WorldWideScience

Sample records for relevant variables identified

  1. Identifying Relevant Studies in Software Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, He; Ali Babar, Muhammad; Tell, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Context: Systematic literature review (SLR) has become an important research methodology in software engineering since the introduction of evidence-based software engineering (EBSE) in 2004. One critical step in applying this methodology is to design and execute appropriate and effective search....... Objective: The main objective of the research reported in this paper is to improve the search step of undertaking SLRs in software engineering (SE) by devising and evaluating systematic and practical approaches to identifying relevant studies in SE. Method: We have systematically selected and analytically...

  2. Problems Identifying Independent and Dependent Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatham, Keith R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses one step from the scientific method--that of identifying independent and dependent variables--from both scientific and mathematical perspectives. It begins by analyzing an episode from a middle school mathematics classroom that illustrates the need for students and teachers alike to develop a robust understanding of…

  3. Topic A. Have all the relevant issues been identified

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernero, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    This work is an answer to the question : have all the relevant issues been identified? The author tries to answer more particularly to the following three points : 1) can risk or responsibility for action be imposed on future generations. 2) Are current safety norms suitable for the future? 3) what controls are appropriate for inter generational cost/benefit evaluations. (O.L.)

  4. Identifying public health competencies relevant to family medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Bart J; Moloughney, Brent W; Iglar, Karl T

    2011-10-01

    Public health situations faced by family physicians and other primary care practitioners, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and more recently H1N1, have resulted in an increased interest to identify the public health competencies relevant to family medicine. At present there is no agreed-on set of public health competencies delineating the knowledge and skills that family physicians should possess to effectively face diverse public health challenges. Using a multi-staged, iterative process that included a detailed literature review, the authors developed a set of public health competencies relevant to primary care, identifying competencies relevant across four levels, from "post-MD" to "enhanced." Feedback from family medicine and public health educator-practitioners regarding the set of proposed "essential" competencies indicated the need for a more limited, feasible set of "priority" areas to be highlighted during residency training. This focused set of public health competencies has begun to guide relevant components of the University of Toronto's Family Medicine Residency Program curriculum, including academic half-days; clinical experiences, especially identifying "teachable moments" during patient encounters; resident academic projects; and elective public health agency placements. These competencies will also be used to guide the development of a family medicine-public health primer and faculty development sessions to support family medicine faculty facilitating residents to achieve these competencies. Once more fully implemented, an evaluation will be initiated to determine the degree to which these public health competencies are being achieved by family medicine graduates, especially whether they attained the knowledge, skills, and confidence necessary to effectively face diverse public health situations-from common to emergent. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Task relevant variables are encoded in OFC neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Nogueira

    2015-04-01

    Our results demonstrate that OFC in rats might not only be involved in reward processing but it also conveys a wide variety of task relevant variables. Our hypothesis is that OFC acts as a hub for complex decision-making tasks where all possible information is processed and conveyed to other brain regions responsible for decision execution.

  6. Identifying variables that influence manufacturing product quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Krynke

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article a risk analysis of the production process of selected products in a plant producing votive candles was conducted. The Pareto-Lorenz diagram and FMEA method were used which indicated the most important areas affecting the production of selected elements of candles. The synthesis of intangible factors affecting production in the audited company was also carried out with particular emphasis on the operation of the production system. The factors determining the validity of studies was examined, describing the principle of BOST 14 Toyota management. The most important areas of the company were identified, positively affecting the production process.

  7. Revealing Relationships among Relevant Climate Variables with Information Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Kevin H.; Golera, Anthony; Curry, Charles T.; Huyser, Karen A.; Kevin R. Wheeler; Rossow, William B.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of the NASA Earth-Sun Exploration Technology Office is to understand the observed Earth climate variability, thus enabling the determination and prediction of the climate's response to both natural and human-induced forcing. We are currently developing a suite of computational tools that will allow researchers to calculate, from data, a variety of information-theoretic quantities such as mutual information, which can be used to identify relationships among climate variables, and transfer entropy, which indicates the possibility of causal interactions. Our tools estimate these quantities along with their associated error bars, the latter of which is critical for describing the degree of uncertainty in the estimates. This work is based upon optimal binning techniques that we have developed for piecewise-constant, histogram-style models of the underlying density functions. Two useful side benefits have already been discovered. The first allows a researcher to determine whether there exist sufficient data to estimate the underlying probability density. The second permits one to determine an acceptable degree of round-off when compressing data for efficient transfer and storage. We also demonstrate how mutual information and transfer entropy can be applied so as to allow researchers not only to identify relations among climate variables, but also to characterize and quantify their possible causal interactions.

  8. Identifying relevant feature-action associations for grasping unmodelled objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mikkel Tang; Kraft, Dirk; Krüger, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    content. The method is provided with a large and structured set of visual features, motivated by the visual hierarchy in primates and finds relevant feature action associations automatically. We apply our method in a simulated environment on three different object sets for the case of grasp affordance...... learning. For box objects, we achieve a 0.90 success probability, 0.80 for round objects and up to 0.75 for open objects, when presented with novel objects. In this work, we in particular demonstrate the effect of choosing appropriate feature representations. We demonstrate a significant performance...

  9. Identifying populations sensitive to environmental chemicals by simulating toxicokinetic variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Caroline L; Pearce, Robert G; Setzer, R Woodrow; Wetmore, Barbara A; Wambaugh, John F

    2017-09-01

    The thousands of chemicals present in the environment (USGAO, 2013) must be triaged to identify priority chemicals for human health risk research. Most chemicals have little of the toxicokinetic (TK) data that are necessary for relating exposures to tissue concentrations that are believed to be toxic. Ongoing efforts have collected limited, in vitro TK data for a few hundred chemicals. These data have been combined with biomonitoring data to estimate an approximate margin between potential hazard and exposure. The most "at risk" 95th percentile of adults have been identified from simulated populations that are generated either using standard "average" adult human parameters or very specific cohorts such as Northern Europeans. To better reflect the modern U.S. population, we developed a population simulation using physiologies based on distributions of demographic and anthropometric quantities from the most recent U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data. This allowed incorporation of inter-individual variability, including variability across relevant demographic subgroups. Variability was analyzed with a Monte Carlo approach that accounted for the correlation structure in physiological parameters. To identify portions of the U.S. population that are more at risk for specific chemicals, physiologic variability was incorporated within an open-source high-throughput (HT) TK modeling framework. We prioritized 50 chemicals based on estimates of both potential hazard and exposure. Potential hazard was estimated from in vitro HT screening assays (i.e., the Tox21 and ToxCast programs). Bioactive in vitro concentrations were extrapolated to doses that produce equivalent concentrations in body tissues using a reverse dosimetry approach in which generic TK models are parameterized with: 1) chemical-specific parameters derived from in vitro measurements and predicted from chemical structure; and 2) with

  10. Identifying causal linkages between environmental variables and African conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguy-Robertson, A. L.; Dartevelle, S.

    2017-12-01

    Environmental variables that contribute to droughts, flooding, and other natural hazards are often identified as factors contributing to conflict; however, few studies attempt to quantify these causal linkages. Recent research has demonstrated that the environment operates within a dynamical system framework and the influence of variables can be identified from convergent cross mapping (CCM) between shadow manifolds. We propose to use CCM to identify causal linkages between environmental variables and incidences of conflict. This study utilizes time series data from Climate Forecast System ver. 2 and MODIS satellite sensors processed using Google Earth Engine to aggregate country and regional trends. These variables are then compared to Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project observations at similar scales. Results provide relative rankings of variables and their linkage to conflict. Being able to identify which factors contributed more strongly to a conflict can allow policy makers to prepare solutions to mitigate future crises. Knowledge of the primary environmental factors can lead to the identification of other variables to examine in the causal network influencing conflict.

  11. Identify the dominant variables to predict stream water temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, H.; Flagler, J.

    2016-12-01

    Stream water temperature is a critical variable controlling water quality and the health of aquatic ecosystems. Accurate prediction of water temperature and the assessment of the impacts of environmental variables on water temperature variation are critical for water resources management, particularly in the context of water quality and aquatic ecosystem sustainability. The objective of this study is to measure stream water temperature and air temperature and to examine the importance of streamflow on stream water temperature prediction. The measured stream water temperature and air temperature will be used to test two hypotheses: 1) streamflow is a relatively more important factor than air temperature in regulating water temperature, and 2) by combining air temperature and streamflow data stream water temperature can be more accurately estimated. Water and air temperature data loggers are placed at two USGS stream gauge stations #01362357and #01362370, located in the upper Esopus Creek watershed in Phonecia, NY. The ARIMA (autoregressive integrated moving average) time series model is used to analyze the measured water temperature data, identify the dominant environmental variables, and predict the water temperature with identified dominant variable. The preliminary results show that streamflow is not a significant variable in predicting stream water temperature at both USGS gauge stations. Daily mean air temperature is sufficient to predict stream water temperature at this site scale.

  12. Identifying the relevant dependencies of the neural network response on characteristics of the input space

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    This talk presents an approach to identify those characteristics of the neural network inputs that are most relevant for the response and therefore provides essential information to determine the systematic uncertainties.

  13. AIC identifies optimal representation of longitudinal dietary variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBuren, John; Cavanaugh, Joseph; Marshall, Teresa; Warren, John; Levy, Steven M

    2017-09-01

    The Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) is a well-known tool for variable selection in multivariable modeling as well as a tool to help identify the optimal representation of explanatory variables. However, it has been discussed infrequently in the dental literature. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the use of AIC in determining the optimal representation of dietary variables in a longitudinal dental study. The Iowa Fluoride Study enrolled children at birth and dental examinations were conducted at ages 5, 9, 13, and 17. Decayed or filled surfaces (DFS) trend clusters were created based on age 13 DFS counts and age 13-17 DFS increments. Dietary intake data (water, milk, 100 percent-juice, and sugar sweetened beverages) were collected semiannually using a food frequency questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regression models were fit to predict DFS cluster membership (n=344). Multiple approaches could be used to represent the dietary data including averaging across all collected surveys or over different shorter time periods to capture age-specific trends or using the individual time points of dietary data. AIC helped identify the optimal representation. Averaging data for all four dietary variables for the whole period from age 9.0 to 17.0 provided a better representation in the multivariable full model (AIC=745.0) compared to other methods assessed in full models (AICs=750.6 for age 9 and 9-13 increment dietary measurements and AIC=762.3 for age 9, 13, and 17 individual measurements). The results illustrate that AIC can help researchers identify the optimal way to summarize information for inclusion in a statistical model. The method presented here can be used by researchers performing statistical modeling in dental research. This method provides an alternative approach for assessing the propriety of variable representation to significance-based procedures, which could potentially lead to improved research in the dental community. © 2017 American

  14. Functionally relevant climate variables for arid lands: Aclimatic water deficit approach for modelling desert shrub distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas E. Dilts; Peter J. Weisberg; Camie M. Dencker; Jeanne C. Chambers

    2015-01-01

    We have three goals. (1) To develop a suite of functionally relevant climate variables for modelling vegetation distribution on arid and semi-arid landscapes of the Great Basin, USA. (2) To compare the predictive power of vegetation distribution models based on mechanistically proximate factors (water deficit variables) and factors that are more mechanistically removed...

  15. Identifying Midshipmen for Academic Assistance Using Entry Variables

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Watson, Arthur

    2001-01-01

    .... Categorical values from the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI), SAT scores and high school rank were incorporated as independent variables in a linear regression model with dependent variable Cumulative Quality Point Rating (CQPR...

  16. Psychological Variables for Identifying Susceptibility to Mental Disorders in Medical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Sender

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study analyses some psychological variables related to susceptibility to mental disorders in medical students. Methods: A sample of 209 first- and second-year medical students was evaluated using the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, and three questionnaires: Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28 and UNCAHS scale of STRAIN. Results: Thirty percent of the students suffered from emotional distress as measured by de GHQ-28, and showed significantly higher scores on trait anxiety, sensitivity to punishment and reward scales, and had higher levels of strain both in the academic environment and their personal life. Women scored significantly higher than men on trait anxiety and sensitivity to reward. Logistical regression found that trait anxiety and strain in non-academic life were the best predictors of the development of a mental disorder. Conclusions: The study confirms the usefulness of the STAI for detecting psychological distress and the validity of the SPSRQ for identifying subjects likely to present emotional distress when facing high environmental demands. Subjects most likely to present with mental illness are those who evaluate their personal (non-academic lives as more stressful.

  17. Relevance of Student and Contextual School Variables in Explaining a Student's Severity of Violence Experienced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooij, Ton

    2015-01-01

    Teachers conceptualise and interpret violent behaviour of secondary students in different ways. They also differ in their estimates of the relevance of student and contextual school variables when explaining the severity of violence experienced by students. Research can assist here by explicating the role of different types of contextual school…

  18. Using News Media Databases (LexisNexis) To Identify Relevant Topics For Introductory Earth Science Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervato, C.; Jach, J. Y.; Ridky, R.

    2003-12-01

    Introductory Earth science courses are undergoing pedagogical changes in universities across the country and are focusing more than ever on the non-science majors. Increasing enrollment of non-science majors in these introductory Earth science courses demands a new look at what is being taught and how the content can be objectively chosen. Assessing the content and effectiveness of these courses requires a quantitative investigation of introductory Earth science topics and their relevance to current issues and concerns. Relevance of Earth science topics can be linked to improved students' attitude toward science and a deeper understanding of concepts. We have used the Internet based national news search-engine LexisNexis Academic Universe (http://www.lexisnexis.org/) to select the occurrence of Earth science terms over the last 12 months, five and ten years both regionally and nationally. This database of term occurrences is being used to examine how Earth sciences have evolved in the news through the last 10 years and is also compared with textbook contents and course syllabi from randomly selected introductory earth science courses across the nation. These data constitute the quantitative foundation for this study and are being used to evaluate the relevance of introductory earth science course content. The relevance of introductory course content and current real-world issues to student attitudes is a crucial factor when considering changes in course curricula and pedagogy. We have examined students' conception of the nature of science and attitudes towards science and learning science using a Likert-scale assessment instrument in the fall 2002 Geology 100 classes at Iowa State University. A pre-test and post-test were administered to see if the students' attitudes changed during the semester using as reference a control group comprised of geoscience undergraduate and graduate students, and faculty. The results of the attitude survey have been analyzed in terms

  19. Review: To be or not to be an identifiable model. Is this a relevant question in animal science modelling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Tamayo, R; Puillet, L; Daniel, J B; Sauvant, D; Martin, O; Taghipoor, M; Blavy, P

    2018-04-01

    What is a good (useful) mathematical model in animal science? For models constructed for prediction purposes, the question of model adequacy (usefulness) has been traditionally tackled by statistical analysis applied to observed experimental data relative to model-predicted variables. However, little attention has been paid to analytic tools that exploit the mathematical properties of the model equations. For example, in the context of model calibration, before attempting a numerical estimation of the model parameters, we might want to know if we have any chance of success in estimating a unique best value of the model parameters from available measurements. This question of uniqueness is referred to as structural identifiability; a mathematical property that is defined on the sole basis of the model structure within a hypothetical ideal experiment determined by a setting of model inputs (stimuli) and observable variables (measurements). Structural identifiability analysis applied to dynamic models described by ordinary differential equations (ODEs) is a common practice in control engineering and system identification. This analysis demands mathematical technicalities that are beyond the academic background of animal science, which might explain the lack of pervasiveness of identifiability analysis in animal science modelling. To fill this gap, in this paper we address the analysis of structural identifiability from a practitioner perspective by capitalizing on the use of dedicated software tools. Our objectives are (i) to provide a comprehensive explanation of the structural identifiability notion for the community of animal science modelling, (ii) to assess the relevance of identifiability analysis in animal science modelling and (iii) to motivate the community to use identifiability analysis in the modelling practice (when the identifiability question is relevant). We focus our study on ODE models. By using illustrative examples that include published

  20. Using mixed methods to identify and answer clinically relevant research questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shneerson, Catherine L; Gale, Nicola K

    2015-06-01

    The need for mixed methods research in answering health care questions is becoming increasingly recognized because of the complexity of factors that affect health outcomes. In this article, we argue for the value of using a qualitatively driven mixed method approach for identifying and answering clinically relevant research questions. This argument is illustrated by findings from a study on the self-management practices of cancer survivors and the exploration of one particular clinically relevant finding about higher uptake of self-management in cancer survivors who had received chemotherapy treatment compared with those who have not. A cross-sectional study generated findings that formed the basis for the qualitative study, by informing the purposive sampling strategy and generating new qualitative research questions. Using a quantitative research component to supplement a qualitative study can enhance the generalizability and clinical relevance of the findings and produce detailed, contextualized, and rich answers to research questions that would be unachievable through quantitative or qualitative methods alone. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Use of Okadaic Acid to Identify Relevant Phosphoepitopes in Pathology: A Focus on Neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Avila

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein phosphorylation is involved in the regulation of a wide variety of physiological processes and is the result of a balance between protein kinase and phosphatase activities. Biologically active marine derived compounds have been shown to represent an interesting source of novel compounds that could modify that balance. Among them, the marine toxin and tumor promoter, okadaic acid (OA, has been shown as an inhibitor of two of the main cytosolic, broad-specificity protein phosphatases, PP1 and PP2A, thus providing an excellent cell-permeable probe for examining the role of protein phosphorylation, and PP1 and PP2A in particular, in any physiological or pathological process. In the present work, we review the use of okadaic acid to identify specific phosphoepitopes mainly in proteins relevant for neurodegeneration. We will specifically highlight those cases of highly dynamic phosphorylation-dephosphorylation events and the ability of OA to block the high turnover phosphorylation, thus allowing the detection of modified residues that could be otherwise difficult to identify. Finally, its effect on tau hyperhosphorylation and its relevance in neurodegenerative pathologies such as Alzheimer’s disease and related dementia will be discussed.

  2. Hierarchical Bayesian nonparametric mixture models for clustering with variable relevance determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Christopher; Holmes, Chris

    2011-07-01

    We propose a hierarchical Bayesian nonparametric mixture model for clustering when some of the covariates are assumed to be of varying relevance to the clustering problem. This can be thought of as an issue in variable selection for unsupervised learning. We demonstrate that by defining a hierarchical population based nonparametric prior on the cluster locations scaled by the inverse covariance matrices of the likelihood we arrive at a 'sparsity prior' representation which admits a conditionally conjugate prior. This allows us to perform full Gibbs sampling to obtain posterior distributions over parameters of interest including an explicit measure of each covariate's relevance and a distribution over the number of potential clusters present in the data. This also allows for individual cluster specific variable selection. We demonstrate improved inference on a number of canonical problems.

  3. 76 FR 34075 - Request for Information (RFI) To Identify and Obtain Relevant Information From Public or Private...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... Relevant Information From Public or Private Entities With an Interest in Biovigilance; Extension AGENCY... and obtain relevant information regarding the possible development of a public-private partnership... Identify and Obtain Relevant Information from Public or Private Entities with an Interest in Biovigilance...

  4. Messina: a novel analysis tool to identify biologically relevant molecules in disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Pinese

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Morphologically similar cancers display heterogeneous patterns of molecular aberrations and follow substantially different clinical courses. This diversity has become the basis for the definition of molecular phenotypes, with significant implications for therapy. Microarray or proteomic expression profiling is conventionally employed to identify disease-associated genes, however, traditional approaches for the analysis of profiling experiments may miss molecular aberrations which define biologically relevant subtypes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we present Messina, a method that can identify those genes that only sometimes show aberrant expression in cancer. We demonstrate with simulated data that Messina is highly sensitive and specific when used to identify genes which are aberrantly expressed in only a proportion of cancers, and compare Messina to contemporary analysis techniques. We illustrate Messina by using it to detect the aberrant expression of a gene that may play an important role in pancreatic cancer. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Messina allows the detection of genes with profiles typical of markers of molecular subtype, and complements existing methods to assist the identification of such markers. Messina is applicable to any global expression profiling data, and to allow its easy application has been packaged into a freely-available stand-alone software package.

  5. Identifying noncoding risk variants using disease-relevant gene regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Long; Uzun, Yasin; Gao, Peng; He, Bing; Ma, Xiaoke; Wang, Jiahui; Han, Shizhong; Tan, Kai

    2018-02-16

    Identifying noncoding risk variants remains a challenging task. Because noncoding variants exert their effects in the context of a gene regulatory network (GRN), we hypothesize that explicit use of disease-relevant GRNs can significantly improve the inference accuracy of noncoding risk variants. We describe Annotation of Regulatory Variants using Integrated Networks (ARVIN), a general computational framework for predicting causal noncoding variants. It employs a set of novel regulatory network-based features, combined with sequence-based features to infer noncoding risk variants. Using known causal variants in gene promoters and enhancers in a number of diseases, we show ARVIN outperforms state-of-the-art methods that use sequence-based features alone. Additional experimental validation using reporter assay further demonstrates the accuracy of ARVIN. Application of ARVIN to seven autoimmune diseases provides a holistic view of the gene subnetwork perturbed by the combinatorial action of the entire set of risk noncoding mutations.

  6. Identifying associations between sport sponsorship decision-making variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CH Van Heerden

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Sport sponsorship spending in South Africa has increased steadily. This paper discusses the findings of an exploratory study into key sponsorship decision-areas, namely the setting of sponsorship objectives, the integration of marketing communication variables into sponsorship to create a leverage effect, and the measurement of sponsorship success. It is argued that for a sponsorship to be successful certain associations should exist between these key decision-making areas and also among elements internal to each of these areas. The main findings are that the respondents indicated a bias towards setting media related objectives that will subsequently enable the sponsors to use media-related measurement tools. It is recommended that sponsors should develop alternative methods to measure the effectiveness of their sponsorships.

  7. Heterogeneity of Prognostic Profiles in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer: Too Many Variables but a Few Relevant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camara, Agustin Gomez de la; Lopez-Encuentra, Angel; Ferrando, Paloma

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Many prognostic factors, exceeding 150, for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are mentioned in the literature. The different statistical weight of the some variables at issue, their heterogeneity and their clinical uselessness is reviewed. Study design and setting: Survival analysis of a cohort of NSCLC operated (n = 1730, 1993-1997) was carried out utilizing different statistical approaches: Cox proportional hazard analysis (CPHA), logistic regression (LRA), and recursive partitioning (CART). Results: CPHA identified 13 prognostic variables and 11 LRA. Of the 17 possible variables, 10 are coincident. CART provided five different diagnostic groups but only three differentiated survival levels. Parsimonious models were constructed including only T and N cancer staging variables. Areas under the ROC curve of 0.68 and 0.68 were found for CPHA and LGA parsimonious models respectively, and 0.72 and 0.71 for complete models. Conclusion: Variables with a minimal impact on the respective models and thus with little or scarce predictive clinical repercussion were identified. Differences in the prognostic profile of survival can be caused by the different methodological approaches used. No relevant differences were found between the parsimonious and complete models. Although the amount of information managed is considerable, there continues to be a large predictive gap yet to be explained

  8. Variable interest consolidation (FASB,FIN 46/R) : valve relevance and empirical consequences on financial reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Valentinis, Edi

    2008-01-01

    2007/2008 FASB introduction of FIN 46/R variable interest consolidation model proved revolutionary as it ties up the accounting to the economic/financial frameworks and the judicial one. Legal structures and agreements among stakeholders of entities, creating net assets’ variability, have from now on to be compared with expected losses and expected returns distribution, prior to identify which stakeholder will need to consolidate pursuant this Interpretation. As a result, return variabilit...

  9. Regression Trees Identify Relevant Interactions: Can This Improve the Predictive Performance of Risk Adjustment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, Florian; Wasem, Jürgen; Schillo, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    Risk equalization formulas have been refined since their introduction about two decades ago. Because of the complexity and the abundance of possible interactions between the variables used, hardly any interactions are considered. A regression tree is used to systematically search for interactions, a methodologically new approach in risk equalization. Analyses are based on a data set of nearly 2.9 million individuals from a major German social health insurer. A two-step approach is applied: In the first step a regression tree is built on the basis of the learning data set. Terminal nodes characterized by more than one morbidity-group-split represent interaction effects of different morbidity groups. In the second step the 'traditional' weighted least squares regression equation is expanded by adding interaction terms for all interactions detected by the tree, and regression coefficients are recalculated. The resulting risk adjustment formula shows an improvement in the adjusted R 2 from 25.43% to 25.81% on the evaluation data set. Predictive ratios are calculated for subgroups affected by the interactions. The R 2 improvement detected is only marginal. According to the sample level performance measures used, not involving a considerable number of morbidity interactions forms no relevant loss in accuracy. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Towards identification of relevant variables in the observed aerosol optical depth bias between MODIS and AERONET observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakar, N. K.; Lary, D. J.; Gencaga, D.; Albayrak, A.; Wei, J.

    2013-08-01

    Measurements made by satellite remote sensing, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and globally distributed Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) are compared. Comparison of the two datasets measurements for aerosol optical depth values show that there are biases between the two data products. In this paper, we present a general framework towards identifying relevant set of variables responsible for the observed bias. We present a general framework to identify the possible factors influencing the bias, which might be associated with the measurement conditions such as the solar and sensor zenith angles, the solar and sensor azimuth, scattering angles, and surface reflectivity at the various measured wavelengths, etc. Specifically, we performed analysis for remote sensing Aqua-Land data set, and used machine learning technique, neural network in this case, to perform multivariate regression between the ground-truth and the training data sets. Finally, we used mutual information between the observed and the predicted values as the measure of similarity to identify the most relevant set of variables. The search is brute force method as we have to consider all possible combinations. The computations involves a huge number crunching exercise, and we implemented it by writing a job-parallel program.

  11. Organisationally relevant variables and Keyes's Mental Health Continuum Scale: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deo J.W. Strümpfer

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In an exploratory study on a sample of convenience (n = 165, 11 self-report variables with presumed organisational  relevance were  related,  as  predictors,  to  the  three  subscores  and  summed  score of  the Keyes  (2005a, 2005b; 2007 Mental Health Continuum  scale  (long  form. Keyes's  scale was administered five to seven days after the first set of scales. The predictor scores were reduced to three factorial scores, labelled positive orientation, negative orientation and positive striving. When classified thus, the predictor variables showed significant and meaningful relationships with some or all of the Keyes subscores and the total score, although few reached medium effect sizes.

  12. Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT): A Cytoscape app for identifying contextually relevant hubs in biological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muetze, Tanja; Goenawan, Ivan H; Wiencko, Heather L; Bernal-Llinares, Manuel; Bryan, Kenneth; Lynn, David J

    2016-01-01

    Highly connected nodes (hubs) in biological networks are topologically important to the structure of the network and have also been shown to be preferentially associated with a range of phenotypes of interest. The relative importance of a hub node, however, can change depending on the biological context. Here, we report a Cytoscape app, the Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT), which enables users to easily construct and visualize a network of interactions from a gene or protein list of interest, integrate contextual information, such as gene expression or mass spectrometry data, and identify hub nodes that are more highly connected to contextual nodes (e.g. genes or proteins that are differentially expressed) than expected by chance. In a case study, we use CHAT to construct a network of genes that are differentially expressed in Dengue fever, a viral infection. CHAT was used to identify and compare contextual and degree-based hubs in this network. The top 20 degree-based hubs were enriched in pathways related to the cell cycle and cancer, which is likely due to the fact that proteins involved in these processes tend to be highly connected in general. In comparison, the top 20 contextual hubs were enriched in pathways commonly observed in a viral infection including pathways related to the immune response to viral infection. This analysis shows that such contextual hubs are considerably more biologically relevant than degree-based hubs and that analyses which rely on the identification of hubs solely based on their connectivity may be biased towards nodes that are highly connected in general rather than in the specific context of interest. CHAT is available for Cytoscape 3.0+ and can be installed via the Cytoscape App Store ( http://apps.cytoscape.org/apps/chat).

  13. Using language models to identify relevant new information in inpatient clinical notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Pakhomov, Serguei V; Lee, Janet T; Melton, Genevieve B

    2014-01-01

    Redundant information in clinical notes within electronic health record (EHR) systems is ubiquitous and may negatively impact the use of these notes by clinicians, and, potentially, the efficiency of patient care delivery. Automated methods to identify redundant versus relevant new information may provide a valuable tool for clinicians to better synthesize patient information and navigate to clinically important details. In this study, we investigated the use of language models for identification of new information in inpatient notes, and evaluated our methods using expert-derived reference standards. The best method achieved precision of 0.743, recall of 0.832 and F1-measure of 0.784. The average proportion of redundant information was similar between inpatient and outpatient progress notes (76.6% (SD=17.3%) and 76.7% (SD=14.0%), respectively). Advanced practice providers tended to have higher rates of redundancy in their notes compared to physicians. Future investigation includes the addition of semantic components and visualization of new information.

  14. Identifying the Relevant Local Population for Environmental Impact Assessments of Mobile Marine Fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine B. H. Chabanne

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impact assessments must be addressed at a scale that reflects the biological organization for the species affected. It can be challenging to identify the relevant local wildlife population for impact assessment for those species that are continuously distributed and highly mobile. Here, we document the existence of local communities of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus inhabiting coastal and estuarine waters of Perth, Western Australia, where major coastal developments have been undertaken or are proposed. Using sighting histories from a 4-year photo-identification study, we investigated fine-scale, social community structure of dolphins based on measures of social affinity, and network (Half-Weight Index—HWI, preferred dyadic association tests, and Lagged Association Rates—LAR, home ranges, residency patterns (Lagged Identification Rates—LIR, and genetic relatedness. Analyses revealed four socially and spatially distinct, mixed-sex communities. The four communities had distinctive social patterns varying in strength, site fidelity, and residency patterns. Overlap in home ranges and relatedness explained little to none of the association patterns between individuals, suggesting complex local social structures. The study demonstrated that environmental impact assessments for mobile, continuously distributed species must evaluate impacts in light of local population structure, especially where proposed developments may affect core habitats of resident communities or sub-populations. Here, the risk of local extinction is particularly significant for an estuarine community because of its small size, limited connectivity with adjacent communities, and use of areas subject to intensive human use. In the absence of information about fine-scale population structure, impact assessments may fail to consider the appropriate biological context.

  15. Identifying and exploiting trait-relevant tissues with multiple functional annotations in genome-wide association studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shujun

    2018-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified many disease associated loci, the majority of which have unknown biological functions. Understanding the mechanism underlying trait associations requires identifying trait-relevant tissues and investigating associations in a trait-specific fashion. Here, we extend the widely used linear mixed model to incorporate multiple SNP functional annotations from omics studies with GWAS summary statistics to facilitate the identification of trait-relevant tissues, with which to further construct powerful association tests. Specifically, we rely on a generalized estimating equation based algorithm for parameter inference, a mixture modeling framework for trait-tissue relevance classification, and a weighted sequence kernel association test constructed based on the identified trait-relevant tissues for powerful association analysis. We refer to our analytic procedure as the Scalable Multiple Annotation integration for trait-Relevant Tissue identification and usage (SMART). With extensive simulations, we show how our method can make use of multiple complementary annotations to improve the accuracy for identifying trait-relevant tissues. In addition, our procedure allows us to make use of the inferred trait-relevant tissues, for the first time, to construct more powerful SNP set tests. We apply our method for an in-depth analysis of 43 traits from 28 GWASs using tissue-specific annotations in 105 tissues derived from ENCODE and Roadmap. Our results reveal new trait-tissue relevance, pinpoint important annotations that are informative of trait-tissue relationship, and illustrate how we can use the inferred trait-relevant tissues to construct more powerful association tests in the Wellcome trust case control consortium study. PMID:29377896

  16. Identifying and exploiting trait-relevant tissues with multiple functional annotations in genome-wide association studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingjie Hao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWASs have identified many disease associated loci, the majority of which have unknown biological functions. Understanding the mechanism underlying trait associations requires identifying trait-relevant tissues and investigating associations in a trait-specific fashion. Here, we extend the widely used linear mixed model to incorporate multiple SNP functional annotations from omics studies with GWAS summary statistics to facilitate the identification of trait-relevant tissues, with which to further construct powerful association tests. Specifically, we rely on a generalized estimating equation based algorithm for parameter inference, a mixture modeling framework for trait-tissue relevance classification, and a weighted sequence kernel association test constructed based on the identified trait-relevant tissues for powerful association analysis. We refer to our analytic procedure as the Scalable Multiple Annotation integration for trait-Relevant Tissue identification and usage (SMART. With extensive simulations, we show how our method can make use of multiple complementary annotations to improve the accuracy for identifying trait-relevant tissues. In addition, our procedure allows us to make use of the inferred trait-relevant tissues, for the first time, to construct more powerful SNP set tests. We apply our method for an in-depth analysis of 43 traits from 28 GWASs using tissue-specific annotations in 105 tissues derived from ENCODE and Roadmap. Our results reveal new trait-tissue relevance, pinpoint important annotations that are informative of trait-tissue relationship, and illustrate how we can use the inferred trait-relevant tissues to construct more powerful association tests in the Wellcome trust case control consortium study.

  17. Identifying relevant group of miRNAs in cancer using fuzzy mutual information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Jayanta Kumar; Ray, Shubhra Sankar; Pal, Sankar K

    2016-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) act as a major biomarker of cancer. All miRNAs in human body are not equally important for cancer identification. We propose a methodology, called FMIMS, which automatically selects the most relevant miRNAs for a particular type of cancer. In FMIMS, miRNAs are initially grouped by using a SVM-based algorithm; then the group with highest relevance is determined and the miRNAs in that group are finally ranked for selection according to their redundancy. Fuzzy mutual information is used in computing the relevance of a group and the redundancy of miRNAs within it. Superiority of the most relevant group to all others, in deciding normal or cancer, is demonstrated on breast, renal, colorectal, lung, melanoma and prostate data. The merit of FMIMS as compared to several existing methods is established. While 12 out of 15 selected miRNAs by FMIMS corroborate with those of biological investigations, three of them viz., "hsa-miR-519," "hsa-miR-431" and "hsa-miR-320c" are possible novel predictions for renal cancer, lung cancer and melanoma, respectively. The selected miRNAs are found to be involved in disease-specific pathways by targeting various genes. The method is also able to detect the responsible miRNAs even at the primary stage of cancer. The related code is available at http://www.jayanta.droppages.com/FMIMS.html .

  18. Seeing the Chemistry around Me--Helping Students Identify the Relevance of Chemistry to Everyday Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Tracy Lynn

    2012-01-01

    The study attempted to determine whether the use of a series of reading and response assignments decreased students' perceptions of chemistry difficulty and enhanced students' perceptions of the relevance of chemistry in their everyday lives. Informed consent volunteer students enrolled in General Chemistry II at a community college in the…

  19. Measuring Teacher Dispositions: Identifying Workplace Personality Traits Most Relevant to Teaching Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuankun; Pagnani, Alexander; Thomas, Matt; Abellan-Pagnani, Luisa; Brown, Terrell; Buchanan, Dawna Lisa

    2017-01-01

    What personality traits represent dispositions most relevant to teaching professionals? Could an instrument reflecting work personality traits for a wide variety of professions provide a valid assessment of dispositions for teacher candidates? This study analyzed the internal structure of a state mandated dispositions assessment that was adapted…

  20. Identifying the relevant features of the National Digital Cadastral Database (NDCDB) for spatial analysis by using the Delphi Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, N. Z. A.; Sulaiman, S. A.; Talib, K.; Ng, E. G.

    2018-02-01

    This paper explains the process carried out in identifying the relevant features of the National Digital Cadastral Database (NDCDB) for spatial analysis. The research was initially a part of a larger research exercise to identify the significance of NDCDB from the legal, technical, role and land-based analysis perspectives. The research methodology of applying the Delphi technique is substantially discussed in this paper. A heterogeneous panel of 14 experts was created to determine the importance of NDCDB from the technical relevance standpoint. Three statements describing the relevant features of NDCDB for spatial analysis were established after three rounds of consensus building. It highlighted the NDCDB’s characteristics such as its spatial accuracy, functions, and criteria as a facilitating tool for spatial analysis. By recognising the relevant features of NDCDB for spatial analysis in this study, practical application of NDCDB for various analysis and purpose can be widely implemented.

  1. A step-by-step guide to systematically identify all relevant animal studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenaars, Marlies; Hooijmans, Carlijn R; van Veggel, Nieky; ter Riet, Gerben; Leeflang, Mariska; Hooft, Lotty; van der Wilt, Gert Jan; Tillema, Alice; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel

    2012-01-01

    Before starting a new animal experiment, thorough analysis of previously performed experiments is essential from a scientific as well as from an ethical point of view. The method that is most suitable to carry out such a thorough analysis of the literature is a systematic review (SR). An essential first step in an SR is to search and find all potentially relevant studies. It is important to include all available evidence in an SR to minimize bias and reduce hampered interpretation of experimental outcomes. Despite the recent development of search filters to find animal studies in PubMed and EMBASE, searching for all available animal studies remains a challenge. Available guidelines from the clinical field cannot be copied directly to the situation within animal research, and although there are plenty of books and courses on searching the literature, there is no compact guide available to search and find relevant animal studies. Therefore, in order to facilitate a structured, thorough and transparent search for animal studies (in both preclinical and fundamental science), an easy-to-use, step-by-step guide was prepared and optimized using feedback from scientists in the field of animal experimentation. The step-by-step guide will assist scientists in performing a comprehensive literature search and, consequently, improve the scientific quality of the resulting review and prevent unnecessary animal use in the future. PMID:22037056

  2. Human and bovine viruses in the Milwaukee River watershed: Hydrologically relevant representation and relations with environmental variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corsi, S.R., E-mail: srcorsi@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, Wisconsin Water Science Center, Middleton, WI 53562 (United States); Borchardt, M.A.; Spencer, S.K. [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 2615 Yellowstone Dr., Marshfield, WI 54449 (United States); Hughes, P.E.; Baldwin, A.K. [U.S. Geological Survey, Wisconsin Water Science Center, Middleton, WI 53562 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    To examine the occurrence, hydrologic variability, and seasonal variability of human and bovine viruses in surface water, three stream locations were monitored in the Milwaukee River watershed in Wisconsin, USA, from February 2007 through June 2008. Monitoring sites included an urban subwatershed, a rural subwatershed, and the Milwaukee River at the mouth. To collect samples that characterize variability throughout changing hydrologic periods, a process control system was developed for unattended, large-volume (56–2800 L) filtration over extended durations. This system provided flow-weighted mean concentrations during runoff and extended (24-h) low-flow periods. Human viruses and bovine viruses were detected by real-time qPCR in 49% and 41% of samples (n = 63), respectively. All human viruses analyzed were detected at least once including adenovirus (40% of samples), GI norovirus (10%), enterovirus (8%), rotavirus (6%), GII norovirus (1.6%) and hepatitis A virus (1.6%). Three of seven bovine viruses analyzed were detected including bovine polyomavirus (32%), bovine rotavirus (19%), and bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (5%). Human viruses were present in 63% of runoff samples resulting from precipitation and snowmelt, and 20% of low-flow samples. Maximum human virus concentrations exceeded 300 genomic copies/L. Bovine viruses were present in 46% of runoff samples resulting from precipitation and snowmelt and 14% of low-flow samples. The maximum bovine virus concentration was 11 genomic copies/L. Statistical modeling indicated that stream flow, precipitation, and season explained the variability of human viruses in the watershed, and hydrologic condition (runoff event or low-flow) and season explained the variability of the sum of human and bovine viruses; however, no model was identified that could explain the variability of bovine viruses alone. Understanding the factors that affect virus fate and transport in rivers will aid watershed management for minimizing

  3. Human and bovine viruses in the Milwaukee River watershed: Hydrologically relevant representation and relations with environmental variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corsi, S.R.; Borchardt, M.A.; Spencer, S.K.; Hughes, P.E.; Baldwin, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    To examine the occurrence, hydrologic variability, and seasonal variability of human and bovine viruses in surface water, three stream locations were monitored in the Milwaukee River watershed in Wisconsin, USA, from February 2007 through June 2008. Monitoring sites included an urban subwatershed, a rural subwatershed, and the Milwaukee River at the mouth. To collect samples that characterize variability throughout changing hydrologic periods, a process control system was developed for unattended, large-volume (56–2800 L) filtration over extended durations. This system provided flow-weighted mean concentrations during runoff and extended (24-h) low-flow periods. Human viruses and bovine viruses were detected by real-time qPCR in 49% and 41% of samples (n = 63), respectively. All human viruses analyzed were detected at least once including adenovirus (40% of samples), GI norovirus (10%), enterovirus (8%), rotavirus (6%), GII norovirus (1.6%) and hepatitis A virus (1.6%). Three of seven bovine viruses analyzed were detected including bovine polyomavirus (32%), bovine rotavirus (19%), and bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (5%). Human viruses were present in 63% of runoff samples resulting from precipitation and snowmelt, and 20% of low-flow samples. Maximum human virus concentrations exceeded 300 genomic copies/L. Bovine viruses were present in 46% of runoff samples resulting from precipitation and snowmelt and 14% of low-flow samples. The maximum bovine virus concentration was 11 genomic copies/L. Statistical modeling indicated that stream flow, precipitation, and season explained the variability of human viruses in the watershed, and hydrologic condition (runoff event or low-flow) and season explained the variability of the sum of human and bovine viruses; however, no model was identified that could explain the variability of bovine viruses alone. Understanding the factors that affect virus fate and transport in rivers will aid watershed management for minimizing

  4. Identifying novel phenotypes of acute heart failure using cluster analysis of clinical variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Yu; Tanimoto, Shuzou; Latif, A H M Mahbub; Urayama, Kevin Y; Aoki, Jiro; Yahagi, Kazuyuki; Okuno, Taishi; Sato, Yu; Tanaka, Tetsu; Koseki, Keita; Komiyama, Kota; Nakajima, Hiroyoshi; Hara, Kazuhiro; Tanabe, Kengo

    2018-07-01

    Acute heart failure (AHF) is a heterogeneous disease caused by various cardiovascular (CV) pathophysiology and multiple non-CV comorbidities. We aimed to identify clinically important subgroups to improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of AHF and inform clinical decision-making. We evaluated detailed clinical data of 345 consecutive AHF patients using non-hierarchical cluster analysis of 77 variables, including age, sex, HF etiology, comorbidities, physical findings, laboratory data, electrocardiogram, echocardiogram and treatment during hospitalization. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to estimate the association between the clusters and clinical outcomes. Three clusters were identified. Cluster 1 (n=108) represented "vascular failure". This cluster had the highest average systolic blood pressure at admission and lung congestion with type 2 respiratory failure. Cluster 2 (n=89) represented "cardiac and renal failure". They had the lowest ejection fraction (EF) and worst renal function. Cluster 3 (n=148) comprised mostly older patients and had the highest prevalence of atrial fibrillation and preserved EF. Death or HF hospitalization within 12-month occurred in 23% of Cluster 1, 36% of Cluster 2 and 36% of Cluster 3 (p=0.034). Compared with Cluster 1, risk of death or HF hospitalization was 1.74 (95% CI, 1.03-2.95, p=0.037) for Cluster 2 and 1.82 (95% CI, 1.13-2.93, p=0.014) for Cluster 3. Cluster analysis may be effective in producing clinically relevant categories of AHF, and may suggest underlying pathophysiology and potential utility in predicting clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Morphological and molecular methods to identify butternut (Juglans cinerea) and butternut hybrids: relevance to butternut conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Davis, Amy; Huang, Zhonglian; McKenna, James; Ostry, Michael; Woeste, Keith

    2008-07-01

    Butternut (Juglans cinerea L.) is a native, cold-tolerant, hard-mast species formerly valued for its nuts and wood, which is now endangered. The most immediate threat to butternut restoration is the spread of butternut canker disease, caused by the exotic fungus Sirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum Nair, Kostichka & Kuntz. Other threats include the hybridization of butternut with the exotic Japanese walnut (Juglans ailantifolia Carr.) and poor regeneration. The hybrids, known as buartnuts, are vegetatively vigorous, highly fecund, more resistant than butternut to butternut canker disease and difficult to identify. We review the vegetative and reproductive morphological traits that distinguish butternut from hybrids and identify those that can be used by field biologists to separate the taxa. No single trait was sufficient to separate butternut from hybrids, but pith color, lenticel size, shape and abundance, and the presence or absence of a notch in the upper margin of leaf scars, can be used in combination with other traits to identify butternuts and exclude most hybrids. In at least one butternut population, reduced symptoms of butternut canker disease were significantly associated with a dark barked phenotype. We also describe two randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers that differentiate butternuts from hybrids based on DNA polymorphism. Together, these results should assist in the identification and testing of non-hybrid butternut for breeding and reintroduction of the species to its former habitats.

  6. Using the Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT) in Cytoscape to Identify Contextually Relevant Network Hubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muetze, Tanja; Lynn, David J

    2017-09-13

    Highly connected nodes in biological networks are called network hubs. Hubs are topologically important to the structure of the network and have been shown to be preferentially associated with a range of phenotypes of interest. The relative importance of a hub node, however, can change depending on the biological context. Here, we provide a step-by-step protocol for using the Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT), an application within Cytoscape 3, which enables users to easily construct and visualize a network of interactions from a gene or protein list of interest, integrate contextual information, such as gene or protein expression data, and identify hub nodes that are more highly connected to contextual nodes than expected by chance. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  7. Development of Multiplexed Marker Sets to Identify the Most Relevant Poplar Species for Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilke Schroeder

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the genus Populus, about 30 species are classified into six sections, of which some are cross-compatible. Besides naturally occurring hybrids, huge breeding programs have led to a high number of artificially produced hybrids, for which the determination of genetically involved species by morphological characteristics is often difficult. This necessitates the use of molecular markers for the identification of both maternal as well as paternal species, and in the case of complex hybrids, the genealogy. For this reason, we developed new chloroplast and nuclear markers for the differentiation of up to 19 poplar species, with one to 32 individuals per species regularly used in breeding programs based on already known barcoding, other chloroplast regions, and nuclear genes of interest. We developed methods to identify species by either species-specific nucleotide variations or, when no initial information for the species was given, by using a set of markers either in a procedure of exclusion or in a multiplexed marker set. The developed markers can all be used with low-cost equipment, and some can additionally be applied using a genetic analyzer. We combined these markers in multiplexes for a very fast and easy-to-use application for the identification of poplar species and their hybrids.

  8. Stimulus variability and the phonetic relevance hypothesis: effects of variability in speaking style, fundamental frequency, and speaking rate on spoken word identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Mitchell S; Barcroft, Joe

    2006-04-01

    Three experiments were conducted to examine the effects of trial-to-trial variations in speaking style, fundamental frequency, and speaking rate on identification of spoken words. In addition, the experiments investigated whether any effects of stimulus variability would be modulated by phonetic confusability (i.e., lexical difficulty). In Experiment 1, trial-to-trial variations in speaking style reduced the overall identification performance compared with conditions containing no speaking-style variability. In addition, the effects of variability were greater for phonetically confusable words than for phonetically distinct words. In Experiment 2, variations in fundamental frequency were found to have no significant effects on spoken word identification and did not interact with lexical difficulty. In Experiment 3, two different methods for varying speaking rate were found to have equivalent negative effects on spoken word recognition and similar interactions with lexical difficulty. Overall, the findings are consistent with a phonetic-relevance hypothesis, in which accommodating sources of acoustic-phonetic variability that affect phonetically relevant properties of speech signals can impair spoken word identification. In contrast, variability in parameters of the speech signal that do not affect phonetically relevant properties are not expected to affect overall identification performance. Implications of these findings for the nature and development of lexical representations are discussed.

  9. Relevance of student and contextual school variables in explaining a student’s severity of violence experienced

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton

    2015-01-01

    Teachers conceptualise and interpret violent behaviour of secondary students in different ways. They also differ in their estimates of the relevance of student and contextual school variables when explaining the severity of violence experienced by students. Research can assist here by explicating

  10. On the ""early-time"" evolution of variables relevant to turbulence models for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollin, Bertrand [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Andrews, Malcolm J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    We present our progress toward setting initial conditions in variable density turbulence models. In particular, we concentrate our efforts on the BHR turbulence model for turbulent Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Our approach is to predict profiles of relevant variables before fully turbulent regime and use them as initial conditions for the turbulence model. We use an idealized model of mixing between two interpenetrating fluids to define the initial profiles for the turbulence model variables. Velocities and volume fractions used in the idealized mixing model are obtained respectively from a set of ordinary differential equations modeling the growth of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability and from an idealization of the density profile in the mixing layer. A comparison between predicted profiles for the turbulence model variables and profiles of the variables obtained from low Atwood number three dimensional simulations show reasonable agreement.

  11. Identifying Variability in Mental Models Within and Between Disciplines Caring for the Cardiac Surgical Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Evans K H; Harder, Kathleen A; Apostolidou, Ioanna; Wahr, Joyce A; Shook, Douglas C; Farivar, R Saeid; Perry, Tjorvi E; Konia, Mojca R

    2017-07-01

    The cardiac operating room is a complex environment requiring efficient and effective communication between multiple disciplines. The objectives of this study were to identify and rank critical time points during the perioperative care of cardiac surgical patients, and to assess variability in responses, as a correlate of a shared mental model, regarding the importance of these time points between and within disciplines. Using Delphi technique methodology, panelists from 3 institutions were tasked with developing a list of critical time points, which were subsequently assigned to pause point (PP) categories. Panelists then rated these PPs on a 100-point visual analog scale. Descriptive statistics were expressed as percentages, medians, and interquartile ranges (IQRs). We defined low response variability between panelists as an IQR ≤ 20, moderate response variability as an IQR > 20 and ≤ 40, and high response variability as an IQR > 40. Panelists identified a total of 12 PPs. The PPs identified by the highest number of panelists were (1) before surgical incision, (2) before aortic cannulation, (3) before cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) initiation, (4) before CPB separation, and (5) at time of transfer of care from operating room (OR) to intensive care unit (ICU) staff. There was low variability among panelists' ratings of the PP "before surgical incision," moderate response variability for the PPs "before separation from CPB," "before transfer from OR table to bed," and "at time of transfer of care from OR to ICU staff," and high response variability for the remaining 8 PPs. In addition, the perceived importance of each of these PPs varies between disciplines and between institutions. Cardiac surgical providers recognize distinct critical time points during cardiac surgery. However, there is a high degree of variability within and between disciplines as to the importance of these times, suggesting an absence of a shared mental model among disciplines caring for

  12. Structural identifiability of cyclic graphical models of biological networks with latent variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yulin; Lu, Na; Miao, Hongyu

    2016-06-13

    Graphical models have long been used to describe biological networks for a variety of important tasks such as the determination of key biological parameters, and the structure of graphical model ultimately determines whether such unknown parameters can be unambiguously obtained from experimental observations (i.e., the identifiability problem). Limited by resources or technical capacities, complex biological networks are usually partially observed in experiment, which thus introduces latent variables into the corresponding graphical models. A number of previous studies have tackled the parameter identifiability problem for graphical models such as linear structural equation models (SEMs) with or without latent variables. However, the limited resolution and efficiency of existing approaches necessarily calls for further development of novel structural identifiability analysis algorithms. An efficient structural identifiability analysis algorithm is developed in this study for a broad range of network structures. The proposed method adopts the Wright's path coefficient method to generate identifiability equations in forms of symbolic polynomials, and then converts these symbolic equations to binary matrices (called identifiability matrix). Several matrix operations are introduced for identifiability matrix reduction with system equivalency maintained. Based on the reduced identifiability matrices, the structural identifiability of each parameter is determined. A number of benchmark models are used to verify the validity of the proposed approach. Finally, the network module for influenza A virus replication is employed as a real example to illustrate the application of the proposed approach in practice. The proposed approach can deal with cyclic networks with latent variables. The key advantage is that it intentionally avoids symbolic computation and is thus highly efficient. Also, this method is capable of determining the identifiability of each single parameter and

  13. Using ERA-Interim reanalysis for creating datasets of energy-relevant climate variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Philip D.; Harpham, Colin; Troccoli, Alberto; Gschwind, Benoit; Ranchin, Thierry; Wald, Lucien; Goodess, Clare M.; Dorling, Stephen

    2017-07-01

    The construction of a bias-adjusted dataset of climate variables at the near surface using ERA-Interim reanalysis is presented. A number of different, variable-dependent, bias-adjustment approaches have been proposed. Here we modify the parameters of different distributions (depending on the variable), adjusting ERA-Interim based on gridded station or direct station observations. The variables are air temperature, dewpoint temperature, precipitation (daily only), solar radiation, wind speed, and relative humidity. These are available on either 3 or 6 h timescales over the period 1979-2016. The resulting bias-adjusted dataset is available through the Climate Data Store (CDS) of the Copernicus Climate Change Data Store (C3S) and can be accessed at present from climate.copernicus.eu" target="_blank">ftp://ecem.climate.copernicus.eu. The benefit of performing bias adjustment is demonstrated by comparing initial and bias-adjusted ERA-Interim data against gridded observational fields.

  14. High performance continuously variable transmission control through robust-control-relevant model validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen, T.A.E.; Meulen, van der S.H.

    2013-01-01

    Optimal operation of continuously variable transmissions (CVTs) is essential to meet tightening emission and fuel consumption requirements. This is achieved by accurately tracking a prescribed transmission ratio reference and simultaneously optimizing the internal efficiency of the CVT. To reduce

  15. Variables Associated with First Year Teacher Morale Which Can Be Identified in a Teacher Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, James R., Jr.; Schuck, Robert F.

    This paper presents a study of the personal variables associated with first-year teacher morale that can be identified early in the training programs of novice teachers. This study is based on data derived from 96 (76.6 percent) of the graduates teaching in Mississippi. Data were collected through the use of five special instruments: (1)…

  16. Examining Preservice Science Teachers' Skills of Formulating Hypotheses and Identifying Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogdu, Bülent

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine preservice science teachers' skills of formulating hypotheses and identifying variables. The research has a phenomenological research design. The data was gathered qualitatively. In this study, preservice science teachers were first given two scenarios (Scenario-1 & Scenario-2) containing two different…

  17. Effect of Mental State on the Rate of Identifying the Relevancy of Documents Retrieved in a Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Farhoudi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the link between various users’ mental state while searching information systems with the outcome of the resulting documents retrieved. Various factors such as user knowledge, search skills, motivation and aims influence the decisions and evaluation of users regarding documents retrieved. MMPI instrument was used to identify users’ mental states. The sample was drawn from female senior students of librarianship, using systematic random sampling. The findings indicated that anxiety and depression have significant inverse relationship to the rate of relevancy identification of the documents retrieved by the users.

  18. Identifying clinically relevant drug resistance genes in drug-induced resistant cancer cell lines and post-chemotherapy tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Mengsha; Zheng, Weicheng; Lu, Xingrong; Ao, Lu; Li, Xiangyu; Guan, Qingzhou; Cai, Hao; Li, Mengyao; Yan, Haidan; Guo, You; Chi, Pan; Guo, Zheng

    2015-12-01

    Until recently, few molecular signatures of drug resistance identified in drug-induced resistant cancer cell models can be translated into clinical practice. Here, we defined differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between pre-chemotherapy colorectal cancer (CRC) tissue samples of non-responders and responders for 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin-based therapy as clinically relevant drug resistance genes (CRG5-FU/L-OHP). Taking CRG5-FU/L-OHP as reference, we evaluated the clinical relevance of several types of genes derived from HCT116 CRC cells with resistance to 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin, respectively. The results revealed that DEGs between parental and resistant cells, when both were treated with the corresponding drug for a certain time, were significantly consistent with the CRG5-FU/L-OHP as well as the DEGs between the post-chemotherapy CRC specimens of responders and non-responders. This study suggests a novel strategy to extract clinically relevant drug resistance genes from both drug-induced resistant cell models and post-chemotherapy cancer tissue specimens.

  19. Predicting suicidal ideation in primary care: An approach to identify easily assessable key variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Pascal; Shedden-Mora, Meike C; Löwe, Bernd

    To obtain predictors of suicidal ideation, which can also be used for an indirect assessment of suicidal ideation (SI). To create a classifier for SI based on variables of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) and sociodemographic variables, and to obtain an upper bound on the best possible performance of a predictor based on those variables. From a consecutive sample of 9025 primary care patients, 6805 eligible patients (60% female; mean age = 51.5 years) participated. Advanced methods of machine learning were used to derive the prediction equation. Various classifiers were applied and the area under the curve (AUC) was computed as a performance measure. Classifiers based on methods of machine learning outperformed ordinary regression methods and achieved AUCs around 0.87. The key variables in the prediction equation comprised four items - namely feelings of depression/hopelessness, low self-esteem, worrying, and severe sleep disturbances. The generalized anxiety disorder scale (GAD-7) and the somatic symptom subscale (PHQ-15) did not enhance prediction substantially. In predicting suicidal ideation researchers should refrain from using ordinary regression tools. The relevant information is primarily captured by the depression subscale and should be incorporated in a nonlinear model. For clinical practice, a classification tree using only four items of the whole PHQ may be advocated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Identifying Pertinent Variables for Nonresponse Follow-Up Surveys. Lessons Learned from 4 Cases in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Vandenplas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available All social surveys suffer from different types of errors, of which one of the most studied is non-response bias. Non-response bias is a systematic error that occurs because individuals differ in their accessibility and propensity to participate in a survey according to their own characteristics as well as those from the survey itself. The extent of the problem heavily depends on the correlation between response mechanisms and key survey variables. However, non-response bias is difficult to measure or to correct for due to the lack of relevant data about the whole target population or sample. In this paper, non-response follow-up surveys are considered as a possible source of information about non-respondents. Non-response follow-ups, however, suffer from two methodological issues: they themselves operate through a response mechanism that can cause potential non-response bias, and they pose a problem of comparability of measure, mostly because the survey design differs between main survey and non-response follow-up. In order to detect possible bias, the survey variables included in non-response surveys have to be related to the mechanism of participation, but not be sensitive to measurement effects due to the different designs. Based on accumulated experience of four similar non-response follow-ups, we studied the survey variables that fulfill these conditions. We differentiated socio-demographic variables that are measurement-invariant but have a lower correlation with non-response and variables that measure attitudes, such as trust, social participation, or integration in the public sphere, which are more sensitive to measurement effects but potentially more appropriate to account for the non-response mechanism. Our results show that education level, work status, and living alone, as well as political interest, satisfaction with democracy, and trust in institutions are pertinent variables to include in non-response follow-ups of general social

  1. Scientific Issues Relevant to Setting Regulatory Criteria to Identify Endocrine-Disrupting Substances in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama, Rémy; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre; Demeneix, Barbara; Ivell, Richard; Panzica, Giancarlo; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Zoeller, R Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as exogenous compounds or mixtures that alter function(s) of the endocrine system and consequently cause adverse effects in an intact organism, or its progeny, or (sub)populations. European regulations on pesticides, biocides, cosmetics, and industrial chemicals require the European Commission to establish scientific criteria to define EDs. We address the scientific relevance of four options for the identification of EDs proposed by the European Commission. Option 1, which does not define EDs and leads to using interim criteria unrelated to the WHO definition of EDs, is not relevant. Options 2 and 3 rely on the WHO definition of EDs, which is widely accepted by the scientific community, with option 3 introducing additional categories based on the strength of evidence (suspected EDs and endocrine-active substances). Option 4 adds potency to the WHO definition, as a decision criterion. We argue that potency is dependent on the adverse effect considered and is scientifically ambiguous, and note that potency is not used as a criterion to define other particularly hazardous substances such as carcinogens and reproductive toxicants. The use of potency requires a context that goes beyond hazard identification and corresponds to risk characterization, in which potency (or, more relevantly, the dose-response function) is combined with exposure levels. There is scientific agreement regarding the adequacy of the WHO definition of EDs. The potency concept is not relevant to the identification of particularly serious hazards such as EDs. As is common practice for carcinogens, mutagens, and reproductive toxicants, a multi-level classification of ED based on the WHO definition, and not considering potency, would be relevant (corresponding to option 3 proposed by the European Commission). Slama R, Bourguignon JP, Demeneix B, Ivell R, Panzica G, Kortenkamp A, Zoeller RT. 2016. Scientific issues relevant

  2. A new approach to hazardous materials transportation risk analysis: decision modeling to identify critical variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Renee M; Besterfield-Sacre, Mary E

    2009-03-01

    We take a novel approach to analyzing hazardous materials transportation risk in this research. Previous studies analyzed this risk from an operations research (OR) or quantitative risk assessment (QRA) perspective by minimizing or calculating risk along a transport route. Further, even though the majority of incidents occur when containers are unloaded, the research has not focused on transportation-related activities, including container loading and unloading. In this work, we developed a decision model of a hazardous materials release during unloading using actual data and an exploratory data modeling approach. Previous studies have had a theoretical perspective in terms of identifying and advancing the key variables related to this risk, and there has not been a focus on probability and statistics-based approaches for doing this. Our decision model empirically identifies the critical variables using an exploratory methodology for a large, highly categorical database involving latent class analysis (LCA), loglinear modeling, and Bayesian networking. Our model identified the most influential variables and countermeasures for two consequences of a hazmat incident, dollar loss and release quantity, and is one of the first models to do this. The most influential variables were found to be related to the failure of the container. In addition to analyzing hazmat risk, our methodology can be used to develop data-driven models for strategic decision making in other domains involving risk.

