WorldWideScience

Sample records for relevant theoretical approaches

  1. A relevance theoretic approach to intertextuality in print advertising

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anonymous vs. acknowledged intertexts: A relevance theoretic approach to intertextuality in print advertising. ... make intertextual references to texts from mass media genres other than advertising as part of an ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  2. Metaphor and the 'Emergent Property' Problem: A Relevance-Theoretic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Carston

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The interpretation of metaphorical utterances often results in the attribution of emergent properties; these are properties which are neither standardly associated with the individual constituents of the utterance in isolation nor derivable by standard rules of semantic composition. For example, an utterance of ‘Robert is a bulldozer’ may be understood as attributing to Robert such properties as single-mindedness, insistence on having things done in his way, and insensitivity to the opinions/feelings of others, although none of these is included in the encyclopaedic information associated with bulldozers (earth-clearing machines. An adequate pragmatic account of metaphor interpretation must provide an explanation of the processes through which emergent properties are derived. In this paper, we attempt to develop an explicit account of the derivation process couched within the framework of relevance theory. The key features of our account are: (a metaphorical language use is taken to lie on a continuum with other cases of loose use, including hyperbole; (b metaphor interpretation is a wholly inferential process, which does not require associative mappings from one domain (e.g. machines to another (e.g. human beings; (c the derivation of emergent properties involves no special interpretive mechanisms not required for the interpretation of ordinary, literal utterances.

  3. A Theoretical Approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    L-rhamnose and L-fucose: A Theoretical Approach ... L-ramnose and L-fucose, by means of the Monte Carlo conformational search method. The energy of the conformers ..... which indicates an increased probability for the occurrence of.

  4. Theoretical Approaches to Coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Zyga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dealing with stress requires conscious effort, it cannot be perceived as equal to individual's spontaneous reactions. The intentional management of stress must not be confused withdefense mechanisms. Coping differs from adjustment in that the latter is more general, has a broader meaning and includes diverse ways of facing a difficulty.Aim: An exploration of the definition of the term "coping", the function of the coping process as well as its differentiation from other similar meanings through a literature review.Methodology: Three theoretical approaches of coping are introduced; the psychoanalytic approach; approaching by characteristics; and the Lazarus and Folkman interactive model.Results: The strategic methods of the coping approaches are described and the article ends with a review of the approaches including the functioning of the stress-coping process , the classificationtypes of coping strategies in stress-inducing situations and with a criticism of coping approaches.Conclusions: The comparison of coping in different situations is difficult, if not impossible. The coping process is a slow process, so an individual may select one method of coping under one set ofcircumstances and a different strategy at some other time. Such selection of strategies takes place as the situation changes.

  5. Theoretical approaches to elections defining

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya V. Lebedeva

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical approaches to elections defining develop the nature, essence and content of elections, help to determine their place and a role as one of the major national law institutions in democratic system.

  6. Theoretical approaches to elections defining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya V. Lebedeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical approaches to elections defining develop the nature, essence and content of elections, help to determine their place and a role as one of the major national law institutions in democratic system.

  7. Theoretical approaches to social innovation – A critical literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butzin, A.; Davis, A.; Domanski, D.; Dhondt, S.; Howaldt, J.; Kaletka, C.; Kesselring, A.; Kopp, R.; Millard, J.; Oeij, P.; Rehfeld, D.; Schaper-Rinkel, P.; Schwartz, M.; Scoppetta, A.; Wagner-Luptacik, P.; Weber, M.

    2014-01-01

    The SI-DRIVE report “Theoretical approaches to Social Innovation – A Critical Literature Review” delivers a comprehensive overview on the state of the art of theoretically relevant building blocks for advancing a theoretical understanding of social innovation. It collects different theoretical

  8. Theoretical Approaches to Political Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesebro, James W.

    Political communication appears to be emerging as a theoretical and methodological academic area of research within both speech-communication and political science. Five complimentary approaches to political science (Machiavellian, iconic, ritualistic, confirmational, and dramatistic) may be viewed as a series of variations which emphasize the…

  9. Some New Theoretical Issues in Systems Thinking Relevant for Modelling Corporate Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minati, Gianfranco

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe fundamental concepts and theoretical challenges with regard to systems, and to build on these in proposing new theoretical frameworks relevant to learning, for example in so-called learning organizations. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on some crucial fundamental aspects introduced…

  10. Affinity of Smectite and Divalent Metal Ions (Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Cu(2+)) with L-leucine: An Experimental and Theoretical Approach Relevant to Astrobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Pramod; Pant, Chandra Kala; Gururani, Kavita; Arora, Priyanka; Pandey, Neetu; Bhatt, Preeti; Sharma, Yogesh; Negi, Jagmohan Singh; Mehata, Mohan Singh

    2015-12-01

    Earth is the only known planet bestowed with life. Several attempts have been made to explore the pathways of the origin of life on planet Earth. The search for the chemistry which gave rise to life has given answers related to the formation of biomonomers, and their adsorption on solid surfaces has gained much attention for the catalysis and stabilization processes related to the abiotic chemical evolution of the complex molecules of life. In this communication, surface interactions of L-leucine (Leu) on smectite (SMT) group of clay (viz. bentonite and montmorillonite) and their divalent metal ion (Mg(2+), Ca(2+) and Cu(2+)) incorporated on SMT has been studied to find the optimal conditions of time, pH, and concentration at ambient temperature (298 K). The progress of adsorption was followed spectrophotometrically and further characterized by FTIR, SEM/EDS and XRD. Leu, a neutral/non polar amino acid, was found to have more affinity in its zwitterionic form towards Cu(2+)- exchanged SMT and minimal affinity for Mg(2+)- exchanged SMT. The vibrational frequency shifts of -NH3 (+) and -COO(-) favor Van der Waal's forces during the course of surface interaction. Quantum calculations using density functional theory (DFT) have been applied to investigate the absolute value of metal ion affinities of Leu (Leu-M(2+) complex, M = Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Cu(2+)) with the help of their physico-chemical parameters. The hydration effect on the relative stability and geometry of the individual species of Leu-M(2+) × (H2O)n, (n =2 and 4) has also been evaluated within the supermolecule approach. Evidence gathered from investigations of surface interactions, divalent metal ions affinities and hydration effects with biomolecules may be important for better understanding of chemical evolution, the stabilization of biomolecules on solid surfaces and biomolecular-metal interactions. These results may have implications for understanding the origin of life and the preservation of

  11. A sign-theoretic approach to biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Luis Emilio

    ” semiotic networks across hierarchical levels and for relating the different emergent codes in living systems. I consider this an important part of the work because there I define some of the main concepts that will help me to analyse different codes and semiotic processes in living systems in order...... to exemplify what is the relevance of a sign-theoretic approach to biotechnology. In particular, I introduce the notion of digital-analogical consensus as a semiotic pattern for the creation of complex logical products that constitute specific signs. The chapter ends with some examples of conspicuous semiotic...... to exemplify how a semiotic approach can be of help when organising the knowledge that can lead us to understanding the relevance, the role and the position of signal transduction networks in relation to the larger semiotic networks in which they function, i.e.: in the hierarchical formal processes of mapping...

  12. Theoretical Approaches to Nuclear Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin S. Tarasov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses discussions between representatives of three schools in the theory of international relations - realism, liberalism and constructivism - on the driving factors of nuclear proliferation. The paper examines major theoretical approaches, outlined in the studies of Russian and foreign scientists, to the causes of nuclear weapons development, while unveiling their advantages and limitations. Much of the article has been devoted to alternative approaches, particularly, the role of mathematical modeling in assessing proliferation risks. The analysis also reveals a variety of different approaches to nuclear weapons acquisition, as well as the absence of a comprehensive proliferation theory. Based on the research results the study uncovers major factors both favoring and impeding nuclear proliferation. The author shows that the lack of consensus between realists, liberals and constructivists on the nature of proliferation led a number of scientists to an attempt to explain nuclear rationale by drawing from the insights of more than one school in the theory of IR. Detailed study of the proliferation puzzle contributes to a greater understating of contemporary international realities, helps to identify mechanisms that are most likely to deter states from obtaining nuclear weapons and is of the outmost importance in predicting short- and long-term security environment. Furthermore, analysis of the existing scientific literature on nuclear proliferation helps to determine future research agenda of the subject at hand.

  13. Theoretical and methodological approaches in discourse analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Chris

    2004-01-01

    Discourse analysis (DA) embodies two main approaches: Foucauldian DA and radical social constructionist DA. Both are underpinned by social constructionism to a lesser or greater extent. Social constructionism has contested areas in relation to power, embodiment, and materialism, although Foucauldian DA does focus on the issue of power Embodiment and materialism may be especially relevant for researchers of nursing where the physical body is prominent. However, the contested nature of social constructionism allows a fusion of theoretical and methodological approaches tailored to a specific research interest. In this paper, Chris Stevenson suggests a framework for working out and declaring the DA approach to be taken in relation to a research area, as well as to aid anticipating methodological critique. Method, validity, reliability and scholarship are discussed from within a discourse analytic frame of reference.

  14. Theoretical and methodological approaches in discourse analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Chris

    2004-10-01

    Discourse analysis (DA) embodies two main approaches: Foucauldian DA and radical social constructionist DA. Both are underpinned by social constructionism to a lesser or greater extent. Social constructionism has contested areas in relation to power, embodiment, and materialism, although Foucauldian DA does focus on the issue of power. Embodiment and materialism may be especially relevant for researchers of nursing where the physical body is prominent. However, the contested nature of social constructionism allows a fusion of theoretical and methodological approaches tailored to a specific research interest. In this paper, Chris Stevenson suggests a frame- work for working out and declaring the DA approach to be taken in relation to a research area, as well as to aid anticipating methodological critique. Method, validity, reliability and scholarship are discussed from within a discourse analytic frame of reference.

  15. Theoretical Approaches to Lignin Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Shevchenko, Sergey M.

    1994-01-01

    A critical review is presented of the applications of theoretical methods to the studies of the structure and chemical reactivity of lignin, including simulation of macromolecular properties, conformational calculations, quantum chemical analyses of electronic structure, spectra and chemical reactivity. Modern concepts of spatial organization and chemical reactivity of lignins are discussed.

  16. Machine learning a theoretical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, Balas K

    2014-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive introduction to computational learning theory. The author's uniform presentation of fundamental results and their applications offers AI researchers a theoretical perspective on the problems they study. The book presents tools for the analysis of probabilistic models of learning, tools that crisply classify what is and is not efficiently learnable. After a general introduction to Valiant's PAC paradigm and the important notion of the Vapnik-Chervonenkis dimension, the author explores specific topics such as finite automata and neural networks. The presentation

  17. Managerial Leadership - A Theoretical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Cornelia MACARIE

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper endeavors to offer an overview of the major theories on leadership and the way in which it influences the management of contemporary organizations. Numerous scholars highlight that there are numerous overlaps between the concepts of management and leadership. This is the reason why the first section of the paper focuses on providing an extensive overview of the literature regarding the meaning of the two aforementioned concepts. The second section addresses more in depth the concept of leadership and managerial leadership and focuses on the ideal profile of the leader. The last section of the paper critically discusses various types of leadership and more specifically modern approaches to the concept and practices of leadership.

  18. Set-Theoretic Approach to Maturity Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan

    Despite being widely accepted and applied, maturity models in Information Systems (IS) have been criticized for the lack of theoretical grounding, methodological rigor, empirical validations, and ignorance of multiple and non-linear paths to maturity. This PhD thesis focuses on addressing...... these criticisms by incorporating recent developments in configuration theory, in particular application of set-theoretic approaches. The aim is to show the potential of employing a set-theoretic approach for maturity model research and empirically demonstrating equifinal paths to maturity. Specifically...... methodological guidelines consisting of detailed procedures to systematically apply set theoretic approaches for maturity model research and provides demonstrations of it application on three datasets. The thesis is a collection of six research papers that are written in a sequential manner. The first paper...

  19. Determination of 54 pesticides in waters of the Iberian Douro River estuary and risk assessment of environmentally relevant mixtures using theoretical approaches and Artemia salina and Daphnia magna bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruzeiro, Catarina; Amaral, Sofia; Rocha, Eduardo; Rocha, Maria João

    2017-11-01

    As a case study, the estuary of the international Douro River (Iberian Peninsula) was sampled over a year (2010) at six sampling sites to determine the presence of 56 pesticides of different categories (insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides). 96% of measured pesticides were detected in 79% of the quantified samples. Individual average pesticide concentrations ranged from 39 to 1 265ng/L, indicating a ubiquitous presence of the selected compounds; moreover, twelve pesticides were above the 2013/39/EU Directive limits. Due to its highly impacted profile, a theoretical hazard assessment was done considering the average and maximum environmental mixtures of all measured pesticides to identify the most sensitive trophic level. For both environmental mixtures, the theoretical approach suggested that invertebrates were the most sensitive group. Therefore, short-time exposure assays using both invertebrates Artemia salina and Daphnia magna, were done using the referred mixtures. Data demonstrated significant toxic effects ─ high mortality rate and abnormal swimming behaviour ─ of the exposed animals. Both approaches (theoretical and experimental) support the analytical results, alerting for an intervention on this estuarine environment and of other comparable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A Set Theoretical Approach to Maturity Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester; Vatrapu, Ravi; Andersen, Kim Normann

    2016-01-01

    characterized by equifinality, multiple conjunctural causation, and case diversity. We prescribe methodological guidelines consisting of a six-step procedure to systematically apply set theoretic methods to conceptualize, develop, and empirically derive maturity models and provide a demonstration......Maturity Model research in IS has been criticized for the lack of theoretical grounding, methodological rigor, empirical validations, and ignorance of multiple and non-linear paths to maturity. To address these criticisms, this paper proposes a novel set-theoretical approach to maturity models...

  1. Game theoretic approaches for spectrum redistribution

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Fan

    2014-01-01

    This brief examines issues of spectrum allocation for the limited resources of radio spectrum. It uses a game-theoretic perspective, in which the nodes in the wireless network are rational and always pursue their own objectives. It provides a systematic study of the approaches that can guarantee the system's convergence at an equilibrium state, in which the system performance is optimal or sub-optimal. The author provides a short tutorial on game theory, explains game-theoretic channel allocation in clique and in multi-hop wireless networks and explores challenges in designing game-theoretic m

  2. Theoretical treatment of charge transfer processes of relevance to astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krstic, P.S.; Stancil, P.C.; Schultz, D.R.

    1997-12-01

    Charge transfer is an important process in many astrophysical and atmospheric environments. While numerous experimental and theoretical studies exist for H and He targets, data on other targets, particularly metals and molecules, are sparse. Using a variety of theoretical methods and computational techniques the authors are developing methods to estimate the cross sections for electron capture (charge transfer) in slow collisions of low charge state ions with heavy (Mg, Ca, Fe, Co, Ni and Zn) neutrals. In this ongoing work particular attention is paid to ascertaining the importance of double electron capture.

  3. Theoretical treatment of charge transfer processes of relevance to astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krstic, P.S.; Stancil, P.C.; Schultz, D.R.

    1997-12-01

    Charge transfer is an important process in many astrophysical and atmospheric environments. While numerous experimental and theoretical studies exist for H and He targets, data on other targets, particularly metals and molecules, are sparse. Using a variety of theoretical methods and computational techniques the authors are developing methods to estimate the cross sections for electron capture (charge transfer) in slow collisions of low charge state ions with heavy (Mg, Ca, Fe, Co, Ni and Zn) neutrals. In this ongoing work particular attention is paid to ascertaining the importance of double electron capture

  4. Theoretical Relevance of Neuropsychological Data for Connectionist Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Iza

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The symbolic information-processing paradigm in cognitive psychology has met a growing challenge from neural network models over the past two decades. While neuropsychological
    evidence has been of great utility to theories concerned with information processing, the real question is, whether the less rigid connectionist models provide valid, or enough, information
    concerning complex cognitive structures. In this work, we will discuss the theoretical implications that neuropsychological data posits for modelling cognitive systems.

  5. Partial discharge transients: The field theoretical approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson; Crichton, George C

    1998-01-01

    Up until the mid-1980s the theory of partial discharge transients was essentially static. This situation had arisen because of the fixation with the concept of void capacitance and the use of circuit theory to address what is in essence a field problem. Pedersen rejected this approach and instead...... began to apply field theory to the problem of partial discharge transients. In the present paper, the contributions of Pedersen using the field theoretical approach will be reviewed and discussed....

  6. New Theoretical Approach Integrated Education and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Gang

    2010-01-01

    The paper focuses on exploring new theoretical approach in education with development of online learning technology, from e-learning to u-learning and virtual reality technology, and points out possibilities such as constructing a new teaching ecological system, ubiquitous educational awareness with ubiquitous technology, and changing the…

  7. Radiotherapy problem under fuzzy theoretic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammar, E.E.; Hussein, M.L.

    2003-01-01

    A fuzzy set theoretic approach is used for radiotherapy problem. The problem is faced with two goals: the first is to maximize the fraction of surviving normal cells and the second is to minimize the fraction of surviving tumor cells. The theory of fuzzy sets has been employed to formulate and solve the problem. A linguistic variable approach is used for treating the first goal. The solutions obtained by the modified approach are always efficient and best compromise. A sensitivity analysis of the solutions to the differential weights is given

  8. A queer-theoretical approach to community health psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easpaig, Bróna R Nic Giolla; Fryer, David M; Linn, Seònaid E; Humphrey, Rhianna H

    2014-01-01

    Queer-theoretical resources offer ways of productively rethinking how central concepts such as 'person-context', 'identity' and 'difference' may be understood for community health psychologists. This would require going beyond consideration of the problems with which queer theory is popularly associated to cautiously engage with the aspects of this work relevant to the promotion of collective practice and engaging with processes of marginalisation. In this article, we will draw upon and illustrate the queer-theoretical concepts of 'performativity' and 'cultural intelligibility' before moving towards a preliminary mapping of what a queer-informed approach to community health psychology might involve.

  9. Conceptualising global health: theoretical issues and their relevance for teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowson Mike

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has long been debate around the definition of the field of education, research and practice known as global health. In this article we step back from attempts at definition and instead ask what current definitions tell us about the evolution of the field, identifying gaps and points of debate and using these to inform discussions of how global health might be taught. Discussion What we now know as global health has its roots in the late 19th century, in the largely colonial, biomedical pursuit of ‘international health’. The twentieth century saw a change in emphasis of the field towards a much broader conceptualisation of global health, encompassing broader social determinants of health and a truly global focus. The disciplinary focus has broadened greatly to include economics, anthropology and political science, among others. There have been a number of attempts to define the new field of global health. We suggest there are three central areas of contention: what the object of knowledge of global health is, the types of knowledge to be used and around the purpose of knowledge in the field of global health. We draw a number of conclusions from this discussion. First, that definitions should pay attention to differences as well as commonalities in different parts of the world, and that the definitions of global health themselves depend to some extent on the position of the definer. Second, global health’s core strength lies in its interdisciplinary character, in particular the incorporation of approaches from outside biomedicine. This approach recognises that political, social and economic factors are central causes of ill health. Last, we argue that definition should avoid inclusion of values. In particular we argue that equity, a key element of many definitions of global health, is a value-laden concept and carries with it significant ideological baggage. As such, its widespread inclusion in the definitions of

  10. Conceptualising global health: theoretical issues and their relevance for teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowson, Mike; Willott, Chris; Hughes, Rob; Maini, Arti; Martin, Sophie; Miranda, J Jaime; Pollit, Vicki; Smith, Abi; Wake, Rae; Yudkin, John S

    2012-11-14

    There has long been debate around the definition of the field of education, research and practice known as global health. In this article we step back from attempts at definition and instead ask what current definitions tell us about the evolution of the field, identifying gaps and points of debate and using these to inform discussions of how global health might be taught. What we now know as global health has its roots in the late 19(th) century, in the largely colonial, biomedical pursuit of 'international health'. The twentieth century saw a change in emphasis of the field towards a much broader conceptualisation of global health, encompassing broader social determinants of health and a truly global focus. The disciplinary focus has broadened greatly to include economics, anthropology and political science, among others. There have been a number of attempts to define the new field of global health. We suggest there are three central areas of contention: what the object of knowledge of global health is, the types of knowledge to be used and around the purpose of knowledge in the field of global health. We draw a number of conclusions from this discussion. First, that definitions should pay attention to differences as well as commonalities in different parts of the world, and that the definitions of global health themselves depend to some extent on the position of the definer. Second, global health's core strength lies in its interdisciplinary character, in particular the incorporation of approaches from outside biomedicine. This approach recognises that political, social and economic factors are central causes of ill health. Last, we argue that definition should avoid inclusion of values. In particular we argue that equity, a key element of many definitions of global health, is a value-laden concept and carries with it significant ideological baggage. As such, its widespread inclusion in the definitions of global health is inappropriate as it suggests that only

  11. SOCIOLOGICAL UNDERSTANDING OF INTERNET: THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO THE NETWORK ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Dobrinskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The network is an efficient way of social structure analysis for contemporary sociologists. It gives broad opportunities for detailed and fruitful research of different patterns of ties and social relations by quantitative analytical methods and visualization of network models. The network metaphor is used as the most representative tool for description of a new type of society. This new type is characterized by flexibility, decentralization and individualization. Network organizational form became the dominant form in modern societies. The network is also used as a mode of inquiry. Actually three theoretical network approaches in the Internet research case are the most relevant: social network analysis, “network society” theory and actor-network theory. Every theoretical approach has got its own notion of network. Their special methodological and theoretical features contribute to the Internet studies in different ways. The article represents a brief overview of these network approaches. This overview demonstrates the absence of a unified semantic space of the notion of “network” category. This fact, in turn, points out the need for detailed analysis of these approaches to reveal their theoretical and empirical possibilities in application to the Internet studies. 

  12. A gauge-theoretic approach to gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnov, Kirill

    2012-08-08

    Einstein's general relativity (GR) is a dynamical theory of the space-time metric. We describe an approach in which GR becomes an SU(2) gauge theory. We start at the linearized level and show how a gauge-theoretic Lagrangian for non-interacting massless spin two particles (gravitons) takes a much more simple and compact form than in the standard metric description. Moreover, in contrast to the GR situation, the gauge theory Lagrangian is convex. We then proceed with a formulation of the full nonlinear theory. The equivalence to the metric-based GR holds only at the level of solutions of the field equations, that is, on-shell. The gauge-theoretic approach also makes it clear that GR is not the only interacting theory of massless spin two particles, in spite of the GR uniqueness theorems available in the metric description. Thus, there is an infinite-parameter class of gravity theories all describing just two propagating polarizations of the graviton. We describe how matter can be coupled to gravity in this formulation and, in particular, how both the gravity and Yang-Mills arise as sectors of a general diffeomorphism-invariant gauge theory. We finish by outlining a possible scenario of the ultraviolet completion of quantum gravity within this approach.

  13. A theoretical approach to artificial intelligence systems in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyropoulos, B; Papagounos, G

    1995-10-01

    The various theoretical models of disease, the nosology which is accepted by the medical community and the prevalent logic of diagnosis determine both the medical approach as well as the development of the relevant technology including the structure and function of the A.I. systems involved. A.I. systems in medicine, in addition to the specific parameters which enable them to reach a diagnostic and/or therapeutic proposal, entail implicitly theoretical assumptions and socio-cultural attitudes which prejudice the orientation and the final outcome of the procedure. The various models -causal, probabilistic, case-based etc. -are critically examined and their ethical and methodological limitations are brought to light. The lack of a self-consistent theoretical framework in medicine, the multi-faceted character of the human organism as well as the non-explicit nature of the theoretical assumptions involved in A.I. systems restrict them to the role of decision supporting "instruments" rather than regarding them as decision making "devices". This supporting role and, especially, the important function which A.I. systems should have in the structure, the methods and the content of medical education underscore the need of further research in the theoretical aspects and the actual development of such systems.

  14. Success Determination by Innovation: A Theoretical Approach in Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Gautam

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at to identify the main issues in the marketing which needs immediate attention of the marketers. The importance of innovation in the marketing has also been highlighted and marketing mix have been related to innovative and creative ideas. The study is based on the secondary data, various research papers, articles has been studied to develop a innovative approach in the marketing. Marketing innovative ideas relating to business lead generation, product, price, distribution, promotion of product, and revenue generation have been highlighted in the paper. All the suggestions are theoretical and may have relevance and implication to the marketers.

  15. Success Determination by Innovation: A Theoretical Approach in Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Gautam

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at to identify the main issues in the marketing which needs immediate attention of the marketers. The importance of innovation in the marketing has also been highlighted and marketing mix have been related to innovative and creative ideas. The study is based on the secondary data, various research papers, articles has been studied to develop a innovative approach in the marketing. Marketing innovative ideas relating to business lead generation, product, price, distribution, promotion of product, and revenue generation have been highlighted in the paper. All the suggestions are theoretical and may have relevance and implication to the marketers.

  16. Recent Theoretical Approaches to Minimal Artificial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Mavelli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Minimal artificial cells (MACs are self-assembled chemical systems able to mimic the behavior of living cells at a minimal level, i.e. to exhibit self-maintenance, self-reproduction and the capability of evolution. The bottom-up approach to the construction of MACs is mainly based on the encapsulation of chemical reacting systems inside lipid vesicles, i.e. chemical systems enclosed (compartmentalized by a double-layered lipid membrane. Several researchers are currently interested in synthesizing such simple cellular models for biotechnological purposes or for investigating origin of life scenarios. Within this context, the properties of lipid vesicles (e.g., their stability, permeability, growth dynamics, potential to host reactions or undergo division processes… play a central role, in combination with the dynamics of the encapsulated chemical or biochemical networks. Thus, from a theoretical standpoint, it is very important to develop kinetic equations in order to explore first—and specify later—the conditions that allow the robust implementation of these complex chemically reacting systems, as well as their controlled reproduction. Due to being compartmentalized in small volumes, the population of reacting molecules can be very low in terms of the number of molecules and therefore their behavior becomes highly affected by stochastic effects both in the time course of reactions and in occupancy distribution among the vesicle population. In this short review we report our mathematical approaches to model artificial cell systems in this complex scenario by giving a summary of three recent simulations studies on the topic of primitive cell (protocell systems.

  17. Revisiting verbs of emission: an update on some relevant theoretical accounts of lexical specification and argument structure of emission verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasa Milivojevic

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the question of what semantic properties lexicalized in verbs determine their syntactic behavior in intransitive motion events and in resultative constructions in English and Serbian. Special attention is devoted to English and Serbian verbs of emission (specifically verbs of sound emission and partly also verbs of light, smell and substance emission regarding their potential to surface as main verbs in these constructions and to combine with directional phrases within specific morphosyntactic templates (unaccusatives and unergatives. The presented research promotes a theoretical view according to which the established syntactic patterns can be applied across the whole class of verbs of emission to express a full er range of atypical verb meanings in motion events. Theoretical conclusions of the research are also relevant for a wider theoretical description of motion events and resultatives in a cross - linguistic perspective. The paper puts forth additional implica tions regarding the projectionalist approach to semantic verb classes against the theoretical framework of Beth Levin (1993. Finally, the paper considers the relevant points of structurally realized similarities via relevant constructional templates in En glish and in Serbian, as well as some important points of morphosyntactic divergence between the two languages. The conclusions presented aim at a more comprehensive contrastive language typology based on language “framing” parameters.

  18. SOCIOLOGICAL UNDERSTANDING OF INTERNET: THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO THE NETWORK ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Dobrinskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet studies are carried out by various scientific disciplines and in different research perspectives. Sociological studies of the Internet deal with a new technology, a revolutionary means of mass communication and a social space. There is a set of research difficulties associated with the Internet. Firstly, the high speed and wide spread of Internet technologies’ development. Secondly, the collection and filtration of materials concerning with Internet studies. Lastly, the development of new conceptual categories, which are able to reflect the impact of the Internet development in contemporary world. In that regard the question of the “network” category use is essential. Network is the base of Internet functioning, on the one hand. On the other hand, network is the ground for almost all social interactions in modern society. So such society is called network society. Three theoretical network approaches in the Internet research case are the most relevant: network society theory, social network analysis and actor-network theory. Each of these theoretical approaches contributes to the study of the Internet. They shape various images of interactions between human beings in their entity and dynamics. All these approaches also provide information about the nature of these interactions. 

  19. Multinational approaches relevant to spent fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellaud, B.

    2007-01-01

    The storage of spent fuel is a suitable candidate for a multilateral approach, primarily at the regional level. Small countries with only a few nuclear power plants would benefit economically from large joint facilities. The storage of special nuclear materials in a few safe and secure facilities would also enhance safeguards and physical protection. However, the final disposal of spent fuel and high level radioactive waste is the best candidate for a multilateral approach. It would offer major economic benefits and substantial non-proliferation benefits in spite of the legal, political and public acceptance challenges to be expected in most countries. The transfer of nuclear waste from the exporting country to the host country of an interim storage facility or of a final repository would be done under bilateral or multilateral agreements at the commercial and governmental levels, in accordance with the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. Bilateral or international oversight of joint facilities should be arranged, as needed, to achieve the confidence of the partners as to the safety and physical security of the proposed facility. Such monitoring should cover the adequacy of the technical design, its safety features, its environmental impact, the physical security of nuclear materials and possibly the financial management of the joint venture. After the initial choice of bilateral arrangements, some kind of international monitoring may become appropriate. Various organizations could fulfil such a function, in particular, the IAEA. Such monitoring would have nothing to do with nuclear safeguards; repository monitoring would be a parallel but independent activity of the IAEA. (author)

  20. Child Language Acquisition: Contrasting Theoretical Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambridge, Ben; Lieven, Elena V. M.

    2011-01-01

    Is children's language acquisition based on innate linguistic structures or built from cognitive and communicative skills? This book summarises the major theoretical debates in all of the core domains of child language acquisition research (phonology, word-learning, inflectional morphology, syntax and binding) and includes a complete introduction…

  1. A game theoretic approach to assignment problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, F.

    2000-01-01

    Game theory deals with the mathematical modeling and analysis of conflict and cooperation in the interaction of multiple decision makers. This thesis adopts two game theoretic methods to analyze a range of assignment problems that arise in various economic situations. The first method has as

  2. Game Theoretical Approach to Supply Chain Microfinance

    OpenAIRE

    Sim , Jaehun; Prabhu , Vittaldas ,

    2013-01-01

    Part 1: Sustainable Production; International audience; This paper considers a supply chain microfinance model in which a manufacturer acts as a lender and a raw material supplier as a borrower. Using a game theoretical analysis, the study investigates how investment levels, raw material prices, and profit margins are influenced by loan interest rates under two types of decentralized channel policies: manufacturer Stackelberg and vertical Nash game. In addition, the study shows how the profit...

  3. How cells engulf: a review of theoretical approaches to phagocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, David M.; Endres, Robert G.

    2017-12-01

    Phagocytosis is a fascinating process whereby a cell surrounds and engulfs particles such as bacteria and dead cells. This is crucial both for single-cell organisms (as a way of acquiring nutrients) and as part of the immune system (to destroy foreign invaders). This whole process is hugely complex and involves multiple coordinated events such as membrane remodelling, receptor motion, cytoskeleton reorganisation and intracellular signalling. Because of this, phagocytosis is an excellent system for theoretical study, benefiting from biophysical approaches combined with mathematical modelling. Here, we review these theoretical approaches and discuss the recent mathematical and computational models, including models based on receptors, models focusing on the forces involved, and models employing energetic considerations. Along the way, we highlight a beautiful connection to the physics of phase transitions, consider the role of stochasticity, and examine links between phagocytosis and other types of endocytosis. We cover the recently discovered multistage nature of phagocytosis, showing that the size of the phagocytic cup grows in distinct stages, with an initial slow stage followed by a much quicker second stage starting around half engulfment. We also address the issue of target shape dependence, which is relevant to both pathogen infection and drug delivery, covering both one-dimensional and two-dimensional results. Throughout, we pay particular attention to recent experimental techniques that continue to inform the theoretical studies and provide a means to test model predictions. Finally, we discuss population models, connections to other biological processes, and how physics and modelling will continue to play a key role in future work in this area.

  4. UNCERTAINTY IN NEOCLASSICAL AND KEYNESIAN THEORETICAL APPROACHES: A BEHAVIOURAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinziana BALTATESCU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The ”mainstream” neoclassical assumptions about human economic behavior are currently challenged by both behavioural researches on human behaviour and other theoretical approaches which, in the context of the recent economic and financial crisis find arguments to reinforce their theoretical statements. The neoclassical “perfect rationality” assumption is most criticized and provokes the mainstream theoretical approach to efforts of revisiting the theoretical framework in order to re-state the economic models validity. Uncertainty seems, in this context, to be the concept that allows other theoretical approaches to take into consideration a more realistic individual from the psychological perspective. This paper is trying to present a comparison between the neoclassical and Keynesian approach of the uncertainty, considering the behavioural arguments and challenges addressed to the mainstream theory.

  5. THE NETWORKS IN TOURISM: A THEORETICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria TĂTĂRUȘANU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic world in which tourism companies act today is in a continuous changing process. The most important factor of these changes is the globalization of their environment, both in economic, social, natural and cultural aspects. The tourism companies can benefit from the opportunities brought by globalization, but also could be menaced by the new context. How could react the companies to these changes in order to create and maintain long term competitive advantage for their business? In the present paper we make a literature review of the new tourism companies´ business approach: the networks - a result and/or a reason for exploiting the opportunities or, on the contrary, for keeping their actual position on the market. It’s a qualitative approach and the research methods used are analyses, synthesis, abstraction, which are considered the most appropriate to achieve the objective of the paper.

  6. Theoretical approach to the scanning tunneling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguera, C.

    1990-01-01

    Within a one-electron approach, based on a Green's-function formalism, a nonperturbative expression for the tunneling current is obtained and used to discuss which spectroscopic information may be deduced from a scanning-tunneling-microscope experiment. It is shown up to which limits the voltage dependence of the tunneling current reproduces the local density of states at the surface, and how the reflection coefficients of the electronic waves at the surface may modify it

  7. MEDICAL BRAIN DRAIN - A THEORETICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boncea Irina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Medical brain drain is defined as the migration of health personnel from developing countries to developed countries and between industrialized nations in search for better opportunities. This phenomenon became a global growing concern due to its impact on both the donor and the destination countries. This article aims to present the main theoretical contributions starting from 1950 until today and the historical evolution, in the attempt of correlating the particular case of medical brain drain with the theory and evolution of the brain drain in general. This article raises questions and offers answers, identifies the main issues and looks for possible solutions in order to reduce the emigration of medical doctors. Factors of influence include push (low level of income, poor working conditions, the absence of job openings and social recognition, oppressive political climate and pull (better remuneration and working conditions, prospects for career development, job satisfaction, security factors. Developing countries are confronting with the loss of their most valuable intellectuals and the investment in their education, at the benefit of developed nations. An ethical debate arises as the disparities between countries increases, industrialized nations filling in the gaps in health systems with professionals from countries already facing shortages. However, recent literature emphasizes the possibility of a “beneficial brain drain” through education incentives offered by the emigration prospects. Other sources of “brain gain” for donor country are the remittances, the scientific networks and return migration. Measures to stem the medical brain drain involve the common effort and collaboration between developing and developed countries and international organizations. Measures adopted by donor countries include higher salaries, better working conditions, security, career opportunities, incentives to stimulate return migration. Destination

  8. The dynamics of alliances. A game theoretical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, A. de

    2007-01-01

    In this dissertation, Annelies de Ridder presents a game theoretical approach to strategic alliances. More specifically, the dynamics of and within alliances have been studied. To do so, four new models have been developed in the game theoretical tradition. Both coalition theory and strategic game

  9. Social representations: a theoretical approach in health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaiane Santos Bittencourt

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present the theory of social representations, placing its epistemology and knowing the basic concepts of its approach as a structural unit of knowledge for health studies. Justification: The use of this theory comes from the need to understand social eventsunder the lens of the meanings constructed by the community. Data Synthesis: This was a descriptive study of literature review, which used as a source of data collection the classical authors of social representations supported by articles from electronic search at Virtual Health Library (VHL. The definition and discussion of collected data enabled to introduce two themes, versed on the history and epistemology of representations and on the structuralapproach of representations in health studies. Conclusion: This review allowed highlight the importance of locating the objects of study with regard to contextual issues of individual and collective histories, valuing the plurality of relations, to come closer to reality that is represented by the subjects.

  10. Computational and Game-Theoretic Approaches for Modeling Bounded Rationality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Waltman (Ludo)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis studies various computational and game-theoretic approaches to economic modeling. Unlike traditional approaches to economic modeling, the approaches studied in this thesis do not rely on the assumption that economic agents behave in a fully rational way. Instead, economic

  11. Theoretical approaches to lightness and perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, Alan

    2015-01-01

    . Evidence for and against these approaches is reviewed.

  12. THE REPURCHASE OF SHARES - ANOTHER FORM OF REWARDING INVESTORS - A THEORETICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRISACARIU Maria

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the shareholder remuneration policies, in recent years, share repurchases are gaining more and more ground. Like any other phenomenon or financial practice, repurchases lacked no theories to explain their motivation, effects and controversies. This paper proposes a theoretical approach to the subject by summarizing relevant research in order to highlight the motivations behind this decision and its implications.

  13. Intelligent cognitive radio jamming - a game-theoretical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabcevic, Kresimir; Betancourt, Alejandro; Marcenaro, Lucio; Regazzoni, Carlo S.

    2014-12-01

    Cognitive radio (CR) promises to be a solution for the spectrum underutilization problems. However, security issues pertaining to cognitive radio technology are still an understudied topic. One of the prevailing such issues are intelligent radio frequency (RF) jamming attacks, where adversaries are able to exploit on-the-fly reconfigurability potentials and learning mechanisms of cognitive radios in order to devise and deploy advanced jamming tactics. In this paper, we use a game-theoretical approach to analyze jamming/anti-jamming behavior between cognitive radio systems. A non-zero-sum game with incomplete information on an opponent's strategy and payoff is modelled as an extension of Markov decision process (MDP). Learning algorithms based on adaptive payoff play and fictitious play are considered. A combination of frequency hopping and power alteration is deployed as an anti-jamming scheme. A real-life software-defined radio (SDR) platform is used in order to perform measurements useful for quantifying the jamming impacts, as well as to infer relevant hardware-related properties. Results of these measurements are then used as parameters for the modelled jamming/anti-jamming game and are compared to the Nash equilibrium of the game. Simulation results indicate, among other, the benefit provided to the jammer when it is employed with the spectrum sensing algorithm in proactive frequency hopping and power alteration schemes.

  14. Dramaturgical and Music-Theoretical Approaches to Improvisation Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huovinen, Erkki; Tenkanen, Atte; Kuusinen, Vesa-Pekka

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to assess the relative merits of two approaches to teaching musical improvisation: a music-theoretical approach, focusing on chords and scales, and a "dramaturgical" one, emphasizing questions of balance, variation and tension. Adult students of music pedagogy, with limited previous experience in improvisation,…

  15. Preservation of Newspapers: Theoretical Approaches and Practical Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenay, Damir; Krtalic, Maja

    2010-01-01

    The preservation of newspapers is the main topic of this paper. A theoretical overview of newspaper preservation is given, with an emphasis on the importance of a systematic and comprehensive approach. Efficient newspaper preservation implies understanding the meaning of preservation in general, as well as understanding specific approaches,…

  16. Theoretical studies of oxides relevant to the combustion of fossil fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Jason Michael

    Anthropogenic pollution has greatly increased since the industrial revolution and continues to increase as more of the world becomes dependent upon fossil fuels for important applications like transportation and power production. In a general case, whenever a fossil fuel is consumed, a primary product of a complete combustion reaction is carbon dioxide. In a more specific case, the collection, processing and combustion of coal for power production are one of the primary ways by which trace elements, such as arsenic and selenium, are released into the environment. All of these pollutants are known to have harmful effects, whether on the environment, human health or power production itself. Because of this there has been an increasing interest in studies related to combating these pollutants. Concerning CO2 emissions, recently there has been a significant amount of work related to CO2 capture. A promising method involves the encapsulation of CO2 into isoreticular metal-organic frameworks (IRMOFs). The effectiveness of IMROFs greatly depends on the choice of both metal and organic parts. Molecular simulations have been used in the past to aid in the design and characterization of new MOFs, in particular by generating an adsorption isotherm. However, these traditional simulation methods have several drawbacks. The method used in this thesis, namely expanded Wang-Landau, not only overcomes these drawbacks but provides access to all the thermodynamic properties relevant to the adsorption process through a solution thermodynamics approach. This is greatly beneficial, since an excellent way to characterize the performance of various MOFs is by comparing their desorption free energy, i.e., the energy it takes to regenerate a saturated MOF to prepare it for the next adsorption cycle. Expanded WL was used in the study of CO 2 adsorption into IRMOF-1, 8 and 10 at eight temperatures, spanning both the subcritical and supercritical regimes and the following were obtained

  17. One-dimensional barcode reading: an information theoretic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houni, Karim; Sawaya, Wadih; Delignon, Yves

    2008-03-01

    In the convergence context of identification technology and information-data transmission, the barcode found its place as the simplest and the most pervasive solution for new uses, especially within mobile commerce, bringing youth to this long-lived technology. From a communication theory point of view, a barcode is a singular coding based on a graphical representation of the information to be transmitted. We present an information theoretic approach for 1D image-based barcode reading analysis. With a barcode facing the camera, distortions and acquisition are modeled as a communication channel. The performance of the system is evaluated by means of the average mutual information quantity. On the basis of this theoretical criterion for a reliable transmission, we introduce two new measures: the theoretical depth of field and the theoretical resolution. Simulations illustrate the gain of this approach.

  18. Molecular approach of uranyl/mineral surfaces: theoretical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roques, J.

    2009-01-01

    As migration of radio-toxic elements through the geosphere is one of the processes which may affect the safety of a radioactive waste storage site, the author shows that numerical modelling is a support to experimental result exploitation, and allows the development of new interpretation and prediction codes. He shows that molecular modelling can be used to study processes of interaction between an actinide ion (notably a uranyl ion) and a mineral surface (a TiO 2 substrate). He also reports the predictive theoretical study of the interaction between an uranyl ion and a gibbsite substrate

  19. Strategic approach to branding of nations: Relevancy for Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakita Branko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Building and managing brands becomes very important marketing tool in nowadays business. Branding is being pulled out from a strictly marketing area and becomes business component of a strategic importance. It is applying to products, services, companies, but also to events, people, ideas, institutions, destinations. Basically, almost everything can be branded. The subject of this paper is strategic approach to branding of nations. The paper contains review of relevant literature for the topic. Specifics of this type of branding have been analyzed. Detailed concept of strategic approach to branding of nations is a vital part of the paper. Relevancy of strategic approach to branding for Serbia is discussed at the end.

  20. BEHAVIORAL INPUTS TO THE THEORETICAL APPROACH OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinziana BALTATESCU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The current economic and financial crisis gave room for the theoretical debates to reemerge. The economic reality challenged the mainstream neoclassical approach leaving the opportunity for the Austrian School, Post Keynesianism or Institutionalists to bring in front theories that seem to better explain the economic crisis and thus, leaving space for more efficient economic policies to result. In this context, the main assumptions of the mainstream theoretical approach are challenged and reevaluated, behavioral economics is one of the main challengers. Without developing in an integrated school of thought yet, behavioral economics brings new elements within the framework of economic thinking. How are the main theoretical approaches integrating these new elements and whether this process is going to narrow the theory or enrich it to be more comprehensive are questions to which this paper tries to answer, or, at least, to leave room for an answer.

  1. Twistor-theoretic approach to topological field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kei.

    1991-12-01

    The two-dimensional topological field theory which describes a four-dimensional self-dual space-time (gravitational instanton) as a target space, which we constructed before, is shown to be deeply connected with Penrose's 'twistor theory'. The relations are presented in detail. Thus our theory offers a 'twistor theoretic' approach to topological field theories. (author)

  2. Multiple stakeholders in road pricing: A game theoretic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohazulike, Anthony; Still, Georg J.; Kern, Walter; van Berkum, Eric C.; Hausken, Kjell; Zhuang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    We investigate a game theoretic approach as an alternative to the standard multi-objective optimization models for road pricing. Assuming that various, partly conflicting traffic externalities (congestion, air pollution, noise, safety, etcetera) are represented by corresponding players acting on a

  3. An Activity Theoretical Approach to Social Interaction during Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Rachel L.

