditions. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of homogenisation equipment (microfluidizer vs. two-stage valve homogeniser) on lipid oxidation in 10% fish oil-in-water emulsions prepared with two different milk proteins....... Emulsions were prepared at pH 7 with similar droplet sizes. Results showed that the oxidative stability of emulsions prepared with sodium caseinate was not influenced by the type of homogeniser used. In contrast, the type of homogenisation equipment significantly influenced lipid oxidation when whey protein...

  14. Technology review of commercial food service equipment - final report

    Rahbar, S.; Krsikapa, S. [Canadian Gas Research Inst., Don Mills, ON (Canada); Fisher, D.; Nickel, J.; Ardley, S.; Zabrowski, D. [Fisher Consultants (Canada); Barker, R.F. [ed.


    Technical information on commercial gas cooking appliances was presented. This second volume provided an appliance-by-appliance comprehensive assessment of the energy performance of commercial food service equipment. Energy assessments were made for the following categories of cooking equipment: fryers, griddles, broilers, ranges, Chinese ranges, ovens, steamers, steam kettles, and braising pans. Recommendations were made for improving the energy efficiency and overall performance of gas appliances to support of the Canadian gas utilities marketing and energy conservation initiatives. 71 refs., 37 tabs., 58 figs.

  15. Structural reliability of existing city bridges

    Hellebrandt, L.; Steenbergen, R.; Vrouwenvelder, T.; Blom, K.


    Full probabilistic reliability analysis may be valuable for assessing existing structures. Measures for increasing the safety level are quite costly for existing structures and may be unnecessary when such a decision is grounded on a conservative analysis for determining the structural reliability.

  16. Reliability Compliance Testing of Electronic Components for Consumer Electronics

    Peciakowski, E.; Przybyl, E.


    In this paper the organisation of reliability compliance testing of electronic components in Poland is discussed. The aim of the testing is to find the reliability of the components to both producer and user and hence to establish reliability for the two parties. The system described is derived from standard methods and has two aims. These are:-1) To enable periodical checks of production to be made.2) To estimate the reliability level of the components produced.Sampling plans are constructed...

  17. Reliability Analysis and Optimal Design of Monolithic Vertical Wall Breakwaters

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Burcharth, Hans F.; Christiani, E.


    Reliability analysis and reliability-based design of monolithic vertical wall breakwaters are considered. Probabilistic models of the most important failure modes, sliding failure, failure of the foundation and overturning failure are described . Relevant design variables are identified and relia......Reliability analysis and reliability-based design of monolithic vertical wall breakwaters are considered. Probabilistic models of the most important failure modes, sliding failure, failure of the foundation and overturning failure are described . Relevant design variables are identified...

  18. Reliability of stiffened structural panels: Two examples

    Stroud, W. Jefferson; Davis, D. Dale, Jr.; Maring, Lise D.; Krishnamurthy, Thiagaraja; Elishakoff, Isaac


    The reliability of two graphite-epoxy stiffened panels that contain uncertainties is examined. For one panel, the effect of an overall bow-type initial imperfection is studied. The size of the bow is assumed to be a random variable. The failure mode is buckling. The benefits of quality control are explored by using truncated distributions. For the other panel, the effect of uncertainties in a strain-based failure criterion is studied. The allowable strains are assumed to be random variables. A geometrically nonlinear analysis is used to calculate a detailed strain distribution near an elliptical access hole in a wing panel that was tested to failure. Calculated strains are used to predict failure. Results are compared with the experimental failure load of the panel.

  19. Reliability Analysis of Adhesive Bonded Scarf Joints

    Kimiaeifar, Amin; Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Lund, Erik;


    A probabilistic model for the reliability analysis of adhesive bonded scarfed lap joints subjected to static loading is developed. It is representative for the main laminate in a wind turbine blade subjected to flapwise bending. The structural analysis is based on a three dimensional (3D) finite...... the FEA model, and a sensitivity analysis on the influence of various geometrical parameters and material properties on the maximum stress is conducted. Because the yield behavior of many polymeric structural adhesives is dependent on both deviatoric and hydrostatic stress components, different ratios...... of the compressive to tensile adhesive yield stresses in the failure criterion are considered. It is shown that the chosen failure criterion, the scarf angle and the load are significant for the assessment of the probability of failure....

  20. Fast, reliable sexing of prosimian DNA

    Fredsted, Tina; Villesen, Palle


    to identify conserved regions in the amelogenin gene. Using these conserved regions, we can target species that have no sequence information. We designed a single, conserved primer pair that is useful for fast and reliable molecular sexing of prosimian primates. A single PCR yields two fragments in males......Molecular sexing of mammals is normally done by PCR amplification of Y chromosomal fragments, or coamplification of homologous fragments from both sex chromosomes. Existing primers are often unreliable for distantly related species due to mutations in primer regions. Currently...... there are no published primers for the sexing of prosimian DNA. We show that an existing method (using the zinc finger protein) based on a size difference between the X and Y homologs does not work in prosimians. Multiple alignments of distantly related mammalian species from Genbank and genome databases enabled us...