  3. Application of FEPs analysis to identify research priorities relevant to the safety case for an Australian radioactive waste facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, T.E.; McGlinn, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has established a project to undertake research relevant to the safety case for the proposed Australian radioactive waste facility. This facility will comprise a store for intermediate level radioactive waste, and either a store or a near-surface repository for low-level waste. In order to identify the research priorities for this project, a structured analysis of the features, events and processes (FEPs) relevant to the performance of the facility was undertaken. This analysis was based on the list of 137 FEPs developed by the IAEA project on 'Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities' (ISAM). A number of key research issues were identified, and some factors which differ in significance for the store, compared to the repository concept, were highlighted. For example, FEPs related to long-term groundwater transport of radionuclides are considered to be of less significance for a store than a repository. On the other hand, structural damage from severe weather, accident or human interference is more likely for a store. The FEPs analysis has enabled the scientific research skills required for the inter-disciplinary project team to be specified. The outcomes of the research will eventually be utilised in developing the design, and assessing the performance, of the future facility. It is anticipated that a more detailed application of the FEPs methodology will be undertaken to develop the safety case for the proposed radioactive waste management facility. (authors)

  4. Is the algorithm used to process heart rate variability data clinically relevant? Analysis in male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Antonio Henrique Germano; Farah, Breno Quintella; Cucato, Gabriel Grizzo; Bastos-Filho, Carmelo José Albanez; Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Lima, Aluísio Henrique Rodrigues de Andrade; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes

    2016-01-01

    To analyze whether the algorithm used for the heart rate variability assessment (fast Fourier transform versus autoregressive methods) influenced its association with cardiovascular risk factors in male adolescents. This cross-sectional study included 1,152 male adolescents (aged 14 to 19 years). The low frequency, high frequency components (absolute numbers and normalized units), low frequency/high frequency ratio, and total power of heart rate variability parameters were obtained using the fast Fourier transform and autoregressive methods, while the adolescents were resting in a supine position. All heart rate variability parameters calculated from both methods were different (padolescentes do gênero masculino. Estudo transversal, que incluiu 1.152 adolescentes do gênero masculino (14 a 19 anos). Componentes de baixa e alta frequência (absolutos e unidades normalizadas), razão componente de baixa frequência/componente de alta frequência e poder total da variabilidade da frequência cardíaca foram obtidos em repouso, na posição supina, usando os métodos transformada rápida de Fourier e autorregressivo. Todos os parâmetros da variabilidade da frequência cardíaca para ambos os métodos foram diferentes (padolescentes masculinos, mas essas diferenças não foram clinicamente significativas.

  5. Imaging-Based Screen Identifies Laminin 411 as a Physiologically Relevant Niche Factor with Importance for i-Hep Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Use of hepatocytes derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (i-Heps is limited by their functional differences in comparison with primary cells. Extracellular niche factors likely play a critical role in bridging this gap. Using image-based characterization (high content analysis; HCA of freshly isolated hepatocytes from 17 human donors, we devised and validated an algorithm (Hepatocyte Likeness Index; HLI for comparing the hepatic properties of cells against a physiological gold standard. The HLI was then applied in a targeted screen of extracellular niche factors to identify substrates driving i-Heps closer to the standard. Laminin 411, the top hit, was validated in two additional induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC lines, primary tissue, and an in vitro model of α1-antitrypsin deficiency. Cumulatively, these data provide a reference method to control and screen for i-Hep differentiation, identify Laminin 411 as a key niche protein, and underscore the importance of combining substrates, soluble factors, and HCA when developing iPSC applications. : Rashid and colleagues demonstrate the utility of a high-throughput imaging platform for identification of physiologically relevant extracellular niche factors to advance i-Heps closer to their primary tissue counterparts. The extracellular matrix (ECM protein screen identified Laminin 411 as an important niche factor facilitating i-Hep-based disease modeling in vitro. Keywords: iPS hepatocytes, extracellular niche, image-based screening, disease modeling, laminin

  6. Value Relevance of Accounting and Other Variables in the Junior-Mining Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey Iddon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Unique fundamentals and severe uncertainty in the junior-mining-sector (JMS make valuing JMS ventures problematic. However, potentially enormous returns draw many investors into the JMS. While financialinstrument- pricing theory suggests that accounting values/ratios should have little influence on JMS-firm outcomes, this study’s simple OLS and Panel-data findings show strong correlation between those variables and JMS-firm-share prices. After discounting market failure, it is conjectured that JMS nonfinancial factors, share prices and accounting values are co-determined in a simultaneous relationship that is obscurely linked to outcomes. The notions uncovered in this study should greatly interest academics and business sector participants.

  7. The SADI Personal Health Lens: A Web Browser-Based System for Identifying Personally Relevant Drug Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandervalk, Ben; McCarthy, E Luke; Cruz-Toledo, José; Klein, Artjom; Baker, Christopher J O; Dumontier, Michel; Wilkinson, Mark D

    2013-04-05

    The Web provides widespread access to vast quantities of health-related information that can improve quality-of-life through better understanding of personal symptoms, medical conditions, and available treatments. Unfortunately, identifying a credible and personally relevant subset of information can be a time-consuming and challenging task for users without a medical background. The objective of the Personal Health Lens system is to aid users when reading health-related webpages by providing warnings about personally relevant drug interactions. More broadly, we wish to present a prototype for a novel, generalizable approach to facilitating interactions between a patient, their practitioner(s), and the Web. We utilized a distributed, Semantic Web-based architecture for recognizing personally dangerous drugs consisting of: (1) a private, local triple store of personal health information, (2) Semantic Web services, following the Semantic Automated Discovery and Integration (SADI) design pattern, for text mining and identifying substance interactions, (3) a bookmarklet to trigger analysis of a webpage and annotate it with personalized warnings, and (4) a semantic query that acts as an abstract template of the analytical workflow to be enacted by the system. A prototype implementation of the system is provided in the form of a Java standalone executable JAR file. The JAR file bundles all components of the system: the personal health database, locally-running versions of the SADI services, and a javascript bookmarklet that triggers analysis of a webpage. In addition, the demonstration includes a hypothetical personal health profile, allowing the system to be used immediately without configuration. Usage instructions are provided. The main strength of the Personal Health Lens system is its ability to organize medical information and to present it to the user in a personalized and contextually relevant manner. While this prototype was limited to a single knowledge domain

  8. The SADI Personal Health Lens: A Web Browser-Based System for Identifying Personally Relevant Drug Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandervalk, Ben; McCarthy, E Luke; Cruz-Toledo, José; Klein, Artjom; Baker, Christopher J O; Dumontier, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Background The Web provides widespread access to vast quantities of health-related information that can improve quality-of-life through better understanding of personal symptoms, medical conditions, and available treatments. Unfortunately, identifying a credible and personally relevant subset of information can be a time-consuming and challenging task for users without a medical background. Objective The objective of the Personal Health Lens system is to aid users when reading health-related webpages by providing warnings about personally relevant drug interactions. More broadly, we wish to present a prototype for a novel, generalizable approach to facilitating interactions between a patient, their practitioner(s), and the Web. Methods We utilized a distributed, Semantic Web-based architecture for recognizing personally dangerous drugs consisting of: (1) a private, local triple store of personal health information, (2) Semantic Web services, following the Semantic Automated Discovery and Integration (SADI) design pattern, for text mining and identifying substance interactions, (3) a bookmarklet to trigger analysis of a webpage and annotate it with personalized warnings, and (4) a semantic query that acts as an abstract template of the analytical workflow to be enacted by the system. Results A prototype implementation of the system is provided in the form of a Java standalone executable JAR file. The JAR file bundles all components of the system: the personal health database, locally-running versions of the SADI services, and a javascript bookmarklet that triggers analysis of a webpage. In addition, the demonstration includes a hypothetical personal health profile, allowing the system to be used immediately without configuration. Usage instructions are provided. Conclusions The main strength of the Personal Health Lens system is its ability to organize medical information and to present it to the user in a personalized and contextually relevant manner. While this

  9. Executive function impairments in fibromyalgia syndrome: Relevance of clinical variables and body mass index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Background Several investigations suggest the presence of deterioration of executive function in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). The study quantified executive functions in patients with FMS. A wide array of functions was assessed, including updating, shifting and inhibition, as well as decision making and mental planning. Moreover, clinical variables were investigated as possible mediators of executive dysfunction, including pain severity, psychiatric comorbidity, medication and body mass index (BMI). Methods Fifty-two FMS patients and 32 healthy controls completed a battery of 14 neuropsychological tests. Clinical interviews were conducted and the McGill Pain Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Fatigue Severity Scale and Oviedo Quality of Sleep Questionnaire were presented. Results Patients performed poorer than controls on the Letter Number Sequencing, Arithmetic and Similarities subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale, an N-back task, a verbal fluency task, the Ruff Figural Fluency Test, the Inhibition score of the Stroop Test, the Inhibition and Shifting scores of the Five Digits Test, the Key Search Test and the Zoo Map Task. Moreover, patients exhibited less steep learning curves on the Iowa Gambling Task. Among clinical variables, BMI and pain severity explained the largest proportion of performance variance. Conclusions This study demonstrated impairments in executive functions of updating, shifting inhibition, decision making and planning in FMS. While the mediating role of pain in cognitive impairments in FMS had been previously established, the influence of BMI is a novel finding. Overweight and obesity should be considered by FMS researchers, and in the treatment of the condition. PMID:29694417

  10. Executive function impairments in fibromyalgia syndrome: Relevance of clinical variables and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Ladrón de Guevara, Cristina; Fernández-Serrano, María José; Reyes Del Paso, Gustavo A; Duschek, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Several investigations suggest the presence of deterioration of executive function in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). The study quantified executive functions in patients with FMS. A wide array of functions was assessed, including updating, shifting and inhibition, as well as decision making and mental planning. Moreover, clinical variables were investigated as possible mediators of executive dysfunction, including pain severity, psychiatric comorbidity, medication and body mass index (BMI). Fifty-two FMS patients and 32 healthy controls completed a battery of 14 neuropsychological tests. Clinical interviews were conducted and the McGill Pain Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Fatigue Severity Scale and Oviedo Quality of Sleep Questionnaire were presented. Patients performed poorer than controls on the Letter Number Sequencing, Arithmetic and Similarities subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale, an N-back task, a verbal fluency task, the Ruff Figural Fluency Test, the Inhibition score of the Stroop Test, the Inhibition and Shifting scores of the Five Digits Test, the Key Search Test and the Zoo Map Task. Moreover, patients exhibited less steep learning curves on the Iowa Gambling Task. Among clinical variables, BMI and pain severity explained the largest proportion of performance variance. This study demonstrated impairments in executive functions of updating, shifting inhibition, decision making and planning in FMS. While the mediating role of pain in cognitive impairments in FMS had been previously established, the influence of BMI is a novel finding. Overweight and obesity should be considered by FMS researchers, and in the treatment of the condition.

  11. Identifying psychosocial variables that predict safer-sex intentions in adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil eBrüll

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Young people are especially vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections. The triad of deliberate and effective safer-sex behavior encompasses condom use, combined with additional information about a partner’s sexual health, and the kind of sex acts usually performed. To identify psychosocial predictors of young people’s intentions to have safer sex, as related to this triad we conducted an online study with 211 sexually active participants aged between 18 and 24 years. Predictors (i.e. perceived behavioural control, subjective norms and intention taken from Fishbein and Ajzen’s Reasoned Action Approach (RAA, were combined with more distal variables (e.g. behavioral inhibition, sensation seeking, parental monitoring, and knowledge about sexually transmitted infections. Beyond the highly predictive power of RAA variables, additional variance was explained by the number of instances of unprotected sexual intercourse during the last twelve months and reasons for using barrier protection during first sexual intercourse. In particular, past condom nonuse behavior moderated perceived behavioral control related to intended condom use. Further, various distal variables showed significant univariate associations with intentions related to the three behaviors of interest. It may, therefore, be helpful to include measures of past behavior as well as certain additional distal variables in future safer-sex programs designed to promote health sustaining sexual behavior.

  12. Organismal climatology: analyzing environmental variability at scales relevant to physiological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmuth, Brian; Broitman, Bernardo R; Yamane, Lauren; Gilman, Sarah E; Mach, Katharine; Mislan, K A S; Denny, Mark W

    2010-03-15

    Predicting when, where and with what magnitude climate change is likely to affect the fitness, abundance and distribution of organisms and the functioning of ecosystems has emerged as a high priority for scientists and resource managers. However, even in cases where we have detailed knowledge of current species' range boundaries, we often do not understand what, if any, aspects of weather and climate act to set these limits. This shortcoming significantly curtails our capacity to predict potential future range shifts in response to climate change, especially since the factors that set range boundaries under those novel conditions may be different from those that set limits today. We quantitatively examine a nine-year time series of temperature records relevant to the body temperatures of intertidal mussels as measured using biomimetic sensors. Specifically, we explore how a 'climatology' of body temperatures, as opposed to long-term records of habitat-level parameters such as air and water temperatures, can be used to extrapolate meaningful spatial and temporal patterns of physiological stress. Using different metrics that correspond to various aspects of physiological stress (seasonal means, cumulative temperature and the return time of extremes) we show that these potential environmental stressors do not always occur in synchrony with one another. Our analysis also shows that patterns of animal temperature are not well correlated with simple, commonly used metrics such as air temperature. Detailed physiological studies can provide guidance to predicting the effects of global climate change on natural ecosystems but only if we concomitantly record, archive and model environmental signals at appropriate scales.

  13. Hierarchthis: An Interactive Interface for Identifying Mission-Relevant Components of the Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litomisky, Krystof

    2012-01-01

    Even though NASA's space missions are many and varied, there are some tasks that are common to all of them. For example, all spacecraft need to communicate with other entities, and all spacecraft need to know where they are. These tasks use tools and services that can be inherited and reused between missions, reducing systems engineering effort and therefore reducing cost.The Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System, or AMMOS, is a collection of multimission tools and services, whose development and maintenance are funded by NASA. I created HierarchThis, a plugin designed to provide an interactive interface to help customers identify mission-relevant tools and services. HierarchThis automatically creates diagrams of the AMMOS database, and then allows users to show/hide specific details through a graphical interface. Once customers identify tools and services they want for a specific mission, HierarchThis can automatically generate a contract between the Multimission Ground Systems and Services Office, which manages AMMOS, and the customer. The document contains the selected AMMOS components, along with their capabilities and satisfied requirements. HierarchThis reduces the time needed for the process from service selections to having a mission-specific contract from the order of days to the order of minutes.

  14. Can we identify non-stationary dynamics of trial-to-trial variability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emili Balaguer-Ballester

    Full Text Available Identifying sources of the apparent variability in non-stationary scenarios is a fundamental problem in many biological data analysis settings. For instance, neurophysiological responses to the same task often vary from each repetition of the same experiment (trial to the next. The origin and functional role of this observed variability is one of the fundamental questions in neuroscience. The nature of such trial-to-trial dynamics however remains largely elusive to current data analysis approaches. A range of strategies have been proposed in modalities such as electro-encephalography but gaining a fundamental insight into latent sources of trial-to-trial variability in neural recordings is still a major challenge. In this paper, we present a proof-of-concept study to the analysis of trial-to-trial variability dynamics founded on non-autonomous dynamical systems. At this initial stage, we evaluate the capacity of a simple statistic based on the behaviour of trajectories in classification settings, the trajectory coherence, in order to identify trial-to-trial dynamics. First, we derive the conditions leading to observable changes in datasets generated by a compact dynamical system (the Duffing equation. This canonical system plays the role of a ubiquitous model of non-stationary supervised classification problems. Second, we estimate the coherence of class-trajectories in empirically reconstructed space of system states. We show how this analysis can discern variations attributable to non-autonomous deterministic processes from stochastic fluctuations. The analyses are benchmarked using simulated and two different real datasets which have been shown to exhibit attractor dynamics. As an illustrative example, we focused on the analysis of the rat's frontal cortex ensemble dynamics during a decision-making task. Results suggest that, in line with recent hypotheses, rather than internal noise, it is the deterministic trend which most likely underlies

  15. Identifying decaying supermassive black hole binaries from their variable electromagnetic emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haiman, Zoltan; Menou, Kristen [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Kocsis, Bence [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Lippai, Zoltan; Frei, Zsolt [Institute of Physics, Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary)

    2009-05-07

    Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) with masses in the mass range approx(10{sup 4}-10{sup 7}) M{sub o-dot}/(1 + z), produced in galaxy mergers, are thought to complete their coalescence due to the emission of gravitational waves (GWs). The anticipated detection of the GWs by the future Laser Interferometric Space Antenna (LISA) will constitute a milestone for fundamental physics and astrophysics. While the GW signatures themselves will provide a treasure trove of information, if the source can be securely identified in electromagnetic (EM) bands, this would open up entirely new scientific opportunities, to probe fundamental physics, astrophysics and cosmology. We discuss several ideas, involving wide-field telescopes, that may be useful in locating electromagnetic counterparts to SMBHBs detected by LISA. In particular, the binary may produce a variable electromagnetic flux, such as a roughly periodic signal due to the orbital motion prior to coalescence, or a prompt transient signal caused by shocks in the circumbinary disc when the SMBHB recoils and 'shakes' the disc. We discuss whether these time-variable EM signatures may be detectable, and how they can help in identifying a unique counterpart within the localization errors provided by LISA. We also discuss a possibility of identifying a population of coalescing SMBHBs statistically, in a deep optical survey for periodically variable sources, before LISA detects the GWs directly. The discovery of such sources would confirm that gas is present in the vicinity and is being perturbed by the SMBHB-serving as a proof of concept for eventually finding actual LISA counterparts.

  16. Identifying decaying supermassive black hole binaries from their variable electromagnetic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haiman, Zoltan; Menou, Kristen; Kocsis, Bence; Lippai, Zoltan; Frei, Zsolt

    2009-01-01

    Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) with masses in the mass range ∼(10 4 -10 7 ) M o-dot /(1 + z), produced in galaxy mergers, are thought to complete their coalescence due to the emission of gravitational waves (GWs). The anticipated detection of the GWs by the future Laser Interferometric Space Antenna (LISA) will constitute a milestone for fundamental physics and astrophysics. While the GW signatures themselves will provide a treasure trove of information, if the source can be securely identified in electromagnetic (EM) bands, this would open up entirely new scientific opportunities, to probe fundamental physics, astrophysics and cosmology. We discuss several ideas, involving wide-field telescopes, that may be useful in locating electromagnetic counterparts to SMBHBs detected by LISA. In particular, the binary may produce a variable electromagnetic flux, such as a roughly periodic signal due to the orbital motion prior to coalescence, or a prompt transient signal caused by shocks in the circumbinary disc when the SMBHB recoils and 'shakes' the disc. We discuss whether these time-variable EM signatures may be detectable, and how they can help in identifying a unique counterpart within the localization errors provided by LISA. We also discuss a possibility of identifying a population of coalescing SMBHBs statistically, in a deep optical survey for periodically variable sources, before LISA detects the GWs directly. The discovery of such sources would confirm that gas is present in the vicinity and is being perturbed by the SMBHB-serving as a proof of concept for eventually finding actual LISA counterparts.

  17. Improved Variable Selection Algorithm Using a LASSO-Type Penalty, with an Application to Assessing Hepatitis B Infection Relevant Factors in Community Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Pi; Zeng, Fangfang; Hu, Xiaomin; Zhang, Dingmei; Zhu, Shuming; Deng, Yu; Hao, Yuantao

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In epidemiological studies, it is important to identify independent associations between collective exposures and a health outcome. The current stepwise selection technique ignores stochastic errors and suffers from a lack of stability. The alternative LASSO-penalized regression model can be applied to detect significant predictors from a pool of candidate variables. However, this technique is prone to false positives and tends to create excessive biases. It remains challenging to develop robust variable selection methods and enhance predictability. Material and methods Two improved algorithms denoted the two-stage hybrid and bootstrap ranking procedures, both using a LASSO-type penalty, were developed for epidemiological association analysis. The performance of the proposed procedures and other methods including conventional LASSO, Bolasso, stepwise and stability selection models were evaluated using intensive simulation. In addition, methods were compared by using an empirical analysis based on large-scale survey data of hepatitis B infection-relevant factors among Guangdong residents. Results The proposed procedures produced comparable or less biased selection results when compared to conventional variable selection models. In total, the two newly proposed procedures were stable with respect to various scenarios of simulation, demonstrating a higher power and a lower false positive rate during variable selection than the compared methods. In empirical analysis, the proposed procedures yielding a sparse set of hepatitis B infection-relevant factors gave the best predictive performance and showed that the procedures were able to select a more stringent set of factors. The individual history of hepatitis B vaccination, family and individual history of hepatitis B infection were associated with hepatitis B infection in the studied residents according to the proposed procedures. Conclusions The newly proposed procedures improve the identification of

  18. Identifying optimal remotely-sensed variables for ecosystem monitoring in Colorado Plateau drylands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitras, Travis; Villarreal, Miguel; Waller, Eric K.; Nauman, Travis; Miller, Mark E.; Duniway, Michael C.

    2018-01-01

    Water-limited ecosystems often recover slowly following anthropogenic or natural disturbance. Multitemporal remote sensing can be used to monitor ecosystem recovery after disturbance; however, dryland vegetation cover can be challenging to accurately measure due to sparse cover and spectral confusion between soils and non-photosynthetic vegetation. With the goal of optimizing a monitoring approach for identifying both abrupt and gradual vegetation changes, we evaluated the ability of Landsat-derived spectral variables to characterize surface variability of vegetation cover and bare ground across a range of vegetation community types. Using three year composites of Landsat data, we modeled relationships between spectral information and field data collected at monitoring sites near Canyonlands National Park, UT. We also developed multiple regression models to assess improvement over single variables. We found that for all vegetation types, percent cover bare ground could be accurately modeled with single indices that included a combination of red and shortwave infrared bands, while near infrared-based vegetation indices like NDVI worked best for quantifying tree cover and total live vegetation cover in woodlands. We applied four models to characterize the spatial distribution of putative grassland ecological states across our study area, illustrating how this approach can be implemented to guide dryland ecosystem management.

  19. Clinical Impact of Speed Variability to Identify Ultramarathon Runners at Risk for Acute Kidney Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen-Kuang Hou

    Full Text Available Ultramarathon is a high endurance exercise associated with a wide range of exercise-related problems, such as acute kidney injury (AKI. Early recognition of individuals at risk of AKI during ultramarathon event is critical for implementing preventative strategies.To investigate the impact of speed variability to identify the exercise-related acute kidney injury anticipatively in ultramarathon event.This is a prospective, observational study using data from a 100 km ultramarathon in Taipei, Taiwan. The distance of entire ultramarathon race was divided into 10 splits. The mean and variability of speed, which was determined by the coefficient of variation (CV in each 10 km-split (25 laps of 400 m oval track were calculated for enrolled runners. Baseline characteristics and biochemical data were collected completely 1 week before, immediately post-race, and one day after race. The main outcome was the development of AKI, defined as Stage II or III according to the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN criteria. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine the independent association between variables and AKI development.26 ultramarathon runners were analyzed in the study. The overall incidence of AKI (in all Stages was 84.6% (22 in 26 runners. Among these 22 runners, 18 runners were determined as Stage I, 4 runners (15.4% were determined as Stage II, and none was in Stage III. The covariates of BMI (25.22 ± 2.02 vs. 22.55 ± 1.96, p = 0.02, uric acid (6.88 ± 1.47 vs. 5.62 ± 0.86, p = 0.024, and CV of speed in specific 10-km splits (from secondary 10 km-split (10th - 20th km-split to 60th - 70th km-split were significantly different between runners with or without AKI (Stage II in univariate analysis and showed discrimination ability in ROC curve. In the following multivariate analysis, only CV of speed in 40th - 50th km-split continued to show a significant association to the development of AKI (Stage II (p = 0.032.The development of exercise

  20. Analysis of individual cells identifies cell-to-cell variability following induction of cellular senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Christopher D; Flynn, James M; Morrissey, Christapher; Lebofsky, Ronald; Shuga, Joe; Dong, Xiao; Unger, Marc A; Vijg, Jan; Melov, Simon; Campisi, Judith

    2017-10-01

    Senescent cells play important roles in both physiological and pathological processes, including cancer and aging. In all cases, however, senescent cells comprise only a small fraction of tissues. Senescent phenotypes have been studied largely in relatively homogeneous populations of cultured cells. In vivo, senescent cells are generally identified by a small number of markers, but whether and how these markers vary among individual cells is unknown. We therefore utilized a combination of single-cell isolation and a nanofluidic PCR platform to determine the contributions of individual cells to the overall gene expression profile of senescent human fibroblast populations. Individual senescent cells were surprisingly heterogeneous in their gene expression signatures. This cell-to-cell variability resulted in a loss of correlation among the expression of several senescence-associated genes. Many genes encoding senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) factors, a major contributor to the effects of senescent cells in vivo, showed marked variability with a subset of highly induced genes accounting for the increases observed at the population level. Inflammatory genes in clustered genomic loci showed a greater correlation with senescence compared to nonclustered loci, suggesting that these genes are coregulated by genomic location. Together, these data offer new insights into how genes are regulated in senescent cells and suggest that single markers are inadequate to identify senescent cells in vivo. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Identifying individuality and variability in team tactics by means of statistical shape analysis and multilayer perceptrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Jörg M; Schöllhorn, Wolfgang I

    2012-04-01

    Offensive and defensive systems of play represent important aspects of team sports. They include the players' positions at certain situations during a match, i.e., when players have to be on specific positions on the court. Patterns of play emerge based on the formations of the players on the court. Recognition of these patterns is important to react adequately and to adjust own strategies to the opponent. Furthermore, the ability to apply variable patterns of play seems to be promising since they make it harder for the opponent to adjust. The purpose of this study is to identify different team tactical patterns in volleyball and to analyze differences in variability. Overall 120 standard situations of six national teams in women's volleyball are analyzed during a world championship tournament. Twenty situations from each national team are chosen, including the base defence position (start configuration) and the two players block with middle back deep (end configuration). The shapes of the defence formations at the start and end configurations during the defence of each national team as well as the variability of these defence formations are statistically analyzed. Furthermore these shapes data are used to train multilayer perceptrons in order to test whether artificial neural networks can recognize the teams by their tactical patterns. Results show significant differences between the national teams in both the base defence position at the start and the two players block with middle back deep at the end of the standard defence situation. Furthermore, the national teams show significant differences in variability of the defence systems and start-positions are more variable than the end-positions. Multilayer perceptrons are able to recognize the teams at an average of 98.5%. It is concluded that defence systems in team sports are highly individual at a competitive level and variable even in standard situations. Artificial neural networks can be used to recognize

  2. Identifying emotional intelligence skills of Turkish clinical nurses according to sociodemographic and professional variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Nilgün; Hiçdurmaz, Duygu

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to identify the emotional intelligence skills of Turkish clinical nurses according to sociodemographic and professional variables. Emotional intelligence is "the ability of a person to comprehend self-emotions, to show empathy towards the feelings of others, and to control self-emotions in a way that enriches life." Nurses with a higher emotional intelligence level offer more efficient and professional care, and they accomplish more in their social and professional lives. We designed a descriptive cross-sectional study. The Introductory Information Form and the Bar-On emotional intelligence Inventory were used to collect data between 20th June and 20th August 2012. The study was conducted with 312 nurses from 37 hospitals located within the borders of the metropolitan municipality in Ankara. There were no significant differences between emotional intelligence scores of the nurses according to demographic variables such as age, gender, marital status, having children. Thus, sociodemographic factors did not appear to be key factors, but some professional variables did. Higher total emotional intelligence scores were observed in those who had 10 years or longer experience, who found oneself successful in professional life, who stated that emotional intelligence is an improvable skill and who previously received self-improvement training. Interpersonal skills were higher in those with a graduate degree and in nurses working in polyclinics and paediatric units. These findings indicate which groups require improvement in emotional intelligence skills and which skills need improvement. Additionally, these results provide knowledge and create awareness about emotional intelligence skills of nurses and the distribution of these skills according to sociodemographic and professional variables. Implementation of emotional intelligence improvement programmes targeting the determined clinical nursing groups by nursing administrations can help the increase in

  3. A qualitative study examining methods of accessing and identifying research relevant to clinical practice among rehabilitation clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Drasti; Koehmstedt, Christine; Jones, Rebecca; Coffey, Nathan T; Cai, Xinsheng; Garfinkel, Steven; Shaewitz, Dahlia M; Weinstein, Ali A

    2017-01-01

    Research examining the utilization of evidence-based practice (EBP) specifically among rehabilitation clinicians is limited. The objective of this study was to examine how various rehabilitative clinicians including physical therapists, occupational therapists, rehabilitation counselors, and physiatrists are gaining access to literature and whether they are able to implement the available research into practice. A total of 21 total clinicians were interviewed via telephone. Using NVivo, a qualitative analysis of the responses was performed. There were similarities found with respect to the information-seeking behaviors and translation of research across the different clinician types. Lack of time was reported to be a barrier for both access to literature and implementation of research across all clinician types. The majority of clinicians who reported having difficulty with utilizing the published literature indicated that the literature was not applicable to their practice, the research was not specific enough to be put into practice, or the research found was too outdated to be relevant. In addition, having a supportive work environment aided in the search and utilization of research through providing resources central to assisting clinicians in gaining access to health information. Our study identified several barriers that affect EBP for rehabilitation clinicians. The findings suggest the need for researchers to ensure that their work is applicable and specific to clinical practice for implementation to occur.

  4. A qualitative study examining methods of accessing and identifying research relevant to clinical practice among rehabilitation clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel D

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Drasti Patel,1 Christine Koehmstedt,1 Rebecca Jones,1 Nathan T Coffey,1 Xinsheng Cai,2 Steven Garfinkel,2 Dahlia M Shaewitz,2 Ali A Weinstein1 1Center for Study of Chronic Illness and Disability, College of Health and Human Services, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, 2American Institutes for Research, Washington, DC, USA Purpose: Research examining the utilization of evidence-based practice (EBP specifically among rehabilitation clinicians is limited. The objective of this study was to examine how various rehabilitative clinicians including physical therapists, occupational therapists, rehabilitation counselors, and physiatrists are gaining access to literature and whether they are able to implement the available research into practice.Methods: A total of 21 total clinicians were interviewed via telephone. Using NVivo, a qualitative analysis of the responses was performed.Results: There were similarities found with respect to the information-seeking behaviors and translation of research across the different clinician types. Lack of time was reported to be a barrier for both access to literature and implementation of research across all clinician types. The majority of clinicians who reported having difficulty with utilizing the published literature indicated that the literature was not applicable to their practice, the research was not specific enough to be put into practice, or the research found was too outdated to be relevant. In addition, having a supportive work environment aided in the search and utilization of research through providing resources central to assisting clinicians in gaining access to health information.Conclusion: Our study identified several barriers that affect EBP for rehabilitation clinicians. The findings suggest the need for researchers to ensure that their work is applicable and specific to clinical practice for implementation to occur. Keywords: health information, information behavior, knowledge utilization

  5. Surgeon Reported Outcome Measure for Spine Trauma an International Expert Survey Identifying Parameters Relevant for The Outcome of Subaxial Cervical Spine Injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadiqi, Said; Verlaan, Jorrit Jan; Lehr, A. M.; Dvorak, Marcel F.; Kandziora, Frank; Rajasekaran, S.; Schnake, Klaus J.; Vaccaro, Alexander R.; Oner, F. C.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN.: International web-based survey OBJECTIVE.: To identify clinical and radiological parameters that spine surgeons consider most relevant when evaluating clinical and functional outcomes of subaxial cervical spine trauma patients. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: While an outcome instrument

  6. Yeast screens identify the RNA polymerase II CTD and SPT5 as relevant targets of BRCA1 interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig B Bennett

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BRCA1 has been implicated in numerous DNA repair pathways that maintain genome integrity, however the function responsible for its tumor suppressor activity in breast cancer remains obscure. To identify the most highly conserved of the many BRCA1 functions, we screened the evolutionarily distant eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae for mutants that suppressed the G1 checkpoint arrest and lethality induced following heterologous BRCA1 expression. A genome-wide screen in the diploid deletion collection combined with a screen of ionizing radiation sensitive gene deletions identified mutants that permit growth in the presence of BRCA1. These genes delineate a metabolic mRNA pathway that temporally links transcription elongation (SPT4, SPT5, CTK1, DEF1 to nucleopore-mediated mRNA export (ASM4, MLP1, MLP2, NUP2, NUP53, NUP120, NUP133, NUP170, NUP188, POM34 and cytoplasmic mRNA decay at P-bodies (CCR4, DHH1. Strikingly, BRCA1 interacted with the phosphorylated RNA polymerase II (RNAPII carboxy terminal domain (P-CTD, phosphorylated in the pattern specified by the CTDK-I kinase, to induce DEF1-dependent cleavage and accumulation of a RNAPII fragment containing the P-CTD. Significantly, breast cancer associated BRCT domain defects in BRCA1 that suppressed P-CTD cleavage and lethality in yeast also suppressed the physical interaction of BRCA1 with human SPT5 in breast epithelial cells, thus confirming SPT5 as a relevant target of BRCA1 interaction. Furthermore, enhanced P-CTD cleavage was observed in both yeast and human breast cells following UV-irradiation indicating a conserved eukaryotic damage response. Moreover, P-CTD cleavage in breast epithelial cells was BRCA1-dependent since damage-induced P-CTD cleavage was only observed in the mutant BRCA1 cell line HCC1937 following ectopic expression of wild type BRCA1. Finally, BRCA1, SPT5 and hyperphosphorylated RPB1 form a complex that was rapidly degraded following MMS treatment in wild type but not BRCA1

  7. Soft Sensing of Key State Variables in Fermentation Process Based on Relevance Vector Machine with Hybrid Kernel Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglin ZHU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To resolve the online detection difficulty of some important state variables in fermentation process with traditional instruments, a soft sensing modeling method based on relevance vector machine (RVM with a hybrid kernel function is presented. Based on the characteristic analysis of two commonly-used kernel functions, that is, local Gaussian kernel function and global polynomial kernel function, a hybrid kernel function combing merits of Gaussian kernel function and polynomial kernel function is constructed. To design optimal parameters of this kernel function, the particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is applied. The proposed modeling method is used to predict the value of cell concentration in the Lysine fermentation process. Simulation results show that the presented hybrid-kernel RVM model has a better accuracy and performance than the single kernel RVM model.

  8. On the ""early-time"" evolution of variables relevant to turbulence models for Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollin, Bertrand [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Andrews, Malcolm J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    We present our progress toward setting initial conditions in variable density turbulence models. In particular, we concentrate our efforts on the BHR turbulence model for turbulent Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Our approach is to predict profiles of relevant parameters before the fully turbulent regime and use them as initial conditions for the turbulence model. We use an idealized model of the mixing between two interpenetrating fluids to define the initial profiles for the turbulence model parameters. Velocities and volume fractions used in the idealized mixing model are obtained respectively from a set of ordinary differential equations modeling the growth of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability and from an idealization of the density profile in the mixing layer. A comparison between predicted initial profiles for the turbulence model parameters and initial profiles of the parameters obtained from low Atwood number three dimensional simulations show reasonable agreement.

  9. PLS-based and regularization-based methods for the selection of relevant variables in non-targeted metabolomics data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Bujak

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Non-targeted metabolomics constitutes a part of systems biology and aims to determine many metabolites in complex biological samples. Datasets obtained in non-targeted metabolomics studies are multivariate and high-dimensional due to the sensitivity of mass spectrometry-based detection methods as well as complexity of biological matrices. Proper selection of variables which contribute into group classification is a crucial step, especially in metabolomics studies which are focused on searching for disease biomarker candidates. In the present study, three different statistical approaches were tested using two metabolomics datasets (RH and PH study. Orthogonal projections to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA without and with multiple testing correction as well as least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO were tested and compared. For the RH study, OPLS-DA model built without multiple testing correction, selected 46 and 218 variables based on VIP criteria using Pareto and UV scaling, respectively. In the case of the PH study, 217 and 320 variables were selected based on VIP criteria using Pareto and UV scaling, respectively. In the RH study, OPLS-DA model built with multiple testing correction, selected 4 and 19 variables as statistically significant in terms of Pareto and UV scaling, respectively. For PH study, 14 and 18 variables were selected based on VIP criteria in terms of Pareto and UV scaling, respectively. Additionally, the concept and fundaments of the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO with bootstrap procedure evaluating reproducibility of results, was demonstrated. In the RH and PH study, the LASSO selected 14 and 4 variables with reproducibility between 99.3% and 100%. However, apart from the popularity of PLS-DA and OPLS-DA methods in metabolomics, it should be highlighted that they do not control type I or type II error, but only arbitrarily establish a cut-off value for PLS-DA loadings

  10. Human and bovine viruses in the Milwaukee River Watershed: hydrologically relevant representation and relations with environmental variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Steven R.; Borchardt, M. A.; Spencer, S. K.; Hughes, Peter E.; Baldwin, Austin K.

    2014-01-01

    To examine the occurrence, hydrologic variability, and seasonal variability of human and bovine viruses in surface water, three stream locations were monitored in the Milwaukee River watershed in Wisconsin, USA, from February 2007 through June 2008. Monitoring sites included an urban subwatershed, a rural subwatershed, and the Milwaukee River at the mouth. To collect samples that characterize variability throughout changing hydrologic periods, a process control system was developed for unattended, large-volume (56–2800 L) filtration over extended durations. This system provided flow-weighted mean concentrations during runoff and extended (24-h) low-flow periods. Human viruses and bovine viruses were detected by real-time qPCR in 49% and 41% of samples (n = 63), respectively. All human viruses analyzed were detected at least once including adenovirus (40% of samples), GI norovirus (10%), enterovirus (8%), rotavirus (6%), GII norovirus (1.6%) and hepatitis A virus (1.6%). Three of seven bovine viruses analyzed were detected including bovine polyomavirus (32%), bovine rotavirus (19%), and bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (5%). Human viruses were present in 63% of runoff samples resulting from precipitation and snowmelt, and 20% of low-flow samples. Maximum human virus concentrations exceeded 300 genomic copies/L. Bovine viruses were present in 46% of runoff samples resulting from precipitation and snowmelt and 14% of low-flow samples. The maximum bovine virus concentration was 11 genomic copies/L. Statistical modeling indicated that stream flow, precipitation, and season explained the variability of human viruses in the watershed, and hydrologic condition (runoff event or low-flow) and season explained the variability of the sum of human and bovine viruses; however, no model was identified that could explain the variability of bovine viruses alone. Understanding the factors that affect virus fate and transport in rivers will aid watershed management for minimizing

  11. Bayesian Population Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK Approach for a Physiologically Realistic Characterization of Interindividual Variability in Clinically Relevant Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Krauss

    Full Text Available Interindividual variability in anatomical and physiological properties results in significant differences in drug pharmacokinetics. The consideration of such pharmacokinetic variability supports optimal drug efficacy and safety for each single individual, e.g. by identification of individual-specific dosings. One clear objective in clinical drug development is therefore a thorough characterization of the physiological sources of interindividual variability. In this work, we present a Bayesian population physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK approach for the mechanistically and physiologically realistic identification of interindividual variability. The consideration of a generic and highly detailed mechanistic PBPK model structure enables the integration of large amounts of prior physiological knowledge, which is then updated with new experimental data in a Bayesian framework. A covariate model integrates known relationships of physiological parameters to age, gender and body height. We further provide a framework for estimation of the a posteriori parameter dependency structure at the population level. The approach is demonstrated considering a cohort of healthy individuals and theophylline as an application example. The variability and co-variability of physiological parameters are specified within the population; respectively. Significant correlations are identified between population parameters and are applied for individual- and population-specific visual predictive checks of the pharmacokinetic behavior, which leads to improved results compared to present population approaches. In the future, the integration of a generic PBPK model into an hierarchical approach allows for extrapolations to other populations or drugs, while the Bayesian paradigm allows for an iterative application of the approach and thereby a continuous updating of physiological knowledge with new data. This will facilitate decision making e.g. from preclinical to

  12. Identifying the variables associated with pain during transrectal ultrasonography of the prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou CP

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chen-Pang Hou,1,2 Yu-Hsiang Lin,1,2 Meng-Chiao Hsieh,3 Chien-Lun Chen,1,2 Phei-Lang Chang,1,2 Ying-Chen Huang,2 Ke-Hung Tsui1,21Department of Urology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, 2School of Medicine, Chang Gung University, 3Division of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Department of Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Chiayi, Chang Gung University, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan Objective: The purpose of this study was to prospectively investigate the degree of pain experienced by the patients receiving transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS of the prostate by applying a visual analog scale. We also identified the clinical parameters influencing pain during the TRUS examination.Materials and methods: Records were obtained from a prospective database for male patients who received TRUS of prostate in the outpatient department of Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan, from January 2014 to June 2014. The patients underwent a detailed physical examination and medical history review. Immediately after the TRUS examination, the patients completed questionnaires based on a ten-point visual analog pain scale. The variables of interest were age, body mass index, prostate volume, prostate sagittal length, prostate-specific antigen, previous TRUS experience, external hemorrhoids, anal surgical history, prostate calcification, and image artifact caused by stool in the rectum. All variables were correlated to the visual analog scale by applying multivariate regression analysis.Results: By using linear regression analysis, we identified the independent factors that affected the pain score during the TRUS examination. The patients who received the examination for the first time or had longer prostate sagittal lengths, external hemorrhoids, anal surgical history, or stool stored in the rectum experienced more pain during the TRUS examination. Furthermore, the pain was reduced when we provided the patients with a detailed explanation before the procedure and

  13. Using naturalistic driving data to identify variables associated with infrequent, occasional, and consistent seat belt use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, Ian J; McClafferty, Julie A; Berlin, Sharon P; Hankey, Jonathan M

    2013-01-01

    Seat belt use is one of the most effective countermeasures to reduce traffic fatalities and injuries. The success of efforts to increase use is measured by road side observations and self-report questionnaires. These methods have shortcomings, with the former requiring a binary point estimate and the latter being subjective. The 100-car naturalistic driving study presented a unique opportunity to study seat belt use in that seat belt status was known for every trip each driver made during a 12-month period. Drivers were grouped into infrequent, occasional, or consistent seat belt users based on the frequency of belt use. Analyses were then completed to assess if these groups differed on several measures including personality, demographics, self-reported driving style variables as well as measures from the 100-car study instrumentation suite (average trip speed, trips per day). In addition, detailed analyses of the occasional belt user group were completed to identify factors that were predictive of occasional belt users wearing their belts. The analyses indicated that consistent seat belt users took fewer trips per day, and that increased average trip speed was associated with increased belt use among occasional belt users. The results of this project may help focus messaging efforts to convert occasional and inconsistent seat belt users to consistent users. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A multivariate and stochastic approach to identify key variables to rank dairy farms on profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzori, A S; Tedeschi, L O; Cannas, A

    2013-05-01

    The economic efficiency of dairy farms is the main goal of farmers. The objective of this work was to use routinely available information at the dairy farm level to develop an index of profitability to rank dairy farms and to assist the decision-making process of farmers to increase the economic efficiency of the entire system. A stochastic modeling approach was used to study the relationships between inputs and profitability (i.e., income over feed cost; IOFC) of dairy cattle farms. The IOFC was calculated as: milk revenue + value of male calves + culling revenue - herd feed costs. Two databases were created. The first one was a development database, which was created from technical and economic variables collected in 135 dairy farms. The second one was a synthetic database (sDB) created from 5,000 synthetic dairy farms using the Monte Carlo technique and based on the characteristics of the development database data. The sDB was used to develop a ranking index as follows: (1) principal component analysis (PCA), excluding IOFC, was used to identify principal components (sPC); and (2) coefficient estimates of a multiple regression of the IOFC on the sPC were obtained. Then, the eigenvectors of the sPC were used to compute the principal component values for the original 135 dairy farms that were used with the multiple regression coefficient estimates to predict IOFC (dRI; ranking index from development database). The dRI was used to rank the original 135 dairy farms. The PCA explained 77.6% of the sDB variability and 4 sPC were selected. The sPC were associated with herd profile, milk quality and payment, poor management, and reproduction based on the significant variables of the sPC. The mean IOFC in the sDB was 0.1377 ± 0.0162 euros per liter of milk (€/L). The dRI explained 81% of the variability of the IOFC calculated for the 135 original farms. When the number of farms below and above 1 standard deviation (SD) of the dRI were calculated, we found that 21

  15. Translating hydrologically-relevant variables from the ice sheet model SICOPOLIS to the Greenland Analog Project hydrologic modeling domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallot, Dorothée; Applegate, Patrick; Pettersson, Rickard

    2013-04-01

    Projecting future climate and ice sheet development requires sophisticated models and extensive field observations. Given the present state of our knowledge, it is very difficult to say what will happen with certainty. Despite the ongoing increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, the possibility that a new ice sheet might form over Scandinavia in the far distant future cannot be excluded. The growth of a new Scandinavian Ice Sheet would have important consequences for buried nuclear waste repositories. The Greenland Analogue Project, initiated by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB), is working to assess the effects of a possible future ice sheet on groundwater flow by studying a constrained domain in Western Greenland by field measurements (including deep bedrock drilling in front of the ice sheet) combined with numerical modeling. To address the needs of the GAP project, we interpolated results from an ensemble of ice sheet model runs to the smaller and more finely resolved modeling domain used in the GAP project's hydrologic modeling. Three runs have been chosen with three fairly different positive degree-day factors among those that reproduced the modern ice margin at the borehole position. The interpolated results describe changes in hydrologically-relevant variables over two time periods, 115 ka to 80 ka, and 20 ka to 1 ka. In the first of these time periods, the ice margin advances over the model domain; in the second time period, the ice margin retreats over the model domain. The spatially-and temporally dependent variables that we treated include the ice thickness, basal melting rate, surface mass balance, basal temperature, basal thermal regime (frozen or thawed), surface temperature, and basal water pressure. The melt flux is also calculated.

  16. Practices for Identifying and Rejecting Hemolyzed Specimens Are Highly Variable in Clinical Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howanitz, Peter J; Lehman, Christopher M; Jones, Bruce A; Meier, Frederick A; Horowitz, Gary L

    2015-08-01

    Hemolysis is an important clinical laboratory quality attribute that influences result reliability. To determine hemolysis identification and rejection practices occurring in clinical laboratories. We used the College of American Pathologists Survey program to distribute a Q-Probes-type questionnaire about hemolysis practices to Chemistry Survey participants. Of 3495 participants sent the questionnaire, 846 (24%) responded. In 71% of 772 laboratories, the hemolysis rate was less than 3.0%, whereas in 5%, it was 6.0% or greater. A visual scale, an instrument scale, and combination of visual and instrument scales were used to identify hemolysis in 48%, 11%, and 41% of laboratories, respectively. A picture of the hemolysis level was used as an aid to technologists' visual interpretation of hemolysis levels in 40% of laboratories. In 7.0% of laboratories, all hemolyzed specimens were rejected; in 4% of laboratories, no hemolyzed specimens were rejected; and in 88% of laboratories, some specimens were rejected depending on hemolysis levels. Participants used 69 different terms to describe hemolysis scales, with 21 terms used in more than 10 laboratories. Slight and moderate were the terms used most commonly. Of 16 different cutoffs used to reject hemolyzed specimens, moderate was the most common, occurring in 30% of laboratories. For whole blood electrolyte measurements performed in 86 laboratories, 57% did not evaluate the presence of hemolysis, but for those that did, the most common practice in 21 laboratories (24%) was centrifuging and visually determining the presence of hemolysis in all specimens. Hemolysis practices vary widely. Standard assessment and consistent reporting are the first steps in reducing interlaboratory variability among results.

  17. Trace Metal Bioremediation: Assessment of Model Components from Laboratory and Field Studies to Identify Critical Variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter Jaffe; Herschel Rabitz

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this project was to gain an insight into the modeling support needed for the understanding, design, and operation of trace metal/radionuclide bioremediation. To achieve this objective, a workshop was convened to discuss the elements such a model should contain. A ''protomodel'' was developed, based on the recommendations of the workshop, and was used to perform sensitivity analysis as well as some preliminary simulations in support for bioremediation test experiments at UMTRA sites. To simulate the numerous biogeochemical processes that will occur during the bioremediation of uranium contaminated aquifers, a time-dependent one-dimensional reactive transport model has been developed. The model consists of a set of coupled, steady state mass balance equations, accounting for advection, diffusion, dispersion, and a kinetic formulation of the transformations affecting an organic substrate, electron acceptors, corresponding reduced species, and uranium. This set of equations is solved numerically, using a finite element scheme. The redox conditions of the domain are characterized by estimating the pE, based on the concentrations of the dominant terminal electron acceptor and its corresponding reduced specie. This pE and the concentrations of relevant species are passed to a modified version of MINTEQA2, which calculates the speciation and solubilities of the species of interest. Kinetics of abiotic reactions are described as being proportional to the difference between the actual and equilibrium concentration. A global uncertainty assessment, determined by Random Sampling High Dimensional Model Representation (RS-HDMR), was performed to attain a phenomenological understanding of the origins of output variability and to suggest input parameter refinements as well as to provide guidance for field experiments to improve the quality of the model predictions. Results indicated that for the usually high nitrate contents found ate many DOE sites, overall

  18. Gene expression profiling to identify potentially relevant disease outcomes and support human health risk assessment for carbon black nanoparticle exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdon, Julie A; Williams, Andrew; Kuo, Byron; Moffat, Ivy; White, Paul A; Halappanavar, Sabina; Vogel, Ulla; Wallin, Håkan; Yauk, Carole L

    2013-01-07

    New approaches are urgently needed to evaluate potential hazards posed by exposure to nanomaterials. Gene expression profiling provides information on potential modes of action and human relevance, and tools have recently become available for pathway-based quantitative risk assessment. The objective of this study was to use toxicogenomics in the context of human health risk assessment. We explore the utility of toxicogenomics in risk assessment, using published gene expression data from C57BL/6 mice exposed to 18, 54 and 162 μg Printex 90 carbon black nanoparticles (CBNP). Analysis of CBNP-perturbed pathways, networks and transcription factors revealed concomitant changes in predicted phenotypes (e.g., pulmonary inflammation and genotoxicity), that correlated with dose and time. Benchmark doses (BMDs) for apical endpoints were comparable to minimum BMDs for relevant pathway-specific expression changes. Comparison to inflammatory lung disease models (i.e., allergic airway inflammation, bacterial infection and tissue injury and fibrosis) and human disease profiles revealed that induced gene expression changes in Printex 90 exposed mice were similar to those typical for pulmonary injury and fibrosis. Very similar fibrotic pathways were perturbed in CBNP-exposed mice and human fibrosis disease models. Our synthesis demonstrates how toxicogenomic profiles may be used in human health risk assessment of nanoparticles and constitutes an important step forward in the ultimate recognition of toxicogenomic endpoints in human health risk. As our knowledge of molecular pathways, dose-response characteristics and relevance to human disease continues to grow, we anticipate that toxicogenomics will become increasingly useful in assessing chemical toxicities and in human health risk assessment. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Directional semivariogram analysis to identify and rank controls on the spatial variability of fracture networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, John R.; Fischer, Mark P.; Pollyea, Ryan M.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the directional semivariogram is deployed to investigate the spatial variability of map-scale fracture network attributes in the Paradox Basin, Utah. The relative variability ratio (R) is introduced as the ratio of integrated anisotropic semivariogram models, and R is shown to be an effective metric for quantifying the magnitude of spatial variability for any two azimuthal directions. R is applied to a GIS-based data set comprising roughly 1200 fractures, in an area which is bounded by a map-scale anticline and a km-scale normal fault. This analysis reveals that proximity to the fault strongly influences the magnitude of spatial variability for both fracture intensity and intersection density within 1-2 km. Additionally, there is significant anisotropy in the spatial variability, which is correlated with trends of the anticline and fault. The direction of minimum spatial correlation is normal to the fault at proximal distances, and gradually rotates and becomes subparallel to the fold axis over the same 1-2 km distance away from the fault. We interpret these changes to reflect varying scales of influence of the fault and the fold on fracture network development: the fault locally influences the magnitude and variability of fracture network attributes, whereas the fold sets the background level and structure of directional variability.

  20. Simple and efficient machine learning frameworks for identifying protein-protein interaction relevant articles and experimental methods used to study the interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shashank; Liu, Feifan; Yu, Hong

    2011-10-03

    Protein-protein interaction (PPI) is an important biomedical phenomenon. Automatically detecting PPI-relevant articles and identifying methods that are used to study PPI are important text mining tasks. In this study, we have explored domain independent features to develop two open source machine learning frameworks. One performs binary classification to determine whether the given article is PPI relevant or not, named "Simple Classifier", and the other one maps the PPI relevant articles with corresponding interaction method nodes in a standardized PSI-MI (Proteomics Standards Initiative-Molecular Interactions) ontology, named "OntoNorm". We evaluated our system in the context of BioCreative challenge competition using the standardized data set. Our systems are amongst the top systems reported by the organizers, attaining 60.8% F1-score for identifying relevant documents, and 52.3% F1-score for mapping articles to interaction method ontology. Our results show that domain-independent machine learning frameworks can perform competitively well at the tasks of detecting PPI relevant articles and identifying the methods that were used to study the interaction in such articles. Simple Classifier is available at http://sourceforge.net/p/simpleclassify/home/ and OntoNorm at http://sourceforge.net/p/ontonorm/home/.

  1. 76 FR 22900 - Request for Information (RFI) To Identify and Obtain Relevant Information From Public or Private...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... outcomes in blood transfusions, and tissue and organ transplantations; Reporting and analyzing adverse events, including medical ``near misses'' and patient adverse reactions; Identifying emerging infectious... improve blood and blood component, tissue, cell, and organ safety for donors and recipients. Standards and...

  2. Identifying stakeholder-relevant climate change impacts: a case study in the Yakima River Basin, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenni, K.; Graves, D.; Hardiman, Jill M.; Hatten, James R.; Mastin, Mark C.; Mesa, Matthew G.; Montag, J.; Nieman, Timothy; Voss, Frank D.; Maule, Alec G.

    2014-01-01

    Designing climate-related research so that study results will be useful to natural resource managers is a unique challenge. While decision makers increasingly recognize the need to consider climate change in their resource management plans, and climate scientists recognize the importance of providing locally-relevant climate data and projections, there often remains a gap between management needs and the information that is available or is being collected. We used decision analysis concepts to bring decision-maker and stakeholder perspectives into the applied research planning process. In 2009 we initiated a series of studies on the impacts of climate change in the Yakima River Basin (YRB) with a four-day stakeholder workshop, bringing together managers, stakeholders, and scientists to develop an integrated conceptual model of climate change and climate change impacts in the YRB. The conceptual model development highlighted areas of uncertainty that limit the understanding of the potential impacts of climate change and decision alternatives by those who will be most directly affected by those changes, and pointed to areas where additional study and engagement of stakeholders would be beneficial. The workshop and resulting conceptual model highlighted the importance of numerous different outcomes to stakeholders in the basin, including social and economic outcomes that go beyond the physical and biological outcomes typically reported in climate impacts studies. Subsequent studies addressed several of those areas of uncertainty, including changes in water temperatures, habitat quality, and bioenergetics of salmonid populations.

  3. Multidimensional scaling analysis identifies pathological and prognostically relevant profiles of circulating T-cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissiek, Anne; Schulze, Christian; Bacher, Ulrike; Schieferdecker, Aneta; Thiele, Benjamin; Jacholkowski, Anita; Flammiger, Anna; Horn, Christiane; Haag, Friedrich; Tiegs, Gisa; Zirlik, Katja; Trepel, Martin; Tolosa, Eva; Binder, Mascha

    2014-11-15

    Antitumor immunity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is hampered by highly dysfunctional T-cells. Although certain T-cell subsets have been reported to be of prognostic significance in this disease, their interplay is complex and it remains incompletely understood which of these subsets significantly drive CLL progression. Here, we determined immunological profiles of 24 circulating T-cell subsets from 79 untreated individuals by multiparametric flow cytometry. This screening cohort included healthy donors, patients with monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL), Rai 0 CLL and advanced CLL. We applied multidimensional scaling analysis as rigorous and unbiased statistical tool to globally assess the composition of the circulating T-cell environment and to generate T-cell scores reflecting its integrity. These scores allowed clear distinction between advanced CLL and healthy controls, whereas both MBL and Rai 0 CLL showed intermediate scores mirroring the biological continuum of CLL and its precursor stages. T-cell stimulation and suppression assays as well as longitudinal T-cell profiling showed an increasingly suppressive regulatory function initiating at the MBL stage. Effector function was impaired only after transition to CLL and partially recovered after chemoimmunotherapy. In an independent validation cohort of 52 untreated CLL cases, aberrant T-cell profiles were significantly associated with shorter time to treatment independently of other prognostic parameters. Random forest modeling predicted regulatory T-cell, gamma/delta and NKT-cells, as well as exhaustion of the CD8+ subset as potential drivers of progression. Our data illustrate a pathological T-cell environment in MBL that evolves toward a more and more suppressive and prognostically relevant profile across the disease stages. © 2014 UICC.