    2016-01-01

    This case study examines how one study abroad student oriented to social interaction during a semester in Spain. Using an activity theoretical approach, the findings indicate that the student not only viewed social interaction with his Spanish host family and an expert-Spanish-speaking age peer as an opportunity for second language (L2) learning,…

  4. Monoenergetic approximation of a polyenergetic beam: a theoretical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, D.M.; Scrimger, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    There exist numerous occasions in which it is desirable to approximate the polyenergetic beams employed in radiation therapy by a beam of photons of a single energy. In some instances, commonly used rules of thumb for the selection of an appropriate energy may be valid. A more accurate approximate energy, however, may be determined by an analysis which takes into account both the spectral qualities of the beam and the material through which it passes. The theoretical basis of this method of analysis is presented in this paper. Experimental agreement with theory for a range of materials and beam qualities is also presented and demonstrates the validity of the theoretical approach taken. (author)

  5. A new theoretical approach to analyze complex processes in cytoskeleton proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B

    2014-03-20

    Cytoskeleton proteins are filament structures that support a large number of important biological processes. These dynamic biopolymers exist in nonequilibrium conditions stimulated by hydrolysis chemical reactions in their monomers. Current theoretical methods provide a comprehensive picture of biochemical and biophysical processes in cytoskeleton proteins. However, the description is only qualitative under biologically relevant conditions because utilized theoretical mean-field models neglect correlations. We develop a new theoretical method to describe dynamic processes in cytoskeleton proteins that takes into account spatial correlations in the chemical composition of these biopolymers. Our approach is based on analysis of probabilities of different clusters of subunits. It allows us to obtain exact analytical expressions for a variety of dynamic properties of cytoskeleton filaments. By comparing theoretical predictions with Monte Carlo computer simulations, it is shown that our method provides a fully quantitative description of complex dynamic phenomena in cytoskeleton proteins under all conditions.

  6. An experimental and theoretical study of reaction steps relevant to the methanol-to-hydrocarbons reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svelle, Stian

    2004-07-01

    The primary objective of the present work is to obtain new insight into the reaction mechanism of the zeolite catalyzed methanol-to-hydrocarbons (MTH) reaction. It was decided to use both experimental and computational techniques to reach this goal. An investigation of the n-butene + methanol system was therefore initiated. Over time, it became apparent that it was possible to determine the rate for the methylation of n-butene by methanol. The ethene and propene systems were therefore reexamined in order to collect kinetic information also for those cases. With the development of user-friendly quantum chemistry programs such as the Gaussian suite of programs, the possibility of applying quantum chemical methods to many types of problems has become readily available even for non-experts. When performing mechanistic studies, there is quite often a considerable synergy effect when combining experimental and computational approaches. The methylation reactions mentioned above turned out to be an issue well suited for quantum chemical investigations. The incentive for examining the halomethane reactivity was the clear analogy to the MTH reaction system. Alkene dimerization was also a reaction readily examined with quantum chemistry. As discussed in the introduction of this thesis, polymethylbenzenes, or their cationic counterparts, are suspected to be key intermediates in the MTH reaction. It was therefore decided to investigate the intrinsic reactivity of these species in the gas-phase by employing sophisticated mass spectrometric (MS) techniques in collaboration with the MS group at the Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo The data thus obtained will also be compared with results from an ongoing computational study on gas phase polymethylbenzenium reactivity. 6 papers presenting various studies are included. The titles are: 1) A Theoretical Investigation of the Methylation of Alkenes with Methanol over Acidic Zeolites. 2) A Theoretical Investigation of the

  7. An experimental and theoretical study of reaction steps relevant to the methanol-to-hydrocarbons reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svelle, Stian

    2004-07-01

    The primary objective of the present work is to obtain new insight into the reaction mechanism of the zeolite catalyzed methanol-to-hydrocarbons (MTH) reaction. It was decided to use both experimental and computational techniques to reach this goal. An investigation of the n-butene + methanol system was therefore initiated. Over time, it became apparent that it was possible to determine the rate for the methylation of n-butene by methanol. The ethene and propene systems were therefore reexamined in order to collect kinetic information also for those cases. With the development of user-friendly quantum chemistry programs such as the Gaussian suite of programs, the possibility of applying quantum chemical methods to many types of problems has become readily available even for non-experts. When performing mechanistic studies, there is quite often a considerable synergy effect when combining experimental and computational approaches. The methylation reactions mentioned above turned out to be an issue well suited for quantum chemical investigations. The incentive for examining the halomethane reactivity was the clear analogy to the MTH reaction system. Alkene dimerization was also a reaction readily examined with quantum chemistry. As discussed in the introduction of this thesis, polymethylbenzenes, or their cationic counterparts, are suspected to be key intermediates in the MTH reaction. It was therefore decided to investigate the intrinsic reactivity of these species in the gas-phase by employing sophisticated mass spectrometric (MS) techniques in collaboration with the MS group at the Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo The data thus obtained will also be compared with results from an ongoing computational study on gas phase polymethylbenzenium reactivity. 6 papers presenting various studies are included. The titles are: 1) A Theoretical Investigation of the Methylation of Alkenes with Methanol over Acidic Zeolites. 2) A Theoretical Investigation of the

  8. Model selection and inference a practical information-theoretic approach

    CERN Document Server

    Burnham, Kenneth P

    1998-01-01

    This book is unique in that it covers the philosophy of model-based data analysis and an omnibus strategy for the analysis of empirical data The book introduces information theoretic approaches and focuses critical attention on a priori modeling and the selection of a good approximating model that best represents the inference supported by the data Kullback-Leibler information represents a fundamental quantity in science and is Hirotugu Akaike's basis for model selection The maximized log-likelihood function can be bias-corrected to provide an estimate of expected, relative Kullback-Leibler information This leads to Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) and various extensions and these are relatively simple and easy to use in practice, but little taught in statistics classes and far less understood in the applied sciences than should be the case The information theoretic approaches provide a unified and rigorous theory, an extension of likelihood theory, an important application of information theory, and are ...

  9. Child education and management: theoretical approaches on legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúbia Borges

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate theoretical approaches regarding to daycare centers and management, considering childhood education for different audiences, such children and babies on the childhood perspective. On qualitative approach, this research is bibliographical and reflects on official documents about the theme. The development of this research occurred through analysis on educational Brazilian laws, starting by the Federal Constitution (FC, Law of Guidelines and Bases for National Education (LGB, National Curriculum Guidelines and the Education National Plan (ENP. The results point to a generalist legislation that allow certain autonomy on the education. However, there is the need to deepen theoretical and practical studies on the reality of institutions which have the education as the paramount purpose, in order to offer education with quality and attending to the needs from the audience in these institutions.

  10. Blogging in Higher Education: Theoretical and Practical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Gulfidan CAN; Devrim OZDEMIR

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the blogging method, which includes new forms of writing, is supported as an alternative approach to address the frequently asserted problems in higher education such as product-oriented assessment and lack of value given to students' writing as contribution to the discourse of the academic disciplines. Both theoretical and research background information is provided to clarify the rationale of using this method in higher education. Furthermore, recommended way of using this met...

  11. Theoretical and expert system approach to photoionization theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Ivan D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the ponderomotive and the Stark shifts on the tunneling transition rate was observed, for non-relativistic linearly polarized laser field for alkali atoms, with three different theoretical models, the Keldysh theory, the Perelomov, Popov, Terent'ev (PPT theory, and the Ammosov, Delone, Krainov (ADK theory. We showed that aforementioned shifts affect the transition rate differently for different approaches. Finally, we presented a simple expert system for analysis of photoionization theories.

  12. Principle-theoretic approach of kondo and construction-theoretic formalism of gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, L.C.

    1986-01-01

    Einstein classified various theories in physics as principle-theories and constructive-theories. In this lecture Kondo's approach to microscopic and macroscopic phenomena is analysed for its principle theoretic pursuit as followed by construction. The fundamentals of his theory may be recalled as Tristimulus principle, Observation principle, Kawaguchi spaces, empirical information, epistemological point of view, unitarity, intrinsicality, and dimensional analysis subject to logical and geometrical achievement. On the other hand, various physicists have evolved constructive gauge theories through the phenomenological point of view, often a collective one. Their synthetic method involves fibre bundles and connections, path integrals as well as other hypothetical structures. They lead towards clarity, completeness and adaptability

  13. Towards Culturally Relevant Classroom Science: A Theoretical Framework Focusing on Traditional Plant Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpofu, Vongai; Otulaja, Femi S.; Mushayikwa, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical framework is an important component of a research study. It grounds the study and guides the methodological design. It also forms a reference point for the interpretation of the research findings. This paper conceptually examines the process of constructing a multi-focal theoretical lens for guiding studies that aim to accommodate…

  14. Theoretical orientations in environmental planning: An inquiry into alternative approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briassoulis, Helen

    1989-07-01

    In the process of devising courses of action to resolve problems arising at the society-environment interface, a variety of planning approaches are followed, whose adoption is influenced by—among other things—the characteristics of environmental problems, the nature of the decision-making context, and the intellectual traditions of the disciplines contributing to the study of these problems. This article provides a systematic analysis of six alternative environmental planning approaches—comprehensive/rational, incremental, adaptive, contingency, advocacy, and participatory/consensual. The relative influence of the abovementioned factors is examined, the occurrence of these approaches in real-world situations is noted, and their environmental soundness and political realism is evaluated. Because of the disparity between plan formulation and implementation and between theoretical form and empirical reality, a synthetic view of environmental planning approaches is taken and approaches in action are identified, which characterize the totality of the planning process from problem definition to plan implementation, as well as approaches in the becoming, which may be on the horizon of environmental planning of tomorrow. The suggested future research directions include case studies to verify and detail the presence of the approaches discussed, developing measures of success of a given approach in a given decision setting, and an intertemporal analysis of environmental planning approaches.

  15. An attempt of classification of theoretical approaches to national identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević-Đorđević Jasna S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available It is compulsory that complex social concepts should be defined in different ways and approached from the perspective of different science disciplines. Therefore, it is difficult to precisely define them without overlapping of meaning with other similar concepts. This paper has made an attempt towards theoretical classification of the national identity and differentiate that concept in comparison to the other related concepts (race, ethnic group, nation, national background, authoritativeness, patriarchy. Theoretical assessments are classified into two groups: ones that are dealing with nature of national identity and others that are stating one or more dimensions of national identity, crucial for its determination. On the contrary to the primordialistic concept of national identity, describing it as a fundamental, deeply rooted human feature, there are many numerous contemporary theoretical approaches (instrumentalist, constructivist, functionalistic, emphasizing changeable, fluid, instrumentalist function of the national identity. Fundamental determinants of national identity are: language, culture (music, traditional myths, state symbols (territory, citizenship, self-categorization, religion, set of personal characteristics and values.

  16. A System Theoretical Inspired Approach to Knowledge Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Helle

    2008-01-01

    student's knowledge construction, in the light of operative constructivism, inspired by the German sociologist N. Luhmann's system theoretical approach to epistemology. Taking observations as operations based on distinction and indication (selection) contingency becomes a fundamental condition in learning......  Abstract The aim of this paper is to discuss the relation between teaching and learning. The point of departure is that teaching environments (communication forums) is a potential facilitator for learning processes and knowledge construction. The paper present a theoretical frame work, to discuss...... processes, and a condition which teaching must address as far as teaching strives to stimulate non-random learning outcomes. Thus learning outcomes understood as the individual learner's knowledge construction cannot be directly predicted from events and characteristics in the environment. This has...

  17. Information Ergonomics A theoretical approach and practical experience in transportation

    CERN Document Server

    Sandl, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The variety and increasing availability of hypermedia information systems, which are used in stationary applications like operators’ consoles as well as mobile systems, e.g. driver information and navigation systems in automobiles form a foundation for the mediatization of the society. From the human engineering point of view this development and the ensuing increased importance of information systems for economic and private needs require careful deliberation of the derivation and application of ergonomics methods particularly in the field of information systems. This book consists of two closely intertwined parts. The first, theoretical part defines the concept of an information system, followed by an explanation of action regulation as well as cognitive theories to describe man information system interaction. A comprehensive description of information ergonomics concludes the theoretical approach. In the second, practically oriented part of this book authors from industry as well as from academic institu...

  18. Personalized Education Approaches for Chemical Engineering and Relevant Majors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Feng-qing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Personalized education has drawn increasing attention in universities these years. With the purpose of improving the studentss’ comprehensive ability and developing teaching strategies to ensure students’ education is tailored to their needs, we proposed Three-Stage Approach (TSA to enhance personalized education for chemical engineering and relevant majors: professional tutorial system--equipping with professional guidance teachers for freshman students to guide their learning activities and provide professional guidance; open experimental project--setting up open experimental projects for sophomore and junior students to choose freely; individualized education module--setting up 10 different individualized education modules for senior students to select. After years of practice, the personalized education model is improved day by day and proved effective and fruitful.

  19. Mild obstructive sleep apnoea: clinical relevance and approaches to management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicholas, Walter T; Bonsignore, Maria R; Lévy, Patrick; Ryan, Silke

    2016-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea is highly prevalent in the general population worldwide, especially in its mild form. Clinical manifestations correlate poorly with disease severity measured by the apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI), which complicates diagnosis. Full polysomnography might be more appropriate to assess suspected mild cases because limited ambulatory diagnostic systems are least accurate in mild disease. Treatment options in mild obstructive sleep apnoea include continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and oral appliance therapy, in addition to positional therapy and weight reduction when appropriate. The superior efficacy of CPAP in reducing AHI is offset by greater tolerance of oral appliances, especially in mild disease. Although severe obstructive sleep apnoea is associated with adverse health consequences, including cardiometabolic comorbidities, the association with mild disease is unclear, and reports differ regarding the clinical relevance of mild obstructive sleep apnoea. Improved diagnostic techniques and evidence-based approaches to management in mild obstructive sleep apnoea require further research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Theoretical approaches to determining the financial provision of public transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Vygovska

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to the improvement of theoretical approaches in determining the financial provision of transportation by public transport at the regional level. The author summarizes the concept of the «financial security» and defines the main difference from the term «financing». The systematization of key differences in the financial provision of a transport company from other financial entities of the economic sector at the national and regional levels is carried out. The disadvantages and advantages of sources of financial support are analyzed. The purpose of the article is to study theoretical approaches in determining the financial provision of transportation by public transport at the regional level. The prospects for further scientific research are the need to identify new scientific approaches and techniques to substantiate and elaborate the concept of the «financial provision of transportation by public transport». The practical application of the research should be formed in a detailed analysis of cash flow streams in the system of «state – regional authority – economic entity». The financial provision of transportation by public transport at the regional level has not been given the sufficient attention in the scientific research within the country. This fact confirms the need for a thorough analysis of the transport industry as a whole.

  1. MEDIATIC NARRATIVES AND IDENTIFICATION PROCESSES. A THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomé Sola Morales

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article, theoretical and argumentative, lays the conceptual and methodological basis for the study of the link between identity and narrative media identification processes undertaken by individuals and groups. Thus, the setting national identifications, professional, religious or gender is here proposed as the result of the dialectic between the 'media narrative identity', which the media produce and convey, and identification processes that individuals and groups perform. Furthermore we propose the use of the biographical method as a form of empirical approach to psycho-social phenomenon

  2. The production of scientific videos: a theoretical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ernesto Gavilondo Rodriguez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of theoretical research on the production of scientific videos and its application to the teaching-learning process carried out in schools in the city of Guayaquil, Ecuador. It is located within the production line and Audiovisual Communication. Creation of scientific videos, from the Communication major with a concentration in audiovisual production and multimedia of the Salesian Polytechnic University. For the realization of the article it was necessary to use key terms that helped subsequently to data collection. used terms such as: audiovisual production, understood as the production of content for audiovisual media; the following term used audiovisual communication is recognized as the process in which there is an exchange of messages through an audible and / or visual system; and the last term we use is scientifically video, which is one that uses audiovisual resources to obtain relevant and reliable information.As part of the theoretical results a methodological proposal for the video production is presented for educational purposes. In conclusion set out, first, that from the communicative statement in recent times, current social relations, constitute a successful context of possibilities shown to education to generate meeting points between the world of the everyday and the knowledge. Another indicator validated as part of the investigation, is that teachers surveyed use the potential of the audiovisual media, and supported them, deploy alternatives for use. 

  3. Vanadium supersaturated silicon system: a theoretical and experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Hemme, Eric; García, Gregorio; Palacios, Pablo; Montero, Daniel; García-Hernansanz, Rodrigo; Gonzalez-Diaz, Germán; Wahnon, Perla

    2017-12-01

    The effect of high dose vanadium ion implantation and pulsed laser annealing on the crystal structure and sub-bandgap optical absorption features of V-supersaturated silicon samples has been studied through the combination of experimental and theoretical approaches. Interest in V-supersaturated Si focusses on its potential as a material having a new band within the Si bandgap. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry measurements and formation energies computed through quantum calculations provide evidence that V atoms are mainly located at interstitial positions. The response of sub-bandgap spectral photoconductance is extended far into the infrared region of the spectrum. Theoretical simulations (based on density functional theory and many-body perturbation in GW approximation) bring to light that, in addition to V atoms at interstitial positions, Si defects should also be taken into account in explaining the experimental profile of the spectral photoconductance. The combination of experimental and theoretical methods provides evidence that the improved spectral photoconductance up to 6.2 µm (0.2 eV) is due to new sub-bandgap transitions, for which the new band due to V atoms within the Si bandgap plays an essential role. This enables the use of V-supersaturated silicon in the third generation of photovoltaic devices.

  4. Theoretical, Methodological, and Empirical Approaches to Cost Savings: A Compendium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Weimar

    1998-12-10

    This publication summarizes and contains the original documentation for understanding why the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) privatization approach provides cost savings and the different approaches that could be used in calculating cost savings for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Phase I contract. The initial section summarizes the approaches in the different papers. The appendices are the individual source papers which have been reviewed by individuals outside of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the TWRS Program. Appendix A provides a theoretical basis for and estimate of the level of savings that can be" obtained from a fixed-priced contract with performance risk maintained by the contractor. Appendix B provides the methodology for determining cost savings when comparing a fixed-priced contractor with a Management and Operations (M&O) contractor (cost-plus contractor). Appendix C summarizes the economic model used to calculate cost savings and provides hypothetical output from preliminary calculations. Appendix D provides the summary of the approach for the DOE-Richland Operations Office (RL) estimate of the M&O contractor to perform the same work as BNFL Inc. Appendix E contains information on cost growth and per metric ton of glass costs for high-level waste at two other DOE sites, West Valley and Savannah River. Appendix F addresses a risk allocation analysis of the BNFL proposal that indicates,that the current approach is still better than the alternative.

  5. Towards a Set Theoretical Approach to Big Data Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Hussain, Abid; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Formal methods, models and tools for social big data analytics are largely limited to graph theoretical approaches such as social network analysis (SNA) informed by relational sociology. There are no other unified modeling approaches to social big data that integrate the conceptual, formal...... this technique to the data analysis of big social data collected from Facebook page of the fast fashion company, H&M....... and software realms. In this paper, we first present and discuss a theory and conceptual model of social data. Second, we outline a formal model based on set theory and discuss the semantics of the formal model with a real-world social data example from Facebook. Third, we briefly present and discuss...

  6. Introduction to superfluidity field-theoretical approach and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Superfluidity – and closely related to it, superconductivity – are very general phenomena that can occur on vastly different energy scales. Their underlying theoretical mechanism of spontaneous symmetry breaking is even more general and applies to a multitude of physical systems.  In these lecture notes, a pedagogical introduction to the field-theory approach to superfluidity is presented. The connection to more traditional approaches, often formulated in a different language, is carefully explained in order to provide a consistent picture that is useful for students and researchers in all fields of physics. After introducing the basic concepts, such as the two-fluid model and the Goldstone mode, selected topics of current research are addressed, such as the BCS-BEC crossover and Cooper pairing with mismatched Fermi momenta.

  7. Decision-theoretic approaches to non-knowledge in economics

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlova, Ekaterina; van Elst, Henk

    2014-01-01

    We review two strands of conceptual approaches to the formal representation of a decision maker's non-knowledge at the initial stage of a static one-person, one-shot decision problem in economic theory. One focuses on representations of non-knowledge in terms of probability measures over sets of mutually exclusive and exhaustive consequence-relevant states of Nature, the other deals with unawareness of potentially important events by means of sets of states that are less complete than the ful...

  8. We need theoretical physics approaches to study living systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagoev, Krastan B.; Shukla, Kamal; affil="3" >Herbert Levine,

    2013-08-01

    Living systems, as created initially by the transition from assemblies of large molecules to self-reproducing information-rich cells, have for centuries been studied via the empirical toolkit of biology. This has been a highly successful enterprise, bringing us from the vague non-scientific notions of vitalism to the modern appreciation of the biophysical and biochemical bases of life. Yet, the truly mind-boggling complexity of even the simplest self-sufficient cells, let alone the emergence of multicellular organisms, of brain and consciousness, and to ecological communities and human civilizations, calls out for a complementary approach. In this editorial, we propose that theoretical physics can play an essential role in making sense of living matter. When faced with a highly complex system, a physicist builds simplified models. Quoting Philip W Anderson's Nobel prize address, 'the art of model-building is the exclusion of real but irrelevant parts of the problem and entails hazards for the builder and the reader. The builder may leave out something genuinely relevant and the reader, armed with too sophisticated an experimental probe, may take literally a schematized model. Very often such a simplified model throws more light on the real working of nature....' In his formulation, the job of a theorist is to get at the crux of the system by ignoring details and yet to find a testable consequence of the resulting simple picture. This is rather different than the predilection of the applied mathematician who wants to include all the known details in the hope of a quantitative simulacrum of reality. These efforts may be practically useful, but do not usually lead to increased understanding. To illustrate how this works, we can look at a non-living example of complex behavior that was afforded by spatiotemporal patterning in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction [1]. Physicists who worked on this system did not attempt to determine all the relevant chemical intermediates

  9. Nuclear Fermi Dynamics: physical content versus theoretical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    Those qualitative properties of nuclei, and of their energetic collisions, which seem of most importance for the flow of nuclear matter are listed and briefly discussed. It is suggested that nuclear matter flow is novel among fluid dynamical problems. The name, Nuclear Fermi Dynamics, is proposed as an appropriate unambiguous label. The Principle of Commensurability, which suggests the measurement of the theoretical content of an approach against its expected predictive range is set forth and discussed. Several of the current approaches to the nuclear matter flow problem are listed and subjected to such a test. It is found that the Time-Dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) description, alone of all the major theoretical approaches currently in vogue, incorporates each of the major qualitative features within its very concise single mathematical assumption. Some limitations of the conventional TDHF method are noted, and one particular defect is discussed in detail: the Spurious Cross Channel Correlations which arise whenever several asymptotic reaction channels must be simultaneously described by a single determinant. A reformulated Time-Dependent-S-Matrix Hartree-Fock Theory is proposed, which obviates this difficulty. It is noted that the structure of TD-S-HF can be applied to a more general class of non-linear wave mechanical problems than simple TDHF. Physical requirements minimal to assure that TD-S-HF represents a sensible reaction theory are utilized to prescribe the definition of acceptable asymptotic channels. That definition, in turn, defines the physical range of the TD-S-HF theory as the description of collisions of certain mathematically well-defined objects of mixed quantal and classical character, the ''TDHF droplets.''

  10. Electron ionization of open/closed chain isocarbonic molecules relevant in plasma processing: Theoretical cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Umang R.; Joshipura, K. N.; Pandya, Siddharth H.; Kothari, Harshit N.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report theoretical electron impact ionization cross sections from threshold to 2000 eV for isocarbonic open chain molecules C 4 H 6 , C 4 H 8 , C 4 F 6 including their isomers, and closed chain molecules c-C 4 H 8 and c-C 4 F 8 . Theoretical formalism employed presently, viz., Complex Scattering Potential-ionization contribution method has been used successfully for a variety of polyatomic molecules. The present ionization calculations are very important since results available for the studied targets are either scarce or none. Our work affords comparison of C 4 containing hydrocarbon versus fluorocarbon molecules. Comparisons of the present ionization cross sections are made wherever possible, and new ionization data are also presented

  11. The Advisor as Servant: The Theoretical and Philosophical Relevance of Servant Leadership to Academic Advising

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Jeffrey L.

    2007-01-01

    Servant. This novel actively portrays Greenleaf's concept of servant leadership by describing the extracurricular work of a university professor. Consequently, some scholars have demonstrated the relevance of servant leadership to classroom instruction (Powers & Moore, 2005). However, it was not as an instructor, but as an advisor that the…

  12. Analytic game—theoretic approach to ground-water extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loáiciga, Hugo A.

    2004-09-01

    The roles of cooperation and non-cooperation in the sustainable exploitation of a jointly used groundwater resource have been quantified mathematically using an analytical game-theoretic formulation. Cooperative equilibrium arises when ground-water users respect water-level constraints and consider mutual impacts, which allows them to derive economic benefits from ground-water indefinitely, that is, to achieve sustainability. This work shows that cooperative equilibrium can be obtained from the solution of a quadratic programming problem. For cooperative equilibrium to hold, however, enforcement must be effective. Otherwise, according to the commonized costs-privatized profits paradox, there is a natural tendency towards non-cooperation and non-sustainable aquifer mining, of which overdraft is a typical symptom. Non-cooperative behavior arises when at least one ground-water user neglects the externalities of his adopted ground-water pumping strategy. In this instance, water-level constraints may be violated in a relatively short time and the economic benefits from ground-water extraction fall below those obtained with cooperative aquifer use. One example illustrates the game theoretic approach of this work.

  13. Factors determining early internationalization of entrepreneurial SMEs: Theoretical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agne Matiusinaite

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This study extends the scientific discussion of early internationalization of SMEs. The main purpose of this paper – to develop a theoretical framework to investigate factors determining early internationalization of international new ventures. Design/methodology/approach – The conceptual framework is built on the analysis and synthesis of scientific literature. Findings – This paper presents different factors, which determine early internationalization of international new ventures. These factors are divided to entrepreneurial, organizational and contextual factors. We argue that early internationalization of international new ventures is defined by entrepreneurial characteristics and previous experience of the entrepreneur, opportunities recognition and exploitation, risk tolerance, specific of the organization, involvement into networks and contextual factors. Study proved that only interaction between factors and categories has an effect for business development and successful implementation of early internationalization. Research limitations/implications – The research was conducted on the theoretical basis of scientific literature. The future studies could include a practical confirmation or denial of such allocation of factors. Originality/value – The originality of this study lies in the finding that factor itself has limited effect to early internationalization. Only the interoperability of categories and factors gives a positive impact on early internationalization of entrepreneurial SMEs.

  14. Investigations on Actuator Dynamics through Theoretical and Finite Element Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somashekhar S. Hiremath

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a new approach for modeling the fluid-structure interaction of servovalve component-actuator. The analyzed valve is a precision flow control valve-jet pipe electrohydraulic servovalve. The positioning of an actuator depends upon the flow rate from control ports, in turn depends on the spool position. Theoretical investigation is made for No-load condition and Load condition for an actuator. These are used in finite element modeling of an actuator. The fluid-structure-interaction (FSI is established between the piston and the fluid cavities at the piston end. The fluid cavities were modeled with special purpose hydrostatic fluid elements while the piston is modeled with brick elements. The finite element method is used to simulate the variation of cavity pressure, cavity volume, mass flow rate, and the actuator velocity. The finite element analysis is extended to study the system's linearized response to harmonic excitation using direct solution steady-state dynamics. It was observed from the analysis that the natural frequency of the actuator depends upon the position of the piston in the cylinder. This is a close match with theoretical and simulation results. The effect of bulk modulus is also presented in the paper.

  15. Towards a capability approach to child growth: A theoretical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haisma, Hinke; Yousefzadeh, Sepideh; Boele Van Hensbroek, Pieter

    2018-04-01

    Child malnutrition is an important cause of under-5 mortality and morbidity around the globe. Despite the partial success of (inter)national efforts to reduce child mortality, under-5 mortality rates continue to be high. The multidimensional approaches of the Sustainable Development Goals may suggest new directions for rethinking strategies for reducing child mortality and malnutrition. We propose a theoretical framework for developing a "capability" approach to child growth. The current child growth monitoring practices are based on 2 assumptions: (a) that anthropometric and motor development measures are the appropriate indicators; and (b) that child growth can be assessed using a single universal standard that is applicable around the world. These practices may be further advanced by applying a capability approach to child growth, whereby growth is redefined as the achievement of certain capabilities (of society, parents, and children). This framework is similar to the multidimensional approach to societal development presented in the seminal work of Amartya Sen. To identify the dimensions of healthy child growth, we draw upon theories from the social sciences and evolutionary biology. Conceptually, we consider growth as a plural space and propose assessing growth by means of a child growth matrix in which the context is embedded in the assessment. This approach will better address the diversities and the inequalities in child growth. Such a multidimensional measure will have implications for interventions and policy, including prevention and counselling, and could have an impact on child malnutrition and mortality. © 2017 The Authors. Maternal and Child Nutrition Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. A theoretical approach to photosynthetically active radiation silicon sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamasi, M.J.L.; Martínez Bogado, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical approach for the development of low cost radiometers to measure photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Two alternatives are considered: a) glass optical filters attached to a silicon sensor, and b) dielectric coating on a silicon sensor. The devices proposed are based on radiometers previously developed by the Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission. The objective of this work is to adapt these low cost radiometers to construct reliable instruments for measuring PAR. The transmittance of optical filters and sensor response have been analyzed for different dielectric materials, number of layers deposited, and incidence angles. Uncertainties in thickness of layer deposition were evaluated. - Highlights: • Design of radiometers to measure photosynthetically active radiation • The study has used a filter and a Si sensor to modify spectral response. • Dielectric multilayers on glass and silicon sensor • Spectral response related to different incidence angles, materials and spectra

  17. Online adaptive approach for a game-theoretic strategy for complete vehicle energy management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, H.; Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Weiland, S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces an adaptive approach for a game-theoretic strategy on Complete Vehicle Energy Management. The proposed method enhances the game-theoretic approach such that the strategy is able to adapt to real driving behavior. The classical game-theoretic approach relies on one probability

  18. Alternative sources of power generation, incentives and regulatory mandates: a theoretical approach to the Colombian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, Carlos M; Zuluaga Monica M; Dyner, Isaac

    2005-01-01

    Alternative Energy Generation Sources are turning relevant in several countries worldwide because of technology improvement and the environmental treatment. In this paper, the most common problems of renewable energy sources are accomplished, different incentives and regulatory mandates from several countries are exposed, and a first theoretical approach to a renewable energies incentive system in Colombia is discussed. The paper is fundamentally in theoretical aspects and international experience in renewable energies incentives to accelerate their diffusion; features are analyzed towards a special incentive system for renewable energies in Colombia. As a conclusion, in Colombia will be apply indirect incentives like low interest rate, taxes exemptions and so on. But these incentives are applied to limit the support of electricity productivity in generating organizations.

  19. An integrated theoretical and practical approach for teaching hydrogeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomi, Tullia; Fumagalli, Letizia; Cavallin, Angelo

    2013-04-01

    Hydrogeology as an earth science intersects the broader disciplines of geology, engineering, and environmental studies but it does not overlap fully with any of them. It is focused on its own range of problems and over time has developed a rich variety of methods and approaches. The resolution of many hydrogeological problems requires knowledge of elements of geology, hydraulics, physics and chemistry; moreover in recent years the knowledge of modelling techniques has become a necessary ability. Successful transfer of all this knowledge to the students depends on the breadth of material taught in courses, the natural skills of the students and any practical experience the students can obtain. In the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences of the University of Milano-Bicocca, the teaching of hydrogeology is developed in three inter-related courses: 1) general hydrogeology, 2) applied hydrogeology, 3) groundwater pollution and remediation. The sequence focuses on both groundwater flux and contaminant transport, supplemented by workshops involving case studies and computer labs, which provide the students with practical translation of the theoretical aspects of the science into the world of work. A second key aspect of the program utilizes the students' skill at learning through online approaches, and this is done through three approaches: A) by developing the courses on a University e-learning platform that allows the students to download lectures, articles, and teacher comments, and to participate in online forums; B) by carring out exercises through computer labs where the student analyze and process hydrogeological data by means of different numerical codes, that in turn enable them to manage databases and to perform aquifer test analysis, geostatistical analysis, and flux and transport modelling both in the unsaturated and saturated zone. These exercises are of course preceded by theoretical lectures on codes and software, highlighting their features and

  20. Meson resonances and glueballs: theoretical review and relevance to PP at LEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, T.

    1982-05-01

    Some theoretical ideas about the meson spectrum are reviewed and lessons which may be learned about it in PP-bar annihilation are considered. Experimental questions which, if answered, would have the largest impact on the present understanding of quark and gluon interactions are noted. Conventional qq-bar mesons as treated in potential models, concentrating on the familiar cc-bar systems, are reviewed. The exciting possibility is discussed of detecting constituent gluons in PP-bar annihilations, in gg states - which may already have been detected in e + e - and PP-bar, as will be seen and in the exotic Jsup(PC) 'hermaphrodite' states qq-bar, for which there is currently no experimental evidence. (author)

  1. Optimization of Investment Planning Based on Game-Theoretic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vladimirovna Butsenko

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The game-theoretic approach has a vast potential in solving economic problems. On the other hand, the theory of games itself can be enriched by the studies of real problems of decision-making. Hence, this study is aimed at developing and testing the game-theoretic technique to optimize the management of investment planning. This technique enables to forecast the results and manage the processes of investment planning. The proposed method of optimizing the management of investment planning allows to choose the best development strategy of an enterprise. This technique uses the “game with nature” model, and the Wald criterion, the maximum criterion and the Hurwitz criterion as criteria. The article presents a new algorithm for constructing the proposed econometric method to optimize investment project management. This algorithm combines the methods of matrix games. Furthermore, I show the implementation of this technique in a block diagram. The algorithm includes the formation of initial data, the elements of the payment matrix, as well as the definition of maximin, maximal, compromise and optimal management strategies. The methodology is tested on the example of the passenger transportation enterprise of the Sverdlovsk Railway in Ekaterinburg. The application of the proposed methodology and the corresponding algorithm allowed to obtain an optimal price strategy for transporting passengers for one direction of traffic. This price strategy contributes to an increase in the company’s income with minimal risk from the launch of this direction. The obtained results and conclusions show the effectiveness of using the developed methodology for optimizing the management of investment processes in the enterprise. The results of the research can be used as a basis for the development of an appropriate tool and applied by any economic entity in its investment activities.

  2. Biological and theoretical relevance of some connectionist assumptions. The development of conceptual networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delgado, JFR; Dalenoort, GJ; Gracia, AP

    2000-01-01

    For the study of psychological processes in cognitive science modelling two general approaches rule nowadays research: Artificial Intelligence (top-down) functional symbolic models, and Connectionist (bottom-up) neural networks modelling. Our goal in this paper is to show that analyzing the

  3. Biological and theoretical relevance of some connectionist assumptions : The development of conceptual networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delgado, JFR; Dalenoort, GJ; Pitarque Gracia, A

    2000-01-01

    For the study of psychological processes in cognitive science modelling two general approaches rule nowadays research: Artificial Intelligence (top-down) functional symbolic models, and Connectionist (bottom-up) neural networks modelling. Our goal in this paper is to show that analyzing the

  4. Quantitative theoretical analysis of lifetimes and decay rates relevant in laser cooling BaH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Keith; Lane, Ian C.

    2018-05-01

    Tiny radiative losses below the 0.1% level can prove ruinous to the effective laser cooling of a molecule. In this paper the laser cooling of a hydride is studied with rovibronic detail using ab initio quantum chemistry in order to document the decays to all possible electronic states (not just the vibrational branching within a single electronic transition) and to identify the most populated final quantum states. The effect of spin-orbit and associated couplings on the properties of the lowest excited states of BaH are analysed in detail. The lifetimes of the A2Π1/2, H2Δ3/2 and E2Π1/2 states are calculated (136 ns, 5.8 μs and 46 ns respectively) for the first time, while the theoretical value for B2 Σ1/2+ is in good agreement with experiments. Using a simple rate model the numbers of absorption-emission cycles possible for both one- and two-colour cooling on the competing electronic transitions are determined, and it is clearly demonstrated that the A2Π - X2Σ+ transition is superior to B2Σ+ - X2Σ+ , where multiple tiny decay channels degrade its efficiency. Further possible improvements to the cooling method are proposed.

  5. Studies in nuclear structure relevant to Astrophysics: theoretical and experimental efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha Sarkar, Maitreyee

    2016-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical investigations in the region around doubly magic neutron rich 132 Sn nucleus have recently revealed many intriguing issues concerning some newer aspects of nuclear structure in such exotic environments. These nuclei lie on or close to the path of the astrophysical r-process flow. A glimpse of the implication of these studies on the r-process nucleosynthesis will be discussed. Presently, the Nuclear Physics group in Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics is working for installation of a high-current, low energy Accelerator as the primary component of the Facility for Research in low Energy Nuclear Astrophysics (FRENA), a national facility, at Kolkata. Planning for future experiments has been undertaken for successful utilization of this facility. Implantation technique has been found to be one of the most effective methods to produce isotopically pure targets. We have prepared a few isotopically pure targets using this technique. Being the slowest process of the CNO cycle, study of the 14 N(p, γ) 15 O(Q = 7297 keV) capture reaction is of high astrophysical interest. From an experiment utilizing one of the newly prepared 14 N implanted targets, a preliminary estimate of the lifetime of 6792 keV state in 15 O has been obtained, using Doppler shift attenuation method (DSAM). The sensitivity of the results with respect to the uncertainties in various input quantities has been tested. This endeavour will be helpful to design a better experiment to extract more precise lifetime for this important state

  6. A Theoretical Explanation of Marital Conflicts by Paradigmatic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    اسماعیل جهانی دولت آباد

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the economic, social and cultural changes in recent decades and consequently alterations in the form and duties of families and expectations of individuals from marriage, the institution of the family and marriage are enormously involved with different challenges and conflicts in comparison to past years. Fragile marital relationships, conflicts and divorce are results of such situations in Iran. Accordingly, the present study, which is designed through meta-analysis and deduction based on the concept analysis and reconceptualization of recent studies, has committed to manifest a proper different paradigm to explain marital conflicts. This paradigm is relying on various theoretical approaches, particularly the theory of symbolic interactionism as the main explanatory mean, and also applying the concept of “Marital Paradigm” as the missing information in previous studies of this field. It explains the marital conflicts between couples as paradigmatic conflicts; and its main idea is that marital conflict is not the result of one or more fixed and specified factors, but it is the production of encountering the opposing (or different paradigms.

  7. Discovering relevance knowledge in data: a growing cell structures approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuaje, F; Dubitzky, W; Black, N; Adamson, K

    2000-01-01

    Both information retrieval and case-based reasoning systems rely on effective and efficient selection of relevant data. Typically, relevance in such systems is approximated by similarity or indexing models. However, the definition of what makes data items similar or how they should be indexed is often nontrivial and time-consuming. Based on growing cell structure artificial neural networks, this paper presents a method that automatically constructs a case retrieval model from existing data. Within the case-based reasoning (CBR) framework, the method is evaluated for two medical prognosis tasks, namely, colorectal cancer survival and coronary heart disease risk prognosis. The results of the experiments suggest that the proposed method is effective and robust. To gain a deeper insight and understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the proposed model, a detailed empirical analysis of the models structural and behavioral properties is also provided.

  8. Distinguishing prognostic and predictive biomarkers: An information theoretic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechidis, Konstantinos; Papangelou, Konstantinos; Metcalfe, Paul D; Svensson, David; Weatherall, James; Brown, Gavin

    2018-05-02

    The identification of biomarkers to support decision-making is central to personalised medicine, in both clinical and research scenarios. The challenge can be seen in two halves: identifying predictive markers, which guide the development/use of tailored therapies; and identifying prognostic markers, which guide other aspects of care and clinical trial planning, i.e. prognostic markers can be considered as covariates for stratification. Mistakenly assuming a biomarker to be predictive, when it is in fact largely prognostic (and vice-versa) is highly undesirable, and can result in financial, ethical and personal consequences. We present a framework for data-driven ranking of biomarkers on their prognostic/predictive strength, using a novel information theoretic method. This approach provides a natural algebra to discuss and quantify the individual predictive and prognostic strength, in a self-consistent mathematical framework. Our contribution is a novel procedure, INFO+, which naturally distinguishes the prognostic vs predictive role of each biomarker and handles higher order interactions. In a comprehensive empirical evaluation INFO+ outperforms more complex methods, most notably when noise factors dominate, and biomarkers are likely to be falsely identified as predictive, when in fact they are just strongly prognostic. Furthermore, we show that our methods can be 1-3 orders of magnitude faster than competitors, making it useful for biomarker discovery in 'big data' scenarios. Finally, we apply our methods to identify predictive biomarkers on two real clinical trials, and introduce a new graphical representation that provides greater insight into the prognostic and predictive strength of each biomarker. R implementations of the suggested methods are available at https://github.com/sechidis. konstantinos.sechidis@manchester.ac.uk. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  9. When the Mannequin Dies, Creation and Exploration of a Theoretical Framework Using a Mixed Methods Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Shreepada; Miller, Karen H; Berkenbosch, John W; McKinley, Tara F; Boland, Kimberly A; Brown, Seth A; Calhoun, Aaron W

    2016-06-01

    Controversy exists in the simulation community as to the emotional and educational ramifications of mannequin death due to learner action or inaction. No theoretical framework to guide future investigations of learner actions currently exists. The purpose of our study was to generate a model of the learner experience of mannequin death using a mixed methods approach. The study consisted of an initial focus group phase composed of 11 learners who had previously experienced mannequin death due to action or inaction on the part of learners as defined by Leighton (Clin Simul Nurs. 2009;5(2):e59-e62). Transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory to generate a list of relevant themes that were further organized into a theoretical framework. With the use of this framework, a survey was generated and distributed to additional learners who had experienced mannequin death due to action or inaction. Results were analyzed using a mixed methods approach. Forty-one clinicians completed the survey. A correlation was found between the emotional experience of mannequin death and degree of presession anxiety (P framework. Using the previous approach, we created a model of the effect of mannequin death on the educational and psychological state of learners. We offer the final model as a guide to future research regarding the learner experience of mannequin death.

  10. Environmentally relevant approaches to assess nanoparticles ecotoxicity: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bour, Agathe; Mouchet, Florence; Silvestre, Jérôme; Gauthier, Laury [Université de Toulouse (France); UPS, INP (France); EcoLab (Laboratoire d’écologie fonctionnelle et environnement) (France); ENSAT, Avenue de l’Agrobiopôle, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); CNRS (France); EcoLab (Laboratoire d’écologie fonctionnelle et environnement), F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); Pinelli, Eric, E-mail: pinelli@ensat.fr [Université de Toulouse (France); UPS, INP (France); EcoLab (Laboratoire d’écologie fonctionnelle et environnement) (France); ENSAT, Avenue de l’Agrobiopôle, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); CNRS (France); EcoLab (Laboratoire d’écologie fonctionnelle et environnement), F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France)

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • Integrated ecotoxicity of NPs from organism to community level is reviewed. • Trophic chains allow determining the implication of trophic route in NP toxicity. • The use of microcosms and mesocosms allows studies at larger scale. • Data concerning NP fate and effects in environmental conditions are lacking. - Abstract: Despite the increasing production and use of nanoparticles (NPs), there is a lack of knowledge about their environmental fate and ecotoxicity. Studies in environmentally relevant conditions are necessary to better assess these parameters, but such studies are rather rare. The present work represents first time that studies on engineered NPs using environmentally relevant exposure methods have been reviewed. These exposure methods differ from standardized protocols and can be classified into three groups: experimental trophic chains that allow study of the trophic route, multi-species exposures under laboratory conditions that allow for complex but controlled exposure and outdoor exposures that are more similar to environmentally realistic conditions. The majority of studies of micro- or mesocosms have focused on NP partitioning and bioaccumulation. The other major parameter that has been studied is NP ecotoxicity, which has been assessed in single species, in single species via the trophic route, and at the community level. The induction of biochemical defense systems, immunomodulation, effects on growth and reproduction, behavioral alterations and mortality have been used as indicators of major toxicity, depending on the species studied. The major effects of NPs on both microbial and algal communities include modifications of community compositions and diversities, decreased biomass and changes in community activities.