  4. Identifying Factors Causing Variability in Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Fluxes in a Polygonal Tundra Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, B.; Wainwright, H. M.; Vaughn, L. S.; Curtis, J. B.; Torn, M. S.; Dafflon, B.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) flux variations in Arctic tundra environments are important to understand because of the vast amount of soil carbon stored in these regions and the potential of these regions to convert from a global carbon sink to a source under warmer conditions. Multiple factors potentially contribute to GHG flux variations observed in these environments, including snowmelt timing, growing season length, active layer thickness, water table variations, and temperature fluctuations. The objectives of this study are to investigate temporal variability in CO2 and CH4 fluxes at Barrow, AK over three successive growing seasons (2012-14) and to determine the factors influencing this variability using a novel entropy-based classification scheme. We analyzed soil, vegetation, and climate parameters as well as GHG fluxes at multiple locations within low-, flat- and high-centered polygons at Barrow, AK as part of the Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment (NGEE) Arctic project. Entropy results indicate that different environmental factors govern variability in GHG fluxes under different spatiotemporal settings. In particular, flat-centered polygons are more likely to become significant sources of CO2 during warm and dry years as opposed to high-centered polygons that contribute considerably to CO2 emissions during cold and wet years. In contrast, the highest CH4 emissions were always associated with low-centered polygons. Temporal variability in CO2 fluxes was primarily associated with factors affecting soil temperature and/or vegetation dynamics during early and late season periods. Temporal variability in CH4 fluxes was primarily associated with changes in vegetation cover and its covariability with primary controls such as seasonal thaw—rather than direct response to changes in soil moisture. Overall, entropy results document which factors became important under different spatiotemporal settings, thus providing clues concerning the manner in which ecosystem

  5. Virtual Whipple: preoperative surgical planning with volume-rendered MDCT images to identify arterial variants relevant to the Whipple procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Darren D; Zamboni, Giulia; Sosna, Jacob; Callery, Mark P; Vollmer, Charles M V; Raptopoulos, Vassilios D; Kruskal, Jonathan B

    2007-05-01

    The purposes of this study were to combine a thorough understanding of the technical aspects of the Whipple procedure with advanced rendering techniques by introducing a virtual Whipple procedure and to evaluate the utility of this new rendering technique in prediction of the arterial variants that cross the anticipated surgical resection plane. The virtual Whipple is a novel technique that follows the complex surgical steps in a Whipple procedure. Three-dimensional reconstructed angiographic images are used to identify arterial variants for the surgeon as part of the preoperative radiologic assessment of pancreatic and ampullary tumors.

  6. Albumin Homodimers in Patients with Cirrhosis: Clinical and Prognostic Relevance of a Novel Identified Structural Alteration of the Molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassarre, Maurizio; Domenicali, Marco; Naldi, Marina; Laggetta, Maristella; Giannone, Ferdinando A; Biselli, Maurizio; Patrono, Daniela; Bertucci, Carlo; Bernardi, Mauro; Caraceni, Paolo

    2016-10-26

    Decompensated cirrhosis is associated to extensive post-transcriptional changes of human albumin (HA). This study aims to characterize the occurrence of HA homodimerization in a large cohort of patients with decompensated cirrhosis and to evaluate its association with clinical features and prognosis. HA monomeric and dimeric isoforms were identified in peripheral blood by using a HPLC-ESI-MS technique in 123 cirrhotic patients hospitalized for acute decompensation and 50 age- and sex-comparable healthy controls. Clinical and biochemical parameters were recorded and patients followed up to one year. Among the monomeric isoforms identified, the N- and C-terminal truncated and the native HA underwent homodimerization. All three homodimers were significantly more abundant in patients with cirrhosis, acute-on-chronic liver failure and correlate with the prognostic scores. The homodimeric N-terminal truncated isoform was independently associated to disease complications and was able to stratify 1-year survival. As a result of all these changes, the monomeric native HA was significantly decreased in patients with cirrhosis, being also associated with a poorer prognosis. In conclusion homodimerization is a novel described structural alteration of the HA molecule in decompensated cirrhosis and contributes to the progressive reduction of the monomeric native HA, the only isoform provided of structural and functional integrity.

  7. Excavating the surface-associated and secretory proteome of Mycobacterium leprae for identifying vaccines and diagnostic markers relevant immunodominant epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Aarti; Thakur, Shweta; Bhardwaj, Nupur; Kumar, Devender; Akhter, Yusuf

    2016-12-01

    For centuries, Mycobacterium leprae, etiological agent of leprosy, has been afflicting mankind regardless of extensive use of live-attenuated vaccines and antibiotics. Surface-associated and secretory proteins (SASPs) are attractive targets against bacteria. We have integrated biological knowledge with computational approaches and present a proteome-wide identification of SASPs. We also performed computational assignment of immunodominant epitopes as coordinates of prospective antigenic candidates in most important class of SASPs, the outer membrane proteins (OMPs). Exploiting the known protein sequence and structural characteristics shared by the SASPs from bacteria, 17 lipoproteins, 11 secretory and 19 novel OMPs (including 4 essential proteins) were identified in M. leprae As OMPs represent the most exposed antigens on the cell surface, their immunoinformatics analysis showed that the identified 19 OMPs harbor T-cell MHC class I epitopes and class II epitopes against HLA-DR alleles (54), while 15 OMPs present potential T-cell class II epitopes against HLA-DQ alleles (6) and 7 OMPs possess T-cell class II epitopes against HLA-DP alleles (5) of humans. Additionally, 11 M. leprae OMPs were found to have B-cell epitopes and these may be considered as prime candidates for the development of new immunotherapeutics against M. leprae. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Variability of cognitive development in children with Down syndrome: relevance of good reasons for using the cluster procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, R; Kindelberger, C

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of this cross-sectional study was to demonstrate that, in addition to a main change during childhood, the cognitive development of children with Down syndrome (DS) is characterized by interindividual variability in their cognitive functioning. Eighty-eight French children with DS took part in this experiment. They were divided into six chronological age groups: 6 years (N=9), 7 years (N=19), 8 years (N=18), 9 years (N=19), 10 years (N=14) and 11 years (N=9). They were assessed by means of the Differential Scales of Intellectual Efficiency. This test, composed of six independent scales, measures verbal abilities and nonverbal reasoning abilities. Initial analyses of the verbal and nonverbal subtest scores indicated a main change in cognitive skills. We then used a clustering approach to identify four cognitive profiles that distinguished the children with DS independently of age and gender. The results confirm that there is a growth in the cognitive skills of DS children. They also suggest that the cognitive functioning of DS children is characterized by different individual profiles. Implications for more fine-tuned research and intervention efforts are discussed.

  9. Identifying market segments in consumer markets: variable selection and data interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Tonks, D G

    2004-01-01

    Market segmentation is often articulated as being a process which displays the recognised features of classical rationalism but in part; convention, convenience, prior experience and the overarching impact of rhetoric will influence if not determine the outcomes of a segmentation exercise. Particular examples of this process are addressed critically in this paper which concentrates on the issues of variable choice for multivariate approaches to market segmentation and also the methods used fo...

  10. Identifying environmental and geochemical variables governing metal concentrations in a stream draining headwaters in NW Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto-Varela, F.; Rodríguez-Blanco, M.L.; Taboada-Castro, M.M.; Taboada-Castro, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • All metals occur in association with suspended sediment. • DOC and SS appeared to influence the partitioning of metals. • The SS was a good predictor of particulate metal levels. • The most important variable to explain storm-event K D for Al and Fe is DOC. • Enrichment factor values suggest a natural origin for the particulate metals. - Abstract: Headwater stream, draining from a rural catchment in NW Spain, was sampled during baseflow and storm-event conditions to investigate the temporal variability in dissolved and particulate Al, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn concentrations and the role of discharge (Q), pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and suspended sediment (SS) in the transport of dissolved and particulate metals. Under baseflow and storm-event conditions, concentrations of the five metals were highly variable. The results of this study reveal that all metal concentrations are correlated with SS. DOC and SS appeared to influence both the metal concentrations and the partitioning of metals between dissolved and particulate. The SS was a good predictor of particulate metal levels. Distribution coefficients (K D ) were similar between metals (4.72–6.55) and did not change significantly as a function of discharge regime. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis reveals that the most important variable to explain storm-event K D for Al and Fe is DOC. The positive relationships found between metals, in each fraction, indicate that these elements mainly come from the same source. Metal concentrations in the stream were relatively low

  11. Identifying models of delivery, care domains and quality indicators relevant to palliative day services: a scoping review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Seán R; Dempster, Martin; McCorry, Noleen K

    2017-05-16

    With an ageing population and increasing numbers of people with life-limiting illness, there is a growing demand for palliative day services. There is a need to measure and demonstrate the quality of these services, but there is currently little agreement on which aspects of care should be used to do this. The aim of the scoping review will be to map the extent, range and nature of the evidence around models of delivery, care domains and existing quality indicators used to evaluate palliative day services. Electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) will be searched for evidence using consensus development methods; randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials; mixed methods; and prospective, longitudinal or retrospective case-control studies to develop or test quality indicators for evaluating palliative care within non-residential settings, including day hospices and community or primary care settings. At least two researchers will independently conduct all searches, study selection and data abstraction procedures. Meta-analyses and statistical methods of synthesis are not planned as part of the review. Results will be reported using numerical counts, including number of indicators in each care domain and by using qualitative approach to describe important indicator characteristics. A conceptual model will also be developed to summarise the impact of different aspects of quality in a palliative day service context. Methodological quality relating to indicator development will be assessed using the Appraisal of Indicators through Research and Evaluation (AIRE) tool. Overall strength of evidence will be assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. Final decisions on quality assessment will be made via consensus between review authors. Identifying, developing and implementing evidence-based quality indicators is critical to the evaluation and

  12. Microphysical variability of vigorous Amazonian deep convection observed by CloudSat, and relevance for cloud-resolving model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, J. B.; Taylor, P. C.

    2017-12-01

    The number and varieties of both satellite cloud observations and cloud simulations are increasing rapidly. This create a challenge in identifying the best methods for quantifying the physical processes associated with deep convection, and then comparing convective observations with simulations. The use of satellite simulators in conjunction with model output is an increasingly popular method of comparison studies. However, the complexity of deep convective systems renders simplistic comparison metrics hazardous, possibly resulting is misleading or even contradicting conclusions. To investigate this, CloudSat observations of Amazonian deep convective cores (DCCs) and associated anvils are compared and contrasted with output from cloud resolving models in a manner that both highlights microphysical proprties of observed convection, and displays the effects of microphysical parameterizations on allowing robust comparisons. First, contoured frequency by altitude diagrams (CFAD) are calculated from the reflectivity fields of DCCs observed by CloudSat. This reveals two distinct modes of hydrometeor variability in the high level cloud region, with one dominated by snow and aggregates, and the other by large graupel and hail. Second, output from the superparameterized Community Atmospheric Model (SP-CAM) data are processed with the Quickbeam radar simulator to produce CFADs which can be compared with the observed CFADs. Two versions of SP-CAM are used, with one (version 4) having single-moment microphysics which excludes graupel/hail, and the other (version 5) a double-moment scheme with graupel. The change from version 4 to 5 improves the reflectivity CFAD, even without corresponding changes to non-hydrometeor fields such as vertical velocity. However, it does not produce a realistic double hydrometeor mode. Finally, the influences of microphysics are further tested in the System for Atmospheric Modeling (SAM), which allows for higher control over model parameters than

  13. Predicting General Academic Performance and Identifying the Differential Contribution of Participating Variables Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, Mariel F.; Kyndt, Eva; Cascallar, Eduardo C.; Dochy, Filip

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have explored the contribution of different factors from diverse theoretical perspectives to the explanation of academic performance. These factors have been identified as having important implications not only for the study of learning processes, but also as tools for improving curriculum designs, tutorial systems, and students'…

  14. Social Networking Privacy Control: Exploring University Variables Related to Young Adults' Sharing of Personally Identifiable Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Melisa S.

    2014-01-01

    The growth of the Internet, and specifically social networking sites (SNSs) like Facebook, create opportunities for individuals to share private and identifiable information with a closed or open community. Internet crime has been on the rise and research has shown that criminals are using individuals' personal information pulled from social…

  15. Persistent fatigue in young athletes: measuring the clinical course and identifying variables affecting clinical recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, S; Osborne, M; O'Rourke, P

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to measure the clinical course (months) in young athletes with persistent fatigue and to identify any covariates affecting the duration of recovery. This was a prospective longitudinal study of 68 athletes; 87% were elite (42 males, 26 females), aged 20.5±3.74 years (SD), who presented with the symptom of persistent fatigue. The collective duration to full clinical recovery was estimated using Kaplan-Meier product-limit curves, and covariates associated with prolonging recovery were identified from Cox proportional hazard models. The median recovery was 5 months (range 1-60 months). The range of presenting symptom duration was 0.5-36 months. The covariates identified were an increased duration of presenting symptoms [hazard ratio (HR), 1.06; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.12; P=0.005] and the response of serum cortisol concentration to a standard exercise challenge (HR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.09-3.38; P=0.03). Delay in recovery was not associated with categories of fatigue that included medical, training-related diagnoses, or other causes. In conclusion, the fatigued athlete represents a significant clinical problem with a median recovery of 5 months, whose collective clinical course to recovery can be estimated by Kaplan-Meier curves and appears to be a continuum. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Eysenbach, Tuische and Diepgen’s Evaluation of Web Searching for Identifying Unpublished Studies for Systematic Reviews: An Innovative Study Which is Still Relevant Today.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Briscoe

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Eysenbach, G., Tuische, J. & Diepgen, T.L. (2001. Evaluation of the usefulness of Internet searches to identify unpublished clinical trials for systematic reviews. Medical Informatics and the Internet in Medicine, 26(3, 203-218. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14639230110075459 Objective – To consider whether web searching is a useful method for identifying unpublished studies for inclusion in systematic reviews. Design – Retrospective web searches using the AltaVista search engine were conducted to identify unpublished studies – specifically, clinical trials – for systematic reviews which did not use a web search engine. Setting – The Department of Clinical Social Medicine, University of Heidelberg, Germany. Subjects – n/a Methods – Pilot testing of 11 web search engines was carried out to determine which could handle complex search queries. Pre-specified search requirements included the ability to handle Boolean and proximity operators, and truncation searching. A total of seven Cochrane systematic reviews were randomly selected from the Cochrane Library Issue 2, 1998, and their bibliographic database search strategies were adapted for the web search engine, AltaVista. Each adaptation combined search terms for the intervention, problem, and study type in the systematic review. Hints to planned, ongoing, or unpublished studies retrieved by the search engine, which were not cited in the systematic reviews, were followed up by visiting websites and contacting authors for further details when required. The authors of the systematic reviews were then contacted and asked to comment on the potential relevance of the identified studies. Main Results – Hints to 14 unpublished and potentially relevant studies, corresponding to 4 of the 7 randomly selected Cochrane systematic reviews, were identified. Out of the 14 studies, 2 were considered irrelevant to the corresponding systematic review by the systematic review authors. The

  17. Identifying the most informative variables for decision-making problems – a survey of recent approaches and accompanying problems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pudil, Pavel; Somol, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 4 (2008), s. 37-55 ISSN 0572-3043 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 2C06019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : variable selection * decision making Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/RO/pudil-identifying%20the%20most%20informative%20variables%20for%20decision- making %20problems%20a%20survey%20of%20recent%20approaches%20and%20accompanying%20problems.pdf

  18. Back to the basics: Identifying and addressing underlying challenges in achieving high quality and relevant health statistics for indigenous populations in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smylie, Janet; Firestone, Michelle

    Canada is known internationally for excellence in both the quality and public policy relevance of its health and social statistics. There is a double standard however with respect to the relevance and quality of statistics for Indigenous populations in Canada. Indigenous specific health and social statistics gathering is informed by unique ethical, rights-based, policy and practice imperatives regarding the need for Indigenous participation and leadership in Indigenous data processes throughout the spectrum of indicator development, data collection, management, analysis and use. We demonstrate how current Indigenous data quality challenges including misclassification errors and non-response bias systematically contribute to a significant underestimate of inequities in health determinants, health status, and health care access between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in Canada. The major quality challenge underlying these errors and biases is the lack of Indigenous specific identifiers that are consistent and relevant in major health and social data sources. The recent removal of an Indigenous identity question from the Canadian census has resulted in further deterioration of an already suboptimal system. A revision of core health data sources to include relevant, consistent, and inclusive Indigenous self-identification is urgently required. These changes need to be carried out in partnership with Indigenous peoples and their representative and governing organizations.

  19. Raw material variability of an active pharmaceutical ingredient and its relevance for processability in secondary continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, F; Vanhoorne, V; Pilcer, G; Chavez, P-F; Rome, S; Schubert, M A; Aerts, L; De Beer, T

    2018-06-01

    Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API) raw material variability is not always thoroughly considered during pharmaceutical process development, mainly due to low quantities of drug substance available. However, synthesis, crystallization routes and production sites evolve during product development and product life cycle leading to changes in physical material attributes which can potentially affect their processability. Recent literature highlights the need for a global approach to understand the link between material synthesis, material variability, process and product quality. The study described in this article aims at explaining the raw material variability of an API using extensive material characterization on a restricted number of representative batches using multivariate data analysis. It is part of a larger investigation trying to link the API drug substance manufacturing process, the resulting physical API raw material attributes and the drug product continuous manufacturing process. Eight API batches produced using different synthetic routes, crystallization, drying, delumping processes and processing equipment were characterized, extensively. Seventeen properties from seven characterization techniques were retained for further analysis using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Three principal components (PCs) were sufficient to explain 92.9% of the API raw material variability. The first PC was related to crystal length, agglomerate size and fraction, flowability and electrostatic charging. The second PC was driven by the span of the particle size distribution and the agglomerates strength. The third PC was related to surface energy. Additionally, the PCA allowed to summarize the API batch-to-batch variability in only three PCs which can be used in future drug product development studies to quantitatively evaluate the impact of the API raw material variability upon the drug product process. The approach described in this article could be applied to any

  20. Diagnostic Value of Selected Echocardiographic Variables to Identify Pulmonary Hypertension in Dogs with Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidholm, A; Höglund, K; Häggström, J; Ljungvall, I

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is commonly associated with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD). Because dogs with PH present without measureable tricuspid regurgitation (TR), it would be useful to investigate echocardiographic variables that can identify PH. To investigate associations between estimated systolic TR pressure gradient (TRPG) and dog characteristics and selected echocardiographic variables. 156 privately owned dogs. Prospective observational study comparing the estimations of TRPG with dog characteristics and selected echocardiographic variables in dogs with MMVD and measureable TR. Tricuspid regurgitation pressure gradient was significantly (P modeled as linear variables LA/Ao (P modeled as second order polynomial variables: AT/DT (P = .0039) and LVIDDn (P value for the final model was 0.45 and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis suggested the model's performance to predict PH, defined as 36, 45, and 55 mmHg as fair (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.80), good (AUC = 0.86), and excellent (AUC = 0.92), respectively. In dogs with MMVD, the presence of PH might be suspected with the combination of decreased PA AT/DT, increased RVIDDn and LA/Ao, and a small or great LVIDDn. Copyright © 2015 The Authors Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  1. Precision Viticulture : is it relevant to manage the vineyard according to the within field spatial variability of the environment ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisseyre, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    For more than 15 years, research projects are conducted in the precision viticulture (PV) area around the world. These research projects have provided new insights into the within-field variability in viticulture. Indeed, access to high spatial resolution data (remote sensing, embedded sensors, etc.) changes the knowledge we have of the fields in viticulture. In particular, the field which was until now considered as a homogeneous management unit, presents actually a high spatial variability in terms of yield, vigour an quality. This knowledge will lead (and is already causing) changes on how to manage the vineyard and the quality of the harvest at the within field scale. From the experimental results obtained in various countries of the world, the goal of the presentation is to provide figures on: - the spatial variability of the main parameters (yield, vigor, quality), and how this variability is organized spatially, - the temporal stability of the observed spatial variability and the potential link with environmental parameters like soil, topography, soil water availability, etc. - information sources available at a high spatial resolution conventionally used in precision agriculture likely to highlight this spatial variability (multi-spectral images, soil electrical conductivity, etc.) and the limitations that these information sources are likely to present in viticulture. Several strategies are currently being developed to take into account the within field variability in viticulture. They are based on the development of specific equipments, sensors, actuators and site specific strategies with the aim of adapting the vineyard operations at the within-field level. These strategies will be presented briefly in two ways : - Site specific operations (fertilization, pruning, thinning, irrigation, etc.) in order to counteract the effects of the environment and to obtain a final product with a controlled and consistent wine quality, - Differential harvesting with the

  2. A set of high quality colour images with Spanish norms for seven relevant psycholinguistic variables: the Nombela naming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Martinez, Francisco Javier; Montoro, Pedro R; Laws, Keith R

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents a new corpus of 140 high quality colour images belonging to 14 subcategories and covering a range of naming difficulty. One hundred and six Spanish speakers named the items and provided data for several psycholinguistic variables: age of acquisition, familiarity, manipulability, name agreement, typicality and visual complexity. Furthermore, we also present lexical frequency data derived internet search hits. Apart from the large number of variables evaluated, these stimuli present an important advantage with respect to other comparable image corpora in so far as naming performance in healthy individuals is less prone to ceiling effect problems. Reliability and validity indexes showed that our items display similar psycholinguistic characteristics to those of other corpora. In sum, this set of ecologically valid stimuli provides a useful tool for scientists engaged in cognitive and neuroscience-based research.

  3. A formal method for identifying distinct states of variability in time-varying sources: SGR A* as an example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, L.; Witzel, G.; Ghez, A. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Longstaff, F. A. [UCLA Anderson School of Management, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1481 (United States)

    2014-08-10

    Continuously time variable sources are often characterized by their power spectral density and flux distribution. These quantities can undergo dramatic changes over time if the underlying physical processes change. However, some changes can be subtle and not distinguishable using standard statistical approaches. Here, we report a methodology that aims to identify distinct but similar states of time variability. We apply this method to the Galactic supermassive black hole, where 2.2 μm flux is observed from a source associated with Sgr A* and where two distinct states have recently been suggested. Our approach is taken from mathematical finance and works with conditional flux density distributions that depend on the previous flux value. The discrete, unobserved (hidden) state variable is modeled as a stochastic process and the transition probabilities are inferred from the flux density time series. Using the most comprehensive data set to date, in which all Keck and a majority of the publicly available Very Large Telescope data have been merged, we show that Sgr A* is sufficiently described by a single intrinsic state. However, the observed flux densities exhibit two states: noise dominated and source dominated. Our methodology reported here will prove extremely useful to assess the effects of the putative gas cloud G2 that is on its way toward the black hole and might create a new state of variability.

  4. Non-radial oscillations of rotating stars and their relevance to the short-period oscillations of cataclysmic variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papaloizou, J.; Pringle, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    The usual hypothesis, that the short-period coherent oscillations seen in cataclysmic variables are attributable to g modes in a slowly rotating white dwarf, is considered. It is shown that this hypothesis is untenable for three main reasons: (i) the observed periods are too short for reasonable white dwarf models, (ii) the observed variability of the oscillations is too rapid and (iii) the expected rotation of the white dwarf, due to accretion, invalidates the slow rotation assumption on which standard g-mode theory is based. The low-frequency spectrum of a rotating pulsating star is investigated taking the effects of rotation fully into account. In this case there are two sets of low-frequency modes, the g modes, and modes similar to Rossby waves in the Earth's atmosphere and oceans, which are designated r modes. Typical periods for such modes are 1/m times the rotation period of the white dwarfs outer layers (m is the aximuthal wavenumber). It is concluded that non-radial oscillations of rotating white dwarfs can account for the properties of the oscillations seen in dwarf novae. Application of these results to other systems is also discussed. (author)

  5. Closed-loop control of grasping with a myoelectric hand prosthesis: which are the relevant feedback variables for force control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninu, Andrei; Dosen, Strahinja; Muceli, Silvia; Rattay, Frank; Dietl, Hans; Farina, Dario

    2014-09-01

    In closed-loop control of grasping by hand prostheses, the feedback information sent to the user is usually the actual controlled variable, i.e., the grasp force. Although this choice is intuitive and logical, the force production is only the last step in the process of grasping. Therefore, this study evaluated the performance in controlling grasp strength using a hand prosthesis operated through a complete grasping sequence while varying the feedback variables (e.g., closing velocity, grasping force), which were provided to the user visually or through vibrotactile stimulation. The experiments were conducted on 13 volunteers who controlled the Otto Bock Sensor Hand Speed prosthesis. Results showed that vibrotactile patterns were able to replace the visual feedback. Interestingly, the experiments demonstrated that direct force feedback was not essential for the control of grasping force. The subjects were indeed able to control the grip strength, predictively, by estimating the grasping force from the prosthesis velocity of closing. Therefore, grasping without explicit force feedback is not completely blind, contrary to what is usually assumed. In our study we analyzed grasping with a specific prosthetic device, but the outcomes are also applicable for other devices, with one or more degrees-of-freedom. The necessary condition is that the electromyography (EMG) signal directly and proportionally controls the velocity/grasp force of the hand, which is a common approach among EMG controlled prosthetic devices. The results provide important indications on the design of closed-loop EMG controlled prosthetic systems.

  6. Low-frequency variability in North Sea and Baltic Sea identified through simulations with the 3-D coupled physical–biogeochemical model ECOSMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Daewel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Here we present results from a long-term model simulation of the 3-D coupled ecosystem model ECOSMO II for a North Sea and Baltic Sea set-up. The model allows both multi-decadal hindcast simulation of the marine system and specific process studies under controlled environmental conditions. Model results have been analysed with respect to long-term multi-decadal variability in both physical and biological parameters with the help of empirical orthogonal function (EOF analysis. The analysis of a 61-year (1948–2008 hindcast reveals a quasi-decadal variation in salinity, temperature and current fields in the North Sea in addition to singular events of major changes during restricted time frames. These changes in hydrodynamic variables were found to be associated with changes in ecosystem productivity that are temporally aligned with the timing of reported regime shifts in the areas. Our results clearly indicate that for analysing ecosystem productivity, spatially explicit methods are indispensable. Especially in the North Sea, a correlation analysis between atmospheric forcing and primary production (PP reveals significant correlations between PP and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO and wind forcing for the central part of the region, while the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO and air temperature are correlated to long-term changes in PP in the southern North Sea frontal areas. Since correlations cannot serve to identify causal relationship, we performed scenario model runs perturbing the temporal variability in forcing condition to emphasize specifically the role of solar radiation, wind and eutrophication. The results revealed that, although all parameters are relevant for the magnitude of PP in the North Sea and Baltic Sea, the dominant impact on long-term variability and major shifts in ecosystem productivity was introduced by modulations of the wind fields.

  7. The relevance of socio-demographic and occupational variables for the assessment of work-related stress risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinaccio, Alessandro; Ferrante, Pierpaolo; Corfiati, Marisa; Di Tecco, Cristina; Rondinone, Bruna M; Bonafede, Michela; Ronchetti, Matteo; Persechino, Benedetta; Iavicoli, Sergio

    2013-12-10

    Work-related stress is widely recognized as one of the major challenges to occupational health and safety. The correlation between work-related stress risk factors and physical health outcomes is widely acknowledged. This study investigated socio-demographic and occupational variables involved in perceived risk of work-related stress. The Italian version of the Health and Safety Executive Management Standards Indicator Tool was used in a large survey to examine the relationship between work-related stress risks and workers' demographic and occupational characteristics. Out of 8,527 questionnaires distributed among workers (from 75 organizations) 6,378 were returned compiled (74.8%); a set of mixed effects models were adopted to test single and combined effects of the variables on work-related stress risk. Female workers reported lower scores on control and peer support and more negative perceptions of relationships and change at work than male workers, most of them with full-time contracts. Age, job seniority, and educational level appeared positively correlated with control at work, but negatively with job demands. Fixed-term workers had positive perceptions regarding job demands and relationships, but more difficulties about their role at work than permanent workers. A commuting time longer than one hour and shift work appeared to be associated with higher levels of risk factors for work-related stress (except for role), the latter having more negative effects, increasing with age. The findings suggest that the assessment and management of work-related stress risk should consider specific socio-demographic and occupational risk factors such as gender, age, educational level, job status, shift work, commuting time, job contracts.

  8. Clinicopathological variables of sporadic schwannomas of peripheral nerve in 291 patients and expression of biologically relevant markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Eric D; Ingram, Davis; Metcalf-Doetsch, William; Khan, Dilshad; Al Sannaa, Ghadah; Le Loarer, Francois; Lazar, Alexander J F; Slopis, John; Torres, Keila E; Lev, Dina; Pollock, Raphael E; McCutcheon, Ian E

    2017-09-08

    OBJECTIVE While sporadic peripheral schwannomas (SPSs) are generally well treated with surgery, their biology is not well understood. Consequently, treatment options are limited. The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive description of SPS. The authors describe clinicopathological features and treatment outcomes of patients harboring these tumors, and they assess expression of biomarkers using a clinically annotated tissue microarray. Together, these data give new insight into the biology and management of SPS. METHODS Patients presenting with a primary SPS between 1993 and 2011 (n = 291) were selected from an institutional registry to construct a clinical database. All patients underwent follow-up, and short- and long-term outcomes were assessed. Expression of relevant biomarkers was assessed using a new tissue microarray (n = 121). RESULTS SPSs were generally large (mean 5.5 cm) and frequently painful at presentation (55%). Most patients were treated with surgery (80%), the majority of whom experienced complete resolution (52%) or improvement (18%) of their symptoms. Tumors that were completely resected (85%) did not recur. Some patients experienced short-term (16%) and long-term (4%) complications postoperatively. Schwannomas expressed higher levels of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (2.1) than malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) (1.5, p = 0.004) and neurofibromas (1.33, p = 0.007). Expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 was greater in SPSs (0.91) than in MPNSTs (0.33, p = 0.002) and neurofibromas (0.33, p = 0.026). Epidermal growth factor receptor was expressed in far fewer SPS cells (10%) than in MPNSTs (58%, p SPSs more frequently expressed cytoplasmic survivin (66% of tumor cells) than normal nerve (46% of cells), but SPS expressed nuclear survivin in fewer tumor cells than in MPNSTs (24% and 50%, respectively; p = 0.018). CONCLUSIONS Complete resection is curative for SPS. Left untreated, however, these

  9. Constructing disease-specific gene networks using pair-wise relevance metric: Application to colon cancer identifies interleukin 8, desmin and enolase 1 as the central elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Wei

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the advance of large-scale omics technologies, it is now feasible to reversely engineer the underlying genetic networks that describe the complex interplays of molecular elements that lead to complex diseases. Current networking approaches are mainly focusing on building genetic networks at large without probing the interaction mechanisms specific to a physiological or disease condition. The aim of this study was thus to develop such a novel networking approach based on the relevance concept, which is ideal to reveal integrative effects of multiple genes in the underlying genetic circuit for complex diseases. Results The approach started with identification of multiple disease pathways, called a gene forest, in which the genes extracted from the decision forest constructed by supervised learning of the genome-wide transcriptional profiles for patients and normal samples. Based on the newly identified disease mechanisms, a novel pair-wise relevance metric, adjusted frequency value, was used to define the degree of genetic relationship between two molecular determinants. We applied the proposed method to analyze a publicly available microarray dataset for colon cancer. The results demonstrated that the colon cancer-specific gene network captured the most important genetic interactions in several cellular processes, such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, mitogenesis and immunity, which are known to be pivotal for tumourigenesis. Further analysis of the topological architecture of the network identified three known hub cancer genes [interleukin 8 (IL8 (p ≈ 0, desmin (DES (p = 2.71 × 10-6 and enolase 1 (ENO1 (p = 4.19 × 10-5], while two novel hub genes [RNA binding motif protein 9 (RBM9 (p = 1.50 × 10-4 and ribosomal protein L30 (RPL30 (p = 1.50 × 10-4] may define new central elements in the gene network specific to colon cancer. Gene Ontology (GO based analysis of the colon cancer-specific gene network and

  10. Constructing disease-specific gene networks using pair-wise relevance metric: application to colon cancer identifies interleukin 8, desmin and enolase 1 as the central elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Li, Xia; Rao, Shaoqi; Wang, Lihong; Du, Lei; Li, Chuanxing; Wu, Chao; Wang, Hongzhi; Wang, Yadong; Yang, Baofeng

    2008-08-10

    With the advance of large-scale omics technologies, it is now feasible to reversely engineer the underlying genetic networks that describe the complex interplays of molecular elements that lead to complex diseases. Current networking approaches are mainly focusing on building genetic networks at large without probing the interaction mechanisms specific to a physiological or disease condition. The aim of this study was thus to develop such a novel networking approach based on the relevance concept, which is ideal to reveal integrative effects of multiple genes in the underlying genetic circuit for complex diseases. The approach started with identification of multiple disease pathways, called a gene forest, in which the genes extracted from the decision forest constructed by supervised learning of the genome-wide transcriptional profiles for patients and normal samples. Based on the newly identified disease mechanisms, a novel pair-wise relevance metric, adjusted frequency value, was used to define the degree of genetic relationship between two molecular determinants. We applied the proposed method to analyze a publicly available microarray dataset for colon cancer. The results demonstrated that the colon cancer-specific gene network captured the most important genetic interactions in several cellular processes, such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, mitogenesis and immunity, which are known to be pivotal for tumourigenesis. Further analysis of the topological architecture of the network identified three known hub cancer genes [interleukin 8 (IL8) (p approximately 0), desmin (DES) (p = 2.71 x 10(-6)) and enolase 1 (ENO1) (p = 4.19 x 10(-5))], while two novel hub genes [RNA binding motif protein 9 (RBM9) (p = 1.50 x 10(-4)) and ribosomal protein L30 (RPL30) (p = 1.50 x 10(-4))] may define new central elements in the gene network specific to colon cancer. Gene Ontology (GO) based analysis of the colon cancer-specific gene network and the sub-network that

  11. Identifying novel genes and biological processes relevant to the development of cancer therapy-induced mucositis: An informative gene network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Gibby, Cielito C; Melkonian, Stephanie C; Wang, Jian; Yu, Robert K; Shelburne, Samuel A; Lu, Charles; Gunn, Gary Brandon; Chambers, Mark S; Hanna, Ehab Y; Yeung, Sai-Ching J; Shete, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    Mucositis is a complex, dose-limiting toxicity of chemotherapy or radiotherapy that leads to painful mouth ulcers, difficulty eating or swallowing, gastrointestinal distress, and reduced quality of life for patients with cancer. Mucositis is most common for those undergoing high-dose chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and for those being treated for malignancies of the head and neck. Treatment and management of mucositis remain challenging. It is expected that multiple genes are involved in the formation, severity, and persistence of mucositis. We used Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), a novel network-based approach that integrates complex intracellular and intercellular interactions involved in diseases, to systematically explore the molecular complexity of mucositis. As a first step, we searched the literature to identify genes that harbor or are close to the genetic variants significantly associated with mucositis. Our literature review identified 27 candidate genes, of which ERCC1, XRCC1, and MTHFR were the most frequently studied for mucositis. On the basis of this 27-gene list, we used IPA to generate gene networks for mucositis. The most biologically significant novel molecules identified through IPA analyses included TP53, CTNNB1, MYC, RB1, P38 MAPK, and EP300. Additionally, uracil degradation II (reductive) and thymine degradation pathways (p = 1.06-08) were most significant. Finally, utilizing 66 SNPs within the 8 most connected IPA-derived candidate molecules, we conducted a genetic association study for oral mucositis in the head and neck cancer patients who were treated using chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy (186 head and neck cancer patients with oral mucositis vs. 699 head and neck cancer patients without oral mucositis). The top ranked gene identified through this association analysis was RB1 (rs2227311, p-value = 0.034, odds ratio = 0.67). In conclusion, gene network analysis identified novel molecules and biological

  12. Identifying novel genes and biological processes relevant to the development of cancer therapy-induced mucositis: An informative gene network analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cielito C Reyes-Gibby

    Full Text Available Mucositis is a complex, dose-limiting toxicity of chemotherapy or radiotherapy that leads to painful mouth ulcers, difficulty eating or swallowing, gastrointestinal distress, and reduced quality of life for patients with cancer. Mucositis is most common for those undergoing high-dose chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and for those being treated for malignancies of the head and neck. Treatment and management of mucositis remain challenging. It is expected that multiple genes are involved in the formation, severity, and persistence of mucositis. We used Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA, a novel network-based approach that integrates complex intracellular and intercellular interactions involved in diseases, to systematically explore the molecular complexity of mucositis. As a first step, we searched the literature to identify genes that harbor or are close to the genetic variants significantly associated with mucositis. Our literature review identified 27 candidate genes, of which ERCC1, XRCC1, and MTHFR were the most frequently studied for mucositis. On the basis of this 27-gene list, we used IPA to generate gene networks for mucositis. The most biologically significant novel molecules identified through IPA analyses included TP53, CTNNB1, MYC, RB1, P38 MAPK, and EP300. Additionally, uracil degradation II (reductive and thymine degradation pathways (p = 1.06-08 were most significant. Finally, utilizing 66 SNPs within the 8 most connected IPA-derived candidate molecules, we conducted a genetic association study for oral mucositis in the head and neck cancer patients who were treated using chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy (186 head and neck cancer patients with oral mucositis vs. 699 head and neck cancer patients without oral mucositis. The top ranked gene identified through this association analysis was RB1 (rs2227311, p-value = 0.034, odds ratio = 0.67. In conclusion, gene network analysis identified novel molecules and

  13. Identifying Patient-Specific Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen-1 Genetic Variation and Potential Autoreactive Targets Relevant to Multiple Sclerosis Pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Tschochner

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infection represents a major environmental risk factor for multiple sclerosis (MS, with evidence of selective expansion of Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen-1 (EBNA1-specific CD4+ T cells that cross-recognize MS-associated myelin antigens in MS patients. HLA-DRB1*15-restricted antigen presentation also appears to determine susceptibility given its role as a dominant risk allele. In this study, we have utilised standard and next-generation sequencing techniques to investigate EBNA-1 sequence variation and its relationship to HLA-DR15 binding affinity, as well as examining potential cross-reactive immune targets within the central nervous system proteome.Sanger sequencing was performed on DNA isolated from peripheral blood samples from 73 Western Australian MS cases, without requirement for primary culture, with additional FLX 454 Roche sequencing in 23 samples to identify low-frequency variants. Patient-derived viral sequences were used to predict HLA-DRB1*1501 epitopes (NetMHCII, NetMHCIIpan and candidates were evaluated for cross recognition with human brain proteins.EBNA-1 sequence variation was limited, with no evidence of multiple viral strains and only low levels of variation identified by FLX technology (8.3% nucleotide positions at a 1% cut-off. In silico epitope mapping revealed two known HLA-DRB1*1501-restricted epitopes ('AEG': aa 481-496 and 'MVF': aa 562-577, and two putative epitopes between positions 502-543. We identified potential cross-reactive targets involving a number of major myelin antigens including experimentally confirmed HLA-DRB1*15-restricted epitopes as well as novel candidate antigens within myelin and paranodal assembly proteins that may be relevant to MS pathogenesis.This study demonstrates the feasibility of obtaining autologous EBNA-1 sequences directly from buffy coat samples, and confirms divergence of these sequences from standard laboratory strains. This approach has identified a number of

  14. Identifying diagnostically-relevant resting state brain functional connectivity in the ventral posterior complex via genetic data mining in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Philip R; Curtis, Kaylah N; Patriquin, Michelle A; Wolf, Varina; Viswanath, Humsini; Shaw, Chad; Sakai, Yasunari; Salas, Ramiro

    2016-05-01

    Exome sequencing and copy number variation analyses continue to provide novel insight to the biological bases of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The growing speed at which massive genetic data are produced causes serious lags in analysis and interpretation of the data. Thus, there is a need to develop systematic genetic data mining processes that facilitate efficient analysis of large datasets. We report a new genetic data mining system, ProcessGeneLists and integrated a list of ASD-related genes with currently available resources in gene expression and functional connectivity of the human brain. Our data-mining program successfully identified three primary regions of interest (ROIs) in the mouse brain: inferior colliculus, ventral posterior complex of the thalamus (VPC), and parafascicular nucleus (PFn). To understand its pathogenic relevance in ASD, we examined the resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the homologous ROIs in human brain with other brain regions that were previously implicated in the neuro-psychiatric features of ASD. Among them, the RSFC of the VPC with the medial frontal gyrus (MFG) was significantly more anticorrelated, whereas the RSFC of the PN with the globus pallidus was significantly increased in children with ASD compared with healthy children. Moreover, greater values of RSFC between VPC and MFG were correlated with severity index and repetitive behaviors in children with ASD. No significant RSFC differences were detected in adults with ASD. Together, these data demonstrate the utility of our data-mining program through identifying the aberrant connectivity of thalamo-cortical circuits in children with ASD. Autism Res 2016, 9: 553-562. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT: A Cytoscape app for identifying contextually relevant hubs in biological networks [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Muetze

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Highly connected nodes (hubs in biological networks are topologically important to the structure of the network and have also been shown to be preferentially associated with a range of phenotypes of interest. The relative importance of a hub node, however, can change depending on the biological context. Here, we report a Cytoscape app, the Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT, which enables users to easily construct and visualize a network of interactions from a gene or protein list of interest, integrate contextual information, such as gene expression or mass spectrometry data, and identify hub nodes that are more highly connected to contextual nodes (e.g. genes or proteins that are differentially expressed than expected by chance. In a case study, we use CHAT to construct a network of genes that are differentially expressed in Dengue fever, a viral infection. CHAT was used to identify and compare contextual and degree-based hubs in this network. The top 20 degree-based hubs were enriched in pathways related to the cell cycle and cancer, which is likely due to the fact that proteins involved in these processes tend to be highly connected in general. In comparison, the top 20 contextual hubs were enriched in pathways commonly observed in a viral infection including pathways related to the immune response to viral infection. This analysis shows that such contextual hubs are considerably more biologically relevant than degree-based hubs and that analyses which rely on the identification of hubs solely based on their connectivity may be biased towards nodes that are highly connected in general rather than in the specific context of interest.   Availability: CHAT is available for Cytoscape 3.0+ and can be installed via the Cytoscape App Store (http://apps.cytoscape.org/apps/chat.

  16. Identifying the sources driving observed PM2.5 temporal variability over Halifax, Nova Scotia, during BORTAS-B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Gibson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The source attribution of observed variability of total PM2.5 concentrations over Halifax, Nova Scotia, was investigated between 11 July and 26 August 2011 using measurements of PM2.5 mass and PM2.5 chemical composition (black carbon, organic matter, anions, cations and 33 elements. This was part of the BORTAS-B (quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants using Aircraft and Satellites experiment, which investigated the atmospheric chemistry and transport of seasonal boreal wildfire emissions over eastern Canada in 2011. The US EPA Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF receptor model was used to determine the average mass (percentage source contribution over the 45 days, which was estimated to be as follows: long-range transport (LRT pollution: 1.75 μg m−3 (47%; LRT pollution marine mixture: 1.0 μg m−3 (27.9%; vehicles: 0.49 μg m−3 (13.2%; fugitive dust: 0.23 μg m−3 (6.3%; ship emissions: 0.13 μg m−3 (3.4%; and refinery: 0.081 μg m−3 (2.2%. The PMF model describes 87% of the observed variability in total PM2.5 mass (bias = 0.17 and RSME = 1.5 μg m−3. The factor identifications are based on chemical markers, and they are supported by air mass back trajectory analysis and local wind direction. Biomass burning plumes, found by other surface and aircraft measurements, were not significant enough to be identified in this analysis. This paper presents the results of the PMF receptor modelling, providing valuable insight into the local and upwind sources impacting surface PM2.5 in Halifax and a vital comparative data set for the other collocated ground-based observations of atmospheric composition made during BORTAS-B.

  17. Offshore limit of coastal ocean variability identified from hydrography and altimeter data in the eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Antony, M.K.; Swamy, G.N.; Somayajulu, Y.K.

    In this communication, we describe a hitherto-unknown offshore limit to the coastal ocean variability signatures away from the continental shelf in the eastern Arabian Sea, based on hydrographic observations and satellite altimeter (TOPEX...

  18. IMP-8 observations of the spectra, composition, and variability of solar heavy ions at high energies relevant to manned space missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tylka, Allan J.; Dietrich, William F.

    1999-01-01

    In more than 25 years of almost continuous observations, the University of Chicago's Cosmic Ray Telescope (CRT) on IMP-8 has amassed a unique database on high-energy solar heavy ions of potential relevance to manned spaceflight. In the very largest particle events, IMP-8/CRT has even observed solar Fe ions above the Galactic cosmic ray background up to ∼800 MeV/nucleon, an energy sufficiently high to penetrate nearly 25 g/cm 2 of shielding. IMP-8/CRT observations show that high-energy heavy-ion spectra are often surprisingly hard power laws, without the exponential roll-offs suggested by stochastic acceleration fits to lower energy measurements alone. Also, in many solar particle events the Fe/O ratio grows with increasing energy, contrary to the notion that ions with higher mass-to-charge ratios should be less abundant at higher energies. Previous studies of radiation hazards for manned spaceflight have often assumed heavy-ion composition and steeply-falling energy spectra inconsistent with these observations. Conclusions based on such studies should therefore be re-assessed. The significant event-to-event variability observed in the high-energy solar heavy ions also has important implications for strategies in building probabilistic models of solar particle radiation hazards

  19. A Spreadsheet-Based Visualized Mindtool for Improving Students' Learning Performance in Identifying Relationships between Numerical Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chiu-Lin; Hwang, Gwo-Jen

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a spreadsheet-based visualized Mindtool was developed for improving students' learning performance when finding relationships between numerical variables by engaging them in reasoning and decision-making activities. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, an experiment was conducted on the "phenomena of climate…

  20. Identifying factors relevant in the assessment of return-to-work efforts in employees on long-term sickness absence due to chronic low back pain : a focus group study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijzer, Anna; Geertzen, Jan H.; de Boer, Wout E.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Brouwer, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Background: Efforts undertaken during the return to work (RTW) process need to be sufficient to prevent unnecessary applications for disability benefits. The purpose of this study was to identify factors relevant to RTW Effort Sufficiency (RTW-ES) in cases of sick-listed employees with chronic low

  1. Identifying and Integrating Relevant Educational/Instructional Technology (E/IT) for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CLD) Students with Disabilities in Urban Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Monica R.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this manuscript is to address the significant void in the literature related to technology integration for culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students with disabilities living in urban communities. Given that the vast majority of CLD students attend school within urban districts, the focus of this article is to (a) identify and…

  2. Why relevance theory is relevant for lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothma, Theo; Tarp, Sven

    2014-01-01

    This article starts by providing a brief summary of relevance theory in information science in relation to the function theory of lexicography, explaining the different types of relevance, viz. objective system relevance and the subjective types of relevance, i.e. topical, cognitive, situational...... that is very important for lexicography as well as for information science, viz. functional relevance. Since all lexicographic work is ultimately aimed at satisfying users’ information needs, the article then discusses why the lexicographer should take note of all these types of relevance when planning a new...... dictionary project, identifying new tasks and responsibilities of the modern lexicographer. The article furthermore discusses how relevance theory impacts on teaching dictionary culture and reference skills. By integrating insights from lexicography and information science, the article contributes to new...

  3. Identifying uncertainty of the mean of some water quality variables along water quality monitoring network of Bahr El Baqar drain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein G. Karaman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Assigning objectives to the environmental monitoring network is the pillar of the design to these kinds of networks. Conflicting network objectives may affect the adequacy of the design in terms of sampling frequency and the spatial distribution of the monitoring stations which in turn affect the accuracy of the data and the information extracted. The first step in resolving this problem is to identify the uncertainty inherent in the network as the result of the vagueness of the design objective. Entropy has been utilized and adopted over the past decades to identify uncertainty in similar water data sets. Therefore it is used to identify the uncertainties inherent in the water quality monitoring network of Bahr El-Baqar drain located in the Eastern Delta. Toward investigating the applicability of the Entropy methodology, comprehensive analysis at the selected drain as well as their data sets is carried out. Furthermore, the uncertainty calculated by the entropy function will be presented by the means of the geographical information system to give the decision maker a global view to these uncertainties and to open the door to other researchers to find out innovative approaches to lower these uncertainties reaching optimal monitoring network in terms of the spatial distribution of the monitoring stations.

  4. Identifying patient- and family-centered outcomes relevant to inpatient versus at-home management of neutropenia in children with acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymczak, Julia E; Getz, Kelly D; Madding, Rachel; Fisher, Brian; Raetz, Elizabeth; Hijiya, Nobuko; Gramatges, Maria M; Henry, Meret; Mian, Amir; Arnold, Staci D; Aftandilian, Catherine; Collier, Anderson B; Aplenc, Richard

    2018-04-01

    Efficacy of therapeutic strategies relative to patient- and family-centered outcomes in pediatric oncology must be assessed. We sought to identify outcomes important to children with acute myeloid leukemia and their families related to inpatient versus at-home management of neutropenia. We conducted qualitative interviews with 32 children ≥8 years old and 54 parents. Analysis revealed the impact of neutropenia management strategy on siblings, parent anxiety, and child sleep quality as being outcomes of concern across respondents. These themes were used to inform the design of a questionnaire that is currently being used in a prospective, multiinstitutional comparative effectiveness trial. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. A novel de novo activating mutation in STAT3 identified in a patient with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Mark A; Pigors, Manuela; Houssen, Maha E; Manson, Ania; Kelsell, David; Longhurst, Hilary; Morgan, Noel G

    2018-02-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is characterised by repeated infection associated with primary acquired hypogammaglobulinemia. CVID frequently has a complex aetiology but, in certain cases, it has a monogenic cause. Recently, variants within the gene encoding the transcription factor STAT3 were implicated in monogenic CVID. Here, we describe a patient presenting with symptoms synonymous with CVID, who displayed reduced levels of IgG and IgA, repeated viral infections and multiple additional co-morbidities. Whole-exome sequencing revealed a de novo novel missense mutation in the coiled-coil domain of STAT3 (c.870A>T; p.K290N). Accordingly, the K290N variant of STAT3 was generated, and a STAT3 responsive dual-luciferase reporter assay revealed that the variant strongly enhances STAT3 transcriptional activity both under basal and stimulated (with IL-6) conditions. Overall, these data complement earlier studies in which CVID-associated STAT3 mutations are predicted to enhance transcriptional activity, suggesting that such patients may respond favourably to IL-6 receptor antagonists (e.g. tocilizumab). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Observer variability identifying attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in 10-year-old children born extremely preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviton, Alan; Hunter, Scott J; Scott, Megan N; Hooper, Stephen R; Joseph, Robert M; O'Shea, Thomas Michael; Allred, Elizabeth N; Kuban, Karl

    2017-08-01

    A DSM-5 diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactive disorder (ADHD) requires that symptoms be present in two settings. We wanted to see how teachers and parents compare on their assessments. We evaluated how well Child Symptom Inventory-4 (CSI-4) reports from 871 parents and 634 teachers of 10-year-old children born before the 28th week of gestation provided information about indicators of school dysfunction. Kappa values for parent and teacher agreement of any ADHD were at best fair to poor (<0.41). Nevertheless, ADHD identified by each alone provided a moderate amount of information about such indicators of school dysfunction as grade repetition. Only occasionally did agreement provide more information than provided by only one reporter. Mother's social class and intelligence level did not discriminate between parents who did and did not agree with the teacher. ADHD identified by a single observer can provide appreciable information about a range of the child's functions needed for success in school and, therefore, should not be discounted when another observer does not consider the child to have ADHD symptoms. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Identifying controlling variables for math computation fluency through experimental analysis: the interaction of stimulus control and reinforcing consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstadter-Duke, Kristi L; Daly, Edward J

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated a method for conducting experimental analyses of academic responding. In the experimental analyses, academic responding (math computation), rather than problem behavior, was reinforced across conditions. Two separate experimental analyses (one with fluent math computation problems and one with non-fluent math computation problems) were conducted with three elementary school children using identical contingencies while math computation rate was measured. Results indicate that the experimental analysis with non-fluent problems produced undifferentiated responding across participants; however, differentiated responding was achieved for all participants in the experimental analysis with fluent problems. A subsequent comparison of the single-most effective condition from the experimental analyses replicated the findings with novel computation problems. Results are discussed in terms of the critical role of stimulus control in identifying controlling consequences for academic deficits, and recommendations for future research refining and extending experimental analysis to academic responding are made. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Transcriptome association analysis identifies miR-375 as a major determinant of variable acetaminophen glucuronidation by human liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Ioannis; Freytsis, Marina; Court, Michael H

    2016-10-01

    Acetaminophen is the leading cause of acute liver failure (ALF) in many countries including the United States. Hepatic glucuronidation by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A subfamily enzymes is the major route of acetaminophen elimination. Reduced glucuronidation may predispose some individuals to acetaminophen-induced ALF, but mechanisms underlying reduced glucuronidation are poorly understood. We hypothesized that specific microRNAs (miRNAs) may reduce UGT1A activity by direct effects on the UGT1A 3'-UTR shared by all UGT1A enzyme transcripts, or by indirect effects on transcription factors regulating UGT1A expression. We performed an unbiased miRNA whole transcriptome association analysis using a bank of human livers with known acetaminophen glucuronidation activities. Of 754 miRNAs evaluated, 9 miRNAs were identified that were significantly overexpressed (p2-fold) in livers with low acetaminophen glucuronidation activities compared with those with high activities. miR-375 showed the highest difference (>10-fold), and was chosen for further mechanistic validation. We demonstrated using in silico analysis and luciferase reporter assays that miR-375 has a unique functional binding site in the 3'-UTR of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) gene. Furthermore overexpression of miR-375 in LS180 cells demonstrated significant repression of endogenous AhR protein (by 40%) and mRNA (by 10%), as well as enzyme activity and/or mRNA of AhR regulated enzymes including UGT1A1, UGT1A6, and CYP1A2, without affecting UGT2B7, which is not regulated by AhR. Thus miR-375 is identified as a novel repressor of UGT1A-mediated hepatic acetaminophen glucuronidation through reduced AhR expression, which could predispose some individuals to increased risk for acetaminophen-induced ALF. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Clinically Relevant Subsets Identified by Gene Expression Patterns Support a Revised Ontogenic Model of Wilms Tumor: A Children's Oncology Group Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Gadd

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Wilms tumors (WT have provided broad insights into the interface between development and tumorigenesis. Further understanding is confounded by their genetic, histologic, and clinical heterogeneity, the basis of which remains largely unknown. We evaluated 224 WT for global gene expression patterns; WT1, CTNNB1, and WTX mutation; and 11p15 copy number and methylation patterns. Five subsets were identified showing distinct differences in their pathologic and clinical features: these findings were validated in 100 additional WT. The gene expression pattern of each subset was compared with published gene expression profiles during normal renal development. A novel subset of epithelial WT in infants lacked WT1, CTNNB1, and WTX mutations and nephrogenic rests and displayed a gene expression pattern of the postinduction nephron, and none recurred. Three subsets were characterized by a low expression of WT1 and intralobar nephrogenic rests. These differed in their frequency of WT1 and CTNNB1 mutations, in their age, in their relapse rate, and in their expression similarities with the intermediate mesoderm versus the metanephric mesenchyme. The largest subset was characterized by biallelic methylation of the imprint control region 1, a gene expression profile of the metanephric mesenchyme, and both interlunar and perilobar nephrogenic rests. These data provide a biologic explanation for the clinical and pathologic heterogeneity seen within WT and enable the future development of subset-specific therapeutic strategies. Further, these data support a revision of the current model of WT ontogeny, which allows for an interplay between the type of initiating event and the developmental stage in which it occurs.

  10. Intratumor partitioning and texture analysis of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI identifies relevant tumor subregions to predict pathological response of breast cancer to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia; Gong, Guanghua; Cui, Yi; Li, Ruijiang

    2016-11-01

    To predict pathological response of breast cancer to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) based on quantitative, multiregion analysis of dynamic contrast enhancement magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). In this Institutional Review Board-approved study, 35 patients diagnosed with stage II/III breast cancer were retrospectively investigated using 3T DCE-MR images acquired before and after the first cycle of NAC. First, principal component analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the dimensionality of the DCE-MRI data with high temporal resolution. We then partitioned the whole tumor into multiple subregions using k-means clustering based on the PCA-defined eigenmaps. Within each tumor subregion, we extracted four quantitative Haralick texture features based on the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). The change in texture features in each tumor subregion between pre- and during-NAC was used to predict pathological complete response after NAC. Three tumor subregions were identified through clustering, each with distinct enhancement characteristics. In univariate analysis, all imaging predictors except one extracted from the tumor subregion associated with fast washout were statistically significant (P < 0.05) after correcting for multiple testing, with area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) or AUCs between 0.75 and 0.80. In multivariate analysis, the proposed imaging predictors achieved an AUC of 0.79 (P = 0.002) in leave-one-out cross-validation. This improved upon conventional imaging predictors such as tumor volume (AUC = 0.53) and texture features based on whole-tumor analysis (AUC = 0.65). The heterogeneity of the tumor subregion associated with fast washout on DCE-MRI predicted pathological response to NAC in breast cancer. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:1107-1115. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  11. Inter Annual Variability of the Acoustic Propagation in the Yellow Sea Identified from a Synoptic Monthly Gridded Database as Compared with GDEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    resolution in SMG-WOD, and thus less data levels for such shallow water . A comprehensive collection of salinity images by years can be found in the...DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words ) This research investigates the inter-annual acoustic variability in the Yellow Sea identified from...is a semi-enclosed basin located between China and Korea with a mean depth of 40m; acoustics are driven by shallow water dynamics and interaction with

  12. Spherical aberration and other higher-order aberrations in the human eye : from summary wave-front analysis data to optical variables relevant to visual perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    Wave-front analysis data from the human eye are commonly presented using the aberration coefficient c(4)(0) (primary spherical aberration) together with an overall measure of all higher-order aberrations. If groups of subjects are compared, however, the relevance of an observed difference cannot

  13. The interprocess NIR sampling as an alternative approach to multivariate statistical process control for identifying sources of product-quality variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Snežana; Kerč, Janez; Horvat, Matej

    2017-03-01

    We are presenting a new approach of identifying sources of variability within a manufacturing process by NIR measurements of samples of intermediate material after each consecutive unit operation (interprocess NIR sampling technique). In addition, we summarize the development of a multivariate statistical process control (MSPC) model for the production of enteric-coated pellet product of the proton-pump inhibitor class. By developing provisional NIR calibration models, the identification of critical process points yields comparable results to the established MSPC modeling procedure. Both approaches are shown to lead to the same conclusion, identifying parameters of extrusion/spheronization and characteristics of lactose that have the greatest influence on the end-product's enteric coating performance. The proposed approach enables quicker and easier identification of variability sources during manufacturing process, especially in cases when historical process data is not straightforwardly available. In the presented case the changes of lactose characteristics are influencing the performance of the extrusion/spheronization process step. The pellet cores produced by using one (considered as less suitable) lactose source were on average larger and more fragile, leading to consequent breakage of the cores during subsequent fluid bed operations. These results were confirmed by additional experimental analyses illuminating the underlying mechanism of fracture of oblong pellets during the pellet coating process leading to compromised film coating.