  11. Environmentally relevant approaches to assess nanoparticles ecotoxicity: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bour, Agathe; Mouchet, Florence; Silvestre, Jérôme; Gauthier, Laury; Pinelli, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrated ecotoxicity of NPs from organism to community level is reviewed. • Trophic chains allow determining the implication of trophic route in NP toxicity. • The use of microcosms and mesocosms allows studies at larger scale. • Data concerning NP fate and effects in environmental conditions are lacking. - Abstract: Despite the increasing production and use of nanoparticles (NPs), there is a lack of knowledge about their environmental fate and ecotoxicity. Studies in environmentally relevant conditions are necessary to better assess these parameters, but such studies are rather rare. The present work represents first time that studies on engineered NPs using environmentally relevant exposure methods have been reviewed. These exposure methods differ from standardized protocols and can be classified into three groups: experimental trophic chains that allow study of the trophic route, multi-species exposures under laboratory conditions that allow for complex but controlled exposure and outdoor exposures that are more similar to environmentally realistic conditions. The majority of studies of micro- or mesocosms have focused on NP partitioning and bioaccumulation. The other major parameter that has been studied is NP ecotoxicity, which has been assessed in single species, in single species via the trophic route, and at the community level. The induction of biochemical defense systems, immunomodulation, effects on growth and reproduction, behavioral alterations and mortality have been used as indicators of major toxicity, depending on the species studied. The major effects of NPs on both microbial and algal communities include modifications of community compositions and diversities, decreased biomass and changes in community activities

  12. Breeding of ozone resistant rice: Relevance, approaches and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frei, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone concentrations have been rising across Asia, and will continue to rise during the 21st century. Ozone affects rice yields through reductions in spikelet number, spikelet fertility, and grain size. Moreover, ozone leads to changes in rice grain and straw quality. Therefore the breeding of ozone tolerant rice varieties is warranted. The mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) using bi-parental populations identified several tolerance QTL mitigating symptom formation, grain yield losses, or the degradation of straw quality. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) demonstrated substantial natural genotypic variation in ozone tolerance in rice, and revealed that the genetic architecture of ozone tolerance in rice is dominated by multiple medium and small effect loci. Transgenic approaches targeting tolerance mechanisms such as antioxidant capacity are also discussed. It is concluded that the breeding of ozone tolerant rice can contribute substantially to the global food security, and is feasible using different breeding approaches. - Highlights: • Tropospheric ozone affects millions of hectares of rice land. • Ozone affects rice yield and quality. • Breeding approaches to adapt rice to high ozone are discussed. • Challenges in the breeding of ozone resistant rice are discussed. - This review summarizes the effects of tropospheric ozone on rice and outlines approaches and challenges in the breeding of adapted varieties

  13. SUSTAINABLE TOURISM AND ITS FORMS - A THEORETICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bac Dorin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available From the second half of the twentieth century, the importance of the tourism industry to the world economy continued to grow, reaching today impressive figures: receipts of almost $ 1,000 billion and direct employment for over 70 million people (WTTC 2012, without taking into account the multiplier effect (according to the same statistics of WTTC, if considering the multiplier effect, the values are: $ 5,990 billion in tourism receipts, and 253.5 million jobs. We can say that tourism: has a higher capacity to generate and distribute incomes compared to other sectors; has a high multiplier effect; determines a high level of consumption of varied products and services. In this context, voices began to emerge, which presented the problems and challenges generated by the tourism activity. Many regions are facing real problems generated by tourism entrepreneurs and tourists who visit the community. Therefore, at the end of the last century, there were authors who sought to define a new form of tourism, which eliminated the negative impacts and increased the positive ones. As a generic term they used alternative tourism, but because of the ambiguity of the term, they tried to find a more precise term, which would define the concept easier. Thus emerged: ecotourism, rural tourism, Pro Poor Tourism etc.. All these forms have been introduced under the umbrella concept of sustainable tourism. In the present paper we will take a theoretical approach, in order to present some forms of sustainable tourism. During our research we covered the ideas and concepts promoted by several authors and academics but also some international organizations with focus on tourism. We considered these forms of tourism, as they respect all the rules of sustainable tourism and some of them have great potential to grow in both developed and emerging countries. The forms of sustainable tourism we identified are: ecotourism, pro-poor tourism, volunteer tourism and slow tourism. In

  14. Is Fromm Relevant for Relational Approaches in Psychoanalysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, Mauricio

    2017-08-01

    This paper provides an overview of how Erich Fromm's work influenced contemporary relational and intersubjective approaches. It stresses Fromm's humanistic and existential sensibility, his explanation of how different socioeconomic and cultural contexts mold different character types, and how his center-to-center relatedness in clinical work all contribute to psychic change. The author shows how these dimensions intersect and add to current interests in relational psychoanalysis.

  15. Resilience or Flexibility– A Theoretical Approach on Romanian Development Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Voicu – Dorobanțu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a theoretical contextualization of flexibility, sustainability, durability and resilience, in the context of the sustainable development goals. The main purpose is to identify the theoretical handles that may be used in the creation of a flexibility indicator. Thus, research questions related to the theoretical differentiation between durable and sustainable, flexible and resilient are answered. Further on, the paper describes the situation of the Romanian regions in terms of development indicators, based on Eurostat data, as a premise for further research on the possibility of their leapfrogging. This work was financially supported through the project “Routes of academic excellence in doctoral and post-doctoral research- REACH” co-financed through the European Social Fund, by Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources Development 2007-2013, contract no POSDRU/59/1.5/S/137926.

  16. Game-theoretic interference coordination approaches for dynamic spectrum access

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Yuhua

    2016-01-01

    Written by experts in the field, this book is based on recent research findings in dynamic spectrum access for cognitive radio networks. It establishes a game-theoretic framework and presents cutting-edge technologies for distributed interference coordination. With game-theoretic formulation and the designed distributed learning algorithms, it provides insights into the interactions between multiple decision-makers and the converging stable states. Researchers, scientists and engineers in the field of cognitive radio networks will benefit from the book, which provides valuable information, useful methods and practical algorithms for use in emerging 5G wireless communication.

  17. Theoretical and methodological approaches to economic competitiveness (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macari Vadim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on study of several representative bibliographical sources,it is tried to examine, to order from logical and scientific point of view some of the most common theoretical and methodological understandings of the essence, definition, phenomenon, types, haracteristics and indices of economic competitiveness.

  18. Theoretical and methodological approaches to economic competitiveness (part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macari Vadim

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article, on the basis of the study of many representative bibliographic sources, examines and tries to order from logical and scientific point of view some of the most common theoretical and methodological treatments of the essence, definition, phenomenon, types, characteristics and indices of economic competitiveness.

  19. THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim MACARI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article, on the basis of the study of many representative bibliographic sources, examines and tries to order from logical and scientific point of view some of the most common theoretical and methodological treatments of the essence, definition, phenomenon, types, characteristics and indices of economic competitiveness.

  20. THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim MACARI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on study of several representative bibliographical sources,it is tried to examine, to order from logical and scientific point of view some of the most common theoretical and methodological understandings of the essence, definition, phenomenon, types, characteristics and indices of economic competitiveness.

  1. THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO THE DEFINITION OF MOTIVATION OF PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITY OF PUBLIC SERVANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Vashalomidze

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the topic chosen due to the presence of performance motivation development problems of civil servants, including their motivation for continuous professional development, as one of the main directions of development of the civil service in general, approved by the relevant Presidential Decree on 2016–2018 years. In the first part of this article provides a brief analytical overview and an assessment of content and process of theoretical and methodological approaches to solving the problems of motivation of the personnel of socio-economic systems. In the second part of the article on the basis of the research proposed motivating factors in the development of the approaches set out in the first part of the article.The purpose / goal. The aim of the article is to provide methodological assistance to academic institutions involved in the solution of scientific and practical problems of motivation of civil servants to the continuous professional development in accordance with the Presidential Decree of 11 August 2016 № 408.Methodology. The methodological basis of this article are: a comprehensive analysis of normative legal provision of state of the Russian Federation; systematic approach and historical analysis of the theory and methodology of solving problems of staff motivation; method of expert evaluations; the scientific method of analogies.Conclusions / relevance. The practical significance of the article is in the operational delivery of the scientific and methodological assistance to the implementation of the Russian Federation "On the main directions of the state civil service of the Russian Federation in the years 2016–2018" Presidential Decree of 11 August number 403 regarding the establishment of mechanisms to motivate civil servants to continuous professional development.

  2. Region innovation and investment development: conceptual theoretical approach and business solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zozulya D.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes essential problems of the region business innovation and investment development under current conditions, issues of crisis restrictions negotiation and innovation-driven economy formation. The relevance of the research is defined by the need of effective tools creation for business innovation and investment development and support, which can be applied, first, to increase efficiency of the region industrial activity, then improve production competitiveness on the innovative basis, overcome existing problems and provide sustainable innovation development in the region. The results of conducted research are represented in the article including region innovation and investment development concept model made up by the authors on the basis of system theoretical approach. The tools of the region innovation development defined in the concept model are briefly reviewed in the article. The most important of them include engineering marketing (marketing of scientific and technical innovations, strategic planning, benchmarking, place marketing and business process modeling.

  3. Group theoretic approaches to nuclear and hadronic collective motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biedenharn, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    Three approaches to nuclear and hadronic collective motion are reviewed, compared and contrasted: the standard symmetry approach as typified by the Interacting Boson Model, the kinematic symmetry group approach of Gell-Mann and Tomonaga, and the recent direct construction by Buck. 50 references

  4. Scientific-theoretical research approach to practical theology in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All of them work with practical theological hermeneutics. The basic hermeneutic approach of Daniël Louw is widened with an integrated approach by Richard R. Osmer in which practical theology as a hermeneutic discipline also includes the empirical aspect which the action theory approach has contributed to the ...

  5. Group theoretic approaches to nuclear and hadronic collective motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biedenharn, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    Three approaches to nuclear and hadronic collective motion are reviewed, compared and contrasted: the standard symmetry approach as typified by the Interacting Boson Model, the kinematic symmetry group approach of Gell-Mann and Tomonaga, and the recent direct construction by Buck. 50 references.

  6. THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO REGIONAL COMPETITION INVESTIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Tatarkin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to theoretical-methodological issues of regional economy competitiveness investigation. Economic essence of regional competitiveness is analyzed, its definition is given. The factors that determine relations of competition on medium and macrolevels are proved. The basic differences between world-economical and inter-regional communications are formulated. The specific features of globalization processes as form of competitive struggle are considered.

  7. Representing electrons a biographical approach to theoretical entities

    CERN Document Server

    Arabatzis, Theodore

    2006-01-01

    Both a history and a metahistory, Representing Electrons focuses on the development of various theoretical representations of electrons from the late 1890s to 1925 and the methodological problems associated with writing about unobservable scientific entities. Using the electron-or rather its representation-as a historical actor, Theodore Arabatzis illustrates the emergence and gradual consolidation of its representation in physics, its career throughout old quantum theory, and its appropriation and reinterpretation by chemists. As Arabatzis develops this novel biographical

  8. Information theoretic approach to tactile encoding and discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Saal, Hannes

    2011-01-01

    The human sense of touch integrates feedback from a multitude of touch receptors, but how this information is represented in the neural responses such that it can be extracted quickly and reliably is still largely an open question. At the same time, dexterous robots equipped with touch sensors are becoming more common, necessitating better methods for representing sequentially updated information and new control strategies that aid in extracting relevant features for object man...

  9. Strength of wood versus rate of testing - A theoretical approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    2007-01-01

    Strength of wood is normally measured in ramp load experiments. Experience shows that strength increases with increasing rate of testing. This feature is considered theoretically in this paper. It is shown that the influence of testing rate is a phenomenon, which depends on the quality...... of the considered wood. Low quality wood shows lesser influence of testing rate. This observation agrees with the well-known statement made by Borg Madsen that weak wood subjected to a constant load, has a longer lifetime than strong wood. In general, the influence of testing rate on strength increases...

  10. Theoretical approaches to digital services and digital democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Jens Villiam; Scheele, Christian Elling

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a theoretical framework, which can be used in the analysis of all types of (political-administrative) web applications. Through a discussion and criticism of social construction of technology (SCOT), an earlier version of this model based on new medium theory...... are translated into specific (political-administrative) practices, and how these practices are produced through the interplay between discourses, actors and technology. However, the new version places practices more firmly at the centre of the model, as practices, following Reckwitz, is seen as the enactment...

  11. A Representation-Theoretic Approach to Reversible Computation with Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maniotis, Andreas Milton

    Reversible computing is a sub-discipline of computer science that helps to understand the foundations of the interplay between physics, algebra, and logic in the context of computation. Its subjects of study are computational devices and abstract models of computation that satisfy the constraint ......, there is still no uniform and consistent theory that is general in the sense of giving a model-independent account to the field....... of information conservation. Such machine models, which are known as reversible models of computation, have been examined both from a theoretical perspective and from an engineering perspective. While a bundle of many isolated successful findings and applications concerning reversible computing exists...

  12. Field-theoretic approach to fluctuation effects in neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buice, Michael A.; Cowan, Jack D.

    2007-01-01

    A well-defined stochastic theory for neural activity, which permits the calculation of arbitrary statistical moments and equations governing them, is a potentially valuable tool for theoretical neuroscience. We produce such a theory by analyzing the dynamics of neural activity using field theoretic methods for nonequilibrium statistical processes. Assuming that neural network activity is Markovian, we construct the effective spike model, which describes both neural fluctuations and response. This analysis leads to a systematic expansion of corrections to mean field theory, which for the effective spike model is a simple version of the Wilson-Cowan equation. We argue that neural activity governed by this model exhibits a dynamical phase transition which is in the universality class of directed percolation. More general models (which may incorporate refractoriness) can exhibit other universality classes, such as dynamic isotropic percolation. Because of the extremely high connectivity in typical networks, it is expected that higher-order terms in the systematic expansion are small for experimentally accessible measurements, and thus, consistent with measurements in neocortical slice preparations, we expect mean field exponents for the transition. We provide a quantitative criterion for the relative magnitude of each term in the systematic expansion, analogous to the Ginsburg criterion. Experimental identification of dynamic universality classes in vivo is an outstanding and important question for neuroscience

  13. A new theoretical approach to adsorption desorption behavior of Ga on GaAs surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangawa, Y.; Ito, T.; Taguchi, A.; Shiraishi, K.; Ohachi, T.

    2001-11-01

    We propose a new theoretical approach for studying adsorption-desorption behavior of atoms on semiconductor surfaces. The new theoretical approach based on the ab initio calculations incorporates the free energy of gas phase; therefore we can calculate how adsorption and desorption depends on growth temperature and beam equivalent pressure (BEP). The versatility of the new theoretical approach was confirmed by the calculation of Ga adsorption-desorption transition temperatures and transition BEPs on the GaAs(0 0 1)-(4×2)β2 Ga-rich surface. This new approach is feasible to predict how adsorption and desorption depend on the growth conditions.

  14. A Game-Theoretical Approach to Multimedia Social Networks Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Enqiang; Liu, Zengliang; Shao, Fei; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    The contents access and sharing in multimedia social networks (MSNs) mainly rely on access control models and mechanisms. Simple adoptions of security policies in the traditional access control model cannot effectively establish a trust relationship among parties. This paper proposed a novel two-party trust architecture (TPTA) to apply in a generic MSN scenario. According to the architecture, security policies are adopted through game-theoretic analyses and decisions. Based on formalized utilities of security policies and security rules, the choice of security policies in content access is described as a game between the content provider and the content requester. By the game method for the combination of security policies utility and its influences on each party's benefits, the Nash equilibrium is achieved, that is, an optimal and stable combination of security policies, to establish and enhance trust among stakeholders. PMID:24977226

  15. A theoretical approach for energy saving in industrial steam boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabry, T.I.; Mohamed, N.H.; Elghonimy, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Optimization of the performance characteristics of such a steam boiler has been analyzed theoretically. Suitable thermodynamic relations have been utilized here to construct a computer model that would carry out the boiler performance characteristics at different operating parameters (e.g.; amount of excess air, fuel type, rate of blowdown preheating of combustion air and flow gases temperature). The results demonstrate that this computer model is to be used successfully in selecting the different operating parameters of the steam boiler at variant loads considering the best economical operation. Besides, this model can be used to investigate the sensitivity of the performance characteristics to the deviation of the boiler operating parameters from their optimum values. It was found also that changing the operating parameters beside the type of fuel in a boiler affects its performance characteristics. 3 figs

  16. Theoretical information measurement in nonrelativistic time-dependent approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafizade, S. A.; Hassanabadi, H.; Zarrinkamar, S.

    2018-02-01

    The information-theoretic measures of time-dependent Schrödinger equation are investigated via the Shannon information entropy, variance and local Fisher quantities. In our calculations, we consider the two first states n = 0,1 and obtain the position Sx (t) and momentum Sp (t) Shannon entropies as well as Fisher information Ix (t) in position and momentum Ip (t) spaces. Using the Fourier transformed wave function, we obtain the results in momentum space. Some interesting features of the information entropy densities ρs (x,t) and γs (p,t), as well as the probability densities ρ (x,t) and γ (p,t) for time-dependent states are demonstrated. We establish a general relation between variance and Fisher's information. The Bialynicki-Birula-Mycielski inequality is tested and verified for the states n = 0,1.

  17. A game-theoretic approach to donor kidney sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, B J

    1988-01-01

    Graft survival in renal transplantation is a function, amongst other things, of the degree of histocompatibility lymphocyte-A (HLA) tissue matching achieved between donor and recipient. Yet a donor procured at centre A might match a transplant candidate at centre B and vice versa. This raises the question of whether, and under what circumstances, surgeons will offer and exchange donor kidneys and gain from such trade in terms of graft survival. We analyse the problem in a game-theoretic framework where the choice of strategy 'to offer or not?' is evaluated in the context of the uncertainty of reciprocation by the other player(s) in the game. The equilibrium solution to a number of variations of the game is predicted to be non-cooperation resulting in collectively sub-optimal graft survival rates. Some policy options for improving cooperation are considered including exchange incentives and coercive measures.

  18. A theoretical approach on controlling agricultural pest by biological controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Prasanta Kumar; Jana, Soovoojeet; Kar, T K

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we propose and analyze a prey-predator type dynamical system for pest control where prey population is treated as the pest. We consider two classes for the pest namely susceptible pest and infected pest and the predator population is the natural enemy of the pest. We also consider average delay for both the predation rate i.e. predation to the susceptible pest and infected pest. Considering a subsystem of original system in the absence of infection, we analyze the existence of all possible non-negative equilibria and their stability criteria for both the subsystem as well as the original system. We present the conditions for transcritical bifurcation and Hopf bifurcation in the disease free system. The theoretical evaluations are demonstrated through numerical simulations.

  19. A Theoretical Approach to Engineering a New Enzyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Greg; Gomatam, Ravi; Behera, Raghu N.

    2016-01-01

    Density function theory, a subfield of quantum mechanics (QM), in combination with molecular mechanics (MM) has opened the way to engineer new artificial enzymes. Herein, we report theoretical calculations done using QM/MM to examine whether the regioselectivity and rate of chlorination of the enzyme chloroperoxidase can be improved by replacing the vanadium of this enzyme with niobium through dialysis. Our calculations show that a niobium substituted chloroperoxidase will be able to enter the initial steps of the catalytic cycle for chlorination. Although the protonation state of the niobium substituted enzyme is calculated to be different from than that of the natural vanadium substituted enzyme, our calculations show that the catalytic cycle can still proceed forward. Using natural bond orbitals, we analyse the electronic differences between the niobium substituted enzyme and the natural enzyme. We conclude by briefly examining how good of a model QM/MM provides for understanding the mechanism of catalysis of chloroperoxidase. (paper)

  20. Laser debonding of ceramic orthodontic brackets: a theoretical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Kristine L.; Marangoni, Roy D.; Rickabaugh, Jeff L.

    1992-06-01

    Ceramic brackets are an esthetic substitute for conventional stainless steel brackets in orthodontic patients. However, ceramic brackets are more brittle and have higher bond strengths which can lead to bracket breakage and enamel damage during debonding. It has been demonstrated that various lasers can facilitate ceramic bracket removal. One mechanism with the laser is through the softening of the bracket adhesive. The high energy density from the laser on the bracket and adhesive can have a resultant deleterious thermal effect on the pulp of the tooth which may lead to pulpal death. A theoretical computer model of bracket, adhesive, enamel and dentin has been generated for predicting heat flow through this system. Heat fluxes at varying intensities and modes have been input into the program and the resultant temperatures at various points or nodes were determined. Further pursuit should lead to optimum parameters for laser debonding which would have minimal effects on the pulp.

  1. Tourism and international business: The theoretical approach and practical experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Dobrica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the relationships between tourism and international business. The research is based upon combining various theoretical concepts, significant empirical experiences and own attitudes of the authors. The key conclusion of the paper is that, despite of the partial progress in understanding tourism businesses, the relationships between tourism and international business need additional stimulus. In other words, more complete research in the related domains is needed in future. Any understanding of tourism is inadequate without appreciating the contributions that international business might bring, yet at the same time international business is incomplete in its coverage of international trade unless tourism is considered. The consumption-driven agenda of much tourism research has been favoured over supply-side discourses of the production process it self. That is why the role of major transnational companies, setting the trends that other types of firms in the tourism sector follow is focused in the paper.

  2. Social self-esteem: theoretical and methodological approaches to research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usova E.N.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The perspective of the analysis of the phenomenon of the social well-being of patients with chronic diseases from the standpoint of the sociology of medicine is proved. Modern approaches to the study of social well-being within the framework of sociological and psychological approaches are singled out. The importance of studying the levels of social well-being (institutional and individual is presented to explain the individual's chosen strategies of behavior in the disease situation. The vectors of operationalization of the category of social well-being within the sociology of medicine are indicated.

  3. Photodynamic therapy: Theoretical and experimental approaches to dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin

    Singlet oxygen (1O2) is the major cytotoxic species generated during photodynamic therapy (PDT), and 1O 2 reactions with biological targets define the photodynamic dose at the most fundamental level. We have developed a theoretical model for rigorously describing the spatial and temporal dynamics of oxygen (3O 2) consumption and transport and microscopic 1O 2 dose deposition during PDT in vivo. Using experimentally established physiological and photophysical parameters, the mathematical model allows computation of the dynamic variation of hemoglobin-3O 2 saturation within vessels, irreversible photosensitizer degradation due to photobleaching, therapy-induced blood flow decrease and the microscopic distributions of 3O2 and 1O 2 dose deposition under various irradiation conditions. mTHPC, a promising photosensitizer for PDT, is approved in Europe for the palliative treatment of head and neck cancer. Using the theoretical model and informed by intratumor sensitizer concentrations and distributions, we calculated photodynamic dose depositions for mTHPC-PDT. Our results demonstrate that the 1O 2 dose to the tumor volume does not track even qualitatively with long-term tumor responses. Thus, in this evaluation of mTHPC-PDT, any PDT dose metric that is proportional to singlet oxygen creation and/or deposition would fail to predict the tumor response. In situations like this one, other reporters of biological response to therapy would be necessary. In addition to the case study of mTHPC-PDT, we also use the mathematical model to simulate clinical photobleaching data, informed by a possible blood flow reduction during treatment. In a recently completed clinical trial at Roswell Park Cancer Institute, patients with superficial basal cell carcinoma received topical application of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and were irradiated with 633 nm light at 10-150 mW cm-2 . Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) photobleaching in the lesion and the adjacent perilesion normal margin was monitored by

  4. THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO THE DEFINITION OF THE "INFORMATION RESOURCE"

    OpenAIRE

    I. Netreba

    2014-01-01

    Existing approaches to determining the nature of the category "information resource" are detailed and systematized. The relationships between the categories "information resource", "information technology", "information management system" are revealed. Determined the importance of information resources for the production process at the enterprise.

  5. Game-theoretic approaches to optimal risk sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonen, T.J.

    2014-01-01

    This Ph.D. thesis studies optimal risk capital allocation and optimal risk sharing. The first chapter deals with the problem of optimally allocating risk capital across divisions within a financial institution. To do so, an asymptotic approach is used to generalize the well-studied Aumann-Shapley

  6. Fuzzy set theoretic approach to fault tree analysis | Tyagi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This approach can be widely used to improve the reliability and to reduce the operating cost of a system. The proposed techniques are discussed and illustrated by taking an example of a nuclear power plant. Keywords: Fault tree, Triangular and Trapezoidal fuzzy number, Fuzzy importance, Ranking of fuzzy numbers ...

  7. Towards a capability approach to child growth : A theoretical framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haisma, Hinke; Yousefzadeh Faal Daghati, Sepideh; Boele Van Hensbroek, Pieter

    Child malnutrition is an important cause of under-five mortality and morbidity around the globe. Despite the partial success of (inter)national efforts to reduce child mortality, under-five mortality rates continue to be high. The multidimensional approaches of the Sustainable Development Goals may

  8. Hydrogen storage in lithium hydride: A theoretical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banger, Suman; Nayak, Vikas; Verma, U. P.

    2018-04-01

    First principles calculations have been carried out to analyze structural stability of lithium hydride (LiH) in NaCl phase using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). Calculations have been extended to physiosorbed H-atom compounds LiH·H2, LiH·3H2 and LiH·4H2. The obtained results are discussed in the paper. The results for LiH are in excellent agreement with earlier reported data. The obtained direct energy band gap of LiH is 3.0 eV which is in excellent agreement with earlier reported theoretical band gap. The electronic band structure plots of the hydrogen adsorbed compounds show metallic behavior. The elastic constants, anisotropy factor, shear modulus, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio and cohesive energies of all the compounds are calculated. Calculation of the optical spectra such as the real and imaginary parts of dielectric function, optical reflectivity, absorption coefficient, optical conductivity, refractive index, extinction coefficient and electron energy loss are performed for the energy range 0-15 eV. The obtained results for LiH·H2, LiH·3H2 and LiH·4H2, are reported for the first time. This study has been made in search of materials for hydrogen storage. It is concluded that LiH is a promising material for hydrogen storage.

  9. Exploring Job Satisfaction of Nursing Faculty: Theoretical Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingchen; Liesveld, Judy

    2015-01-01

    The Future of Nursing report identified the shortage of nursing faculty as 1 of the barriers to nursing education. In light of this, it is becoming increasingly important to understand the work-life of nursing faculty. The current research focused on job satisfaction of nursing faculty from 4 theoretical perspectives: human capital theory, which emphasizes the expected monetary and nonmonetary returns for any career choices; structural theory, which emphasizes the impact of institutional features on job satisfaction; positive extrinsic environment by self-determination theory, which asserts that a positive extrinsic environment promotes competency and effective outcomes at work; and psychological theory, which emphasizes the proposed relationship between job performance and satisfaction. In addition to the measures for human capital theory, institutional variables (from structural theory and self-determination theory), and productivity measures (from psychological theory), the authors also selected sets of variables for personal characteristics to investigate their effects on job satisfaction. The results indicated that variables related to human capital theory, especially salary, contributed the most to job satisfaction, followed by those related to institutional variables. Personal variables and productivity variables as a whole contributed as well. The only other variable with marginal significance was faculty's perception of institutional support for teaching. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. A Game Theoretic Approach to Cyber Attack Prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Liu

    2005-11-28

    The area investigated by this project is cyber attack prediction. With a focus on correlation-based prediction, current attack prediction methodologies overlook the strategic nature of cyber attack-defense scenarios. As a result, current cyber attack prediction methodologies are very limited in predicting strategic behaviors of attackers in enforcing nontrivial cyber attacks such as DDoS attacks, and may result in low accuracy in correlation-based predictions. This project develops a game theoretic framework for cyber attack prediction, where an automatic game-theory-based attack prediction method is proposed. Being able to quantitatively predict the likelihood of (sequences of) attack actions, our attack prediction methodology can predict fine-grained strategic behaviors of attackers and may greatly improve the accuracy of correlation-based prediction. To our best knowledge, this project develops the first comprehensive framework for incentive-based modeling and inference of attack intent, objectives, and strategies; and this project develops the first method that can predict fine-grained strategic behaviors of attackers. The significance of this research and the benefit to the public can be demonstrated to certain extent by (a) the severe threat of cyber attacks to the critical infrastructures of the nation, including many infrastructures overseen by the Department of Energy, (b) the importance of cyber security to critical infrastructure protection, and (c) the importance of cyber attack prediction to achieving cyber security.

  11. A NETWORK-THEORETICAL APPROACH TO UNDERSTANDING INTERSTELLAR CHEMISTRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolley, Craig C.; Douglas, Trevor

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have seen dramatic advances in computational models of chemical processes in the interstellar medium (ISM). Typically, these models have been used to calculate changes in chemical abundances with time; the calculated abundances can then be compared with chemical abundances derived from observations. In this study, the output from an astrochemical simulation has been used to generate directed graphs with weighted edges; these have been analyzed with the tools of network theory to uncover whole-network properties of reaction systems in dark molecular clouds. The results allow the development of a model in which global network properties can be rationalized in terms of the basic physical properties of the reaction system. The ISM network exhibits an exponential degree distribution, which is likely to be a generic feature of chemical networks involving a broad range of reaction rate constants. While species abundances span several orders of magnitude, the formation and destruction rates for most species are approximately balanced-departures from this rule indicate species (such as CO) that play a critical role in shaping the dynamics of the system. Future theoretical or observational studies focusing on individual molecular species will be able to situate them in terms of their role in the complete system or quantify the degree to which they deviate from the typical system behavior.

  12. Success Determination by Innovation: A Theoretical Approach in Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Raj Kumar Gautam

    2012-01-01

    The paper aims at to identify the main issues in the marketing which needs immediate attention of the marketers. The importance of innovation in the marketing has also been highlighted and marketing mix have been related to innovative and creative ideas. The study is based on the secondary data, various research papers, articles has been studied to develop a innovative approach in the marketing. Marketing innovative ideas relating to business lead generation, product, price, distribution, pro...

  13. Mapping between Classical Risk Management and Game Theoretical Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Rajbhandari , Lisa; Snekkenes , Einar ,

    2011-01-01

    Part 2: Work in Progress; International audience; In a typical classical risk assessment approach, the probabilities are usually guessed and not much guidance is provided on how to get the probabilities right. When coming up with probabilities, people are generally not well calibrated. History may not always be a very good teacher. Hence, in this paper, we explain how game theory can be integrated into classical risk management. Game theory puts emphasis on collecting representative data on h...

  14. Theoretical approach of the seismic behaviour of a LMFBR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parent, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    The vibratory behaviour of two one-degree-freedom mechanical systems, having known coupling and damping features, is investigated by transposition to two electrical circuits inductively coupled. This approach is carried out in two steps: the first one supposes that both circuits are identical, while the second one considers the general case where both circuits are unlike. It is shown that one or two resonant frequencies may occur, depending on the coupling and the damping conditions

  15. A measure theoretic approach to traffic flow optimization on networks

    OpenAIRE

    Cacace, Simone; Camilli, Fabio; De Maio, Raul; Tosin, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    We consider a class of optimal control problems for measure-valued nonlinear transport equations describing traffic flow problems on networks. The objective isto minimise/maximise macroscopic quantities, such as traffic volume or average speed,controlling few agents, for example smart traffic lights and automated cars. The measuretheoretic approach allows to study in a same setting local and nonlocal drivers interactionsand to consider the control variables as additional measures interacting ...

  16. The Economic Security of Bank: Theoretical Basis and Systemic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavlovska Nataliia I.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the existing approaches to interpreting the category of «economic security of bank». A author’s own definition of the concept of «economic security of bank» has been proposed, which should be understood as condition of protecting the vital interests of bank, achieved by harmonizing relationships with the entities of external influence and optimizing the internal system processes, thus enabling efficient function as well as development by means of an adaptation mechanism. A number of approaches to understanding the substance of the above concept has been allocated and their main characteristics have been provided. The need to study the specifics of interaction of banking institutions with the external environment in the context of interaction between the State agents and market actors has been underlined. Features of formation of the term of «system» have been defined, three main groups of approaches to interpretation of the term have been provided. A author’s own definition of the concept of «economic security system of bank» has been proposed. A concrete definition of principles for building an economic security system of bank has been provided.

  17. How to measure soundscapes. A theoretical and practical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Fortkamp, Brigitte

    2002-11-01

    Noise sources interact with the specific acoustic and environmental makeup, topography, meteorology, land use pattern, and lifestyle. The evaluation of soundscapes needs subject-related methodological procedures. With such suitable measurements a way has to be found that allows us to rely on different dimensions on reaction to noise. Improving the soundscape of an urban environment imposes to account for the qualitative appreciation as a cognitive judgment given by listeners and, particularly, for the interaction between acoustic dimensions and other sensory modalities in qualitative judgments of an urban environment (Maffiolo). The structure of the residential area that is, the combination of noise sources are important for the judgment of a soundscope and are also important as subjective parameters which are relevant in people's point of view. Moreover, the relationship of both define the background for assessments. Studies are needed on the subject and its capability in perception and interpretation; studies on the subject inside the society, studies on the social and cultural context, and field studies including physical measurements. Soundscapes may be defined in its effects on man and vice versa and probably acoustical ecology will serve to understand the function of soundscapes.

  18. Cooperation, norms, and revolutions: a unified game-theoretical approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Helbing

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cooperation is of utmost importance to society as a whole, but is often challenged by individual self-interests. While game theory has studied this problem extensively, there is little work on interactions within and across groups with different preferences or beliefs. Yet, people from different social or cultural backgrounds often meet and interact. This can yield conflict, since behavior that is considered cooperative by one population might be perceived as non-cooperative from the viewpoint of another. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To understand the dynamics and outcome of the competitive interactions within and between groups, we study game-dynamical replicator equations for multiple populations with incompatible interests and different power (be this due to different population sizes, material resources, social capital, or other factors. These equations allow us to address various important questions: For example, can cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma be promoted, when two interacting groups have different preferences? Under what conditions can costly punishment, or other mechanisms, foster the evolution of norms? When does cooperation fail, leading to antagonistic behavior, conflict, or even revolutions? And what incentives are needed to reach peaceful agreements between groups with conflicting interests? CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our detailed quantitative analysis reveals a large variety of interesting results, which are relevant for society, law and economics, and have implications for the evolution of language and culture as well.

  19. Theoretical approach of complex DNA lesions: from formation to repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bignon, Emmanuelle

    2017-01-01

    This thesis work is focused on the theoretical modelling of DNA damages, from formation to repair. Several projects have been led in this framework, which can be sorted into three different parts. One on hand, we studied complex DNA reactivity. It included a study about 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-guanine (8oxoG) mechanisms of formation, a project concerning the UV-induced pyrimidine 6-4 pyrimidone (6-4PP) endogenous photo-sensitizer features, and another one about DNA photo-sensitization by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (i.e. ketoprofen and ibuprofen). On the other hand, we investigated mechanical properties of damaged DNA. The structural signature of a DNA lesion is of major importance for their repair, unfortunately only few NMR and X-ray structures of such systems are available. In order to gain insights into their dynamical structure, we investigated a series of complex damages: clustered abasic sites, interstrand cross-links, and the 6-4PP photo-lesion. Likewise, we studied the interaction modes DNA with several polyamines, which are well known to interact with the double helix, but also with the perspective to model DNA-protein cross-linking. The third part concerned the study of DNA interactions with repair enzymes. In line with the structural study about clustered abasic sites, we investigated the dynamics of the same system, but this time interacting with the APE1 endonuclease. We also studied interactions between the Fpg glycosylase with an oligonucleotides containing tandem 8-oxoG on one hand and 8-oxoG - abasic site as multiply damaged sites. Thus, we shed new lights on damaged DNA reactivity, structure and repair, which provides perspectives for biomedicine and life's mechanisms understanding as we begin to describe nucleosomal DNA. (author)

  20. The prediction of candidate genes for cervix related cancer through gene ontology and graph theoretical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindumathi, V; Kranthi, T; Rao, S B; Manimaran, P

    2014-06-01

    With rapidly changing technology, prediction of candidate genes has become an indispensable task in recent years mainly in the field of biological research. The empirical methods for candidate gene prioritization that succors to explore the potential pathway between genetic determinants and complex diseases are highly cumbersome and labor intensive. In such a scenario predicting potential targets for a disease state through in silico approaches are of researcher's interest. The prodigious availability of protein interaction data coupled with gene annotation renders an ease in the accurate determination of disease specific candidate genes. In our work we have prioritized the cervix related cancer candidate genes by employing Csaba Ortutay and his co-workers approach of identifying the candidate genes through graph theoretical centrality measures and gene ontology. With the advantage of the human protein interaction data, cervical cancer gene sets and the ontological terms, we were able to predict 15 novel candidates for cervical carcinogenesis. The disease relevance of the anticipated candidate genes was corroborated through a literature survey. Also the presence of the drugs for these candidates was detected through Therapeutic Target Database (TTD) and DrugMap Central (DMC) which affirms that they may be endowed as potential drug targets for cervical cancer.

  1. A representation theoretic approach to the WZW Verlinde formula

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, J

    1997-01-01

    By exploring the description of chiral blocks in terms of co-invariants, a proof of the Verlinde formula for WZW models is obtained which is entirely based on the representation theory of affine Lie algebras. In contrast to other proofs of the Verlinde formula, this approach works for all untwisted affine Lie algebras. As a by-product we obtain a homological interpretation of the Verlinde multiplicities, as Euler characteristics of complexes built from invariant tensors of finite-dimensional simple Lie algebras.

  2. Theoretical approach to the magnetocaloric effect with hysteresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basso, V.; Bertotti, G.; LoBue, M.; Sasso, C.P.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a thermodynamic model with internal variables is presented and applied to ferromagnetic hysteresis. The out-of-equilibrium Gibbs free energy of a magnetic system is expressed as a function of the internal state of the Preisach model. Expressions for the system entropy and the entropy production are derived. By this approach it is possible to reproduce the characteristic features of the experimentally observed temperature changes (of the order of 10 -4 K around room temperature) induced by the magnetic field along the hysteresis loop performed in iron under adiabatic condition

  3. Participatory approaches for environmental governance: theoretical justifications and practical effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Hove, Sybille

    2003-01-01

    A key justification for the rapid development of participatory approaches for environment and sustainable development governance stems from the characteristics of environmental issues. Environmental issues - and radioactive waste disposal is a good example - typically present four important physical characteristics: complexity, uncertainty, large temporal and spatial scales, and irreversibility, which all have consequences on what can be called the social characteristics of environmental issues. These include: social complexity and conflicts of interests, transversality, diffuse responsibilities and impacts, no clear division between micro- and macro-levels, and short-term costs of dealing with the issue associated with benefits which might occur only in the long-term. In turn, these physical and social characteristics determine the type of problem-solving processes needed to tackle environmental issues. It appears that the problem-solving processes best suited to confront global environmental issues will be dynamic processes of capacity-building, - aiming at innovative, flexible and adjustable answers, - allowing for the progressive integration of information as it becomes available, and of different value judgements and logics, - involving various actors from different backgrounds and levels. In promoting more democratic practices, these processes additionally should supersede traditional politics and allow co-ordination across different policy areas. It is deemed that participatory approaches have the potential to meet these problem-solving requirements

  4. Theoretical triangulation as an approach for revealing the complexity of a classroom discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Drie, J.; Dekker, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we explore the value of theoretical triangulation as a methodological approach for the analysis of classroom interaction. We analyze an excerpt of a whole-class discussion in history from three theoretical perspectives: interactivity of the discourse, conceptual level raising and

  5. Consumer Perception of Competitiveness – Theoretical-Instrumental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duralia Oana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Behaviorist economic approach has recorded a quantum leap in a relatively short period of time, as studying the relationship between consumer behavior and companies’ strategic decisions based on market competitiveness are no longer an unknown area. However, this issue remains actual in view of the fact that during the decision process of purchase, consumers do not always behave rationally, as they are the only ones who can appreciate if the offer of the company, in terms of range, quality, price and auxiliary services meet their needs or not. In this context, this paper aims to deepen the existing interconnection between the market decisions of the enterprise and consumer behavior, as measure standard for the competitiveness of a firm on a certain market.

  6. Group-theoretical approach to relativistic eikonal physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon, J; Quiros, M [Instituto de Enstructura de la Materia, C.S.I.C., Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Matematica, Universidad Complutense, Campus de Alcala (Spain)); Ramirez Mittelbrunn, J [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, C.S.I.C., Madrid (Spain)

    1977-09-01

    A contraction of the Poincare group is performed leading to the eikonal approximation. Invariants, one-particle states, spinning particles and some interaction problems are studied with the following results: momenta of ultrarelativistic particles behave as lightlike, the little group being E/sub 2/, spin behaves as that of zero-mass particles, helicity being conserved in the presence of interactions. The full eikonal results are rederived for Green's functions, wave functions, etc. The way for computing corrections due to transverse momenta and spin-dependent interactions is outlined. A parallel analysis is made for the infinite-momentum frame, the similarities and differences between this formalism and the eikonal approach being disclosed.

  7. Prospecting theoretical approaches to understand internationalization of creative economy firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvio Luís de Vasconcellos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We argue that the internationalization process of firms in the creative economy has particular aspects that distinguish it from internationalization of firms in traditional economic sectors. We explore ways in which the international business literature might be helpful for understanding how internationalization takes place in firms whose core business is creation of ideas. We conducted a case study using a focus group technique to investigate a creative economy firm specialized in computer graphics. The firm already does business internationally as a producer of electronic mockup models, but is transitioning to the computer-generated video production industry. Our results suggest that behavioral approaches to international business related to entrepreneurship, as well as country origin effects and networks theory could be useful to expanding knowledge about the internationalization process in such firms, in which creativity is a critical resource.

  8. [Systemic inflammation: theoretical and methodological approaches to description of general pathological process model. Part 3. Backgroung for nonsyndromic approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, E Yu; Chereshnev, V A

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical and methodological approaches to description of systemic inflammation as general pathological process are discussed. It is shown, that there is a need of integration of wide range of types of researches to develop a model of systemic inflammation.

  9. Field-theoretic approach to gravity in the flat space-time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalleri, G [Centro Informazioni Studi Esperienze, Milan (Italy); Milan Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica); Spinelli, G [Istituto di Matematica del Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy)

    1980-01-01

    In this paper it is discussed how the field-theoretical approach to gravity starting from the flat space-time is wider than the Einstein approach. The flat approach is able to predict the structure of the observable space as a consequence of the behaviour of the particle proper masses. The field equations are formally equal to Einstein's equations without the cosmological term.

  10. Theoretical approaches to x-ray absorption fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehr, J. J.; Albers, R. C.

    2000-01-01

    Dramatic advances in the understanding of x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) have been made over the past few decades, which have led ultimately to a highly quantitative theory. This review covers these developments from a unified multiple-scattering viewpoint. The authors focus on extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) well above an x-ray edge, and, to a lesser extent, on x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) closer to an edge. The discussion includes both formal considerations, derived from a many-electron formulation, and practical computational methods based on independent-electron models, with many-body effects lumped into various inelastic losses and energy shifts. The main conceptual issues in XAFS theory are identified and their relative importance is assessed; these include the convergence of the multiple-scattering expansion, curved-wave effects, the scattering potential, inelastic losses, self-energy shifts, and vibrations and structural disorder. The advantages and limitations of current computational approaches are addressed, with particular regard to quantitative experimental comparisons. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  11. Hybrid empirical--theoretical approach to modeling uranium adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, Larry C.; Grossman, Christopher; Fjeld, Robert A.; Coates, John T.; Elzerman, Alan W.

    2004-01-01

    An estimated 330 metric tons of U are buried in the radioactive waste Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). An assessment of U transport parameters is being performed to decrease the uncertainty in risk and dose predictions derived from computer simulations of U fate and transport to the underlying Snake River Plain Aquifer. Uranium adsorption isotherms were measured for 14 sediment samples collected from sedimentary interbeds underlying the SDA. The adsorption data were fit with a Freundlich isotherm. The Freundlich n parameter is statistically identical for all 14 sediment samples and the Freundlich K f parameter is correlated to sediment surface area (r 2 =0.80). These findings suggest an efficient approach to material characterization and implementation of a spatially variable reactive transport model that requires only the measurement of sediment surface area. To expand the potential applicability of the measured isotherms, a model is derived from the empirical observations by incorporating concepts from surface complexation theory to account for the effects of solution chemistry. The resulting model is then used to predict the range of adsorption conditions to be expected in the vadose zone at the SDA based on the range in measured pore water chemistry. Adsorption in the deep vadose zone is predicted to be stronger than in near-surface sediments because the total dissolved carbonate decreases with depth

  12. Relativistic kinematics and dynamics: a new group theoretical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovannini, N.

    1983-01-01

    The author reanalyzes the relationships between physical states and space-time symmetries with a view to describing relativistic extended and interacting systems. For this description he proposes to introduce, in space-time, an additional observable, related to a natural notion of simultaneity. The introduction of this new observable is justified on the basis of the operational meaning of the relations between state descriptions and symmetries in this case. The Poincare transformations are correspondingly split into two parts: the first one, kinematical, related to the symmetries of the description of the states, the other one, dynamical, related to the possible forms for the evolution. It is shown that the kinematical symmetries lead in a straightforward way to the expected classical and quantal state spaces for single particles of arbitrary spin and the author shows how the remaining symmetries can be related to the derivation of the possible forms for the dynamics. He finds as a particular case the usual dynamics of single particles in external fields (with some satisfactory improvements due to the corresponding new interpretation) and extends the method to the dynamics of N interacting particles. He also shows why this new approach and interpretation of relativistic states is necessary and how it allows a covariant description in the problems raised by the (recently measured) quantum correlations at-a-distance concerning the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox, something which seems quite impossible in the usual frameworks. (Auth.)

  13. An Information-Theoretic Approach to PMU Placement in Electric Power Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qiao; Cui, Tao; Weng, Yang; Negi, Rohit; Franchetti, Franz; Ilic, Marija D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an information-theoretic approach to address the phasor measurement unit (PMU) placement problem in electric power systems. Different from the conventional 'topological observability' based approaches, this paper advocates a much more refined, information-theoretic criterion, namely the mutual information (MI) between the PMU measurements and the power system states. The proposed MI criterion can not only include the full system observability as a special case, but also ca...

  14. A Holistic Theoretical Approach to Intellectual Disability: Going beyond the Four Current Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalock, Robert L.; Luckasson, Ruth; Tassé, Marc J.; Verdugo, Miguel Angel

    2018-01-01

    This article describes a holistic theoretical framework that can be used to explain intellectual disability (ID) and organize relevant information into a usable roadmap to guide understanding and application. Developing the framework involved analyzing the four current perspectives on ID and synthesizing this information into a holistic…

  15. A User-Centered Approach to Adaptive Hypertext Based on an Information Relevance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathe, Nathalie; Chen, James

    1994-01-01

    Rapid and effective to information in large electronic documentation systems can be facilitated if information relevant in an individual user's content can be automatically supplied to this user. However most of this knowledge on contextual relevance is not found within the contents of documents, it is rather established incrementally by users during information access. We propose a new model for interactively learning contextual relevance during information retrieval, and incrementally adapting retrieved information to individual user profiles. The model, called a relevance network, records the relevance of references based on user feedback for specific queries and user profiles. It also generalizes such knowledge to later derive relevant references for similar queries and profiles. The relevance network lets users filter information by context of relevance. Compared to other approaches, it does not require any prior knowledge nor training. More importantly, our approach to adaptivity is user-centered. It facilitates acceptance and understanding by users by giving them shared control over the adaptation without disturbing their primary task. Users easily control when to adapt and when to use the adapted system. Lastly, the model is independent of the particular application used to access information, and supports sharing of adaptations among users.

  16. Theoretical and numerical investigations of TAP experiments. New approaches for variable pressure conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senechal, U.; Breitkopf, C. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Energietechnik

    2011-07-01

    Temporal analysis of products (TAP) is a valuable tool for characterization of porous catalytic structures. Established TAP-modeling requires a spatially constant diffusion coefficient and neglect convective flows, which is only valid in Knudsen diffusion regime. Therefore in experiments, the number of molecules per pulse must be chosen accordingly. New approaches for variable process conditions are highly required. Thus, a new theoretical model is developed for estimating the number of molecules per pulse to meet these requirements under any conditions and at any time. The void volume is calculated as the biggest sphere fitting between three pellets. The total number of pulsed molecules is assumed to fill the first void volume at the inlet immediately. Molecule numbers from these calculations can be understood as maximum possible molecules at any time in the reactor to be in Knudsen diffusion regime, i.e., above the Knudsen number of 2. Moreover, a new methodology for generating a full three-dimensional geometrical representation of beds is presented and used for numerical simulations to investigate spatial effects. Based on a freely available open-source game physics engine library (BULLET), beds of arbitrary-sized pellets can be generated and transformed to CFD-usable geometry. In CFD-software (ANSYS CFX registered) a transient diffusive transport equation with time-dependent inlet boundary conditions is solved. Three different pellet diameters were investigated with 1e18 molecules per pulse, which is higher than the limit from the theoretical calculation. Spatial and temporal distributions of transported species show regions inside the reactor, where non-Knudsen conditions exist. From this results, the distance from inlet can be calculated where the theoretical pressure limit (Knudsen number equals 2) is obtained, i.e., from this point to the end of the reactor Knudsen regime can be assumed. Due to linear dependency of pressure and concentration (assuming ideal

  17. Black hole state counting in loop quantum gravity: a number-theoretical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agulló, Iván; Barbero G, J Fernando; Díaz-Polo, Jacobo; Fernández-Borja, Enrique; Villaseñor, Eduardo J S

    2008-05-30

    We give an efficient method, combining number-theoretic and combinatorial ideas, to exactly compute black hole entropy in the framework of loop quantum gravity. Along the way we provide a complete characterization of the relevant sector of the spectrum of the area operator, including degeneracies, and explicitly determine the number of solutions to the projection constraint. We use a computer implementation of the proposed algorithm to confirm and extend previous results on the detailed structure of the black hole degeneracy spectrum.

  18. Choosing Appropriate Theories for Understanding Hospital Reporting of Adverse Drug Events, a Theoretical Domains Framework Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalviri, Gloria; Yazdizadeh, Bahareh; Mirbaha, Fariba; Gholami, Kheirollah; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2018-01-01

    Adverse drug events (ADEs) may cause serious injuries including death. Spontaneous reporting of ADEs plays a great role in detection and prevention of them; however, underreporting always exists. Although several interventions have been utilized to solve this problem, they are mainly based on experience and the rationale for choosing them has no theoretical base. The vast variety of behavioural theories makes it difficult to choose appropriate theory. Theoretical domains framework (TDF) is suggested as a solution. The objective of this study was to select the best theory for evaluating ADE reporting in hospitals based on TDF. We carried out three focus group discussions with hospital pharmacists and nurses, based on TDF questions. The analysis was performed through five steps including coding discussions transcript, extracting beliefs, selecting relevant domains, matching related constructs to the extracted beliefs, and determining the appropriate theories in each domain. The theory with the highest number of matched domains and constructs was selected as the theory of choice. A total of six domains were identified relevant to ADE reporting, including "Knowledge", "Skills", "Beliefs about consequences", "Motivation and goals", "Environmental context and resources" and "Social influences". We found theory of planned behavior as the comprehensive theory to study factors influencing ADE reporting in hospitals, since it was relevant theory in five out of six relevant domains and the common theory in 55 out of 75 identified beliefs. In conclusion, we suggest theory of planned behavior for further studies on designing appropriate interventions to increase ADE reporting in hospitals.

  19. A Theoretical Study of the Outer Layers of Eight Kepler F-stars: The Relevance of Ionization Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Ana; Lopes, Ilídio

    2017-07-01

    We have analyzed the theoretical model envelopes of eight Kepler F-stars by computing the phase shift of the acoustic waves, α (ω ), and its related function, β (ω ). The latter is shown to be a powerful probe of the external stellar layers since it is particularly sensitive to the partial ionization zones located in these upper layers. We found that these theoretical envelopes can be organized into two groups, each of which is characterized by a distinct β (ω ) shape that we show to reflect the differences related to the magnitudes of ionization processes. Since β (ω ) can also be determined from the experimental frequencies, we compared our theoretical results with the observable β (ω ). Using the function β (ω ), and with the purpose of quantifying the magnitude of the ionization processes occurring in the outer layers of these stars, we define two indexes, {{Δ }}{β }1 and {{Δ }}{β }2. These indexes allow us to connect the microphysics of the interior of the star with macroscopic observable characteristics. Motivated by the distinct magnetic activity behaviors of F-stars, we studied the relation between the star’s rotation period and these indexes. We found a trend, in the form of a power-law dependence, that favors the idea that ionization is acting as an underlying mechanism, which is crucial for understanding the relation between rotation and magnetism and even observational features such as the Kraft break.

  20. THEORETICAL AND METHODICAL APPROACHES TO THE FORMATION AND EVALUATION OF THE QUALITY OF TOURIST SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Vasylykha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study, the results of which are described in the article, is devoted to analysing and substantiating approaches to the assessment and quality assurance of tourism services, which form their competitiveness, namely factors and indicators of quality. After all, the integration and globalization of the world society determine the development of tourism as a catalyst for these global processes, and world practice has proved that tourism can be an effective way to solve many socio-economic problems. The subject of the study is the peculiarities of assessing the quality of tourist services. Methodology. The methodological basis of the work is a system of general scientific and special scientific methods, mainly, in the process of research, there are used such methods as system-analytical and dialectical methods – for the theoretical generalization of the investigated material; structural and logical method – in systematizing factors and indicators of the quality of tourist services. The purpose of the article is a theoretical justification of approaches to the quality of tourist services and optimization of their quality assessment. In the research, approaches to the interpretation of the concept of quality are presented and analysed, features of services in general and tourism in particular are concentrated, and it is suggested to group and classify factors and indicators of their quality. The interpretation of the notion of quality is ambiguous, both in Ukrainian and in foreign literary sources, and depends on the point of view on this notion. In our opinion, the most thorough definition characterizes the quality of products and services as a complex feature that determines their suitability to the needs of the consumer. Taking into account the specificity of the term “service”, peculiarities determining the approaches to their evaluation are studied, such a service can be considered a product dominated by intangible elements and also

  1. EVOLUTION OF THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO THE DEFINITION OF THE CATEGORY “PERSONNEL POTENTIAL”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аlexandra Deshchenko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the evolution of theoretical approaches to definition of the category «personnel potential» based on the analysis of approaches to definition of the conceptual apparatus of labor Economics, including such categories as: labor force, labor resources, labor potential, human resources, human capital, human capital different authors. The analysis of the evolution of the terms in accordance with the stages of development of a society.

  2. The decays Psub(c) -> VP in the group theoretical and quark diagrammatic approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuan, S.F.; Xiaoyuan Li.

    1983-08-01

    Decays of charmed meson into one vector meson and one pseudoscalar meson Psub(c) -> VP in both the group theoretical and quark diagrammatic approaches are considered. A complete decay amplitude analysis is given. The present available experimental data can be accomodated if the contributions from exotic final states and exotic piece of weak Hamiltonian are also taken into account. (orig.)

  3. THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF PROTEST ACTIVITY IN THE WESTERN SOCIOLOGICAL THOUGHT

    OpenAIRE

    Купрєєва, Ю. О.

    2015-01-01

    In this article the author discusses the main theoretical and methodological approaches to the study of protest activity. Among them - the theory of collective behavior, the relative deprivation theory, the new social movements theory and the resource mobilization theory. Highlighted their strengths and weaknesses. Focused on the new direction of protest studies connected with the development of the Internet.

  4. The Quality of Life and relevant Approaches based on Capabilities and Functionalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matei Șimandan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent research regarding the quality of life developed different approaches concerning the use of objective and subjective indicators, as well as the relevance of hypotheses, propositions and methods of analysis or of evaluation. Starting from the conceptual difficulties regarding the term of ‘quality of life’, this article focuses upon the contributions of Amartya Sen on the relationships between resources, liberties, capabilities, functionalities and human development. A separate section attempts to capture the shift of accent from the approaches of a quantitative type towards those of a qualitative type, founded on capabilities, functionalities, and the factors of conversion of resources into elements of quality of subjective life. The following sections are consecrated to the contributions to the development of the model proposed by Amartya Sen and to the reception of this model by a few specialists in the field, as well as to its relevance within scientific research and the foundation of public policies.

  5. The person-oriented approach: A short theoretical and practical guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars R. Bergman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A short overview of the person-oriented approach is given as a guide to the researcher interested in carrying out person-oriented research. Theoretical, methodological, and practical considerations of the approach are discussed. First, some historical roots are traced, followed by a description of the holisticinteractionistic research paradigm, which provided the general framework for the development of the modern person-oriented approach. The approach has both a theoretical and a methodological facet and after presenting its key theoretical tenets, an overview is given of some common person-oriented methods. Central to the person-oriented approach is a system view with its components together forming a pattern regarded as indivisible. This pattern should be understood and studied as a whole, not broken up into pieces (variables that are studied as separate entities. Hence, usually methodological tools are used by which whole patterns are analysed (e.g. cluster analysis. An empirical example is given where the pattern development of school grades is studied.

  6. Theoretical Approaches in Evolutionary Ecology: Environmental Feedback as a Unifying Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lion, Sébastien

    2018-01-01

    Evolutionary biology and ecology have a strong theoretical underpinning, and this has fostered a variety of modeling approaches. A major challenge of this theoretical work has been to unravel the tangled feedback loop between ecology and evolution. This has prompted the development of two main classes of models. While quantitative genetics models jointly consider the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of a focal population, a separation of timescales between ecology and evolution is assumed by evolutionary game theory, adaptive dynamics, and inclusive fitness theory. As a result, theoretical evolutionary ecology tends to be divided among different schools of thought, with different toolboxes and motivations. My aim in this synthesis is to highlight the connections between these different approaches and clarify the current state of theory in evolutionary ecology. Central to this approach is to make explicit the dependence on environmental dynamics of the population and evolutionary dynamics, thereby materializing the eco-evolutionary feedback loop. This perspective sheds light on the interplay between environmental feedback and the timescales of ecological and evolutionary processes. I conclude by discussing some potential extensions and challenges to our current theoretical understanding of eco-evolutionary dynamics.

  7. The Theoretical and Empirical Approaches to the Definition of Audit Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berezhniy Yevgeniy B.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The risk category is one of the key factors in planning the audit and assessing its results. The article is aimed at generalizing the theoretical and empirical approaches to the definition of audit risk and methods of its reduction. The structure of audit risk was analyzed and it has been determined, that each of researchers approached to structuring of audit risk from the subjective point of view. The author’s own model of audit risk has been proposed. The basic methods of assessment of audit risk are generalized, the theoretical and empirical approaches to its definition are allocated, also it is noted, that application of any of the given models can be suitable rather for approximate estimation, than for exact calculation of an audit risk, as it is accompanied by certain shortcomings.

  8. Understanding employee motivation and organizational performance: Arguments for a set-theoretic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Lee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Empirical evidence demonstrates that motivated employees mean better organizational performance. The objective of this conceptual paper is to articulate the progress that has been made in understanding employee motivation and organizational performance, and to suggest how the theory concerning employee motivation and organizational performance may be advanced. We acknowledge the existing limitations of theory development and suggest an alternative research approach. Current motivation theory development is based on conventional quantitative analysis (e.g., multiple regression analysis, structural equation modeling. Since researchers are interested in context and understanding of this social phenomena holistically, they think in terms of combinations and configurations of a set of pertinent variables. We suggest that researchers take a set-theoretic approach to complement existing conventional quantitative analysis. To advance current thinking, we propose a set-theoretic approach to leverage employee motivation for organizational performance.

  9. Topological charge on the lattice: a field theoretical view of the geometrical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastelli, L.; Rossi, P.; Vicari, E.

    1997-01-01

    We construct sequences of ''field theoretical'' lattice topological charge density operators which formally approach geometrical definitions in 2D CP N-1 models and 4D SU(N) Yang-Mills theories. The analysis of these sequences of operators suggests a new way of looking at the geometrical method, showing that geometrical charges can be interpreted as limits of sequences of field theoretical (analytical) operators. In perturbation theory, renormalization effects formally tend to vanish along such sequences. But, since the perturbative expansion is asymptotic, this does not necessarily lead to well-behaved geometrical limits. It indeed leaves open the possibility that non-perturbative renormalizations survive. (orig.)

  10. Merged ontology for engineering design: Contrasting empirical and theoretical approaches to develop engineering ontologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Saeema; Storga, M

    2009-01-01

    to developing the ontology engineering design integrated taxonomies (EDIT) with a theoretical approach in which concepts and relations are elicited from engineering design theories ontology (DO) The limitations and advantages of each approach are discussed. The research methodology adopted is to map......This paper presents a comparison of two previous and separate efforts to develop an ontology in the engineering design domain, together with an ontology proposal from which ontologies for a specific application may be derived. The research contrasts an empirical, user-centered approach...

  11. Multivariate information-theoretic measures reveal directed information structure and task relevant changes in fMRI connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizier, Joseph T; Heinzle, Jakob; Horstmann, Annette; Haynes, John-Dylan; Prokopenko, Mikhail

    2011-02-01

    The human brain undertakes highly sophisticated information processing facilitated by the interaction between its sub-regions. We present a novel method for interregional connectivity analysis, using multivariate extensions to the mutual information and transfer entropy. The method allows us to identify the underlying directed information structure between brain regions, and how that structure changes according to behavioral conditions. This method is distinguished in using asymmetric, multivariate, information-theoretical analysis, which captures not only directional and non-linear relationships, but also collective interactions. Importantly, the method is able to estimate multivariate information measures with only relatively little data. We demonstrate the method to analyze functional magnetic resonance imaging time series to establish the directed information structure between brain regions involved in a visuo-motor tracking task. Importantly, this results in a tiered structure, with known movement planning regions driving visual and motor control regions. Also, we examine the changes in this structure as the difficulty of the tracking task is increased. We find that task difficulty modulates the coupling strength between regions of a cortical network involved in movement planning and between motor cortex and the cerebellum which is involved in the fine-tuning of motor control. It is likely these methods will find utility in identifying interregional structure (and experimentally induced changes in this structure) in other cognitive tasks and data modalities.

  12. A Pareto analysis approach to assess relevant marginal CO{sub 2} footprint for petroleum products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tehrani, Nejad M. Alireza, E-mail: alireza.tehraninejad@gmail.com

    2015-07-15

    Recently, linear programing (LP) models have been extended to track the marginal CO{sub 2} intensity of automotive fuels at the refinery gate. The obtained CO{sub 2} data are recommended for policy making because they capture the economic and environmental tensions as well as the processing effects related to oil products. However, they are proven to be extremely sensitive to small perturbations and therefore useless in practice. In this paper, we first investigate the theoretical reasons of this drawback. Then, we develop a multiple objective LP framework to assess relevant marginal CO{sub 2} footprints that preserve both defensibility and stability at a satisfactory level of acceptance. A case study illustrates this new methodology. - Highlights: • Refining LP models have limitations to provide useful marginal CO{sub 2} footprints. • A multi objective optimization framework is developed to assess relevant CO{sub 2} data. • Within a European Refinig industry, diesel is more CO{sub 2} intensive than gasoline.

  13. Genome-wide analytical approaches for reverse metabolic engineering of industrially relevant phenotypes in yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Bart; Maris, Antonius J A; Daran, Jean-Marc; Pronk, Jack T

    2012-01-01

    Successful reverse engineering of mutants that have been obtained by nontargeted strain improvement has long presented a major challenge in yeast biotechnology. This paper reviews the use of genome-wide approaches for analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains originating from evolutionary engineering or random mutagenesis. On the basis of an evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of different methods, we conclude that for the initial identification of relevant genetic changes, whole genome sequencing is superior to other analytical techniques, such as transcriptome, metabolome, proteome, or array-based genome analysis. Key advantages of this technique over gene expression analysis include the independency of genome sequences on experimental context and the possibility to directly and precisely reproduce the identified changes in naive strains. The predictive value of genome-wide analysis of strains with industrially relevant characteristics can be further improved by classical genetics or simultaneous analysis of strains derived from parallel, independent strain improvement lineages. PMID:22152095

  14. A Group Theoretic Approach to Metaheuristic Local Search for Partitioning Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    Tabu Search. Mathematical and Computer Modeling 39: 599-616. 107 Daskin , M.S., E. Stern. 1981. A Hierarchical Objective Set Covering Model for EMS... A Group Theoretic Approach to Metaheuristic Local Search for Partitioning Problems by Gary W. Kinney Jr., B.G.S., M.S. Dissertation Presented to the...DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A Approved for Public Release Distribution Unlimited The University of Texas at Austin May, 2005 20050504 002 REPORT

  15. Field theoretical approach to proton-nucleus reactions: II-Multiple-step excitation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiras, A.; Kodama, T.; Nemes, M.

    1989-01-01

    A field theoretical formulation to multiple step excitation process in proton-nucleus collision within the context of a relativistic eikonal approach is presented. A closed form expression for the double differential cross section can be obtained whose structure is very simple and makes the physics transparent. Glauber's formulation of the same process is obtained as a limit of ours and the necessary approximations are studied and discussed. (author) [pt

  16. Theoretical approach to the destruction or sterilization of drugs in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slegers, Catherine; Tilquin, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    Two novel applications in the radiation processing of aqueous solutions of drugs are the sterilization of injectable drugs and the decontamination of hospital wastewaters by ionizing radiation. The parameters influencing the destruction of the drug in aqueous solutions are studied with a computer simulation program. This theoretical approach has revealed that the dose rate is the most important parameter that can be easily varied in order to optimize the destruction or the protection of the drug

  17. A THEORETICAL APPROACH TO THE TRANSITION FROM A RESOURCE BASED TO A KNOWLEDGE-ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana GIOACASI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Economic development and the emergence of new technologies have changed the optics on the factors that are generating added value. The transition from a resource-dependent economy to one focused on tangible non-financial factors has progressed in a gradual manner and took place under the influence of globalization and of the internet boom. The aim of this article is to provide a theoretical approach to this phenomenon from the perspective of the temporal evolution of enterprise resources.

  18. A Theoretical Assessment of the Formation of IT clusters in Kazakhstan: Approaches and Positive Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Anel A. Kireyeva

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this research is to develop new theoretical approaches of the formation of IT clusters in order to strengthen of trend of the innovative industrialization and competitiveness of the country. Keeping with the previous literature, this study determines by the novelty of the problem, concerning the formation of IT clusters, which can become a driving force of transformation due to the interaction, improving efficiency and introducing advanced technology. In this research,...

  19. A Balanced Theoretical and Empirical Approach for the Development of a Design Support Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Aakjær; Hansen, Claus Thorp

    1996-01-01

    The introduction of a new design support system may change the engineering designer's work situation. Therefore, it may not be possible to derive all the functionalities for a design support system from solely empirical studies of manual design work. Alternatively the design support system could ...... system, indicating a proposal for how to balance a theoretical and empirical approach. The result of this research will be utilized in the development of a Designer's Workbench to support the synthesis activity in mechanical design....

  20. Theoretical analysis of the dose dependence of the oxygen enhancement ratio and its relevance for clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzl, Tatiana; Wilkens, Jan J

    2011-01-01

    The increased resistance of hypoxic cells to ionizing radiation is usually believed to be the primary reason for treatment failure in tumors with oxygen-deficient areas. This oxygen effect can be expressed quantitatively by the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER). Here we investigate theoretically the dependence of the OER on the applied local dose for different types of ionizing irradiation and discuss its importance for clinical applications in radiotherapy for two scenarios: small dose variations during hypoxia-based dose painting and larger dose changes introduced by altered fractionation schemes. Using the widespread Alper-Howard-Flanders and standard linear-quadratic (LQ) models, OER calculations are performed for T1 human kidney and V79 Chinese hamster cells for various dose levels and various hypoxic oxygen partial pressures (pO2) between 0.01 and 20 mmHg as present in clinical situations in vivo. Our work comprises the analysis for both low linear energy transfer (LET) treatment with photons or protons and high-LET treatment with heavy ions. A detailed analysis of experimental data from the literature with respect to the dose dependence of the oxygen effect is performed, revealing controversial opinions whether the OER increases, decreases or stays constant with dose. The behavior of the OER with dose per fraction depends primarily on the ratios of the LQ parameters alpha and beta under hypoxic and aerobic conditions, which themselves depend on LET, pO2 and the cell or tissue type. According to our calculations, the OER variations with dose in vivo for low-LET treatments are moderate, with changes in the OER up to 11% for dose painting (1 or 3 Gy per fraction compared to 2 Gy) and up to 22% in hyper-/hypofractionation (0.5 or 20 Gy per fraction compared to 2 Gy) for oxygen tensions between 0.2 and 20 mmHg typically measured clinically in hypoxic tumors. For extremely hypoxic cells (0.01 mmHg), the dose dependence of the OER becomes more pronounced (up to 36

  1. A multi-scale relevance vector regression approach for daily urban water demand forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yun; Wang, Pu; Li, Chuan; Xie, Jingjing; Wang, Yin

    2014-09-01

    Water is one of the most important resources for economic and social developments. Daily water demand forecasting is an effective measure for scheduling urban water facilities. This work proposes a multi-scale relevance vector regression (MSRVR) approach to forecast daily urban water demand. The approach uses the stationary wavelet transform to decompose historical time series of daily water supplies into different scales. At each scale, the wavelet coefficients are used to train a machine-learning model using the relevance vector regression (RVR) method. The estimated coefficients of the RVR outputs for all of the scales are employed to reconstruct the forecasting result through the inverse wavelet transform. To better facilitate the MSRVR forecasting, the chaos features of the daily water supply series are analyzed to determine the input variables of the RVR model. In addition, an adaptive chaos particle swarm optimization algorithm is used to find the optimal combination of the RVR model parameters. The MSRVR approach is evaluated using real data collected from two waterworks and is compared with recently reported methods. The results show that the proposed MSRVR method can forecast daily urban water demand much more precisely in terms of the normalized root-mean-square error, correlation coefficient, and mean absolute percentage error criteria.

  2. Decision support models for solid waste management: Review and game-theoretic approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmperis, Athanasios C.; Aravossis, Konstantinos; Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P.; Sotirchos, Anastasios

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The mainly used decision support frameworks for solid waste management are reviewed. ► The LCA, CBA and MCDM models are presented and their strengths, weaknesses, similarities and possible combinations are analyzed. ► The game-theoretic approach in a solid waste management context is presented. ► The waste management bargaining game is introduced as a specific decision support framework. ► Cooperative and non-cooperative game-theoretic approaches to decision support for solid waste management are discussed. - Abstract: This paper surveys decision support models that are commonly used in the solid waste management area. Most models are mainly developed within three decision support frameworks, which are the life-cycle assessment, the cost–benefit analysis and the multi-criteria decision-making. These frameworks are reviewed and their strengths and weaknesses as well as their critical issues are analyzed, while their possible combinations and extensions are also discussed. Furthermore, the paper presents how cooperative and non-cooperative game-theoretic approaches can be used for the purpose of modeling and analyzing decision-making in situations with multiple stakeholders. Specifically, since a waste management model is sustainable when considering not only environmental and economic but also social aspects, the waste management bargaining game is introduced as a specific decision support framework in which future models can be developed

  3. Decision support models for solid waste management: Review and game-theoretic approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmperis, Athanasios C., E-mail: athkarmp@mail.ntua.gr [Sector of Industrial Management and Operational Research, School of Mechanical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Iroon Polytechniou 9, 15780 Athens (Greece); Army Corps of Engineers, Hellenic Army General Staff, Ministry of Defence (Greece); Aravossis, Konstantinos; Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P.; Sotirchos, Anastasios [Sector of Industrial Management and Operational Research, School of Mechanical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Iroon Polytechniou 9, 15780 Athens (Greece)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► The mainly used decision support frameworks for solid waste management are reviewed. ► The LCA, CBA and MCDM models are presented and their strengths, weaknesses, similarities and possible combinations are analyzed. ► The game-theoretic approach in a solid waste management context is presented. ► The waste management bargaining game is introduced as a specific decision support framework. ► Cooperative and non-cooperative game-theoretic approaches to decision support for solid waste management are discussed. - Abstract: This paper surveys decision support models that are commonly used in the solid waste management area. Most models are mainly developed within three decision support frameworks, which are the life-cycle assessment, the cost–benefit analysis and the multi-criteria decision-making. These frameworks are reviewed and their strengths and weaknesses as well as their critical issues are analyzed, while their possible combinations and extensions are also discussed. Furthermore, the paper presents how cooperative and non-cooperative game-theoretic approaches can be used for the purpose of modeling and analyzing decision-making in situations with multiple stakeholders. Specifically, since a waste management model is sustainable when considering not only environmental and economic but also social aspects, the waste management bargaining game is introduced as a specific decision support framework in which future models can be developed.

  4. A game-theoretic approach to real-time system testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Li, Shuhao

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a game-theoretic approach to the testing of uncontrollable real-time systems. By modelling the systems with Timed I/O Game Automata and specifying the test purposes as Timed CTL formulas, we employ a recently developed timed game solver UPPAAL-TIGA to synthesize winning...... strategies, and then use these strategies to conduct black-box conformance testing of the systems. The testing process is proved to be sound and complete with respect to the given test purposes. Case study and preliminary experimental results indicate that this is a viable approach to uncontrollable timed...... system testing....

  5. A DYNAMIC FEATURE SELECTION METHOD FOR DOCUMENT RANKING WITH RELEVANCE FEEDBACK APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Latha

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Ranking search results is essential for information retrieval and Web search. Search engines need to not only return highly relevant results, but also be fast to satisfy users. As a result, not all available features can be used for ranking, and in fact only a small percentage of these features can be used. Thus, it is crucial to have a feature selection mechanism that can find a subset of features that both meets latency requirements and achieves high relevance. In this paper we describe a 0/1 knapsack procedure for automatically selecting features to use within Generalization model for Document Ranking. We propose an approach for Relevance Feedback using Expectation Maximization method and evaluate the algorithm on the TREC Collection for describing classes of feedback textual information retrieval features. Experimental results, evaluated on standard TREC-9 part of the OHSUMED collections, show that our feature selection algorithm produces models that are either significantly more effective than, or equally effective as, models such as Markov Random Field model, Correlation Co-efficient and Count Difference method

  6. Historical maintenance relevant information road-map for a self-learning maintenance prediction procedural approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Francisco J.; Reyes, Antonio; Cáceres, Noelia; Romero, Luis M.; Benitez, Francisco G.; Morgado, Joao; Duarte, Emanuel; Martins, Teresa

    2017-09-01

    A large percentage of transport infrastructures are composed of linear assets, such as roads and rail tracks. The large social and economic relevance of these constructions force the stakeholders to ensure a prolonged health/durability. Even though, inevitable malfunctioning, breaking down, and out-of-service periods arise randomly during the life cycle of the infrastructure. Predictive maintenance techniques tend to diminish the appearance of unpredicted failures and the execution of needed corrective interventions, envisaging the adequate interventions to be conducted before failures show up. This communication presents: i) A procedural approach, to be conducted, in order to collect the relevant information regarding the evolving state condition of the assets involved in all maintenance interventions; this reported and stored information constitutes a rich historical data base to train Machine Learning algorithms in order to generate reliable predictions of the interventions to be carried out in further time scenarios. ii) A schematic flow chart of the automatic learning procedure. iii) Self-learning rules from automatic learning from false positive/negatives. The description, testing, automatic learning approach and the outcomes of a pilot case are presented; finally some conclusions are outlined regarding the methodology proposed for improving the self-learning predictive capability.

  7. Use of an ecologically relevant modelling approach to improve remote sensing-based schistosomiasis risk profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Walz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a widespread water-based disease that puts close to 800 million people at risk of infection with more than 250 million infected, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa. Transmission is governed by the spatial distribution of specific freshwater snails that act as intermediate hosts and the frequency, duration and extent of human bodies exposed to infested water sources during human water contact. Remote sensing data have been utilized for spatially explicit risk profiling of schistosomiasis. Since schistosomiasis risk profiling based on remote sensing data inherits a conceptual drawback if school-based disease prevalence data are directly related to the remote sensing measurements extracted at the location of the school, because the disease transmission usually does not exactly occur at the school, we took the local environment around the schools into account by explicitly linking ecologically relevant environmental information of potential disease transmission sites to survey measurements of disease prevalence. Our models were validated at two sites with different landscapes in Côte d’Ivoire using high- and moderateresolution remote sensing data based on random forest and partial least squares regression. We found that the ecologically relevant modelling approach explained up to 70% of the variation in Schistosoma infection prevalence and performed better compared to a purely pixelbased modelling approach. Furthermore, our study showed that model performance increased as a function of enlarging the school catchment area, confirming the hypothesis that suitable environments for schistosomiasis transmission rarely occur at the location of survey measurements.

  8. A protocol for classifying ecologically relevant marine zones, a statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verfaillie, Els; Degraer, Steven; Schelfaut, Kristien; Willems, Wouter; Van Lancker, Vera

    2009-06-01

    Mapping ecologically relevant zones in the marine environment has become increasingly important. Biological data are however often scarce and alternatives are being sought in optimal classifications of abiotic variables. The concept of 'marine landscapes' is based on a hierarchical classification of geological, hydrographic and other physical data. This approach is however subject to many assumptions and subjective decisions. An objective protocol for zonation is being proposed here where abiotic variables are subjected to a statistical approach, using principal components analysis (PCA) and a cluster analysis. The optimal number of clusters (or zones) is being defined using the Calinski-Harabasz criterion. The methodology has been applied on datasets of the Belgian part of the North Sea (BPNS), a shallow sandy shelf environment with a sandbank-swale topography. The BPNS was classified into 8 zones that represent well the natural variability of the seafloor. The internal cluster consistency was validated with a split-run procedure, with more than 99% correspondence between the validation and the original dataset. The ecological relevance of 6 out of the 8 zones was demonstrated, using indicator species analysis. The proposed protocol, as exemplified for the BPNS, can easily be applied to other areas and provides a strong knowledge basis for environmental protection and management of the marine environment. A SWOT-analysis, showing the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the protocol was performed.

  9. Animal to human translational paradigms relevant for approach avoidance conflict decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirlic, Namik; Young, Jared; Aupperle, Robin L

    2017-09-01

    Avoidance behavior in clinical anxiety disorders is often a decision made in response to approach-avoidance conflict, resulting in a sacrifice of potential rewards to avoid potential negative affective consequences. Animal research has a long history of relying on paradigms related to approach-avoidance conflict to model anxiety-relevant behavior. This approach includes punishment-based conflict, exploratory, and social interaction tasks. There has been a recent surge of interest in the translation of paradigms from animal to human, in efforts to increase generalization of findings and support the development of more effective mental health treatments. This article briefly reviews animal tests related to approach-avoidance conflict and results from lesion and pharmacologic studies utilizing these tests. We then provide a description of translational human paradigms that have been developed to tap into related constructs, summarizing behavioral and neuroimaging findings. Similarities and differences in findings from analogous animal and human paradigms are discussed. Lastly, we highlight opportunities for future research and paradigm development that will support the clinical utility of this translational work. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Reflective practice and vocational training: theoretical approaches in the field of Health and Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Netto

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Theoretical reflection that uses Reflexivity as a theoretical reference and its objective is to approach Donald Schön's reflective thinking, interrelating it with the innovative curriculum. Method: The writings of Schön and other authors who addressed the themes in their works were used. Results: The innovative curriculum as an expression of dissatisfaction with the fragmentation paradigm may favor reflective practice, since it is necessary to mobilize reflexivity for actions and contexts that are unpredictable in the field of health promotion. Conclusions: The innovative curriculum favors and is favored by a reflective practice and the development of competencies for the promotion of health. Implications for practice: The findings apply to the practice of nurses to deal with the conditioning and determinants of the health-disease process.

  11. Forming Limits in Sheet Metal Forming for Non-Proportional Loading Conditions - Experimental and Theoretical Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofenheimer, Aldo; Buchmayr, Bruno; Kolleck, Ralf; Merklein, Marion

    2005-01-01

    The influence of strain paths (loading history) on material formability is well known in sheet forming processes. Sophisticated experimental methods are used to determine the entire shape of strain paths of forming limits for aluminum AA6016-T4 alloy. Forming limits for sheet metal in as-received condition as well as for different pre-deformation are presented. A theoretical approach based on Arrieux's intrinsic Forming Limit Stress Curve (FLSC) concept is employed to numerically predict the influence of loading history on forming severity. The detailed experimental strain paths are used in the theoretical study instead of any linear or bilinear simplified loading histories to demonstrate the predictive quality of forming limits in the state of stress

  12. A short course in quantum information theory an approach from theoretical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Diosi, Lajos

    2011-01-01

    This short and concise primer takes the vantage point of theoretical physics and the unity of physics. It sets out to strip the burgeoning field of quantum information science to its basics by linking it to universal concepts in physics. An extensive lecture rather than a comprehensive textbook, this volume is based on courses delivered over several years to advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students, but essentially it addresses anyone with a working knowledge of basic quantum physics. Readers will find these lectures a most adequate entry point for theoretical studies in this field. For the second edition, the authors has succeeded in adding many new topics while sticking to the conciseness of the overall approach. A new chapter on qubit thermodynamics has been added, while new sections and subsections have been incorporated in various chapter to deal with weak and time-continuous measurements, period-finding quantum algorithms and quantum error corrections. From the reviews of the first edition...

  13. Theoretical analysis of integral neutron transport equation using collision probability method with quadratic flux approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafii, Mohammad Ali; Meidianti, Rahma; Wildian,; Fitriyani, Dian; Tongkukut, Seni H. J.; Arkundato, Artoto

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical analysis of integral neutron transport equation using collision probability (CP) method with quadratic flux approach has been carried out. In general, the solution of the neutron transport using the CP method is performed with the flat flux approach. In this research, the CP method is implemented in the cylindrical nuclear fuel cell with the spatial of mesh being conducted into non flat flux approach. It means that the neutron flux at any point in the nuclear fuel cell are considered different each other followed the distribution pattern of quadratic flux. The result is presented here in the form of quadratic flux that is better understanding of the real condition in the cell calculation and as a starting point to be applied in computational calculation

  14. Theoretical analysis of integral neutron transport equation using collision probability method with quadratic flux approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafii, Mohammad Ali, E-mail: mashafii@fmipa.unand.ac.id; Meidianti, Rahma, E-mail: mashafii@fmipa.unand.ac.id; Wildian,, E-mail: mashafii@fmipa.unand.ac.id; Fitriyani, Dian, E-mail: mashafii@fmipa.unand.ac.id [Department of Physics, Andalas University Padang West Sumatera Indonesia (Indonesia); Tongkukut, Seni H. J. [Department of Physics, Sam Ratulangi University Manado North Sulawesi Indonesia (Indonesia); Arkundato, Artoto [Department of Physics, Jember University Jember East Java Indonesia (Indonesia)

    2014-09-30

    Theoretical analysis of integral neutron transport equation using collision probability (CP) method with quadratic flux approach has been carried out. In general, the solution of the neutron transport using the CP method is performed with the flat flux approach. In this research, the CP method is implemented in the cylindrical nuclear fuel cell with the spatial of mesh being conducted into non flat flux approach. It means that the neutron flux at any point in the nuclear fuel cell are considered different each other followed the distribution pattern of quadratic flux. The result is presented here in the form of quadratic flux that is better understanding of the real condition in the cell calculation and as a starting point to be applied in computational calculation.

  15. Insights into Glycol Ether-Alkanol Mixtures from a Combined Experimental and Theoretical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalde, Rafael; Gutiérrez, Alberto; Atilhan, Mert; Trenzado, José Luis; Aparicio, Santiago

    2017-06-08

    The binary liquid mixtures of glycol ethers (glymes) + 1-alkanol were characterized from the microscopic and macroscopic viewpoints through a combined experimental and theoretical study. Structuring, dynamics, and intermolecular forces were determined using density functional theory and classical molecular dynamics methods. The macroscopic behavior was studied though the measurement of relevant physicochemical properties and Raman IR studies. The changes in intermolecular forces with mixture composition, temperature, and the effects from the types of glymes as well as 1-alkanols were considered. Hydrogen bonding in the mixed fluids, its changes upon mixing, and mixture composition showed a large effect on fluids' structure and determined most of the fluids' properties together with the presence of hydrophobic domains from long 1-alkanols.

  16. A review of the nurtured heart approach to parenting: evaluation of its theoretical and empirical foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hektner, Joel M; Brennan, Alison L; Brotherson, Sean E

    2013-09-01

    The Nurtured Heart Approach to parenting (NHA; Glasser & Easley, 2008) is summarized and evaluated in terms of its alignment with current theoretical perspectives and empirical evidence in family studies and developmental science. Originally conceived and promoted as a behavior management approach for parents of difficult children (i.e., with behavior disorders), NHA is increasingly offered as a valuable strategy for parents of any children, despite a lack of published empirical support. Parents using NHA are trained to minimize attention to undesired behaviors, provide positive attention and praise for compliance with rules, help children be successful by scaffolding and shaping desired behavior, and establish a set of clear rules and consequences. Many elements of the approach have strong support in the theoretical and empirical literature; however, some of the assumptions are more questionable, such as that negative child behavior can always be attributed to unintentional positive reinforcement by parents responding with negative attention. On balance, NHA appears to promote effective and validated parenting practices, but its effectiveness now needs to be tested empirically. © FPI, Inc.

  17. Evolution of the Theoretical Approaches to Disclosing the Economic Substance of Accumulation of Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yemets Vadym V.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes a classification for periods of evolution of theoretical approaches to disclosing the economic substance of accumulation of capital, taking into account the civilizational approach to the development of society. The author has proposed five stages in the evolution of theoretical approaches, which are closely related to the development of economy and stipulate dominance of a certain form of accumulation of capital. So, the first stage (time period B.C. – the 5th Century is referred to as Individual-social significance of accumulation of capital; the second stage (from the 6th century to the 16th century – Accumulation of monetary capitals; the third stage (from the mid-17th century until the end of the 18th century – Industrialproduction accumulation of capital; the fourth stage (from the mid-19th century until the 70s of the 20th century – Investment-oriented accumulation of capital; the fifth stage (from the 70s of the 20th century up to the current period – Globally-intensive accumulation of capital.

  18. Theoretical approach for plasma series resonance effect in geometrically symmetric dual radio frequency plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bora, B.; Bhuyan, H.; Favre, M.; Wyndham, E.; Chuaqui, H.

    2012-01-01

    Plasma series resonance (PSR) effect is well known in geometrically asymmetric capacitively couple radio frequency plasma. However, plasma series resonance effect in geometrically symmetric plasma has not been properly investigated. In this work, a theoretical approach is made to investigate the plasma series resonance effect and its influence on Ohmic and stochastic heating in geometrically symmetric discharge. Electrical asymmetry effect by means of dual frequency voltage waveform is applied to excite the plasma series resonance. The results show considerable variation in heating with phase difference between the voltage waveforms, which may be applicable in controlling the plasma parameters in such plasma.

  19. Group theoretic approach for solving the problem of diffusion of a drug through a thin membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-El-Malek, Mina B.; Kassem, Magda M.; Meky, Mohammed L. M.

    2002-03-01

    The transformation group theoretic approach is applied to study the diffusion process of a drug through a skin-like membrane which tends to partially absorb the drug. Two cases are considered for the diffusion coefficient. The application of one parameter group reduces the number of independent variables by one, and consequently the partial differential equation governing the diffusion process with the boundary and initial conditions is transformed into an ordinary differential equation with the corresponding conditions. The obtained differential equation is solved numerically using the shooting method, and the results are illustrated graphically and in tables.