  14. Identifying factors relevant in the assessment of return-to-work efforts in employees on long-term sickness absence due to chronic low back pain: a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muijzer Anna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efforts undertaken during the return to work (RTW process need to be sufficient to prevent unnecessary applications for disability benefits. The purpose of this study was to identify factors relevant to RTW Effort Sufficiency (RTW-ES in cases of sick-listed employees with chronic low back pain (CLBP. Methods Using focus groups consisting of Labor Experts (LE's working at the Dutch Social Insurance Institute, arguments and underlying grounds relevant to the assessment of RTW-ES were investigated. Factors were collected and categorized using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF model. Results Two focus groups yielded 19 factors, of which 12 are categorized in the ICF model under activities (e.g. functional capacity and in the personal (e.g. age, tenure and environmental domain (e.g. employer-employee relationship. The remaining 7 factors are categorized under intervention, job accommodation and measures. Conclusions This focus group study shows that 19 factors may be relevant to RTW-ES in sick-listed employees with CLBP. Providing these results to professionals assessing RTW-ES might contribute to a more transparent and systematic approach. Considering the importance of the quality of the RTW process, optimizing the RTW-ES assessment is essential.

  15. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) based reconstruction of 130 years of water table fluctuations in a peatland and its relevance for moisture variability assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamkevičiūtė, Marija; Edvardsson, Johannes; Pukienė, Rūtilė; Taminskas, Julius; Stoffel, Markus; Corona, Christophe; Kibirkštis, Gintautas

    2018-03-01

    Continuous water-table (WT) measurements from peatlands are scarce and - if existing at all -very short. Consequently, proxy indicators are critically needed to simulate hydrological changes in peatlands over longer time periods. In this study, we demonstrate that tree-ring width (TRW) records of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing in the Čepkeliai peatland (southern Lithuania) can be used as a proxy to reconstruct hydrological variability in a raised bog environment. A two-step modelling procedure was applied to extend existing measurements and to develop a new and longer peatland WT time series. To this end, we used instrumental WT measurements extending back to 2002, meteorological records, a P-PET (difference between precipitation and potential evapotranspiration) series covering the period 1935-2014, so as to construct a tree-ring based time series of WT fluctuations at the site for the period 1870-2014. Strongest correlations were obtained between average annual WT measured at the bog margin and total P-PET over 7 years (r = 0.923, p runoff since CE 1812 (r = 0.39, p < 0.00001, 1870-2014). We conclude that peatlands can act both as sinks and sources of greenhouse gases in case that hydrological conditions change, but that hydrological lags and complex feedbacks still hamper our understanding of several processes affecting the hydrology and carbon budget in peatlands. We therefore call for the development of further proxy records of water-table variability in peatlands to improve our understanding of peatland responses to climatic changes.

  16. Psychosocial Clusters and their Associations with Well-Being and Health: An Empirical Strategy for Identifying Psychosocial Predictors Most Relevant to Racially/Ethnically Diverse Women’s Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabson, Jennifer M.; Bowen, Deborah; Weinberg, Janice; Kroenke, Candyce; Luo, Juhua; Messina, Catherine; Shumaker, Sally; Tindle, Hilary A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Strategies for identifying the most relevant psychosocial predictors in studies of racial/ethnic minority women’s health are limited because they largely exclude cultural influences and they assume that psychosocial predictors are independent. This paper proposes and tests an empirical solution. METHODS Hierarchical cluster analysis, conducted with data from 140,652 Women’s Health Initiative participants, identified clusters among individual psychosocial predictors. Multivariable analyses tested associations between clusters and health outcomes. RESULTS A Social Cluster and a Stress Cluster were identified. The Social Cluster was positively associated with well-being and inversely associated with chronic disease index, and the Stress Cluster was inversely associated with well-being and positively associated with chronic disease index. As hypothesized, the magnitude of association between clusters and outcomes differed by race/ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS By identifying psychosocial clusters and their associations with health, we have taken an important step toward understanding how individual psychosocial predictors interrelate and how empirically formed Stress and Social clusters relate to health outcomes. This study has also demonstrated important insight about differences in associations between these psychosocial clusters and health among racial/ethnic minorities. These differences could signal the best pathways for intervention modification and tailoring. PMID:27279761

  17. Prognostic relevance of the interaction between short-term, metronome-paced heart rate variability, and inflammation: results from the population-based CARLA cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medenwald, Daniel; Swenne, Cees A; Loppnow, Harald; Kors, Jan A; Pietzner, Diana; Tiller, Daniel; Thiery, Joachim; Nuding, Sebastian; Greiser, Karin H; Haerting, Johannes; Werdan, Karl; Kluttig, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    To determine the interaction between HRV and inflammation and their association with cardiovascular/all-cause mortality in the general population. Subjects of the CARLA study (n = 1671; 778 women, 893 men, 45-83 years of age) were observed for an average follow-up period of 8.8 years (226 deaths, 70 cardiovascular deaths). Heart rate variability parameters were calculated from 5-min segments of 20-min resting electrocardiograms. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and soluble tumour necrosis factor-alpha receptor type 1 (sTNF-R1) were measured as inflammation parameters. The HRV parameters determined included the standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN), the root-mean-square of successive normal-interval differences (RMSSD), the low- and high-frequency (HF) power, the ratio of both, and non-linear parameters [Poincaré plot (SD1, SD2, SD1/SD2), short-term detrended fluctuation analysis]. We estimated hazard ratios by using covariate-adjusted Cox regression for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality incorporating an interaction term of HRV/inflammation parameters. Relative excess risk due to interactions (RERIs) were computed. We found an interaction effect of sTNF-R1 with SDNN (RERI: 0.5; 99% confidence interval (CI): 0.1-1.0), and a weaker effect with RMSSD (RERI: 0.4; 99% CI: 0.0-0.9) and HF (RERI: 0.4; 99% CI: 0.0-0.9) with respect to cardiovascular mortality on an additive scale after covariate adjustment. Neither IL-6 nor hsCRP showed a significant interaction with the HRV parameters. A change in TNF-α levels or the autonomic nervous system influences the mortality risk through both entities simultaneously. Thus, TNF-α and HRV need to be considered when predicating mortality. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Limitations of variable number of tandem repeat typing identified through whole genome sequencing of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis on a national and herd level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, Christina; Barkema, Herman W; Stevenson, Karen; Zadoks, Ruth N; Biek, Roman; Kao, Rowland; Trewby, Hannah; Haupstein, Deb; Kelton, David F; Fecteau, Gilles; Labrecque, Olivia; Keefe, Greg P; McKenna, Shawn L B; De Buck, Jeroen

    2015-03-08

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative bacterium of Johne's disease in dairy cattle, is widespread in the Canadian dairy industry and has significant economic and animal welfare implications. An understanding of the population dynamics of MAP can be used to identify introduction events, improve control efforts and target transmission pathways, although this requires an adequate understanding of MAP diversity and distribution between herds and across the country. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) offers a detailed assessment of the SNP-level diversity and genetic relationship of isolates, whereas several molecular typing techniques used to investigate the molecular epidemiology of MAP, such as variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) typing, target relatively unstable repetitive elements in the genome that may be too unpredictable to draw accurate conclusions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diversity of bovine MAP isolates in Canadian dairy herds using WGS and then determine if VNTR typing can distinguish truly related and unrelated isolates. Phylogenetic analysis based on 3,039 SNPs identified through WGS of 124 MAP isolates identified eight genetically distinct subtypes in dairy herds from seven Canadian provinces, with the dominant type including over 80% of MAP isolates. VNTR typing of 527 MAP isolates identified 12 types, including "bison type" isolates, from seven different herds. At a national level, MAP isolates differed from each other by 1-2 to 239-240 SNPs, regardless of whether they belonged to the same or different VNTR types. A herd-level analysis of MAP isolates demonstrated that VNTR typing may both over-estimate and under-estimate the relatedness of MAP isolates found within a single herd. The presence of multiple MAP subtypes in Canada suggests multiple introductions into the country including what has now become one dominant type, an important finding for Johne's disease control. VNTR typing often failed to

  19. SRBreak: A read-depth and split-read framework to identify breakpoints of different events inside simple copy-number variable regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOANG T NGUYEN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Copy-number variation (CNV has been associated with increased risk of complex diseases. High throughput sequencing (HTS technologies facilitate the detection of copy-number variable regions (CNVRs and their breakpoints. This helps in understanding genome structures of genomes as well as their evolution process. Various approaches have been proposed for detecting CNV breakpoints, but currently it is still challenging for tools based on a single analysis method to identify breakpoints of CNVs. It has been shown, however, that pipelines which integrate multiple approaches are able to report more reliable breakpoints. Here, based on HTS data, we have developed a pipeline to identify approximate breakpoints (±10 bp relating to different ancestral events within a specific CNVR. The pipeline combines read-depth and split-read information to infer breakpoints, using information from multiple samples to allow an imputation approach to be taken. The main steps involve using a normal mixture model to cluster samples into different groups, followed by simple kernel-based approaches to maximise information obtained from read-depth and split-read approaches, after which common breakpoints of groups are inferred. The pipeline uses split-read information directly from CIGAR strings of BAM files, without using a re-alignment step. On simulated data sets, it was able to report breakpoints for very low-coverage samples including those for which only single-end reads were available. When applied to three loci from existing human resequencing data sets (NEGR1, LCE3, IRGM the pipeline obtained good concordance with results from the 1000 Genomes Project (92%, 100% and 82%, respectively.The package is available at https://github.com/hoangtn/SRBreak, and also as a docker-based application at https://registry.hub.docker.com/u/hoangtn/srbreak/.

  20. CD4+ T cell count, HIV-1 viral loads and demographic variables of newly identified patients with HIV infection in Wuhan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Man-Qing; Tang, Li; Kong, Wen-Hua; Zhu, Ze-Rong; Peng, Jin-Song; Wang, Xia; Yao, Zhong-Zhao; Schilling, Robert; Zhou, Wang

    2013-10-01

    In China, the rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing is increasing among men who have sex with men. The purpose of the present study was to describe HIV-related biomarkers and selected demographic variables of persons with newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS, among men who have sex with men in particular, in Wuhan China. Demographic indicators, and CD4+ T cell counts and HIV-1 viral load were collected from individuals newly identified as HIV-1 antibody positive during 2011. Of 176 enrolled patients, 132 (75.0%) were men who have sex with men. This group was significantly younger and had higher CD4+ T cell counts than patients who were likely infected through heterosexual contact. Most men who have sex with men (56.6%) were discovered by initiative investigation. Among heterosexual patients CD4+ T cell counts and HIV-1 viral load were significantly correlated; among the group of men who have sex with men, no such association was found. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Beyond imperviousness: A statistical approach to identifying functional differences between development morphologies on variable source area-type response in urbanized watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, T. C.

    2016-12-01

    Empirical evidence has shown linkages between urbanization, hydrological regime change, and degradation of water quality and aquatic habitat. Percent imperviousness, has long been suggested as the dominant source of these negative changes. However, recent research identifying alternative pathways of runoff production at the watershed scale have called into question percent impervious surface area's primacy in urban runoff production compared to other aspects of urbanization including change in vegetative cover, imported water and water leakages, and the presence of drainage infrastructure. In this research I show how a robust statistical methodology can detect evidence of variable source area (VSA)-type hydrologic response associated with incremental hydraulic connectivity in watersheds. I then use logistic regression to explore how evidence of VSA-type response relates to the physical and meterological characteristics of the watershed. I find that impervious surface area is highly correlated with development, but does not add significant explanatory power beyond percent developed in predicting VSA-type response. Other aspects of development morphology, including percent developed open space and type of drainage infrastructure also do not add to the explanatory power of undeveloped land in predicting VSA-type response. Within only developed areas, the effect of developed open space was found to be more similar to that of total impervious area than to undeveloped land. These findings were consistent when tested across a national cross-section of urbanized watersheds, a higher resolution dataset of Baltimore Metropolitan Area watersheds, and a subsample of watersheds confirmed not to be served by combined sewer systems. These findings suggest that land development policies that focus on lot coverage should be revisited, and more focus should be placed on preserving native vegetation and soil conditions alongside development.

  2. Identifying barriers to large-scale integration of variable renewable electricity into the electricity market : A literature review of market design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, J.; Harmsen, R.; Crijns-Graus, Wina; Worrell, E.; van den Broek, M.A.

    For reaching the 2 °C climate target, the robust growth of electricity generation from variable renewable energy sources (VRE) in the power sector is expected to continue. Accommodation of the power system to the variable, uncertain and locational-dependent outputs of VRE causes integration costs.

  3. User perspectives on relevance criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maglaughlin, Kelly L.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2002-01-01

    , partially relevant, or not relevant to their information need; and explained their decisions in an interview. Analysis revealed 29 criteria, discussed positively and negatively, that were used by the participants when selecting passages that contributed or detracted from a document's relevance......This study investigates the use of criteria to assess relevant, partially relevant, and not-relevant documents. Study participants identified passages within 20 document representations that they used to make relevance judgments; judged each document representation as a whole to be relevant...... matter, thought catalyst), full text (e.g., audience, novelty, type, possible content, utility), journal/publisher (e.g., novelty, main focus, perceived quality), and personal (e.g., competition, time requirements). Results further indicate that multiple criteria are used when making relevant, partially...

  4. Identifying the independent effect of HbA1c variability on adverse health outcomes in patients with Type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, J C; Pizer, S D; Conlin, P R

    2016-12-01

    To characterize the relationship between HbA 1c variability and adverse health outcomes among US military veterans with Type 2 diabetes. This retrospective cohort study used Veterans Affairs and Medicare claims for veterans with Type 2 diabetes taking metformin who initiated a second diabetes medication (n = 50 861). The main exposure of interest was HbA 1c variability during a 3-year baseline period. HbA 1c variability, categorized into quartiles, was defined as standard deviation, coefficient of variation and adjusted standard deviation, which accounted for the number and mean number of days between HbA 1c tests. Cox proportional hazard models predicted mortality, hospitalization for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions, and myocardial infarction or stroke and were controlled for mean HbA 1c levels and the direction of change in HbA 1c levels during the baseline period. Over a mean 3.3 years of follow-up, all HbA 1c variability measures significantly predicted each outcome. Using the adjusted standard deviation measure for HbA 1c variability, the hazard ratios for the third and fourth quartile predicting mortality were 1.14 (95% CI 1.04, 1.25) and 1.42 (95% CI 1.28, 1.58), for myocardial infarction and stroke they were 1.25 (95% CI 1.10, 1.41) and 1.23 (95% CI 1.07, 1.42) and for ambulatory-care sensitive condition hospitalization they were 1.10 (95% CI 1.03, 1.18) and 1.11 (95% CI 1.03, 1.20). Higher baseline HbA 1c levels independently predicted the likelihood of each outcome. In veterans with Type 2 diabetes, greater HbA 1c variability was associated with an increased risk of adverse long-term outcomes, independently of HbA 1c levels and direction of change. Limiting HbA 1c fluctuations over time may reduce complications. © 2016 Diabetes UK.

  5. Inter-Annual Variability of the Acoustic Propagation in the Mediterranean Sea Identified from a Synoptic Monthly Gridded Database as Compared with GDEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    processes at the boundary between water masses. Potential temperature and salinity can be used to define spiciness. Positive spiciness corresponds to...1995 and 2000–2014. Point D, which is located in deep water of the central part, shows great variability in 1990–2014. Point E is in very shallow water...9  3.  Eastern Mediterranean Deep Water (EMDW) .........................11  4.  Levantine Surface Water (LSW

  6. Sign and magnitude scaling properties of heart rate variability in patients with end-stage renal failure: Are these properties useful to identify pathophysiological adaptations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerma, Claudia; Echeverría, Juan C.; Infante, Oscar; Pérez-Grovas, Héctor; González-Gómez, Hortensia

    2017-09-01

    The scaling properties of heart rate variability data are reliable dynamical features to predict mortality and for the assessment of cardiovascular risk. The aim of this manuscript was to determine if the scaling properties, as provided by the sign and magnitude analysis, can be used to differentiate between pathological changes and those adaptations basically introduced by modifications of the mean heart rate in distinct manoeuvres (active standing or hemodialysis treatment, HD), as well as clinical conditions (end stage renal disease, ESRD). We found that in response to active standing, the short-term scaling index (α1) increased in healthy subjects and in ESRD patients only after HD. The sign short-term scaling exponent (α1sign) increased in healthy subjects and ESRD patients, showing a less anticorrelated behavior in active standing. Both α1 and α1sign did show covariance with the mean heart rate in healthy subjects, while in ESRD patients, this covariance was observed only after HD. A reliable estimation of the magnitude short-term scaling exponent (α1magn) required the analysis of time series with a large number of samples (>3000 data points). This exponent was similar for both groups and conditions and did not show covariance with the mean heart rate. A surrogate analysis confirmed the presence of multifractal properties (α1magn > 0.5) in the time series of healthy subjects and ESDR patients. In conclusion, α1 and α1sign provided insights into the physiological adaptations during active standing, which revealed a transitory impairment before HD in ESRD patients. The presence of multifractal properties indicated that a reduced short-term variability does not necessarily imply a declined regulatory complexity in these patients.

  7. Quality of life: a key variable to consider in the evaluation of adjustment in parents of children with autism spectrum disorders and in the development of relevant support and assistance programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappe, Emilie; Wolff, Marion; Bobet, René; Adrien, Jean-Louis

    2011-10-01

    Our primary objective was to identify cognitive and behavioural profiles that affect adjustment, in order to make relevant recommendations about support and assistance for parents of autistic children. One hundred and sixty French parents completed a battery of questionnaires and self-report measures developed or adapted to assess (1) the child and family situations; (2) perceived stress; (3) perceived social support; (4) perceived control; (5) coping strategies; and (6) quality of life. The psychometric properties of the instruments we used proved to be adequate. Our results support the pre-existing data and our findings may prove to be of interest to clinicians. Our primary finding was that emotion-focused coping strategies seem to be less effective. Parents who employed emotion-focused strategies were more stressed and more disturbed in most parts of their life. They also experienced more guilt and reported more false beliefs about PDD. Our data underscore the need for psychoeducation programmes for parents, focused on handling stress and emotions, modifying false beliefs and solving the daily problems that arise from PDD. We propose a 5-axis intervention model for parents of children with PDD, based on cognitive-behavioural therapies and on a stress management programme.

  8. Language and speech outcomes of children with hearing loss and additional disabilities: Identifying the variables that influence performance at 5 years of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupples, Linda; Ching, Teresa Y.C.; Button, Laura; Leigh, Greg; Marnane, Vivienne; Whitfield, Jessica; Gunnourie, Miriam; Martin, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study examined language and speech outcomes in young children with hearing loss and additional disabilities. Design Receptive and expressive language skills and speech output accuracy were evaluated using direct assessment and caregiver report. Results were analysed first for the entire participant cohort, and then to compare results for children with hearing aids (HAs) versus cochlear implants (CIs). Study sample A population-based cohort of 146 5-year-old children with hearing loss and additional disabilities took part. Results Across all participants, multiple regressions showed that better language outcomes were associated with milder hearing loss, use of oral communication, higher levels of cognitive ability and maternal education, and earlier device fitting. Speech output accuracy was associated with use of oral communication only. Average outcomes were similar for children with HAs versus CIs, but their associations with demographic variables differed. For HA users, results resembled those for the whole cohort. For CI users, only use of oral communication and higher cognitive ability levels were significantly associated with better language outcomes. Conclusions The results underscore the importance of early device fitting for children with additional disabilities. Strong conclusions cannot be drawn for CI users given the small number of participants with complete data. PMID:27630013

  9. Relevant Scatterers Characterization in SAR Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabouni, Houda; Datcu, Mihai

    2006-11-01

    Recognizing scenes in a single look meter resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images, requires the capability to identify relevant signal signatures in condition of variable image acquisition geometry, arbitrary objects poses and configurations. Among the methods to detect relevant scatterers in SAR images, we can mention the internal coherence. The SAR spectrum splitted in azimuth generates a series of images which preserve high coherence only for particular object scattering. The detection of relevant scatterers can be done by correlation study or Independent Component Analysis (ICA) methods. The present article deals with the state of the art for SAR internal correlation analysis and proposes further extensions using elements of inference based on information theory applied to complex valued signals. The set of azimuth looks images is analyzed using mutual information measures and an equivalent channel capacity is derived. The localization of the "target" requires analysis in a small image window, thus resulting in imprecise estimation of the second order statistics of the signal. For a better precision, a Hausdorff measure is introduced. The method is applied to detect and characterize relevant objects in urban areas.

  10. Modelo conceptual para identificar factores relevantes en la seguridad de los niños en los autobuses escolares Conceptual model for identifying factors relevant to the safety of children in school buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Lucía Bernal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Elaborar un modelo conceptual que permita comprender las relaciones entre las variables que llevan a los niños a adoptar posturas en los vehículos de transporte escolar que incrementan los efectos lesivos en caso de accidentes de tránsito. MÉTODOS: Para la identificación de las variables se recolectó información directa de la actividad del transporte escolar por medio de grupos de enfoque, con asistentes de ruta y conductores de estos vehículos, la filmación interior de autobuses durante el transporte de los niños, y el registro de dimensiones de componentes en diferentes tipos de autobuses escolares. El análisis de la información recolectada se hizo mediante el software Atlas ti v6 y, la construcción del modelo, por medio de un proceso deductivo. RESULTADOS: Se encontraron relaciones importantes entre la adopción de posturas potencialmente riesgosas por parte de los niños durante el transporte escolar y las características dimensionales de los asientos y cinturones de seguridad, las características del servicio de transporte y el rol del asistente de ruta. CONCLUSIONES: Para llevar a cabo intervenciones coherentes y específicas en el ámbito de la seguridad en el transporte escolar, se deben considerar no solo aspectos técnicos concernientes al vehículo o condiciones posturales controladas en pruebas de choque en laboratorio, sino también las variables específicas de la actividad que llevan a los niños a adoptar posturas que incrementan el riesgo de lesiones.OBJECTIVE: Prepare a conceptual model that facilitates understanding of the relationships between the variables that lead children to adopt postures in school transportation vehicles that increase injuries in traffic accidents. METHODS: For identification of the variables, direct information on school transportation was collected through focus groups, with bus aides and bus drivers, on-board filming during the transport of children, and recording of the

  11. Interindividual variability in the prevalence of OPRM1 and CYP2B6 gene variations may identify drug-susceptible populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunten, H; Liang, W J; Pounder, D J; Seneviratne, C; Osselton, D

    2011-09-01

    Methadone is used worldwide for the treatment of heroin addiction; however, fatal poisonings are increasingly reported. The prevalence of CYP2B6 and μ-opioid receptor (OPRM1) gene variations were examined between a postmortem population where the deaths were associated with methadone and a live nondrug-using control population using Taqman™ SNP Genotyping assays. The CYP2B6*6 allele was higher in the postmortem population, but the difference was not significant (P = 0.92). The CYP2B6 T750C promoter variation was similar in frequency for both populations. Linkage between T750C and CYP2B6*6 was identified for both populations (P < 0.01). The prevalence of the OPRM1 A118G variation was significantly higher in the control population (P = 0.0046), which might indicate a protective mechanism against opioid toxicity. Individual susceptibility to methadone may be determined by screening for CYP2B6*6.

  12. Deep learning relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Petersen, Casper

    2016-01-01

    train a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) on existing relevant information to that query. We then use the RNN to "deep learn" a single, synthetic, and we assume, relevant document for that query. We design a crowdsourcing experiment to assess how relevant the "deep learned" document is, compared...... to existing relevant documents. Users are shown a query and four wordclouds (of three existing relevant documents and our deep learned synthetic document). The synthetic document is ranked on average most relevant of all....

  13. The association of 83 plasma proteins with CHD mortality, BMI, HDL-, and total-cholesterol in men: applying multivariate statistics to identify proteins with prognostic value and biological relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidema, A Geert; Thissen, Uwe; Boer, Jolanda M A; Bouwman, Freek G; Feskens, Edith J M; Mariman, Edwin C M

    2009-06-01

    In this study, we applied the multivariate statistical tool Partial Least Squares (PLS) to analyze the relative importance of 83 plasma proteins in relation to coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality and the intermediate end points body mass index, HDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol. From a Dutch monitoring project for cardiovascular disease risk factors, men who died of CHD between initial participation (1987-1991) and end of follow-up (January 1, 2000) (N = 44) and matched controls (N = 44) were selected. Baseline plasma concentrations of proteins were measured by a multiplex immunoassay. With the use of PLS, we identified 15 proteins with prognostic value for CHD mortality and sets of proteins associated with the intermediate end points. Subsequently, sets of proteins and intermediate end points were analyzed together by Principal Components Analysis, indicating that proteins involved in inflammation explained most of the variance, followed by proteins involved in metabolism and proteins associated with total-C. This study is one of the first in which the association of a large number of plasma proteins with CHD mortality and intermediate end points is investigated by applying multivariate statistics, providing insight in the relationships among proteins, intermediate end points and CHD mortality, and a set of proteins with prognostic value.

  14. TU-D-207B-05: Intra-Tumor Partitioning and Texture Analysis of DCE-MRI Identifies Relevant Tumor Subregions to Predict Early Pathological Response of Breast Cancer to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, J; Gong, G; Cui, Y; Li, R [Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To predict early pathological response of breast cancer to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) based on quantitative, multi-region analysis of dynamic contrast enhancement magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Methods: In this institution review board-approved study, 35 patients diagnosed with stage II/III breast cancer were retrospectively investigated using DCE-MR images acquired before and after the first cycle of NAC. First, principal component analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the dimensionality of the DCE-MRI data with a high-temporal resolution. We then partitioned the whole tumor into multiple subregions using k-means clustering based on the PCA-defined eigenmaps. Within each tumor subregion, we extracted four quantitative Haralick texture features based on the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). The change in texture features in each tumor subregion between pre- and during-NAC was used to predict pathological complete response after NAC. Results: Three tumor subregions were identified through clustering, each with distinct enhancement characteristics. In univariate analysis, all imaging predictors except one extracted from the tumor subregion associated with fast wash-out were statistically significant (p< 0.05) after correcting for multiple testing, with area under the ROC curve or AUCs between 0.75 and 0.80. In multivariate analysis, the proposed imaging predictors achieved an AUC of 0.79 (p = 0.002) in leave-one-out cross validation. This improved upon conventional imaging predictors such as tumor volume (AUC=0.53) and texture features based on whole-tumor analysis (AUC=0.65). Conclusion: The heterogeneity of the tumor subregion associated with fast wash-out on DCE-MRI predicted early pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer.

  15. TU-D-207B-05: Intra-Tumor Partitioning and Texture Analysis of DCE-MRI Identifies Relevant Tumor Subregions to Predict Early Pathological Response of Breast Cancer to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, J; Gong, G; Cui, Y; Li, R

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To predict early pathological response of breast cancer to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) based on quantitative, multi-region analysis of dynamic contrast enhancement magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Methods: In this institution review board-approved study, 35 patients diagnosed with stage II/III breast cancer were retrospectively investigated using DCE-MR images acquired before and after the first cycle of NAC. First, principal component analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the dimensionality of the DCE-MRI data with a high-temporal resolution. We then partitioned the whole tumor into multiple subregions using k-means clustering based on the PCA-defined eigenmaps. Within each tumor subregion, we extracted four quantitative Haralick texture features based on the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). The change in texture features in each tumor subregion between pre- and during-NAC was used to predict pathological complete response after NAC. Results: Three tumor subregions were identified through clustering, each with distinct enhancement characteristics. In univariate analysis, all imaging predictors except one extracted from the tumor subregion associated with fast wash-out were statistically significant (p< 0.05) after correcting for multiple testing, with area under the ROC curve or AUCs between 0.75 and 0.80. In multivariate analysis, the proposed imaging predictors achieved an AUC of 0.79 (p = 0.002) in leave-one-out cross validation. This improved upon conventional imaging predictors such as tumor volume (AUC=0.53) and texture features based on whole-tumor analysis (AUC=0.65). Conclusion: The heterogeneity of the tumor subregion associated with fast wash-out on DCE-MRI predicted early pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer.

  16. Variable stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feast, M.W.; Wenzel, W.; Fernie, J.D.; Percy, J.R.; Smak, J.; Gascoigne, S.C.B.; Grindley, J.E.; Lovell, B.; Sawyer Hogg, H.B.; Baker, N.; Fitch, W.S.; Rosino, L.; Gursky, H.

    1976-01-01

    A critical review of variable stars is presented. A fairly complete summary of major developments and discoveries during the period 1973-1975 is given. The broad developments and new trends are outlined. Essential problems for future research are identified. (B.R.H. )

  17. Identifiability in stochastic models

    CERN Document Server

    1992-01-01

    The problem of identifiability is basic to all statistical methods and data analysis, occurring in such diverse areas as Reliability Theory, Survival Analysis, and Econometrics, where stochastic modeling is widely used. Mathematics dealing with identifiability per se is closely related to the so-called branch of ""characterization problems"" in Probability Theory. This book brings together relevant material on identifiability as it occurs in these diverse fields.

  18. Identifying Key Factors Relevant for Base Camp Siting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    centers. 3.2.6.3 Religious and historical sites Respecting sacred sites helps build rapport with the host nation. 3.2.6.4 Local infrastructure...churches, mosques, national libraries, hospitals, cemeteries, historical ruins, religious sites, cultural areas, and other protected sites...controlled and protected wells. • Electricity: town engineer • Academic: government and religious leaders • Trash: private business (local

  19. Can Students Identify the Relevant Information to Solve a Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lishan; Yu, Shengquan; Li, Baoping; Wang, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Solving non-routine problems is one of the most important skills for the 21st century. Traditional paper-pencil tests cannot assess this type of skill well because of their lack of interactivity and inability to capture procedural data. Tools such as MicroDYN and MicroFIN have proved to be trustworthy in assessing complex problem-solving…

  20. Identifying the Relevant Factors in Newspaper Advertising Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristóbal Benavides

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio explora varios factores con el fin de establecer cuáles son losmás importantes en motivar a los lectores de periódicos locales a comprar,visitar tiendas y buscar información adicional acerca de los productos oservicios promovidos en los anuncios. El comportamiento durante el pro-ceso de compra es consecuencia de una compleja interacción de dimen-siones culturales, sociales, personales y psicológicas. Este proceso –el cualse produce antes de la acción– tiene implicaciones relevantes y los depar-tamentos de mercadeo deben prestar atención a ello. Una serie de hipóte-sis basadas en la forma como la publicidad atrae a los consumidores y encómo afecta la toma de decisiones al momento de la compra fueron puestasa prueba usando una encuesta que fue administrada a una muestra de 1.333personas encuestadas en Chile. También se realizó un análisis discriminan-te para averiguar por qué algunos lectores de periódicos se ven motivadosa comprar bienes o servicios, visitar una tienda o buscar más información.Los resultados muestran que el atractivo de la oferta anunciada es el factormás importante para explicar el comportamiento posterior del consumidor.

  1. Automated systems to identify relevant documents in product risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Product risk management involves critical assessment of the risks and benefits of health products circulating in the market. One of the important sources of safety information is the primary literature, especially for newer products which regulatory authorities have relatively little experience with. Although the primary literature provides vast and diverse information, only a small proportion of which is useful for product risk assessment work. Hence, the aim of this study is to explore the possibility of using text mining to automate the identification of useful articles, which will reduce the time taken for literature search and hence improving work efficiency. In this study, term-frequency inverse document-frequency values were computed for predictors extracted from the titles and abstracts of articles related to three tumour necrosis factors-alpha blockers. A general automated system was developed using only general predictors and was tested for its generalizability using articles related to four other drug classes. Several specific automated systems were developed using both general and specific predictors and training sets of different sizes in order to determine the minimum number of articles required for developing such systems. Results The general automated system had an area under the curve value of 0.731 and was able to rank 34.6% and 46.2% of the total number of 'useful' articles among the first 10% and 20% of the articles presented to the evaluators when tested on the generalizability set. However, its use may be limited by the subjective definition of useful articles. For the specific automated system, it was found that only 20 articles were required to develop a specific automated system with a prediction performance (AUC 0.748) that was better than that of general automated system. Conclusions Specific automated systems can be developed rapidly and avoid problems caused by subjective definition of useful articles. Thus the efficiency of product risk management can be improved with the use of specific automated systems. PMID:22380483

  2. Methods to quantify variable importance: implications for theanalysis of noisy ecological data

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Kim; Conner, Mary M.

    2009-01-01

    Determining the importance of independent variables is of practical relevance to ecologists and managers concerned with allocating limited resources to the management of natural systems. Although techniques that identify explanatory variables having the largest influence on the response variable are needed to design management actions effectively, the use of various indices to evaluate variable importance is poorly understood. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we compared six different indices c...

  3. Collective variables and dissipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balian, R.

    1984-09-01

    This is an introduction to some basic concepts of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. We emphasize in particular the relevant entropy relative to a given set of collective variables, the meaning of the projection method in the Liouville space, its use to establish the generalized transport equations for these variables, and the interpretation of dissipation in the framework of information theory

  4. Making Deferred Taxes Relevant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Arjan; Naarding, Ewout

    2018-01-01

    We analyse the conceptual problems in current accounting for deferred taxes and provide solutions derived from the literature in order to make International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) deferred tax numbers value-relevant. In our view, the empirical results concerning the value relevance of

  5. Parsimonious relevance models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, E.; Weerkamp, W.; Balog, K.; de Rijke, M.; Myang, S.-H.; Oard, D.W.; Sebastiani, F.; Chua, T.-S.; Leong, M.-K.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a method for applying parsimonious language models to re-estimate the term probabilities assigned by relevance models. We apply our method to six topic sets from test collections in five different genres. Our parsimonious relevance models (i) improve retrieval effectiveness in terms of

  6. Diagnostic screening identifies a wide range of mutations involving the SHOX gene, including a common 47.5 kb deletion 160 kb downstream with a variable phenotypic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyan, David J; Baker, Kevin R; Harvey, John F; Thomas, N Simon

    2013-06-01

    Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) results from heterozygous mutations of the SHOX gene, with homozygosity or compound heterozygosity resulting in the more severe form, Langer mesomelic dysplasia (LMD). These mutations typically take the form of whole or partial gene deletions, point mutations within the coding sequence, or large (>100 kb) 3' deletions of downstream regulatory elements. We have analyzed the coding sequence of the SHOX gene and its downstream regulatory regions in a cohort of 377 individuals referred with symptoms of LWD, LMD or short stature. A causative mutation was identified in 68% of the probands with LWD or LMD (91/134). In addition, a 47.5 kb deletion was found 160 kb downstream of the SHOX gene in 17 of the 377 patients (12% of the LWD referrals, 4.5% of all referrals). In 14 of these 17 patients, this was the only potentially causative abnormality detected (13 had symptoms consistent with LWD and one had short stature only), but the other three 47.5 kb deletions were found in patients with an additional causative SHOX mutation (with symptoms of LWD rather than LMD). Parental samples were available on 14/17 of these families, and analysis of these showed a more variable phenotype ranging from apparently unaffected to LWD. Breakpoint sequence analysis has shown that the 47.5 kb deletion is identical in all 17 patients, most likely due to an ancient founder mutation rather than recurrence. This deletion was not seen in 471 normal controls (P<0.0001), providing further evidence for a phenotypic effect, albeit one with variable penetration. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Comparison of Sparse and Jack-knife partial least squares regression methods for variable selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karaman, Ibrahim; Qannari, El Mostafa; Martens, Harald

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare two different techniques of variable selection, Sparse PLSR and Jack-knife PLSR, with respect to their predictive ability and their ability to identify relevant variables. Sparse PLSR is a method that is frequently used in genomics, whereas Jack-knife PL...

  8. Relevance of the ancestry for the variability of the Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 polymorphisms in a multiethnic Costa Rican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Céspedes-Garro, Carolina; Rodrigues-Soares, Fernanda; Jiménez-Arce, Gerardo; Naranjo, María-Eugenia G; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo; Fariñas, Humberto; Barrantes, Ramiro; Llerena, Adrián

    2016-09-01

    CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 metabolize around 40% of drugs and their genes vary across populations. The Costa Rican population has a trihybrid ancestry and its key geographic location turns it into a suitable scenario to evaluate interethnic differences across populations. This study aims to describe the diversity of CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 polymorphisms in Costa Rican populations in the context of their ancestry. A total of 448 healthy individuals were included in the study: Bribri (n= 47), Cabécar (n= 27), Maleku (n= 16), Guaymí (n= 30), Huetar (n= 48), Chorotega (n= 41), Admixed/Mestizos from the Central Valley/Guanacaste (n= 189), and Afro-Caribbeans (n= 50) from Limón. CYP2C9 (alleles *2, *3, *6) and CYP2C19 (*2, *3, *4, *5, *17) genotypes were determined by Real-Time PCR. African, European and Native American ancestry were inferred using 87 ancestry informative markers. The frequency of the decreased activity allele CYP2C9*2 is lower in the self-reported Amerindian groups compared to the admixed population, and the highest frequencies of CYP2C19*2 (null activity) and the CYP2C19*17 (increased activity) were found in the self-reported Afro-Caribbean population. Moreover, a frequency of 0.7 % CYP2C9 gPMs in the Admixed population and a variable frequency of CYP2C19 gUMs (0.0-32.6 %, more prevalent in Afro-Caribbeans) in Costa Rican populations, was found. Finally, the following alleles were positively correlated with genomic African ancestry and negatively correlated with genomic Native American ancestry: CYP2D6*5 (null activity), CYP2D6*17 (decreased activity), CYP2D6*29 (decreased activity) and CYP2C19*17 (increased activity). No correlation for CYP2C9 polymorphisms and genomic ancestry was found. Further studies assessing the CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 sequence in these populations, preferentially by sequencing these genes, are warranted.

  9. Culturally Relevant Cyberbullying Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Gregory John

    2017-01-01

    In this action research study, I, along with a student intervention committee of 14 members, developed a cyberbullying intervention for a large urban high school on the west coast. This high school contained a predominantly African American student population. I aimed to discover culturally relevant cyberbullying prevention strategies for African American students. The intervention committee selected video safety messages featuring African American actors as the most culturally relevant cyber...

  10. A study of school adjustment related variables of young children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for identifying relevant variables that affect the school adjustment of young ... Keywords: cognitive ability; hot executive function; peer relationships; school ... tend to act independently and have fewer positive feelings about their ... cognition provides a basis for developing social ..... is associated with hot EF is not activated,.

  11. A current controlled variable delay superconducting transmission line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anlage, S.M.; Snortland, H.J.; Beasley, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    The authors present a device concept for a current-controlled variable delay for superconducting transmission line. The device makes use of the change in kinetic inductance of a superconducting transmission line under the application of a DC bias current. The relevant materials parameters and several promising superconducting materials have been identified

  12. Using small XML elements to support relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Ramirez Camps (Georgina); T.H.W. Westerveld (Thijs); A.P. de Vries (Arjen)

    2006-01-01

    htmlabstractSmall XML elements are often estimated relevant by the retrieval model but they are not desirable retrieval units. This paper presents a generic model that exploits the information obtained from small elements. We identify relationships between small and relevant elements and use this

  13. The Limits to Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averill, M.; Briggle, A.

    2006-12-01

    Science policy and knowledge production lately have taken a pragmatic turn. Funding agencies increasingly are requiring scientists to explain the relevance of their work to society. This stems in part from mounting critiques of the "linear model" of knowledge production in which scientists operating according to their own interests or disciplinary standards are presumed to automatically produce knowledge that is of relevance outside of their narrow communities. Many contend that funded scientific research should be linked more directly to societal goals, which implies a shift in the kind of research that will be funded. While both authors support the concept of useful science, we question the exact meaning of "relevance" and the wisdom of allowing it to control research agendas. We hope to contribute to the conversation by thinking more critically about the meaning and limits of the term "relevance" and the trade-offs implicit in a narrow utilitarian approach. The paper will consider which interests tend to be privileged by an emphasis on relevance and address issues such as whose goals ought to be pursued and why, and who gets to decide. We will consider how relevance, narrowly construed, may actually limit the ultimate utility of scientific research. The paper also will reflect on the worthiness of research goals themselves and their relationship to a broader view of what it means to be human and to live in society. Just as there is more to being human than the pragmatic demands of daily life, there is more at issue with knowledge production than finding the most efficient ways to satisfy consumer preferences or fix near-term policy problems. We will conclude by calling for a balanced approach to funding research that addresses society's most pressing needs but also supports innovative research with less immediately apparent application.

  14. Relevant Subspace Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Emmanuel; Assent, Ira; Günnemann, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    Subspace clustering aims at detecting clusters in any subspace projection of a high dimensional space. As the number of possible subspace projections is exponential in the number of dimensions, the result is often tremendously large. Recent approaches fail to reduce results to relevant subspace...... clusters. Their results are typically highly redundant, i.e. many clusters are detected multiple times in several projections. In this work, we propose a novel model for relevant subspace clustering (RESCU). We present a global optimization which detects the most interesting non-redundant subspace clusters...... achieves top clustering quality while competing approaches show greatly varying performance....

  15. Is Information Still Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The term "information" in information science does not share the characteristics of those of a nomenclature: it does not bear a generally accepted definition and it does not serve as the bases and assumptions for research studies. As the data deluge has arrived, is the concept of information still relevant for information…

  16. Genome-wide interval mapping using SNPs identifies new QTL for growth, body composition and several physiological variables in an F2 intercross between fat and lean chicken lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeure, Olivier; Duclos, Michel J; Bacciu, Nicola; Le Mignon, Guillaume; Filangi, Olivier; Pitel, Frédérique; Boland, Anne; Lagarrigue, Sandrine; Cogburn, Larry A; Simon, Jean; Le Roy, Pascale; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth

    2013-09-30

    For decades, genetic improvement based on measuring growth and body composition traits has been successfully applied in the production of meat-type chickens. However, this conventional approach is hindered by antagonistic genetic correlations between some traits and the high cost of measuring body composition traits. Marker-assisted selection should overcome these problems by selecting loci that have effects on either one trait only or on more than one trait but with a favorable genetic correlation. In the present study, identification of such loci was done by genotyping an F2 intercross between fat and lean lines divergently selected for abdominal fatness genotyped with a medium-density genetic map (120 microsatellites and 1302 single nucleotide polymorphisms). Genome scan linkage analyses were performed for growth (body weight at 1, 3, 5, and 7 weeks, and shank length and diameter at 9 weeks), body composition at 9 weeks (abdominal fat weight and percentage, breast muscle weight and percentage, and thigh weight and percentage), and for several physiological measurements at 7 weeks in the fasting state, i.e. body temperature and plasma levels of IGF-I, NEFA and glucose. Interval mapping analyses were performed with the QTLMap software, including single-trait analyses with single and multiple QTL on the same chromosome. Sixty-seven QTL were detected, most of which had never been described before. Of these 67 QTL, 47 were detected by single-QTL analyses and 20 by multiple-QTL analyses, which underlines the importance of using different statistical models. Close analysis of the genes located in the defined intervals identified several relevant functional candidates, such as ACACA for abdominal fatness, GHSR and GAS1 for breast muscle weight, DCRX and ASPSCR1 for plasma glucose content, and ChEBP for shank diameter. The medium-density genetic map enabled us to genotype new regions of the chicken genome (including micro-chromosomes) that influenced the traits

  17. Variáveis relevantes no processo terapêutico para a aquisição do onset complexo na fala de crianças com desvio fonológico Relevant variables in the therapeutic process for the consonant clusters acquisition in the speech of children with phonological disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Giacchini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: apresentar variáveis relevantes no processo terapêutico de aquisição do onset complexo (OC em crianças que realizam a simplificação dessa estrutura. MÉTODO: participaram do estudo quatro crianças com diagnóstico de desvio fonológico (DF, com idades entre 5:4 a 7:7, que utilizavam a estratégia de alongamento compensatório (EAC, possuíam [r] e [l] no seu inventário fonético e realizavam a simplificação do OC. As crianças foram submetidas a diferentes modelos terapêuticos e, a partir dos dados obtidos nas sondagens, realizaram-se análises das variáveis linguísticas e extralinguísticas relevantes durante o processo terapêutico. A análise dos dados de fala foram realizadas por meio do programa estatístico VARBRUL. RESULTADOS: a variável gravidade do desvio foi a que o programa selecionou como relevante para a produção correta do OC, para sua simplificação e para a distorção da líquida da estrutura. Ele apontou que quando o sujeito é submetido à terapia articulatória (TA, há maior probabilidade de ocorrência de produção correta de CCV, realização de distorção e metátese. O fonema /d/ se mostrou favorecedor da estratégia de metátese. A substituição da líquida foi influenciada pela variável sujeito e pelo tipo de líquida formadora do OC. CONCLUSÃO: quanto às variáveis, a gravidade do DF mostra-se importante tanto para o sucesso da terapia (produção correta de CCV, como para o uso de estratégias de reparo. Observou-se que aplicar tipos de terapia distintos faz com que as crianças respondam de forma diferenciada a cada um deles, com melhor desempenho na TA.PURPOSE: to provide relevant variable aspects in the therapeutic process of consonant clusters (CC acquisition in children but maintains the CCV simplification. METHOD: four children diagnosed with phonological disorders, aged 5:4 to 7:7 took part in the study, using the strategy of compensatory lengthening, having [r] and [l] in the

  18. Quantifying the relevance of intraspecific trait variability for functional diversity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    de Bello, Francesco; Lavorel, S.; Albert, C. H.; Thuiller, W.; Grigulis, K.; Doležal, Jiří; Janeček, Štěpán; Lepš, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2011), 163-174 ISSN 2041-210X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600050802; GA ČR GA206/09/1471; GA AV ČR KJB601110703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516; CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Land-use change * ecosystem processes * quadratic entropy Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 5.093, year: 2011

  19. The economic lot size and relevant costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbeij, M.H.; Jansen, R.A.; Grübström, R.W.; Hinterhuber, H.H.; Lundquist, J.

    1993-01-01

    In many accounting textbooks it is strongly argued that decisions should always be evaluated on relevant costs; that is variable costs and opportunity costs. Surprisingly, when it comes to Economic Order Quantities or Lot Sizes, some textbooks appear to be less straightforward. The question whether

  20. Clinical Relevance of Adipokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Blüher

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of obesity has increased dramatically during recent decades. Obesity increases the risk for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and may therefore contribute to premature death. With increasing fat mass, secretion of adipose tissue derived bioactive molecules (adipokines changes towards a pro-inflammatory, diabetogenic and atherogenic pattern. Adipokines are involved in the regulation of appetite and satiety, energy expenditure, activity, endothelial function, hemostasis, blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, energy metabolism in insulin sensitive tissues, adipogenesis, fat distribution and insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. Therefore, adipokines are clinically relevant as biomarkers for fat distribution, adipose tissue function, liver fat content, insulin sensitivity, chronic inflammation and have the potential for future pharmacological treatment strategies for obesity and its related diseases. This review focuses on the clinical relevance of selected adipokines as markers or predictors of obesity related diseases and as potential therapeutic tools or targets in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.

  1. Information Needs/Relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Wildemuth, Barbara M.

    2009-01-01

    A user's interaction with a DL is often initiated as the result of the user experiencing an information need of some kind. Aspects of that experience and how it might affect the user's interactions with the DL are discussed in this module. In addition, users continuously make decisions about and evaluations of the materials retrieved from a DL, relative to their information needs. Relevance judgments, and their relationship to the user's information needs, are discussed in this module. Draft

  2. The Chandra Source Catalog: Source Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Michael; Rots, A. H.; McCollough, M. L.; Primini, F. A.; Glotfelty, K. J.; Bonaventura, N. R.; Chen, J. C.; Davis, J. E.; Doe, S. M.; Evans, J. D.; Evans, I.; Fabbiano, G.; Galle, E. C.; Gibbs, D. G., II; Grier, J. D.; Hain, R.; Hall, D. M.; Harbo, P. N.; He, X.; Houck, J. C.; Karovska, M.; Lauer, J.; McDowell, J. C.; Miller, J. B.; Mitschang, A. W.; Morgan, D. L.; Nichols, J. S.; Plummer, D. A.; Refsdal, B. L.; Siemiginowska, A. L.; Sundheim, B. A.; Tibbetts, M. S.; van Stone, D. W.; Winkelman, S. L.; Zografou, P.

    2009-09-01

    The Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) contains fields of view that have been studied with individual, uninterrupted observations that span integration times ranging from 1 ksec to 160 ksec, and a large number of which have received (multiple) repeat observations days to years later. The CSC thus offers an unprecedented look at the variability of the X-ray sky over a broad range of time scales, and across a wide diversity of variable X-ray sources: stars in the local galactic neighborhood, galactic and extragalactic X-ray binaries, Active Galactic Nuclei, etc. Here we describe the methods used to identify and quantify source variability within a single observation, and the methods used to assess the variability of a source when detected in multiple, individual observations. Three tests are used to detect source variability within a single observation: the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and its variant, the Kuiper test, and a Bayesian approach originally suggested by Gregory and Loredo. The latter test not only provides an indicator of variability, but is also used to create a best estimate of the variable lightcurve shape. We assess the performance of these tests via simulation of statistically stationary, variable processes with arbitrary input power spectral densities (here we concentrate on results of red noise simulations) at variety of mean count rates and fractional root mean square variabilities relevant to CSC sources. We also assess the false positive rate via simulations of constant sources whose sole source of fluctuation is Poisson noise. We compare these simulations to an assessment of the variability found in real CSC sources, and estimate the variability sensitivities of the CSC.

  3. A PANEL REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF HUMAN CAPITAL RELEVANCE IN SELECTED SCANDINAVIAN AND SE EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Kokotovic

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of human capital relevance to economic growth is becoming increasingly important taking into account its relevance in many of the Sustainable Development Goals proposed by the UN. This paper conducted a panel regression analysis of selected SE European countries and Scandinavian countries using the Granger causality test and pooled panel regression. In order to test the relevance of human capital on economic growth, several human capital proxy variables were identified. Aside from the human capital proxy variables, other explanatory variables were selected using stepwise regression while the dependant variable was GDP. This paper concludes that there are significant structural differences in the economies of the two observed panels. Of the human capital proxy variables observed, for the panel of SE European countries only life expectancy was statistically significant and it had a negative impact on economic growth, while in the panel of Scandinavian countries total public expenditure on education had a statistically significant positive effect on economic growth. Based upon these results and existing studies, this paper concludes that human capital has a far more significant impact on economic growth in more developed economies.

  4. Global Microbial Identifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wielinga, Peter; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2017-01-01

    ) will likely also enable a much better understanding of the pathogenesis of the infection and the molecular basis of the host response to infection. But the full potential of these advances will only transpire if the data in this area become transferable and thereby comparable, preferably in open-source...... of microorganisms, for the identification of relevant genes and for the comparison of genomes to detect outbreaks and emerging pathogens. To harness the full potential of WGS, a shared global database of genomes linked to relevant metadata and the necessary software tools needs to be generated, hence the global...... microbial identifier (GMI) initiative. This tool will ideally be used in amongst others in the diagnosis of infectious diseases in humans and animals, in the identification of microorganisms in food and environment, and to track and trace microbial agents in all arenas globally. This will require...

  5. [Relevant public health enteropathogens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, Maribel; Ochoa, Theresa J

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea remains the third leading cause of death in children under five years, despite recent advances in the management and prevention of this disease. It is caused by multiple pathogens, however, the prevalence of each varies by age group, geographical area and the scenario where cases (community vs hospital) are recorded. The most relevant pathogens in public health are those associated with the highest burden of disease, severity, complications and mortality. In our country, norovirus, Campylobacter and diarrheagenic E. coli are the most prevalent pathogens at the community level in children. In this paper we review the local epidemiology and potential areas of development in five selected pathogens: rotavirus, norovirus, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), Shigella and Salmonella. Of these, rotavirus is the most important in the pediatric population and the main agent responsible for child mortality from diarrhea. The introduction of rotavirus vaccination in Peru will have a significant impact on disease burden and mortality from diarrhea. However, surveillance studies are needed to determine the impact of vaccination and changes in the epidemiology of diarrhea in Peru following the introduction of new vaccines, as well as antibiotic resistance surveillance of clinical relevant bacteria.

  6. Astrophysical relevance of γ transition energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauscher, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The relevant γ energy range is explicitly identified where additional γ strength must be located to have an impact on astrophysically relevant reactions. It is shown that folding the energy dependences of the transmission coefficients and the level density leads to maximal contributions for γ energies of 2≤E γ ≤4 unless quantum selection rules allow isolated states to contribute. Under this condition, electric dipole transitions dominate. These findings allow us to more accurately judge the relevance of modifications of the γ strength for astrophysics

  7. Variability Bugs:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo, Jean

    . Although many researchers suggest that preprocessor-based variability amplifies maintenance problems, there is little to no hard evidence on how actually variability affects programs and programmers. Specifically, how does variability affect programmers during maintenance tasks (bug finding in particular......)? How much harder is it to debug a program as variability increases? How do developers debug programs with variability? In what ways does variability affect bugs? In this Ph.D. thesis, I set off to address such issues through different perspectives using empirical research (based on controlled...... experiments) in order to understand quantitatively and qualitatively the impact of variability on programmers at bug finding and on buggy programs. From the program (and bug) perspective, the results show that variability is ubiquitous. There appears to be no specific nature of variability bugs that could...

  8. Other relevant biological papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, M.

    1989-01-01

    A considerable number of CRESP-relevant papers concerning deep-sea biology and radioecology have been published. It is the purpose of this study to call attention to them. They fall into three general categories. The first is papers of general interest. They are mentioned only briefly, and include text references to the global bibliography at the end of the volume. The second are papers that are not only mentioned and referenced, but for various reasons are described in abstract form. The last is a list of papers compiled by H.S.J. Roe specifically for this volume. They are listed in bibliographic form, and are also included in the global bibliography at the end of the volume

  9. Cluster analysis of clinical data identifies fibromyalgia subgroups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Docampo

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Fibromyalgia (FM is mainly characterized by widespread pain and multiple accompanying symptoms, which hinder FM assessment and management. In order to reduce FM heterogeneity we classified clinical data into simplified dimensions that were used to define FM subgroups. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 48 variables were evaluated in 1,446 Spanish FM cases fulfilling 1990 ACR FM criteria. A partitioning analysis was performed to find groups of variables similar to each other. Similarities between variables were identified and the variables were grouped into dimensions. This was performed in a subset of 559 patients, and cross-validated in the remaining 887 patients. For each sample and dimension, a composite index was obtained based on the weights of the variables included in the dimension. Finally, a clustering procedure was applied to the indexes, resulting in FM subgroups. RESULTS: VARIABLES CLUSTERED INTO THREE INDEPENDENT DIMENSIONS: "symptomatology", "comorbidities" and "clinical scales". Only the two first dimensions were considered for the construction of FM subgroups. Resulting scores classified FM samples into three subgroups: low symptomatology and comorbidities (Cluster 1, high symptomatology and comorbidities (Cluster 2, and high symptomatology but low comorbidities (Cluster 3, showing differences in measures of disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified three subgroups of FM samples in a large cohort of FM by clustering clinical data. Our analysis stresses the importance of family and personal history of FM comorbidities. Also, the resulting patient clusters could indicate different forms of the disease, relevant to future research, and might have an impact on clinical assessment.

  10. Soil variability in mountain areas

    OpenAIRE

    Zanini, E.; Freppaz, M.; Stanchi, S.; Bonifacio, E.; Egli, M.

    2015-01-01

    The high spatial variability of soils is a relevant issue at local and global scales, and determines the complexity of soil ecosystem functions and services. This variability derives from strong dependencies of soil ecosystems on parent materials, climate, relief and biosphere, including human impact. Although present in all environments, the interactions of soils with these forming factors are particularly striking in mountain areas.

  11. Pulsating variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The study of stellar pulsations is a major route to the understanding of stellar structure and evolution. At the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) the following stellar pulsation studies were undertaken: rapidly oscillating Ap stars; solar-like oscillations in stars; 8-Scuti type variability in a classical Am star; Beta Cephei variables; a pulsating white dwarf and its companion; RR Lyrae variables and galactic Cepheids. 4 figs

  12. Cellular signaling identifiability analysis: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Ryan T; Pia Saccomani, Maria; Vicini, Paolo

    2010-05-21

    Two primary purposes for mathematical modeling in cell biology are (1) simulation for making predictions of experimental outcomes and (2) parameter estimation for drawing inferences from experimental data about unobserved aspects of biological systems. While the former purpose has become common in the biological sciences, the latter is less common, particularly when studying cellular and subcellular phenomena such as signaling-the focus of the current study. Data are difficult to obtain at this level. Therefore, even models of only modest complexity can contain parameters for which the available data are insufficient for estimation. In the present study, we use a set of published cellular signaling models to address issues related to global parameter identifiability. That is, we address the following question: assuming known time courses for some model variables, which parameters is it theoretically impossible to estimate, even with continuous, noise-free data? Following an introduction to this problem and its relevance, we perform a full identifiability analysis on a set of cellular signaling models using DAISY (Differential Algebra for the Identifiability of SYstems). We use our analysis to bring to light important issues related to parameter identifiability in ordinary differential equation (ODE) models. We contend that this is, as of yet, an under-appreciated issue in biological modeling and, more particularly, cell biology. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Relevance of Personality Factors for Successful Vocational Rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arling, V; Slavchova, V; Knispel, J; Spijkers, W

    2016-02-01

    The Main purpose of vocational rehabilitation is occupational reintegration of clients into the job market who have lost their job or whose job is threatened because of a handicap or chronicl illness. With regard to existing evidence for the relevance of personality factors for work performance and job achievement, the present study investigated the influence of participants' personality factors on a successful reintegration after a retraining program in a vocational training center over 2 years. A central research objective was to identify prognostic personality factors for successful vocational integration. In this longitudinal study 15 vocational training centers participated at 3 time points of measurement (T1, T2 and T3). Data gathering was based on rehabilitants' self-reports (standardized questionnaires: SVF, BSW, SPR, CSES) about personality aspects. First data collection started at the beginning (T1) and a second survey was conducted at the end of the training 2 years later (T2). Based on the data at measurement points T1 and T2, 4 prognostic models were computed (binary logistic regression analysis) and evaluated, examining the differenzial influence of several scales and items on direct reintegration after completing the vocational retraining and reintegration status 6 months later (T3). As expected, different variables turned out to be relevant for occupational integration at the end of the training program and 6 months later. Correspondingly other variables appeared to be relevant for occupational reintegration at T1 and at T2. At the end of the vocational training program, approximately 24% of the participants had a job. With respect to direct reintegration, regression analysis revealed that vocational self-efficacy (R(2)=0,175) and self-evaluation were relevant (R(2)=0,383). Approximately 70% of the participants had gotten a job 6 months later. Several stress coping strategies (R(2)=0,170), estimation of the own reintegration prognosis and aspects

  14. Cognitive Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    Children's thinking is highly variable at every level of analysis, from neural and associative levels to the level of strategies, theories, and other aspects of high-level cognition. This variability exists within people as well as between them; individual children often rely on different strategies or representations on closely related problems…

  15. Gender differences in variability patterns of forward bending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Morten; Madeleine, Pascal; Jørgensen, Marie Birk

    2016-01-01

    The variability pattern is highly relevant in the analysis of occupational physical exposures. It is hypothesized that gender differences exist in the variability pattern of forward bending between work and leisure.......The variability pattern is highly relevant in the analysis of occupational physical exposures. It is hypothesized that gender differences exist in the variability pattern of forward bending between work and leisure....

  16. Identifying High Performance ERP Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Stensrud, Erik; Myrtveit, Ingunn

    2002-01-01

    Learning from high performance projects is crucial for software process improvement. Therefore, we need to identify outstanding projects that may serve as role models. It is common to measure productivity as an indicator of performance. It is vital that productivity measurements deal correctly with variable returns to scale and multivariate data. Software projects generally exhibit variable returns to scale, and the output from ERP projects is multivariate. We propose to use Data Envelopment ...

  17. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Stephen D

    1999-01-01

    The most important topics in the theory and application of complex variables receive a thorough, coherent treatment in this introductory text. Intended for undergraduates or graduate students in science, mathematics, and engineering, this volume features hundreds of solved examples, exercises, and applications designed to foster a complete understanding of complex variables as well as an appreciation of their mathematical beauty and elegance. Prerequisites are minimal; a three-semester course in calculus will suffice to prepare students for discussions of these topics: the complex plane, basic

  18. Latent cluster analysis of ALS phenotypes identifies prognostically differing groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeban Ganesalingam

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a degenerative disease predominantly affecting motor neurons and manifesting as several different phenotypes. Whether these phenotypes correspond to different underlying disease processes is unknown. We used latent cluster analysis to identify groupings of clinical variables in an objective and unbiased way to improve phenotyping for clinical and research purposes.Latent class cluster analysis was applied to a large database consisting of 1467 records of people with ALS, using discrete variables which can be readily determined at the first clinic appointment. The model was tested for clinical relevance by survival analysis of the phenotypic groupings using the Kaplan-Meier method.The best model generated five distinct phenotypic classes that strongly predicted survival (p<0.0001. Eight variables were used for the latent class analysis, but a good estimate of the classification could be obtained using just two variables: site of first symptoms (bulbar or limb and time from symptom onset to diagnosis (p<0.00001.The five phenotypic classes identified using latent cluster analysis can predict prognosis. They could be used to stratify patients recruited into clinical trials and generating more homogeneous disease groups for genetic, proteomic and risk factor research.

  19. Profiles of Dialogue for Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Walton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses argument diagrams, argumentation schemes, and some tools from formal argumentation systems developed in artificial intelligence to build a graph-theoretic model of relevance shown to be applicable (with some extensions as a practical method for helping a third party judge issues of relevance or irrelevance of an argument in real examples. Examples used to illustrate how the method works are drawn from disputes about relevance in natural language discourse, including a criminal trial and a parliamentary debate.

  20. Relevance theory: pragmatics and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wearing, Catherine J

    2015-01-01

    Relevance Theory is a cognitively oriented theory of pragmatics, i.e., a theory of language use. It builds on the seminal work of H.P. Grice(1) to develop a pragmatic theory which is at once philosophically sensitive and empirically plausible (in both psychological and evolutionary terms). This entry reviews the central commitments and chief contributions of Relevance Theory, including its Gricean commitment to the centrality of intention-reading and inference in communication; the cognitively grounded notion of relevance which provides the mechanism for explaining pragmatic interpretation as an intention-driven, inferential process; and several key applications of the theory (lexical pragmatics, metaphor and irony, procedural meaning). Relevance Theory is an important contribution to our understanding of the pragmatics of communication. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Clinical relevance in anesthesia journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Jakob; Møller, Ann M

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present the latest knowledge and research on the definition and distribution of clinically relevant articles in anesthesia journals. It will also discuss the importance of the chosen methodology and outcome of articles.......The purpose of this review is to present the latest knowledge and research on the definition and distribution of clinically relevant articles in anesthesia journals. It will also discuss the importance of the chosen methodology and outcome of articles....

  2. When to trust our learners? Clinical teachers' perceptions of decision variables in the entrustment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijn, Chantal C M A; Welink, Lisanne S; Bok, Harold G J; Ten Cate, Olle T J

    2018-06-01

    Clinical training programs increasingly use entrustable professional activities (EPAs) as focus of assessment. However, questions remain about which information should ground decisions to trust learners. This qualitative study aimed to identify decision variables in the workplace that clinical teachers find relevant in the elaboration of the entrustment decision processes. The findings can substantiate entrustment decision-making in the clinical workplace. Focus groups were conducted with medical and veterinary clinical teachers, using the structured consensus method of the Nominal Group Technique to generate decision variables. A ranking was made based on a relevance score assigned by the clinical teachers to the different decision variables. Field notes, audio recordings and flip chart lists were analyzed and subsequently translated and, as a form of axial coding, merged into one list, combining the decision variables that were similar in their meaning. A list of 11 and 17 decision variables were acknowledged as relevant by the medical and veterinary teacher groups, respectively. The focus groups yielded 21 unique decision variables that were considered relevant to inform readiness to perform a clinical task on a designated level of supervision. The decision variables consisted of skills, generic qualities, characteristics, previous performance or other information. We were able to group the decision variables into five categories: ability, humility, integrity, reliability and adequate exposure. To entrust a learner to perform a task at a specific level of supervision, a supervisor needs information to support such a judgement. This trust cannot be credited on a single case at a single moment of assessment, but requires different variables and multiple sources of information. This study provides an overview of decision variables giving evidence to justify the multifactorial process of making an entrustment decision.

  3. Categories, diversity, and relevance of memory strategies reported by community-dwelling seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haché, Marie-Michèle; Lussier, Maxime; Parisien, Manon; Langlois, Francis; Bier, Nathalie

    2018-01-01

    Memory strategies help seniors remember information that is essential for the performance of their daily activities and contribute to their independence in the context of declining memory skills. This study aimed to analyze the categories, the diversity, and relevance of memory strategies known by seniors, and to identify individual characteristics that correlated with these variables. The sample consisted of 294 participants aged 60 and over who decided to take part in a cognitive vitality promotion program. An adapted version of the memory situation questionnaire (Troyer, 2001) was administered to identify the memory strategies that seniors would use in five daily life situations. A scoring grid, also adapted from the questionnaire's original version (Troyer, 2001), was used to quantify the relevance of the strategies that were reported by participants. All participants mentioned at least once that they would use a strategy from the physical category of memory strategies. Out of a possible range of 26 strategies, participants answered an average of 6.14 (SD = 1.7) different answers across the five situations. Based on expert consensus, 67.7% of the mentioned memory strategies were relevant. Diversity and relevance were significantly higher when trying to remember appointments, things to bring or phone numbers (p ≤ 0.05). The level of education, cognitive skills, and participation in leisure activities were related to diversity and relevance of reported strategies. Seniors know various and relevant memory strategies to perform daily activities. The advantages of integrating strategies that they already know in cognitive health promotion programs should be considered in further studies.

  4. Global variables and identified hadrons in the PHENIX experiment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    verse momentum, mean transverse energy, and net charge are presented for particles ... Other talks at this conference summarized the PHENIX results for high pT charged ... The major goal of the heavy-ion program in PHENIX is to detect and.

  5. Functional dyspepsia: Are psychosocial factors of relevance?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sandra Barry; Timothy G Dinan

    2006-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Functional Dyspepsia (FD) remains unclear, appears diverse and is thus inadequately understood. Akin to other functional gastrointestinal disorders, research has demonstrated an association between this common diagnosis and psychosocial factors and psychiatric morbidity. Conceptualising the relevance of these factors within the syndrome of FD requires application of the biopsychosocial model of disease.Using this paradigm, dysregulation of the reciprocal communication between the brain and the gut is central to symptom generation, interpretation and exacerbation.Appreciation and understanding of the neurobiological correlates of various psychological states is also relevant.The view that psychosocial factors exert their influence in FD predominantly through motivation of health care seeking also persists. This appears too one-dimensional an assertion in light of the evidence available supporting a more intrinsic aetiological link. Evolving understanding of pathogenic mechanisms and the heterogeneous nature of the syndrome will facilitate effective management.Co-morbid psychiatric illness warrants treatment with conventional therapies. Acknowledging the relevance of psychosocial variables in FD, the degree of which is subject to variation, has implications for assessment and management. Available evidence suggests psychological therapies may benefit FD patients particularly those with chronic symptoms. The rationale for use of psychotropic medications in FD is apparent but the evidence base to support the use of antidepressant pharmacotherapy is to date limited.

  6. Cluster Analysis of Clinical Data Identifies Fibromyalgia Subgroups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docampo, Elisa; Collado, Antonio; Escaramís, Geòrgia; Carbonell, Jordi; Rivera, Javier; Vidal, Javier; Alegre, José

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Fibromyalgia (FM) is mainly characterized by widespread pain and multiple accompanying symptoms, which hinder FM assessment and management. In order to reduce FM heterogeneity we classified clinical data into simplified dimensions that were used to define FM subgroups. Material and Methods 48 variables were evaluated in 1,446 Spanish FM cases fulfilling 1990 ACR FM criteria. A partitioning analysis was performed to find groups of variables similar to each other. Similarities between variables were identified and the variables were grouped into dimensions. This was performed in a subset of 559 patients, and cross-validated in the remaining 887 patients. For each sample and dimension, a composite index was obtained based on the weights of the variables included in the dimension. Finally, a clustering procedure was applied to the indexes, resulting in FM subgroups. Results Variables clustered into three independent dimensions: “symptomatology”, “comorbidities” and “clinical scales”. Only the two first dimensions were considered for the construction of FM subgroups. Resulting scores classified FM samples into three subgroups: low symptomatology and comorbidities (Cluster 1), high symptomatology and comorbidities (Cluster 2), and high symptomatology but low comorbidities (Cluster 3), showing differences in measures of disease severity. Conclusions We have identified three subgroups of FM samples in a large cohort of FM by clustering clinical data. Our analysis stresses the importance of family and personal history of FM comorbidities. Also, the resulting patient clusters could indicate different forms of the disease, relevant to future research, and might have an impact on clinical assessment. PMID:24098674

  7. Choice of the thermodynamic variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balian, R.

    1985-09-01

    Some basic ideas of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, both at equilibrium and off equilibrium, are recalled. In particular, the selection of relevant variables which underlies any macroscopic description is discussed, together with the meaning of the various thermodynamic quantities, in order to set the thermodynamic approaches used in nuclear physics in a general prospect [fr

  8. Using ANFIS for selection of more relevant parameters to predict dew point temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, Kasra; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Petković, Dalibor; Yee, Por Lip; Mansor, Zulkefli

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • ANFIS is used to select the most relevant variables for dew point temperature prediction. • Two cities from the central and south central parts of Iran are selected as case studies. • Influence of 5 parameters on dew point temperature is evaluated. • Appropriate selection of input variables has a notable effect on prediction. • Considering the most relevant combination of 2 parameters would be more suitable. - Abstract: In this research work, for the first time, the adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is employed to propose an approach for identifying the most significant parameters for prediction of daily dew point temperature (T_d_e_w). The ANFIS process for variable selection is implemented, which includes a number of ways to recognize the parameters offering favorable predictions. According to the physical factors influencing the dew formation, 8 variables of daily minimum, maximum and average air temperatures (T_m_i_n, T_m_a_x and T_a_v_g), relative humidity (R_h), atmospheric pressure (P), water vapor pressure (V_P), sunshine hour (n) and horizontal global solar radiation (H) are considered to investigate their effects on T_d_e_w. The used data include 7 years daily measured data of two Iranian cities located in the central and south central parts of the country. The results indicate that despite climate difference between the considered case studies, for both stations, V_P is the most influential variable while R_h is the least relevant element. Furthermore, the combination of T_m_i_n and V_P is recognized as the most influential set to predict T_d_e_w. The conducted examinations show that there is a remarkable difference between the errors achieved for most and less relevant input parameters, which highlights the importance of appropriate selection of input parameters. The use of more than two inputs may not be advisable and appropriate; thus, considering the most relevant combination of 2 parameters would be more suitable

  9. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Flanigan, Francis J

    2010-01-01

    A caution to mathematics professors: Complex Variables does not follow conventional outlines of course material. One reviewer noting its originality wrote: ""A standard text is often preferred [to a superior text like this] because the professor knows the order of topics and the problems, and doesn't really have to pay attention to the text. He can go to class without preparation."" Not so here-Dr. Flanigan treats this most important field of contemporary mathematics in a most unusual way. While all the material for an advanced undergraduate or first-year graduate course is covered, discussion

  10. Shippingport: A relevant decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crimi, F.P.

    1988-01-01

    Because of Shippingport's low electrical power rating (72 MWe), there has been some misunderstanding on the relevancy of the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP) to a modern 1175 MWe commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR) power station. This paper provides a comparison of the major components of the reactor plant of the 72 MWe Shippingport Atomic Power Station and an 1175 MWe nuclear plant and the relevancy of the Shippingport decommissioning as a demonstration project for the nuclear industry. For the purpose of this comparison, Portland General Electric Company's 1175 MWe Trojan Nuclear Plant at Rainier, Oregon, has been used as the reference nuclear power plant. 2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  11. The policy relevance of global environmental change research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarnal, Brent

    1996-01-01

    Many scientists are striving to identify and promote the policy implications of their global change research. Much basic research on global environmental change cannot advance policy directly, but new projects can determine the relevance of their research to decision makers and build policy-relevant products into the work. Similarly, many ongoing projects can alter or add to the present science design to make the research policy relevant. Thus, this paper shows scientists working on global change how to make their research policy relevant. It demonstrates how research on physical global change relates to human dimensions studies and integrated assessments. It also presents an example of how policy relevance can be fit retroactively into a global change project (in this case, SRBEX-the Susquehanna River Basin Experiment) and how that addition can enhance the project's status and science. The paper concludes that policy relevance is desirable from social and scientific perspectives

  12. Dramatic lives and relevant becomings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ann-Karina; Miller, Jody

    2012-01-01

    of marginality into positions of relevance. The analysis builds on empirical data from Copenhagen, Denmark, gained through ethnographic fieldwork with the participation of 20 female informants aged 13–22. The theoretical contribution proposes viewing conflicts as multi-linear, multi-causal and non...

  13. Regularization in Matrix Relevance Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, Petra; Bunte, Kerstin; Stiekema, Han; Hammer, Barbara; Villmann, Thomas; Biehl, Michael

    A In this paper, we present a regularization technique to extend recently proposed matrix learning schemes in learning vector quantization (LVQ). These learning algorithms extend the concept of adaptive distance measures in LVQ to the use of relevance matrices. In general, metric learning can

  14. Assessing Hospital Physicians' Acceptance of Clinical Information Systems: A Review of the Relevant Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Pynoo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In view of the tremendous potential benefits of clinical information systems (CIS for the quality of patient care; it is hard to understand why not every CIS is embraced by its targeted users, the physicians. The aim of this study is to propose a framework for assessing hospital physicians' CIS-acceptance that can serve as a guidance for future research into this area. Hereto, a review of the relevant literature was performed in the ISI Web-of-Science database. Eleven studies were withheld from an initial dataset of 797 articles. Results show that just as in business settings, there are four core groups of variables that influence physicians' acceptance of a CIS: its usefulness and ease of use, social norms, and factors in the working environment that facilitate use of the CIS (such as providing computers/workstations, compatibility between the new and existing system.... We also identified some additional variables as predictors of CIS-acceptance.

  15. Correlação de pearson e análise de trilha identificando variáveis para caracterizar porta-enxerto de Pyrus communis L Pearson correlation and path analysis identifying variables for the characterization of Pyrus communis L. rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Padilha Galarça

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, no presente trabalho, através de correlação de Pearson e análise de trilha, identificar variáveis para caracterizar porta-enxertos ananizantes para a cultura da pereira (Pyrus communis L.. Neste experimento foram utilizadas 49 plantas de pereira, plantadas nos canteiros do Departamento de Fitotecnia da FAEM/UFPel. As plantas foram avaliadas na época do seu crescimento vegetativo, segundo parâmetros descritos em instruções do Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento. Pela correlação de Pearson, as variáveis VP, NRP, HCP e FCNPRCL se destacaram. Na análise de trilha, a variável número de lenticelas obteve maior efeito positivo sobre VP, NRP e FCNPRCL, a variável ramificação do ramo demonstrou-se com efeito positivo sobre HCP, sendo essas duas variáveis consideradas eficazes no processo de seleção de porta-enxerto juntamente com as variáveis básicas.The objective of this work was to identify, through the Pearson correlation and path analysis, variables to characterize rootstocks suitable for the cultivation of the pear (Pyrus communis L.. In this experiment 49 pear specimens were used, planted in flowerbeds at the Phytotechny Department. The plants were evaluated at the time of growth, according to parameters described in the instructions of the Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento. According to the Pearson correlation, the variables VP, NRP, ETA and FCNPRCL stood out. In path analysis, the variable number of lenticels had a more positive effect on VP, NRP and FCNPRCL, variable branch of the industry had a more positive effect on ETA. Both variables were considered effective in the process of selection of rootstock together with the basic variables.

  16. Scaffolding scientific discussion using socially relevant representations in networked multimedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, Christopher M.

    1999-11-01

    How do students make use of social cues when learning on the computer? This work examines how students in a middle-school science course learned through on-line peer discussion. Cognitive accounts of collaboration stress interacting with ideas, while socially situated accounts stress the interpersonal context. The design of electronic environments allows investigation into the interrelation of cognitive and social dimensions. I use on-line peer discussion to investigate how socially relevant representations in interfaces can aid learning. First, I identify some of the variables that affect individual participation in on-line discussion, including interface features. Individual participation is predicted by student attitudes towards learning from peers. Second, I describe the range of group outcomes for these on-line discussions. There is a large effect of discussion group on learning outcomes which is not reducible to group composition or gross measures of group process. Third, I characterize how students (individually) construct understanding from these group discussions. Learning in the on-line discussions is shown to be a result of sustained interaction over time, not merely encountering or expressing ideas. Experimental manipulations in the types of social cues available to students suggest that many students do use socially relevant representations to support their understanding of multiple viewpoints and science reasoning. Personalizing scientific disputes can afford reflection on the nature of scientific discovery and advance. While there are many individual differences in how social representations are used by students in learning, overall learning benefits for certain social representations can be shown. This work has profound implications for design of collaborative instructional methods, equitable access to science learning, design of instructional technology, and understanding of learning and cognition in social settings.

  17. Mathematical Properties Relevant to Geomagnetic Field Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaka, Terence J.; Hulot, Gauthier; Olsen, Nils

    2010-01-01

    be directly measured. In this chapter, the mathematical foundation of global (as opposed to regional) geomagnetic field modeling is reviewed, and the spatial modeling of the field in spherical coordinates is focussed. Time can be dealt with as an independent variable and is not explicitly considered......Geomagnetic field modeling consists in converting large numbers of magnetic observations into a linear combination of elementary mathematical functions that best describes those observations.The set of numerical coefficients defining this linear combination is then what one refers.......The relevant elementary mathematical functions are introduced, their properties are reviewed, and how they can be used to describe the magnetic field in a source-free (such as the Earth’s neutral atmosphere) or source-dense (such as the ionosphere) environment is explained. Completeness and uniqueness...

  18. Mathematical Properties Relevant to Geomagnetic Field Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaka, Terence J.; Hulot, Gauthier; Olsen, Nils

    2014-01-01

    be directly measured. In this chapter, the mathematical foundation of global (as opposed to regional) geomagnetic field modeling is reviewed, and the spatial modeling of the field in spherical coordinates is focused. Time can be dealt with as an independent variable and is not explicitly considered......Geomagnetic field modeling consists in converting large numbers of magnetic observations into a linear combination of elementary mathematical functions that best describes those observations. The set of numerical coefficients defining this linear combination is then what one refers....... The relevant elementary mathematical functions are introduced, their properties are reviewed, and how they can be used to describe the magnetic field in a source-free (such as the Earth’s neutral atmosphere) or source-dense (such as the ionosphere) environment is explained. Completeness and uniqueness...

  19. Valerian: No Evidence for Clinically Relevant Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Kelber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent popular publications as well as in widely used information websites directed to cancer patients, valerian is claimed to have a potential of adverse interactions with anticancer drugs. This questions its use as a safe replacement for, for example, benzodiazepines. A review on the interaction potential of preparations from valerian root (Valeriana officinalis L. root was therefore conducted. A data base search and search in a clinical drug interaction data base were conducted. Thereafter, a systematic assessment of publications was performed. Seven in vitro studies on six CYP 450 isoenzymes, on p-glycoprotein, and on two UGT isoenzymes were identified. However, the methodological assessment of these studies did not support their suitability for the prediction of clinically relevant interactions. In addition, clinical studies on various valerian preparations did not reveal any relevant interaction potential concerning CYP 1A2, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4. Available animal and human pharmacodynamic studies did not verify any interaction potential. The interaction potential of valerian preparations therefore seems to be low and thereby without clinical relevance. We conclude that there is no specific evidence questioning their safety, also in cancer patients.

  20. The Improved Relevance Voxel Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganz, Melanie; Sabuncu, Mert; Van Leemput, Koen

    The concept of sparse Bayesian learning has received much attention in the machine learning literature as a means of achieving parsimonious representations of features used in regression and classification. It is an important family of algorithms for sparse signal recovery and compressed sensing....... Hence in its current form it is reminiscent of a greedy forward feature selection algorithm. In this report, we aim to solve the problems of the original RVoxM algorithm in the spirit of [7] (FastRVM).We call the new algorithm Improved Relevance Voxel Machine (IRVoxM). Our contributions...... and enables basis selection from overcomplete dictionaries. One of the trailblazers of Bayesian learning is MacKay who already worked on the topic in his PhD thesis in 1992 [1]. Later on Tipping and Bishop developed the concept of sparse Bayesian learning [2, 3] and Tipping published the Relevance Vector...

  1. Variable collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richey, J.B.; McBride, T.R.; Covic, J.

    1979-01-01

    This invention describes an automatic variable collimator which controls the width and thickness of X-ray beams in X-ray diagnostic medical equipment, and which is particularly adapted for use with computerized axial tomographic scanners. A two-part collimator is provided which shapes an X-ray beam both prior to its entering an object subject to radiographic analysis and after the attenuated beam has passed through the object. Interposed between a source of radiation and the object subject to radiographic analysis is a first or source collimator. The source collimator causes the X-ray beam emitted by the source of radiation to be split into a plurality of generally rectangular shaped beams. Disposed within the source collimator is a movable aperture plate which may be used to selectively vary the thickness of the plurality of generally rectangular shaped beams transmitted through the source collimator. A second or receiver collimator is interposed between the object subject to radiographic analysis and a series of radiation detectors. The receiver collimator is disposed to receive the attenuated X-ray beams passing through the object subject to radiographic analysis. Located within the receiver collimator are a plurality of movable aperture plates adapted to be displaced relative to a plurality of fixed aperture plates for the purpose of varying the width and thickness of the attenuated X-ray beams transmitted through the object subject to radiographic analysis. The movable aperture plates of the source and receiver collimators are automatically controlled by circuitry which is provided to allow remote operation of the movable aperture plates

  2. Sustainable Seafood Consumption in Action: Relevant Behaviors and their Predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Richter

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the discussion around sustainable diets, seafood consumption is still a relatively neglected field. This article discusses relevant behaviours consumers can perform to consume seafood sustainably. The predictive power of intention, descriptive social norms, trust, awareness and pro-environmental attitudes are theoretically discussed and statistically tested across two studies in regards to (a using sustainable seafood labels, and (b using sustainable seafood guides. Data analysis (N1 = 309, N2 = 881 Norwegian adults shows that intentions, social norms and trust predict seafood label use across studies. The variables predicting seafood guide use are less stable which might be due to this behaviour being performed by a very small fraction of consumers only. Causal relationships have been identified in study 2 by applying cross-lagged panel analyses between intentions, trust and social norms and seafood label use. Further causal relationships were found between intentions, trust and awareness and seafood guide use. A bidirectional relationship was confirmed between descriptive social norms and seafood guide use. Potential strategies to promote seafood label- and seafood guide use, are discussed based on these results.

  3. A fully Bayesian latent variable model for integrative clustering analysis of multi-type omics data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Qianxing; Shen, Ronglai; Guo, Cui; Vannucci, Marina; Chan, Keith S; Hilsenbeck, Susan G

    2018-01-01

    Identification of clinically relevant tumor subtypes and omics signatures is an important task in cancer translational research for precision medicine. Large-scale genomic profiling studies such as The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network have generated vast amounts of genomic, transcriptomic, epigenomic, and proteomic data. While these studies have provided great resources for researchers to discover clinically relevant tumor subtypes and driver molecular alterations, there are few computationally efficient methods and tools for integrative clustering analysis of these multi-type omics data. Therefore, the aim of this article is to develop a fully Bayesian latent variable method (called iClusterBayes) that can jointly model omics data of continuous and discrete data types for identification of tumor subtypes and relevant omics features. Specifically, the proposed method uses a few latent variables to capture the inherent structure of multiple omics data sets to achieve joint dimension reduction. As a result, the tumor samples can be clustered in the latent variable space and relevant omics features that drive the sample clustering are identified through Bayesian variable selection. This method significantly improve on the existing integrative clustering method iClusterPlus in terms of statistical inference and computational speed. By analyzing TCGA and simulated data sets, we demonstrate the excellent performance of the proposed method in revealing clinically meaningful tumor subtypes and driver omics features. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Microdosing: Concept, application and relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Tewari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of microdose pharmacokinetic studies as an essential tool in drug development is still to catch on. While this approach promises potential cost savings and a quantum leap in efficiencies of the drug development process, major hurdles still need to be overcome before the technique becomes commonplace and part of routine practice. Clear regulations in Europe and the USA have had an enabling effect. The lack of enabling provisions for microdosing studies in Indian regulation, despite low risk and manifest relevance for the local drug development industry, is inconsistent with the country′s aspirations to be among the leaders in pharmaceutical research.

  5. Does bisphenol A induce superfeminization in Marisa cornuarietis? Part I: intra- and inter-laboratory variability in test endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Valery E; Selck, Henriette; Palmqvist, Annemette; Aufderheide, John; Warbritton, Ryan; Pounds, Nadine; Thompson, Roy; van der Hoeven, Nelly; Caspers, Norbert

    2007-03-01

    It has been claimed that bisphenol A (BPA) induces superfeminization in the freshwater gastropod, Marisa cornuarietis. To explore the reproducibility of prior work, here we present results from a three-laboratory study, the objectives of which were to determine the mean and variability in test endpoints (i.e., adult fecundity, egg hatchability, and juvenile growth) under baseline conditions and to identify the sources of variability. A major source of variability for all of the measured endpoints was due to differences within and among individuals. With few exceptions, variability among laboratories and among replicate tanks within laboratories contributed little to the observed variability in endpoints. The results highlight the importance of obtaining basic knowledge of husbandry requirements and baseline information on life-history traits of potential test species prior to designing toxicity test protocols. Understanding of the levels and sources of endpoint variability is essential so that statistically robust and ecologically relevant tests of chemicals can be conducted.

  6. Other relevant numerical modelling papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chartier, M.

    1989-01-01

    The ocean modelling is a rapidly evolving science and a large number of results have been published. Several categories of papers are of particular interest for this review: the papers published by the international atomic institutions, such as the NEA (for the CRESP or Subseabed Programs), the IAEA (for example the Safety Series, the Technical Report Series or the TECDOC), and the ICRP, and the papers concerned by more fundamental research, which are published in specific scientific literature. This paper aims to list some of the most relevant publications for the CRESP purposes. It means by no way to be exhaustive, but informative on the incontestable progress recently achieved in that field. One should note that some of these papers are so recent that their final version has not yet been published

  7. Industrial relevance of thermophilic Archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, Ksenia; Antranikian, Garabed

    2005-12-01

    The dramatic increase of newly isolated extremophilic microorganisms, analysis of their genomes and investigations of their enzymes by academic and industrial laboratories demonstrate the great potential of extremophiles in industrial (white) biotechnology. Enzymes derived from extremophiles (extremozymes) are superior to the traditional catalysts because they can perform industrial processes even under harsh conditions, under which conventional proteins are completely denatured. In particular, enzymes from thermophilic and hyperthermophilic Archaea have industrial relevance. Despite intensive investigations, our knowledge of the structure-function relationships of their enzymes is still limited. Information concerning the molecular properties of their enzymes and genes has to be obtained to be able to understand the mechanisms that are responsible for catalytic activity and stability at the boiling point of water.

  8. The Relevance of Hegel's Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W Burbidge

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Hegel defines his Logic as the science that thinks about thinking.nbsp; But when we interpret that work as outlining what happens when we reason we are vulnerable to Fregersquo;s charge of psychologism.nbsp; I use Hegelrsquo;s tripartite distinction among understanding, dialectical and speculative reason as operations of pure thought to suggest how thinking can work with objective concepts.nbsp; In the last analysis, however, our ability to move from the subjective contingency of representations and ideas to the pure concepts we think develops from mechanical memory, which separates sign from sense so hat we can focus simply on the latter.nbsp; By becoming aware of the connections that underlie our thinking processes we may be able to both move beyond the abstractions of symbolic logic and clarify what informal logicians call relevance.

  9. Technological Capability's Predictor Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Maciel Reichert

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the factors that influence in configuration of the technological capability of companies in sectors with medium-low technological intensity. To achieve the goal proposed in this article a survey was carried out. Based on the framework developed by Lall (1992 which classifies firms in basic, intermediate and advanced level of technological capability; it was found that the predominant technological capability is intermediate, with 83.7% of respondent companies (plastics companies in Brazil. It is believed that the main contribution of this study is the finding that the dependent variable named “Technological Capability” can be explained at a rate of 65% by six variables: development of new processes; selection of the best equipment supplier; sales of internally developed new technology to third parties; design and manufacture of equipment; study of the work methods and perform inventory control; and improvement of product quality.

  10. SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC DATA USED FOR IDENTIFYING ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to unique social and demographic characteristics, various segments of the population may experience exposures different from those of the general population, which, in many cases, may be greater. When risk assessments do not characterize subsets of the general population, the populations that may experience the greatest risk remain unidentified. When such populations are not identified, the social and demographic data relevant to these populations is not considered when preparing exposure estimates, which can underestimate exposure and risk estimates for at-risk populations. Thus, it is necessary for risk or exposure assessors characterizing a diverse population, to first identify and then enumerate certain groups within the general population who are at risk for greater contaminant exposures. The document entitled Sociodemographic Data Used for Identifying Potentially Highly Exposed Populations (also referred to as the Highly Exposed Populations document), assists assessors in identifying and enumerating potentially highly exposed populations. This document presents data relating to factors which potentially impact an individual or group's exposure to environmental contaminants based on activity patterns (how time is spent), microenvironments (locations where time is spent), and other socio-demographic data such as age, gender, race and economic status. Populations potentially more exposed to various chemicals of concern, relative to the general population

  11. Towards increased policy relevance in energy modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Ramesohl, Stephan; Boyd, Gale

    2003-07-29

    Historically, most energy models were reasonably equipped to assess the impact of a subsidy or change in taxation, but are often insufficient to assess the impact of more innovative policy instruments. We evaluate the models used to assess future energy use, focusing on industrial energy use. We explore approaches to engineering-economic analysis that could help improve the realism and policy relevance of engineering-economic modeling frameworks. We also explore solutions to strengthen the policy usefulness of engineering-economic analysis that can be built from a framework of multi-disciplinary cooperation. We focus on the so-called ''engineering-economic'' (or ''bottom-up'') models, as they include the amount of detail that is commonly needed to model policy scenarios. We identify research priorities for the modeling framework, technology representation in models, policy evaluation and modeling of decision-making behavior.

  12. Reach and Relevance of Prison Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Tubex

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution I reflect on the changes in the penal landscape and how they impact on prison research. I do this from my experiences as a prison researcher in a variety of roles, in both Europe and Australia. The growing dominance of managerialism has impacted on both corrective services and universities, in ways that have changed the relationship between current prison practices and academically oriented research. Therefore, academics have to question how their contemporary prison research can bridge the emerging gap: how they can not only produce research that adheres to the roots of criminology and provides a base for a rational penal policy, but also how they can develop strategies to get recognition of and funding for this broader contextual work which, although it might not produce results that are immediately identifiable, can be of relevance in indirect ways and in the longer term.

  13. Critical variables of business failure: a review and classification framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Pretorius

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Failure is a phenomenon that ventures face during all stages of the life cycle and requires insight into its causes before it can be reversed. The scientific literature on failure is, however, spread over multiple disciplines. This study’s line of enquiry firstly reviews the documented research (both theoretical and empirical encompassing the phenomenon ‘business failure’ on a multi-disciplinary basis. A conceptual framework is then proposed for categorising variables into four sub-domains namely: signs and prediction; causes and preconditions; recovery; and cognition and learning. Better understanding of the failure phenomenon is achieved. The methodology applied is fundamentally based on grounded theory interpretation with a focus on classifying the identified relevant variables.

  14. Sparse Linear Identifiable Multivariate Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henao, Ricardo; Winther, Ole

    2011-01-01

    and bench-marked on artificial and real biological data sets. SLIM is closest in spirit to LiNGAM (Shimizu et al., 2006), but differs substantially in inference, Bayesian network structure learning and model comparison. Experimentally, SLIM performs equally well or better than LiNGAM with comparable......In this paper we consider sparse and identifiable linear latent variable (factor) and linear Bayesian network models for parsimonious analysis of multivariate data. We propose a computationally efficient method for joint parameter and model inference, and model comparison. It consists of a fully...

  15. Relevance in the science classroom: A multidimensional analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, Matthew F.

    While perceived relevance is considered a fundamental component of adaptive learning, the experience of relevance and its conceptual definition have not been well described. The mixed-methods research presented in this dissertation aimed to clarify the conceptual meaning of relevance by focusing on its phenomenological experience from the students' perspective. Following a critical literature review, I propose an identity-based model of perceived relevance that includes three components: a contextual target, an identity target, and a connection type, or lens. An empirical investigation of this model that consisted of two general phases was implemented in four 9th grade-biology classrooms. Participants in Phase 1 (N = 118) completed a series of four open-ended writing activities focused on eliciting perceived personal connections to academic content. Exploratory qualitative content analysis of a 25% random sample of the student responses was used to identify the main meaning-units of the proposed model as well as different dimensions of student relevance perceptions. These meaning-units and dimensions provided the basis for the construction of a conceptual mapping sentence capturing students' perceived relevance, which was then applied in a confirmatory analysis to all other student responses. Participants in Phase 2 (N = 139) completed a closed survey designed based on the mapping sentence to assess their perceived relevance of a biology unit. The survey also included scales assessing other domain-level motivational processes. Exploratory factor analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling indicated a coherent conceptual structure, which included a primary interpretive relevance dimension. Comparison of the conceptual structure across various groups (randomly-split sample, gender, academic level, domain-general motivational profiles) provided support for its ubiquity and insight into variation in the experience of perceived relevance among students of different

  16. Vygotsky's Crisis: Argument, context, relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Ludmila

    2012-06-01

    Vygotsky's The Historical Significance of the Crisis in Psychology (1926-1927) is an important text in the history and philosophy of psychology that has only become available to scholars in 1982 in Russian, and in 1997 in English. The goal of this paper is to introduce Vygotsky's conception of psychology to a wider audience. I argue that Vygotsky's argument about the "crisis" in psychology and its resolution can be fully understood only in the context of his social and political thinking. Vygotsky shared the enthusiasm, widespread among Russian leftist intelligentsia in the 1920s, that Soviet society had launched an unprecedented social experiment: The socialist revolution opened the way for establishing social conditions that would let the individual flourish. For Vygotsky, this meant that "a new man" of the future would become "the first and only species in biology that would create itself." He envisioned psychology as a science that would serve this humanist teleology. I propose that The Crisis is relevant today insofar as it helps us define a fundamental problem: How can we systematically account for the development of knowledge in psychology? I evaluate how Vygotsky addresses this problem as a historian of the crisis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Relevance of equilibrium in multifragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Takuya; Ono, Akira

    2009-01-01

    The relevance of equilibrium in a multifragmentation reaction of very central 40 Ca + 40 Ca collisions at 35 MeV/nucleon is investigated by using simulations of antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD). Two types of ensembles are compared. One is the reaction ensemble of the states at each reaction time t in collision events simulated by AMD, and the other is the equilibrium ensemble prepared by solving the AMD equation of motion for a many-nucleon system confined in a container for a long time. The comparison of the ensembles is performed for the fragment charge distribution and the excitation energies. Our calculations show that there exists an equilibrium ensemble that well reproduces the reaction ensemble at each reaction time t for the investigated period 80≤t≤300 fm/c. However, there are some other observables that show discrepancies between the reaction and equilibrium ensembles. These may be interpreted as dynamical effects in the reaction. The usual static equilibrium at each instant is not realized since any equilibrium ensemble with the same volume as that of the reaction system cannot reproduce the fragment observables

  18. Expansion of the Kano model to identify relevant customer segments and functional requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atlason, Reynir Smari; Stefansson, Arnaldur Smari; Wietz, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    The Kano model of customer satisfaction has been widely used to analyse perceived needs of customers. The model provides product developers valuable information about if, and then how much a given functional requirement (FR) will impact customer satisfaction if implemented within a product, system...... or a service. A current limitation of the Kano model is that it does not allow developers to visualise which combined sets of FRs would provide the highest satisfaction between different customer segments. In this paper, a stepwise method to address this particular shortcoming is presented. First......, a traditional Kano analysis is conducted for the different segments of interest. Second, for each FR, relationship functions are integrated between x=0 and x=1. Third, integrals are inserted into a combination matrix crossing segments and FRs, where FRs with the highest sum across the chosen segments...

  19. Identifying internet marketing principles relevant to generic marketers / Ayesha Lian Bevan-Dye

    OpenAIRE

    Bevan-Dye, Ayesha Lian

    2005-01-01

    To deliver the type of marketing graduate that meets industry demand necessitates that marketing curricula content be continuously updated to keep pace with the dynamic marketing environment. One of the major trends influencing the twenty-first century marketing environment is the advent of the Internet and substantial growth in Internet usage and Internet-based commerce. Not only is the Internet driving major marketing environmental change, it is also emerging as a new marketing tool of sign...

  20. Comparative Genomics and Disorder Prediction Identify Biologically Relevant SH3 Protein Interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Protein interaction networks are an important part of the post-genomic effort to integrate a part-list view of the cell into system-level understanding. Using a set of 11 yeast genomes we show that combining comparative genomics and secondary structure information greatly increases consensus-based prediction of SH3 targets. Benchmarking of our method against positive and negative standards gave 83% accuracy with 26% coverage. The concept of an optimal divergence time for effective comparative genomics studies was analyzed, demonstrating that genomes of species that diverged very recently from Saccharomyces cerevisiae(S. mikatae, S. bayanus, and S. paradoxus, or a long time ago (Neurospora crassa and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, contain less information for accurate prediction of SH3 targets than species within the optimal divergence time proposed. We also show here that intrinsically disordered SH3 domain targets are more probable sites of interaction than equivalent sites within ordered regions. Our findings highlight several novel S. cerevisiae SH3 protein interactions, the value of selection of optimal divergence times in comparative genomics studies, and the importance of intrinsic disorder for protein interactions. Based on our results we propose novel roles for the S. cerevisiae proteins Abp1p in endocytosis and Hse1p in endosome protein sorting.

  1. Comparative genomics and disorder prediction identify biologically relevant SH3 protein interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Beltrao

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Protein interaction networks are an important part of the post-genomic effort to integrate a part-list view of the cell into system-level understanding. Using a set of 11 yeast genomes we show that combining comparative genomics and secondary structure information greatly increases consensus-based prediction of SH3 targets. Benchmarking of our method against positive and negative standards gave 83% accuracy with 26% coverage. The concept of an optimal divergence time for effective comparative genomics studies was analyzed, demonstrating that genomes of species that diverged very recently from Saccharomyces cerevisiae(S. mikatae, S. bayanus, and S. paradoxus, or a long time ago (Neurospora crassa and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, contain less information for accurate prediction of SH3 targets than species within the optimal divergence time proposed. We also show here that intrinsically disordered SH3 domain targets are more probable sites of interaction than equivalent sites within ordered regions. Our findings highlight several novel S. cerevisiae SH3 protein interactions, the value of selection of optimal divergence times in comparative genomics studies, and the importance of intrinsic disorder for protein interactions. Based on our results we propose novel roles for the S. cerevisiae proteins Abp1p in endocytosis and Hse1p in endosome protein sorting.

  2. Consistent robustness analysis (CRA) identifies biologically relevant properties of regulatory network models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saithong, Treenut; Painter, Kevin J; Millar, Andrew J

    2010-12-16

    A number of studies have previously demonstrated that "goodness of fit" is insufficient in reliably classifying the credibility of a biological model. Robustness and/or sensitivity analysis is commonly employed as a secondary method for evaluating the suitability of a particular model. The results of such analyses invariably depend on the particular parameter set tested, yet many parameter values for biological models are uncertain. Here, we propose a novel robustness analysis that aims to determine the "common robustness" of the model with multiple, biologically plausible parameter sets, rather than the local robustness for a particular parameter set. Our method is applied to two published models of the Arabidopsis circadian clock (the one-loop [1] and two-loop [2] models). The results reinforce current findings suggesting the greater reliability of the two-loop model and pinpoint the crucial role of TOC1 in the circadian network. Consistent Robustness Analysis can indicate both the relative plausibility of different models and also the critical components and processes controlling each model.

  3. The National Ecosystem Services Classification System: A Framework for Identifying and Reducing Relevant Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, C. R.; Sinha, P.; Amanda, N.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years the gap between what scientists know and what policymakers should appreciate in environmental decision making has received more attention, as the costs of the disconnect have become more apparent to both groups. Particularly for water-related policies, the EPA's Office of Water has struggled with benefit estimates held low by the inability to quantify ecological and economic effects that theory, modeling, and anecdotal or isolated case evidence suggest may prove to be larger. Better coordination with ecologists and hydrologists is being explored as a solution. The ecosystem services (ES) concept now nearly two decades old links ecosystem functions and processes to the human value system. But there remains no clear mapping of which ecosystem goods and services affect which individual or economic values. The National Ecosystem Services Classification System (NESCS, 'nexus') project brings together ecologists, hydrologists, and social scientists to do this mapping for aquatic and other ecosystem service-generating systems. The objective is to greatly reduce the uncertainty in water-related policy making by mapping and ultimately quantifying the various functions and products of aquatic systems, as well as how changes to aquatic systems impact the human economy and individual levels of non-monetary appreciation for those functions and products. Primary challenges to fostering interaction between scientists, social scientists, and policymakers are lack of a common vocabulary, and the need for a cohesive comprehensive framework that organizes concepts across disciplines and accommodates scientific data from a range of sources. NESCS builds the vocabulary and the framework so both may inform a scalable transdisciplinary policy-making application. This talk presents for discussion the process and progress in developing both this vocabulary and a classifying framework capable of bridging the gap between a newer but existing ecosystem services classification system, and a standardized industrial classification system. Our goal is to model then predict the effects of a policy choice on the environment, from impacts on ecological components and processes all the way through to endpoints in the human value chain.

  4. International Business Education: Identifying the Emergent Topics in International Business and Their Relevance for Knowledge Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeoh, Poh-Lin

    2001-01-01

    Sampled faculty in international business (IB) to better understand emerging themes in that area. Seven major topical areas were uncovered: general knowledge of IB, international trade and institutions, cross-cultural issues, managing global operations, international ethics, international monetary systems, and international political/regulatory…

  5. Thoughts on identifiers

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    As business processes and information transactions have become an inextricably intertwined with the Web, the importance of assignment, registration, discovery, and maintenance of identifiers has increased. In spite of this, integrated frameworks for managing identifiers have been slow to emerge. Instead, identification systems arise (quite naturally) from immediate business needs without consideration for how they fit into larger information architectures. In addition, many legacy identifier systems further complicate the landscape, making it difficult for content managers to select and deploy identifier systems that meet both the business case and long term information management objectives. This presentation will outline a model for evaluating identifier applications and the functional requirements of the systems necessary to support them. The model is based on a layered analysis of the characteristics of identifier systems, including: * Functional characteristics * Technology * Policy * Business * Social T...

  6. Developments in entanglement theory and applications to relevant physical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lamata Manuel, Lucas

    2007-01-01

    This Thesis is devoted to the analysis of entanglement in relevant physical systems. Entanglement is the conducting theme of this research, though I do not dedicate to a single topic, but consider a wide scope of physical situations. I have followed mainly three lines of research for this Thesis, with a series of different works each, which are, Entanglement and Relativistic Quantum Theory, Continuous-variable entanglement, and Multipartite entanglement.

  7. Relevance of extracellular DNA in rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietramellara, Giacomo; Ascher, Judith; Baraniya, Divyashri; Arfaioli, Paola; Ceccherini, Maria Teresa; Hawes, Martha

    2013-04-01

    One of the most promising areas for future development is the manipulation of the rhizosphere to produce sustainable and efficient agriculture production systems. Using Omics approaches, to define the distinctive features of eDNA systems and structures, will facilitate progress in rhizo-enforcement and biocontrol studies. The relevance of these studies results clear when we consider the plethora of ecological functions in which eDNA is involved. This fraction can be actively extruded by living cells or discharged during cellular lysis and may exert a key role in the stability and variability of the soil bacterial genome, resulting also a source of nitrogen and phosphorus for plants due to the root's capacity to directly uptake short DNA fragments. The adhesive properties of the DNA molecule confer to eDNA the capacity to inhibit or kill pathogenic bacteria by cation limitation induction, and to facilitate formation of biofilm and extracellular traps (ETs), that may protect microorganisms inhabiting biofilm and plant roots against pathogens and allelopathic substances. The ETs are actively extruded by root border cells when they are dispersed in the rhizosphere, conferring to plants the capacity to extend an endogenous pathogen defence system outside the organism. Moreover, eDNA could be involved in rhizoremediation in heavy metal polluted soil acting as a bioflotation reagent.

  8. Assessing the relevance of ecotoxicological studies for regulatory decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudén, Christina; Adams, Julie; Ågerstrand, Marlene; Brock, Theo Cm; Poulsen, Veronique; Schlekat, Christian E; Wheeler, James R; Henry, Tala R

    2017-07-01

    Regulatory policies in many parts of the world recognize either the utility of or the mandate that all available studies be considered in environmental or ecological hazard and risk assessment (ERA) of chemicals, including studies from the peer-reviewed literature. Consequently, a vast array of different studies and data types need to be considered. The first steps in the evaluation process involve determining whether the study is relevant to the ERA and sufficiently reliable. Relevance evaluation is typically performed using existing guidance but involves application of "expert judgment" by risk assessors. In the present paper, we review published guidance for relevance evaluation and, on the basis of the practical experience within the group of authors, we identify additional aspects and further develop already proposed aspects that should be considered when conducting a relevance assessment for ecotoxicological studies. From a regulatory point of view, the overarching key aspect of relevance concerns the ability to directly or indirectly use the study in ERA with the purpose of addressing specific protection goals and ultimately regulatory decision making. Because ERA schemes are based on the appropriate linking of exposure and effect estimates, important features of ecotoxicological studies relate to exposure relevance and biological relevance. Exposure relevance addresses the representativeness of the test substance, environmental exposure media, and exposure regime. Biological relevance deals with the environmental significance of the test organism and the endpoints selected, the ecological realism of the test conditions simulated in the study, as well as a mechanistic link of treatment-related effects for endpoints to the protection goal identified in the ERA. In addition, uncertainties associated with relevance should be considered in the assessment. A systematic and transparent assessment of relevance is needed for regulatory decision making. The relevance

  9. Statistical significance versus clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Marieke H C; Bech, Anneke; Bouyer, Jean; van den Brand, Jan A J G

    2017-04-01

    In March this year, the American Statistical Association (ASA) posted a statement on the correct use of P-values, in response to a growing concern that the P-value is commonly misused and misinterpreted. We aim to translate these warnings given by the ASA into a language more easily understood by clinicians and researchers without a deep background in statistics. Moreover, we intend to illustrate the limitations of P-values, even when used and interpreted correctly, and bring more attention to the clinical relevance of study findings using two recently reported studies as examples. We argue that P-values are often misinterpreted. A common mistake is saying that P < 0.05 means that the null hypothesis is false, and P ≥0.05 means that the null hypothesis is true. The correct interpretation of a P-value of 0.05 is that if the null hypothesis were indeed true, a similar or more extreme result would occur 5% of the times upon repeating the study in a similar sample. In other words, the P-value informs about the likelihood of the data given the null hypothesis and not the other way around. A possible alternative related to the P-value is the confidence interval (CI). It provides more information on the magnitude of an effect and the imprecision with which that effect was estimated. However, there is no magic bullet to replace P-values and stop erroneous interpretation of scientific results. Scientists and readers alike should make themselves familiar with the correct, nuanced interpretation of statistical tests, P-values and CIs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  10. Identifying Teaching Methods that Engage Entrepreneurship Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Peter; Metcalfe, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Entrepreneurship education particularly requires student engagement because of the complexity of the entrepreneurship process. The purpose of this paper is to describe how an established measure of engagement can be used to identify relevant teaching methods that could be used to engage any group of entrepreneurship students.…

  11. Does relevance matter in academic policy research?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    A reflection on whether relevance matters in tourism policy research. A debate among tourism scholars.......A reflection on whether relevance matters in tourism policy research. A debate among tourism scholars....

  12. Safe structural food bolus in elderly: the relevant parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenberghe-Descamps, Mathilde; Septier, Chantal; Prot, Aurélie; Tournier, Carole; Hennequin, Martine; Vigneau, Evelyne; Feron, Gilles; Labouré, Hélène

    2017-01-01

    Mastication is essential to prepare food into a bolus ready to be swallowed safely, with no choking risk. Based on food bolus properties, a masticatory normative indicator was developed by Woda et al. (2010) to identify impaired masticatory function within good oral health population. The aim of the present study was to identify relevant parameters of bolus' structure to differentiate safe to unsafe bolus among elderly contrasting by their dental status.93 elderly, 58% with at least 7 posteri...

  13. Risk-adjusted Outcomes of Clinically Relevant Pancreatic Fistula Following Pancreatoduodenectomy: A Model for Performance Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Matthew T; Soi, Sameer; Asbun, Horacio J; Ball, Chad G; Bassi, Claudio; Beane, Joal D; Behrman, Stephen W; Berger, Adam C; Bloomston, Mark; Callery, Mark P; Christein, John D; Dixon, Elijah; Drebin, Jeffrey A; Castillo, Carlos Fernandez-Del; Fisher, William E; Fong, Zhi Ven; House, Michael G; Hughes, Steven J; Kent, Tara S; Kunstman, John W; Malleo, Giuseppe; Miller, Benjamin C; Salem, Ronald R; Soares, Kevin; Valero, Vicente; Wolfgang, Christopher L; Vollmer, Charles M

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate surgical performance in pancreatoduodenectomy using clinically relevant postoperative pancreatic fistula (CR-POPF) occurrence as a quality indicator. Accurate assessment of surgeon and institutional performance requires (1) standardized definitions for the outcome of interest and (2) a comprehensive risk-adjustment process to control for differences in patient risk. This multinational, retrospective study of 4301 pancreatoduodenectomies involved 55 surgeons at 15 institutions. Risk for CR-POPF was assessed using the previously validated Fistula Risk Score, and pancreatic fistulas were stratified by International Study Group criteria. CR-POPF variability was evaluated and hierarchical regression analysis assessed individual surgeon and institutional performance. There was considerable variability in both CR-POPF risk and occurrence. Factors increasing the risk for CR-POPF development included increasing Fistula Risk Score (odds ratio 1.49 per point, P ratio 3.30, P performance outliers were identified at the surgeon and institutional levels. Of the top 10 surgeons (≥15 cases) for nonrisk-adjusted performance, only 6 remained in this high-performing category following risk adjustment. This analysis of pancreatic fistulas following pancreatoduodenectomy demonstrates considerable variability in both the risk and occurrence of CR-POPF among surgeons and institutions. Disparities in patient risk between providers reinforce the need for comprehensive, risk-adjusted modeling when assessing performance based on procedure-specific complications. Furthermore, beyond inherent patient risk factors, surgical decision-making influences fistula outcomes.

  14. Graduate Employability and Communication Competence: Are Undergraduates Taught Relevant Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clokie, Trish L.; Fourie, Elna

    2016-01-01

    This research establishes the role of communication education in employability by determining how employers of graduates view communication, identifying communication skills that employers view as relevant, and establishing whether these skills are included in communication courses. To achieve these aims, local businesses were surveyed, and the…

  15. Relevance of counselling to human resource management in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, literature has shown that counselling is universal and useful in all fields of human endeavours. This paper therefore brings into focus the relevance of counselling to human resource management in organizations. It defines counselling, resource management and identifies various services that counsellors perform ...

  16. CONSTRUCTING ACCOUNTING UNCERTAINITY ESTIMATES VARIABLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nino Serdarevic

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research results on the BIH firms’ financial reporting quality, utilizing empirical relation between accounting conservatism, generated in created critical accounting policy choices, and management abilities in estimates and prediction power of domicile private sector accounting. Primary research is conducted based on firms’ financial statements, constructing CAPCBIH (Critical Accounting Policy Choices relevant in B&H variable that presents particular internal control system and risk assessment; and that influences financial reporting positions in accordance with specific business environment. I argue that firms’ management possesses no relevant capacity to determine risks and true consumption of economic benefits, leading to creation of hidden reserves in inventories and accounts payable; and latent losses for bad debt and assets revaluations. I draw special attention to recent IFRS convergences to US GAAP, especially in harmonizing with FAS 130 Reporting comprehensive income (in revised IAS 1 and FAS 157 Fair value measurement. CAPCBIH variable, resulted in very poor performance, presents considerable lack of recognizing environment specifics. Furthermore, I underline the importance of revised ISAE and re-enforced role of auditors in assessing relevance of management estimates.

  17. Science and the struggle for relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessels, L.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304832863

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with struggles for relevance of university researchers, their efforts to make their work correspond with ruling standards of relevance and to influence these standards. Its general research question is: How to understand changes in the struggle for relevance of Dutch academic

  18. The Personal Relevance of the Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanSickle, Ronald L.

    1990-01-01

    Conceptualizes a personal-relevance framework derived from Ronald L. VanSickle's five areas of life integrated with four general motivating goals from Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Richard and Patricia Schmuck's social motivation theory. Illustrates ways to apply the personal relevance framework to make social studies more relevant to…

  19. The Development of Relevance in Information Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-hsuan Huang

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to investigate the notion of relevance in information retrieval. It discusses various definitions for relevance from historical viewpoints and the characteristics of relevance judgments. Also, it introduces empirical results of important related researches.[Article content in Chinese

  20. Identifying Strategic Scientific Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    As NCI's central scientific strategy office, CRS collaborates with the institute's divisions, offices, and centers to identify research opportunities to advance NCI's vision for the future of cancer research.

  1. Coherence method of identifying signal noise model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavrin, J.

    1981-01-01

    The noise analysis method is discussed in identifying perturbance models and their parameters by a stochastic analysis of the noise model of variables measured on a reactor. The analysis of correlations is made in the frequency region using coherence analysis methods. In identifying an actual specific perturbance, its model should be determined and recognized in a compound model of the perturbance system using the results of observation. The determination of the optimum estimate of the perturbance system model is based on estimates of related spectral densities which are determined from the spectral density matrix of the measured variables. Partial and multiple coherence, partial transfers, the power spectral densities of the input and output variables of the noise model are determined from the related spectral densities. The possibilities of applying the coherence identification methods were tested on a simple case of a simulated stochastic system. Good agreement was found of the initial analytic frequency filters and the transfers identified. (B.S.)

  2. Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    cells we observed that it promoted transformation of HMLE cells, suggesting a tumor suppressive role of Merlin in breast cancer (Figure 4B). A...08-1-0767 TITLE: Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yashaswi Shrestha...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 W81XWH-08-1-0767 Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes Yashaswi Shrestha Dana-Farber

  3. Nostalgia's place among self-relevant emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilburg, Wijnand A P; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine

    2017-07-24

    How is nostalgia positioned among self-relevant emotions? We tested, in six studies, which self-relevant emotions are perceived as most similar versus least similar to nostalgia, and what underlies these similarities/differences. We used multidimensional scaling to chart the perceived similarities/differences among self-relevant emotions, resulting in two-dimensional models. The results were revealing. Nostalgia is positioned among self-relevant emotions characterised by positive valence, an approach orientation, and low arousal. Nostalgia most resembles pride and self-compassion, and least resembles embarrassment and shame. Our research pioneered the integration of nostalgia among self-relevant emotions.

  4. ICGE: an R package for detecting relevant clusters and atypical units in gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irigoien Itziar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression technologies have opened up new ways to diagnose and treat cancer and other diseases. Clustering algorithms are a useful approach with which to analyze genome expression data. They attempt to partition the genes into groups exhibiting similar patterns of variation in expression level. An important problem associated with gene classification is to discern whether the clustering process can find a relevant partition as well as the identification of new genes classes. There are two key aspects to classification: the estimation of the number of clusters, and the decision as to whether a new unit (gene, tumor sample... belongs to one of these previously identified clusters or to a new group. Results ICGE is a user-friendly R package which provides many functions related to this problem: identify the number of clusters using mixed variables, usually found by applied biomedical researchers; detect whether the data have a cluster structure; identify whether a new unit belongs to one of the pre-identified clusters or to a novel group, and classify new units into the corresponding cluster. The functions in the ICGE package are accompanied by help files and easy examples to facilitate its use. Conclusions We demonstrate the utility of ICGE by analyzing simulated and real data sets. The results show that ICGE could be very useful to a broad research community.

  5. Which domains of thyroid-related quality of life are most relevant?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watt, Torquil; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Rasmussen, Ase Krogh

    2007-01-01

    To identify how thyroid diseases impact the patients' lives and to select the most relevant quality of life (QoL) issues for a thyroid-specific questionnaire.......To identify how thyroid diseases impact the patients' lives and to select the most relevant quality of life (QoL) issues for a thyroid-specific questionnaire....

  6. Identifying Human Factors Issues in Aircraft Maintenance Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veinott, Elizabeth S.; Kanki, Barbara G.; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Maintenance operations incidents submitted to the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) between 1986-1992 were systematically analyzed in order to identify issues relevant to human factors and crew coordination. This exploratory analysis involved 95 ASRS reports which represented a wide range of maintenance incidents. The reports were coded and analyzed according to the type of error (e.g, wrong part, procedural error, non-procedural error), contributing factors (e.g., individual, within-team, cross-team, procedure, tools), result of the error (e.g., aircraft damage or not) as well as the operational impact (e.g., aircraft flown to destination, air return, delay at gate). The main findings indicate that procedural errors were most common (48.4%) and that individual and team actions contributed to the errors in more than 50% of the cases. As for operational results, most errors were either corrected after landing at the destination (51.6%) or required the flight crew to stop enroute (29.5%). Interactions among these variables are also discussed. This analysis is a first step toward developing a taxonomy of crew coordination problems in maintenance. By understanding what variables are important and how they are interrelated, we may develop intervention strategies that are better tailored to the human factor issues involved.