  20. Genome-wide analytical approaches for reverse metabolic engineering of industrially relevant phenotypes in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Bart; van Maris, Antonius J A; Daran, Jean-Marc; Pronk, Jack T

    2012-03-01

    Successful reverse engineering of mutants that have been obtained by nontargeted strain improvement has long presented a major challenge in yeast biotechnology. This paper reviews the use of genome-wide approaches for analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains originating from evolutionary engineering or random mutagenesis. On the basis of an evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of different methods, we conclude that for the initial identification of relevant genetic changes, whole genome sequencing is superior to other analytical techniques, such as transcriptome, metabolome, proteome, or array-based genome analysis. Key advantages of this technique over gene expression analysis include the independency of genome sequences on experimental context and the possibility to directly and precisely reproduce the identified changes in naive strains. The predictive value of genome-wide analysis of strains with industrially relevant characteristics can be further improved by classical genetics or simultaneous analysis of strains derived from parallel, independent strain improvement lineages. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Approaches for Establishing Clinically Relevant Dissolution Specifications for Immediate Release Solid Oral Dosage Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Andre; Abend, Andreas M; Kesisoglou, Filippos; Flanagan, Talia; Cohen, Michael J; Diaz, Dorys A; Mao, Y; Zhang, Limin; Webster, Gregory K; Lin, Yiqing; Hahn, David A; Coutant, Carrie A; Grady, Haiyan

    2017-11-01

    This manuscript represents the perspective of the Dissolution Analytical Working Group of the IQ Consortium. The intent of this manuscript is to highlight the challenges of, and to provide a recommendation on, the development of clinically relevant dissolution specifications (CRS) for immediate release (IR) solid oral dosage forms. A roadmap toward the development of CRS for IR products containing active ingredients with a non-narrow therapeutic window is discussed, within the context of mechanistic dissolution understanding, supported by in-human pharmacokinetic (PK) data. Two case studies present potential outcomes of following the CRS roadmap and setting dissolution specifications. These cases reveal some benefits and challenges of pursuing CRS with additional PK data, in light of current regulatory positions, including that of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), who generally favor this approach, but with the understanding that both industry and regulatory agency perspectives are still evolving in this relatively new field. The CRS roadmap discussed in this manuscript also describes a way to develop clinically relevant dissolution specifications based primarily on dissolution data for batches used in pivotal clinical studies, acknowledging that not all IR product development efforts need to be supported by additional PK studies, albeit with the associated risk of potentially unnecessarily tight manufacturing controls. Recommendations are provided on what stages during the life cycle investment into in vivo studies may be valuable. Finally, the opportunities for CRS within the context of post-approval changes, Modeling and Simulation (M&S), and the application of biowaivers, are briefly discussed.

  2. The sustainability, a relevant approach for defining the road-map for future nuclear fuel cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poinssot, C.; Bourg, S.; Grandjean, S. [CEA Centre de Macoule, Nuclear Energy Division, Radiochemistry and Processes Department, BP11, F-30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Boullis, B. [CEA Centre de Saclay, Nuclear Energy Division, Innovation and Industrial Support Division, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-07-01

    Developing sustainable energy systems is a key driver for mitigating the global climate change in the framework of COP21 conference commitments. Nuclear energy is strongly concerned by such a perspective and we have developed a thorough approach to define relevant objectives to fulfill in order to meet such a requirement. On this basis nuclear energy systems need to be improved to increase the preservation of uranium natural resource and reduce their environmental footprints. It requires in both cases increasing energetic material recycling based first on the current LWR reactor fleet, in the future on SFR which would allow a much more efficient use of neutrons to consume uranium and produce energy. Furthermore, such reactor type would also allow minor actinides recycling, which would significantly reduce the ultimate waste toxicity and lifetime, and the repository footprint. In this perspective, recycling the actinides is clearly the cornerstone of any sustainable nuclear fuel cycle.

  3. The sustainability, a relevant approach for defining the road-map for future nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poinssot, C.; Bourg, S.; Grandjean, S.; Boullis, B.

    2016-01-01

    Developing sustainable energy systems is a key driver for mitigating the global climate change in the framework of COP21 conference commitments. Nuclear energy is strongly concerned by such a perspective and we have developed a thorough approach to define relevant objectives to fulfill in order to meet such a requirement. On this basis nuclear energy systems need to be improved to increase the preservation of uranium natural resource and reduce their environmental footprints. It requires in both cases increasing energetic material recycling based first on the current LWR reactor fleet, in the future on SFR which would allow a much more efficient use of neutrons to consume uranium and produce energy. Furthermore, such reactor type would also allow minor actinides recycling, which would significantly reduce the ultimate waste toxicity and lifetime, and the repository footprint. In this perspective, recycling the actinides is clearly the cornerstone of any sustainable nuclear fuel cycle

  4. A theoretical approach to medication adherence for children and youth with psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charach, Alice; Volpe, Tiziana; Boydell, Katherine M; Gearing, Robin E

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical review of treatment adherence for children and youth with psychiatric disorders where pharmacological agents are first-line interventions. Four empirically based models of health behavior are reviewed and applied to the sparse literature about medication adherence for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and young people with first-episode psychosis. Three qualitative studies of medication use are summarized, and details from the first-person narratives are used to illustrate the theoretical models. These studies indicate, when taken together, that the clinical approach to addressing poor medication adherence in children and youth with psychiatric disorders should be guided by more than one theoretical model. Mental health experts should clarify beliefs, address misconceptions, and support exploration of alternative treatment options unless contraindicated. Recognizing the larger context of the family, allowing time for parents and children to change their attitudes, and offering opportunities for easy access to medication in the future are important ways of respecting patient preferences, while steering them toward best-evidence interventions. Future research using qualitative methods of inquiry to investigate parent, child, and youth experiences of mental health interventions should identify effective ways to improve treatment adherence.

  5. An approach to siting nuclear power plants: the relevance of earthquakes, faults and decision analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, K.; Brogan, G.E.; Cluff, L.S.; Idriss, I.M.; Mao, K.T.

    1975-01-01

    The regional approach to nuclear power plant siting described in this paper identifies candidate sites within the region and ranks these sites by using decision-analysis concepts. The approach uses exclusionary criteria to eliminate areas from consideration and to identify those areas which are most likely to contain candidate sites. These areas are then examined in greater detail to identify candidate sites, and the number of sites under consideration is reduced to a reasonably manageable number, approximately 15. These sites are then ranked using concepts of decision analysis. The exclusionary criteria applied relate primarily to regulatory-agency safety requirements and essential functional requirements. Examples of such criteria include proximity to population centres, presence of active faults, and the availability of cooling water. In many areas of the world, the presence of active faults and potential negative effects of earthquakes are dominant exclusionary criteria. To apply the 'active fault' criterion the region must be studied to locate and assess the activity of all potentially active faults. This requires complementary geologic (including geomorphic), historical, seismological, geodetic and geophysical investigations of the entire region. Site response studies or empirical attenuation correlations can be used to determine the relevant parameters of anticipated shaking from postulated earthquakes, and analytical testing and evaluation can be used to assess the potential extent of ground failure during an earthquake. After candidate sites are identified, an approach based on decision analysis is used to rank them. This approach uses the preferences and judgements of consumers, utility companies, the government, and other groups concerned with siting and licensing issues in the ranking process. Both subjective and objective factors are processed in a logical manner, as are the monetary and non-monetary factors and achievement of competing environmental

  6. Quantum noise in the mirror–field system: A field theoretic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiang, Jen-Tsung; Wu, Tai-Hung; Lee, Da-Shin; King, Sun-Kun; Wu, Chun-Hsien

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the quantum noise problem in the mirror–field system by a field-theoretic approach. Here a perfectly reflecting mirror is illuminated by a single-mode coherent state of the massless scalar field. The associated radiation pressure is described by a surface integral of the stress-tensor of the field. The read-out field is measured by a monopole detector, from which the effective distance between the detector and mirror can be obtained. In the slow-motion limit of the mirror, this field-theoretic approach allows to identify various sources of quantum noise that all in all leads to uncertainty of the read-out measurement. In addition to well-known sources from shot noise and radiation pressure fluctuations, a new source of noise is found from field fluctuations modified by the mirror’s displacement. Correlation between different sources of noise can be established in the read-out measurement as the consequence of interference between the incident field and the field reflected off the mirror. In the case of negative correlation, we found that the uncertainty can be lowered than the value predicted by the standard quantum limit. Since the particle-number approach is often used in quantum optics, we compared results obtained by both approaches and examine its validity. We also derive a Langevin equation that describes the stochastic dynamics of the mirror. The underlying fluctuation–dissipation relation is briefly mentioned. Finally we discuss the backreaction induced by the radiation pressure. It will alter the mean displacement of the mirror, but we argue this backreaction can be ignored for a slowly moving mirror. - Highlights: ► The quantum noise problem in the mirror–field system is re-visited by a field-theoretic approach. ► Other than the shot noise and radiation pressure noise, we show there are new sources of noise and correlation between them. ► The noise correlations can be used to suppress the overall quantum noise on the mirror.

  7. Quantum noise in the mirror-field system: A field theoretic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiang, Jen-Tsung, E-mail: cosmology@gmail.com [Department of Physics, National Dong-Hwa University, Hua-lien, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wu, Tai-Hung [Department of Physics, National Dong-Hwa University, Hua-lien, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lee, Da-Shin, E-mail: dslee@mail.ndhu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Dong-Hwa University, Hua-lien, Taiwan, ROC (China); King, Sun-Kun [Institutes of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wu, Chun-Hsien [Department of Physics, Soochow University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-02-15

    We revisit the quantum noise problem in the mirror-field system by a field-theoretic approach. Here a perfectly reflecting mirror is illuminated by a single-mode coherent state of the massless scalar field. The associated radiation pressure is described by a surface integral of the stress-tensor of the field. The read-out field is measured by a monopole detector, from which the effective distance between the detector and mirror can be obtained. In the slow-motion limit of the mirror, this field-theoretic approach allows to identify various sources of quantum noise that all in all leads to uncertainty of the read-out measurement. In addition to well-known sources from shot noise and radiation pressure fluctuations, a new source of noise is found from field fluctuations modified by the mirror's displacement. Correlation between different sources of noise can be established in the read-out measurement as the consequence of interference between the incident field and the field reflected off the mirror. In the case of negative correlation, we found that the uncertainty can be lowered than the value predicted by the standard quantum limit. Since the particle-number approach is often used in quantum optics, we compared results obtained by both approaches and examine its validity. We also derive a Langevin equation that describes the stochastic dynamics of the mirror. The underlying fluctuation-dissipation relation is briefly mentioned. Finally we discuss the backreaction induced by the radiation pressure. It will alter the mean displacement of the mirror, but we argue this backreaction can be ignored for a slowly moving mirror. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The quantum noise problem in the mirror-field system is re-visited by a field-theoretic approach. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Other than the shot noise and radiation pressure noise, we show there are new sources of noise and correlation between them. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The noise

  8. A Game Theoretic Approach to Nuclear Security Analysis against Insider Threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyonam; Kim, So Young; Yim, Mansung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Schneider, Erich [Univ. of Texas at Austin, Texas (United States)

    2014-05-15

    As individuals with authorized access to a facility and system who use their trusted position for unauthorized purposes, insiders are able to take advantage of their access rights and knowledge of a facility to bypass dedicated security measures. They can also capitalize on their knowledge to exploit any vulnerabilities in safety-related systems, with cyber security of safety-critical information technology systems offering an important example of the 3S interface. While this Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) approach is appropriate for describing fundamentally random events like component failure of a safety system, it does not capture the adversary's intentions, nor does it account for adversarial response and adaptation to defensive investments. To address these issues of intentionality and interactions, this study adopts a game theoretic approach. The interaction between defender and adversary is modeled as a two-person Stackelberg game. The optimal strategy of both players is found from the equilibrium of this game. A defender strategy consists of a set of design modifications and/or post-construction security upgrades. An attacker strategy involves selection of a target as well as a pathway to that target. In this study, application of the game theoretic approach is demonstrated using a simplified test case problem. Novel to our approach is the modeling of insider threat that affects the non-detection probability of an adversary. The game-theoretic approach has the advantage of modelling an intelligent adversary who has an intention and complete knowledge of the facility. In this study, we analyzed the expected adversarial path and security upgrades with a limited budget with insider threat modeled as increasing the non-detection probability. Our test case problem categorized three groups of adversary paths assisted by insiders and derived the largest insider threat in terms of the budget for security upgrades. Certainly more work needs to be done to

  9. A Game Theoretic Approach to Nuclear Security Analysis against Insider Threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyonam; Kim, So Young; Yim, Mansung; Schneider, Erich

    2014-01-01

    As individuals with authorized access to a facility and system who use their trusted position for unauthorized purposes, insiders are able to take advantage of their access rights and knowledge of a facility to bypass dedicated security measures. They can also capitalize on their knowledge to exploit any vulnerabilities in safety-related systems, with cyber security of safety-critical information technology systems offering an important example of the 3S interface. While this Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) approach is appropriate for describing fundamentally random events like component failure of a safety system, it does not capture the adversary's intentions, nor does it account for adversarial response and adaptation to defensive investments. To address these issues of intentionality and interactions, this study adopts a game theoretic approach. The interaction between defender and adversary is modeled as a two-person Stackelberg game. The optimal strategy of both players is found from the equilibrium of this game. A defender strategy consists of a set of design modifications and/or post-construction security upgrades. An attacker strategy involves selection of a target as well as a pathway to that target. In this study, application of the game theoretic approach is demonstrated using a simplified test case problem. Novel to our approach is the modeling of insider threat that affects the non-detection probability of an adversary. The game-theoretic approach has the advantage of modelling an intelligent adversary who has an intention and complete knowledge of the facility. In this study, we analyzed the expected adversarial path and security upgrades with a limited budget with insider threat modeled as increasing the non-detection probability. Our test case problem categorized three groups of adversary paths assisted by insiders and derived the largest insider threat in terms of the budget for security upgrades. Certainly more work needs to be done to

  10. Modified economic order quantity (EOQ model for items with imperfect quality: Game-theoretical approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Elyasi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the recent decade, studying the economic order quantity (EOQ models with imperfect quality has appealed to many researchers. Only few papers are published discussing EOQ models with imperfect items in a supply chain. In this paper, a two-echelon decentralized supply chain consisting of a manufacture and a supplier that both face just in time (JIT inventory problem is considered. It is sought to find the optimal number of the shipments and the quantity of each shipment in a way that minimizes the both manufacturer’s and the supplier’s cost functions. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first paper that deals with imperfect items in a decentralized supply chain. Thereby, three different game theoretical solution approaches consisting of two non-cooperative games and a cooperative game are proposed. Comparing the results of three different scenarios with those of the centralized model, the conclusions are drawn to obtain the best approach.

  11. Theoretical and empirical approaches to using films as a means to increase communication efficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiselnikova, N.V.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical framework of this analytic study is based on studies in the field of film perception. Films are considered as a communicative system that is encrypted in an ordered series of shots, and decoding proceeds during perception. The shots are the elements of a cinematic message that must be “read” by viewer. The objective of this work is to analyze the existing theoretical approaches to using films in psychotherapy and education. An original approach to film therapy that is based on teaching clients to use new communicative sets and psychotherapeutic patterns through watching films is presented. The article specifies the main emphasized points in theories of film therapy and education. It considers the specifics of film therapy in the process of increasing the effectiveness of communication. It discusses the advantages and limitations of the proposed method. The contemporary forms of film therapy and the formats of cinema clubs are criticized. The theoretical assumptions and empirical research that could be used as a basis for a method of developing effective communication by means of films are discussed. Our studies demonstrate that the usage of film therapy must include an educational stage for more effective and stable results. This means teaching viewers how to recognize certain psychotherapeutic and communicative patterns in the material of films, to practice the skill of finding as many examples as possible for each pattern and to transfer the acquired schemes of analyzing and recognizing patterns into one’s own life circumstances. The four stages of the film therapeutic process as well as the effects that are achieved at each stage are described in detail. In conclusion, the conditions under which the usage of the film therapy method would be the most effective are observed. Various properties of client groups and psychotherapeutic scenarios for using the method of active film therapy are described.

  12. Supply chain collaboration: A Game-theoretic approach to profit allocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponte, B.; Fernández, I.; Rosillo, R.; Parreño, J.; García, N.

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to develop a theoretical framework for profit allocation, as a mechanism for aligning incentives, in collaborative supply chains. Design/methodology/approach: The issue of profit distribution is approached from a game-theoretic perspective. We use the nucleolus concept. The framework is illustrated through a numerical example based on the Beer Game scenario. Findings: The nucleolus offers a powerful perspective to tackle this problem, as it takes into consideration the bargaining power of the different echelons. We show that this framework outperforms classical alternatives. Research limitations/implications: The allocation of the overall supply chain profit is analyzed from a static perspective. Considering the dynamic nature of the problem would be an interesting next step. Practical implications: We provide evidence of drawbacks derived from classical solutions to the profit allocation problem. Real-world collaborative supply chains need of robust mechanisms like the one tackled in this work to align incentives from the various actors. Originality/value: Adopting an efficient collaborative solution is a major challenge for supply chains, since it is a wide and complex process that requires an appropriate scheme. Within this framework, profit allocation is essential.

  13. A Game-theoretical Approach for Distributed Cooperative Control of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Yimeng

    2018-05-01

    This thesis explores a game-theoretical approach for underwater environmental monitoring applications. We first apply game-theoretical algorithm to multi-agent resource coverage problem in drifting environments. Furthermore, existing utility design and learning process of the algorithm are modified to fit specific constraints of underwater exploration/monitoring tasks. The revised approach can take the real scenario of underwater monitoring applications such as the effect of sea current, previous knowledge of the resource and occasional communications between agents into account, and adapt to them to reach better performance. As the motivation of this thesis is from real applications, in this work we emphasize highly on implementation phase. A ROS-Gazebo simulation environment was created for preparation of actual tests. The algorithms are implemented in simulating both the dynamics of vehicles and the environment. After that, a multi-agent underwater autonomous robotic system was developed for hardware test in real settings with local controllers to make their own decisions. These systems are used for testing above mentioned algorithms and future development of other underwater projects. After that, other works related to robotics during this thesis will be briefly mentioned, including contributions in MBZIRC robotics competition and distributed control of UAVs in an adversarial environment.

  14. A study of brain networks associated with swallowing using graph-theoretical approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Luan

    Full Text Available Functional connectivity between brain regions during swallowing tasks is still not well understood. Understanding these complex interactions is of great interest from both a scientific and a clinical perspective. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was utilized to study brain functional networks during voluntary saliva swallowing in twenty-two adult healthy subjects (all females, [Formula: see text] years of age. To construct these functional connections, we computed mean partial correlation matrices over ninety brain regions for each participant. Two regions were determined to be functionally connected if their correlation was above a certain threshold. These correlation matrices were then analyzed using graph-theoretical approaches. In particular, we considered several network measures for the whole brain and for swallowing-related brain regions. The results have shown that significant pairwise functional connections were, mostly, either local and intra-hemispheric or symmetrically inter-hemispheric. Furthermore, we showed that all human brain functional network, although varying in some degree, had typical small-world properties as compared to regular networks and random networks. These properties allow information transfer within the network at a relatively high efficiency. Swallowing-related brain regions also had higher values for some of the network measures in comparison to when these measures were calculated for the whole brain. The current results warrant further investigation of graph-theoretical approaches as a potential tool for understanding the neural basis of dysphagia.

  15. Supply chain collaboration: A Game-theoretic approach to profit allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponte, B.; Fernández, I.; Rosillo, R.; Parreño, J.; García, N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to develop a theoretical framework for profit allocation, as a mechanism for aligning incentives, in collaborative supply chains. Design/methodology/approach: The issue of profit distribution is approached from a game-theoretic perspective. We use the nucleolus concept. The framework is illustrated through a numerical example based on the Beer Game scenario. Findings: The nucleolus offers a powerful perspective to tackle this problem, as it takes into consideration the bargaining power of the different echelons. We show that this framework outperforms classical alternatives. Research limitations/implications: The allocation of the overall supply chain profit is analyzed from a static perspective. Considering the dynamic nature of the problem would be an interesting next step. Practical implications: We provide evidence of drawbacks derived from classical solutions to the profit allocation problem. Real-world collaborative supply chains need of robust mechanisms like the one tackled in this work to align incentives from the various actors. Originality/value: Adopting an efficient collaborative solution is a major challenge for supply chains, since it is a wide and complex process that requires an appropriate scheme. Within this framework, profit allocation is essential.

  16. New approaches within the history and theory of medicine and their relevance for homeopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Josef M

    2014-04-01

    Conventional sciences have brought forth a wealth of knowledge and benefits, but they have not always been clear and precise about their legitimate scope and methodological limitations. In contrast, new and critical approaches in modern sciences question and reflect their own presuppositions, dependencies, and constraints. Examples are quantum physics, theory and history of science, as well as theory and history of medicine, sociology, and economics. In this way, deprecative dogmatism and animosity amongst sciences ought to be lessened, while the field opens up for each science to redefine its appropriate place in society. This would appear to be a chance for homeopathy, as new approaches, especially within the social and economic sciences, suggest that being a follower of Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843) may have advantages and privileges that conventional medicine seems to be lacking and whose relevance was overlooked during the rise of economic thinking in the last two centuries. Copyright © 2013 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An integrated approach to sensor FDI and signal reconstruction in HTGRs – Part I: Theoretical framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uren, Kenneth R.; Schoor, George van; Rand, Carel P. du; Botha, Anrika

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An integrated sensor fault detection and isolation method for nuclear power plants. • Utilise techniques such as non-temporal parity space and principal component analysis. • Utilise statistical methods and fuzzy systems for sensor fault isolation. • Allow the detection of multiple sensor faults. • Proposed methodology suitable for online implementation. - Abstract: Sensor fault detection and isolation (FDI) is an important element in modern nuclear power plant (NPP) diagnostic systems. In this respect, sensor FDI of generation II and III water-cooled nuclear energy systems has become an active research topic to continually improve levels of reliability, safety, and operation. However, evolutionary advances in reactor and component technology together with different energy conversion methodologies support the investigation of alternative approaches to sensor FDI. Within this context, the basic aim of this two part series is to propose, implement and evaluate an integrated approach for sensor FDI and signal reconstruction in generation IV nuclear high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). In part I of this two part series, the methodology and theoretical background of the integrated sensor FDI and signal reconstruction approach are given. This approach combines techniques such as non-temporal parity space analysis (PSA), principal component analysis (PCA), sensor fusion and fuzzy decision systems to form a more powerful sensor FDI methodology that exploits the strengths of the individual techniques. An illustrative example of the PCA algorithm is given making use of actual data retrieved from a pilot plant called the pebble bed micro model (PBMM). This is a prototype gas turbine power plant based on the first design configuration of the pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR). In part II, the described integrated sensor fault detection approach will be evaluated by means of two case studies. In the first case study the approach will be evaluated

  18. Lateral Load Capacity of Piles: A Comparative Study Between Indian Standards and Theoretical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasree, P. K.; Arun, K. V.; Oormila, R.; Sreelakshmi, H.

    2018-05-01

    As per Indian Standards, laterally loaded piles are usually analysed using the method adopted by IS 2911-2010 (Part 1/Section 2). But the practising engineers are of the opinion that the IS method is very conservative in design. This work aims at determining the extent to which the conventional IS design approach is conservative. This is done through a comparative study between IS approach and the theoretical model based on Vesic's equation. Bore log details for six different bridges were collected from the Kerala Public Works Department. Cast in situ fixed head piles embedded in three soil conditions both end bearing as well as friction piles were considered and analyzed separately. Piles were also modelled in STAAD.Pro software based on IS approach and the results were validated using Matlock and Reese (In Proceedings of fifth international conference on soil mechanics and foundation engineering, 1961) equation. The results were presented as the percentage variation in values of bending moment and deflection obtained by different methods. The results obtained from the mathematical model based on Vesic's equation and that obtained as per the IS approach were compared and the IS method was found to be uneconomical and conservative.

  19. Modeling the economic impact of medication adherence in type 2 diabetes: a theoretical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobden, David S; Niessen, Louis W; Rutten, Frans Fh; Redekop, W Ken

    2010-09-07

    While strong correlations exist between medication adherence and health economic outcomes in type 2 diabetes, current economic analyses do not adequately consider them. We propose a new approach to incorporate adherence in cost-effectiveness analysis. We describe a theoretical approach to incorporating the effect of adherence when estimating the long-term costs and effectiveness of an antidiabetic medication. This approach was applied in a Markov model which includes common diabetic health states. We compared two treatments using hypothetical patient cohorts: injectable insulin (IDM) and oral (OAD) medications. Two analyses were performed, one which ignored adherence (analysis 1) and one which incorporated it (analysis 2). Results from the two analyses were then compared to explore the extent to which adherence may impact incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. In both analyses, IDM was more costly and more effective than OAD. When adherence was ignored, IDM generated an incremental cost-effectiveness of $12,097 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained versus OAD. Incorporation of adherence resulted in a slightly higher ratio ($16,241/QALY). This increase was primarily due to better adherence with OAD than with IDM, and the higher direct medical costs for IDM. Incorporating medication adherence into economic analyses can meaningfully influence the estimated cost-effectiveness of type 2 diabetes treatments, and should therefore be considered in health care decision-making. Future work on the impact of adherence on health economic outcomes, and validation of different approaches to modeling adherence, is warranted.

  20. Theoretical approach in optimization of stability of the multicomponent solid waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raicevic, S.; Plecas, I.; Mandic, M.

    1998-01-01

    Chemical precipitation of radionuclides and their immobilization into the solid matrix represents an important approach in the radioactive wastewater treatment. Unfortunately, because of the complexity of the system, optimization of this process in terms of its efficacy and safety represents a serious practical problem, even in treatment of the monocomponent nuclear waste. This situation is additionally complicated in the case of the polycomponent nuclear waste because of the synergic effects of interactions between the radioactive components and the solid matrix. Recently, we have proposed a general theoretical approach for optimization of the process of precipitation and immobilization of metal impurities by the solid matrix. One of the main advantages of this approach represents the possibility of treatment of the multicomponent liquid waste, immobilized by the solid matrix. This approach was used here for investigation of the stability of the system hydroxyapatite (HAP) - Pb/Cd, which was selected as a model multicomponent waste system. In this analysis, we have used a structurally dependent term of the cohesive energy as a stability criterion. (author)

  1. CONTEMPORARY APPROACHES OF COMPANY PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS BASED ON RELEVANT FINANCIAL INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sziki Klara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we chose to present two components of the financial statements: the profit and loss account and the cash flow statement. These summary documents and different indicators calculated based on them allow us to formulate assessments on the performance and profitability on various functions and levels of the company’s activity. This paper aims to support the hypothesis that the accounting information presented in the profit and loss account and in the cash flow statement is an appropriate source for assessing company performance. The purpose of this research is to answer the question linked to the main hypothesis: Is it the profit and loss statement or the cash flow account that reflects better the performance of a business? Based on the literature of specialty studied we tried a conceptual, analytical and practical approach of the term performance, overviewing some terminological acceptations of the term performance as well as the main indicators of performance analysis on the basis of the profit and loss account and of the cash flow statement: aggregated indicators, also known as intermediary balances of administration, economic rate of return, rate of financial profitability, rate of return through cash flows, operating cash flow rate, rate of generating operating cash out of gross operating result. At the same time we had a comparative approach of the profit and loss account and cash flow statement, outlining the main advantages and disadvantages of these documents. In order to demonstrate the above theoretical assessments, we chose to analyze these indicators based on information from the financial statements of SC Sinteza SA, a company in Bihor county, listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange.

  2. Theoretical approaches to maternal-infant interaction: which approach best discriminates between mothers with and without postpartum depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logsdon, M Cynthia; Mittelberg, Meghan; Morrison, David; Robertson, Ashley; Luther, James F; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Confer, Andrea; Eng, Heather; Sit, Dorothy K Y; Wisner, Katherine L

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine which of the four common approaches to coding maternal-infant interaction best discriminates between mothers with and without postpartum depression. After extensive training, four research assistants coded 83 three minute videotapes of maternal infant interaction at 12month postpartum visits. Four theoretical approaches to coding (Maternal Behavior Q-Sort, the Dyadic Mini Code, Ainsworth Maternal Sensitivity Scale, and the Child-Caregiver Mutual Regulation Scale) were used. Twelve month data were chosen to allow the maximum possible exposure of the infant to maternal depression during the first postpartum year. The videotapes were created in a laboratory with standard procedures. Inter-rater reliabilities for each coding method ranged from .7 to .9. The coders were blind to depression status of the mother. Twenty-seven of the women had major depressive disorder during the 12month postpartum period. Receiver operating characteristics analysis indicated that none of the four methods of analyzing maternal infant interaction discriminated between mothers with and without major depressive disorder. Limitations of the study include the cross-sectional design and the low number of women with major depressive disorder. Further analysis should include data from videotapes at earlier postpartum time periods, and alternative coding approaches should be considered. Nurses should continue to examine culturally appropriate ways in which new mothers can be supported in how to best nurture their babies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Reflections on the conceptualization and operationalization of a set-theoretic approach to employee motivation and performance research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Christopher Ryan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current commentary offers a reflection on the conceptualizations of Lee and Raschke's (2016 proposal for a set-theoretic approach to employee motivation and organizational performance. The commentary is informed by the current author's operationalization of set-theoretic research on employee motivation which occurred contemporaneously to the work of Lee and Raschke. Observations on the state of current research on employee motivation, development of motivation theory and future directions of set-theoretic approaches to employee motivation and performance are offered.

  4. A short course in quantum information theory. An approach from theoretical physics. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diosi, Lajos

    2011-01-01

    This short and concise primer takes the vantage point of theoretical physics and the unity of physics. It sets out to strip the burgeoning field of quantum information science to its basics by linking it to universal concepts in physics. An extensive lecture rather than a comprehensive textbook, this volume is based on courses delivered over several years to advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students, but essentially it addresses anyone with a working knowledge of basic quantum physics. Readers will find these lectures a most adequate entry point for theoretical studies in this field. For the second edition, the authors has succeeded in adding many new topics while sticking to the conciseness of the overall approach. A new chapter on qubit thermodynamics has been added, while new sections and subsections have been incorporated in various chapter to deal with weak and time-continuous measurements, period-finding quantum algorithms and quantum error corrections. From the reviews of the first edition: ''The best things about this book are its brevity and clarity. In around 100 pages it provides a tutorial introduction to quantum information theory, including problems and solutions.. it's worth a look if you want to quickly get up to speed with the language and central concepts of quantum information theory, including the background classical information theory.'' (Craig Savage, Australian Physics, Vol. 44 (2), 2007). (orig.)

  5. NON-TERRITORIAL AUTONOMY IN RUSSIA: PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS OF THEORETICAL APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana RUDNEVA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the theoretical possibility to use non-territorial autonomy as a mechanism through which ethnic groups can fulfil their right to selfdetermination along with other minority rights, not many states have been willing to put theory into practice. The article offers an explanation why wider applicability of NTA is problematic by arguing that the theory itself is not yet polished enough to be implemented. The study includes examination of both theoretical approaches and empirical data from a case study of an attempt to establish NTAs in the Russian Federation. The findings suggest that inconsistencies and unclarities in the theory do correlate with practical flaws of NTAs, which allows to suggest that when the theory is tested empirically, the reality reveals all the flaws of the theory. The results indicate that the concept of NTA needs further refinement and development to make it more practice-oriented and applicable. As the problem of minority rights is still to be dealt with, we also propose a model of global union of NTAs where each ethnic group is represented by a non-governmental organisation, which seems to be more applicable than the others, alongside a number of other mechanisms that are even more essential and universal and focus on defending basic human rights

  6. Optimization of rootkit revealing system resources – A game theoretic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Muthumanickam

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Malicious rootkit is a collection of programs designed with the intent of infecting and monitoring the victim computer without the user’s permission. After the victim has been compromised, the remote attacker can easily cause further damage. In order to infect, compromise and monitor, rootkits adopt Native Application Programming Interface (API hooking technique. To reveal the hidden rootkits, current rootkit detection techniques check different data structures which hold reference to Native APIs. To verify these data structures, a large amount of system resources are required. This is because of the number of APIs in these data structures being quite large. Game theoretic approach is a useful mathematical tool to simulate network attacks. In this paper, a mathematical model is framed to optimize resource consumption using game-theory. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work to be proposed for optimizing resource consumption while revealing rootkit presence using game theory. Non-cooperative game model is taken to discuss the problem. Analysis and simulation results show that our game theoretic model can effectively reduce the resource consumption by selectively monitoring the number of APIs in windows platform.

  7. The Formation of Instruments of Management of Industrial Enterprises According to the Theoretical and Functional Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raiko Diana V.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at the substantiation based on the analysis of the company theories of the basic theoretical provisions on the formation of industrial enterprise management instruments. The article determines that the subject of research in theories is enterprise, the object is the process of management of potential according to the forms of business organization and technology of partnership relations, the goal is high financial results, stabilization of the activity, and social responsibility. The publication carries out an analysis of enterprise theories on the determining of its essence as a socio-economic system in the following directions: technical preparation of production, economic theory and law, theory of systems, marketing-management. As a result of the research, the general set of functions has been identified – the socio-economic functions of enterprise by groups: information-legal, production, marketing-management, social responsibility. When building management instruments, it is suggested to take into consideration the direct and inverse relationships of enterprise at all levels of management – micro, meso and macro. On this ground, the authors have developed provisions on formation of instruments of management of industrial enterprises according to two approachestheoretical and functional.

  8. A Game Theoretic Approach for Balancing Energy Consumption in Clustered Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Lu, Yinzhi; Xiong, Lian; Tao, Yang; Zhong, Yuanchang

    2017-11-17

    Clustering is an effective topology control method in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), since it can enhance the network lifetime and scalability. To prolong the network lifetime in clustered WSNs, an efficient cluster head (CH) optimization policy is essential to distribute the energy among sensor nodes. Recently, game theory has been introduced to model clustering. Each sensor node is considered as a rational and selfish player which will play a clustering game with an equilibrium strategy. Then it decides whether to act as the CH according to this strategy for a tradeoff between providing required services and energy conservation. However, how to get the equilibrium strategy while maximizing the payoff of sensor nodes has rarely been addressed to date. In this paper, we present a game theoretic approach for balancing energy consumption in clustered WSNs. With our novel payoff function, realistic sensor behaviors can be captured well. The energy heterogeneity of nodes is considered by incorporating a penalty mechanism in the payoff function, so the nodes with more energy will compete for CHs more actively. We have obtained the Nash equilibrium (NE) strategy of the clustering game through convex optimization. Specifically, each sensor node can achieve its own maximal payoff when it makes the decision according to this strategy. Through plenty of simulations, our proposed game theoretic clustering is proved to have a good energy balancing performance and consequently the network lifetime is greatly enhanced.

  9. Numerical Methods Application for Reinforced Concrete Elements-Theoretical Approach for Direct Stiffness Matrix Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Ciprian Catinas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A detailed theoretical and practical investigation of the reinforced concrete elements is due to recent techniques and method that are implemented in the construction market. More over a theoretical study is a demand for a better and faster approach nowadays due to rapid development of the calculus technique. The paper above will present a study for implementing in a static calculus the direct stiffness matrix method in order capable to address phenomena related to different stages of loading, rapid change of cross section area and physical properties. The method is a demand due to the fact that in our days the FEM (Finite Element Method is the only alternative to such a calculus and FEM are considered as expensive methods from the time and calculus resources point of view. The main goal in such a method is to create the moment-curvature diagram in the cross section that is analyzed. The paper above will express some of the most important techniques and new ideas as well in order to create the moment curvature graphic in the cross sections considered.

  10. A Hybrid Approach to Finding Relevant Social Media Content for Complex Domain Specific Information Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Delroy; Sheth, Amit P; Jaykumar, Nishita; Thirunarayan, Krishnaprasad; Anand, Gaurish; Smith, Gary A

    2014-12-01

    While contemporary semantic search systems offer to improve classical keyword-based search, they are not always adequate for complex domain specific information needs. The domain of prescription drug abuse, for example, requires knowledge of both ontological concepts and "intelligible constructs" not typically modeled in ontologies. These intelligible constructs convey essential information that include notions of intensity, frequency, interval, dosage and sentiments, which could be important to the holistic needs of the information seeker. In this paper, we present a hybrid approach to domain specific information retrieval that integrates ontology-driven query interpretation with synonym-based query expansion and domain specific rules, to facilitate search in social media on prescription drug abuse. Our framework is based on a context-free grammar (CFG) that defines the query language of constructs interpretable by the search system. The grammar provides two levels of semantic interpretation: 1) a top-level CFG that facilitates retrieval of diverse textual patterns, which belong to broad templates and 2) a low-level CFG that enables interpretation of specific expressions belonging to such textual patterns. These low-level expressions occur as concepts from four different categories of data: 1) ontological concepts, 2) concepts in lexicons (such as emotions and sentiments), 3) concepts in lexicons with only partial ontology representation, called lexico-ontology concepts (such as side effects and routes of administration (ROA)), and 4) domain specific expressions (such as date, time, interval, frequency and dosage) derived solely through rules. Our approach is embodied in a novel Semantic Web platform called PREDOSE, which provides search support for complex domain specific information needs in prescription drug abuse epidemiology. When applied to a corpus of over 1 million drug abuse-related web forum posts, our search framework proved effective in retrieving

  11. An information-theoretic approach to motor action decoding with a reconfigurable parallel architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciun, Stefan; Brockmeier, Austin J; George, Alan D; Lam, Herman; Príncipe, José C

    2011-01-01

    Methods for decoding movements from neural spike counts using adaptive filters often rely on minimizing the mean-squared error. However, for non-Gaussian distribution of errors, this approach is not optimal for performance. Therefore, rather than using probabilistic modeling, we propose an alternate non-parametric approach. In order to extract more structure from the input signal (neuronal spike counts) we propose using minimum error entropy (MEE), an information-theoretic approach that minimizes the error entropy as part of an iterative cost function. However, the disadvantage of using MEE as the cost function for adaptive filters is the increase in computational complexity. In this paper we present a comparison between the decoding performance of the analytic Wiener filter and a linear filter trained with MEE, which is then mapped to a parallel architecture in reconfigurable hardware tailored to the computational needs of the MEE filter. We observe considerable speedup from the hardware design. The adaptation of filter weights for the multiple-input, multiple-output linear filters, necessary in motor decoding, is a highly parallelizable algorithm. It can be decomposed into many independent computational blocks with a parallel architecture readily mapped to a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) and scales to large numbers of neurons. By pipelining and parallelizing independent computations in the algorithm, the proposed parallel architecture has sublinear increases in execution time with respect to both window size and filter order.

  12. Model-free information-theoretic approach to infer leadership in pairs of zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butail, Sachit; Mwaffo, Violet; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    Collective behavior affords several advantages to fish in avoiding predators, foraging, mating, and swimming. Although fish schools have been traditionally considered egalitarian superorganisms, a number of empirical observations suggest the emergence of leadership in gregarious groups. Detecting and classifying leader-follower relationships is central to elucidate the behavioral and physiological causes of leadership and understand its consequences. Here, we demonstrate an information-theoretic approach to infer leadership from positional data of fish swimming. In this framework, we measure social interactions between fish pairs through the mathematical construct of transfer entropy, which quantifies the predictive power of a time series to anticipate another, possibly coupled, time series. We focus on the zebrafish model organism, which is rapidly emerging as a species of choice in preclinical research for its genetic similarity to humans and reduced neurobiological complexity with respect to mammals. To overcome experimental confounds and generate test data sets on which we can thoroughly assess our approach, we adapt and calibrate a data-driven stochastic model of zebrafish motion for the simulation of a coupled dynamical system of zebrafish pairs. In this synthetic data set, the extent and direction of the coupling between the fish are systematically varied across a wide parameter range to demonstrate the accuracy and reliability of transfer entropy in inferring leadership. Our approach is expected to aid in the analysis of collective behavior, providing a data-driven perspective to understand social interactions.

  13. A Narrative Approach to Both Teaching and Learning About Democracy with Young Children: A Theoretical Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maila dinia husni rahim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As adults, we often believe that children are only interested with games and children’s ‘stuff’. However research has shown that children do indeed show a greater interest in the world around them, including about politics, elections, and democracy. If we need to teach children about democracy, what are the best methods of teaching democracy to young children? Narrative is considered as an effective medium to convey messages to children and discuss hard subjects. This paper is a theoretical exploration that looks at the narrative approach to teaching and learning about democracy with young children. The researchers has used a literature review to look at why narratives should be used, what narratives should be used and how to use narratives.

  14. Analysing Buyers' and Sellers' Strategic Interactions in Marketplaces: An Evolutionary Game Theoretic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vytelingum, Perukrishnen; Cliff, Dave; Jennings, Nicholas R.

    We develop a new model to analyse the strategic behaviour of buyers and sellers in market mechanisms. In particular, we wish to understand how the different strategies they adopt affect their economic efficiency in the market and to understand the impact of these choices on the overall efficiency of the marketplace. To this end, we adopt a two-population evolutionary game theoretic approach, where we consider how the behaviours of both buyers and sellers evolve in marketplaces. In so doing, we address the shortcomings of the previous state-of-the-art analytical model that assumes that buyers and sellers have to adopt the same mixed strategy in the market. Finally, we apply our model in one of the most common market mechanisms, the Continuous Double Auction, and demonstrate how it allows us to provide new insights into the strategic interactions of such trading agents.

  15. A game-theoretical approach for reciprocal security-related prevention investment decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reniers, Genserik; Soudan, Karel

    2010-01-01

    Every company situated within a chemical cluster faces important security risks from neighbouring companies. Investing in reciprocal security preventive measures is therefore necessary to avoid major accidents. These investments do not, however, provide a direct return on investment for the investor-company and thus plants are hesitative to invest. Moreover, there is likelihood that even if a company has fully invested in reciprocal security prevention, its neighbour has not, and as a result the company can experience a major accident caused by an initial (minor or major) accident that occurred in an adjacent chemical enterprise. In this article we employ a game-theoretic approach to interpret and model behaviour of two neighbouring chemical plants while negotiating and deciding on reciprocal security prevention investments.

  16. The game as strategy for approach to sexuality with adolescents: theoretical-methodological reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Vânia de; Gazzinelli, Maria Flávia; Soares, Amanda Nathale; Fernandes, Marconi Moura; Oliveira, Rebeca Nunes Guedes de; Fonseca, Rosa Maria Godoy Serpa da

    2017-04-01

    To describe the Papo Reto [Straight Talk] game and reflect on its theoretical-methodological basis. Analytical study on the process of elaboration of the Papo Reto online game, destined to adolescents aged 15-18 years, with access to the Game between 2014 and 2015. the interactions of 60 adolescents from Belo Horizonte and São Paulo constituted examples of the potentialities of the Game to favor the approach to sexuality with adolescents through simulation of reality, invention and interaction. Based on those potentialities, four thinking categories were discussed: the game as pedagogic device; the game as simulation of realities; the game as device for inventive learning; and the game empowering the interaction. By permitting that the adolescents take risks on new ways, the Game allows them to become creative and active in the production of senses, in the creation of their discourses and in the ways of thinking, feeling and acting in the sexuality field.

  17. Dynamic Load on a Pipe Caused by Acetylene Detonations – Experiments and Theoretical Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Sperber

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The load acting on the wall of a pipe by a detonation, which is travelling through, is not yet well characterized. The main reasons are the limited amount of sufficiently accurate pressure time history data and the requirement of considering the dynamics of the system. Laser vibrometry measurements were performed to determine the dynamic response of the pipe wall on a detonation. Different modelling approaches were used to quantify, theoretically, the radial displacements of the pipe wall. There is good agreement between measured and predicted values of vibration frequencies and the propagation velocities of transverse waves. Discrepancies mainly due to wave propagation effects were found in the amplitudes of the radial velocities. They might be overcome by the use of a dynamic load factor or improved modelling methods.

  18. Combined action of ionizing radiation with another factor: common rules and theoretical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Roh, Changhyun; Komarova, Ludmila N.; Petin, Vladislav G.