  7. Identifying Knowledge and Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Coutinho Lourenço de Lima

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I discuss how the principle of identifying knowledge which Strawson advances in ‘Singular Terms and Predication’ (1961, and in ‘Identifying Reference and Truth-Values’ (1964 turns out to constrain communication. The principle states that a speaker’s use of a referring expression should invoke identifying knowledge on the part of the hearer, if the hearer is to understand what the speaker is saying, and also that, in so referring, speakers are attentive to hearers’ epistemic states. In contrasting it with Russell’s Principle (Evans 1982, as well as with the principle of identifying descriptions (Donnellan 1970, I try to show that the principle of identifying knowledge, ultimately a condition for understanding, makes sense only in a situation of conversation. This allows me to conclude that the cooperative feature of communication (Grice 1975 and reference (Clark andWilkes-Gibbs 1986 holds also at the understanding level. Finally, I discuss where Strawson’s views seem to be unsatisfactory, and suggest how they might be improved.

  8. Dynamical compensation and structural identifiability of biological models: Analysis, implications, and reconciliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, Alejandro F; Banga, Julio R

    2017-11-01

    The concept of dynamical compensation has been recently introduced to describe the ability of a biological system to keep its output dynamics unchanged in the face of varying parameters. However, the original definition of dynamical compensation amounts to lack of structural identifiability. This is relevant if model parameters need to be estimated, as is often the case in biological modelling. Care should we taken when using an unidentifiable model to extract biological insight: the estimated values of structurally unidentifiable parameters are meaningless, and model predictions about unmeasured state variables can be wrong. Taking this into account, we explore alternative definitions of dynamical compensation that do not necessarily imply structural unidentifiability. Accordingly, we show different ways in which a model can be made identifiable while exhibiting dynamical compensation. Our analyses enable the use of the new concept of dynamical compensation in the context of parameter identification, and reconcile it with the desirable property of structural identifiability.

  9. Job Search and Social Cognitive Theory: The Role of Career-Relevant Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikic, Jelena; Saks, Alan M.

    2009-01-01

    Social cognitive theory was used to explain the relationships between career-relevant activities (environmental and self career exploration, career resources, and training), self-regulatory variables (job search self-efficacy and job search clarity), variables from the Theory of Planned Behavior (job search attitude, subjective norm, job search…

  10. Climatological variability in regional air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannon, J.D.; Trexler, E.C. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Although some air pollution modeling studies examine events that have already occurred (e.g., the Chernobyl plume) with relevant meteorological conditions largely known, most pollution modeling studies address expected or potential scenarios for the future. Future meteorological conditions, the major pollutant forcing function other than emissions, are inherently uncertain although much relevant information is contained in past observational data. For convenience in our discussions of regional pollutant variability unrelated to emission changes, we define meteorological variability as short-term (within-season) pollutant variability and climatological variability as year-to-year changes in seasonal averages and accumulations of pollutant variables. In observations and in some of our simulations the effects are confounded because for seasons of two different years both the mean and the within-season character of a pollutant variable may change. Effects of climatological and meteorological variability on means and distributions of air pollution parameters, particularly those related to regional visibility, are illustrated. Over periods of up to a decade climatological variability may mask or overstate improvements resulting from emission controls. The importance of including climatological uncertainties in assessing potential policies, particularly when based partly on calculated source-receptor relationships, is highlighted

  11. Legal Aspects of Radioactive Waste Management: Relevant International Legal Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetherall, Anthony; Robin, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    The responsible use of nuclear technology requires the safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive waste, for which countries need to have stringent technical, administrative and legal measures in place. The legal aspects of radioactive waste management can be found in a wide variety of legally binding and non-binding international instruments. This overview focuses on the most relevant ones, in particular those on nuclear safety, security, safeguards and civil liability for nuclear damage. It also identifies relevant regional instruments concerning environmental matters, in particular, with regard to strategic environmental assessments (SEAs), environmental impact assessments (EIAs), public access to information and participation in decision-making, as well as access to justice

  12. Media and mental illness: Relevance to India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Padhy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Media has a complex interrelationship with mental illnesses. This narrative review takes a look at the various ways in which media and mental illnesses interact. Relevant scientific literature and electronic databases were searched, including Pubmed and GoogleScholar, to identify studies, viewpoints and recommendations using keywords related to media and mental illnesses. This review discusses both the positive and the negative portrayals of mental illnesses through the media. The portrayal of mental health professionals and psychiatric treatment is also discussed. The theories explaining the relationship of how media influences the attitudes and behavior are discussed. Media has also been suggested to be a risk factor for the genesis or exacerbation of mental illnesses like eating disorders and substance use disorders. The potential use of media to understand the psychopathology and plight of those with psychiatric disorders is referred to. The manner in which media can be used as a tool for change to reduce the stigma surrounding mental illnesses is explored.

  13. Identifying and Managing Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Janice M.

    1999-01-01

    The role of the college or university chief financial officer in institutional risk management is (1) to identify risk (physical, casualty, fiscal, business, reputational, workplace safety, legal liability, employment practices, general liability), (2) to develop a campus plan to reduce and control risk, (3) to transfer risk, and (4) to track and…

  14. Variable importance in latent variable regression models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kvalheim, O.M.; Arneberg, R.; Bleie, O.; Rajalahti, T.; Smilde, A.K.; Westerhuis, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    The quality and practical usefulness of a regression model are a function of both interpretability and prediction performance. This work presents some new graphical tools for improved interpretation of latent variable regression models that can also assist in improved algorithms for variable

  15. Relevance: An Interdisciplinary and Information Science Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Greisdorf

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Although relevance has represented a key concept in the field of information science for evaluating information retrieval effectiveness, the broader context established by interdisciplinary frameworks could provide greater depth and breadth to on-going research in the field. This work provides an overview of the nature of relevance in the field of information science with a cursory view of how cross-disciplinary approaches to relevance could represent avenues for further investigation into the evaluative characteristics of relevance as a means for enhanced understanding of human information behavior.

  16. A systematic literature search to identify performance measure outcomes used in clinical studies of racehorses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, C E; Newton, J R

    2018-05-01

    Racing performance is often used as a measurable outcome variable in research studies investigating clinical diagnoses or interventions. However, the use of many different performance measures largely precludes conduct of meaningful comparative studies and, to date, those being used have not been collated. To systematically review the veterinary scientific literature for the use of racing performance as a measurable outcome variable in clinical studies of racehorses, collate and identify those most popular, and identify their advantages and disadvantages. Systematic literature search. The search criteria "((racing AND performance) AND (horses OR equidae))" were adapted for both MEDLINE and CAB Abstracts databases. Data were collected in standardised recording forms for binary, categorical and quantitative measures, and the use of performance indices. In total, 217 studies that described racing performance were identified, contributing 117 different performance measures. No one performance measure was used in all studies, despite 90.3% using more than one variable. Data regarding race starts and earnings were used most commonly, with 88.0% and 54.4% of studies including at least one measure of starts and earnings, respectively. Seventeen variables were used 10 times or more, with the top five comprising: 'return to racing', 'number of starts', 'days to first start', 'earnings per period of time' and 'earnings per start'. The search strategies may not have identified all relevant papers, introducing bias to the review. Performance indices have been developed to improve assessment of interventions; however, they are not widely adopted in the scientific literature. Use of the two most commonly identified measures, whether the horse returned to racing and number of starts over a defined period of time, would best facilitate future systematic reviews and meta-analyses in advance of the development of a gold-standard measure of race performance outcome. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  17. Gene variants associated with antisocial behaviour: a latent variable approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Mary Jane; Lin, Haiqun; Fernandez, Thomas V; Lee, Maria; Yrigollen, Carolyn M; Pakstis, Andrew J; Katsovich, Liliya; Olds, David L; Grigorenko, Elena L; Leckman, James F

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if a latent variable approach might be useful in identifying shared variance across genetic risk alleles that is associated with antisocial behaviour at age 15 years. Using a conventional latent variable approach, we derived an antisocial phenotype in 328 adolescents utilizing data from a 15-year follow-up of a randomized trial of a prenatal and infancy nurse-home visitation programme in Elmira, New York. We then investigated, via a novel latent variable approach, 450 informative genetic polymorphisms in 71 genes previously associated with antisocial behaviour, drug use, affiliative behaviours and stress response in 241 consenting individuals for whom DNA was available. Haplotype and Pathway analyses were also performed. Eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from eight genes contributed to the latent genetic variable that in turn accounted for 16.0% of the variance within the latent antisocial phenotype. The number of risk alleles was linearly related to the latent antisocial variable scores. Haplotypes that included the putative risk alleles for all eight genes were also associated with higher latent antisocial variable scores. In addition, 33 SNPs from 63 of the remaining genes were also significant when added to the final model. Many of these genes interact on a molecular level, forming molecular networks. The results support a role for genes related to dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, glutamate, opioid and cholinergic signalling as well as stress response pathways in mediating susceptibility to antisocial behaviour. This preliminary study supports use of relevant behavioural indicators and latent variable approaches to study the potential 'co-action' of gene variants associated with antisocial behaviour. It also underscores the cumulative relevance of common genetic variants for understanding the aetiology of complex behaviour. If replicated in future studies, this approach may allow the identification of a

  18. Low-Frequency Temporal Variability in Mira and Semiregular Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Matthew R.; Karovska, M.; Waagen, E. O.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate low-frequency variability in a large sample of Mira and semiregular variables with long-term visual light curves from the AAVSO International Database. Our aim is to determine whether we can detect and measure long-timescale variable phenomena in these stars, for example photometric variations that might be associated with supergranular convection. We analyzed the long-term light curves of 522 variable stars of the Mira and SRa, b, c, and d classes. We calculated their low-frequency time-series spectra to characterize rednoise with the power density spectrum index, and then correlate this index with other observable characteristics such as spectral type and primary pulsation period. In our initial analysis of the sample, we see that the semiregular variables have a much broader range of spectral index than the Mira types, with the SRb subtype having the broadest range. Among Mira variables we see that the M- and S-type Miras have similarly wide ranges of index, while the C-types have the narrowest with generally shallower slopes. There is also a trend of steeper slope with larger amplitude, but at a given amplitude, a wide range of slopes are seen. The ultimate goal of the project is to identify stars with strong intrinsic red noise components as possible targets for resolved surface imaging with interferometry.

  19. [Clinical research IV. Relevancy of the statistical test chosen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talavera, Juan O; Rivas-Ruiz, Rodolfo

    2011-01-01

    When we look at the difference between two therapies or the association of a risk factor or prognostic indicator with its outcome, we need to evaluate the accuracy of the result. This assessment is based on a judgment that uses information about the study design and statistical management of the information. This paper specifically mentions the relevance of the statistical test selected. Statistical tests are chosen mainly from two characteristics: the objective of the study and type of variables. The objective can be divided into three test groups: a) those in which you want to show differences between groups or inside a group before and after a maneuver, b) those that seek to show the relationship (correlation) between variables, and c) those that aim to predict an outcome. The types of variables are divided in two: quantitative (continuous and discontinuous) and qualitative (ordinal and dichotomous). For example, if we seek to demonstrate differences in age (quantitative variable) among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with and without neurological disease (two groups), the appropriate test is the "Student t test for independent samples." But if the comparison is about the frequency of females (binomial variable), then the appropriate statistical test is the χ(2).

  20. Internally readable identifying tag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferts, K.B.; Jefferts, E.R.

    1980-01-01

    A method of identifying non-metallic objects by means of X-ray equipment is described in detail. A small metal pin with a number of grooves cut in a pre-determined equi-spaced pattern is implanted into the non-metallic object and by decoding the groove patterns using X-ray equipment, the object is uniquely identified. A specific example of such an application is in studying the migratory habits of fish. The pin inserted into the snout of the fish is 0.010 inch in diameter, 0.040 inch in length with 8 possible positions for grooves if spaced 0.005 inch apart. With 6 of the groove positions available for data, the capacity is 2 6 or 64 combinations; clearly longer pins would increase the data capacity. This method of identification is a major advance over previous techniques which necessitated destruction of the fish in order to recover the identification tag. (UK)

  1. Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    tyrosine kinases with an SH3, SH2 and catalytic domain, it lacks a native myristylation signal shared by most members of this class [14], [38]. The...therapeutics and consequently, improve clinical outcomes. We aim to identify novel drivers of breast oncogenesis. We hypothesize that a kinase gain-of...human mammary epithelial cells. A pBabe-Puro-Myr-Flag kinase open reading frame (ORF) library was screened in immortalized human mammary epithelial

  2. Rock disposal problems identified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, R

    1978-06-01

    Mathematical models are the only way of examining the return of radioactivity from nuclear waste to the environment over long periods of time. Work in Britain has helped identify areas where more basic data is required, but initial results look very promising for final disposal of high level waste in hard rock repositories. A report by the National Radiological Protection Board of a recent study, is examined.

  3. The relevance of 7-day patch test reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Eleanor; Collins, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Patch test readings are usually performed on day 2 (48 hours) and day 4 (96 hours). However, reports in the literature identify delayed allergy to metals, corticosteroids, antibiotics, some preservatives, acrylic and methacrylic monomers and p-phenylenediamine. The aim of our study was to identify the benefit of performing a day 7 (168 hours) reading to identify relevant late positive reactions. Two hundred three consecutive patients were patch tested to the British Society for Cutaneous Allergy standard series with additional test series selected according to clinical history and applied at the same time. Twenty-six patients (12.8%) had new positive reactions on day 7 (168 hours), with 28 relevant positive reactions to 21 allergens. These included mercury 0.5% (2/26); cobalt chloride 1% (2/26); colophony 20% (2/26); disperse blue mix 106/124 1% (2/26); preservatives (4/26) that included Methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone, sodium metabisulfite, and diazolidinyl urea; fragrances (7/26); and gentamycin sulfate 20% (1/26). These results confirm findings in the literature and support the argument for performing a day 7 reading (168 hours) to identify relevant late positive reactions.

  4. Relevant energy scale of color confinement from lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Arata; Suganuma, Hideo

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new lattice framework to extract the relevant gluonic energy scale of QCD phenomena which is based on a 'cut' on link variables in momentum space. This framework is expected to be broadly applicable to all lattice QCD calculations. Using this framework, we quantitatively determine the relevant energy scale of color confinement, through the analyses of the quark-antiquark potential and meson masses. The relevant energy scale of color confinement is found to be below 1.5 GeV in the Landau gauge. In fact, the string tension is almost unchanged even after cutting off the high-momentum gluon component above 1.5 GeV. When the relevant low-energy region is cut, the quark-antiquark potential is approximately reduced to a Coulomb-like potential, and each meson becomes a quasifree quark pair. As an analytical model calculation, we also investigate the dependence of the Richardson potential on the cut, and find the consistent behavior with the lattice result.

  5. Relevance as process: judgements in the context of scholarly research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa D. Anderson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper discusses how exploring the research process in-depth and over time contributes to a fuller understanding of interactions with various representations of information. Method. A longitudinal ethnographic study explored decisions made by two informants involved in scholarly research. Relevance assessment and information seeking were observed as part of informants' own ongoing research projects. Fieldwork used methods of discovery that allowed informants to shape the exploration of the practices surrounding the evolving understandings of their topics. Analysis. Inductive analysis was carried out on the qualitative data collected over a two-year period of judgements observed on a document-by-document basis. The paper introduces broad categories that point to the variability and richness of the ways that informants used representations of information resources to make relevance judgements. Results. Relevance judgements appear to be drivers of the search and research processes informants moved through during the observations. Focusing on research goals rather than on retrieval tasks brings us to a fuller understanding of the relationship between ultimate research goals and the articulation of those goals in interactions with information systems. Conclusion. Relevance assessment is a process that unfolds in the doing of a search, the making of judgements and the using of texts and representations of information.

  6. Relevance of brands and beef quality differentials for the consumer at the time of purchase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Mecca Giacomazzi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to identify the purchase habits and preferences of beef consumers, their level of knowledge on brands and products with quality differentials (certifications, packaging, premium lines, and the relevance of different attributes in the purchase decision, and to group consumers according to the profile of purchase decision. The methodology consisted of using an information-collecting instrument applied to 271 beef consumers. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistical analyses, chi-square analysis, and correspondence analysis, relating socio-demographic profile of the respondents with the other variables collected. Chi-square and correspondence analyses showed that younger consumers with lower levels of income and education are influenced by posters and advertisements at the point of sale, unaware of differentiated and branded products, and that they do not choose branded beef at the time of purchase. Consumers over 60 years showed a more conservative purchase profile, with no influence. The most valued attributes are appearance, price, and type of cut, being brand and certifications little relevant as tools to help decide the product purchase.

  7. System for selecting relevant information for decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalina, Jan; Seidl, Libor; Zvára, Karel; Grünfeldová, Hana; Slovák, Dalibor; Zvárová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    We implemented a prototype of a decision support system called SIR which has a form of a web-based classification service for diagnostic decision support. The system has the ability to select the most relevant variables and to learn a classification rule, which is guaranteed to be suitable also for high-dimensional measurements. The classification system can be useful for clinicians in primary care to support their decision-making tasks with relevant information extracted from any available clinical study. The implemented prototype was tested on a sample of patients in a cardiological study and performs an information extraction from a high-dimensional set containing both clinical and gene expression data.

  8. Metabolism of psilocybin and psilocin: clinical and forensic toxicological relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge

    2017-02-01

    Psilocybin and psilocin are controlled substances in many countries. These are the two main hallucinogenic compounds of the "magic mushrooms" and both act as agonists or partial agonists at 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) 2A subtype receptors. During the last few years, psilocybin and psilocin have gained therapeutic relevance but considerable physiological variability between individuals that can influence dose-response and toxicological profile has been reported. This review aims to discuss metabolism of psilocybin and psilocin, by presenting all major and minor psychoactive metabolites. Psilocybin is primarily a pro-drug that is dephosphorylated by alkaline phosphatase to active metabolite psilocin. This last is then further metabolized, psilocin-O-glucuronide being the main urinary metabolite with clinical and forensic relevance in diagnosis.

  9. Identifying factors affecting destination choice of medical tourists: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    medical tourism”, has emerged as a new source of competitive advantage all over the world. The present study seeks to identify the factors that affect destination choice of medical tourists. Methods: We systematically searched relevant databases ...

  10. Does relevance matter in academic policy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    A reflection on whether relevance matters in tourism policy research, and if so, to whom/what should it matter......A reflection on whether relevance matters in tourism policy research, and if so, to whom/what should it matter...

  11. Inoculating Relevance Feedback Against Poison Pills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dehghani, Mostafa; Azarbonyad, Hosein; Kamps, Jaap; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Marx, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Relevance Feedback is a common approach for enriching queries, given a set of explicitly or implicitly judged documents to improve the performance of the retrieval. Although it has been shown that on average, the overall performance of retrieval will be improved after relevance feedback, for some

  12. Relevant cost information for order acceptance decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, M.J.F.

    1997-01-01

    Some economic considerations for order acceptance decisions are discussed. The relevant economic considerations for order acceptance are widely discussed in the literature: only those costs are relevant which would be avoidable by not accepting the order incremental costs plus opportunity costs .

  13. Android Smartphone Relevance to Military Weather Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    lithium -ion battery that may be replaced by the user (unlike Apple iPod Touch devices), thus spare batteries can be carried. If there is only sporadic...Android Smartphone Relevance to Military Weather Applications by David Sauter ARL-TR-5793 October 2011...Android Smartphone Relevance to Military Weather Applications David Sauter Computational and Information Sciences Directorate, ARL

  14. Translation as secondary communication. The relevance theory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ernst-August Gutt started one of the greatest translation debates of the past ten years when he suggested that relevance theory holds the key to providing a unified account of translation. The bulk of the debate has been between practitioners of functional equivalence and advocates of a relevance theoretic approach to ...

  15. Variables separation of the spectral BRDF for better understanding color variation in special effect pigment coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Alejandro; Rabal, Ana María; Campos, Joaquín; Pons, Alicia; Hernanz, María Luisa

    2012-06-01

    A type of representation of the spectral bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) is proposed that distinctly separates the spectral variable (wavelength) from the geometrical variables (spherical coordinates of the irradiation and viewing directions). Principal components analysis (PCA) is used in order to decompose the spectral BRDF in decorrelated spectral components, and the weight that they have at every geometrical configuration of irradiation/viewing is established. This method was applied to the spectral BRDF measurement of a special effect pigment sample, and four principal components with relevant variance were identified. These four components are enough to reproduce the great diversity of spectral reflectances observed at different geometrical configurations. Since this representation is able to separate spectral and geometrical variables, it facilitates the interpretation of the color variation of special effect pigments coatings versus the geometrical configuration of irradiation/viewing.

  16. Identifying phenomenal consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schier, Elizabeth

    2009-03-01

    This paper examines the possibility of finding evidence that phenomenal consciousness is independent of access. The suggestion reviewed is that we should look for isomorphisms between phenomenal and neural activation spaces. It is argued that the fact that phenomenal spaces are mapped via verbal report is no problem for this methodology. The fact that activation and phenomenal space are mapped via different means does not mean that they cannot be identified. The paper finishes by examining how data addressing this theoretical question could be obtained.

  17. Evolutionary relevance facilitates visual information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Russell E; Calvillo, Dusti P

    2013-11-03

    Visual search of the environment is a fundamental human behavior that perceptual load affects powerfully. Previously investigated means for overcoming the inhibitions of high perceptual load, however, generalize poorly to real-world human behavior. We hypothesized that humans would process evolutionarily relevant stimuli more efficiently than evolutionarily novel stimuli, and evolutionary relevance would mitigate the repercussions of high perceptual load during visual search. Animacy is a significant component to evolutionary relevance of visual stimuli because perceiving animate entities is time-sensitive in ways that pose significant evolutionary consequences. Participants completing a visual search task located evolutionarily relevant and animate objects fastest and with the least impact of high perceptual load. Evolutionarily novel and inanimate objects were located slowest and with the highest impact of perceptual load. Evolutionary relevance may importantly affect everyday visual information processing.

  18. Evolutionary Relevance Facilitates Visual Information Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell E. Jackson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Visual search of the environment is a fundamental human behavior that perceptual load affects powerfully. Previously investigated means for overcoming the inhibitions of high perceptual load, however, generalize poorly to real-world human behavior. We hypothesized that humans would process evolutionarily relevant stimuli more efficiently than evolutionarily novel stimuli, and evolutionary relevance would mitigate the repercussions of high perceptual load during visual search. Animacy is a significant component to evolutionary relevance of visual stimuli because perceiving animate entities is time-sensitive in ways that pose significant evolutionary consequences. Participants completing a visual search task located evolutionarily relevant and animate objects fastest and with the least impact of high perceptual load. Evolutionarily novel and inanimate objects were located slowest and with the highest impact of perceptual load. Evolutionary relevance may importantly affect everyday visual information processing.

  19. Purification and characterisation of relevant natural and recombinant apple allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberhuber, Christina; Ma, Yan; Marsh, Justin; Rigby, Neil; Smole, Ursula; Radauer, Christian; Alessandri, Stefano; Briza, Peter; Zuidmeer, Laurian; Maderegger, Bernhard; Himly, Martin; Sancho, Ana I.; van Ree, Ronald; Knulst, André; Ebner, Christof; Shewry, Peter; Mills, E. N. Clare; Wellner, Klaus; Breiteneder, Heimo; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Bublin, Merima

    2008-01-01

    Apple (Malus domestica) is the most widely cultivated fruit crop in Europe and frequently causes allergic reactions with a variable degree of severity. So far, four apple allergens Mal d 1, Mal d 2, Mal d 3 and Mal d 4 have been identified. Mal d 1, a Bet v 1 related allergen, and Mal d 4, apple

  20. Extracting the relevant delays in time series modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Cyril

    1997-01-01

    selection, and more precisely stepwise forward selection. The method is compared to other forward selection schemes, as well as to a nonparametric tests aimed at estimating the embedding dimension of time series. The final application extends these results to the efficient estimation of FIR filters on some......In this contribution, we suggest a convenient way to use generalisation error to extract the relevant delays from a time-varying process, i.e. the delays that lead to the best prediction performance. We design a generalisation-based algorithm that takes its inspiration from traditional variable...

  1. Decomposing global crop yield variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Tamara; Makowski, David

    2014-11-01

    Recent food crises have highlighted the need to better understand the between-year variability of agricultural production. Although increasing future production seems necessary, the globalization of commodity markets suggests that the food system would also benefit from enhanced supplies stability through a reduction in the year-to-year variability. Here, we develop an analytical expression decomposing global crop yield interannual variability into three informative components that quantify how evenly are croplands distributed in the world, the proportion of cultivated areas allocated to regions of above or below average variability and the covariation between yields in distinct world regions. This decomposition is used to identify drivers of interannual yield variations for four major crops (i.e., maize, rice, soybean and wheat) over the period 1961-2012. We show that maize production is fairly spread but marked by one prominent region with high levels of crop yield interannual variability (which encompasses the North American corn belt in the USA, and Canada). In contrast, global rice yields have a small variability because, although spatially concentrated, much of the production is located in regions of below-average variability (i.e., South, Eastern and South Eastern Asia). Because of these contrasted land use allocations, an even cultivated land distribution across regions would reduce global maize yield variance, but increase the variance of global yield rice. Intermediate results are obtained for soybean and wheat for which croplands are mainly located in regions with close-to-average variability. At the scale of large world regions, we find that covariances of regional yields have a negligible contribution to global yield variance. The proposed decomposition could be applied at any spatial and time scales, including the yearly time step. By addressing global crop production stability (or lack thereof) our results contribute to the understanding of a key

  2. A Business-Relevant View of Human Nature

    OpenAIRE

    Mitreanu, Cristian

    2007-01-01

    The article, "A Business-Relevant View of Human Nature," provides a new theory of human nature, and aims to bring it to the center of our understanding of business, or commerce, creating a strong foundation for new business and economic principles and practices. The article has three parts. In the first section, the author identifies and discusses the fundamental drives that characterize all forms of life. Building upon these findings, he then develops the unique view of human nature in the s...

  3. List identifies threatened ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-09-01

    The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) announced on 9 September that it will develop a new Red List of Ecosystems that will identify which ecosystems are vulnerable or endangered. The list, which is modeled on the group's Red List of Threatened Species™, could help to guide conservation activities and influence policy processes such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, according to the group. “We will assess the status of marine, terrestrial, freshwater, and subterranean ecosystems at local, regional, and global levels,” stated Jon Paul Rodriguez, leader of IUCN's Ecosystems Red List Thematic Group. “The assessment can then form the basis for concerted implementation action so that we can manage them sustainably if their risk of collapse is low or restore them if they are threatened and then monitor their recovery.”

  4. Perceived Relevance of an Introductory Information Systems Course to Prospective Business Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Govender

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is designed to examine students’ perceptions of the introductory Information Systems (IS course. It was an exploratory study in which 67 students participated. A quantitative approach was followed making use of questionnaires for the collection of data. Using the theory of reasoned action as a framework, the study explores the factors that influence non-IS major students’ perceived relevance of the IS introductory course. The analysis of collected data included descriptive and inferential statistics. Using multiple regression analysis, the results suggest that overall, the independent variables, relevance of the content, previous IT knowledge, relevance for professional practice, IT preference in courses and peers’ influence may account for 72% of the explanatory power for the dependent variable, perceived relevance of the IS course. In addition, the results have shown some strong predictors (IT preference and peers’ influence that influence students’ perceived relevance of the IS course. Practical work was found to be a strong mediating variable toward positive perceptions of IS. The results of this study suggest that students do indeed perceive the introductory IS course to be relevant and match their professional needs, but more practical work would enhance their learning. Implications for theory and practice are discussed as a result of the behavioural intention to perceive the IS course to be relevant and eventually to recruit more IS students.

  5. Neutrophil programming dynamics and its disease relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Taojing; Geng, Shuo; Li, Liwu

    2017-11-01

    Neutrophils are traditionally considered as first responders to infection and provide antimicrobial host defense. However, recent advances indicate that neutrophils are also critically involved in the modulation of host immune environments by dynamically adopting distinct functional states. Functionally diverse neutrophil subsets are increasingly recognized as critical components mediating host pathophysiology. Despite its emerging significance, molecular mechanisms as well as functional relevance of dynamically programmed neutrophils remain to be better defined. The increasing complexity of neutrophil functions may require integrative studies that address programming dynamics of neutrophils and their pathophysiological relevance. This review aims to provide an update on the emerging topics of neutrophil programming dynamics as well as their functional relevance in diseases.

  6. A report on the collection of data relevant to the Canadian National Uranium Tailings Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.

    1984-10-01

    In December of 1983, Systemhouse Ltd. was awarded a contract to collect data relevant to the Canadian National Uranium Tailings Program and to convert it into a machine readable format. The work was carried out in four phases, namely, data identification, data collection, data transcription/conversion and data verification. The main priority was to identify as much relevant data as possible. The identified data was priorized against a predefined criteria established in conjunction with the project scientific authority. A total of 428 studies were identified as being relevant. Data from 19 of these were converted to machine-readable format, giving information on 2398 samples from 78 boreholes

  7. Importance and variability in processes relevant to environmental tritium ingestion dose models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskob, W.; Barry, P.

    1997-01-01

    The Aiken List was devised in 1990 to help decide which transport processes should be investigated experimentally so as to derive the greatest improvement in performance of environmental tritium assessment models. Each process was rated high, medium and low on each of two criteria. These were ''Importance'', which rated processes by how much each contributed to ingestion doses, and ''State of Modelling'', which rated the adequacy of the knowledge base on which models were built. Ratings, though unanimous, were, nevertheless, qualitative and subjective opinions. This paper describes how we have tried to quantify the ratings. To do this, we use, as measures of ''Importance'', sensitivities of predicted ingestion doses to changes in values of parameters in mathematical descriptions of individual processes. Measures of ''ModellinStatus'' were taken from a recently completed BIOMOVS study of HTO transport model performance and based either on by how much predicted transport by individual processes differed amongst participating modellers or by the variety of different ways that modellers chose to describe individual processes. The tritium transport model UFOTRI was used, and because environmental transport of HTO varies according to the weather at and after release time, sensitivities were measured in a sample of all conditions likely to arise in central Europe. (Author)

  8. Relevance of medieval, Egyptian and American dates to the study of climatic and radiocarbon variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, R.

    1990-01-01

    Basic radiocarbon dating and dendrochronology have been combined to yield calibrated dates that are more accurate than conventional radiocarbon dates. This has been shown to be true for medieval and Egyptian dynastic dating. Because radiocarbon is a cosmogenically produced radioisotope, heliomagnetic and geomagnetic fields play a major role in its synthesis in the Earth's upper atmosphere. Inasmuch as a calibrated radiocarbon record exists for nearly 10 000 years, we now seem to possess in the short-time variations of the production rate a history of solar activity expressed via heliomagnetic fields carried by the solar wind. In turn, solar activity has a controlling effect on climate on Earth within modifications provided by the complex interactions of the atmosphere-Earth-ocean system. Both radiocarbon measurements and other empirical research methods agree on variations of climate during historically more recent periods on Earth. This leads to the suggestion that the radiocarbon calibration curve may be also a significant indicator or tracer for climatic changes for the Holocene or the Neolithic-Mesolithic. (author)

  9. Relevance of medieval, Egyptian and American dates to the study of climatic and radiocarbon variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, R [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (USA). Inst. of Geophysics and Planetary Physics

    1990-04-24

    Basic radiocarbon dating and dendrochronology have been combined to yield calibrated dates that are more accurate than conventional radiocarbon dates. This has been shown to be true for medieval and Egyptian dynastic dating. Because radiocarbon is a cosmogenically produced radioisotope, heliomagnetic and geomagnetic fields play a major role in its synthesis in the Earth's upper atmosphere. Inasmuch as a calibrated radiocarbon record exists for nearly 10 000 years, we now seem to possess in the short-time variations of the production rate a history of solar activity expressed via heliomagnetic fields carried by the solar wind. In turn, solar activity has a controlling effect on climate on Earth within modifications provided by the complex interactions of the atmosphere-Earth-ocean system. Both radiocarbon measurements and other empirical research methods agree on variations of climate during historically more recent periods on Earth. This leads to the suggestion that the radiocarbon calibration curve may be also a significant indicator or tracer for climatic changes for the Holocene or the Neolithic-Mesolithic. (author).

  10. Variability in Mass Spectrometry-based Quantification of Clinically Relevant Drug Transporters and Drug Metabolizing Enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegler, C.; Gaugaz, F.Z.; Andersson, T.B.; Wiśniewski, J.R.; Busch, D.; Gröer, C.; Oswald, S.; Norén, A.; Weiss, F.; Hammer, H.S.; Joos, T.O.; Poetz, O.; Achour, B.; Rostami-Hodjegan, A.; Steeg, E. van de; Wortelboer, H.M.; Artursson, P.

    2017-01-01

    Many different methods are used for mass-spectrometry-based protein quantification in pharmacokinetics and systems pharmacology. It has not been established to what extent the results from these various methods are comparable. Here, we compared six different mass spectrometry-based proteomics

  11. Understanding the Atom and Relevant Misconceptions: Students' Profiles in Relation to Three Cognitive Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, George; Markos, Angelos; Zarkadis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    This work investigates the formation of particular student profiles based on of their ideas relating to basic characteristics of the atom. Participants were secondary students of 8th, 10th and 12th grades from Northern Greece (n = 421), with specific cohort characteristics e.g. age, grade and class curriculum, and individual differences, e.g.…

  12. Assessing the Risk Relevance of Accounting Variables in Diverse Economic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brimble, M.; Hodgson, A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the association between accounting information and systematic (beta) risk. We extend previous research by using an updated data set, a range of risk measures that adjust for different market and time-varying conditions, and by examining whether the long-run association has

  13. Amplification factor variable amplifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akitsugu, Oshita; Nauta, Bram

    2007-01-01

    PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an amplification factor variable amplifier capable of achieving temperature compensation of an amplification factor over a wide variable amplification factor range. ; SOLUTION: A Gilbert type amplification factor variable amplifier 11 amplifies an input signal and

  14. Amplification factor variable amplifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akitsugu, Oshita; Nauta, Bram

    2010-01-01

    PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an amplification factor variable amplifier capable of achieving temperature compensation of an amplification factor over a wide variable amplification factor range. ;SOLUTION: A Gilbert type amplification factor variable amplifier 11 amplifies an input signal and can

  15. Radiograph identifying means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheldon, A.D.

    1983-01-01

    A flexible character-indentable plastics embossing tape is backed by and bonded to a lead strip, not more than 0.025 inches thick, to form a tape suitable for identifying radiographs. The lead strip is itself backed by a relatively thin and flimsy plastics or fabric strip which, when removed, allows the lead plastic tape to be pressure-bonded to the surface to be radiographed. A conventional tape-embossing gun is used to indent the desired characters in succession into the lead-backed tape, without necessarily severing the lead; and then the backing strip is peeled away to expose the layer of adhesive which pressure-bonds the indented tape to the object to be radiographed. X-rays incident on the embossed tape will cause the raised characters to show up dark on the subsequently-developed film, whilst the raised side areas will show up white. Each character will thus stand out on the developed film. (author)

  16. Exploring internal features of 16S rRNA gene for identification of clinically relevant species of the genus Streptococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Streptococcus is an economically important genus as a number of species belonging to this genus are human and animal pathogens. The genus has been divided into different groups based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The variability observed among the members of these groups is low and it is difficult to distinguish them. The present study was taken up to explore 16S rRNA gene sequence to develop methods that can be used for preliminary identification and can supplement the existing methods for identification of clinically-relevant isolates of the genus Streptococcus. Methods 16S rRNA gene sequences belonging to the isolates of S. dysgalactiae, S. equi, S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, S. bovis, S. gallolyticus, S. mutans, S. sobrinus, S. mitis, S. pneumoniae, S. thermophilus and S. anginosus were analyzed with the purpose to define genetic variability within each species to generate a phylogenetic framework, to identify species-specific signatures and in-silico restriction enzyme analysis. Results The framework based analysis was used to segregate Streptococcus spp. previously identified upto genus level. This segregation was validated using species-specific signatures and in-silico restriction enzyme analysis. 43 uncharacterized Streptococcus spp. could be identified using this approach. Conclusions The markers generated exploring 16S rRNA gene sequences provided useful tool that can be further used for identification of different species of the genus Streptococcus. PMID:21702978

  17. The foundation of the concept of relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2010-01-01

    that what was regarded as the most fundamental view by Saracevic in 1975 has not since been considered (with very few exceptions). Other views, which are based on less fruitful assumptions, have dominated the discourse on relevance in information retrieval and information science. Many authors have...... reexamined the concept of relevance in information science, but have neglected the subject knowledge view, hence basic theoretical assumptions seem not to have been properly addressed. It is as urgent now as it was in 1975 seriously to consider “the subject knowledge view” of relevance (which may also...... be termed “the epistemological view”). The concept of relevance, like other basic concepts, is influenced by overall approaches to information science, such as the cognitive view and the domain-analytic view. There is today a trend toward a social paradigm for information science. This paper offers...

  18. Exploring Educational Quality and Relevance through Integrating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploring Educational Quality and Relevance through Integrating Environmental and Social Issues in Science Education. ... However, the new contextualised concept of learning and teaching was applied only to one of them. A post-test was ...

  19. Has Financial Statement Information become Less Relevant?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thinggaard, Frank; Damkier, Jesper

    This paper presents insights into the question of whether accounting information based on the EU’s Accounting Directives has become less value-relevant to investors over time. The study is based on a research design first used by Francis and Schipper (1999), where value-relevance is measured......? The sample is based on non-financial companies listed on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange in the period 1984-2002. Our analyses show that all the applied accounting measures are value-relevant as investment strategies based on the information earn positive market-adjusted returns in our sample period....... The results provide some indication of a decline in the value-relevance of earnings information in the 1984-2001 period, and mixed, but not statistically reliable, evidence for accounting measures where book value information and asset values are also extracted from financial statements. The results seem...

  20. Identifying Opportunities for Vertical Integration of Biochemistry and Clinical Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendelberger, Karen J.; Burke, Rebecca; Haas, Arthur L.; Harenwattananon, Marisa; Simpson, Deborah

    1998-01-01

    Objectives: Retention of basic science knowledge, as judged by National Board of Medical Examiners' (NBME) data, suffers due to lack of apparent relevance and isolation of instruction from clinical application, especially in biochemistry. However, the literature reveals no systematic process for identifying key biochemical concepts and associated clinical conditions. This study systematically identified difficult biochemical concepts and their common clinical conditions as a critical step towards enhancing relevance and retention of biochemistry.Methods: A multi-step/ multiple stakeholder process was used to: (1) identify important biochemistry concepts; (2) determine students' perceptions of concept difficulty; (3) assess biochemistry faculty, student, and clinical teaching scholars' perceived relevance of identified concepts; and (4) identify associated common clinical conditions for relevant and difficult concepts. Surveys and a modified Delphi process were used to gather data, subsequently analyzed using SPSS for Windows.Results: Sixteen key biochemical concepts were identified. Second year medical students rated 14/16 concepts as extremely difficult while fourth year students rated nine concepts as moderately to extremely difficult. On average, each teaching scholar generated common clinical conditions for 6.2 of the 16 concepts, yielding a set of seven critical concepts and associated clinical conditions.Conclusions: Key stakeholders in the instructional process struggle to identify biochemistry concepts that are critical, difficult to learn and associated with common clinical conditions. However, through a systematic process beginning with identification of concepts and associated clinical conditions, relevance of basic science instruction can be enhanced.

  1. Outcome quality of in-patient cardiac rehabilitation in elderly patients--identification of relevant parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzwedel, Annett; Nosper, Manfred; Röhrig, Bernd; Linck-Eleftheriadis, Sigrid; Strandt, Gert; Völler, Heinz

    2014-02-01

    Outcome quality management requires the consecutive registration of defined variables. The aim was to identify relevant parameters in order to objectively assess the in-patient rehabilitation outcome. From February 2009 to June 2010 1253 patients (70.9 ± 7.0 years, 78.1% men) at 12 rehabilitation clinics were enrolled. Items concerning sociodemographic data, the impairment group (surgery, conservative/interventional treatment), cardiovascular risk factors, structural and functional parameters and subjective health were tested in respect of their measurability, sensitivity to change and their propensity to be influenced by rehabilitation. The majority of patients (61.1%) were referred for rehabilitation after cardiac surgery, 38.9% after conservative or interventional treatment for an acute coronary syndrome. Functionally relevant comorbidities were seen in 49.2% (diabetes mellitus, stroke, peripheral artery disease, chronic obstructive lung disease). In three key areas 13 parameters were identified as being sensitive to change and subject to modification by rehabilitation: cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides), exercise capacity (resting heart rate, maximal exercise capacity, maximal walking distance, heart failure, angina pectoris) and subjective health (IRES-24 (indicators of rehabilitation status): pain, somatic health, psychological well-being and depression as well as anxiety on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). The outcome of in-patient rehabilitation in elderly patients can be comprehensively assessed by the identification of appropriate key areas, that is, cardiovascular risk factors, exercise capacity and subjective health. This may well serve as a benchmark for internal and external quality management.

  2. The relevance of accounting information enclosed in performance indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela-Cristina Onica

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This research study is analyzing the relevance of accounting information reflected through the elaboration of firm performance variables and administration because of the necessity of performance to be administrated. The subject of the theme is enclosed in current development of accounting norms at national , european, (Directives and international levels (IAS/IFRS. The analyised topic is based upon the capabilty of accounting to generate information , throug synthesis calculus being settled the nature , the characteristics and the informational valences of financial performance of an organization. The accounting infromation is base for performing the decison process. The rol of accounting in insurring the relevance and comparability of information increased significantly, being already indispensable. A real solution for communication misunderstanig elimination emerged, as result of diputes in perception and interpretation of economic information, as results for the national speciffic norms.The economic communication is demanding for firm not only in its expression but in thinking and in the process of method conceptualization of organization and administration. A detailed financial situation analysis, which are employing annual financial analysis procedures, underling the performance and risks influencing factors, are considering one starting point for addressing the issue. The introduced variables are insuring a whole vision of firm activity and an appropriate strategy for results significance.

  3. Analysis of the Relevant Factors of Retaining Women in Judo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joško Sindik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the latent dimensions of all relevant factors about engagement of women in judo, to determine the intercorrelations among these latent dimensions, as well as the correlations with three relevant variables. Final goal was to determine the differences in revealed latent dimensions, in relation to several independent variables: educational level, marital status, impulses to engage in judo, then depending are the women athletes (competitors or not, members of the Board or not, trainers or not. A total of 50 female judokas from a larger number of Croatian clubs were examined, by specially composed the survey. The results showed that all seven questionnaires showed medium to high satisfactory reliability, together with good con¬struct validity, in 15 latent dimensions that are revealed. It can be noticed that relatively older women have more obligations and more barriers that oppose to their engagement in judo. Only small number of differences are found among women engaged in judo, mainly among participants who are members of the Board in the club or Croatian Judo Federation, as compared with those who are not. Small number of statistically significant differences (as well as the correlations can be also observed as the fact that all women partially share similar problems, while the media strategies are perceived as the most powerful to increase women’s persistence in judo, in any type of engagement.

  4. Variable mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontela, Paula Caitano; Prestes, Renata Bernardy; Forgiarini, Luiz Alberto; Friedman, Gilberto

    2017-01-01

    To review the literature on the use of variable mechanical ventilation and the main outcomes of this technique. Search, selection, and analysis of all original articles on variable ventilation, without restriction on the period of publication and language, available in the electronic databases LILACS, MEDLINE®, and PubMed, by searching the terms "variable ventilation" OR "noisy ventilation" OR "biologically variable ventilation". A total of 36 studies were selected. Of these, 24 were original studies, including 21 experimental studies and three clinical studies. Several experimental studies reported the beneficial effects of distinct variable ventilation strategies on lung function using different models of lung injury and healthy lungs. Variable ventilation seems to be a viable strategy for improving gas exchange and respiratory mechanics and preventing lung injury associated with mechanical ventilation. However, further clinical studies are necessary to assess the potential of variable ventilation strategies for the clinical improvement of patients undergoing mechanical ventilation.

  5. Clinical relevance of findings in trials of CBT for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepping, P; Whittington, R; Sambhi, R S; Lane, S; Poole, R; Leucht, S; Cuijpers, P; McCabe, R; Waheed, W

    2017-09-01

    Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is beneficial in depression. Symptom scores can be translated into Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale scores to indicate clinical relevance. We aimed to assess the clinical relevance of findings of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of CBT in depression. We identified RCTs of CBT that used the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD). HAMD scores were translated into Clinical Global Impression - Change scale (CGI-I) scores to measure clinical relevance. One hundred and seventy datasets from 82 studies were included. The mean percentage HAMD change for treatment arms was 53.66%, and 29.81% for control arms, a statistically significant difference. Combined active therapies showed the biggest improvement on CGI-I score, followed by CBT alone. All active treatments had better than expected HAMD percentage reduction and CGI-I scores. CBT has a clinically relevant effect in depression, with a notional CGI-I score of 2.2, indicating a significant clinical response. The non-specific or placebo effect of being in a psychotherapy trial was a 29% reduction of HAMD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  6. Positive patch test reactions to oxidized limonene: exposure and relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bråred Christensson, Johanna; Andersen, Klaus E; Bruze, Magnus; Johansen, Jeanne D; Garcia-Bravo, Begoña; Gimenez Arnau, Ana; Goh, Chee-Leok; Nixon, Rosemary; White, Ian R

    2014-11-01

    R-Limonene is a common fragrance terpene found in domestic and industrial products. R-Limonene autoxidizes on air exposure, and the oxidation products can cause contact allergy. In a recent multicentre study, 5.2% (range 2.3-12.1%) of 2900 patients showed a positive patch test reaction to oxidized R-limonene. To study the exposure to limonene among consecutive dermatitis patients reacting to oxidized R-limonene in an international setting, and to assess the relevance of the exposure for the patients' dermatitis. Oxidized R-limonene 3.0% (containing limonene hydroperoxides at 0.33%) in petrolatum was tested in 2900 consecutive dermatitis patients in Australia, Denmark, the United Kingdom, Singapore, Spain, and Sweden. A questionnaire assessing exposure to limonene-containing products was completed. Overall, exposure to products containing limonene was found and assessed as being probably relevant for the patients' dermatitis in 36% of the limonene-allergic patients. In Barcelona and Copenhagen, > 70% of the patients were judged to have had an exposure to limonene assessed as relevant. Oxidized R-limonene is a common fragrance allergen, and limonene was frequently found in the labelling on the patients' products, and assessed as relevant for the patients' dermatitis. A large number of domestic and occupational sources for contact with R-limonene were identified. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A review of potential factors relevant to coping in patients with advanced cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thora G.; Rydahl-Hansen, Susan; Wagner, Lis

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to identify characteristics that are considered to describe coping in patients with advanced cancer, as seen from a patient perspective. Based on the identified characteristics, the second aim was to identify potential factors that are relevant to coping in patients with advanced cancer....

  8. Variable Dimension Trellis-Coded Quantization of Sinusoidal Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Holm; Christensen, Mads G.; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2008-01-01

    In this letter, we propose joint quantization of the parameters of a set of sinusoids based on the theory of trellis-coded quantization. A particular advantage of this approach is that it allows for joint quantization of a variable number of sinusoids, which is particularly relevant in variable...

  9. Social validation of vocabulary selection: ensuring stakeholder relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornman, Juan; Bryen, Diane Nelson

    2013-06-01

    The vocabulary needs of individuals who are unable to spell their messages continue to be of concern in the field of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). Social validation of vocabulary selection has been suggested as one way to improve the effectiveness and relevance of service delivery in AAC. Despite increased emphasis on stakeholder accountability, social validation is not frequently used in AAC research. This paper describes an investigation of the social validity of a vocabulary set identified in earlier research. A previous study used stakeholder focus groups to identify vocabulary that could be used by South African adults who use AAC to disclose their experiences as victims of crime or abuse. Another study used this vocabulary to create communication boards for use by adults with complex communication needs. In this current project, 12 South African adults with complex communication needs who use AAC systems used a 5-point Likert scale to score the importance of each of the previously identified 57 vocabulary items. This two-step process of first using stakeholder focus groups to identify vocabulary, and then having literate persons who use AAC provide information on social validity of the vocabulary on behalf of their peers who are illiterate, appears to hold promise as a culturally relevant vocabulary selection approach for sensitive topics such as crime and abuse.

  10. Motivation factors for suicidal behavior and their clinical relevance in admitted psychiatric patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Hayashi

    Full Text Available Suicidal behavior (SB is a major, worldwide health concern. To date there is limited understanding of the associated motivational aspects which accompany this self-initiated conduct.To develop a method for identifying motivational features associated with SB by studying admitted psychiatric patients, and to examine their clinical relevance.By performing a factor analytic study using data obtained from a patient sample exhibiting high suicidality and a variety of SB methods, Motivations for SB Scale (MSBS was constructed to measure the features. Data included assessments of DSM-IV psychiatric and personality disorders, suicide intent, depressive symptomatology, overt aggression, recent life events (RLEs and methods of SB, collated from structured interviews. Association of identified features with clinical variables was examined by correlation analyses and MANCOVA.Factor analyses elicited a 4-factor solution composed of Interpersonal-testing (IT, Interpersonal-change (IC, Self-renunciation (SR and Self-sustenance (SS. These factors were classified according to two distinctions, namely interpersonal vs. intra-personal directedness, and the level of assumed influence by SB or the relationship to prevailing emotions. Analyses revealed meaningful links between patient features and clinical variables. Interpersonal-motivations (IT and IC were associated with overt aggression, low suicidality and RLE discord or conflict, while SR was associated with depression, high suicidality and RLE separation or death. Borderline personality disorder showed association with IC and SS. When self-strangulation was set as a reference SB method, self-cutting and overdose-taking were linked to IT and SS, respectively.The factors extracted in this study largely corresponded to factors from previous studies, implying that they may be useful in a wider clinical context. The association of these features with SB-related factors suggests that they constitute an integral part

  11. Newly Identified Gait Patterns in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis May Be Related to Push-off Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempen, Jiska C E; Doorenbosch, Caroline A M; Knol, Dirk L; de Groot, Vincent; Beckerman, Heleen

    2016-11-01

    Limited walking ability is an important problem for patients with multiple sclerosis. A better understanding of how gait impairments lead to limited walking ability may help to develop more targeted interventions. Although gait classifications are available in cerebral palsy and stroke, relevant knowledge in MS is scarce. The aims of this study were: (1) to identify distinctive gait patterns in patients with MS based on a combined evaluation of kinematics, gait features, and muscle activity during walking and (2) to determine the clinical relevance of these gait patterns. This was a cross-sectional study of 81 patients with MS of mild-to-moderate severity (Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS] median score=3.0, range=1.0-7.0) and an age range of 28 to 69 years. The patients participated in 2-dimensional video gait analysis, with concurrent measurement of surface electromyography and ground reaction forces. A score chart of 73 gait items was used to rate each gait analysis. A single rater performed the scoring. Latent class analysis was used to identify gait classes. Analysis of the 73 gait variables revealed that 9 variables could distinguish 3 clinically meaningful gait classes. The 9 variables were: (1) heel-rise in terminal stance, (2) push-off, (3) clearance in initial swing, (4) plantar-flexion position in mid-swing, (5) pelvic rotation, (6) arm-trunk movement, (7) activity of the gastrocnemius muscle in pre-swing, (8) M-wave, and (9) propulsive force. The EDSS score and gait speed worsened in ascending classes. Most participants had mild-to-moderate limitations in walking ability based on their EDSS scores, and the number of walkers who were severely limited was small. Based on a small set of 9 variables measured with 2-dimensional clinical gait analysis, patients with MS could be divided into 3 different gait classes. The gait variables are suggestive of insufficient ankle push-off. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  12. Inferring relevance in a changing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Wilson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement learning models of human and animal learning usually concentrate on how we learn the relationship between different stimuli or actions and rewards. However, in real world situations stimuli are ill-defined. On the one hand, our immediate environment is extremely multi-dimensional. On the other hand, in every decision-making scenario only a few aspects of the environment are relevant for obtaining reward, while most are irrelevant. Thus a key question is how do we learn these relevant dimensions, that is, how do we learn what to learn about? We investigated this process of representation learning experimentally, using a task in which one stimulus dimension was relevant for determining reward at each point in time. As in real life situations, in our task the relevant dimension can change without warning, adding ever-present uncertainty engendered by a constantly changing environment. We show that human performance on this task is better described by a suboptimal strategy based on selective attention and serial hypothesis testing rather than a normative strategy based on probabilistic inference. From this, we conjecture that the problem of inferring relevance in general scenarios is too computationally demanding for the brain to solve optimally. As a result the brain utilizes approximations, employing these even in simplified scenarios in which optimal representation learning is tractable, such as the one in our experiment.

  13. Distribution and predictors of wing shape and size variability in three sister species of solitary bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Dellicour

    Full Text Available Morphological traits can be highly variable over time in a particular geographical area. Different selective pressures shape those traits, which is crucial in evolutionary biology. Among these traits, insect wing morphometry has already been widely used to describe phenotypic variability at the inter-specific level. On the contrary, fewer studies have focused on intra-specific wing morphometric variability. Yet, such investigations are relevant to study potential convergences of variation that could highlight micro-evolutionary processes. The recent sampling and sequencing of three solitary bees of the genus Melitta across their entire species range provides an excellent opportunity to jointly analyse genetic and morphometric variability. In the present study, we first aim to analyse the spatial distribution of the wing shape and centroid size (used as a proxy for body size variability. Secondly, we aim to test different potential predictors of this variability at both the intra- and inter-population levels, which includes genetic variability, but also geographic locations and distances, elevation, annual mean temperature and precipitation. The comparison of spatial distribution of intra-population morphometric diversity does not reveal any convergent pattern between species, thus undermining the assumption of a potential local and selective adaptation at the population level. Regarding intra-specific wing shape differentiation, our results reveal that some tested predictors, such as geographic and genetic distances, are associated with a significant correlation for some species. However, none of these predictors are systematically identified for the three species as an important factor that could explain the intra-specific morphometric variability. As a conclusion, for the three solitary bee species and at the scale of this study, our results clearly tend to discard the assumption of the existence of a common pattern of intra-specific signal

  14. Distribution and predictors of wing shape and size variability in three sister species of solitary bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellicour, Simon; Gerard, Maxence; Prunier, Jérôme G; Dewulf, Alexandre; Kuhlmann, Michael; Michez, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Morphological traits can be highly variable over time in a particular geographical area. Different selective pressures shape those traits, which is crucial in evolutionary biology. Among these traits, insect wing morphometry has already been widely used to describe phenotypic variability at the inter-specific level. On the contrary, fewer studies have focused on intra-specific wing morphometric variability. Yet, such investigations are relevant to study potential convergences of variation that could highlight micro-evolutionary processes. The recent sampling and sequencing of three solitary bees of the genus Melitta across their entire species range provides an excellent opportunity to jointly analyse genetic and morphometric variability. In the present study, we first aim to analyse the spatial distribution of the wing shape and centroid size (used as a proxy for body size) variability. Secondly, we aim to test different potential predictors of this variability at both the intra- and inter-population levels, which includes genetic variability, but also geographic locations and distances, elevation, annual mean temperature and precipitation. The comparison of spatial distribution of intra-population morphometric diversity does not reveal any convergent pattern between species, thus undermining the assumption of a potential local and selective adaptation at the population level. Regarding intra-specific wing shape differentiation, our results reveal that some tested predictors, such as geographic and genetic distances, are associated with a significant correlation for some species. However, none of these predictors are systematically identified for the three species as an important factor that could explain the intra-specific morphometric variability. As a conclusion, for the three solitary bee species and at the scale of this study, our results clearly tend to discard the assumption of the existence of a common pattern of intra-specific signal/structure within the

  15. Identifying and Assessing Interesting Subgroups in a Heterogeneous Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woojoo; Alexeyenko, Andrey; Pernemalm, Maria; Guegan, Justine; Dessen, Philippe; Lazar, Vladimir; Lehtiö, Janne; Pawitan, Yudi

    2015-01-01

    Biological heterogeneity is common in many diseases and it is often the reason for therapeutic failures. Thus, there is great interest in classifying a disease into subtypes that have clinical significance in terms of prognosis or therapy response. One of the most popular methods to uncover unrecognized subtypes is cluster analysis. However, classical clustering methods such as k-means clustering or hierarchical clustering are not guaranteed to produce clinically interesting subtypes. This could be because the main statistical variability--the basis of cluster generation--is dominated by genes not associated with the clinical phenotype of interest. Furthermore, a strong prognostic factor might be relevant for a certain subgroup but not for the whole population; thus an analysis of the whole sample may not reveal this prognostic factor. To address these problems we investigate methods to identify and assess clinically interesting subgroups in a heterogeneous population. The identification step uses a clustering algorithm and to assess significance we use a false discovery rate- (FDR-) based measure. Under the heterogeneity condition the standard FDR estimate is shown to overestimate the true FDR value, but this is remedied by an improved FDR estimation procedure. As illustrations, two real data examples from gene expression studies of lung cancer are provided.

  16. Cataclysmic Variable Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellier, Coel

    2001-01-01

    Cataclysmic variable stars are the most variable stars in the night sky, fluctuating in brightness continually on timescales from seconds to hours to weeks to years. The changes can be recorded using amateur telescopes, yet are also the subject of intensive study by professional astronomers. That study has led to an understanding of cataclysmic variables as binary stars, orbiting so closely that material transfers from one star to the other. The resulting process of accretion is one of the most important in astrophysics. This book presents the first account of cataclysmic variables at an introductory level. Assuming no previous knowledge of the field, it explains the basic principles underlying the variability, while providing an extensive compilation of cataclysmic variable light curves. Aimed at amateur astronomers, undergraduates, and researchers, the main text is accessible to those with no mathematical background, while supplementary boxes present technical details and equations.

  17. Understanding Brown Dwarf Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Surveys of brown dwarf variability continue to find that roughly half of all brown dwarfs are variable. While variability is observed amongst all types of brown dwarfs, amplitudes are typically greatest for L-T transition objects. In my talk I will discuss the possible physical mechanisms that are responsible for the observed variability. I will particularly focus on comparing and contrasting the effects of changes in atmospheric thermal profile and cloud opacity. The two different mechanisms will produce different variability signatures and I will discuss the extent to which the current datasets constrain both mechanisms. By combining constraints from studies of variability with existing spectral and photometric datasets we can begin to construct and test self-consistent models of brown dwarf atmospheres. These models not only aid in the interpretation of existing objects but also inform studies of directly imaged giant planets.

  18. Summarizing Simulation Results using Causally-relevant States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Nidhi; Marathe, Madhav; Swarup, Samarth

    2016-01-01

    As increasingly large-scale multiagent simulations are being implemented, new methods are becoming necessary to make sense of the results of these simulations. Even concisely summarizing the results of a given simulation run is a challenge. Here we pose this as the problem of simulation summarization: how to extract the causally-relevant descriptions of the trajectories of the agents in the simulation. We present a simple algorithm to compress agent trajectories through state space by identifying the state transitions which are relevant to determining the distribution of outcomes at the end of the simulation. We present a toy-example to illustrate the working of the algorithm, and then apply it to a complex simulation of a major disaster in an urban area. PMID:28042620

  19. Creativity-Relevant Personal Characteristics among Indonesia Creative Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugroho J. Setiadi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to identify Creativity-relevant Personal Characteristics among creative workers in Indonesia’s creative industry. Identification of the constituent elements of the nature of the changes needs to be measured. Researchers have advocated replacing creativity-relevant personal characteristics based on the five-factor model to investigate how individual differences stimulate creativity. This study presents data supporting reliability (internal consistency and validity (criterion and construct of the instrument. Validity of the instrument is based on the content validity involving art and design experts. The 220 creative workers from several creative industry firms in Indonesia participated as samples in this research. Results of a factor analysis indicated a five factor solution of creative characteristics and behavior. Discussion of findings and the most important ways in which individuals differ in their enduring emotional, interpersonal, experiential, attitudinal, and motivational styles for stimulating creativity are presented.