    2013-01-01

    Two or more factors can simultaneously make their combined effects on the biological objects. This study has focused on theoretical approach to synergistic interaction due to the combined action of radiation and another factor on cell inactivation. A mathematical model for the synergistic interaction of different environmental agents was suggested for quantitative prediction of irreversibly damaged cells after combined exposures. The model takes into account the synergistic interaction of agents and based on the supposition that additional effective damages responsible for the synergy are irreversible and originated from an interaction of ineffective sub lesions. The experimental results regarding the irreversible component of radiation damage of diploid yeast cells simultaneous exposed to heat with ionizing radiation or UV light are presented. A good agreement of experimental results with model predictions was demonstrated. The importance of the results obtained for the interpretation of the mechanism of synergistic interaction of various environmental factors is discussed. (author)

  19. Enhanced diffusion under alpha self-irradiation in spent nuclear fuel: Theoretical approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferry, Cecile; Lovera, Patrick; Poinssot, Christophe; Garcia, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Various theoretical approaches have been developed in order to estimate the enhanced diffusion coefficient of fission products under alpha self-irradiation in spent nuclear fuel. These simplified models calculate the effects of alpha particles and recoil atoms on mobility of uranium atoms in UO 2 . They lead to a diffusion coefficient which is proportional to the volume alpha activity with a proportionality factor of about 10 -44 (m 5 ). However, the same models applied for fission lead to a radiation-enhanced diffusion coefficient which is approximately two orders of magnitude lower than values reported in literature for U and Pu. Other models are based on an extrapolation of radiation-enhanced diffusion measured either in reactors or under heavy ion bombardment. These models lead to a proportionality factor between the alpha self-irradiation enhanced diffusion coefficient and the volume alpha activity of 2 x 10 -41 (m 5 )

  20. Cross-cultural undergraduate medical education in North America: theoretical concepts and educational approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitmanova, Sylvia

    2011-04-01

    Cross-cultural undergraduate medical education in North America lacks conceptual clarity. Consequently, school curricula are unsystematic, nonuniform, and fragmented. This article provides a literature review about available conceptual models of cross-cultural medical education. The clarification of these models may inform the development of effective educational programs to enable students to provide better quality care to patients from diverse sociocultural backgrounds. The approaches to cross-cultural health education can be organized under the rubric of two specific conceptual models: cultural competence and critical culturalism. The variation in the conception of culture adopted in these two models results in differences in all curricular components: learning outcomes, content, educational strategies, teaching methods, student assessment, and program evaluation. Medical schools could benefit from more theoretical guidance on the learning outcomes, content, and educational strategies provided to them by governing and licensing bodies. More student assessments and program evaluations are needed in order to appraise the effectiveness of cross-cultural undergraduate medical education.

  1. Theoretical approaches to creation of robotic coal mines based on the synthesis of simulation technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryanov, V. N.; Pavlova, L. D.; Temlyantsev, M. V.

    2017-09-01

    Methodological approaches to theoretical substantiation of the structure and parameters of robotic coal mines are outlined. The results of mathematical and numerical modeling revealed the features of manifestation of geomechanical and gas dynamic processes in the conditions of robotic mines. Technological solutions for the design and manufacture of technical means for robotic mine are adopted using the method of economic and mathematical modeling and in accordance with the current regulatory documents. For a comparative performance evaluation of technological schemes of traditional and robotic mines, methods of cognitive modeling and matrix search for subsystem elements in the synthesis of a complex geotechnological system are applied. It is substantiated that the process of technical re-equipment of a traditional mine with a phased transition to a robotic mine will reduce unit costs by almost 1.5 times with a significant social effect due to a reduction in the number of personnel engaged in hazardous work.

  2. A Theoretical Analysis of the Mission Statement Based on the Axiological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius-Costel EŞI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is focused on a theoretical analysis of formulating the mission statement of business organizations in relation to the idea of the organizational axiological core. On one hand, we consider the CSR-Corporate Social Responsibility which, in our view, must be brought into direct connection both with the moral entrepreneurship (which should support the philosophical perspective of the statement of business organizations mission and the purely economic entrepreneurship based on profit maximization (which should support the pragmatic perspective. On the other hand, an analysis of the moral concepts which should underpin business is becoming fundamental, in our view, as far as the idea of the social specific value of the social entrepreneurship is evidenced. Therefore, our approach highlights a number of epistemic explanations in relation to the actual practice dimension.

  3. The self-schema model: a theoretical approach to the self-concept in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, K F

    1996-04-01

    Over the last several decades, the self-concept has been implicated as a important determinant of eating disorders (ED). Although considerable progress has been made, questions remain unanswered about the properties of self-concept that distinguish women with an ED from other populations, and mechanisms that link the self-concept to the disordered behaviors. Markus's self-schema model is presented as a theoretical approach to explore the role of the self-concept in ED. To show how the schema model can be integrated with existing work on the self-concept in ED, a framework is proposed that addresses the number, content, and accessibility of the self-schemas. More specifically, it is posited that a limited collection of positive self-schemas available in memory, in combination with a chronically and inflexibly accessible body-weight self-schema, lead to the disordered behaviors associated with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.

  4. Combined action of ionizing radiation with another factor: common rules and theoretical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Roh, Changhyun, E-mail: jkkim@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Komarova, Ludmila N.; Petin, Vladislav G., E-mail: vgpetin@yahoo.com [Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    Two or more factors can simultaneously make their combined effects on the biological objects. This study has focused on theoretical approach to synergistic interaction due to the combined action of radiation and another factor on cell inactivation. A mathematical model for the synergistic interaction of different environmental agents was suggested for quantitative prediction of irreversibly damaged cells after combined exposures. The model takes into account the synergistic interaction of agents and based on the supposition that additional effective damages responsible for the synergy are irreversible and originated from an interaction of ineffective sub lesions. The experimental results regarding the irreversible component of radiation damage of diploid yeast cells simultaneous exposed to heat with ionizing radiation or UV light are presented. A good agreement of experimental results with model predictions was demonstrated. The importance of the results obtained for the interpretation of the mechanism of synergistic interaction of various environmental factors is discussed. (author)

  5. WOMEN, FOOTBALL AND EUROPEAN INTEGRATION. AIMS AND QUESTIONS, METHODOLOGICAL AND THEORETICAL APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertrud Pfister

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to introduce a new research topic and provide information about a European research project focusing on football as a means of European integration. Using the results of available studies of the author and other scholars, it is to be discussed whether and how women can participate in football cultures and contribute to a European identity. Based on theoretical approaches to national identity, gender and socialization, as well as and on the analysis of various intersections between gender, football and fandom, it can be concluded that women are still outsiders in the world of football and that it is doubtful whether female players and fans will contribute decisively to Europeanization processes.

  6. A Game-Theoretic Approach to Branching Time Abstract-Check-Refine Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Tamai, Tetsuo

    2009-01-01

    Since the complexity of software systems continues to grow, most engineers face two serious problems: the state space explosion problem and the problem of how to debug systems. In this paper, we propose a game-theoretic approach to full branching time model checking on three-valued semantics. The three-valued models and logics provide successful abstraction that overcomes the state space explosion problem. The game style model checking that generates counter-examples can guide refinement or identify validated formulas, which solves the system debugging problem. Furthermore, output of our game style method will give significant information to engineers in detecting where errors have occurred and what the causes of the errors are.

  7. Relevance of plastic limit loads to reference stress approach for surface cracked cylinder problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yun-Jae; Shim, Do-Jun

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the relevance of the definition of the reference stress to estimate J and C* for surface crack problems, this paper compares finite element (FE) J and C* results for surface cracked pipes with those estimated according to the reference stress approach using various definitions of the reference stress. Pipes with part circumferential inner surface cracks and finite internal axial cracks are considered, subject to internal pressure and global bending. The crack depth and aspect ratio are systematically varied. The reference stress is defined in four different ways using (i) a local limit load (ii), a global limit load, (iii) a global limit load determined from the FE limit analysis, and (iv) the optimised reference load. It is found that the reference stress based on a local limit load gives overall excessively conservative estimates of J and C*. Use of a global limit load clearly reduces the conservatism, compared to that of a local limit load, although it can sometimes provide non-conservative estimates of J and C*. The use of the FE global limit load gives overall non-conservative estimates of J and C*. The reference stress based on the optimised reference load gives overall accurate estimates of J and C*, compared to other definitions of the reference stress. Based on the present findings, general guidance on the choice of the reference stress for surface crack problems is given

  8. Stress transfer from pile group in saturated and unsaturated soil using theoretical and experimental approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    al-Omari Raid R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Piles are often used in groups, and the behavior of pile groups under the applied loads is generally different from that of single pile due to the interaction of neighboring piles, therefore, one of the main objectives of this paper is to investigate the influence of pile group (bearing capacity, load transfer sharing for pile shaft and tip in comparison to that of single piles. Determination of the influence of load transfer from the pile group to the surrounding soil and the mechanism of this transfer with increasing the load increment on the tip and pile shaft for the soil in saturated and unsaturated state (when there is a negative pore water pressure. Different basic properties are used that is (S = 90%, γd = 15 kN / m3, S = 90%, γd = 17 kN / m3 and S = 60%, γd =15 kN / m3. Seven model piles were tested, these was: single pile (compression and pull out test, 2×1, 3×1, 2×2, 3×2 and 3×3 group. The stress was measured with 5 cm diameter soil pressure transducer positioned at a depth of 5 cm below the pile tip for all pile groups. The measured stresses below the pile tip using a soil pressure transducer positioned at a depth of 0.25L (where L is the pile length below the pile tip are compared with those calculated using theoretical and conventional approaches. These methods are: the conventional 2V:1H method and the method used the theory of elasticity. The results showed that the method of measuring the soil stresses with soil pressure transducer adopted in this study, gives in general, good results of stress transfer compared with the results obtained from the theoretical and conventional approaches.

  9. An Information-Theoretic Approach for Indirect Train Traffic Monitoring Using Building Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susu Xu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an indirect train traffic monitoring method to detect and infer real-time train events based on the vibration response of a nearby building. Monitoring and characterizing traffic events are important for cities to improve the efficiency of transportation systems (e.g., train passing, heavy trucks, and traffic. Most prior work falls into two categories: (1 methods that require intensive labor to manually record events or (2 systems that require deployment of dedicated sensors. These approaches are difficult and costly to execute and maintain. In addition, most prior work uses dedicated sensors designed for a single purpose, resulting in deployment of multiple sensor systems. This further increases costs. Meanwhile, with the increasing demands of structural health monitoring, many vibration sensors are being deployed in commercial buildings. Traffic events create ground vibration that propagates to nearby building structures inducing noisy vibration responses. We present an information-theoretic method for train event monitoring using commonly existing vibration sensors deployed for building health monitoring. The key idea is to represent the wave propagation in a building induced by train traffic as information conveyed in noisy measurement signals. Our technique first uses wavelet analysis to detect train events. Then, by analyzing information exchange patterns of building vibration signals, we infer the category of the events (i.e., southbound or northbound train. Our algorithm is evaluated with an 11-story building where trains pass by frequently. The results show that the method can robustly achieve a train event detection accuracy of up to a 93% true positive rate and an 80% true negative rate. For direction categorization, compared with the traditional signal processing method, our information-theoretic approach reduces categorization error from 32.1 to 12.1%, which is a 2.5× improvement.

  10. Information-Theoretic Approaches for Evaluating Complex Adaptive Social Simulation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Ganguly, Auroop R [ORNL; Jiao, Yu [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose information-theoretic approaches for comparing and evaluating complex agent-based models. In information theoretic terms, entropy and mutual information are two measures of system complexity. We used entropy as a measure of the regularity of the number of agents in a social class; and mutual information as a measure of information shared by two social classes. Using our approaches, we compared two analogous agent-based (AB) models developed for regional-scale social-simulation system. The first AB model, called ABM-1, is a complex AB built with 10,000 agents on a desktop environment and used aggregate data; the second AB model, ABM-2, was built with 31 million agents on a highperformance computing framework located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and fine-resolution data from the LandScan Global Population Database. The initializations were slightly different, with ABM-1 using samples from a probability distribution and ABM-2 using polling data from Gallop for a deterministic initialization. The geographical and temporal domain was present-day Afghanistan, and the end result was the number of agents with one of three behavioral modes (proinsurgent, neutral, and pro-government) corresponding to the population mindshare. The theories embedded in each model were identical, and the test simulations focused on a test of three leadership theories - legitimacy, coercion, and representative, and two social mobilization theories - social influence and repression. The theories are tied together using the Cobb-Douglas utility function. Based on our results, the hypothesis that performance measures can be developed to compare and contrast AB models appears to be supported. Furthermore, we observed significant bias in the two models. Even so, further tests and investigations are required not only with a wider class of theories and AB models, but also with additional observed or simulated data and more comprehensive performance measures.

  11. Theoretical approach to the institutionalization of forms of governance resource provision of innovative activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Asmolova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge economy research due to the actualization of the role of knowledge and information. Management, its impact and the institutionalization of management resource provision designed to overcome the problems inherent in the present stage of development. An important research direction is to carry out theoretical analysis of economic resources in the context of their occurrence, development and improvement. This assertion has identified the need to consider the theoretical approach to the institutionalization of forms of resource management software innovation and analysis and typology of approaches by different parameters on the basis of analysis of a large number of sources. The features of the concept of institutionalization as defined phenomenon in a time perspective. In an analysis conducted by scientists used studies from different periods in the development of economic science. The analysis of numerous professional and scientific research led to the conclusion that knowledge and information should be dis-regarded as a new type of economic production factors. Separately, analyzed the impact of globalization processes that have affected the scientific and innovative sphere. Allocated to a separate study by side issues of innovative development of the Russian economy, which prevents the unresolved improve the competitiveness of the national economic and inhibits the formation of regional and national innovation system, restraining the transition to an innovative model of development. Citing as evidence of the deepening of economic globalization, the role of new information technologies and the formation of a single information space. Noting the fact that if the earlier science developed to deepen knowledge on the basis of the social division of Sciences, in the coming century should happen deepening of knowledge on the basis of their socialization.

  12. Modeling the economic impact of medication adherence in type 2 diabetes: a theoretical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S Cobden

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available David S Cobden1, Louis W Niessen2, Frans FH Rutten1, W Ken Redekop11Department of Health Policy and Management, Section of Health Economics – Medical Technology Assessment (HE-MTA, Erasmus MC, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands; 2Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USAAims: While strong correlations exist between medication adherence and health economic outcomes in type 2 diabetes, current economic analyses do not adequately consider them. We propose a new approach to incorporate adherence in cost-effectiveness analysis.Methods: We describe a theoretical approach to incorporating the effect of adherence when estimating the long-term costs and effectiveness of an antidiabetic medication. This approach was applied in a Markov model which includes common diabetic health states. We compared two treatments using hypothetical patient cohorts: injectable insulin (IDM and oral (OAD medications. Two analyses were performed, one which ignored adherence (analysis 1 and one which incorporated it (analysis 2. Results from the two analyses were then compared to explore the extent to which adherence may impact incremental cost-effectiveness ratios.Results: In both analyses, IDM was more costly and more effective than OAD. When adherence was ignored, IDM generated an incremental cost-effectiveness of $12,097 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY gained versus OAD. Incorporation of adherence resulted in a slightly higher ratio ($16,241/QALY. This increase was primarily due to better adherence with OAD than with IDM, and the higher direct medical costs for IDM.Conclusions: Incorporating medication adherence into economic analyses can meaningfully influence the estimated cost-effectiveness of type 2 diabetes treatments, and should therefore be ­considered in health care decision-making. Future work on the impact of adherence on health

  13. Neurodevelopmental disorders: theoretical approaches and its implications for education and rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luísa Bissoto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The neurodevelopmental disorders, mainly those genetics ones, are argued with the aim to analyze the human development conceptions that underlie these, and its impact for understanding who is the individual that carries this disorder. Methodologically, epistemological presupposition from “classical” neuropsychology and from “neuroconstructivist” neuropsychology had been compared. As results of this parallel had been considered relevant: a. the role of the individual surrounding, b. the question concerning the plasticity and dynamical character of development and c. the formal developmental process, from prenatal to postnatal period. The concluding comments claims that the Neuroconstructivist approaches allow conceiving the developmental process within genetics neurodevelopmental disorders not as a “fault” but as a differentiated and particular one. That should be understood in the Educational and Rehabilitation settings not as a nosological category but as a specific way of an individual acting while looking for a mode of being-in-the-world.

  14. Resource Allocation for Multicell Device-to-Device Communications in Cellular Network: A Game Theoretic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Huang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Device-to-Device (D2D communication has recently emerged as a promising technology to improve the capacity and coverage of cellular systems. To successfully implement D2D communications underlaying a cellular network, resource allocation for D2D links plays a critical role. While most of prior resource allocation mechanisms for D2D communications have focused on interference within a single-cell system, this paper investigates the resource allocation problem for a multicell cellular network in which a D2D link reuses available spectrum resources of multiple cells. A repeated game theoretic approach is proposed to address the problem. In this game, the base stations (BSs act as players that compete for resource supply of D2D, and the utility of each player is formulated as revenue collected from both cellular and D2D users using resources. Extensive simulations are conducted to verify the proposed approach and the results show that it can considerably enhance the system performance in terms of sum rate and sum rate gain.

  15. Molecular acidity: An accurate description with information-theoretic approach in density functional reactivity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaofang; Rong, Chunying; Zhong, Aiguo; Lu, Tian; Liu, Shubin

    2018-01-15

    Molecular acidity is one of the important physiochemical properties of a molecular system, yet its accurate calculation and prediction are still an unresolved problem in the literature. In this work, we propose to make use of the quantities from the information-theoretic (IT) approach in density functional reactivity theory and provide an accurate description of molecular acidity from a completely new perspective. To illustrate our point, five different categories of acidic series, singly and doubly substituted benzoic acids, singly substituted benzenesulfinic acids, benzeneseleninic acids, phenols, and alkyl carboxylic acids, have been thoroughly examined. We show that using IT quantities such as Shannon entropy, Fisher information, Ghosh-Berkowitz-Parr entropy, information gain, Onicescu information energy, and relative Rényi entropy, one is able to simultaneously predict experimental pKa values of these different categories of compounds. Because of the universality of the quantities employed in this work, which are all density dependent, our approach should be general and be applicable to other systems as well. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Game Theoretic Approach for Systematic Feature Selection; Application in False Alarm Detection in Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Afghah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Intensive Care Units (ICUs are equipped with many sophisticated sensors and monitoring devices to provide the highest quality of care for critically ill patients. However, these devices might generate false alarms that reduce standard of care and result in desensitization of caregivers to alarms. Therefore, reducing the number of false alarms is of great importance. Many approaches such as signal processing and machine learning, and designing more accurate sensors have been developed for this purpose. However, the significant intrinsic correlation among the extracted features from different sensors has been mostly overlooked. A majority of current data mining techniques fail to capture such correlation among the collected signals from different sensors that limits their alarm recognition capabilities. Here, we propose a novel information-theoretic predictive modeling technique based on the idea of coalition game theory to enhance the accuracy of false alarm detection in ICUs by accounting for the synergistic power of signal attributes in the feature selection stage. This approach brings together techniques from information theory and game theory to account for inter-features mutual information in determining the most correlated predictors with respect to false alarm by calculating Banzhaf power of each feature. The numerical results show that the proposed method can enhance classification accuracy and improve the area under the ROC (receiver operating characteristic curve compared to other feature selection techniques, when integrated in classifiers such as Bayes-Net that consider inter-features dependencies.

  17. A Theoretical Approach to Understanding Population Dynamics with Seasonal Developmental Durations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yijun; Zhao, Xiao-Qiang

    2017-04-01

    There is a growing body of biological investigations to understand impacts of seasonally changing environmental conditions on population dynamics in various research fields such as single population growth and disease transmission. On the other side, understanding the population dynamics subject to seasonally changing weather conditions plays a fundamental role in predicting the trends of population patterns and disease transmission risks under the scenarios of climate change. With the host-macroparasite interaction as a motivating example, we propose a synthesized approach for investigating the population dynamics subject to seasonal environmental variations from theoretical point of view, where the model development, basic reproduction ratio formulation and computation, and rigorous mathematical analysis are involved. The resultant model with periodic delay presents a novel term related to the rate of change of the developmental duration, bringing new challenges to dynamics analysis. By investigating a periodic semiflow on a suitably chosen phase space, the global dynamics of a threshold type is established: all solutions either go to zero when basic reproduction ratio is less than one, or stabilize at a positive periodic state when the reproduction ratio is greater than one. The synthesized approach developed here is applicable to broader contexts of investigating biological systems with seasonal developmental durations.

  18. Developing TheoreticalMethodological Approaches to Assessment of Export Potential of Ukrainian Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matyushenko Igor Yu.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the existing theoretical-methodological approaches to the analysis and assessment of export potential. The opinions by scientists regarding the disclosure of the categorial content of the concept of «export potential» have been considered, an own definition of the indicated economic category has been suggested. The main types of analytical procedures for assessment have been classified, some authorial methodical approaches to determine the level of export potential have been analyzed. The export potential of a hypothetical enterprise has been calculated by the selected methodologies of assessment. The urgency of improving and refining existing methods to implement more detailed and quantitative analysis has been substantiated. It has been suggested to implement a prognosis assessment of export potential of enterprises by combining the results of several methodologies in the aggregate indicator of export potential efficiency. A prognosis model for the dynamics of export potential of a hypothetical enterprise has been built, value of the aggregate indicator has been calculated on the basis of three selected valuation methodologies.

  19. The strong coupling constant: its theoretical derivation from a geometric approach to hadron structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recami, E.; Tonin-Zanchin, V.

    1991-01-01

    Since more than a decade, a bi-scale, unified approach to strong and gravitational interactions has been proposed, that uses the geometrical methods of general relativity, and yielded results similar to strong gravity theory's. We fix our attention, in this note, on hadron structure, and show that also the strong interaction strength α s, ordinarily called the (perturbative) coupling-constant square, can be evaluated within our theory, and found to decrease (increase) as the distance r decreases (increases). This yields both the confinement of the hadron constituents for large values of r, and their asymptotic freedom [for small values of r inside the hadron]: in qualitative agreement with the experimental evidence. In other words, our approach leads us, on a purely theoretical ground, to a dependence of α s on r which had been previously found only on phenomenological and heuristical grounds. We expect the above agreement to be also quantitative, on the basis of a few checks performed in this paper, and of further work of ours about calculating meson mass-spectra. (author)

  20. Cartography, new technologies and geographic education: theoretical approaches to research the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneme do Canto, Tânia

    2018-05-01

    In order to understand the roles that digital mapping can play in cartographic and geographic education, this paper discusses the theoretical and methodological approach used in a research that is undertaking in the education of geography teachers. To develop the study, we found in the works of Lankshear and Knobel (2013) a notion of new literacies that allows us looking at the practices within digital mapping in a sociocultural perspective. From them, we conclude that in order to understand the changes that digital cartography is able to foment in geography teaching, it is necessary to go beyond the substitution of means in the classroom and being able to explore what makes the new mapping practices different from others already consolidated in geography teaching. Therefore, we comment on some features of new forms of cartographic literacy that are in full development with digital technologies, but which are not determined solely by their use. The ideas of Kitchin and Dodge (2007) and Del Casino Junior and Hanna (2006) are also an important reference for the research. Methodologically, this approach helps us to understand that in the seek to comprehend maps and their meanings, irrespective of the medium used, we are dealing with a process of literacy that is very particular and emergent because it involves not only the characteristics of the map artifact and of the individual that produces or consumes it, but depends mainly on a diversity of interconnections that are being built between them (map and individual) and the world.

  1. An effectiveness analysis of healthcare systems using a systems theoretic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inder Kerry

    2009-10-01

    surveyors is developed that provides a systematic search for improving the impact of accreditation on quality of care and hence on the accreditation/performance correlation. Conclusion There is clear value in developing a theoretical systems approach to achieving quality in health care. The introduction of the systematic surveyor-based search for improvements creates an adaptive-control system to optimize health care quality. It is hoped that these outcomes will stimulate further research in the development of strategic planning using systems theoretic approach for the improvement of quality in health care.

  2. An effectiveness analysis of healthcare systems using a systems theoretic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Sheuwen; Inder, Kerry

    2009-10-24

    improving the impact of accreditation on quality of care and hence on the accreditation/performance correlation. There is clear value in developing a theoretical systems approach to achieving quality in health care. The introduction of the systematic surveyor-based search for improvements creates an adaptive-control system to optimize health care quality. It is hoped that these outcomes will stimulate further research in the development of strategic planning using systems theoretic approach for the improvement of quality in health care.

  3. Beyond the Cognitive and the Virtue Approaches to Moral Education: Some Theoretical Foundations for an Integrated Account of Moral Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Young-Ran

    2000-01-01

    Explores theoretical foundation for integrated approach to moral education; discusses rational choice and moral action within human reflective structure; investigates moral values required for integrative approach to moral education; discusses content of moral motivation, including role of emotion and reason. (Contains 15 references.) (PKP)

  4. Nuclear energy policy analysis under uncertainties : applications of new utility theoretic approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ra, Ki Yong

    1992-02-01

    For the purpose of analyzing the nuclear energy policy under uncertainties, new utility theoretic approaches were applied. The main discoveries of new utility theories are that, firstly, the consequences can affect the perceived probabilities, secondly, the utilities are not fixed but can change, and finally, utilities and probabilities thus should be combined dependently to determine the overall worth of risky option. These conclusions were applied to develop the modified expected utility model and to establish the probabilistic nuclear safety criterion. The modified expected utility model was developed in order to resolve the inconsistencies between the expected utility model and the actual decision behaviors. Based on information theory and Bayesian inference, the modified probabilities were obtained as the stated probabilities times substitutional factors. The model theoretically predicts that the extreme value outcomes are perceived as to be more likely to occur than medium value outcomes. This prediction is consistent with the first finding of new utility theories that the consequences can after the perceived probabilities. And further with this theoretical prediction, the decision behavior of buying lottery ticket, of paying for insurance and of nuclear catastrophic risk aversion can well be explained. Through the numerical application, it is shown that the developed model can well explain the common consequence effect, common ratio effect and reflection effect. The probabilistic nuclear safety criterion for core melt frequency was established: Firstly, the distribution of the public's safety goal (DPSG) was proposed for representing the public's group preference under risk. Secondly, a new probabilistic safety criterion (PSC) was established, in which the DPSG was used as a benchmark for evaluating the results of probabilistic safety assessment. Thirdly, a log-normal distribution was proposed as the appropriate DPSG for core melt frequency using the

  5. PREFACE: The Second International Conference on Inverse Problems: Recent Theoretical Developments and Numerical Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jin; Hon, Yiu-Chung; Seo, Jin Keun; Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2005-01-01

    The Second International Conference on Inverse Problems: Recent Theoretical Developments and Numerical Approaches was held at Fudan University, Shanghai from 16-21 June 2004. The first conference in this series was held at the City University of Hong Kong in January 2002 and it was agreed to hold the conference once every two years in a Pan-Pacific Asian country. The next conference is scheduled to be held at Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan in July 2006. The purpose of this series of biennial conferences is to establish and develop constant international collaboration, especially among the Pan-Pacific Asian countries. In recent decades, interest in inverse problems has been flourishing all over the globe because of both the theoretical interest and practical requirements. In particular, in Asian countries, one is witnessing remarkable new trends of research in inverse problems as well as the participation of many young talents. Considering these trends, the second conference was organized with the chairperson Professor Li Tat-tsien (Fudan University), in order to provide forums for developing research cooperation and to promote activities in the field of inverse problems. Because solutions to inverse problems are needed in various applied fields, we entertained a total of 92 participants at the second conference and arranged various talks which ranged from mathematical analyses to solutions of concrete inverse problems in the real world. This volume contains 18 selected papers, all of which have undergone peer review. The 18 papers are classified as follows: Surveys: four papers give reviews of specific inverse problems. Theoretical aspects: six papers investigate the uniqueness, stability, and reconstruction schemes. Numerical methods: four papers devise new numerical methods and their applications to inverse problems. Solutions to applied inverse problems: four papers discuss concrete inverse problems such as scattering problems and inverse problems in

  6. An information-theoretic approach to assess practical identifiability of parametric dynamical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Sanjay; Lombardi, Damiano

    2015-10-01

    A new approach for assessing parameter identifiability of dynamical systems in a Bayesian setting is presented. The concept of Shannon entropy is employed to measure the inherent uncertainty in the parameters. The expected reduction in this uncertainty is seen as the amount of information one expects to gain about the parameters due to the availability of noisy measurements of the dynamical system. Such expected information gain is interpreted in terms of the variance of a hypothetical measurement device that can measure the parameters directly, and is related to practical identifiability of the parameters. If the individual parameters are unidentifiable, correlation between parameter combinations is assessed through conditional mutual information to determine which sets of parameters can be identified together. The information theoretic quantities of entropy and information are evaluated numerically through a combination of Monte Carlo and k-nearest neighbour methods in a non-parametric fashion. Unlike many methods to evaluate identifiability proposed in the literature, the proposed approach takes the measurement-noise into account and is not restricted to any particular noise-structure. Whilst computationally intensive for large dynamical systems, it is easily parallelisable and is non-intrusive as it does not necessitate re-writing of the numerical solvers of the dynamical system. The application of such an approach is presented for a variety of dynamical systems--ranging from systems governed by ordinary differential equations to partial differential equations--and, where possible, validated against results previously published in the literature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Abnormalities of functional brain networks in pathological gambling: a graph-theoretical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschernegg, Melanie; Crone, Julia S.; Eigenberger, Tina; Schwartenbeck, Philipp; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Lemènager, Tagrid; Mann, Karl; Thon, Natasha; Wurst, Friedrich M.; Kronbichler, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies of pathological gambling (PG) demonstrate alterations in frontal and subcortical regions of the mesolimbic reward system. However, most investigations were performed using tasks involving reward processing or executive functions. Little is known about brain network abnormalities during task-free resting state in PG. In the present study, graph-theoretical methods were used to investigate network properties of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data in PG. We compared 19 patients with PG to 19 healthy controls (HCs) using the Graph Analysis Toolbox (GAT). None of the examined global metrics differed between groups. At the nodal level, pathological gambler showed a reduced clustering coefficient in the left paracingulate cortex and the left juxtapositional lobe (supplementary motor area, SMA), reduced local efficiency in the left SMA, as well as an increased node betweenness for the left and right paracingulate cortex and the left SMA. At an uncorrected threshold level, the node betweenness in the left inferior frontal gyrus was decreased and increased in the caudate. Additionally, increased functional connectivity between fronto-striatal regions and within frontal regions has also been found for the gambling patients. These findings suggest that regions associated with the reward system demonstrate reduced segregation but enhanced integration while regions associated with executive functions demonstrate reduced integration. The present study makes evident that PG is also associated with abnormalities in the topological network structure of the brain during rest. Since alterations in PG cannot be explained by direct effects of abused substances on the brain, these findings will be of relevance for understanding functional connectivity in other addictive disorders. PMID:24098282

  8. Promoting communication, participation, and learning with regard to organic food products: a communication theoretical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kastberg

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The market for organic foods is growing, however, the proportion of consumers buying organic foods is still considered low. Research shows that a significant barrier to consumers purchasing more organic foods is lack of information. This leads the relevant body of research to call for better communication around organic foods. The same body of research, however, neither questions what good communication surrounding organic foods is, nor what would make it better. Applying the communication theoretical formats of transmission, interaction, and coaction, respectively, onto instances of organic communication activities, I will discuss to what extent each format encourages consumer participation and learning. Transmission, typically in the form of monologuous mass communication, is cost effective. It is also a format that bars a sender, e.g., producer or farmer, from gauging deposits in the consumer, e.g., understanding the message, trusting the sender, etc. Interaction, typically in the form of dialoguous encounters, integrates feedback into communication allowing the sender to appreciate the level of understanding, trust, etc., which the communicative effort has given rise to, albeit at a higher price in terms of money, time, and manpower. In the format of coaction, typically in the form of co-operative endeavors, the deposit is a matter of what is coconstructed by the participants, e.g., understanding, trust, etc. Coaction thus satisfies the organic communicators craving for involving the consumer, and because food is a low-involvement commodity, this is critical. But emancipating the consumer comes at a price. First of all, coactional communication is dependent on highly motivated participants, and second, coactional communication is difficult if not impossible to control. Informed by these insights, I present an in-depth, critical discussion of the promises and pitfalls of how multicriteria assessments may be communicated and coconstructed on a

  9. Abnormalities of Functional Brain Networks in Pathological Gambling: A Graph-Theoretical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie eTschernegg

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Functional neuroimaging studies of pathological gambling demonstrate alterations in frontal and subcortical regions of the mesolimbic reward system. However, most investigations were performed using tasks involving reward processing or executive functions. Little is known about brain network abnormalities during task-free resting state in pathological gambling. In the present study, graph-theoretical methods were used to investigate network properties of resting state functional MRI data in pathological gambling. We compared 19 patients with pathological gambling to 19 healthy controls using the Graph Analysis Toolbox (GAT. None of the examined global metrics differed between groups. At the nodal level, pathological gambler showed a reduced clustering coefficient in the left paracingulate cortex and the left juxtapositional lobe (SMA, reduced local efficiency in the left SMA, as well as an increased node betweenness for the left and right paracingulate cortex and the left SMA. At an uncorrected threshold level, the node betweenness in the left inferior frontal gyrus was decreased and increased in the caudate. Additionally, increased functional connectivity between fronto-striatal regions and within frontal regions has also been found for the gambling patients.These findings suggest that regions associated with the reward system demonstrate reduced segregation but enhanced integration while regions associated with executive functions demonstrate reduced integration. The present study makes evident that pathological gambling is also associated with abnormalities in the topological network structure of the brain during rest. Since alterations in pathological gambling cannot be explained by direct effects of abused substances on the brain, these findings will be of relevance for understanding functional connectivity in other addictive disorders.

  10. Strategy for a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model. Development and testing of the theoretical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staub, Isabelle; Fredriksson, Anders; Outters, Nils [Golder Associates AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2002-05-01

    In the purpose of studying the possibilities of a Deep Repository for spent fuel, the Swedish Nuclear and Fuel Management Company (SKB) is currently planning for Site Investigations. Data collected from these Site Investigations are interpreted and analysed to achieve the full Site Description, which is built up of models from all the disciplines that are considered of importance for the Site Description. One of these models is the Rock Mechanical Descriptive Model,which would be developed for any site in hard crystalline rock, and is a combination and evaluation of the characterisation of rock mass by means of empirical relationships and a theoretical approach based on numerical modelling. The present report describes the theoretical approach. The characterisation of the mechanical properties of the rock mass, viewed as a unit consisting of intact rock and fractures, is achieved by numerical simulations with following input parameters: initial stresses, fracture geometry, distribution of rock mechanical properties, such as deformation and strength parameters, for the intact rock and for the fractures. The numerical modelling was performed with the two-dimensional code UDEC, and the rock block models were generated from 2D trace sections extracted from the 3D Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) model. Assumptions and uncertainties related to the set-up of the model are considered. The numerical model was set-up to simulate a plain strain-loading test. Different boundary conditions were applied on the model for simulating stress conditions (I) in the undisturbed rock mass, and (II) at the proximity of a tunnel. In order to assess the reliability of the model sensitivity analyses have been conducted on some rock block models for defining the dependency of mechanical properties to in situ stresses, the influence of boundary conditions, rock material and joint constitutive models used to simulate the behaviour of intact rock and fractures, domain size and anisotropy. To

  11. Strategy for a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model. Development and testing of the theoretical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staub, Isabelle; Fredriksson, Anders; Outters, Nils

    2002-05-01

    In the purpose of studying the possibilities of a Deep Repository for spent fuel, the Swedish Nuclear and Fuel Management Company (SKB) is currently planning for Site Investigations. Data collected from these Site Investigations are interpreted and analysed to achieve the full Site Description, which is built up of models from all the disciplines that are considered of importance for the Site Description. One of these models is the Rock Mechanical Descriptive Model,which would be developed for any site in hard crystalline rock, and is a combination and evaluation of the characterisation of rock mass by means of empirical relationships and a theoretical approach based on numerical modelling. The present report describes the theoretical approach. The characterisation of the mechanical properties of the rock mass, viewed as a unit consisting of intact rock and fractures, is achieved by numerical simulations with following input parameters: initial stresses, fracture geometry, distribution of rock mechanical properties, such as deformation and strength parameters, for the intact rock and for the fractures. The numerical modelling was performed with the two-dimensional code UDEC, and the rock block models were generated from 2D trace sections extracted from the 3D Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) model. Assumptions and uncertainties related to the set-up of the model are considered. The numerical model was set-up to simulate a plain strain-loading test. Different boundary conditions were applied on the model for simulating stress conditions (I) in the undisturbed rock mass, and (II) at the proximity of a tunnel. In order to assess the reliability of the model sensitivity analyses have been conducted on some rock block models for defining the dependency of mechanical properties to in situ stresses, the influence of boundary conditions, rock material and joint constitutive models used to simulate the behaviour of intact rock and fractures, domain size and anisotropy. To

  12. A game-theoretic approach for calibration of low-cost magnetometers under noise uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddharth, S.; Ali, A. S.; El-Sheimy, N.; Goodall, C. L.; Syed, Z. F.

    2012-02-01

    Pedestrian heading estimation is a fundamental challenge in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)-denied environments. Additionally, the heading observability considerably degrades in low-speed mode of operation (e.g. walking), making this problem even more challenging. The goal of this work is to improve the heading solution when hand-held personal/portable devices, such as cell phones, are used for positioning and to improve the heading estimation in GNSS-denied signal environments. Most smart phones are now equipped with self-contained, low cost, small size and power-efficient sensors, such as magnetometers, gyroscopes and accelerometers. A magnetometer needs calibration before it can be properly employed for navigation purposes. Magnetometers play an important role in absolute heading estimation and are embedded in many smart phones. Before the users navigate with the phone, a calibration is invoked to ensure an improved signal quality. This signal is used later in the heading estimation. In most of the magnetometer-calibration approaches, the motion modes are seldom described to achieve a robust calibration. Also, suitable calibration approaches fail to discuss the stopping criteria for calibration. In this paper, the following three topics are discussed in detail that are important to achieve proper magnetometer-calibration results and in turn the most robust heading solution for the user while taking care of the device misalignment with respect to the user: (a) game-theoretic concepts to attain better filter parameter tuning and robustness in noise uncertainty, (b) best maneuvers with focus on 3D and 2D motion modes and related challenges and (c) investigation of the calibration termination criteria leveraging the calibration robustness and efficiency.

  13. A game-theoretic approach for calibration of low-cost magnetometers under noise uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddharth, S; Ali, A S; El-Sheimy, N; Goodall, C L; Syed, Z F

    2012-01-01

    Pedestrian heading estimation is a fundamental challenge in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)-denied environments. Additionally, the heading observability considerably degrades in low-speed mode of operation (e.g. walking), making this problem even more challenging. The goal of this work is to improve the heading solution when hand-held personal/portable devices, such as cell phones, are used for positioning and to improve the heading estimation in GNSS-denied signal environments. Most smart phones are now equipped with self-contained, low cost, small size and power-efficient sensors, such as magnetometers, gyroscopes and accelerometers. A magnetometer needs calibration before it can be properly employed for navigation purposes. Magnetometers play an important role in absolute heading estimation and are embedded in many smart phones. Before the users navigate with the phone, a calibration is invoked to ensure an improved signal quality. This signal is used later in the heading estimation. In most of the magnetometer-calibration approaches, the motion modes are seldom described to achieve a robust calibration. Also, suitable calibration approaches fail to discuss the stopping criteria for calibration. In this paper, the following three topics are discussed in detail that are important to achieve proper magnetometer-calibration results and in turn the most robust heading solution for the user while taking care of the device misalignment with respect to the user: (a) game-theoretic concepts to attain better filter parameter tuning and robustness in noise uncertainty, (b) best maneuvers with focus on 3D and 2D motion modes and related challenges and (c) investigation of the calibration termination criteria leveraging the calibration robustness and efficiency. (paper)

  14. On the electric dipole moments of small sodium clusters from different theoretical approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguado, Andrés; Largo, Antonio; Vega, Andrés; Balbás, Luis Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The dipole moments and polarizabilities of a few isomers of sodium clusters of selected sizes (n = 13, 14, 16) are calculated using density functional theory methods as well as ab initio MP2, CASSCF, and MR-CI methods. Among the density functional approaches, we consider the usual local density and generalized gradient approximations, as well as a recent van der Waals self-consistent functional accounting for non-local dispersion interactions. Highlights: ► Dipole moment and polarizability of sodium clusters from DFT and ab initio methods. ► New van der Waals selfconsistent implementation of non-local dispersion interactions. ► New starting isomeric geometries from extensive search of global minimum structures. ► Good agreement with recent experiments at cryogenic temperatures. - Abstract: The dipole moments of Na n clusters in the size range 10 n clusters of selected sizes (n = 13, 14, 16), obtained recently through an extensive unbiased search of the global minimum structures, and using density functional theory methods as well as ab initio MP2, CASSCF, and MR-CI methods. Among the density functional approaches, we consider the usual local density and generalized gradient approximations, as well as a recent van der Waals self-consistent functional accounting for non-local dispersion interactions. Both non-local pseudopotentials and all-electron implementations are employed and compared in order to assess the possible contribution of the core electrons to the electric dipole moments. Our new geometries possess significantly smaller electric dipole moments than previous density functional results, mostly when combined with the van der Waals exchange–correlation functional. However, although the agreement with experiment clearly improves upon previous calculations, the theoretical dipole moments are still about one order of magnitude larger than the experimental values, suggesting that the correct global minimum structures have not been

  15. THE QUALITY OF HUMAN RESOURCES – A REQUEST FOR HOTEL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT. A THEORETICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruștei Carmen Claudia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we focus on the importance of human resource quality from hotel industry in obtaining quality services and further more in obtaining hotel industry development. We address this issue due to the fact that, usually, when talking about tourism or hotel industry development, the literature in the field offers macro solutions like, infrastructure development, service/product development and/or improving service quality. We consider that a micro approach is also important and from this perspective, we emphasis the role of human resource quality for industry development. The quality of human resources, as a dimension of service quality was not detailed extensively by the literature in the field but we found it relevant for hotel industry development, as this industry it is a service industry, and as Ritz-Carlton Company’s motto say “service comes only from people”. In this article we focus on the importance of human resource quality from hotel industry in obtaining quality services and further more in obtaining hotel industry development. We address this issue due to the fact that, usually, when talking about tourism or hotel industry development, the literature in the field offers macro solutions like, infrastructure development, service/product development and/or improving service quality. We consider that a micro approach is also important and from this perspective, we emphasis the role of human resource quality for industry development. The quality of human resources, as a dimension of service quality was not detailed extensively by the literature in the field but we found it relevant for hotel industry development, as this industry it is a service industry, and as Ritz-Carlton Company’s motto say “service comes only from people”. In this article we focus on the importance of human resource quality from hotel industry in obtaining quality services and further more in obtaining hotel industry development. We address this

  16. Improving the interpersonal competences of head nurses through Peplau's theoretical active learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhariyanto; Hariyati, Rr Tutik Sri; Ungsianik, Titin

    2018-02-01

    Effective interpersonal skills are essential for head nurses in governing and managing their work units. Therefore, an active learning strategy could be the key to enhance the interpersonal competences of head nurses. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Peplau's theoretical approach of active learning on the improvement of head nurses' interpersonal skills. This study used a pre-experimental design with one group having pretests and posttests, without control group. A total sample of 25 head nurses from inpatient units of a wellknown private hospital in Jakarta was involved in the study. Data were analyzed using the paired t-test. The results showed a significant increase in head nurses' knowledge following the training to strengthen their interpersonal roles (P=.003). The results also revealed significant increases in the head nurses' skills in playing the roles of leader (P=.006), guardian (P=.014), and teacher/speaker (P=.015). Nonetheless, the results showed no significant increases in the head nurses' skills in playing the roles of counselor (P=.092) and stranger (P=.182). Training in strengthening the interpersonal roles of head nurses significantly increased the head nurses' knowledge and skills. The results of the study suggested the continuation of active learning strategies to improve the interpersonal abilities of head nurses. Furthermore, these strategies could be used to build the abilities of head nurses in other managerial fields. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Does Macaulay Duration Provide The Most Cost-Effective Immunization Method – A Theoretical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaremba Leszek

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the following, we offer a theoretical approach that attempts to explain (Comments 1-3 why and when the Macaulay duration concept happens to be a good approximation of a bond’s price sensitivity. We are concerned with the basic immunization problem with a single liability to be discharged at a future time q. Our idea is to divide the class K of all shifts a(t of a term structure of interest rates s(t into many classes and then to find a sufficient and necessary condition a given bond portfolio, dependent on a class of shifts, must satisfy to secure immunization at time q against all shifts a(t from that class. For this purpose, we introduce the notions of dedicated duration and dedicated convexity. For each class of shifts, we show how to choose from a bond market under consideration a portfolio with maximal dedicated convexity among all immunizing portfolios. We demonstrate that the portfolio yields the maximal unanticipated rate of return and appears to be uniquely determined as a barbell strategy (portfolio built up with 2 zero-coupon bearing bonds with maximal and respective minimal dedicated durations. Finally, an open problem addressed to researchers performing empirical studies is formulated.