  20. Passage relevance models for genomics search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frieder Ophir

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a passage relevance model for integrating syntactic and semantic evidence of biomedical concepts and topics using a probabilistic graphical model. Component models of topics, concepts, terms, and document are represented as potential functions within a Markov Random Field. The probability of a passage being relevant to a biologist's information need is represented as the joint distribution across all potential functions. Relevance model feedback of top ranked passages is used to improve distributional estimates of query concepts and topics in context, and a dimensional indexing strategy is used for efficient aggregation of concept and term statistics. By integrating multiple sources of evidence including dependencies between topics, concepts, and terms, we seek to improve genomics literature passage retrieval precision. Using this model, we are able to demonstrate statistically significant improvements in retrieval precision using a large genomics literature corpus.

  1. The nebular variables

    CERN Document Server

    Glasby, John S

    1974-01-01

    The Nebular Variables focuses on the nebular variables and their characteristics. Discussions are organized by type of nebular variable, namely, RW Aurigae stars, T Orionis stars, T Tauri stars, and peculiar nebular objects. Topics range from light variations of the stars to their spectroscopic and physical characteristics, spatial distribution, interaction with nebulosity, and evolutionary features. This volume is divided into four sections and consists of 25 chapters, the first of which provides general information on nebular variables, including their stellar associations and their classifi

  2. Ultrasonic variables affecting inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautzenheiser, C.E.; Whiting, A.R.; McElroy, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    There are many variables which affect the detection of the effects and reproducibility of results when utilizing ultrasonic techniques. The most important variable is the procedure, as this document specifies, to a great extent, the controls that are exercised over the other variables. The most important variable is personnel with regards to training, qualification, integrity, data recording, and data analysis. Although the data is very limited, these data indicate that, if the procedure is carefully controlled, reliability of defect detection and reproducibility of results are both approximately 90 percent for reliability of detection, this applies to relatively small defects as reliability increases substantially as defect size increases above the recording limit. (author)

  3. Net Income, Book Value and Cash Flows: The Value Relevance in Jordanian Economic Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DHIAA SHAMKI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the value relevance of financial statements variables namely net income, book value and cash flows simultaneously relative to Jordanian services and industrial firms for the period from 2000 to 2009. The main findings of this paper are three- dimensional. First, net income is value relevant, while book value and cash flows are irrelevant. Second, net income is more value relevant than book value and cash flows in both sectors. Third, this value relevance is greater in services sector than in industrial sector. The study shows that net income assist more in explaining market values in Jordanian services and industrial firms. Since research on the value relevance of these variables has neglected Jordan (and the Middle Eastern region, the study tries to fill this practical gap. The study is the first in Jordan that examines the value relevance of net income, book value and cash flows simultaneously and compares this value relevance according to Amman Stock Exchange sectors in one study in Jordan.

  4. THE CHANDRA VARIABLE GUIDE STAR CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, Joy S.; Lauer, Jennifer L.; Morgan, Douglas L.; Sundheim, Beth A.; Henden, Arne A.; Huenemoerder, David P.; Martin, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Variable stars have been identified among the optical-wavelength light curves of guide stars used for pointing control of the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We present a catalog of these variable stars along with their light curves and ancillary data. Variability was detected to a lower limit of 0.02 mag amplitude in the 4000-10000 A range using the photometrically stable Aspect Camera on board the Chandra spacecraft. The Chandra Variable Guide Star Catalog (VGUIDE) contains 827 stars, of which 586 are classified as definitely variable and 241 are identified as possibly variable. Of the 586 definite variable stars, we believe 319 are new variable star identifications. Types of variables in the catalog include eclipsing binaries, pulsating stars, and rotating stars. The variability was detected during the course of normal verification of each Chandra pointing and results from analysis of over 75,000 guide star light curves from the Chandra mission. The VGUIDE catalog represents data from only about 9 years of the Chandra mission. Future releases of VGUIDE will include newly identified variable guide stars as the mission proceeds. An important advantage of the use of space data to identify and analyze variable stars is the relatively long observations that are available. The Chandra orbit allows for observations up to 2 days in length. Also, guide stars were often used multiple times for Chandra observations, so many of the stars in the VGUIDE catalog have multiple light curves available from various times in the mission. The catalog is presented as both online data associated with this paper and as a public Web interface. Light curves with data at the instrumental time resolution of about 2 s, overplotted with the data binned at 1 ks, can be viewed on the public Web interface and downloaded for further analysis. VGUIDE is a unique project using data collected during the mission that would otherwise be ignored. The stars available for use as Chandra guide stars are

  5. Identity theory and personality theory: mutual relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryker, Sheldon

    2007-12-01

    Some personality psychologists have found a structural symbolic interactionist frame and identity theory relevant to their work. This frame and theory, developed in sociology, are first reviewed. Emphasized in the review are a multiple identity conception of self, identities as internalized expectations derived from roles embedded in organized networks of social interaction, and a view of social structures as facilitators in bringing people into networks or constraints in keeping them out, subsequently, attention turns to a discussion of the mutual relevance of structural symbolic interactionism/identity theory and personality theory, looking to extensions of the current literature on these topics.

  6. Identifying the connective strength between model parameters and performance criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Guse

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In hydrological models, parameters are used to represent the time-invariant characteristics of catchments and to capture different aspects of hydrological response. Hence, model parameters need to be identified based on their role in controlling the hydrological behaviour. For the identification of meaningful parameter values, multiple and complementary performance criteria are used that compare modelled and measured discharge time series. The reliability of the identification of hydrologically meaningful model parameter values depends on how distinctly a model parameter can be assigned to one of the performance criteria. To investigate this, we introduce the new concept of connective strength between model parameters and performance criteria. The connective strength assesses the intensity in the interrelationship between model parameters and performance criteria in a bijective way. In our analysis of connective strength, model simulations are carried out based on a latin hypercube sampling. Ten performance criteria including Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE, Kling–Gupta efficiency (KGE and its three components (alpha, beta and r as well as RSR (the ratio of the root mean square error to the standard deviation for different segments of the flow duration curve (FDC are calculated. With a joint analysis of two regression tree (RT approaches, we derive how a model parameter is connected to different performance criteria. At first, RTs are constructed using each performance criterion as the target variable to detect the most relevant model parameters for each performance criterion. Secondly, RTs are constructed using each parameter as the target variable to detect which performance criteria are impacted by changes in the values of one distinct model parameter. Based on this, appropriate performance criteria are identified for each model parameter. In this study, a high bijective connective strength between model parameters and performance criteria

  7. MicroRNA expression variability in human cervical tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia M Pereira

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are short (approximately 22 nt non-coding regulatory RNAs that control gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Deregulation of miRNA expression has been discovered in a wide variety of tumours and it is now clear that they contribute to cancer development and progression. Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide and there is a strong need for a non-invasive, fast and efficient method to diagnose the disease. We investigated miRNA expression profiles in cervical cancer using a microarray platform containing probes for mature miRNAs. We have evaluated miRNA expression profiles of a heterogeneous set of cervical tissues from 25 different patients. This set included 19 normal cervical tissues, 4 squamous cell carcinoma, 5 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL and 9 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL samples. We observed high variability in miRNA expression especially among normal cervical samples, which prevented us from obtaining a unique miRNA expression signature for this tumour type. However, deregulated miRNAs were identified in malignant and pre-malignant cervical tissues after tackling the high expression variability observed. We were also able to identify putative target genes of relevant candidate miRNAs. Our results show that miRNA expression shows natural variability among human samples, which complicates miRNA data profiling analysis. However, such expression noise can be filtered and does not prevent the identification of deregulated miRNAs that play a role in the malignant transformation of cervical squamous cells. Deregulated miRNAs highlight new candidate gene targets allowing for a better understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying the development of this tumour type.

  8. Stochastic weather inputs for improved urban water demand forecasting: application of nonlinear input variable selection and machine learning methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilty, J.; Adamowski, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Urban water supply systems are often stressed during seasonal outdoor water use as water demands related to the climate are variable in nature making it difficult to optimize the operation of the water supply system. Urban water demand forecasts (UWD) failing to include meteorological conditions as inputs to the forecast model may produce poor forecasts as they cannot account for the increase/decrease in demand related to meteorological conditions. Meteorological records stochastically simulated into the future can be used as inputs to data-driven UWD forecasts generally resulting in improved forecast accuracy. This study aims to produce data-driven UWD forecasts for two different Canadian water utilities (Montreal and Victoria) using machine learning methods by first selecting historical UWD and meteorological records derived from a stochastic weather generator using nonlinear input variable selection. The nonlinear input variable selection methods considered in this work are derived from the concept of conditional mutual information, a nonlinear dependency measure based on (multivariate) probability density functions and accounts for relevancy, conditional relevancy, and redundancy from a potential set of input variables. The results of our study indicate that stochastic weather inputs can improve UWD forecast accuracy for the two sites considered in this work. Nonlinear input variable selection is suggested as a means to identify which meteorological conditions should be utilized in the forecast.

  9. Identifying Phase Space Boundaries with Voronoi Tessellations

    CERN Document Server

    Debnath, Dipsikha; Kilic, Can; Kim, Doojin; Matchev, Konstantin T.; Yang, Yuan-Pao

    2016-11-24

    Determining the masses of new physics particles appearing in decay chains is an important and longstanding problem in high energy phenomenology. Recently it has been shown that these mass measurements can be improved by utilizing the boundary of the allowed region in the fully differentiable phase space in its full dimensionality. Here we show that the practical challenge of identifying this boundary can be solved using techniques based on the geometric properties of the cells resulting from Voronoi tessellations of the relevant data. The robust detection of such phase space boundaries in the data could also be used to corroborate a new physics discovery based on a cut-and-count analysis.

  10. SPARQL-enabled identifier conversion with Identifiers.org

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimalaratne, Sarala M.; Bolleman, Jerven; Juty, Nick; Katayama, Toshiaki; Dumontier, Michel; Redaschi, Nicole; Le Novère, Nicolas; Hermjakob, Henning; Laibe, Camille

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: On the semantic web, in life sciences in particular, data is often distributed via multiple resources. Each of these sources is likely to use their own International Resource Identifier for conceptually the same resource or database record. The lack of correspondence between identifiers introduces a barrier when executing federated SPARQL queries across life science data. Results: We introduce a novel SPARQL-based service to enable on-the-fly integration of life science data. This service uses the identifier patterns defined in the Identifiers.org Registry to generate a plurality of identifier variants, which can then be used to match source identifiers with target identifiers. We demonstrate the utility of this identifier integration approach by answering queries across major producers of life science Linked Data. Availability and implementation: The SPARQL-based identifier conversion service is available without restriction at http://identifiers.org/services/sparql. Contact: sarala@ebi.ac.uk PMID:25638809

  11. SPARQL-enabled identifier conversion with Identifiers.org.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimalaratne, Sarala M; Bolleman, Jerven; Juty, Nick; Katayama, Toshiaki; Dumontier, Michel; Redaschi, Nicole; Le Novère, Nicolas; Hermjakob, Henning; Laibe, Camille

    2015-06-01

    On the semantic web, in life sciences in particular, data is often distributed via multiple resources. Each of these sources is likely to use their own International Resource Identifier for conceptually the same resource or database record. The lack of correspondence between identifiers introduces a barrier when executing federated SPARQL queries across life science data. We introduce a novel SPARQL-based service to enable on-the-fly integration of life science data. This service uses the identifier patterns defined in the Identifiers.org Registry to generate a plurality of identifier variants, which can then be used to match source identifiers with target identifiers. We demonstrate the utility of this identifier integration approach by answering queries across major producers of life science Linked Data. The SPARQL-based identifier conversion service is available without restriction at http://identifiers.org/services/sparql. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Variable volume combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostebee, Heath Michael; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2017-01-17

    The present application provides a variable volume combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The variable volume combustor may include a liner, a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within the liner, and a linear actuator so as to maneuver the micro-mixer fuel nozzles axially along the liner.

  13. Variability: A Pernicious Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noddings, Nel

    1992-01-01

    The hypothesis of greater male variability in test results is discussed in its historical context, and reasons feminists have objected to the hypothesis are considered. The hypothesis acquires political importance if it is considered that variability results from biological, rather than cultural, differences. (SLD)

  14. Reinforcing Saccadic Amplitude Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paeye, Celine; Madelain, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Saccadic endpoint variability is often viewed as the outcome of neural noise occurring during sensorimotor processing. However, part of this variability might result from operant learning. We tested this hypothesis by reinforcing dispersions of saccadic amplitude distributions, while maintaining constant their medians. In a first experiment we…

  15. POVMs and hidden variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stairs, Allen

    2007-01-01

    Recent results by Paul Busch and Adan Cabello claim to show that by appealing to POVMs, non-contextual hidden variables can be ruled out in two dimensions. While the results of Busch and Cabello are mathematically correct, interpretive problems render them problematic as no hidden variable proofs

  16. Interdependence Among Organizational Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, M. C.

    1975-01-01

    The interrelationship between a set of organizational variables was investigated at 14 work organizations within a company. The variables were production, quality, costs, job satisfaction of operatives, job satisfaction of supervisors, work anxiety, accidents, absence, labor turnover, and industrial unrest. (Author)

  17. Bible Translation And Relevance Theory | Deist | Stellenbosch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 22 (1992) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Bible Translation And Relevance Theory. F Deist ...

  18. Seeking Relevance: American Political Science and America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranto, Robert; Woessner, Matthew C.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors talk about the relevance of American political science and America. Political science has enormous strengths in its highly talented practitioners and sophisticated methods. However, its disconnection from its host society, while not so severe as for fields like English and sociology, nonetheless poses an existential…

  19. Is Enterprise Education Relevant to Social Enterprise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Both enterprise education and social enterprise have become fashionable but what, if any, should be the connections between them? The purpose of this paper is to explore those connections and to reflect on what relevance the two concepts might have for each other. Design/methodology/approach: Both enterprise education and social…

  20. The Relevant Physical Trace in Criminal Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durdica Hazard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A criminal investigation requires the forensic scientist to search and to interpret vestiges of a criminal act that happened in the past. The forensic scientist is one of the many stakeholders who take part in the information quest within the criminal justice system. She reads the investigation scene in search of physical traces that should enable her to tell the story of the offense/crime that allegedly occurred. The challenge for any investigator is to detect and recognize relevant physical traces in order to provide clues for investigation and intelligence purposes, and that will constitute sound and relevant evidence for the court. This article shows how important it is to consider the relevancy of physical traces from the beginning of the investigation and what might influence the evaluation process. The exchange and management of information between the investigation stakeholders are important. Relevancy is a dimension that needs to be understood from the standpoints of law enforcement personnel and forensic scientists with the aim of strengthening investigation and ultimately the overall judicial process.

  1. Interpersonal communication: It's relevance to nursing practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is aimed at highlighting how essential interpersonal communication is necessary for establishing rapport, understanding the needs of the patients and planning effective intervention for meeting holistic health care. To be continually relevant, Nurses have to improve on their communication skills to meet the ...

  2. Inferring feature relevances from metric learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, Alexander; Mokbel, Bassam; Biehl, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Powerful metric learning algorithms have been proposed in the last years which do not only greatly enhance the accuracy of distance-based classifiers and nearest neighbor database retrieval, but which also enable the interpretability of these operations by assigning explicit relevance weights...

  3. The Relevance of Causal Social Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques Teresa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Social constructionist claims are surprising and interesting when they entail that presumably natural kinds are in fact socially constructed. The claims are interesting because of their theoretical and political importance. Authors like Díaz-León argue that constitutive social construction is more relevant for achieving social justice than causal social construction. This paper challenges this claim. Assuming there are socially salient groups that are discriminated against, the paper presents a dilemma: if there were no constitutively constructed social kinds, the causes of the discrimination of existing social groups would have to be addressed, and understanding causal social construction would be relevant to achieve social justice. On the other hand, not all possible constitutively socially constructed kinds are actual social kinds. If an existing social group is constitutively constructed as a social kind K, the fact that it actually exists as a K has social causes. Again, causal social construction is relevant. The paper argues that (i for any actual social kind X, if X is constitutively socially constructed as K, then it is also causally socially constructed; and (ii causal social construction is at least as relevant as constitutive social construction for concerns of social justice. For illustration, I draw upon two phenomena that are presumed to contribute towards the discrimination of women: (i the poor performance effects of stereotype threat, and (ii the silencing effects of gendered language use.

  4. Bootstrapping Visual Categorization with Relevant Negatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Snoek, C.G.M.; Worring, M.; Koelma, D.; Smeulders, A.W.M.

    Learning classifiers for many visual concepts are important for image categorization and retrieval. As a classifier tends to misclassify negative examples which are visually similar to positive ones, inclusion of such misclassified and thus relevant negatives should be stressed during learning.

  5. Why ritual plant use has ethnopharmacological relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quiroz, Diana; Sosef, Marc; Andel, Van Tinde

    2016-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Although ritual plant use is now recognised both for its socio-cultural importance and for its contribution to nature conservation, its potential pharmacological effects remain overlooked. Aim of the study Our objective was to see whether ritual plant use could have

  6. Bradford's Law and Its Relevance to Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenton, Andrew K.; Hay-Gibson, Naomi V.

    2009-01-01

    Bradford's Law has been the subject of much discussion and analysis in library and information science since its formulation in the 1930s and remains frequently debated to this day. It has been applied to various practices within the discipline, especially with regard to collection development, but its relevance to researchers and the potential it…

  7. The relevance of cosmopolitanism for moral education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merry, M.S.; de Ruyter, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we defend a moral conception of cosmopolitanism and its relevance for moral education. Our moral conception of cosmopolitanism presumes that persons possess an inherent dignity in the Kantian sense and therefore they should be recognised as ends-in-themselves. We argue that

  8. Ranking Music Data by Relevance and Importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruxanda, Maria Magdalena; Nanopoulos, Alexandros; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2008-01-01

    Due to the rapidly increasing availability of audio files on the Web, it is relevant to augment search engines with advanced audio search functionality. In this context, the ranking of the retrieved music is an important issue. This paper proposes a music ranking method capable of flexibly fusing...

  9. Fast multi-output relevance vector regression

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Youngmin

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to decrease the time complexity of multi-output relevance vector regression from O(VM^3) to O(V^3+M^3), where V is the number of output dimensions, M is the number of basis functions, and V

  10. Pragmatic inferences and self-relevant judgments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puente-Diaz, Rogelio; Cavazos Arroyo, Judith; Brem, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Three studies examined the influence of type of scale on self-relevant judgments and the moderating role of age, prevention, focus, and need for cogni- tion. Participants were randomly assigned to a bipolar or a unipolar scale condition in all three studies. Results from study 1 with a representa...

  11. Making Chemistry Relevant to the Engineering Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu-Dutt, Sharmistha; Slappey, Charles; Bartley, Julie K.

    2010-01-01

    As part of a campus-wide, externally funded project to increase performance in, enthusiasm for, and retention within STEM disciplines, we developed an interdisciplinary, team-taught first-year seminar course. The construction and delivery of this course was designed to show the relevance of selected general chemistry topics such as matter and…

  12. Contingent Attentional Capture by Conceptually Relevant Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyble, Brad; Folk, Charles; Potter, Mary C.

    2013-01-01

    Attentional capture is an unintentional shift of visuospatial attention to the location of a distractor that is either highly salient, or relevant to the current task set. The latter situation is referred to as contingent capture, in that the effect is contingent on a match between characteristics of the stimuli and the task-defined…

  13. The Relevance Aura of Bibliographic Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Terrence A.

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes relevance assessments of topical descriptors for bibliographic records for two dimensions: (1) a vertical conceptual hierarchy of broad to narrow descriptors, and (2) a horizontal linkage of related terms. The data were analyzed for a semantic distance and semantic direction effect as postulated by the Semantic Distance Model. (Author/LRW)

  14. The Relevance of Cosmopolitanism for Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, Michael S.; de Ruyter, Doret J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we defend a moral conception of cosmopolitanism and its relevance for moral education. Our moral conception of cosmopolitanism presumes that persons possess an inherent dignity in the Kantian sense and therefore they should be recognised as ends-in-themselves. We argue that cosmopolitan ideals can inspire moral educators to awaken…

  15. Identifying suitable sites for Florida panther reintroduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Cindy A.; van Manen, Frank T.; Clark, Joseph D.

    2006-01-01

    A major objective of the 1995 Florida Panther (Puma concolor cory) Recovery Plan is the establishment of 2 additional panther populations within the historic range. Our goal was to identify prospective sites for Florida panther reintroduction within the historic range based on quantitative landscape assessments. First, we delineated 86 panther home ranges using telemetry data collected from 1981 to 2001 in south Florida to develop a Mahalanobis distance (D2) habitat model, using 4 anthropogenic variables and 3 landscape variables mapped at a 500-m resolution. From that analysis, we identified 9 potential reintroduction sites of sufficient size to support a panther population. We then developed a similar D2 model at a higher spatial resolution to quantify the area of favorable panther habitat at each site. To address potential for the population to expand, we calculated the amount of favorable habitat adjacent to each prospective reintroduction site within a range of dispersal distances of female panthers. We then added those totals to the contiguous patches to estimate the total amount of effective panther habitat at each site. Finally, we developed an expert-assisted model to rank and incorporate potentially important habitat variables that were not appropriate for our empirical analysis (e.g., area of public lands, livestock density). Anthropogenic factors heavily influenced both the landscape and the expert-assisted models. Of the 9 areas we identified, the Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge, Ozark National Forest, and Felsenthal National Wildlife Refuge regions had the highest combination of effective habitat area and expert opinion scores. Sensitivity analyses indicated that variability among key model parameters did not affect the high ranking of those sites. Those sites should be considered as starting points for the field evaluation of potential reintroduction sites.

  16. Salton and Buckley’s Landmark Research in Experimental Text Information Retrieval. A Review of: Salton, G., & Buckley, C. (1990. Improving retrieval performance by relevance feedback. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 41(4, 288–297.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine F. Marton

    2011-01-01

    using both positive and negative weights based on whether the terms are coming from relevant or non-relevant documents. Yet, no new terms are actually added with negative weights; the contribution of non-relevant document terms is to modify the weighting of new terms coming from relevant documents. . . . The probabilistic model . . . is based on the distribution of query terms in relevant and non-relevant documents, This is expressed as a term weight, with the rank of each retrieved document then being the sum of the term weights for terms contained in the document that match query terms. (pp. 1-2Second, while the vector space model “has an inherent relationship between term reweighting and query expansion” (p. 2, the probabilistic model does not. Thus, query expansion is optional, but given its usefulness, various schemes have been proposed for expanding queries using terms from retrieved relevant documents.In the Salton and Buckley study 3 versions of each of the two relevance feedback methods were utilized, with two different levels of query expansion, and run on 6 different test collections. More specifically, they queried test collections that ranged in size from small to large, and that represented different domains of knowledge, including medicine and engineering with 72 experimental runs in total.Salton and Buckley examined 3 variants of the vector space model, the second and third of which were based on the first. The first model was the classic Rocchio algorithm (1971, which uses reduced document weights to modify the queries. The second model was the “Ide regular” algorithm, which reweights both relevant and non-relevant query terms (Ide, 1971. And the third model was the “Ide dec-hi” algorithm, which reweights all identified relevant items but only one retrieved nonrelevant item, the one retrieved first in the initial set of search results (Ide & Salton, 1971.As well, 3 variants of the probabilistic model developed by S.E. Robertson (Robertson

  17. Pierre Robin sequence: case report, the relevance of autopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano C. Oliveira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPierre Robin sequence is a neonatal disorder characterized by micrognathism, glossoptosis and cleft palate. We reported an autopsy case of a child whose malformations of the oropharynx were identified only at birth. The child was extremely preterm with severe neonatal depression and poor recovery, and the orofacial alterations prevented the correct treatment. There was facial disorder characterized by micrognathia associated with cleft palate and posterior displacement of the tongue, compressing the vallecula, structurally compatible with glossoptosis. This autopsy surpassed the scientific and epidemiological relevance, allowing the family genetic counseling and close monitoring of a subsequent pregnancy.

  18. THE RELEVANCE OF ECONOMIC INFORMATION IN ANALYZING THE ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRUTA MIRCEA IOAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The performance analysis is based on an informational system, which provides financial information in various formatsand with various applicabilities.We intend to formulate a set of important caracteristics of financial information along with identifying a set of relevant financial rates and indicatorsused to appreciate the performance level of a company. Economic performance can be interpreted in different ways at each level of analysis. Generally, it refers to economic growth, increased productivity and profitability. The growth of labor productivity or increased production per worker is a measure of efficient use of resources in value creation.

  19. The concept of branding: is it relevant to nursing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominiak, Mary C

    2004-10-01

    This concept exploration examines branding and its relevance to nursing. Branding is used to differentiate products through use of symbols. The symbols are the brands that are designed to communicate the value of products. Nursing has had many identifying symbols, such as the nurse's cap and the white uniform, but these symbols have failed to clearly communicate the essence of nursing. Lack of a distinct nursing brand has led to confusion about the discipline. The Roy adaptation model provides a view of branding as a process for clearly defining the profession, improving its image, and differentiating its role within the healthcare milieu.

  20. Clinical relevance of studies on the accuracy of visual inspection for detecting caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimenez, Thais; Piovesan, Chaiana; Braga, Mariana M

    2015-01-01

    Although visual inspection is the most commonly used method for caries detection, and consequently the most investigated, studies have not been concerned about the clinical relevance of this procedure. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review in order to perform a critical evaluation considering...... the clinical relevance and methodological quality of studies on the accuracy of visual inspection for assessing caries lesions. Two independent reviewers searched several databases through July 2013 to identify papers/articles published in English. Other sources were checked to identify unpublished literature...... to clinical relevance and the methodological quality of the studies were evaluated. 96 of the 5,578 articles initially identified met the inclusion criteria. In general, most studies failed in considering some clinically relevant aspects: only 1 included study validated activity status of lesions, no study...

  1. Joint Bayesian variable and graph selection for regression models with network-structured predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, C. B.; Stingo, F. C.; Vannucci, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we develop a Bayesian approach to perform selection of predictors that are linked within a network. We achieve this by combining a sparse regression model relating the predictors to a response variable with a graphical model describing conditional dependencies among the predictors. The proposed method is well-suited for genomic applications since it allows the identification of pathways of functionally related genes or proteins which impact an outcome of interest. In contrast to previous approaches for network-guided variable selection, we infer the network among predictors using a Gaussian graphical model and do not assume that network information is available a priori. We demonstrate that our method outperforms existing methods in identifying network-structured predictors in simulation settings, and illustrate our proposed model with an application to inference of proteins relevant to glioblastoma survival. PMID:26514925

  2. Variability in the Reporting of Serum Urate and Flares in Gout Clinical Trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamp, Lisa K; Morillon, Melanie B; Taylor, William J

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the ways in which serum urate (SU) and gout flares are reported in clinical trials, and to propose minimum reporting requirements. METHODS: This analysis was done as part of a systematic review aiming to validate SU as a biomarker for gout. The ways in which SU and flares.......3%) of these reporting at more than just the final study visit. Two ways of reporting gout flares were identified: mean flare rate and percentage of participants with flares. There was variability in time periods over which flares rates were reported. CONCLUSION: There is inconsistent reporting of SU and flares in gout...... studies. Reporting the percentage of participants who achieve a target SU reflects international treatment guidelines. SU should also be reported as a continuous variable with a relevant central and dispersion estimate. Gout flares should be reported as both percentage of participants and mean flare rates...

  3. NOTE - Characterization of genetic variability among common bean genotypes by morphological descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Santos de Lima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize the genetic variability in 100 genotypes of the Active Germplasm Bank of common bean of the Federal University of Viçosa, by morphological descriptors, classify them in groups of genetic similarity and to identify the degree of relevance of descriptors of genetic divergence. The genotypes were evaluated based on 22 quantitative and qualitative morphological descriptors. The highyielding genotypes V 7936, Gold Gate, LM 95103904, 1829 S 349 Venezuela, and PF 9029975, CNFC 9454 andFe 732015, with upright growth, have potential for use as parents in common bean breeding programs. By genetic divergence analysis, the genotypes were clustered in eight groups of genetic dissimilarity. By methods of principal components, 9 of the 22 descriptors were eliminated, for being redundant or little variable, suggesting that 10-20 morphological descriptors can be used in studies of characterization of genetic variation.

  4. Enabling Structured Exploration of Workflow Performance Variability in Extreme-Scale Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Stephan, Eric G.; Raju, Bibi; Altintas, Ilkay; Elsethagen, Todd O.; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram

    2015-11-15

    Workflows are taking an Workflows are taking an increasingly important role in orchestrating complex scientific processes in extreme scale and highly heterogeneous environments. However, to date we cannot reliably predict, understand, and optimize workflow performance. Sources of performance variability and in particular the interdependencies of workflow design, execution environment and system architecture are not well understood. While there is a rich portfolio of tools for performance analysis, modeling and prediction for single applications in homogenous computing environments, these are not applicable to workflows, due to the number and heterogeneity of the involved workflow and system components and their strong interdependencies. In this paper, we investigate workflow performance goals and identify factors that could have a relevant impact. Based on our analysis, we propose a new workflow performance provenance ontology, the Open Provenance Model-based WorkFlow Performance Provenance, or OPM-WFPP, that will enable the empirical study of workflow performance characteristics and variability including complex source attribution.

  5. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.

    2017-10-01

    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  6. Relevance of motion-related assessment metrics in laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oropesa, Ignacio; Chmarra, Magdalena K; Sánchez-González, Patricia; Lamata, Pablo; Rodrigues, Sharon P; Enciso, Silvia; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco M; Jansen, Frank-Willem; Dankelman, Jenny; Gómez, Enrique J

    2013-06-01

    Motion metrics have become an important source of information when addressing the assessment of surgical expertise. However, their direct relationship with the different surgical skills has not been fully explored. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relevance of motion-related metrics in the evaluation processes of basic psychomotor laparoscopic skills and their correlation with the different abilities sought to measure. A framework for task definition and metric analysis is proposed. An explorative survey was first conducted with a board of experts to identify metrics to assess basic psychomotor skills. Based on the output of that survey, 3 novel tasks for surgical assessment were designed. Face and construct validation was performed, with focus on motion-related metrics. Tasks were performed by 42 participants (16 novices, 22 residents, and 4 experts). Movements of the laparoscopic instruments were registered with the TrEndo tracking system and analyzed. Time, path length, and depth showed construct validity for all 3 tasks. Motion smoothness and idle time also showed validity for tasks involving bimanual coordination and tasks requiring a more tactical approach, respectively. Additionally, motion smoothness and average speed showed a high internal consistency, proving them to be the most task-independent of all the metrics analyzed. Motion metrics are complementary and valid for assessing basic psychomotor skills, and their relevance depends on the skill being evaluated. A larger clinical implementation, combined with quality performance information, will give more insight on the relevance of the results shown in this study.

  7. Eternity Variables to Simulate Specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, WH; Boiten, EA; Moller, B

    2002-01-01

    Simulation of specifications is introduced as a unification and generalization of refinement mappings, history variables, forward simulations, prophecy variables, and backward simulations. Eternity variables are introduced as a more powerful alternative for prophecy variables and backward

  8. Measuring variability of procedure progression in proceduralized scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yochan; Park, Jinkyun; Jung, Wondea

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The VPP measure was developed to quantify how differently operators follow the procedures. ► Sources that cause variability of ways to follow a given procedure were identified. ► The VPP values for the scenarios are positively related to the scenario performance time. ► The VPP measure is meaningful for explaining characteristics of several PSFs. -- Abstract: Various performance shaping factors (PSFs) have been presented to explain the contributors to unsafe acts in a human failure event or predict a human error probability of new human performance. However, because most of these parameters of an HRA depend on the subjective knowledge and experience of HRA analyzers, the results of an HRA insufficiently provide unbiased standards to explain human performance variations or compare collected data with other data from different analyzers. To secure the validity of the HRA results, we propose a quantitative measure, which represents the variability of procedure progression (VPP) in proceduralized scenarios. A VPP measure shows how differently the operators follow the steps of the procedures. This paper introduces the sources of the VPP measure and relevance to PSFs. The assessment method of the VPP measure is also proposed, and the application examples are shown with a comparison of the performance time. Although more empirical studies should be conducted to reveal the relationship between the VPP measure and other PSFs, it is believed that the VPP measure provides evidence to quantitatively evaluate human performance variations and to cross-culturally compare the collected data.

  9. Hydrochemical simulation of a mountain basin under hydrological variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat, S.; Trewhela, T. A.; Navarro, L.; Navarrete, A.; Lagos Zuniga, M. A.; Garcia, A.; Caraballo, M.; Niño, Y.; McPhee, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    Water quality and the comprehension of hydrochemical phenomena in natural basins should be of complete relevance under hydrological uncertainties. The importance of identifying the main variables that are controlling a natural system and finding a way to predict their behavior under variable scenarios is mandatory to preserve these natural basins. This work presents an interdisciplinary model for the Yerba Loca watershed, a natural reserve basin in the Chilean central Andes. Based on different data sets, provided by public and private campaigns, a natural hydrochemical regime was identified. Yerba Loca is a natural reserve, characterized by the presence of several glaciers and wide sediment deposits crossed by a small low-slope creek in the upper part of the basin that leads to a high-slope narrow channel with less sediment depositions. Most relevant is the geological context around the glaciers, considering that most of them cover hydrothermal zones rich in both sulfides and sulfates, a situation commonly found in the Andes due to volcanic activity. Low pH (around 3), calcium-sulfate water with high concentrations of Iron, Copper and Zinc are found in the upper part of the basin in summer. These values can be attributed to the glaciers melting down and draining of the mentioned country rocks, which provide most of the creek flow in the upper basin. The latter clearly contrasts with the creek outlet, located 18 km downstream, showing near to neutral pH values and lower concentrations of the elements already mentioned. The scope of the present research is to account for the sources of the different hydrological inlets (e.g., rainfall, snow and/or glacier melting) that, depending on their location, may interact with a variety of reactive minerals and generate acid rock drainage (ARD). The inlet water is modeled along the creek using the softwares HEC-RAS and PHREEQC coupled, in order to characterize the water quality and to detect preferred sedimentation sections

  10. [Personal resources relevant to psychological well-being in nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrogante, O; Pérez-García, A M; Aparicio-Zaldívar, E G

    2016-01-01

    To determine differences in social support, resilience, coping, and psychological well-being (PWB) among intensive care nursing and nursing staff of other hospital services, as well as to establish a structural model in these professionals where relevant personal resources to PWB were included. Correlational and cross-sectional study. A sample of 208 nursing professionals from University Hospital of Fuenlabrada (Madrid) took part in the study. This sample consisted of nurses (n=133), nursing assistants (n=61), and midwives (n=14), of whom 44 worked in intensive care unit, 50 in other special units, and 114 in wards. Social Support Subscale, 10-Item CD-RISC (resilience), Brief-Cope (coping), Scales of PWB, and sociodemographic variables. No differences were found in any assessed psychological variables as regards hospital service worked in. A structural model was found and showed that social support, resilience, and coping determined PWB of nursing professionals. The most important personal resource was coping strategies, which determined PWB directly (β=0.68). Social support influenced PWB directly (β=0.33), and indirectly (β=0.32), whereas resilience influenced it indirectly (β=0.57). Differences in PWB, coping, social support and resilience are not determined by hospital service. Coping strategies focused on engagement (or adaptive), social support, and resilience, constitute three relevant personal resources that determine the PWB of nursing staff, which can be developed and improved by specific programs. The most important PWB dimensions are self-acceptance and environment mastery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  11. Tomographic diagnosis and relevant aspects of otosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaiotti, Juliana Oggioni; Gomes, Natalia Delage; Costa, Ana Maria Doffemond; Villela, Caroline Laurita Batista Couto; Moreira, Wanderval; Diniz, Renata Lopes Furletti Caldeira

    2013-01-01

    A literature review and pictorial essay were developed to discuss the importance of knowing the main findings and locations of otosclerosis at multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). The authors performed a retrospective review of cases of otosclerosis diagnosed in their institution by means of high resolution multidetector computed tomography. Otosclerosis corresponds to otic capsule dysplasia characterized by metabolic derangement of its endochondral layer. Such condition constitutes a relevant cause of sensorineural hearing loss, affecting about 7% to 10% of the general population. The diagnosis is usually clinical, but imaging methods play a significant role in the anatomical detailing, differential diagnosis, surgical planning and evaluation of postoperative complications. Among such methods, the relevance of MDCT is highlighted. Radiologists should be familiar with the MDCT findings of otosclerosis, as well as with the temporal bone anatomy to assist in the appropriate clinical management of this disease. (author)

  12. Tomographic diagnosis and relevant aspects of otosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaiotti, Juliana Oggioni; Gomes, Natalia Delage; Costa, Ana Maria Doffemond; Villela, Caroline Laurita Batista Couto; Moreira, Wanderval; Diniz, Renata Lopes Furletti Caldeira, E-mail: jugaiotti@gmail.com [Hospital Mater Dei-Mater Imagem, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    A literature review and pictorial essay were developed to discuss the importance of knowing the main findings and locations of otosclerosis at multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). The authors performed a retrospective review of cases of otosclerosis diagnosed in their institution by means of high resolution multidetector computed tomography. Otosclerosis corresponds to otic capsule dysplasia characterized by metabolic derangement of its endochondral layer. Such condition constitutes a relevant cause of sensorineural hearing loss, affecting about 7% to 10% of the general population. The diagnosis is usually clinical, but imaging methods play a significant role in the anatomical detailing, differential diagnosis, surgical planning and evaluation of postoperative complications. Among such methods, the relevance of MDCT is highlighted. Radiologists should be familiar with the MDCT findings of otosclerosis, as well as with the temporal bone anatomy to assist in the appropriate clinical management of this disease. (author)

  13. EOG feature relevance determination for microsleep detection

    OpenAIRE

    Golz Martin; Wollner Sebastian; Sommer David; Schnieder Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Automatic relevance determination (ARD) was applied to two-channel EOG recordings for microsleep event (MSE) recognition. 10 s immediately before MSE and also before counterexamples of fatigued, but attentive driving were analysed. Two type of signal features were extracted: the maximum cross correlation (MaxCC) and logarithmic power spectral densities (PSD) averaged in spectral bands of 0.5 Hz width ranging between 0 and 8 Hz. Generalised learn-ing vector quantisation (GRLVQ) was used as ARD...

  14. Is QCD relevant to nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, A.W.

    1985-01-01

    A review is given of recent work on baryon structure in a number of QCD-motivated models. After establishing a prima facie case that the quark model should be relevant in a consistent description of the nucleus over a wide range of momentum transfer, the author looks for experimental confirmation. The discussion includes the search for exotic states, for a six quark component of the deuteron, and an up to date report on the interpretation of the EMC effect. (Auth.)

  15. Trade Off Relevance Dan Reliability: Isu Ifrs

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmudah, Hadi

    2013-01-01

    Financial reports containing qualitative characteristic that are useful for usernya.For a long time believed to be the existence of trade off between characteristic of qualitative relevance and reliability. Trade off due to the fact that the use of the method of measurement historical cost and fair value. Trade off occur because of the interests of for the purpose of the preparation of reports on finance. Accountability for the purpose of the measurement of the cost of historical still reliab...

  16. Hydrogen interaction with fusion-relevant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caorlin, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is an outline of the work carried out at JRC Ispra in the Tritium-materials Interaction Laboratory, on the interaction of gaseous hydrogen with several materials of interest in the field of fusion technology. Experimental work is reported and a concise review of relevant theoretical and numerical supporting activity is given as well. A period of about seven years is covered since 1982. Current work and possible future extensions are also briefly mentioned. 11 figs., 18 refs

  17. Nanostructure symmetry: Relevance for physics and computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupertuis, Marc-André; Oberli, D. Y.; Karlsson, K. F.; Dalessi, S.; Gallinet, B.; Svendsen, G.

    2014-01-01

    We review the research done in recent years in our group on the effects of nanostructure symmetry, and outline its relevance both for nanostructure physics and for computations of their electronic and optical properties. The exemples of C3v and C2v quantum dots are used. A number of surprises and non-trivial aspects are outlined, and a few symmetry-based tools for computing and analysis are shortly presented

  18. Nanostructure symmetry: Relevance for physics and computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupertuis, Marc-André; Oberli, D. Y. [Laboratory for Physics of Nanostructure, EPF Lausanne (Switzerland); Karlsson, K. F. [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology (IFM), Linköping University (Sweden); Dalessi, S. [Computational Biology Group, Department of Medical Genetics, University of Lausanne (Switzerland); Gallinet, B. [Nanophotonics and Metrology Laboratory, EPF Lausanne (Switzerland); Svendsen, G. [Dept. of Electronics and Telecom., Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway)

    2014-03-31

    We review the research done in recent years in our group on the effects of nanostructure symmetry, and outline its relevance both for nanostructure physics and for computations of their electronic and optical properties. The exemples of C3v and C2v quantum dots are used. A number of surprises and non-trivial aspects are outlined, and a few symmetry-based tools for computing and analysis are shortly presented.

  19. Variable Attitude Test Stand

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Variable Attitude Test Stand designed and built for testing of the V-22 tilt rotor aircraft propulsion system, is used to evaluate the effect of aircraft flight...

  20. Several complex variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    Topics discussed include the elementary of holomorphic functions of several complex variables; the Weierstrass preparation theorem; meromorphic functions, holomorphic line bundles and divisors; elliptic operators on compact manifolds; hermitian connections; the Hodge decomposition theorem. ( author)

  1. Variable-Rate Premiums

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — These interest rates are used to value vested benefits for variable rate premium purposes as described in PBGC's regulation on Premium Rates (29 CFR Part 4006) and...

  2. Variable Pricing Feasibility Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    ...) and Willard Bishop Consulting (Barrington, IL) to evaluate the practicality of using a variable pricing system within DeCA to maintain an average of 30 percent customer savings and lower appropriated fund costs...

  3. Evolution of variable stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, S.A.

    1986-08-01

    Throughout the domain of the H R diagram lie groupings of stars whose luminosity varies with time. These variable stars can be classified based on their observed properties into distinct types such as β Cephei stars, δ Cephei stars, and Miras, as well as many other categories. The underlying mechanism for the variability is generally felt to be due to four different causes: geometric effects, rotation, eruptive processes, and pulsation. In this review the focus will be on pulsation variables and how the theory of stellar evolution can be used to explain how the various regions of variability on the H R diagram are populated. To this end a generalized discussion of the evolutionary behavior of a massive star, an intermediate mass star, and a low mass star will be presented. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  4. Macroscale hydrologic modeling of ecologically relevant flow metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Seth J.; Luce, Charles H.; Hamlet, Alan F.; Isaak, Daniel J.; Neville, Helen M.

    2010-09-01

    Stream hydrology strongly affects the structure of aquatic communities. Changes to air temperature and precipitation driven by increased greenhouse gas concentrations are shifting timing and volume of streamflows potentially affecting these communities. The variable infiltration capacity (VIC) macroscale hydrologic model has been employed at regional scales to describe and forecast hydrologic changes but has been calibrated and applied mainly to large rivers. An important question is how well VIC runoff simulations serve to answer questions about hydrologic changes in smaller streams, which are important habitat for many fish species. To answer this question, we aggregated gridded VIC outputs within the drainage basins of 55 streamflow gages in the Pacific Northwest United States and compared modeled hydrographs and summary metrics to observations. For most streams, several ecologically relevant aspects of the hydrologic regime were accurately modeled, including center of flow timing, mean annual and summer flows and frequency of winter floods. Frequencies of high and low flows in the summer were not well predicted, however. Predictions were worse for sites with strong groundwater influence, and some sites showed errors that may result from limitations in the forcing climate data. Higher resolution (1/16th degree) modeling provided small improvements over lower resolution (1/8th degree). Despite some limitations, the VIC model appears capable of representing several ecologically relevant hydrologic characteristics in streams, making it a useful tool for understanding the effects of hydrology in delimiting species distributions and predicting the potential effects of climate shifts on aquatic organisms.

  5. Sport science relevance and application: perceptions of UK coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, Russell; Nash, Christine

    2013-01-01

    While sport science can have significant and positive impact on coaches and athletes, there is still a general consensus that the transfer of sport science knowledge to coaching is poor. Given this apparent dilemma, this study investigated the perceptions of sport science from coaches across four different sports (football, rugby league, curling and judo) across three different levels (elite, developmental and novice). Specifically, 58 coaches (19 football; 21 rugby league; 9 curling; 9 judo) drawn evenly from novice, developmental and elite groups agreed to take part and were interviewed. Three key features emerged from the analysis 1) Practical application and relevance 2) Integration and access, 3) Language. In short, there was significant variability in the extent to which sport science was considered relevant and to whom, although interestingly this was not strongly related to coaching level. This inconsistency of understanding was a barrier to sport science engagement in some instances, as was the challenge of operationalising information for specific contexts. Furthermore, availability of opportunities and resources were often left to chance, while overuse of jargon and inability for research and practitioners to consider sport specific needs were also considered barriers to engagement. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  6. Sustainability Reporting and Value Relevance of Financial Statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Sutopo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines whether information about the winners of the Sustainability Reporting Award (SRA contributes to the usefulness of the information in financial statements. This study used a sample consisting of 110 winners of SRA (SRA firms and 110 companies that did not receive SRA (non-SRA firms from 2008 to 2016. The study found that earnings per share (EPS, earnings per share change (EPSC, and book value per share (BVPS are value-relevant information. Results of comparison between SRA firms and non-SRA firms show that the positive association between EPS and stock price (P and the positive association of EPS with stock returns (R for SRA firms are higher than that for the non-SRA firms. In addition, findings of this study indicate that EPSC is positively associated with R when EPSC and R are measured by Indonesian rupiah (IDR instead of by percentage, and the positive association between EPSC and R for the SRA firms is higher than that for the non-SRA firms. Thus, the results are sensitive to measures of the variables. However, this study found that value relevance of BVPS for SRA firms is lower than for non-SRA firms. Implication of this study is that information about the winners of SRA contributes to the usefulness of financial statements, especially the information of EPS and EPSC.

  7. Monochloramine Cometabolism by Nitrifying Biofilm Relevant ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, biological monochloramine removal (i.e., cometabolism) by a pure culture ammonia–oxidizing bacteria, Nitrosomonas europaea, and a nitrifying mixed–culture have been shown to increase monochloramine demand. Although important, these previous suspended culture batch kinetic experiments were not representative of drinking water distribution systems where bacteria grow predominantly as biofilm attached to pipe walls or sediments and physiological differences may exist between suspension and biofilm growth. Therefore, the current research was an important next step in extending the previous results to investigate monochloramine cometabolism by biofilm grown in annular reactors under drinking water relevant conditions. Estimated monochloramine cometabolism kinetics were similar to those of ammonia metabolism, and monochloramine cometabolism was a significant loss mechanism (25–40% of the observed monochloramine loss). These results demonstrated that monochloramine cometabolism occurred in drinking water relevant nitrifying biofilm; thus, cometabolism may be a significant contribution to monochloramine loss during nitrification episodes in distribution systems. Investigate whether or not nitrifying biofilm can biologically transform monochloramine under drinking water relevant conditions.

  8. Selection of relevant dietary indicators for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingrímsdóttir, L; Ovesen, L; Moreiras, O; Jacob, S

    2002-05-01

    To define a set of dietary components that are relevant determinants for health in Europe. The selected components are intended to serve as nutrition indicators for health in the European Health Monitoring Programme and, as such, must be limited in number, relevant to health in Europe and practical for all involved countries with respect to data gathering and comparability of data. Major nutrition factors were determined by reviewing relevant epidemiological and clinical literature in nutrition and health as well as referring to reports from international expert groups, including the report from the project Nutrition and Diet for Healthy Lifestyles in Europe. The selection of factors was also based on the relative ease and cost involved for participating countries to obtain comparable and valid data. The selected factors include foods or food groups as well as individual nutrients. Biomarkers are suggested for selected nutrients that pose the greatest difficulty in obtaining valid and comparable data from dietary studies. The following list of diet indicators for health monitoring in Europe was agreed upon by the EFCOSUM group in 2001, in order of priority: vegetables, fruit, bread, fish, saturated fatty acids as percentage of energy (%E), total fat as %E, and ethanol in grams per day. Biomarkers were suggested for the following nutrients: folate, vitamin D, iron, iodine and sodium. Energy has to be assessed in order to calculate %E from total fat and saturated fatty acids.

  9. The value relevance of environmental emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Lydia Nelwan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines whether environmental performance has value relevance by investigating the relations between environmental emissions and stock prices for the U.S. public companies. The previous studies argued that the conjectured relations between accounting performance measures and environmental performance do not have a strong theoretical basis, and the modeling of relations between market per-formance measures and environmental performance do not adequately consider the relevance of accounting performance to market value. Therefore, this study examines whether publicly reported environmental emissions provide incremental information to accounting earnings in pricing companies stocks. It is done among the complete set of industries covered by Toxics Release Inventory (TRI reporting for the period 2007 to 2010. Using Ohlson model but modified to include different types of emis-sions, it is found that ground emissions (underground injection and land emissions are value relevant but other emission types (air and water and transferred-out emis-sions appear to not provide incremental information in the valuation model. The result in this study raise concerns that different types of emissions are assessed differently by the market, confirming that studies should not aggregate such measures.

  10. EOG feature relevance determination for microsleep detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golz Martin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Automatic relevance determination (ARD was applied to two-channel EOG recordings for microsleep event (MSE recognition. 10 s immediately before MSE and also before counterexamples of fatigued, but attentive driving were analysed. Two type of signal features were extracted: the maximum cross correlation (MaxCC and logarithmic power spectral densities (PSD averaged in spectral bands of 0.5 Hz width ranging between 0 and 8 Hz. Generalised learn-ing vector quantisation (GRLVQ was used as ARD method to show the potential of feature reduction. This is compared to support-vector machines (SVM, in which the feature reduction plays a much smaller role. Cross validation yielded mean normalised relevancies of PSD features in the range of 1.6 – 4.9 % and 1.9 – 10.4 % for horizontal and vertical EOG, respectively. MaxCC relevancies were 0.002 – 0.006 % and 0.002 – 0.06 %, respectively. This shows that PSD features of vertical EOG are indispensable, whereas MaxCC can be neglected. Mean classification accuracies were estimated at 86.6±b 1.3 % and 92.3±b 0.2 % for GRLVQ and SVM, respectively. GRLVQ permits objective feature reduction by inclusion of all processing stages, but is not as accurate as SVM.

  11. EOG feature relevance determination for microsleep detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golz Martin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Automatic relevance determination (ARD was applied to two-channel EOG recordings for microsleep event (MSE recognition. 10 s immediately before MSE and also before counterexamples of fatigued, but attentive driving were analysed. Two type of signal features were extracted: the maximum cross correlation (MaxCC and logarithmic power spectral densities (PSD averaged in spectral bands of 0.5 Hz width ranging between 0 and 8 Hz. Generalised learn-ing vector quantisation (GRLVQ was used as ARD method to show the potential of feature reduction. This is compared to support-vector machines (SVM, in which the feature reduction plays a much smaller role. Cross validation yielded mean normalised relevancies of PSD features in the range of 1.6 - 4.9 % and 1.9 - 10.4 % for horizontal and vertical EOG, respectively. MaxCC relevancies were 0.002 - 0.006 % and 0.002 - 0.06 %, respectively. This shows that PSD features of vertical EOG are indispensable, whereas MaxCC can be neglected. Mean classification accuracies were estimated at 86.6±b 1.3 % and 92.3±b 0.2 % for GRLVQ and SVM, respec-tively. GRLVQ permits objective feature reduction by inclu-sion of all processing stages, but is not as accurate as SVM.

  12. Calculus of one variable

    CERN Document Server

    Grossman, Stanley I

    1986-01-01

    Calculus of One Variable, Second Edition presents the essential topics in the study of the techniques and theorems of calculus.The book provides a comprehensive introduction to calculus. It contains examples, exercises, the history and development of calculus, and various applications. Some of the topics discussed in the text include the concept of limits, one-variable theory, the derivatives of all six trigonometric functions, exponential and logarithmic functions, and infinite series.This textbook is intended for use by college students.

  13. Software Testing Requires Variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    2003-01-01

    Software variability is the ability of a software system or artefact to be changed, customized or configured for use in a particular context. Variability in software systems is important from a number of perspectives. Some perspectives rightly receive much attention due to their direct economic...... impact in software production. As is also apparent from the call for papers these perspectives focus on qualities such as reuse, adaptability, and maintainability....

  14. Suspended graphene variable capacitor

    OpenAIRE

    AbdelGhany, M.; Mahvash, F.; Mukhopadhyay, M.; Favron, A.; Martel, R.; Siaj, M.; Szkopek, T.

    2016-01-01

    The tuning of electrical circuit resonance with a variable capacitor, or varactor, finds wide application with the most important being wireless telecommunication. We demonstrate an electromechanical graphene varactor, a variable capacitor wherein the capacitance is tuned by voltage controlled deflection of a dense array of suspended graphene membranes. The low flexural rigidity of graphene monolayers is exploited to achieve low actuation voltage in an ultra-thin structure. Large arrays compr...

  15. Clinical relevance of pharmacist intervention in an emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Moreno, Maria Antonia; Rodríguez-Camacho, Juan Manuel; Calderón-Hernanz, Beatriz; Comas-Díaz, Bernardino; Tarradas-Torras, Jordi

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the clinical relevance of pharmacist intervention on patient care in emergencies, to determine the severity of detected errors. Second, to analyse the most frequent types of interventions and type of drugs involved and to evaluate the clinical pharmacist's activity. A 6-month observational prospective study of pharmacist intervention in the Emergency Department (ED) at a 400-bed hospital in Spain was performed to record interventions carried out by the clinical pharmacists. We determined whether the intervention occurred in the process of medication reconciliation or another activity, and whether the drug involved belonged to the High-Alert Medications Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) list. To evaluate the severity of the errors detected and clinical relevance of the pharmacist intervention, a modified assessment scale of Overhage and Lukes was used. Relationship between clinical relevance of pharmacist intervention and the severity of medication errors was assessed using ORs and Spearman's correlation coefficient. During the observation period, pharmacists reviewed the pharmacotherapy history and medication orders of 2984 patients. A total of 991 interventions were recorded in 557 patients; 67.2% of the errors were detected during medication reconciliation. Medication errors were considered severe in 57.2% of cases and 64.9% of pharmacist intervention were considered relevant. About 10.9% of the drugs involved are in the High-Alert Medications ISMP list. The severity of the medication error and the clinical significance of the pharmacist intervention were correlated (Spearman's ρ=0.728/pclinical pharmacists identified and intervened on a high number of severe medication errors. This suggests that emergency services will benefit from pharmacist-provided drug therapy services. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. The relevance of pre-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visanji, Naomi; Marras, Connie

    2015-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) has a wide range of non-motor symptoms including; constipation, sleep disturbance, deficits in vision and olfaction, mood disorders and cardiac autonomic dysfunction. Several of these non-motor symptoms can manifest prior to the onset of motor symptoms. Recognizing these pre-motor symptoms may enable early diagnosis of PD. Currently, no single pre-motor symptom is able to predict the development of PD with 100% sensitivity or specificity. Ongoing studies in several independent at-risk cohorts should reveal the potential of combinations of pre-motor symptoms and multi-stage screening strategies to identify individuals at increased risk of PD. PD progression may be governed by a prion-like spread of a-syn throughout the nervous system. Identifying individuals at the earliest stage will likely be critical to preventing the pathological progression of PD, highlighting the relevance of pre-motor symptoms in the future treatment of the disease.

  17. Use of Photogrammetry and Biomechanical Gait analysis to Identify Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter Kastmand; Simonsen, Erik Bruun; Lynnerup, Niels

    Photogrammetry and recognition of gait patterns are valuable tools to help identify perpetrators based on surveillance recordings. We have found that stature but only few other measures have a satisfying reproducibility for use in forensics. Several gait variables with high recognition rates were...... found. Especially the variables located in the frontal plane are interesting due to large inter-individual differences in time course patterns. The variables with high recognition rates seem preferable for use in forensic gait analysis and as input variables to waveform analysis techniques...

  18. Brown Dwarf Variability: What's Varying and Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Mark Scott

    2014-01-01

    Surveys by ground based telescopes, HST, and Spitzer have revealed that brown dwarfs of most spectral classes exhibit variability. The spectral and temporal signatures of the variability are complex and apparently defy simplistic classification which complicates efforts to model the changes. Important questions include understanding if clearings are forming in an otherwise uniform cloud deck or if thermal perturbations, perhaps associated with breaking gravity waves, are responsible. If clouds are responsible how long does it take for the atmospheric thermal profile to relax from a hot cloudy to a cooler cloudless state? If thermal perturbations are responsible then what atmospheric layers are varying? How do the observed variability timescales compare to atmospheric radiative, chemical, and dynamical timescales? I will address such questions by presenting modeling results for time-varying partly cloudy atmospheres and explore the importance of various atmospheric processes over the relevant timescales for brown dwarfs of a range of effective temperatures. Regardless of the origin of the observed variability, the complexity seen in the atmospheres of the field dwarfs hints at the variability that we may encounter in the next few years in directly imaged young Jupiters. Thus understanding the nature of variability in the field dwarfs, including sensitivity to gravity and metallicity, is of particular importance for exoplanet characterization.

  19. Climate variability and change

    CERN Document Server

    Grassl, H

    1998-01-01

    Many factors influence climate. The present knowledge concerning the climate relevance of earth orbital parameters, solar luminosity, volcanoes, internal interactions, and human activities will be reported as well as the vulnerability of emission scenarios for given stabilization goals for greenhouse gas concentrations and the main points of the Kyoto Protocol

  20. Relevance of Discrecionary Accruals in Ohlson Model: the Case of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Durán-Vázquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study applied the modified Jones´ model (1991 for selected companies of Mexico. This model aims to assess the impact of Discretionary Accrual Information (DAI on financial reporting statements, in order to identify the value relevance of “earnings quality”. We applied methodological criteria of Chung et al (2005 and Mukit & Iskandar (2009. We analyzed financial information of the 35 stock included in the Index of Prices and Quotations (IPC of the Mexican Stock Exchange (BMV for the period 2000 to 2011. 19 companies met the specifications of the model, for 48 quarters of information. The analysis was done in three parts: first, an analysis of the modified Jones´ model under panel data considerations by using fixed effects and adjustments of performing autocorrelation of order 1; second, a correlation analysis between the residuals of the modified Jones´ model and the return of stock price in 3 annual closings years of study: 2007, 2008 and 2009; and third, we incorporated this variable (DAI in the Ohlson model (of the financial and corporate accounting literature and we tested it with panel data analysis, under fixed effects, throughout the study period.