  18. Game Theoretical Approaches for Transport-Aware Channel Selection in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shih-Ho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Effectively sharing channels among secondary users (SUs is one of the greatest challenges in cognitive radio network (CRN. In the past, many studies have proposed channel selection schemes at the physical or the MAC layer that allow SUs swiftly respond to the spectrum states. However, they may not lead to enhance performance due to slow response of the transport layer flow control mechanism. This paper presents a cross-layer design framework called Transport Aware Channel Selection (TACS scheme to optimize the transport throughput based on states, such as RTT and congestion window size, of TCP flow control mechanism. We formulate the TACS problem as two different game theoretic approaches: Selfish Spectrum Sharing Game (SSSG and Cooperative Spectrum Sharing Game (CSSG and present novel distributed heuristic algorithms to optimize TCP throughput. Computer simulations show that SSSG and CSSG could double the SUs throughput of current MAC-based scheme when primary users (PUs use their channel infrequently, and with up to 12% to 100% throughput increase when PUs are more active. The simulation results also illustrated that CSSG performs up to 20% better than SSSG in terms of the throughput.

  19. A Markov game theoretic data fusion approach for cyber situational awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dan; Chen, Genshe; Cruz, Jose B., Jr.; Haynes, Leonard; Kruger, Martin; Blasch, Erik

    2007-04-01

    This paper proposes an innovative data-fusion/ data-mining game theoretic situation awareness and impact assessment approach for cyber network defense. Alerts generated by Intrusion Detection Sensors (IDSs) or Intrusion Prevention Sensors (IPSs) are fed into the data refinement (Level 0) and object assessment (L1) data fusion components. High-level situation/threat assessment (L2/L3) data fusion based on Markov game model and Hierarchical Entity Aggregation (HEA) are proposed to refine the primitive prediction generated by adaptive feature/pattern recognition and capture new unknown features. A Markov (Stochastic) game method is used to estimate the belief of each possible cyber attack pattern. Game theory captures the nature of cyber conflicts: determination of the attacking-force strategies is tightly coupled to determination of the defense-force strategies and vice versa. Also, Markov game theory deals with uncertainty and incompleteness of available information. A software tool is developed to demonstrate the performance of the high level information fusion for cyber network defense situation and a simulation example shows the enhanced understating of cyber-network defense.

  20. Theoretical simulations on the antioxidant mechanism of naturally occurring flavonoid: A DFT approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praveena, R.; Sadasivam, K.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) are found to be toxic, hence non-carcinogenic naturally occurring radical scavengers especially flavonoids have gained considerable importance in the past two decades. In the present investigation, the radical scavenging activity of C-glycosyl flavonoids is evaluated using theoretical approach which could broaden its scope in therapeutic applications. Gas and solvent phase studies of structural and molecular characteristics of C-glycosyl flavonoid, isovitexin is investigated through hydrogen atom transfer mechanism (HAT), Electron transfer-proton transfer (ET–PT) and Sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET) by Density functional theory (DFT) using hybrid parameters. The computed values of the adiabatic ionization potential, electron affinity, hardness, softness, electronegativity and electrophilic index indicate that isovitexin possess good radical scavenging activity. The behavior of different –OH groups in polyphenolic compounds is assessed by considering electronic effects of the neighbouring groups and the overall geometry of molecule which in turn helps in analyzing the antioxidant capacity of the polyphenolic molecule. The studies indicate that the H–atom abstraction from 4’–OH site is preferred during the radical scavenging process. From Mulliken spin density analysis and FMOs, B–ring is found to be more delocalized center and capable of electron donation. Comparison of antioxidant activity of vitexin and isovitexin leads to the conclusion that isovitexin acts as a better radical scavenger. This is an evidence for the importance of position of glucose unit in the flavonoid.

  1. A Hybrid Chaotic and Number Theoretic Approach for Securing DICOM Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyamala Chandrasekaran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The advancements in telecommunication and networking technologies have led to the increased popularity and widespread usage of telemedicine. Telemedicine involves storage and exchange of large volume of medical records for remote diagnosis and improved health care services. Images in medical records are characterized by huge volume, high redundancy, and strong correlation among adjacent pixels. This research work proposes a novel idea of integrating number theoretic approach with Henon map for secure and efficient encryption. Modular exponentiation of the primitive roots of the chosen prime in the range of its residual set is employed in the generation of two-dimensional array of keys. The key matrix is permuted and chaotically controlled by Henon map to decide the encryption keys for every pixel of DICOM image. The proposed system is highly secure because of the randomness introduced due to the application of modular exponentiation key generation and application of Henon maps for permutation of keys. Experiments have been conducted to analyze key space, key sensitivity, avalanche effect, correlation distribution, entropy, and histograms. The corresponding results confirm the strength of the proposed design towards statistical and differential crypt analysis. The computational requirements for encryption/decryption have been reduced significantly owing to the reduced number of computations in the process of encryption/decryption.

  2. Power and Law in Enlightened Absolutism – Carl Gottlieb Svarez’ Theoretical and Practical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Kuhli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The term Enlightened Absolutism reflects a certain tension between its two components. This tension is in a way a continuation of the dichotomy between power on one hand and law on the other. The present paper shall provide an analysis of these two concepts from the perspective of Carl Gottlieb Svarez, who, in his position as a high-ranking Prussian civil servant and legal reformist, had unparalleled influence on the legislative history of the Prussian states towards the end of the 18th century. Working side-by-side with Johann Heinrich Casimir von Carmer, who held the post of Prussian minister of justice from 1779 to 1798, Svarez was able to make use of his talent for reforming and legislating. From 1780 to 1794 he was primarily responsible for the elaboration of the codification of the Prussian private law – the »Allgemeines Landrecht für die Preußischen Staaten« in 1794. In the present paper, Svarez’ approach to the relation between law and power shall be analysed on two different levels. Firstly, on a theoretical level, the reformist’s thoughts and reflections as laid down in his numerous works, papers and memorandums, shall be discussed. Secondly, on a practical level, the question of the extent to which he implemented his ideas in Prussian legal reality shall be explored.

  3. Strategic exploration of battery waste management: A game-theoretic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Rajendra Kumar; Nema, Arvind K; Chaudhary, Jyoti

    2015-07-01

    Electronic waste or e-waste is the fastest growing stream of solid waste today. It contains both toxic substances as well as valuable resources. The present study uses a non-cooperative game-theoretic approach for efficient management of e-waste, particularly batteries that contribute a major portion of any e-waste stream and further analyses the economic consequences of recycling of these obsolete, discarded batteries. Results suggest that the recycler would prefer to collect the obsolete batteries directly from the consumer rather than from the manufacturer, only if, the incentive return to the consumer is less than 33.92% of the price of the battery, the recycling fee is less than 6.46% of the price of the battery, and the price of the recycled material is more than 31.08% of the price of the battery. The manufacturer's preferred choice of charging a green tax from the consumer can be fruitful for the battery recycling chain. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. The game as strategy for approach to sexuality with adolescents: theoretical-methodological reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the Papo Reto [Straight Talk] game and reflect on its theoretical-methodological basis. Method: Analytical study on the process of elaboration of the Papo Reto online game, destined to adolescents aged 15-18 years, with access to the Game between 2014 and 2015. Results: the interactions of 60 adolescents from Belo Horizonte and São Paulo constituted examples of the potentialities of the Game to favor the approach to sexuality with adolescents through simulation of reality, invention and interaction. Based on those potentialities, four thinking categories were discussed: the game as pedagogic device; the game as simulation of realities; the game as device for inventive learning; and the game empowering the interaction. Conclusion: By permitting that the adolescents take risks on new ways, the Game allows them to become creative and active in the production of senses, in the creation of their discourses and in the ways of thinking, feeling and acting in the sexuality field.

  5. Bovine serum albumin adsorption onto functionalized polystyrene lattices: A theoretical modeling approach and error analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beragoui, Manel; Aguir, Chadlia; Khalfaoui, Mohamed; Enciso, Eduardo; Torralvo, Maria José; Duclaux, Laurent; Reinert, Laurence; Vayer, Marylène; Ben Lamine, Abdelmottaleb

    2015-03-01

    The present work involves the study of bovine serum albumin adsorption onto five functionalized polystyrene lattices. The adsorption measurements have been carried out using a quartz crystal microbalance. Poly(styrene-co-itaconic acid) was found to be an effective adsorbent for bovine serum albumin molecule adsorption. The experimental isotherm data were analyzed using theoretical models based on a statistical physics approach, namely monolayer, double layer with two successive energy levels, finite multilayer, and modified Brunauer-Emmet-Teller. The equilibrium data were then analyzed using five different non-linear error analysis methods and it was found that the finite multilayer model best describes the protein adsorption data. Surface characteristics, i.e., surface charge density and number density of surface carboxyl groups, were used to investigate their effect on the adsorption capacity. The combination of the results obtained from the number of adsorbed layers, the number of adsorbed molecules per site, and the thickness of the adsorbed bovine serum albumin layer allows us to predict that the adsorption of this protein molecule can also be distinguished by monolayer or multilayer adsorption with end-on, side-on, and overlap conformations. The magnitudes of the calculated adsorption energy indicate that bovine serum albumin molecules are physisorbed onto the adsorbent lattices.

  6. A Game Theoretic Approach to Minimize the Completion Time of Network Coded Cooperative Data Exchange

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed S.

    2014-05-11

    In this paper, we introduce a game theoretic framework for studying the problem of minimizing the completion time of instantly decodable network coding (IDNC) for cooperative data exchange (CDE) in decentralized wireless network. In this configuration, clients cooperate with each other to recover the erased packets without a central controller. Game theory is employed herein as a tool for improving the distributed solution by overcoming the need for a central controller or additional signaling in the system. We model the session by self-interested players in a non-cooperative potential game. The utility function is designed such that increasing individual payoff results in a collective behavior achieving both a desirable system performance in a shared network environment and the Pareto optimal solution. Through extensive simulations, our approach is compared to the best performance that could be found in the conventional point-to-multipoint (PMP) recovery process. Numerical results show that our formulation largely outperforms the conventional PMP scheme in most practical situations and achieves a lower delay.

  7. Intraplate seismicity in Canada: a graph theoretic approach to data analysis and interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vasudevan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Intraplate seismicity occurs in central and northern Canada, but the underlying origin and dynamics remain poorly understood. Here, we apply a graph theoretic approach to characterize the statistical structure of spatiotemporal clustering exhibited by intraplate seismicity, a direct consequence of the underlying nonlinear dynamics. Using a recently proposed definition of "recurrences" based on record breaking processes (Davidsen et al., 2006, 2008, we have constructed directed graphs using catalogue data for three selected regions (Region 1: 45°−48° N/74°−80° W; Region 2: 51°−55° N/77°−83° W; and Region 3: 56°−70° N/65°−95° W, with attributes drawn from the location, origin time and the magnitude of the events. Based on comparisons with a null model derived from Poisson distribution or Monte Carlo shuffling of the catalogue data, our results provide strong evidence in support of spatiotemporal correlations of seismicity in all three regions considered. Similar evidence for spatiotemporal clustering has been documented using seismicity catalogues for southern California, suggesting possible similarities in underlying earthquake dynamics of both regions despite huge differences in the variability of seismic activity.

  8. Theoretical simulations on the antioxidant mechanism of naturally occurring flavonoid: A DFT approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Praveena, R. [Department of Chemistry, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam, Erode, Tamil Nadu (India); Sadasivam, K. [Department of Physics, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam, Erode, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2016-05-06

    Synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) are found to be toxic, hence non-carcinogenic naturally occurring radical scavengers especially flavonoids have gained considerable importance in the past two decades. In the present investigation, the radical scavenging activity of C-glycosyl flavonoids is evaluated using theoretical approach which could broaden its scope in therapeutic applications. Gas and solvent phase studies of structural and molecular characteristics of C-glycosyl flavonoid, isovitexin is investigated through hydrogen atom transfer mechanism (HAT), Electron transfer-proton transfer (ET–PT) and Sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET) by Density functional theory (DFT) using hybrid parameters. The computed values of the adiabatic ionization potential, electron affinity, hardness, softness, electronegativity and electrophilic index indicate that isovitexin possess good radical scavenging activity. The behavior of different –OH groups in polyphenolic compounds is assessed by considering electronic effects of the neighbouring groups and the overall geometry of molecule which in turn helps in analyzing the antioxidant capacity of the polyphenolic molecule. The studies indicate that the H–atom abstraction from 4’–OH site is preferred during the radical scavenging process. From Mulliken spin density analysis and FMOs, B–ring is found to be more delocalized center and capable of electron donation. Comparison of antioxidant activity of vitexin and isovitexin leads to the conclusion that isovitexin acts as a better radical scavenger. This is an evidence for the importance of position of glucose unit in the flavonoid.

  9. Perspectives on Cybersecurity Information Sharing among Multiple Stakeholders Using a Decision-Theoretic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meilin; Devine, Laura; Zhuang, Jun

    2018-02-01

    The government, private sectors, and others users of the Internet are increasingly faced with the risk of cyber incidents. Damage to computer systems and theft of sensitive data caused by cyber attacks have the potential to result in lasting harm to entities under attack, or to society as a whole. The effects of cyber attacks are not always obvious, and detecting them is not a simple proposition. As the U.S. federal government believes that information sharing on cybersecurity issues among organizations is essential to safety, security, and resilience, the importance of trusted information exchange has been emphasized to support public and private decision making by encouraging the creation of the Information Sharing and Analysis Center (ISAC). Through a decision-theoretic approach, this article provides new perspectives on ISAC, and the advent of the new Information Sharing and Analysis Organizations (ISAOs), which are intended to provide similar benefits to organizations that cannot fit easily into the ISAC structure. To help understand the processes of information sharing against cyber threats, this article illustrates 15 representative information sharing structures between ISAC, government, and other participating entities, and provide discussions on the strategic interactions between different stakeholders. This article also identifies the costs of information sharing and information security borne by different parties in this public-private partnership both before and after cyber attacks, as well as the two main benefits. This article provides perspectives on the mechanism of information sharing and some detailed cost-benefit analysis. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. Theoretical approach to description of some corrosion product transport processes in PWRs primary circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zmitko, M.

    1990-10-01

    The behavior and mass transport of corrosion products in primary circuits of PWR type reactors are described assuming that the products occur in ionic form, in colloidal form (about 0.01-0.6 μm in size) and in particulate form. The transport of the soluble form is treated as a diffusion process. For the colloidal form, allowance is made for its Van der Waals attraction and repulsion interaction with the surfaces. For particles and their agglomerates, the hydrodynamical effects of the flowing liquid on the agglomerate breakdown and re-formation of the particle suspension are taken into account. Efforts were made to employ theoretical relations rather than particular experimental data, for the conclusions to be applicable to different facilities. It is believed that the complex approach to the problem can contribute to gaining insight into the role of the individual factors and processes involved, particularly as regards colloidal particles whose effect on the formation of radiation fields is not yet fully understood. (author). 3 figs., 10 refs

  11. Power Transmission Scheduling for Generators in a Deregulated Environment Based on a Game-Theoretic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingtuan Gao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In a deregulated environment of the power market, in order to lower their energy price and guarantee the stability of the power network, appropriate transmission lines have to be considered for electricity generators to sell their energy to the end users. This paper proposes a game-theoretic power transmission scheduling for multiple generators to lower their wheeling cost. Based on the embedded cost method, a wheeling cost model consisting of congestion cost, cost of losses and cost of transmission capacity is presented. By assuming each generator behaves in a selfish and rational way, the competition among the multiple generators is formulated as a non-cooperative game, where the players are the generators and the strategies are their daily schedules of power transmission. We will prove that there exists at least one pure-strategy Nash equilibrium of the formulated power transmission game. Moreover, a distributed algorithm will be provided to realize the optimization in terms of minimizing the wheeling cost. Finally, simulations were performed and discussed to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed non-cooperative game approach for the generators in a deregulated environment.

  12. A Game Theoretic Approach to Minimize the Completion Time of Network Coded Cooperative Data Exchange

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed S.; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Sorour, Sameh; Tembine, Hamidou

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a game theoretic framework for studying the problem of minimizing the completion time of instantly decodable network coding (IDNC) for cooperative data exchange (CDE) in decentralized wireless network. In this configuration, clients cooperate with each other to recover the erased packets without a central controller. Game theory is employed herein as a tool for improving the distributed solution by overcoming the need for a central controller or additional signaling in the system. We model the session by self-interested players in a non-cooperative potential game. The utility function is designed such that increasing individual payoff results in a collective behavior achieving both a desirable system performance in a shared network environment and the Pareto optimal solution. Through extensive simulations, our approach is compared to the best performance that could be found in the conventional point-to-multipoint (PMP) recovery process. Numerical results show that our formulation largely outperforms the conventional PMP scheme in most practical situations and achieves a lower delay.

  13. A game theoretic approach to a finite-time disturbance attenuation problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Ihnseok; Speyer, Jason L.

    1991-01-01

    A disturbance attenuation problem over a finite-time interval is considered by a game theoretic approach where the control, restricted to a function of the measurement history, plays against adversaries composed of the process and measurement disturbances, and the initial state. A zero-sum game, formulated as a quadratic cost criterion subject to linear time-varying dynamics and measurements, is solved by a calculus of variation technique. By first maximizing the quadratic cost criterion with respect to the process disturbance and initial state, a full information game between the control and the measurement residual subject to the estimator dynamics results. The resulting solution produces an n-dimensional compensator which expresses the controller as a linear combination of the measurement history. A disturbance attenuation problem is solved based on the results of the game problem. For time-invariant systems it is shown that under certain conditions the time-varying controller becomes time-invariant on the infinite-time interval. The resulting controller satisfies an H(infinity) norm bound.

  14. THE EASTERN PARTNERSHIP AS PART OF THE EU FOREIGN POLICY: A REVIEW OF THEORETICAL APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei SCRINIC

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Eastern Partnership (2009 as a component part of the European Neighbourhood Policy is a tool that aims at the economic integration and political cooperation of the countries that are included in this project by signing association and free trade agreements with the European Union (EU. The recent events in Ukraine have revealed the possibility of these countries to become EU member states depending on the progress made, which is confirmed by many European experts. However, there are big differences among the Eastern Partnership countries on their way to EU integration on the background of the strong pressure from Russia, aimed to suppress any pro-European manifestations of such countries. Despite the sharpening of geopolitical challenges, the EU continues to use the traditional ways of enlargement and deepening of cooperation processes with the Eastern Neighbourhood. This paper aims at reviewing the theoretical approaches through which the EU, as a normative power, exerts major influence on the Eastern Partnership (EaP countries by extending the neofunctional practices, intergovernmental cooperation and the constructivist model. However, in view of reaching the soft power objectives, we aim at transforming and strengthening the EU positions in the context of amplified economic and political-ideological problems at regional level.

  15. Combination of real options and game-theoretic approach in investment analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arasteh, Abdollah

    2016-09-01

    Investments in technology create a large amount of capital investments by major companies. Assessing such investment projects is identified as critical to the efficient assignment of resources. Viewing investment projects as real options, this paper expands a method for assessing technology investment decisions in the linkage existence of uncertainty and competition. It combines the game-theoretic models of strategic market interactions with a real options approach. Several key characteristics underlie the model. First, our study shows how investment strategies rely on competitive interactions. Under the force of competition, firms hurry to exercise their options early. The resulting "hurry equilibrium" destroys the option value of waiting and involves violent investment behavior. Second, we get best investment policies and critical investment entrances. This suggests that integrating will be unavoidable in some information product markets. The model creates some new intuitions into the forces that shape market behavior as noticed in the information technology industry. It can be used to specify best investment policies for technology innovations and adoptions, multistage R&D, and investment projects in information technology.

  16. Force-induced bone growth and adaptation: A system theoretical approach to understanding bone mechanotransduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldonado, Solvey; Findeisen, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    The modeling, analysis, and design of treatment therapies for bone disorders based on the paradigm of force-induced bone growth and adaptation is a challenging task. Mathematical models provide, in comparison to clinical, medical and biological approaches an structured alternative framework to understand the concurrent effects of the multiple factors involved in bone remodeling. By now, there are few mathematical models describing the appearing complex interactions. However, the resulting models are complex and difficult to analyze, due to the strong nonlinearities appearing in the equations, the wide range of variability of the states, and the uncertainties in parameters. In this work, we focus on analyzing the effects of changes in model structure and parameters/inputs variations on the overall steady state behavior using systems theoretical methods. Based on an briefly reviewed existing model that describes force-induced bone adaptation, the main objective of this work is to analyze the stationary behavior and to identify plausible treatment targets for remodeling related bone disorders. Identifying plausible targets can help in the development of optimal treatments combining both physical activity and drug-medication. Such treatments help to improve/maintain/restore bone strength, which deteriorates under bone disorder conditions, such as estrogen deficiency.

  17. Theoretical Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöltzner, Michael

    Answering to the double-faced influence of string theory on mathematical practice and rigour, the mathematical physicists Arthur Jaffe and Frank Quinn have contemplated the idea that there exists a `theoretical' mathematics (alongside `theoretical' physics) whose basic structures and results still require independent corroboration by mathematical proof. In this paper, I shall take the Jaffe-Quinn debate mainly as a problem of mathematical ontology and analyse it against the backdrop of two philosophical views that are appreciative towards informal mathematical development and conjectural results: Lakatos's methodology of proofs and refutations and John von Neumann's opportunistic reading of Hilbert's axiomatic method. The comparison of both approaches shows that mitigating Lakatos's falsificationism makes his insights about mathematical quasi-ontology more relevant to 20th century mathematics in which new structures are introduced by axiomatisation and not necessarily motivated by informal ancestors. The final section discusses the consequences of string theorists' claim to finality for the theory's mathematical make-up. I argue that ontological reductionism as advocated by particle physicists and the quest for mathematically deeper axioms do not necessarily lead to identical results.

  18. Theoretical Antecedents of Standing at Work: An Experience Sampling Approach Using the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M Renée Umstattd; Wu, Cindy; Walsh, Shana M

    2016-01-01

    Time spent sitting has been associated with an increased risk of diabetes, cancer, obesity, and mental health impairments. However, 75% of Americans spend most of their days sitting, with work-sitting accounting for 63% of total daily sitting time. Little research examining theory-based antecedents of standing or sitting has been conducted. This lack of solid groundwork makes it difficult to design effective intervention strategies to decrease sitting behaviors. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as our theoretical lens to better understand factors related with beneficial standing behaviors already being practiced, we examined relationships between TPB constructs and time spent standing at work among "positive deviants" (those successful in behavior change). Experience sampling methodology (ESM), 4 times a day (midmorning, before lunch, afternoon, and before leaving work) for 5 consecutive workdays (Monday to Friday), was used to assess employees' standing time. TPB scales assessing attitude (α = 0.81-0.84), norms (α = 0.83), perceived behavioral control (α = 0.77), and intention (α = 0.78) were developed using recommended methods and collected once on the Friday before the ESM surveys started. ESM data are hierarchically nested, therefore we tested our hypotheses using multilevel structural equation modeling with Mplus. Hourly full-time university employees (n = 50; 70.6% female, 84.3% white, mean age = 44 (SD = 11), 88.2% in full-time staff positions) with sedentary occupation types (time at desk while working ≥6 hours/day) participated. A total of 871 daily surveys were completed. Only perceived behavioral control (β = 0.45, p work-standing at the event-level (model fit: just fit); mediation through intention was not supported. This is the first study to examine theoretical antecedents of real-time work-standing in a naturalistic field setting among positive deviants. These relationships should be further examined, and behavioral intervention

  19. Theoretical Antecedents of Standing at Work: An Experience Sampling Approach Using the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Renée Umstattd Meyer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Time spent sitting has been associated with an increased risk of diabetes, cancer, obesity, and mental health impairments. However, 75% of Americans spend most of their days sitting, with work-sitting accounting for 63% of total daily sitting time. Little research examining theory-based antecedents of standing or sitting has been conducted. This lack of solid groundwork makes it difficult to design effective intervention strategies to decrease sitting behaviors. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB as our theoretical lens to better understand factors related with beneficial standing behaviors already being practiced, we examined relationships between TPB constructs and time spent standing at work among “positive deviants” (those successful in behavior change. Experience sampling methodology (ESM, 4 times a day (midmorning, before lunch, afternoon, and before leaving work for 5 consecutive workdays (Monday to Friday, was used to assess employees’ standing time. TPB scales assessing attitude (α = 0.81–0.84, norms (α = 0.83, perceived behavioral control (α = 0.77, and intention (α = 0.78 were developed using recommended methods and collected once on the Friday before the ESM surveys started. ESM data are hierarchically nested, therefore we tested our hypotheses using multilevel structural equation modeling with Mplus. Hourly full-time university employees (n = 50; 70.6% female, 84.3% white, mean age = 44 (SD = 11, 88.2%in full-time staff positions with sedentary occupation types (time at desk while working ≥6 hours/day participated. A total of 871 daily surveys were completed. Only perceived behavioral control (β = 0.45, p < 0.05 was related with work-standing at the event-level (model fit: just fit; mediation through intention was not supported. This is the first study to examine theoretical antecedents of real-time work-standing in a naturalistic field setting among positive deviants. These relationships should be further

  20. On the electric dipole moments of small sodium clusters from different theoretical approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguado, Andres, E-mail: aguado@metodos.fam.cie.uva.es [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica, y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid (Spain); Largo, Antonio, E-mail: alargo@qf.uva.es [Departamento de Quimica Fisica y Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Valladolid (Spain); Vega, Andres, E-mail: vega@fta.uva.es [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica, y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid (Spain); Balbas, Luis Carlos, E-mail: balbas@fta.uva.es [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica, y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid (Spain)

    2012-05-03

    Graphical abstract: The dipole moments and polarizabilities of a few isomers of sodium clusters of selected sizes (n = 13, 14, 16) are calculated using density functional theory methods as well as ab initio MP2, CASSCF, and MR-CI methods. Among the density functional approaches, we consider the usual local density and generalized gradient approximations, as well as a recent van der Waals self-consistent functional accounting for non-local dispersion interactions. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dipole moment and polarizability of sodium clusters from DFT and ab initio methods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New van der Waals selfconsistent implementation of non-local dispersion interactions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New starting isomeric geometries from extensive search of global minimum structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good agreement with recent experiments at cryogenic temperatures. - Abstract: The dipole moments of Na{sub n} clusters in the size range 10 < n < 20, recently measured at very low temperature (20 K), are much smaller than predicted by standard density functional methods. On the other hand, the calculated static dipole polarizabilities in that range of sizes deviate non-systematically from the measured ones, depending on the employed first principles approach. In this work we calculate the dipole moments and polarizabilities of a few isomers of Na{sub n} clusters of selected sizes (n = 13, 14, 16), obtained recently through an extensive unbiased search of the global minimum structures, and using density functional theory methods as well as ab initio MP2, CASSCF, and MR-CI methods. Among the density functional approaches, we consider the usual local density and generalized gradient approximations, as well as a recent van der Waals self-consistent functional accounting for non-local dispersion interactions. Both non-local pseudopotentials and all-electron implementations are employed and compared in order to assess the possible

  1. Environmental Policy and Technology Diffusion under Imperfect Competition. An Evolutionary Game Theoretical Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vries, F.P.

    2003-05-01

    The analysis of the thesis centers around the diffusion incentives of different environmental policy instruments. Emission taxation, subsidies per unit of emission reduction, marketable emission permits and marketable emission credits will be discussed and compared to each other on how they affect the diffusion of an environmentally benign technology. The analysis is conducted within an applied evolutionary game theoretical framework. An extensive discussion of evolutionary game theory can be found in chapter 2. Chapter 3 reviews classical diffusion models: the epidemic, probit and classic game theoretical model. Then we shift our attention to general evolutionary diffusion models, followed by an outline of the use of evolutionary game theory as a tool for analyzing technology diffusion. The purpose of the chapter is to illustrate the main differences between the various models. Relevant parts of economic theory are reviewed in chapters 4 and 5. Chapter 4 contains a survey and interpretive assessment of the current literature dealing with the impact of environmental policy instruments on the adoption and diffusion of a pollution abatement technology. The chapter illustrates and criticizes the static character of the most influential models. In chapter 2 it will become apparent that an evolutionary analysis is quite appealing when markets axe characterized by perfect competition. Enhanced competitiveness forces firms to produce efficiently in order to avoid elimination. However, in imperfect competitive markets competition is limited to only a small number of firms. Since the central market structure in this thesis is that of imperfect competition, chapter 5 examines the literature on evolutionary game models applied to these type of markets. The survey reveals that the literature focuses on determining whether the evolutionary game models generate output equilibria identical to the traditional static Cournot and Bertrand models or to other output levels. Chapter 6

  2. Theoretical Prediction of Melting Relations in the Deep Mantle: the Phase Diagram Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, D.; Ottonello, G. A.; Vetuschi Zuccolini, M.; Attene, M.

    2016-12-01

    Despite the outstanding progress in computer technology and experimental facilities, understanding melting phase relations in the deep mantle is still an open challenge. In this work a novel computational scheme to predict melting relations at HP-HT by a combination of first principles DFT calculations, polymer chemistry and equilibrium thermodynamics is presented and discussed. The adopted theoretical framework is physically-consistent and allows to compute multi-component phase diagrams relevant to Earth's deep interior in a broad range of P-T conditions by a convex-hull algorithm for Gibbs free energy minimisation purposely developed for high-rank simplexes. The calculated phase diagrams are in turn used as a source of information to gain new insights on the P-T-X evolution of magmas in the deep mantle, providing some thermodynamic constraints to both present-day and early Earth melting processes. High-pressure melting curves of mantle silicates are also obtained as by-product of phase diagram calculation. Application of the above method to the MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 (MAS) ternary system highlights as pressure effects are not only able to change the nature of melting of some minerals (like olivine and pyroxene) from eutectic to peritectic (and vice versa), but also simplify melting relations by drastically reducing the number of phases with a primary phase field at HP-HT conditions. It turns out that mineral phases like Majorite-Pyrope garnet and Anhydrous Phase B (Mg14Si5O24), which are often disregarded in modelling melting processes of mantle assemblages, are stable phases at solidus or liquidus conditions in a P-T range compatible with the mantle transition zone (i.e. P = 16 - 23 GPa and T = 2200 - 2700 °C) when their thermodynamic and thermophysical properties are properly assessed. Financial support to the Senior Author (D.B.) during his stay as Invited Scientist at the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (IPGP, Paris) is warmly acknowledged.

  3. Translation as secondary communication. The relevance theory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ernst-August Gutt started one of the greatest translation debates of the past ten years when he suggested that relevance theory holds the key to providing a unified account of translation. The bulk of the debate has been between practitioners of functional equivalence and advocates of a relevance theoretic approach to ...

  4. A Game Theoretic Approach for Improving Environmental and Economic Performance in a Dual-Channel Green Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin Ma

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate economic performance and environmental performance of a dual-channel green supply chain (GSC. Given that most relevant literature still focus on the descriptive aspect of GSC, we adopt game theoretic approach rather than qualitative analysis method to address the following problems: (1 How can the integration of environmental and economic sustainability goals be achieved in GSC? (2 What is the impact of customer environmental awareness on the green level and profitability of the GSC? (3 How does the market demand changes in the presence of the online direct channel in addition to the traditional one? We establish four game models, which are decentralized scenario, centralized scenario, retailer-led revenue-sharing scenario and bargaining revenue-sharing scenario. In the decentralized scenario, participants in a GSC make individual decisions based on their specific interests. In the centralized scenario, the GSC is regarded as a whole and the participants make collective decisions to maximize the overall profit of the GSC. In addition, in the two revenue-sharing scenarios, revenue-sharing contracts as the important profit coordination systems are set up and the revenue-sharing ratio is determined either by the retailer or through bargaining. Moreover, the cost of green product research and development, customer environmental awareness and price sensitivity are also taken into account in the four scenarios. By comparing and analyzing the four game models, we recommend the two revenue-sharing scenarios as the optimum choice and improving green awareness as a feasible strategy to achieve the integration of economic and environmental goals of the GSC. Additionally, we find that online sales has become a major distribution channel of the GSC.

  5. Functionally relevant climate variables for arid lands: Aclimatic water deficit approach for modelling desert shrub distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas E. Dilts; Peter J. Weisberg; Camie M. Dencker; Jeanne C. Chambers

    2015-01-01

    We have three goals. (1) To develop a suite of functionally relevant climate variables for modelling vegetation distribution on arid and semi-arid landscapes of the Great Basin, USA. (2) To compare the predictive power of vegetation distribution models based on mechanistically proximate factors (water deficit variables) and factors that are more mechanistically removed...

  6. A Parallel Relational Database Management System Approach to Relevance Feedback in Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Carol; Frieder, Ophir; Holmes, David O.; Grossman, David

    1999-01-01

    Describes a scalable, parallel, relational database-drive information retrieval engine. To support portability across a wide range of execution environments, all algorithms adhere to the SQL-92 standard. By incorporating relevance feedback algorithms, accuracy is enhanced over prior database-driven information retrieval efforts. Presents…

  7. Theoretical Antecedents of Standing at Work: An Experience Sampling Approach Using the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M. Renée Umstattd; Wu, Cindy; Walsh, Shana M.

    2016-01-01

    Time spent sitting has been associated with an increased risk of diabetes, cancer, obesity, and mental health impairments. However, 75% of Americans spend most of their days sitting, with work-sitting accounting for 63% of total daily sitting time. Little research examining theory-based antecedents of standing or sitting has been conducted. This lack of solid groundwork makes it difficult to design effective intervention strategies to decrease sitting behaviors. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as our theoretical lens to better understand factors related with beneficial standing behaviors already being practiced, we examined relationships between TPB constructs and time spent standing at work among “positive deviants” (those successful in behavior change). Experience sampling methodology (ESM), 4 times a day (midmorning, before lunch, afternoon, and before leaving work) for 5 consecutive workdays (Monday to Friday), was used to assess employees' standing time. TPB scales assessing attitude (α = 0.81–0.84), norms (α = 0.83), perceived behavioral control (α = 0.77), and intention (α = 0.78) were developed using recommended methods and collected once on the Friday before the ESM surveys started. ESM data are hierarchically nested, therefore we tested our hypotheses using multilevel structural equation modeling with Mplus. Hourly full-time university employees (n = 50; 70.6% female, 84.3% white, mean age = 44 (SD = 11), 88.2% in full-time staff positions) with sedentary occupation types (time at desk while working ≥6 hours/day) participated. A total of 871 daily surveys were completed. Only perceived behavioral control (β = 0.45, p deviance approach to enhance perceived behavioral control, in addition to implementing environmental changes like installing standing desks. PMID:29546189

  8. Theoretical Approaches in the Context of Spatial Planning Decisions and the Relation with Urban Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumlu, Kadriye Burcu Yavuz; Tüdeş, Şule

    2017-10-01

    The sustainability agenda has maintained its importance since the days, when the production system took its capitalist form, as well as the population in the urban areas started to rise. Increasing number of both goods and the people have caused the degradation of the certain systems, which generate the urban areas. These systems could mainly be classified as social, environmental, physical and economical systems. Today, urban areas still have difficulty to protect those systems, due to the significant demand of the population. Therefore, studies related with the sustainable issues are significant in the sense of continuity of the urban systems. Therefore, in this paper, those studies in the context of the effects of physical decisions taken in the spatial planning process on urban sustainability, will be examined. The components of the physical decisions are limited to land use, density and design. Land use decisions will be examined in the context of mixed land use. On the other hand, decisions related with density will be analyzed in the sense of population density and floor area ratio (FAR). Besides, design decisions will be examined, by linking them with neighborhood design criteria. Additionally, the term of urban sustainability will only be limited to its social and environmental contexts in this study. Briefly stated, studies in the sustainable literature concerned with the effects of land use, density and design decisions taken in the spatial planning process on the social and environmental sustainability will be examined in this paper. After the compilation and the analyze of those studies, a theoretical approach will be proposed to determine social and environmental sustainability in the context of land use, density and design decisions, taken in the spatial planning process.

  9. A novel approach for absolute radar calibration: formulation and theoretical validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Merker

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical framework of a novel approach for absolute radar calibration is presented and its potential analysed by means of synthetic data to lay out a solid basis for future practical application. The method presents the advantage of an absolute calibration with respect to the directly measured reflectivity, without needing a previously calibrated reference device. It requires a setup comprising three radars: two devices oriented towards each other, measuring reflectivity along the same horizontal beam and operating within a strongly attenuated frequency range (e.g. K or X band, and one vertical reflectivity and drop size distribution (DSD profiler below this connecting line, which is to be calibrated. The absolute determination of the calibration factor is based on attenuation estimates. Using synthetic, smooth and geometrically idealised data, calibration is found to perform best using homogeneous precipitation events with rain rates high enough to ensure a distinct attenuation signal (reflectivity above ca. 30 dBZ. Furthermore, the choice of the interval width (in measuring range gates around the vertically pointing radar, needed for attenuation estimation, is found to have an impact on the calibration results. Further analysis is done by means of synthetic data with realistic, inhomogeneous precipitation fields taken from measurements. A calibration factor is calculated for each considered case using the presented method. Based on the distribution of the calculated calibration factors, the most probable value is determined by estimating the mode of a fitted shifted logarithmic normal distribution function. After filtering the data set with respect to rain rate and inhomogeneity and choosing an appropriate length of the considered attenuation path, the estimated uncertainty of the calibration factor is of the order of 1 to 11 %, depending on the chosen interval width. Considering stability and accuracy of the method, an interval of

  10. Nanoparticle dispersion in environmentally relevant culture media: a TiO2 case study and considerations for a general approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horst, Allison M.; Ji, Zhaoxia; Holden, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticle exposure in toxicity studies requires that nanoparticles are bioavailable by remaining highly dispersed in culture media. However, reported dispersion approaches are variable, mostly study-specific, and not transferable owing to their empirical basis. Furthermore, many published approaches employ proteinaceous dispersants in rich laboratory media, both of which represent end members in environmental scenarios. Here, a systematic approach was developed to disperse initially agglomerated TiO 2 nanoparticles (Aeroxide® TiO 2 P25, Evonik, NJ; primary particle size range 6.4–73.8 nm) in oligotrophic culture medium for environmentally relevant bacterial toxicity studies. Based on understanding particle–particle interactions in aqueous media and maintaining environmental relevance, the approach involves (1) quantifying the relationship between pH and zeta potential to determine the point of zero charge of select nanoparticles in water; (2) nominating, then testing and selecting, environmentally relevant stabilizing agents; and (3) dispersing via “condition and capture” whereby stock dry powder nanoparticles are sonicated in pre-conditioned (with base, or acid, plus stabilizing agent) water, then diluted into culture media. The “condition and capture” principle is transferable to other nanoparticle and media chemistries: simultaneously, mechanically and electrostatically, nanoparticles can be dispersed with surrounding stabilizers that coat and sterically hinder reagglomeration in the culture medium.

  11. Dynamic flow-through approaches for metal fractionation in environmentally relevant solid samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald; Chomchoei, Roongrat

    2005-01-01

    generations of flow-injection analysis. Special attention is also paid to a novel, robust, non-invasive approach for on-site continuous sampling of soil solutions, capitalizing on flow-through microdialysis, which presents itself as an appealing complementary approach to the conventional lysimeter experiments...

  12. Exploring SiSn as a performance enhancing semiconductor: A theoretical and experimental approach

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.; Singh, Nirpendra; Fahad, Hossain M.; Rader, Kelly; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel semiconducting alloy, silicon-tin (SiSn), as channel material for complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuit applications. The material has been studied theoretically using first principles analysis as well

  13. COMPLEMENTARY APPROACHES TO THE DETERMINATION OF ARSENIC SPECIES RELEVANT TO CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion-exchange chromatography is the most often used analytical approach for arsenicspeciation, due to the weak-acid nature of several of its species. However, no singletechnique can determine all potentially occurring arsenic species, especially in complexe...

  14. "What is relevant in a text document?": An interpretable machine learning approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Arras

    Full Text Available Text documents can be described by a number of abstract concepts such as semantic category, writing style, or sentiment. Machine learning (ML models have been trained to automatically map documents to these abstract concepts, allowing to annotate very large text collections, more than could be processed by a human in a lifetime. Besides predicting the text's category very accurately, it is also highly desirable to understand how and why the categorization process takes place. In this paper, we demonstrate that such understanding can be achieved by tracing the classification decision back to individual words using layer-wise relevance propagation (LRP, a recently developed technique for explaining predictions of complex non-linear classifiers. We train two word-based ML models, a convolutional neural network (CNN and a bag-of-words SVM classifier, on a topic categorization task and adapt the LRP method to decompose the predictions of these models onto words. Resulting scores indicate how much individual words contribute to the overall classification decision. This enables one to distill relevant information from text documents without an explicit semantic information extraction step. We further use the word-wise relevance scores for generating novel vector-based document representations which capture semantic information. Based on these document vectors, we introduce a measure of model explanatory power and show that, although the SVM and CNN models perform similarly in terms of classification accuracy, the latter exhibits a higher level of explainability which makes it more comprehensible for humans and potentially more useful for other applications.

  15. Integrated approaches for assessment of cellular performance in industrially relevant filamantous fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Workman, Mhairi; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Thykær, Jette

    2013-01-01

    The performance of filamentous fungi in submerged cultivation determines their suitability for large-scale industrial biotechnology processes and is the result of complex interplay between the physical and chemical parameters of the process and the cellular biology of the fungi. Filamentous fungi...... of these organisms. Increased future focus on multicellular physiology and relevant assays will lead to fungal cells and processes that are customizable to a greater degree, finally allowing the full potential of these complex organisms and their product diversity to unfold....

  16. Culturally relevant science: An approach to math science education for Hispanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montellano, B.O. de

    1996-11-14

    This report describes later stages of a program to develop culturally relevant science and math programs for Hispanic students. Part of this effort was follow-up with 17 teachers who participated in early stages of the program. Response was not very good. Included with the report is a first draft effort for curriculum materials which could be used as is in such a teaching effort. Several of the participating teachers were invited to a writing workshop, where lesson plans were drafted, and critiqued and following rework are listed in this publication. Further work needs to be completed and is ongoing.

  17. Aperture Array Photonic Metamaterials: Theoretical approaches, numerical techniques and a novel application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansey, Eli

    Optical or photonic metamaterials that operate in the infrared and visible frequency regimes show tremendous promise for solving problems in renewable energy, infrared imaging, and telecommunications. However, many of the theoretical and simulation techniques used at lower frequencies are not applicable to this higher-frequency regime. Furthermore, technological and financial limitations of photonic metamaterial fabrication increases the importance of reliable theoretical models and computational techniques for predicting the optical response of photonic metamaterials. This thesis focuses on aperture array metamaterials. That is, a rectangular, circular, or other shaped cavity or hole embedded in, or penetrating through a metal film. The research in the first portion of this dissertation reflects our interest in developing a fundamental, theoretical understanding of the behavior of light's interaction with these aperture arrays, specifically regarding enhanced optical transmission. We develop an approximate boundary condition for metals at optical frequencies, and a comprehensive, analytical explanation of the physics underlying this effect. These theoretical analyses are augmented by computational techniques in the second portion of this thesis, used both for verification of the theoretical work, and solving more complicated structures. Finally, the last portion of this thesis discusses the results from designing, fabricating and characterizing a light-splitting metamaterial.

  18. Breaking the theoretical scaling limit for predicting quasiparticle energies: the stochastic GW approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhauser, Daniel; Gao, Yi; Arntsen, Christopher; Karshenas, Cyrus; Rabani, Eran; Baer, Roi

    2014-08-15

    We develop a formalism to calculate the quasiparticle energy within the GW many-body perturbation correction to the density functional theory. The occupied and virtual orbitals of the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian are replaced by stochastic orbitals used to evaluate the Green function G, the polarization potential W, and, thereby, the GW self-energy. The stochastic GW (sGW) formalism relies on novel theoretical concepts such as stochastic time-dependent Hartree propagation, stochastic matrix compression, and spatial or temporal stochastic decoupling techniques. Beyond the theoretical interest, the formalism enables linear scaling GW calculations breaking the theoretical scaling limit for GW as well as circumventing the need for energy cutoff approximations. We illustrate the method for silicon nanocrystals of varying sizes with N_{e}>3000 electrons.