  1. Microdiversity of an Abundant Terrestrial Bacterium Encompasses Extensive Variation in Ecologically Relevant Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander B. Chase

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Much genetic diversity within a bacterial community is likely obscured by microdiversity within operational taxonomic units (OTUs defined by 16S rRNA gene sequences. However, it is unclear how variation within this microdiversity influences ecologically relevant traits. Here, we employ a multifaceted approach to investigate microdiversity within the dominant leaf litter bacterium, Curtobacterium, which comprises 7.8% of the bacterial community at a grassland site undergoing global change manipulations. We use cultured bacterial isolates to interpret metagenomic data, collected in situ over 2 years, together with lab-based physiological assays to determine the extent of trait variation within this abundant OTU. The response of Curtobacterium to seasonal variability and the global change manipulations, specifically an increase in relative abundance under decreased water availability, appeared to be conserved across six Curtobacterium lineages identified at this site. Genomic and physiological analyses in the lab revealed that degradation of abundant polymeric carbohydrates within leaf litter, cellulose and xylan, is nearly universal across the genus, which may contribute to its high abundance in grassland leaf litter. However, the degree of carbohydrate utilization and temperature preference for this degradation varied greatly among clades. Overall, we find that traits within Curtobacterium are conserved at different phylogenetic depths. We speculate that similar to bacteria in marine systems, diverse microbes within this taxon may be structured in distinct ecotypes that are key to understanding Curtobacterium abundance and distribution in the environment.

  2. Looking for a relevant potential evapotranspiration model at the watershed scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudin, L.; Hervieu, F.; Michel, C.; Perrin, C.; Anctil, F.; Andréassian, V.

    2003-04-01

    In this paper, we try to identify the most relevant approach to calculate Potential Evapotranspiration (PET) for use in a daily watershed model, to try to bring an answer to the following question: "how can we use commonly available atmospheric parameters to represent the evaporative demand at the catchment scale?". Hydrologists generally see the Penman model as the ideal model regarding to its good adequacy with lysimeter measurements and its physically-based formulation. However, in real-world engineering situations, where meteorological stations are scarce, hydrologists are often constrained to use other PET formulae with less data requirements or/and long-term average of PET values (the rationale being that PET is an inherently conservative variable). We chose to test 28 commonly used PET models coupled with 4 different daily watershed models. For each test, we compare both PET input options: actual data and long-term average data. The comparison is made in terms of streamflow simulation efficiency, over a large sample of 308 watersheds. The watersheds are located in France, Australia and the United States of America and represent varied climates. Strikingly, we find no systematic improvements of the watershed model efficiencies when using actual PET series instead of long-term averages. This suggests either that watershed models may not conveniently use the climatic information contained in PET values or that formulae are only awkward indicators of the real PET which watershed models need.

  3. Strength and fatigability of selected muscles in upper limb: assessing muscle imbalance relevant to tennis elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadehkhaiyat, O; Fisher, A C; Kemp, G J; Frostick, S P

    2007-08-01

    The aetiology of tennis elbow has remained uncertain for more than a century. To examine muscle imbalance as a possible pathophysiological factor requires a reliable method of assessment. This paper describes the development of such a method and its performance in healthy subjects. We propose a combination of surface and fine-wire EMG of shoulder and forearm muscles and wrist strength measurements as a reliable tool for assessing muscle imbalance relevant to the pathophysiology of tennis elbow. Six healthy volunteers participated. EMG data were acquired at 50% maximal voluntary isometric contraction from five forearm muscles during grip and three shoulder muscles during external rotation and abduction, and analysed using normalized median frequency slope as a fatigue index. Wrist extension/flexion strength was measured using a purpose-built dynamometer. Significant negative slope of median frequency was found for all muscles, with good reproducibility, and no significant difference in slope between the different muscles of the shoulder and the wrist. (Amplitude slope showed high variability and was therefore unsuitable for this purpose.) Wrist flexion was 27+/-8% stronger than extension (mean+/-SEM, p=0.006). This is a reliable method for measuring muscle fatigue in forearm and shoulder. EMG and wrist strength studies together can be used for assessing and identifying the muscle balance in the wrist-forearm-shoulder chain.

  4. The relevance of ''theory rich'' bridge assumptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindenberg, S

    1996-01-01

    Actor models are increasingly being used as a form of theory building in sociology because they can better represent the caul mechanisms that connect macro variables. However, actor models need additional assumptions, especially so-called bridge assumptions, for filling in the relatively empty

  5. Molecular Classification Substitutes for the Prognostic Variables Stage, Age, and MYCN Status in Neuroblastoma Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Rosswog

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current risk stratification systems for neuroblastoma patients consider clinical, histopathological, and genetic variables, and additional prognostic markers have been proposed in recent years. We here sought to select highly informative covariates in a multistep strategy based on consecutive Cox regression models, resulting in a risk score that integrates hazard ratios of prognostic variables. METHODS: A cohort of 695 neuroblastoma patients was divided into a discovery set (n = 75 for multigene predictor generation, a training set (n = 411 for risk score development, and a validation set (n = 209. Relevant prognostic variables were identified by stepwise multivariable L1-penalized least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO Cox regression, followed by backward selection in multivariable Cox regression, and then integrated into a novel risk score. RESULTS: The variables stage, age, MYCN status, and two multigene predictors, NB-th24 and NB-th44, were selected as independent prognostic markers by LASSO Cox regression analysis. Following backward selection, only the multigene predictors were retained in the final model. Integration of these classifiers in a risk scoring system distinguished three patient subgroups that differed substantially in their outcome. The scoring system discriminated patients with diverging outcome in the validation cohort (5-year event-free survival, 84.9 ± 3.4 vs 63.6 ± 14.5 vs 31.0 ± 5.4; P < .001, and its prognostic value was validated by multivariable analysis. CONCLUSION: We here propose a translational strategy for developing risk assessment systems based on hazard ratios of relevant prognostic variables. Our final neuroblastoma risk score comprised two multigene predictors only, supporting the notion that molecular properties of the tumor cells strongly impact clinical courses of neuroblastoma patients.

  6. Molecular Classification Substitutes for the Prognostic Variables Stage, Age, and MYCN Status in Neuroblastoma Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosswog, Carolina; Schmidt, Rene; Oberthuer, André; Juraeva, Dilafruz; Brors, Benedikt; Engesser, Anne; Kahlert, Yvonne; Volland, Ruth; Bartenhagen, Christoph; Simon, Thorsten; Berthold, Frank; Hero, Barbara; Faldum, Andreas; Fischer, Matthias

    2017-12-01

    Current risk stratification systems for neuroblastoma patients consider clinical, histopathological, and genetic variables, and additional prognostic markers have been proposed in recent years. We here sought to select highly informative covariates in a multistep strategy based on consecutive Cox regression models, resulting in a risk score that integrates hazard ratios of prognostic variables. A cohort of 695 neuroblastoma patients was divided into a discovery set (n=75) for multigene predictor generation, a training set (n=411) for risk score development, and a validation set (n=209). Relevant prognostic variables were identified by stepwise multivariable L1-penalized least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) Cox regression, followed by backward selection in multivariable Cox regression, and then integrated into a novel risk score. The variables stage, age, MYCN status, and two multigene predictors, NB-th24 and NB-th44, were selected as independent prognostic markers by LASSO Cox regression analysis. Following backward selection, only the multigene predictors were retained in the final model. Integration of these classifiers in a risk scoring system distinguished three patient subgroups that differed substantially in their outcome. The scoring system discriminated patients with diverging outcome in the validation cohort (5-year event-free survival, 84.9±3.4 vs 63.6±14.5 vs 31.0±5.4; P<.001), and its prognostic value was validated by multivariable analysis. We here propose a translational strategy for developing risk assessment systems based on hazard ratios of relevant prognostic variables. Our final neuroblastoma risk score comprised two multigene predictors only, supporting the notion that molecular properties of the tumor cells strongly impact clinical courses of neuroblastoma patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Millijansky radio variability in SDSS stripe 82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, J. A.; Becker, R. H. [University of California, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); White, R. L. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Richards, G. T., E-mail: hodge@mpia.de [Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    We report on a blind survey for extragalactic radio variability that was carried out by comparing two epochs of data from the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty centimeters survey with a third epoch from a new 1.4 GHz survey of SDSS Stripe 82. The three epochs are spaced seven years apart and have an overlapping area of 60 deg{sup 2}. We uncover 89 variable sources down to the millijansky level, 75 of which are newly identified, and we find no evidence for transient phenomena. This new sample of variable sources allows us to infer an upper limit to the mean characteristic timescale of active galactic nucleus radio variability of 14 yr. We find that only 1% of extragalactic sources have fractional variability f {sub var} > 3, while 44% of Galactic sources vary by this much. The variable sample contains a larger fraction of quasars than a comparable non-variable control sample, though the majority of the variable sources appear to be extended galaxies in the optical. This implies that either quasars are not the dominant contributor to the variability of the sample, or that the deep optical data allow us to detect the host galaxies of some low-z quasars. We use the new, higher resolution data to report on the morphology of the variable sources. Finally, we show that the fraction of sources that are variable remains constant or increases at low flux densities. This may imply that next generation radio surveys with telescopes like Australian Square Kilometer Array Pathfinder and MeerKAT will see a constant or even increasing fraction of variable sources down into the sub-millijansky regime.

  8. Whole-genome sequencing identifies recurrent mutations in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, Xose S.; Pinyol, Magda; Quesada, Víctor; Conde, Laura; Ordóñez, Gonzalo R.; Villamor, Neus; Escaramis, Georgia; Jares, Pedro; Beà, Sílvia; González-Díaz, Marcos; Bassaganyas, Laia; Baumann, Tycho; Juan, Manel; López-Guerra, Mónica; Colomer, Dolors; Tubío, José M. C.; López, Cristina; Navarro, Alba; Tornador, Cristian; Aymerich, Marta; Rozman, María; Hernández, Jesús M.; Puente, Diana A.; Freije, José M. P.; Velasco, Gloria; Gutiérrez-Fernández, Ana; Costa, Dolors; Carrió, Anna; Guijarro, Sara; Enjuanes, Anna; Hernández, Lluís; Yagüe, Jordi; Nicolás, Pilar; Romeo-Casabona, Carlos M.; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Castillo, Ester; Dohm, Juliane C.; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Piris, Miguel A.; de Alava, Enrique; Miguel, Jesús San; Royo, Romina; Gelpí, Josep L.; Torrents, David; Orozco, Modesto; Pisano, David G.; Valencia, Alfonso; Guigó, Roderic; Bayés, Mónica; Heath, Simon; Gut, Marta; Klatt, Peter; Marshall, John; Raine, Keiran; Stebbings, Lucy A.; Futreal, P. Andrew; Stratton, Michael R.; Campbell, Peter J.; Gut, Ivo; López-Guillermo, Armando; Estivill, Xavier; Montserrat, Emili; López-Otín, Carlos; Campo, Elías

    2012-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), the most frequent leukaemia in adults in Western countries, is a heterogeneous disease with variable clinical presentation and evolution1,2. Two major molecular subtypes can be distinguished, characterized respectively by a high or low number of somatic hypermutations in the variable region of immunoglobulin genes3,4. The molecular changes leading to the pathogenesis of the disease are still poorly understood. Here we performed whole-genome sequencing of four cases of CLL and identified 46 somatic mutations that potentially affect gene function. Further analysis of these mutations in 363 patients with CLL identified four genes that are recurrently mutated: notch 1 (NOTCH1), exportin 1 (XPO1), myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MYD88) and kelch-like 6 (KLHL6). Mutations in MYD88 and KLHL6 are predominant in cases of CLL with mutated immunoglobulin genes, whereas NOTCH1 and XPO1 mutations are mainly detected in patients with unmutated immunoglobulins. The patterns of somatic mutation, supported by functional and clinical analyses, strongly indicate that the recurrent NOTCH1, MYD88 and XPO1 mutations are oncogenic changes that contribute to the clinical evolution of the disease. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive analysis of CLL combining whole-genome sequencing with clinical characteristics and clinical outcomes. It highlights the usefulness of this approach for the identification of clinically relevant mutations in cancer. PMID:21642962

  9. Identifying factors which enhance capacity to engage in clinical education among podiatry practitioners: an action research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abey, Sally; Lea, Susan; Callaghan, Lynne; Shaw, Steve; Cotton, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Health profession students develop practical skills whilst integrating theory with practice in a real world environment as an important component of their training. Research in the area of practice placements has identified challenges and barriers to the delivery of effective placement learning. However, there has been little research in podiatry and the question of which factors impact upon clinical educators' capacity to engage with the role remains an under-researched area. This paper presents the second phase of an action research project designed to determine the factors that impact upon clinical educators' capacity to engage with the mentorship role. An online survey was developed and podiatry clinical educators recruited through National Health Service (NHS) Trusts. The survey included socio-demographic items, and questions relating to the factors identified as possible variables influencing clinical educator capacity; the latter was assessed using the 'Clinical Educator Capacity to Engage' scale (CECE). Descriptive statistics were used to explore demographic data whilst the relationship between the CECE and socio-demographic factors were examined using inferential statistics in relation to academic profile, career profile and organisation of the placement. The survey response rate was 42 % (n = 66). Multiple linear regression identified four independent variables which explain a significant proportion of the variability of the dependent variable, 'capacity to engage with clinical education', with an adjusted R2 of 0.428. The four variables were: protected mentorship time, clinical educator relationship with university, sign-off responsibility, and volunteer status. The identification of factors that impact upon clinical educators' capacity to engage in mentoring of students has relevance for strategic planning and policy-making with the emphasis upon capacity-building at an individual level, so that the key attitudes and characteristics that are linked

  10. Essential ocean variables for global sustained observations of biodiversity and ecosystem changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloslavich, Patricia; Bax, Nicholas J; Simmons, Samantha E; Klein, Eduardo; Appeltans, Ward; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Andersen Garcia, Melissa; Batten, Sonia D; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Checkley, David M; Chiba, Sanae; Duffy, J Emmett; Dunn, Daniel C; Fischer, Albert; Gunn, John; Kudela, Raphael; Marsac, Francis; Muller-Karger, Frank E; Obura, David; Shin, Yunne-Jai

    2018-04-05

    Sustained observations of marine biodiversity and ecosystems focused on specific conservation and management problems are needed around the world to effectively mitigate or manage changes resulting from anthropogenic pressures. These observations, while complex and expensive, are required by the international scientific, governance and policy communities to provide baselines against which the effects of human pressures and climate change may be measured and reported, and resources allocated to implement solutions. To identify biological and ecological essential ocean variables (EOVs) for implementation within a global ocean observing system that is relevant for science, informs society, and technologically feasible, we used a driver-pressure-state-impact-response (DPSIR) model. We (1) examined relevant international agreements to identify societal drivers and pressures on marine resources and ecosystems, (2) evaluated the temporal and spatial scales of variables measured by 100+ observing programs, and (3) analysed the impact and scalability of these variables and how they contribute to address societal and scientific issues. EOVs were related to the status of ecosystem components (phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass and diversity, and abundance and distribution of fish, marine turtles, birds and mammals), and to the extent and health of ecosystems (cover and composition of hard coral, seagrass, mangrove and macroalgal canopy). Benthic invertebrate abundance and distribution and microbe diversity and biomass were identified as emerging EOVs to be developed based on emerging requirements and new technologies. The temporal scale at which any shifts in biological systems will be detected will vary across the EOVs, the properties being monitored and the length of the existing time-series. Global implementation to deliver useful products will require collaboration of the scientific and policy sectors and a significant commitment to improve human and infrastructure

  11. Variables influencing the frictional behaviour of in vivo human skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veijgen, N.K.; Masen, Marc Arthur; van der Heide, Emile

    2013-01-01

    In the past decades, skin friction research has focused on determining which variables are important to affect the frictional behaviour of in vivo human skin. Until now, there is still limited knowledge on these variables. This study has used a large dataset to identify the effect of variables on

  12. Variables influencing the frictional behaviour of in vivo human skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veijgen, N.K.; Masen, M.A.; Heide, E. van der

    2013-01-01

    In the past decades, skin friction research has focused on determining which variables are important to affect the frictional behaviour of in vivo human skin. Until now, there is still limited knowledge on these variables.This study has used a large dataset to identify the effect of variables on the

  13. The impact of positive, negative and topical relevance feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, Rianne; Kamps, Jaap; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2008-01-01

    This document contains a description of experiments for the 2008 Relevance Feedback track. We experiment with different amounts of feedback, including negative relevance feedback. Feedback is implemented using massive weighted query expansion. Parsimonious query expansion using only relevant

  14. Sentinel lymph node biopsy: clinical relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howman-Giles, R.

    2002-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has become an important technique in the management of patients with intermediate level melanoma, clinical operable breast cancer and some other cancers. The technique relies on lymphatic mapping to define the lymph drainage from a primary tumour with the premise that the lymph nodes, which directly drain from that area, will reflect the tumour status of the remainder of the node field. Current techniques use lymphoscintigraphy where a radioactive labelled particle and / or blue dye are injected intradermally or intraparenchymally to map the lymph drainage, often in conjunction with a radioactive gamma probe at surgery. In patients with melanoma the SLNB has improved the staging and prognostic information by more accurate determination of whether regional lymph nodes have metastatic spread. This has a major impact on patient management as those patients with negative nodes do not require regional lymph node dissection and have a significantly better prognosis. In our experience of over 3000 patients the combined sentinel node biopsy technique localised accurately 98% of sentinel lymph nodes. Lymphoscintigraphy in patients with melanoma to locate the sentinel lymph nodes involves the intradermal injection of a radiocolloid around the melanoma site or the excision biopsy site. Injections of 5 -10 MBq in 0.05-0.1ml/inj are used and typically 4 injections are usually required. Following tracer injection dynamic imaging is performed to follow the lymphatic collecting vessels until they reach the draining sentinel nodes. An image should be acquired as the vessels reach the node field so that the sentinel nodes directly receiving the channels can be identified and distinguished from any second tier nodes which may sometimes be seen. Delayed scans are performed 2 hours later at which time all regions which can possible drain the primary melanoma site are examined with 5-10 minute static images. The surface location of all sentinel nodes is

  15. Two subgroups of antipsychotic-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients identified with a Gaussian mixture model on cognition and electrophysiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, N.; Ebdrup, B.H.; Oranje, B

    2017-01-01

    Deficits in information processing and cognition are among the most robust findings in schizophrenia patients. Previous efforts to translate group-level deficits into clinically relevant and individualized information have, however, been non-successful, which is possibly explained by biologically...... and sixty-five healthy controls underwent extensive electrophysiological and neurocognitive test batteries. Patients were assessed on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) before and after 6 weeks of monotherapy with the relatively selective D2 receptor antagonist, amisulpride (280.3±159 mg per...... day). A reduced principal component space based on 19 electrophysiological variables and 26 cognitive variables was used as input for a Gaussian mixture model to identify subgroups of patients. With support vector machines, we explored the relation between PANSS subscores and the identified subgroups...

  16. Variables associated with active spondylolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Chris D; Dean, Sarah; Schneiders, Anthony G

    2009-11-01

    Retrospective non-experimental study. To investigate variables associated with active spondylolysis. A retrospective study audited clinical data over a two year period from patients with suspected spondylolysis that were referred for a SPECT bone scan. Six exploratory variables were identified and analysed using uni- and multi-variate regression from 82 patient records to determine the association between symptomatic, physical and demographic characteristics, and the presence of an active spondylolysis. Tertiary level multidisciplinary private practice sports medicine clinic. All patients with low back pain that required a SPECT bone scan to confirm suspected spondylolysis. 82 subjects were included in the final sample group. The six exploratory variables included Age, Gender, Injury duration, Injury onset, Sports participation and the result of the Single Leg Hyperextension Test. The dependent outcome variable was the result of the SPECT bone scan (scan-positive or scan-negative). Adolescent males had a higher incidence of spondylolysis detected by SPECT bone scan compared to other patients and a statistically significant association was demonstrated for both age (p=0.01) and gender (p=0.01). Subjects with an active spondylolysis were nearly five times more likely to be male and aged less than 20 years. Furthermore, the likelihood ratio indicated that adolescent males with suspected spondylolysis were three and a half times more likely to have a positive bone scan result. The Single Leg Hyperextension Test did not demonstrate a statistically significant association with spondylolysis (p=0.47). Clinicians assessing for a predisposition to the development of spondylolysis should consider the gender and age of the patient and not rely on the predictive ability of the Single Leg Hyperextension Test.

  17. Identifying PHM market and network opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, Mark E; Krishnaswamy, Anand; Poziemski, John; York, Robert W

    2015-11-01

    Two key processes for healthcare organizations seeking to assume a financially sustainable role in population health management (PHM), after laying the groundwork for the effort, are to identify potential PHM market opportunities and determine the scope of the PHM network. Key variables organizations should consider with respect to market opportunities include the patient population, the overall insurance/employer market, and available types of insurance products. Regarding the network's scope, organizations should consider both traditional strategic criteria for a viable network and at least five additional criteria: network essentiality and PHM care continuum, network adequacy, service distribution right-sizing, network growth strategy, and organizational agility.

  18. Happiness: origins, forms, and technical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Salman

    2010-09-01

    By critically reviewing Freud's views on happiness, and also those of Helene Deutsch, Bertram Lewin, Melanie Klein, and Heinz Kohut, the author evolves a complex and multilayered perspective on the phenomenon. He categorizes happiness into four related and occasionally overlapping varieties: pleasure-based happiness (elation), assertion-based happiness (joy), merger-based happiness (ecstasy), and fulfillment-based happiness (contentment). After entering some caveats and drawing from his clinical experience, the author then demonstrates the relevance of these ideas to the conduct of psychotherapy and psychoanalysis.

  19. Relevance of physics to the pharmacy major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Richard P

    2007-08-15

    To offer a physics course that is relevant to pharmacy students, yet still contains many of the fundamental principles of physics. The course was modified over a period of several years to include activities and examples that were related to other courses in the curriculum. Course evaluations were given to assess student attitudes about the importance of physics in the pharmacy curriculum. Students' attitudes have changed over time to appreciate the role that physics plays in their studies. Students gained confidence in their ability to learn in other courses.

  20. Pulsating red variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitelock, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    The observational characteristics of pulsating red variables are reviewed with particular emphasis on the Miras. These variables represent the last stage in the evolution of stars on the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB). A large fraction of the IRAS sources in the Bulge are Mira variables and a subset of these are also OH/IR sources. Their periods range up to 720 days, though most are between 360 and 560 days. At a given period those stars with the highest pulsation amplitudes have the highest mass-loss rates; this is interpreted as evidence for a causal connection between mass-loss and pulsation. It is suggested that once an AGB star has become a Mira it will evolve with increasing pulsation amplitude and mass-loss, but with very little change of luminosity or logarithmic period. 26 refs

  1. Variable stator radial turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogo, C.; Hajek, T.; Chen, A. G.

    1984-01-01

    A radial turbine stage with a variable area nozzle was investigated. A high work capacity turbine design with a known high performance base was modified to accept a fixed vane stagger angle moveable sidewall nozzle. The nozzle area was varied by moving the forward and rearward sidewalls. Diffusing and accelerating rotor inlet ramps were evaluated in combinations with hub and shroud rotor exit rings. Performance of contoured sidewalls and the location of the sidewall split line with respect to the rotor inlet was compared to the baseline. Performance and rotor exit survey data are presented for 31 different geometries. Detail survey data at the nozzle exit are given in contour plot format for five configurations. A data base is provided for a variable geometry concept that is a viable alternative to the more common pivoted vane variable geometry radial turbine.

  2. Variability in clinical data is often more useful than the mean: illustration of concept and simple methods of assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwinderman, A. H.; Cleophas, T. J.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical investigators, although they are generally familiar with testing differences between averages, have difficulty testing differences between variabilities. OBJECTIVE: To give examples of situations where variability is more relevant than averages and to describe simple methods for

  3. Solar Variability Magnitudes and Timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Greg

    2015-08-01

    The Sun’s net radiative output varies on timescales of minutes to many millennia. The former are directly observed as part of the on-going 37-year long total solar irradiance climate data record, while the latter are inferred from solar proxy and stellar evolution models. Since the Sun provides nearly all the energy driving the Earth’s climate system, changes in the sunlight reaching our planet can have - and have had - significant impacts on life and civilizations.Total solar irradiance has been measured from space since 1978 by a series of overlapping instruments. These have shown changes in the spatially- and spectrally-integrated radiant energy at the top of the Earth’s atmosphere from timescales as short as minutes to as long as a solar cycle. The Sun’s ~0.01% variations over a few minutes are caused by the superposition of convection and oscillations, and even occasionally by a large flare. Over days to weeks, changing surface activity affects solar brightness at the ~0.1% level. The 11-year solar cycle has comparable irradiance variations with peaks near solar maxima.Secular variations are harder to discern, being limited by instrument stability and the relatively short duration of the space-borne record. Proxy models of the Sun based on cosmogenic isotope records and inferred from Earth climate signatures indicate solar brightness changes over decades to millennia, although the magnitude of these variations depends on many assumptions. Stellar evolution affects yet longer timescales and is responsible for the greatest solar variabilities.In this talk I will summarize the Sun’s variability magnitudes over different temporal ranges, showing examples relevant for climate studies as well as detections of exo-solar planets transiting Sun-like stars.

  4. Measuring individual work performance: identifying and selecting indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, Linda; Bernaards, Claire M; Hildebrandt, Vincent H; de Vet, Henrica C W; van der Beek, Allard J

    2014-01-01

    Theoretically, individual work performance (IWP) can be divided into four dimensions: task performance, contextual performance, adaptive performance, and counterproductive work behavior. However, there is no consensus on the indicators used to measure these dimensions. This study was designed to (1) identify indicators for each dimension, (2) select the most relevant indicators, and (3) determine the relative weight of each dimension in ratings of work performance. IWP indicators were identified from multiple research disciplines, via literature, existing questionnaires, and expert interviews. Subsequently, experts selected the most relevant indicators per dimension and scored the relative weight of each dimension in ratings of IWP. In total, 128 unique indicators were identified. Twenty-three of these indicators were selected by experts as most relevant for measuring IWP. Task performance determined 36% of the work performance rating, while the other three dimensions respectively determined 22%, 20% and 21% of the rating. Notable consensus was found on relevant indicators of IWP, reducing the number from 128 to 23 relevant indicators. This provides an important step towards the development of a standardized, generic and short measurement instrument for assessing IWP.

  5. The WFCAM multiwavelength Variable Star Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira Lopes, C. E.; Dékány, I.; Catelan, M.; Cross, N. J. G.; Angeloni, R.; Leão, I. C.; De Medeiros, J. R.

    2015-01-01

    34 are probably new field RR Lyrae, and 3 are likely Cepheids. We also identify 32 highly reddened variable objects close to previously known dark nebulae, suggesting that these are embedded young stellar objects. We publish our results and all light curve data as the WFCAM Variable Star Catalog. Tables 4-6 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/573/A100

  6. Coupled variable selection for regression modeling of complex treatment patterns in a clinical cancer registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtmann, I; Elsäßer, A; Weinmann, A; Binder, H

    2014-12-30

    For determining a manageable set of covariates potentially influential with respect to a time-to-event endpoint, Cox proportional hazards models can be combined with variable selection techniques, such as stepwise forward selection or backward elimination based on p-values, or regularized regression techniques such as component-wise boosting. Cox regression models have also been adapted for dealing with more complex event patterns, for example, for competing risks settings with separate, cause-specific hazard models for each event type, or for determining the prognostic effect pattern of a variable over different landmark times, with one conditional survival model for each landmark. Motivated by a clinical cancer registry application, where complex event patterns have to be dealt with and variable selection is needed at the same time, we propose a general approach for linking variable selection between several Cox models. Specifically, we combine score statistics for each covariate across models by Fisher's method as a basis for variable selection. This principle is implemented for a stepwise forward selection approach as well as for a regularized regression technique. In an application to data from hepatocellular carcinoma patients, the coupled stepwise approach is seen to facilitate joint interpretation of the different cause-specific Cox models. In conditional survival models at landmark times, which address updates of prediction as time progresses and both treatment and other potential explanatory variables may change, the coupled regularized regression approach identifies potentially important, stably selected covariates together with their effect time pattern, despite having only a small number of events. These results highlight the promise of the proposed approach for coupling variable selection between Cox models, which is particularly relevant for modeling for clinical cancer registries with their complex event patterns. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons

  7. Explanatory Variables Associated with Campylobacter and Escherichia coli Concentrations on Broiler Chicken Carcasses during Processing in Two Slaughterhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacholewicz, Ewa; Swart, Arno; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Lipman, Len J A; Havelaar, Arie H

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed at identifying explanatory variables that were associated with Campylobacter and Escherichia coli concentrations throughout processing in two commercial broiler slaughterhouses. Quantative data on Campylobacter and E. coli along the processing line were collected. Moreover, information on batch characteristics, slaughterhouse practices, process performance, and environmental variables was collected through questionnaires, observations, and measurements, resulting in data on 19 potential explanatory variables. Analysis was conducted separately in each slaughterhouse to identify which variables were related to changes in concentrations of Campylobacter and E. coli during the processing steps: scalding, defeathering, evisceration, and chilling. Associations with explanatory variables were different in the slaughterhouses studied. In the first slaughterhouse, there was only one significant association: poorer uniformity of the weight of carcasses within a batch with less decrease in E. coli concentrations after defeathering. In the second slaughterhouse, significant statistical associations were found with variables, including age, uniformity, average weight of carcasses, Campylobacter concentrations in excreta and ceca, and E. coli concentrations in excreta. Bacterial concentrations in excreta and ceca were found to be the most prominent variables, because they were associated with concentration on carcasses at various processing points. Although the slaughterhouses produced specific products and had different batch characteristics and processing parameters, the effect of the significant variables was not always the same for each slaughterhouse. Therefore, each slaughterhouse needs to determine its particular relevant measures for hygiene control and process management. This identification could be supported by monitoring changes in bacterial concentrations during processing in individual slaughterhouses. In addition, the possibility that management

  8. Safety relevant failure mechanisms in the post-operational phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, Gerhard; Stiller, Jan Christopher; Roemer, Sarah

    2017-03-01

    When the 13"t"h amendment of the Atomic Energy Act came into force, eight Germ an nuclear power plant units had their power operating licences revoked and are now in the so-called post operation phase. Of the remaining nuclear power plants, one have by now also entered the post operation phase, with those left in operation bound for entering this phase sometime between now and the end of 2022. Therefore, failure mechanisms that are particularly relevant for post operation were to be identified and described in the frame of the present project. To do so, three major steps were taken: Firstly, recent national and international pertinent literature was evaluated to obtain indications of failure mechanisms in the post operation phase. It turned out that most of the national and international literature deals with the general procedure of the transition from power operation to decommissioning and dismantling. However, there were also some documents providing detailed indications of possible failure mechanisms in post operation. This includes e.g. the release of radioactive materials caused by the drop of containers, chemical impacts on systems important to safety in connection with decontamination work, and corrosion in connection with the storage of the core in the spent fuel pool, with the latter leading to the jamming of the fuel assemblies in the storage racks and a possible reduction of coolant circulation. In a second step, three safety analyses of pressurised water reactors prepared by the respective plant operators were evaluated to identify failure mechanisms based on systems engineering. The failure mechanisms that were found here include e.g. faults in the boric acid concentration of the reactor coolant, damage to the equipment airlock upon the unloading of Castor casks, leakages in connection with primary system decontamination, and the drop of packages holding radioactive residual materials or waste with subsequent mobilisation of radioactive aerosols

  9. Internal variables in thermoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Berezovski, Arkadi

    2017-01-01

    This book describes an effective method for modeling advanced materials like polymers, composite materials and biomaterials, which are, as a rule, inhomogeneous. The thermoelastic theory with internal variables presented here provides a general framework for predicting a material’s reaction to external loading. The basic physical principles provide the primary theoretical information, including the evolution equations of the internal variables. The cornerstones of this framework are the material representation of continuum mechanics, a weak nonlocality, a non-zero extra entropy flux, and a consecutive employment of the dissipation inequality. Examples of thermoelastic phenomena are provided, accompanied by detailed procedures demonstrating how to simulate them.

  10. Resiliencia y variables sociodemograficas

    OpenAIRE

    Calero Martinez, Edgar David

    2015-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se aborda la definición de una de las variables dentro de lo que se denomina Capital psicológico positivo, la Resiliencia, sus principales características y algunas de las variables socio demográficas que en el estudio pretenden ver el nivel de relación existente entre cada una de ellas (indirecta o directamente) en el proceso resiliente de una persona para posteriores discusiones y su implicación dentro de la gestión empresarial y sus direcciones futuras.

  11. VariableR Reclustering in Multiple Top Quark and W Boson Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, Jeremy [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-08-14

    VariableR jet reclustering is an innovative technique that allows for the reconstruction of boosted object over a wide range of kinematic regimes. Such capability enables the efficient identification of events with multiple boosted top quarks which is a typical signature for new physics processes such as the production of the supersymmetric partner of the gluon. In order to evaluate the performance of the algorithm, the VariableR reclustered jets are compared with fixed radius reclustered jets. The flexibility of the algorithm is tested by reconstructing both boosted top quarks and boosted W bosons. The VariableR reclustering method is found to be more efficient than the fixed radius algorithm at identifying top quarks and W bosons in events with four top quarks, therefore enhancing the sensitivity for gluino searches.

  12. Other relevant papers in physical oceanography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyffeler, F.

    1989-01-01

    During the past few years, significant progress has occurred in the field of physical oceanography partly as a consequence of developing cooperation and international participation in well-coordinated ocean research programmes. Although these programs were not designed specifically to address CRESP problems, many have proved to be directly relevant to CRESP objectives. For example, MODE, POLYMODE, and Tourbillon were intensive site-specific experiments that included studies of dispersion processes throughout the water column. NOAMP and GME were also site specific, involved the entire water column, and even stressed near-bottom and suspended-sediment processes. Others, (e.g., WOCE) are larger in scope and include extensive observations of the general circulation of entire ocean basins. As a whole, they contribute immensely to improving the data base for exchange and transport processes and thereby for the verification and validation of both regional-scale and general-circulation ocean models. That, in turn, is directly relevant to radiological assessments. Selected papers deriving from experiments such as these are discussed and referenced below

  13. [Terbinafine : Relevant drug interactions and their management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürrbeck, A; Nenoff, P

    2016-09-01

    The allylamine terbinafine is the probably most frequently prescribed systemic antifungal agent in Germany for the treatment of dermatomycoses and onychomycoses. According to the German drug law, terbinafine is approved for patients who are 18 years and older; however, this antifungal agent is increasingly used off-label for treatment of onychomycoses and tinea capitis in children. Terbinafine is associated with only a few interactions with other drugs, which is why terbinafine can generally be used without problems in older and multimorbid patients. Nevertheless, some potential interactions of terbinafine with certain drug substances are known, including substances of the group of antidepressants/antipsychotics and some cardiovascular drugs. Decisive for the relevance of interactions is-along with the therapeutic index of the substrate and the possible alternative degradation pathways-the genetically determined type of metabolism. When combining terbinafine with tricyclic antidepressants or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin/noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors, the clinical response and potential side effects must be monitored. Problematic is the use of terbinafine with simultaneous treatment with tamoxifen. The administration of potent CYP2D6 inhibitors leads to a diminished efficacy of tamoxifen because one of its most important active metabolites-endoxifen-is not sufficiently available. Therefore, combination of tamoxifen and terbinafine should be avoided. In conclusion, the number of substances which are able to cause clinically relevant interactions in case of simultaneously administration with terbinafine is clear and should be manageable in the dermatological office with adequate monitoring.

  14. Relevance of randomised controlled trials in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannock, Ian F; Amir, Eitan; Booth, Christopher M; Niraula, Saroj; Ocana, Alberto; Seruga, Bostjan; Templeton, Arnoud J; Vera-Badillo, Francisco

    2016-12-01

    Well-designed randomised controlled trials (RCTs) can prevent bias in the comparison of treatments and provide a sound basis for changes in clinical practice. However, the design and reporting of many RCTs can render their results of little relevance to clinical practice. In this Personal View, we discuss the limitations of RCT data and suggest some ways to improve the clinical relevance of RCTs in the everyday management of patients with cancer. RCTs should ask questions of clinical rather than commercial interest, avoid non-validated surrogate endpoints in registration trials, and have entry criteria that allow inclusion of all patients who are fit to receive treatment. Furthermore, RCTs should be reported with complete accounting of frequency and management of toxicities, and with strict guidelines to ensure freedom from bias. Premature reporting of results should be avoided. The bar for clinical benefit should be raised for drug registration, which should require publication and review of mature data from RCTs, post-marketing health outcome studies, and value-based pricing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Parameter sensitivity and identifiability for a biogeochemical model of hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Local sensitivity analyses and identifiable parameter subsets were used to describe numerical constraints of a hypoxia model for bottom waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico. The sensitivity of state variables differed considerably with parameter changes, although most variables ...

  16. Biological Sampling Variability Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amidan, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hutchison, Janine R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-11-08

    There are many sources of variability that exist in the sample collection and analysis process. This paper addresses many, but not all, sources of variability. The main focus of this paper was to better understand and estimate variability due to differences between samplers. Variability between days was also studied, as well as random variability within each sampler. Experiments were performed using multiple surface materials (ceramic and stainless steel), multiple contaminant concentrations (10 spores and 100 spores), and with and without the presence of interfering material. All testing was done with sponge sticks using 10-inch by 10-inch coupons. Bacillus atrophaeus was used as the BA surrogate. Spores were deposited using wet deposition. Grime was coated on the coupons which were planned to include the interfering material (Section 3.3). Samples were prepared and analyzed at PNNL using CDC protocol (Section 3.4) and then cultured and counted. Five samplers were trained so that samples were taken using the same protocol. Each sampler randomly sampled eight coupons each day, four coupons with 10 spores deposited and four coupons with 100 spores deposited. Each day consisted of one material being tested. The clean samples (no interfering materials) were run first, followed by the dirty samples (coated with interfering material). There was a significant difference in recovery efficiency between the coupons with 10 spores deposited (mean of 48.9%) and those with 100 spores deposited (mean of 59.8%). There was no general significant difference between the clean and dirty (containing interfering material) coupons or between the two surface materials; however, there was a significant interaction between concentration amount and presence of interfering material. The recovery efficiency was close to the same for coupons with 10 spores deposited, but for the coupons with 100 spores deposited, the recovery efficiency for the dirty samples was significantly larger (65

  17. The Properties of Model Selection when Retaining Theory Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendry, David F.; Johansen, Søren

    Economic theories are often fitted directly to data to avoid possible model selection biases. We show that embedding a theory model that specifies the correct set of m relevant exogenous variables, x{t}, within the larger set of m+k candidate variables, (x{t},w{t}), then selection over the second...... set by their statistical significance can be undertaken without affecting the estimator distribution of the theory parameters. This strategy returns the theory-parameter estimates when the theory is correct, yet protects against the theory being under-specified because some w{t} are relevant....

  18. Near Identifiability of Dynamical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadaegh, F. Y.; Bekey, G. A.

    1987-01-01

    Concepts regarding approximate mathematical models treated rigorously. Paper presents new results in analysis of structural identifiability, equivalence, and near equivalence between mathematical models and physical processes they represent. Helps establish rigorous mathematical basis for concepts related to structural identifiability and equivalence revealing fundamental requirements, tacit assumptions, and sources of error. "Structural identifiability," as used by workers in this field, loosely translates as meaning ability to specify unique mathematical model and set of model parameters that accurately predict behavior of corresponding physical system.

  19. Identifying Wind and Solar Ramping Events: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florita, A.; Hodge, B. M.; Orwig, K.

    2013-01-01

    Wind and solar power are playing an increasing role in the electrical grid, but their inherent power variability can augment uncertainties in power system operations. One solution to help mitigate the impacts and provide more flexibility is enhanced wind and solar power forecasting; however, its relative utility is also uncertain. Within the variability of solar and wind power, repercussions from large ramping events are of primary concern. At the same time, there is no clear definition of what constitutes a ramping event, with various criteria used in different operational areas. Here the Swinging Door Algorithm, originally used for data compression in trend logging, is applied to identify variable generation ramping events from historic operational data. The identification of ramps in a simple and automated fashion is a critical task that feeds into a larger work of 1) defining novel metrics for wind and solar power forecasting that attempt to capture the true impact of forecast errors on system operations and economics, and 2) informing various power system models in a data-driven manner for superior exploratory simulation research. Both allow inference on sensitivities and meaningful correlations, as well as the ability to quantify the value of probabilistic approaches for future use in practice.

  20. On the Interpretation of Instrumental Variables in the Presence of Specification Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A.V.B. Swamy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of instrumental variables (IV and the generalized method of moments (GMM, and their applications to the estimation of errors-in-variables and simultaneous equations models in econometrics, require data on a sufficient number of instrumental variables that are both exogenous and relevant. We argue that, in general, such instruments (weak or strong cannot exist.

  1. INTER-EXAMINER VARIABILITY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To establish whether inter-examiner variability is still a significant factor for the undergraduate orthopaedic clinical ... D. The scores for each student were tabulated and the range, mean, and pass rate determined for each of the examiners. ... has not the heart to reject the man”, consistently gave higher scores (1).

  2. Several real variables

    CERN Document Server

    Kantorovitz, Shmuel

    2016-01-01

    This undergraduate textbook is based on lectures given by the author on the differential and integral calculus of functions of several real variables. The book has a modern approach and includes topics such as: •The p-norms on vector space and their equivalence •The Weierstrass and Stone-Weierstrass approximation theorems •The differential as a linear functional; Jacobians, Hessians, and Taylor's theorem in several variables •The Implicit Function Theorem for a system of equations, proved via Banach’s Fixed Point Theorem •Applications to Ordinary Differential Equations •Line integrals and an introduction to surface integrals This book features numerous examples, detailed proofs, as well as exercises at the end of sections. Many of the exercises have detailed solutions, making the book suitable for self-study. Several Real Variables will be useful for undergraduate students in mathematics who have completed first courses in linear algebra and analysis of one real variable.

  3. Variability in GPS sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jauncey, DL; King, EA; Bignall, HE; Lovell, JEJ; Kedziora-Chudczer, L; Tzioumis, AK; Tingay, SJ; Macquart, JP; McCulloch, PM

    2003-01-01

    Flux density monitoring data at 2.3 and 8.4 GHz is presented for a sample of 33 southern hemisphere GPS sources, drawn from the 2.7 GHz Parkes survey. This monitoring data, together with VLBI monitoring data, shows that a small fraction of these sources, similar to10%, vary. Their variability falls

  4. All Those Independent Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, Merle L.

    This paper presents a case study of a sixth grade remedial math class which illustrates the thesis that only the "experimental attitude," not the "experimental method," is appropriate in the classroom. The thesis is based on the fact that too many independent variables exist in a classroom situation to allow precise measurement. The case study…

  5. Variable speed generators

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2005-01-01

    With the deregulation of electrical energy production and distribution, says Boldea (Polytechnical Institute, Timisoara, Romania) producers are looking for ways to tailor their electricity for different markets. Variable-speed electric generators are serving that purpose, up to the 400 megavolt ampere unit size, in Japan since 1996 and Germany sinc

  6. Surfing wave climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo, Antonio; Losada, Iñigo J.; Méndez, Fernando J.

    2014-10-01

    International surfing destinations are highly dependent on specific combinations of wind-wave formation, thermal conditions and local bathymetry. Surf quality depends on a vast number of geophysical variables, and analyses of surf quality require the consideration of the seasonal, interannual and long-term variability of surf conditions on a global scale. A multivariable standardized index based on expert judgment is proposed for this purpose. This index makes it possible to analyze surf conditions objectively over a global domain. A summary of global surf resources based on a new index integrating existing wave, wind, tides and sea surface temperature databases is presented. According to general atmospheric circulation and swell propagation patterns, results show that west-facing low to middle-latitude coasts are more suitable for surfing, especially those in the Southern Hemisphere. Month-to-month analysis reveals strong seasonal variations in the occurrence of surfable events, enhancing the frequency of such events in the North Atlantic and the North Pacific. Interannual variability was investigated by comparing occurrence values with global and regional modes of low-frequency climate variability such as El Niño and the North Atlantic Oscillation, revealing their strong influence at both the global and the regional scale. Results of the long-term trends demonstrate an increase in the probability of surfable events on west-facing coasts around the world in recent years. The resulting maps provide useful information for surfers, the surf tourism industry and surf-related coastal planners and stakeholders.

  7. The Effect of Enumeration of Self-Relevant Words on Self-Focused Attention and Repetitive Negative Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muranaka, Seiji; Sasaki, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Self-focused attention refers to awareness of self-referent, internally generated information. It can be categorized into dysfunctional (i.e., self-rumination) and functional (self-reflection) aspects. According to theory on cognitive resource limitations (e.g., Moreno, 2006), there is a difference in cognitive resource allocation between these two aspects of self-focused attention. We propose a new task, self-relevant word (SRW) enumeration, that can aid in behaviorally identifying individuals’ use of self-rumination and self-reflection. The present study has two purposes: to determine the association between self-focus and SRW enumeration, and to examine the effect of dysfunctional SRW enumeration on repetitive negative thinking. One hundred forty-six undergraduate students participated in this study. They completed a measure of state anxiety twice, before and after imagining a social failure situation. They also completed the SRW enumeration task, Repetitive Thinking Questionnaire, Short Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale, and Rumination-Reflection Questionnaire. A correlational analysis indicated a significant positive correlation between self-reflection and the number of SRWs. Furthermore, individuals high in self-reflection had a tendency to pay more attention to problems than did those high in self-rumination. A significant positive correlation was found between self-rumination and the strength of self-relevance of negative SRWs. Through a path analysis, we found a significant positive effect of the self-relevance of negative SRWs on repetitive negative thinking. Notably, however, the model that excluded self-rumination as an explanatory variable showed a better fit to the data than did the model that included it. In summary, SRW enumeration might enable selective and independent detection of the degree of self-reflection and self-rumination, and therefore should be examined in future research in order to design new behavioral procedures. PMID:29896140

  8. The Effect of Enumeration of Self-Relevant Words on Self-Focused Attention and Repetitive Negative Thoughts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji Muranaka

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Self-focused attention refers to awareness of self-referent, internally generated information. It can be categorized into dysfunctional (i.e., self-rumination and functional (self-reflection aspects. According to theory on cognitive resource limitations (e.g., Moreno, 2006, there is a difference in cognitive resource allocation between these two aspects of self-focused attention. We propose a new task, self-relevant word (SRW enumeration, that can aid in behaviorally identifying individuals’ use of self-rumination and self-reflection. The present study has two purposes: to determine the association between self-focus and SRW enumeration, and to examine the effect of dysfunctional SRW enumeration on repetitive negative thinking. One hundred forty-six undergraduate students participated in this study. They completed a measure of state anxiety twice, before and after imagining a social failure situation. They also completed the SRW enumeration task, Repetitive Thinking Questionnaire, Short Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale, and Rumination-Reflection Questionnaire. A correlational analysis indicated a significant positive correlation between self-reflection and the number of SRWs. Furthermore, individuals high in self-reflection had a tendency to pay more attention to problems than did those high in self-rumination. A significant positive correlation was found between self-rumination and the strength of self-relevance of negative SRWs. Through a path analysis, we found a significant positive effect of the self-relevance of negative SRWs on repetitive negative thinking. Notably, however, the model that excluded self-rumination as an explanatory variable showed a better fit to the data than did the model that included it. In summary, SRW enumeration might enable selective and independent detection of the degree of self-reflection and self-rumination, and therefore should be examined in future research in order to design new behavioral procedures.

  9. Tides and Decadal Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Richard D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the mechanisms by which oceanic tides and decadal variability in the oceans are connected. We distinguish between variability caused by tides and variability observed in the tides themselves. Both effects have been detected at some level. The most obvious connection with decadal timescales is through the 18.6-year precession of the moon's orbit plane. This precession gives rise to a small tide of the same period and to 18.6-year modulations in the phase and amplitudes of short-period tides. The 18.6-year "node tide" is very small, no more than 2 cm anywhere, and in sea level data it is dominated by the ocean's natural Variability. Some authors have naively attributed climate variations with periods near 19 years directly to the node tide, but the amplitude of the tide is too small for this mechanism to be operative. The more likely explanation (Loder and Garrett, JGR, 83, 1967-70, 1978) is that the 18.6-y modulations in short-period tides, especially h e principal tide M2, cause variations in ocean mixing, which is then observed in temperature and other climatic indicators. Tidally forced variability has also been proposed by some authors, either in response to occasional (and highly predictable) tidal extremes or as a nonlinear low-frequency oscillation caused by interactions between short-period tides. The former mechanism can produce only short-duration events hardly more significant than normal tidal ranges, but the latter mechanism can in principle induce low-frequency oscillations. The most recent proposal of this type is by Keeling and Whorf, who highlight the 1800-year spectral peak discovered by Bond et al. (1997). But the proposal appears contrived and should be considered, in the words of Munk et al. (2002), "as the most likely among unlikely candidates."

  10. A framework for identifying carbon hotspots and forest management drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilesh Timilsina; Francisco J. Escobedo; Wendell P. Cropper; Amr Abd-Elrahman; Thomas Brandeis; Sonia Delphin; Samuel Lambert

    2013-01-01

    Spatial analyses of ecosystem system services that are directly relevant to both forest management decision making and conservation in the subtropics are rare. Also, frameworks that identify and map carbon stocks and corresponding forest management drivers using available regional, national, and international-level forest inventory datasets could provide insights into...

  11. Systematic Correlation Matrix Evaluation (SCoMaE) - a bottom-up, science-led approach to identifying indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengis, Nadine; Keller, David P.; Oschlies, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    This study introduces the Systematic Correlation Matrix Evaluation (SCoMaE) method, a bottom-up approach which combines expert judgment and statistical information to systematically select transparent, nonredundant indicators for a comprehensive assessment of the state of the Earth system. The methods consists of two basic steps: (1) the calculation of a correlation matrix among variables relevant for a given research question and (2) the systematic evaluation of the matrix, to identify clusters of variables with similar behavior and respective mutually independent indicators. Optional further analysis steps include (3) the interpretation of the identified clusters, enabling a learning effect from the selection of indicators, (4) testing the robustness of identified clusters with respect to changes in forcing or boundary conditions, (5) enabling a comparative assessment of varying scenarios by constructing and evaluating a common correlation matrix, and (6) the inclusion of expert judgment, for example, to prescribe indicators, to allow for considerations other than statistical consistency. The example application of the SCoMaE method to Earth system model output forced by different CO2 emission scenarios reveals the necessity of reevaluating indicators identified in a historical scenario simulation for an accurate assessment of an intermediate-high, as well as a business-as-usual, climate change scenario simulation. This necessity arises from changes in prevailing correlations in the Earth system under varying climate forcing. For a comparative assessment of the three climate change scenarios, we construct and evaluate a common correlation matrix, in which we identify robust correlations between variables across the three considered scenarios.

  12. Constitutional relevance of atomic energy law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettow, S.

    1980-01-01

    In a decision publicized on December 20, 1979 the German Federal Constitutional Court rejected a claim of unconstitutionality in connection with the licensing procedure of the Muelheim-Kaerlich Nuclear Power Station currently under construction. This constitutes confirmation, by the 1st Department of the Court, of a decision in 1978 by the 2nd Department about the Kalkar fast breeder power plant, in which the peaceful utilization of nuclear energy had been found to be constitutional. However, the new decision by the Federal Constitutional Court particularly emphasizes the constitutional relevance of the rules of procedure under the Atomic Energy Act and their function with respect to the protection of civil rights. (orig.) [de

  13. Mirror neurons and their clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Fabbri-Destro, Maddalena; Cattaneo, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    One of the most exciting events in neurosciences over the past few years has been the discovery of a mechanism that unifies action perception and action execution. The essence of this 'mirror' mechanism is as follows: whenever individuals observe an action being done by someone else, a set of neurons that code for that action is activated in the observers' motor system. Since the observers are aware of the outcome of their motor acts, they also understand what the other individual is doing without the need for intermediate cognitive mediation. In this Review, after discussing the most pertinent data concerning the mirror mechanism, we examine the clinical relevance of this mechanism. We first discuss the relationship between mirror mechanism impairment and some core symptoms of autism. We then outline the theoretical principles of neurorehabilitation strategies based on the mirror mechanism. We conclude by examining the relationship between the mirror mechanism and some features of the environmental dependency syndromes.

  14. The Integrin Receptor in Biologically Relevant Bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalli, Antreas C.; Róg, Tomasz; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2017-01-01

    /talin complex was inserted in biologically relevant bilayers that resemble the cell plasma membrane containing zwitterionic and charged phospholipids, cholesterol and sphingolipids to study the dynamics of the integrin receptor and its effect on bilayer structure and dynamics. The results of this study...... demonstrate the dynamic nature of the integrin receptor and suggest that the presence of the integrin receptor alters the lipid organization between the two leaflets of the bilayer. In particular, our results suggest elevated density of cholesterol and of phosphatidylserine lipids around the integrin....../talin complex and a slowing down of lipids in an annulus of ~30 Å around the protein due to interactions between the lipids and the integrin/talin F2–F3 complex. This may in part regulate the interactions of integrins with other related proteins or integrin clustering thus facilitating signal transduction...

  15. PREDICTING RELEVANT EMPTY SPOTS IN SOCIAL INTERACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshiharu MAENO; Yukio OHSAWA

    2008-01-01

    An empty spot refers to an empty hard-to-fill space which can be found in the records of the social interaction, and is the clue to the persons in the underlying social network who do not appear in the records. This contribution addresses a problem to predict relevant empty spots in social interaction. Homogeneous and inhomogeneous networks are studied as a model underlying the social interaction. A heuristic predictor function method is presented as a new method to address the problem. Simulation experiment is demonstrated over a homogeneous network. A test data set in the form of market baskets is generated from the simulated communication. Precision to predict the empty spots is calculated to demonstrate the performance of the presented method.

  16. Climate-relevant monitorings in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metternich, P.

    1993-01-01

    This catalogue contains so-called meta-data; i.e. information on data. For each measuring programme or set of data, users find the address (postal address, telephone, fax-number) of the respective contact person at the beginning of the entry. The catalogue has three parts: Part A is a compilation of monitoring programmes using conventional methods adopted on the ground. Part B contains research programmes or sets of data from the field of remote sensing. In part C, data sets from time series of climate-relevant parameters are described. Section A was additionally structured according so the compartments of the climate system: Atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, biosphere. (orig./KW) [de

  17. Bacteriophage lambda: early pioneer and still relevant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casjens, Sherwood R.; Hendrix, Roger W.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular genetic research on bacteriophage lambda carried out during its golden age from the mid 1950's to mid 1980's was critically important in the attainment of our current understanding of the sophisticated and complex mechanisms by which the expression of genes is controlled, of DNA virus assembly and of the molecular nature of lysogeny. The development of molecular cloning techniques, ironically instigated largely by phage lambda researchers, allowed many phage workers to switch their efforts to other biological systems. Nonetheless, since that time the ongoing study of lambda and its relatives have continued to give important new insights. In this review we give some relevant early history and describe recent developments in understanding the molecular biology of lambda's life cycle. PMID:25742714

  18. Relevance of protection quantities in medical exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) continues to classify the exposures to radiation in three categories; namely 1- occupational exposure, 2- public exposure, and 3- medical exposure. Protection quantities are primarily meant for the regulatory purpose in radiological protection for controlling and limiting stochastic risks in occupational and public exposures. These are based on two basic assumptions of 1- linear no-threshold dose-effect relationship (LNT) at low doses and 2- long-term additivity of low doses. Medical exposure are predominantly delivered to individuals (patients) undergoing diagnostic examinations, interventional procedures and radiation therapy but also include individual caring for or comforting patients incurring exposure and the volunteers of biomedical medical research programmes. Radiation protection is as relevant to occupational and public exposure as to medical exposures except that the dose limits set for the formers are not applicable to medical exposure but reference levels and dose constrains are recommended for diagnostic and interventional medical procedures. In medical institutions, both the occupational and medical exposure takes place. Since the doses in diagnostic examinations are low, it has been observed that not only the protection quantities are often used in such cases but these are extended to estimate the number of cancer deaths due to such practices. One of the striking features of the new ICRP recommendations has been to elaborate the concepts of the dosimetric quantities. The limitation of protection quantities ((Effective dose, E=Σ RT D TR .W T .W R and Equivalent Dose H T =Σ RT D TR .W R ) have been brought out and this has raised a great concern and initiated debates on the use of these quantities in medical exposures. Consequently, ICRP has set a task group to provide more details and the recommendations. It has, therefore, became important to draw the attention of medical physics community

  19. Ecological principles relevant to nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, T.C.; Cropper, W.P. Jr.; Grover, H.D.

    1985-01-01

    The ecological principles outlined are very basic ones; the authors anticipate a readership trained in a broad range of disciplines, including those unfamiliar with the academic discipline of ecology. The authors include substantial discussion on ecophysiology (i.e., the responses of organisms to their environment) because this is relevant to the new understanding of the potential climatic consequences of nuclear war. In particular, the physiological sensitivity of organisms to reduced levels of light and temperature are a key part of the analysis of the potential ecological effects and agricultural effects of nuclear war. Much of the ecological analysis has been organized around major biological units called biomes. The authors describe the biome concept and discuss some of the environmental-climatic factors that are believed to control biome distribution. Emphasis is given to plants because of their controlling influence on ecosystem functions through their role as primary producers. Future reports are needed to address more fully the potential effects on animals. Much more research needs to be done on both plant and animal responses to the types of perturbations possible for the aftermath of a nuclear war. Another important element for analysis of the potential ecological consequences of nuclear war concerns recovery processes. As the post-nuclear war environmental extremes ameliorate, ecological communities in devastated regions would begin to reorganize. It is not possible to predict the course of such a succession precisely, but some principles concerning post-perturbation replacement (such as seed banks and germination), relevant successional patterns, and organism strategies are discussed

  20. Thermochemical data for environmentally-relevant elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markich, S.J.; Brown, P.L.

    1999-01-01

    This study provides an extensive stability constant (log K) database suitable for calculating the speciation of selected environmentally-relevant elements (H, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, U, Al Pb, Zn, Cu and cd) in an aqueous system, where a model fulvic acid (comprising aspartic, citric, malonic, salicylic and tricarballylic acids) is used to simulate metal binding by dissolved organic material Stability constants for inorganic metal complexes and minerals were selected primarily from critical literature complications and/or reviews. In contrast, few critically evaluated data were available for metal complexes with aspartic, citric, malonic, salicylic and tricarballylic acids. Consequently, data from original research articles were carefully evaluated and compiled as part of the study, following defined selection criteria. to meet the objective of compiling a comprehensive and reliable database of stability constants, all relevant equilibria and species, ranging from simple binary metal complexes to more complex ternary and even quaternary, metal complexes were included where possible in addition to the selection of stability constants from empirical sources, estimates of stability constants were performed when this could be done reliably, based on the unified theory of metal ion complexation and/or linear tree energy relationships The stability constants are given as common logarithms (logo) in the form required by the HARPHRQ geochemical code and refer to the standard state, i.e 298.15 K (25 deg C), 10 5 Pa (1 atm) and, for all species, infinite dilution (ionic strength = 0 mol L -1 ). In addition to the compilation of stability constant data, an overview is given of geochemical speciation modelling in aqueous systems and available conceptual models of metal binding by humic substances. (authors)