  19. Goal setting in psychotherapy: the relevance of approach and avoidance goals for treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollburg, Eileen; Braukhaus, Christoph

    2010-07-01

    The present study is the first aimed at investigating the influence of goal definition on treatment outcome in a sample of depressed patients. Data from 657 inpatients admitted to a psychosomatic clinic in Germany being treated in a cognitive-behavioral therapy program were analyzed. Treatment goals were identified as either approach or avoidance, and the sample was classified accordingly. Patients who identified approach goals only were placed in the approach group, and those who identified at least one avoidance goal were placed in the avoidance group. Results showed that framing goals using avoidance terms was associated with less symptomatic improvement but did not affect goal attainment. Findings from this research should be utilized in practice not only for process management such as individual treatment planning but also to control outcome quality. Furthermore, goal definition should be considered as a control variable in research on depression.

  20. Advancing Lie Detection by Inducing Cognitive Load on Liars: A Review of Relevant Theories and Techniques Guided by Lessons from Polygraph-Based Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczyk, Jeffrey J.; Igou, Frank P.; Dixon, Alexa P.; Tcholakian, Talar

    2013-01-01

    This article critically reviews techniques and theories relevant to the emerging field of “lie detection by inducing cognitive load selectively on liars.” To help these techniques benefit from past mistakes, we start with a summary of the polygraph-based Controlled Question Technique (CQT) and the major criticisms of it made by the National Research Council (2003), including that it not based on a validated theory and administration procedures have not been standardized. Lessons from the more successful Guilty Knowledge Test are also considered. The critical review that follows starts with the presentation of models and theories offering insights for cognitive lie detection that can undergird theoretically load-inducing approaches. This is followed by evaluation of specific research-based, load-inducing proposals, especially for their susceptibility to rehearsal and other countermeasures. To help organize these proposals and suggest new direction for innovation and refinement, a theoretical taxonomy is presented based on the type of cognitive load induced in examinees (intrinsic or extraneous) and how open-ended the responses to test items are. Finally, four recommendations are proffered that can help researchers and practitioners to avert the corresponding mistakes with the CQT and yield new, valid cognitive lie detection technologies. PMID:23378840

  1. An information-theoretic machine learning approach to expression QTL analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Huang

    Full Text Available Expression Quantitative Trait Locus (eQTL analysis is a powerful tool to study the biological mechanisms linking the genotype with gene expression. Such analyses can identify genomic locations where genotypic variants influence the expression of genes, both in close proximity to the variant (cis-eQTL, and on other chromosomes (trans-eQTL. Many traditional eQTL methods are based on a linear regression model. In this study, we propose a novel method by which to identify eQTL associations with information theory and machine learning approaches. Mutual Information (MI is used to describe the association between genetic marker and gene expression. MI can detect both linear and non-linear associations. What's more, it can capture the heterogeneity of the population. Advanced feature selection methods, Maximum Relevance Minimum Redundancy (mRMR and Incremental Feature Selection (IFS, were applied to optimize the selection of the affected genes by the genetic marker. When we applied our method to a study of apoE-deficient mice, it was found that the cis-acting eQTLs are stronger than trans-acting eQTLs but there are more trans-acting eQTLs than cis-acting eQTLs. We compared our results (mRMR.eQTL with R/qtl, and MatrixEQTL (modelLINEAR and modelANOVA. In female mice, 67.9% of mRMR.eQTL results can be confirmed by at least two other methods while only 14.4% of R/qtl result can be confirmed by at least two other methods. In male mice, 74.1% of mRMR.eQTL results can be confirmed by at least two other methods while only 18.2% of R/qtl result can be confirmed by at least two other methods. Our methods provide a new way to identify the association between genetic markers and gene expression. Our software is available from supporting information.

  2. Field theoretical approach to proton-nucleus reactions. I - One step inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiras, A.; Kodama, T.; Nemes, M.C.

    1988-01-01

    In this work we obtain a closed form expression to the double differential cross section for one step proton-nucleus reaction within a field theoretical framework. Energy and momentum conservation as well as nuclear structure effects are consistently taken into account within the field theoretical eikonal approximation. In our formulation the kinematics of such reaction is not dominated by the free nucleon-nucleon cross section but a new factor which we call relativistic differential cross section in a Born Approximation. (author) [pt

  3. A short course in quantum information theory. An approach from theoretical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diosi, L.

    2007-01-01

    This short and concise primer takes the vantage point of theoretical physics and the unity of physics. It sets out to strip the burgeoning field of quantum information science to its basics by linking it to universal concepts in physics. An extensive lecture rather than a comprehensive textbook, this volume is based on courses delivered over several years to advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students, but essentially it addresses anyone with a working knowledge of basic quantum physics. Readers will find these lectures a most adequate entry point for theoretical studies in this field. (orig.)

  4. Culturally relevant science: An approach to math science education for hispanics. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montellano, B.O. de

    1996-11-14

    This progress report summarizes results of a teacher workshop. A letter sent to 17 teachers who had participated in the workshop requested a report of any activities undertaken and copies of lesson plans and materials developed. Only nine responses were received, and not all of them demonstrated a satisfactory level of activity. Teachers who submitted materials showing the most promise were invited to participate in the Summer Writing Workshop. A partial first draft of a companion volume for the teacher`s manual was written which provides a rationale for culturally relevant science and presents the cultural and scientific background needed. The outline of the book is presented in Appendix 1. Appendix 2 is a sample chapter from the book.

  5. A generalized approach to wheat yield forecasting using earth observations: Data considerations, application and relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker-Reshef, Inbal

    In recent years there has been a dramatic increase in the demand for timely, comprehensive global agricultural intelligence. The issue of food security has rapidly risen to the top of government agendas around the world as the recent lack of food access led to unprecedented food prices, hunger, poverty, and civil conflict. Timely information on global crop production is indispensable for combating the growing stress on the world's crop production, for stabilizing food prices, developing effective agricultural policies, and for coordinating responses to regional food shortages. Earth Observations (EO) data offer a practical means for generating such information as they provide global, timely, cost-effective, and synoptic information on crop condition and distribution. Their utility for crop production forecasting has long been recognized and demonstrated across a wide range of scales and geographic regions. Nevertheless it is widely acknowledged that EO data could be better utilized within the operational monitoring systems and thus there is a critical need for research focused on developing practical robust methods for agricultural monitoring. Within this context this dissertation focused on advancing EO-based methods for crop yield forecasting and on demonstrating the potential relevance for adopting EO-based crop forecasts for providing timely reliable agricultural intelligence. This thesis made contributions to this field by developing and testing a robust EO-based method for wheat production forecasting at state to national scales using available and easily accessible data. The model was developed in Kansas (KS) using coarse resolution normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) time series data in conjunction with out-of-season wheat masks and was directly applied in Ukraine to assess its transferability. The model estimated yields within 7% in KS and 10% in Ukraine of final estimates 6 weeks prior to harvest. The relevance of adopting such methods to

  6. Culturally relevant science: An approach to math science education for Hispanics. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz de Montellano, B.

    1996-11-14

    As planned a letter was sent out to 17 teachers who had participated in a Summer 1994 workshop on ``Culturally Relevant Science for Hispanics`` at Michigan State. These teachers were supposed to have spent the intervening time developing lesson plans and curricula. The letter requested a report of any activities undertaken and copies of lesson plans and materials developed by February 1996 with a stipend of $400 for satisfactory reports. It was a disappointment to only get 9 responses and not all of them demonstrating a satisfactory level of activity. Diana Marinez, Dean of Science at Texas A and M University, Corpus Christi, who is the other developer of this curriculum and the author reviewed the submitted materials and chose those showing the most promise to be invited to participate in the Summer Writing Workshop. Spring of 1996 and particularly in May--June, the author wrote a partial first draft of a companion volume for the teacher`s manual which would provide a rationale for doing culturally relevant science, present the cultural and the scientific background that teachers would need in order to be able to teach. One of the goals of this curriculum is that it should be off-the-shelf ready to teach and that teachers would not have to do extra research to encourage its adoption. The outline of the book is appendix 1. The Writing Workshop was held at Texas A and M University, Corpus Christi from July 14 to July 27, 1996. Participating teachers chose topics that they were interested in developing and wrote first drafts. These were distributed to all participants and critiqued by the workshop directors before being rewritten. Some teachers were more productive than others depending on their science background. In total an impressive number of lesson plans were written. These lesson plans are listed in Appendix 3. Appendix 4 is a sample lesson. Work still needs to be done on both the source book and the teachers` manual.

  7. Variations of endonasal anatomy: relevance for the endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindert, E.J. van; Ingels, K.J.A.O.; Mylanus, E.A.M.; Grotenhuis, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach (EETA) to the pituitary is performed by ear, nose, and throat (ENT) surgeons in collaboration with neurosurgeons but also by neurosurgeons alone even though neurosurgeons have not been trained in rhinological surgery. PURPOSE: To register

  8. A New Theoretical Approach to Postsecondary Student Disability: Disability-Diversity (Dis)Connect Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Katherine C.

    2016-01-01

    Disability is often viewed as an obstacle to postsecondary inclusion, but not a characteristic of student diversity. Additionally, current theoretical frameworks isolate disability from other student diversity characteristics. In response, a new conceptual framework, the Disability-Diversity (Dis)Connect Model (DDDM), was created to address…

  9. Studies of the tautomeric equilibrium of 1,3-thiazolidine-2-thione: Theoretical and experimental approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbehausen, Camilla; Paiva, Raphael E.F. de [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas - UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Formiga, Andre L.B., E-mail: formiga@iqm.unicamp.br [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas - UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Corbi, Pedro P. [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas - UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tautomeric equilibrium in solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spectroscopic and theoretical studies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UV-Vis theoretical and experimental spectra. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {sup 1}H NMR theoretical and experimental spectra. -- Abstract: The tautomeric equilibrium of the thione/thiol forms of 1,3-thiazolidine-2-thione was studied by nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopies. Density functional theory was used to support the experimental data and indicates the predominance of the thione tautomer in the solid state, being in agreement with previously reported crystallographic data. In solution, the tautomeric equilibrium was evaluated using {sup 1}H NMR at different temperatures in four deuterated solvents acetonitrile, dimethylsulfoxide, chloroform and methanol. The equilibrium constants, K = (thiol)/(thione), and free Gibbs energies were obtained by integration of N bonded hydrogen signals at each temperature for each solvent, excluding methanol. The endothermic tautomerization is entropy-driven and the combined effect of solvent and temperature can be used to achieve almost 50% thiol concentrations in solution. The nature of the electronic transitions was investigated theoretically and the assignment of the bands was made using time-dependent DFT as well as the influence of solvent on the energy of the most important bands of the spectra.

  10. A theoretical perspective of the nature of hydrogen-bond types - the atoms in molecules approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pandiyan, B. V.; Kolandaivel, P.; Deepa, Palanisamy

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 12 (2014), s. 1609-1623 ISSN 0026-8976 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : hydrogen bond * proton affinity * deprotanation enthalpy * atoms in molecules * chemical shift Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.720, year: 2014

  11. A Dialectical Approach to Theoretical Integration in Developmental-Contextual Identity Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Jayson; Sharp, Erin Hiley; Coppens, Andrew D.

    2017-01-01

    Future advances in identity research will depend on integration across major theoretical traditions. Developmental-contextualism has established essential criteria to guide this effort, including specifying the context of identity development, its timing over the life course, and its content. This article assesses 4 major traditions of identity…

  12. Between altruism and narcissism: An action theoretical approach of personal homepages devoted to existential meaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijmans, E.J.S.; Selm, M. van

    2002-01-01

    This article aims to examine existential meaning constructions from an action theoretical perspective in a specific Internet environment: the personal homepage. Personal homepages are on-line multi-media documents addressing the question Who am I? Authors of personal homepages provide information on

  13. A decision-theoretic approach to collaboration: Principal description methods and efficient heuristic approximations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliehoek, F.A.; Visser, A.; Babuška, R.; Groen, F.C.A

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the state of the art in decision-theoretic models to describe cooperation between multiple agents in a dynamic environment. Making (near-) optimal decisions in such settings gets harder when the number of agents grows or the uncertainty about the environment

  14. On the information-theoretic approach to G\\"odel's incompleteness theorem

    OpenAIRE

    D'Abramo, Germano

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we briefly review and analyze three published proofs of Chaitin's theorem, the celebrated information-theoretic version of G\\"odel's incompleteness theorem. Then, we discuss our main perplexity concerning a key step common to all these demonstrations.

  15. Theoretical study of molecular vibrations in electron momentum spectroscopy experiments on furan: An analytical versus a molecular dynamical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morini, Filippo; Deleuze, Michael S.; Watanabe, Noboru; Takahashi, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    The influence of thermally induced nuclear dynamics (molecular vibrations) in the initial electronic ground state on the valence orbital momentum profiles of furan has been theoretically investigated using two different approaches. The first of these approaches employs the principles of Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics, whereas the so-called harmonic analytical quantum mechanical approach resorts to an analytical decomposition of contributions arising from quantized harmonic vibrational eigenstates. In spite of their intrinsic differences, the two approaches enable consistent insights into the electron momentum distributions inferred from new measurements employing electron momentum spectroscopy and an electron impact energy of 1.2 keV. Both approaches point out in particular an appreciable influence of a few specific molecular vibrations of A 1 symmetry on the 9a 1 momentum profile, which can be unravelled from considerations on the symmetry characteristics of orbitals and their energy spacing

  16. Keeping research reactors relevant: A pro-active approach for SLOWPOKE-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosby, L.R.; Bennett, L.G.I.; Nielsen, K.; Weir, R.

    2010-01-01

    The SLOWPOKE is a small, inherently safe, pool-type research reactor that was engineered and marketed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) in the 1970s and 80s. The original reactor, SLOWPOKE-1, was moved from Chalk River to the University of Toronto in 1970 and was operated until upgraded to the SLOWPOKE-2 reactor in 1973. In all, eight reactors in the two versions were produced and five are still in operation today, three having been decommissioned. All of the remaining reactors are designated as SLOWPOKE-2 reactors. These research reactors are prone to two major issues: aging components and lack of relevance to a younger audience. In order to combat these problems, one SLOWPOKE -2 facility has embraced a strategy that involves modernizing their reactor in order to keep the reactor up to date and relevant. In 2001, this facility replaced its aging analogue reactor control system with a digital control system. The system was successfully commissioned and has provided a renewed platform for student learning and research. The digital control system provides a better interface and allows flexibility in data storage and retrieval that was never possible with the analogue control system. This facility has started work on another upgrade to the digital control and instrumentation system that will be installed in 2010. The upgrade includes new computer hardware, updated software and a web-based simulation and training system that will allow licensed operators, students and researchers to use an online simulation tool for training, education and research. The tool consists of: 1) A dynamic simulation for reactor kinetics (e.g., core flux, power, core temperatures, etc). This tool is useful for operator training and student education; 2) Dynamic mapping of the reactor and pool container gamma and neutron fluxes as well as the vertical neutron beam tube flux. This research planning tool is used for various researchers who wish to do irradiations (e.g., neutron

  17. Social marketing: approach to cultural and contextual relevance in a community-based physical activity intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Colleen; Vega-López, Sonia; Ainsworth, Barbara; Nagle-Williams, Allison; Records, Kathie; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean

    2014-01-01

    We report the social marketing strategies used for the design, recruitment and retention of participants in a community-based physical activity (PA) intervention, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health). The study example used to illustrate the use of social marketing is a 48-week prescribed walking program, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health), which tests a social support intervention to explore the effectiveness of a culturally specific program using ‘bouts’ of PA to effect the changes in body fat, fat tissue inflammation and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary Hispanic women. Using the guidelines from the National Benchmark Criteria, we developed intervention, recruitment and retention strategies that reflect efforts to draw on community values, traditions and customs in intervention design, through partnership with community members. Most of the women enrolled in Madres para la Salud were born in Mexico, largely never or unemployed and resided among the highest crime neighborhoods with poor access to resources. We developed recruitment and retention strategies that characterized social marketing strategies that employed a culturally relevant, consumer driven and problem-specific design. Cost and benefit of program participation, consumer-derived motivation and segmentation strategies considered the development transition of the young Latinas as well as cultural and neighborhood barriers that impacted retention are described. PMID:23002252

  18. Social marketing: approach to cultural and contextual relevance in a community-based physical activity intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Colleen; Vega-López, Sonia; Ainsworth, Barbara; Nagle-Williams, Allison; Records, Kathie; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean

    2014-03-01

    We report the social marketing strategies used for the design, recruitment and retention of participants in a community-based physical activity (PA) intervention, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health). The study example used to illustrate the use of social marketing is a 48-week prescribed walking program, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health), which tests a social support intervention to explore the effectiveness of a culturally specific program using 'bouts' of PA to effect the changes in body fat, fat tissue inflammation and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary Hispanic women. Using the guidelines from the National Benchmark Criteria, we developed intervention, recruitment and retention strategies that reflect efforts to draw on community values, traditions and customs in intervention design, through partnership with community members. Most of the women enrolled in Madres para la Salud were born in Mexico, largely never or unemployed and resided among the highest crime neighborhoods with poor access to resources. We developed recruitment and retention strategies that characterized social marketing strategies that employed a culturally relevant, consumer driven and problem-specific design. Cost and benefit of program participation, consumer-derived motivation and segmentation strategies considered the development transition of the young Latinas as well as cultural and neighborhood barriers that impacted retention are described.

  19. THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ON SOCIAL CONNECTIONS AMONG YOUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Alexandrovna Zverkova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The urgency is due to the virtualization of communication in modern society, especially among young people, affecting social relations and social support services. Stressed the need for a more in-depth study of network virtualization of social relations of society, due to the ambiguous consequences of this phenomenon among the youth.Purpose. Analyze classic and contemporary theoretical and methodological approaches to the study of social ties and social support in terms of technological progress.Results. The article presents a sociological analysis of theoretical and methodological approaches to the study of problems of interaction and social support among youth through strong and weak social ties in cyberspace and in the real world.Practical implications. The analysis gives the opportunity for a wide range of examining social relations in various fields of sociology, such as sociology of youth, sociology of communications.

  20. The current status of theoretically based approaches to the prediction of the critical heat flux in flow boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisman, J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the phenomena governing the critical heat flux in flow boiling. Inducts which vary with the flow pattern. Separate models are needed for dryout in annular flow, wall overheating in plug or slug flow and formation of a vapor blanket in dispersed flow. The major theories and their current status are described for the annular and dispersed regions. The need for development of the theoretical approach in the plug and slug flow region is indicated

  1. Theoretical analysis of two ACO approaches for the traveling salesman problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kötzing, Timo; Neumann, Frank; Röglin, Heiko

    2012-01-01

    Bioinspired algorithms, such as evolutionary algorithms and ant colony optimization, are widely used for different combinatorial optimization problems. These algorithms rely heavily on the use of randomness and are hard to understand from a theoretical point of view. This paper contributes...... to the theoretical analysis of ant colony optimization and studies this type of algorithm on one of the most prominent combinatorial optimization problems, namely the traveling salesperson problem (TSP). We present a new construction graph and show that it has a stronger local property than one commonly used...... for constructing solutions of the TSP. The rigorous runtime analysis for two ant colony optimization algorithms, based on these two construction procedures, shows that they lead to good approximation in expected polynomial time on random instances. Furthermore, we point out in which situations our algorithms get...

  2. ON THE APPLICATION OF PARTIAL BARRIERS FOR SPINNING MACHINE NOISE CONTROL: A THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Monazzam, A. Nezafat

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Noise is one of the most serious challenges in modern community. In some specific industries, according to the nature of process, this challenge is more threatening. This paper describes a means of noise control for spinning machine based on experimental measurements. Also advantages and disadvantages of the control procedure are added. Different factors which may affect the performance of the barrier in this situation are also mentioned. To provide a good estimation of the control measure, a theoretical formula is also described and it is compared with the field data. Good agreement between the results of filed measurements and theoretical presented model was achieved. No obvious noise reduction was seen by partial indoor barriers in low absorbent enclosed spaces, since the reflection from multiple hard surfaces is the main dominated factor in the tested environment. At the end, the situation of the environment and standards, which are necessary in attaining the ideal results, are explained.

  3. Exploring SiSn as a performance enhancing semiconductor: A theoretical and experimental approach

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.

    2014-12-14

    We present a novel semiconducting alloy, silicon-tin (SiSn), as channel material for complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuit applications. The material has been studied theoretically using first principles analysis as well as experimentally by fabricating MOSFETs. Our study suggests that the alloy offers interesting possibilities in the realm of silicon band gap tuning. We have explored diffusion of tin (Sn) into the industry\\'s most widely used substrate, silicon (100), as it is the most cost effective, scalable and CMOS compatible way of obtaining SiSn. Our theoretical model predicts a higher mobility for p-channel SiSn MOSFETs, due to a lower effective mass of the holes, which has been experimentally validated using the fabricated MOSFETs. We report an increase of 13.6% in the average field effect hole mobility for SiSn devices compared to silicon control devices.

  4. A novel game theoretic approach for modeling competitive information diffusion in social networks with heterogeneous nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha Mohammad Ali Kermani, Mehrdad; Fatemi Ardestani, Seyed Farshad; Aliahmadi, Alireza; Barzinpour, Farnaz

    2017-01-01

    Influence maximization deals with identification of the most influential nodes in a social network given an influence model. In this paper, a game theoretic framework is developed that models a competitive influence maximization problem. A novel competitive influence model is additionally proposed that incorporates user heterogeneity, message content, and network structure. The proposed game-theoretic model is solved using Nash Equilibrium in a real-world dataset. It is shown that none of the well-known strategies are stable and at least one player has the incentive to deviate from the proposed strategy. Moreover, violation of Nash equilibrium strategy by each player leads to their reduced payoff. Contrary to previous works, our results demonstrate that graph topology, as well as the nodes' sociability and initial tendency measures have an effect on the determination of the influential node in the network.

  5. A theoretical approach to dual practice regulations in the health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Paula; Macho-Stadler, Inés

    2013-01-01

    Internationally, there is wide cross-country heterogeneity in government responses to dual practice in the health sector. This paper provides a uniform theoretical framework to analyze and compare some of the most common regulations. We focus on three interventions: banning dual practice, offering rewarding contracts to public physicians, and limiting dual practice (including both limits to private earnings of dual providers and limits to involvement in private activities). An ancillary objective of the paper is to investigate whether regulations that are optimal for developed countries are adequate for developing countries as well. Our results offer theoretical support for the desirability of different regulations in different economic environments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. What happens in recessions? A value-theoretic approach to Liquidity Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Alan

    1998-01-01

    This paper develops the paper entitled ‘‘Time, the Value of Money and the Quantification of Value’ which was presented at the conference of the Middle East Technical University in September 1998. It presents the case for a value-theoretic treatment of liquidity preference in axiomatic form, based on a temporal analysis. It discusses why temporal analysis is universally excluded from economic discourse. It argues that economic thought is divided not by the schism between classical and marg...

  7. Towards a comprehensive theory for He II: II. A temperature-dependent field-theoretic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chela-Flores, J.; Ghassib, H.B.

    1982-09-01

    New experimental aspects of He II are used as a guide towards a comprehensive theory in which non-zero temperature U(1) and SU(2) gauge fields are incorporated into a gauge hierarchy of effective Lagrangians. We conjecture that an SU(n) gauge-theoretic description of the superfluidity of 4 He may be obtained in the limit n→infinity. We indicate, however, how experiments may be understood in the zeroth, first and second order of the hierarchy. (author)

  8. Defining and measuring blood donor altruism: a theoretical approach from biology, economics and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, R; Ferguson, E

    2014-02-01

    While blood donation is traditionally described as a behaviour motivated by pure altruism, the assessment of altruism in the blood donation literature has not been theoretically informed. Drawing on theories of altruism from psychology, economics and evolutionary biology, it is argued that a theoretically derived psychometric assessment of altruism is needed. Such a measure is developed in this study that can be used to help inform both our understanding of the altruistic motives of blood donors and recruitment intervention strategies. A cross-sectional survey (N = 414), with a 1-month behavioural follow-up (time 2, N = 77), was designed to assess theoretically derived constructs from psychological, economic and evolutionary biological theories of altruism. Theory of planned behaviour (TPB) variables and co-operation were also assessed at time 1 and a measure of behavioural co-operation at time 2. Five theoretical dimensions (impure altruism, kinship, self-regarding motives, reluctant altruism and egalitarian warm glow) of altruism were identified through factor analyses. These five altruistic motives differentiated blood donors from non-donors (donors scored higher on impure altruism and reluctant altruism), showed incremental validity over TPB constructs to predict donor intention and predicted future co-operative behaviour. These findings show that altruism in the context of blood donation is multifaceted and complex and, does not reflect pure altruism. This has implication for recruitment campaigns that focus solely on pure altruism. © 2013 The Authors. Vox Sanguinis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. on behalf of International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  9. THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO ASSESS THE IMPACT OF ADVERTISING ON CONSUMERS AND MARKET COMPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryna SOBOLIEVA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the article we examine theoretical perspectives on the impact of advertising on consumer behavior, entry barriers in the industry, the structure of the industry, the competitive behavior of firms and market power; systemic structure of the research of advertising impact on consumer behavior; analyze the main results of empirical studies of the effects of advertising on the competitive relationship in the market.

  10. THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO ASSESS THE IMPACT OF ADVERTISING ON CONSUMERS AND MARKET COMPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryna SOBOLIEVA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the article we examine theoretical perspectives on the impact of advertising on consumer behavior, entry barriers in the industry, the structure of the industry, the competitive behavior of firms and market power; systemize structure of the research of advertising impact on consumer behavior; analyze the main results of empirical studies of the effects of advertising on the competitive relationship in the market.

  11. Reliability of infarct volumetry: Its relevance and the improvement by a software-assisted approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedländer, Felix; Bohmann, Ferdinand; Brunkhorst, Max; Chae, Ju-Hee; Devraj, Kavi; Köhler, Yvette; Kraft, Peter; Kuhn, Hannah; Lucaciu, Alexandra; Luger, Sebastian; Pfeilschifter, Waltraud; Sadler, Rebecca; Liesz, Arthur; Scholtyschik, Karolina; Stolz, Leonie; Vutukuri, Rajkumar; Brunkhorst, Robert

    2017-08-01

    Despite the efficacy of neuroprotective approaches in animal models of stroke, their translation has so far failed from bench to bedside. One reason is presumed to be a low quality of preclinical study design, leading to bias and a low a priori power. In this study, we propose that the key read-out of experimental stroke studies, the volume of the ischemic damage as commonly measured by free-handed planimetry of TTC-stained brain sections, is subject to an unrecognized low inter-rater and test-retest reliability with strong implications for statistical power and bias. As an alternative approach, we suggest a simple, open-source, software-assisted method, taking advantage of automatic-thresholding techniques. The validity and the improvement of reliability by an automated method to tMCAO infarct volumetry are demonstrated. In addition, we show the probable consequences of increased reliability for precision, p-values, effect inflation, and power calculation, exemplified by a systematic analysis of experimental stroke studies published in the year 2015. Our study reveals an underappreciated quality problem in translational stroke research and suggests that software-assisted infarct volumetry might help to improve reproducibility and therefore the robustness of bench to bedside translation.

  12. Something new: a new approach to correcting theoretical emitted intensities for absorption effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, J.P.; Lachance, G.R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: For monochromatic incident radiation of wavelength λ, absorption only (no enhancement), and ignoring such effects as the absorption edge jump ratio, the fluorescence yield, and the probability that a Kα line will be emitted instead of a Kβ line, a simplified view of the theoretical emitted intensity of a characteristic line of element >i= from a layer in a specimen is given by a familiar equation which involves mass absorption coefficients. While this equation allows for the calculation of the theoretical emitted intensity, it is cumbersome to use when trying to explain X-ray excitation in a step-wise manner. It is therefore proposed that the mass attenuation coefficients (μ iλ , and the sum of μ sλ ' + μ sλi '' , in the numerator and denominator of this equation be replaced by the product of two coefficients correcting for absorption, namely aN H aO. The advantages of using the proposed equation in the stepwise calculation of theoretical intensities (in a similar manner to Monte Carlo calculations) will be discussed. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  13. Neutrosophic Game Theoretic Approach to Indo-Pak Conflict over Jammu-Kashmir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surapati Pramanik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the enduring conflict between India and Pakistan over Jammu and Kashmir since 1947. The ongoing conflict is analyzed as an enduring rivalry; characterized by three major wars (1947-48, 1965, 1971, low intensity military conflict (Siachen, mini war at Kargil (1999, internal insurgency, cross border terrorism. We examine the progress and the status of the dispute, as well as the dynamics of the India Pakistan relationship by considering the influence of USA and China in crisis dynamics. We discuss the possible solutions offered by the various study groups and persons. Most of the studies were done in crisp environment. Pramanik and Roy (S. Pramanik and T.K. Roy, Game theoretic model to the Jammu-Kashmir conflict between India and Pakistan. International Journal of Mathematical Archive (IJMA, 4(8 (2013, 162-170. studied game theoretic model toJammu and Kashmir conflict in crisp environment. In the present study we have extended the concept of the game theoric model of the Jammu and Kashmir conflict in neutrosophic envirorment. We have explored the possibilities and developed arguments for an application of principle of neutrosophic game theory to understand properly of the Jammu and Kashmir conflict in terms of goals and strategy of either side. Standard 2×2 zero-sum game theoretic model used to identify an optimal solution.

  14. δ-Cut Decision-Theoretic Rough Set Approach: Model and Attribute Reductions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengrong Ju

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision-theoretic rough set is a quite useful rough set by introducing the decision cost into probabilistic approximations of the target. However, Yao’s decision-theoretic rough set is based on the classical indiscernibility relation; such a relation may be too strict in many applications. To solve this problem, a δ-cut decision-theoretic rough set is proposed, which is based on the δ-cut quantitative indiscernibility relation. Furthermore, with respect to criterions of decision-monotonicity and cost decreasing, two different algorithms are designed to compute reducts, respectively. The comparisons between these two algorithms show us the following: (1 with respect to the original data set, the reducts based on decision-monotonicity criterion can generate more rules supported by the lower approximation region and less rules supported by the boundary region, and it follows that the uncertainty which comes from boundary region can be decreased; (2 with respect to the reducts based on decision-monotonicity criterion, the reducts based on cost minimum criterion can obtain the lowest decision costs and the largest approximation qualities. This study suggests potential application areas and new research trends concerning rough set theory.

  15. A Methodological Demonstration of Set-theoretical Approach to Social Media Maturity Models Using Necessary Condition Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi; Andersen, Kim Normann

    2016-01-01

    Despite being widely accepted and applied across research domains, maturity models have been criticized for lacking academic rigor, especially methodologically rigorous and empirically grounded or tested maturity models are quite rare. Attempting to close this gap, we adopt a set-theoretic approach...... and evaluate some of arguments presented by previous conceptual focused social media maturity models....... by applying the Necessary Condition Analysis (NCA) technique to derive maturity stages and stage boundaries conditions. The ontology is to view stages (boundaries) in maturity models as a collection of necessary condition. Using social media maturity data, we demonstrate the strength of our approach...

  16. Tobacco and diabetes: clinical relevance and approach to smoking cessation in diabetic smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Zubizarreta, Marco; Hernández Mezquita, Miguel Ángel; Miralles García, José Manuel; Barrueco Ferrero, Miguel

    2017-04-01

    Smoking is, together with diabetes mellitus, one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Diabetic patients have unique features and characteristics, some of which are not well known, that cause smoking to aggravate the effects of diabetes and impose difficulties in the smoking cessation process, for which a specificand more intensive approach with stricter controls is required. This review details all aspects with a known influence on the interaction between smoking and diabetes, both as regards the increased risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications of diabetes and the factors with an impact on the results of smoking cessation programs. The treatment guidelines for these smokers, including the algorithms and drug treatment patterns which have proved most useful based on scientific evidence, are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Experimental and theoretical characterization of adsorbed water on self-assembled monolayers: Understanding the interaction of water with atmospherically relevant surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moussa, S. G.; McIntire, T. M.; Szöri, Milan; Roeselová, Martina; Tobias, D. J.; Grimm, R. L.; Hemminger, J. C.; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 10 (2009), s. 2060-2069 ISSN 1089-5639 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/06/1488; GA MŠk LC512; GA MŠk 1P05ME798 Grant - others:NSF(US) 0431312 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : molecular dynamics * hydrophobic * hydrophilic Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.899, year: 2009

  18. ANALYSIS OF THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO DESIGN OF ELECTRONIC TEXTBOOKS FOR STUDENTS OF HIGHER AGRICULTURAL EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Yu. Balalaieva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with theoretical and methodological approaches to the design of electronic textbook, in particular systems, competence, activity, personality oriented, technological one, that in complex reflect the general trends in the formation of a new educational paradigm, distinctive features of which lie in constructing the heuristic searching model of the learning process, focusing on developmental teaching, knowledge integration, skills development for the independent information search and processing, technification of the learning process. The approach in this study is used in a broad sense as a synthesis of the basic ideas, views, principles that determine the overall research strategy. The main provisions of modern approaches to design are not antagonistic, they should be applied in a complex, taking into account the advantages of each of them and leveling shortcomings for the development of optimal concept of electronic textbook. The model of electronic textbook designing and components of methodology for its using based on these approaches are described.

  19. Dystonic pattern in a fibromyalgia patient: relevance of a biopsychosocial rehabilitation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prist, V; De Wilde, V-A; Masquelier, E

    2012-04-01

    We present the complex case of a 49-year-old woman who worked as a cook in a school cafeteria and has been suffering from widespread pain since 2002. This patient showed a very particular gait pattern with hips adduction, flexed hips and knees and bilateral equinus foot deformity. Clinical examinations conducted by various clinicians, such as physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R) physicians and neurologists, yielded very different diagnostic hypotheses, each being nevertheless quite "logical": fibromyalgia syndrome with dystonia, CNS injury, Little's disease, intramedullary spinal cord tumor or multiple sclerosis. The only abnormalities observed occurred during the quantitative sensory test presenting as severe widespread allodynia to cold and hot temperatures and during Laser Evoked Potentials shown as a dysfunctional pattern for central processing of nociceptive data. Gait analysis showed that parameters were in the norms. Considering these different tests and the excellent progression of the patient's gait and general posture, we must envision that the fibromyalgia syndrome hypothesis remained the most likely one. The generalized dystonia was probably due to the patient's analgesic protective attitude. The actual therapy is still based on the biopsychosocial approach. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Approaching the theoretical capacitance of graphene through copper foam integrated three-dimensional graphene networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dey, Ramendra Sundar; Hjuler, Hans Aage; Chi, Qijin

    2015-01-01

    We report a facile and low-cost approach for the preparation of all-in-one supercapacitor electrodes using copper foam (CuF) integrated three-dimensional (3D) reduced graphene oxide (rGO) networks. The binderfree 3DrGO@CuF electrodes are capable of delivering high specific capacitance approaching...

  1. On the design of a hierarchical SS7 network: A graph theoretical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Lutz; Rufa, Gerhard

    1994-04-01

    This contribution is concerned with the design of Signaling System No. 7 networks based on graph theoretical methods. A hierarchical network topology is derived by combining the advantage of the hierarchical network structure with the realization of node disjoint routes between nodes of the network. By using specific features of this topology, we develop an algorithm to construct circle-free routing data and to assure bidirectionality also in case of failure situations. The methods described are based on the requirements that the network topology, as well as the routing data, may be easily changed.

  2. A theoretical approach to sputtering due to molecular ion bombardment, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karashima, Shosuke; Ootoshi, Tsukuru; Kamiyama, Masahide; Kim, Pil-Hyon; Namba, Susumu.

    1981-01-01

    A shock wave model is proposed to explain theoretically the non-linear effects in sputtering phenomena by molecular ion bombardments. In this theory the sputtering processes are separated into two parts; one is due to linear effects and another is due to non-linear effects. The treatment of the linear parts is based on the statistical model by Schwarz and Helms concerning a broad range of atomic collision cascades. The non-linear parts are treated by the model of shock wave due to overlapping cascades, and useful equations to calculate the sputtering yields and the dynamical quantities in the system are derived. (author)

  3. Nonlocal approach to the analysis of the stress distribution in granular systems. I. Theoretical framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenkre, V. M.; Scott, J. E.; Pease, E. A.; Hurd, A. J.

    1998-05-01

    A theoretical framework for the analysis of the stress distribution in granular materials is presented. It makes use of a transformation of the vertical spatial coordinate into a formal time variable and the subsequent study of a generally non-Markoffian, i.e., memory-possessing (nonlocal) propagation equation. Previous treatments are obtained as particular cases corresponding to, respectively, wavelike and diffusive limits of the general evolution. Calculations are presented for stress propagation in bounded and unbounded media. They can be used to obtain desired features such as a prescribed stress distribution within the compact.

  4. Special course on modern theoretical and experimental approaches to turbulent flow structure and its modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-08-01

    The large eddy concept in turbulent modeling and techniques for direct simulation are discussed. A review of turbulence modeling is presented along with physical and numerical aspects and applications. A closure model for turbulent flows is presented and routes to chaos by quasi-periodicity are discussed. Theoretical aspects of transition to turbulence by space/time intermittency are covered. The application to interpretation of experimental results of fractal dimensions and connection of spatial temporal chaos are reviewed. Simulation of hydrodynamic flow by using cellular automata is discussed.

  5. Wavelength shift in a whispering gallery microdisk due to bacterial sensing: A theoretical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Ghali

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Whispering gallery mode microcavities have recently been studied as a means to achieve real-time label-free detection of biological targets such as virus particles, specific DNA sequences, or proteins. Binding of a biomolecule to the surface of a microresonator will increase its path length, leading to a shift in the resonance frequency according to the reactive sensing principle. In this paper, we develop a theoretical expression that will link the reactive shift to the bacteria and microdisk parameters and help quantify the number of bacteria that bind to the surface of a 200μm-diameter silica microdisk. Keywords: Optical microdisk, Wavelength shift, Bacterial sensing

  6. Towards a comprehensive theory for He II: A temperature-dependent field-theoretic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghassib, H.B.; Chela-Flores, J.

    1983-07-01

    New experimental aspects of He II, as well as recent developments in particle physics, are invoked to construct the rudiments of a comprehensive theory in which temperature-dependent U(1) and SU(2) gauge fields are incorporated into a hierarchy of effective Lagrangians. It is conjectured that an SU(n) gauge-theoretic description of superfluidity may be obtained in the limit n→infinity. However, it is outlined how experiments can be understood in the zeroth, first and second order of the hierarchy. (author)

  7. Bridging Theory and Practice: Using Hip-Hop Pedagogy As A Culturally Relevant Approach In The Urban Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjapong, Edmund S.

    This dissertation explores the context of urban science education as it relates to the achievement and engagement of urban youth. This study provides a framework for Hip-Hop Pedagogy, an approach to teaching and learning anchored in the creative elements of Hip-Hop culture, in STEM as an innovative approach to teaching and learning demonstrates the effect that Hip-Hop Pedagogy, as a culturally relevant approach to teaching has on teaching and learning in an urban science classroom. This study establishes practical tools and approaches, which were formed from by theory and research that transcend the traditional monolithic approaches to teaching science. Participants in this study are middle school students who attend an urban school in one of the largest school systems in the country. This research showed that as result of utilizing Hip-Hop pedagogical practices, students reported that they developed a deeper understanding of science content, students were more likely to identify as scientists, and students were provided a space and opportunities to deconstruct traditional classroom spaces and structures.

  8. Music's relevance for pediatric cancer patients: a constructivist and mosaic research approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Clare; Baron, Annette; Barry, Philippa; Dun, Beth

    2011-06-01

    Music is important in most children's lives. To advance efficacious pediatric supportive care, it is necessary to understand young cancer patients' thoughts about music. Concern about inviting unwell children to express opinions has resulted in scant research examining their views. "Mosaic" research examines children's experiences through investigating multiple perspectives which inform a "co-constructed meaning." This study examines pediatric cancer patients' and their parents' perspectives about music and music therapy's role in the children's lives. Children were receiving care at three hospitals with the Paediatric Integrative Cancer Service in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. A constructivist research approach with grounded theory design was applied. Children up to 14 years old with cancer and parents participated. Data included transcripts from semi-structured research interviews and observations of children's music behaviors. Qualitative inter-rater reliability was integrated. Findings were compared with music therapists' perspectives examined elsewhere. Interviews were conducted with 26 patients, median age 5.7 years, and 28 parents. Data "saturation" was achieved. A substantive grounded theory emerged: Children's adverse cancer experiences are often alleviated by music usages. Broader family, social, and electronic musical interactions also promote children's resilience and "normal" development. Music therapy and associated programs often, but not always, alleviate children's distress. Positive effects may carry over into children's home lives and vicariously support families. Health professionals should consider ways to assist parents who are often using music to support children with cancer. Hospitals can promote pediatric cancer patients' resilience by providing music-based support services, including music therapy, and reducing unwanted stressful sounds.

  9. Music's relevance for adolescents and young adults with cancer: a constructivist research approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Clare; Barry, Philippa; Thompson, Kate

    2012-04-01

    Music is one of the most widely used activities amongst young people, significant in personal and group identity, motivation, physical release, and emotional support. Adolescents and young adults with cancer (AYA) require specialized care because of intensified challenges related to developmental vulnerability, treatment toxicity effects, and slower improvements in survival rates compared to other age groups. To advance effective supportive care for AYA, understanding their thoughts about music is necessary. This study examines AYAs' perspectives about music's role in their lives. A constructivist research approach with grounded theory design was applied. Twelve people, 15 to 25 years old, known to onTrac@PeterMac Victorian Adolescent & Young Adult Cancer Service, participated. Respondents completed a brief music demographic questionnaire and participated in a semi-structured interview. Qualitative inter-rater reliability was integrated. Participants mostly reported music's calming, supportive, and relaxing effects, which alleviated hardship associated with their cancer diagnoses. Themes encompassed: music backgrounds, changed "musicking", endurance and adjustment, time with music therapists, and wisdom. Music provided supportive messages, enabled personal and shared understandings about cancer's effects, and elicited helpful physical, emotional, and imagery states. Music therapy could also promote normalized and supportive connections with others. A musician, however, struggled to get music "back" post-treatment. Supportive music-based strategies were recommended for other AYA and their health care providers. Music can signify and creatively enable AYAs' hope, endurance, identity development, and adjustment through cancer treatment and post-treatment phases. Health professionals are encouraged to support AYAs' music-based self-care and "normalized" activities.

  10. Relevance of philosophy of life and optimism for psychological distress among individuals in a stage where death is approaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterling, Jeanette; Wasteson, Elisabet; Sidenvall, Birgitta; Sidenvall, Erik; Glimelius, Bengt; Sjödén, Per-Olow; Nordin, Karin

    2006-04-01

    The purpose was to investigate the relevance of philosophy of life as well as optimism for the psychological distress among Swedish individuals in a stage where death is approaching. Sixty-nine persons were included; of these were 42 patients newly diagnosed with advanced gastrointestinal cancer and 26 were partners to these patients. The participants' philosophy of life was studied through a semi-structured interview. The interview statements were subjected to content analysis. Optimism was measured by the Life Orientation Test and psychological distress by the Hospitality and Depression Scale. The results showed that optimistic respondents had less psychological distress. Two aspects of philosophy of life had relevance for such distress. These were wondering about why the cancer had occurred and having a feeling of being able to live a good life having or living near a person with advanced cancer. In conclusion, the above-mentioned aspects of philosophy of life as well as optimism have relevance for psychological distress among these individuals, which stress the importance that health-care staff address both patients' and their partners' concerns about their philosophy of life.

  11. Determination of pKa and the corresponding structures of quinclorac using combined experimental and theoretical approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dean; Sun, Huiqing; Jiang, Xiaohua; Kong, Fanyu; Qiang, Zhimin; Zhang, Aiqian; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui

    2018-01-01

    As an emerging environmental contaminant, the herbicide quinclorac has attracted much attention in recent years. However, a very fundamental issue, the acid dissociation of quinclorac has not yet to be studied in detail. Herein, the pKa value and the corresponding structures of quinclorac were systematically investigated using combined experimental and theoretical approaches. The experimental pKa of quinclorac was determined by the spectrophotometric method to be 2.65 at 25 °C with ionic strength of 0.05 M, and was corrected to be 2.56 at ionic strength of zero. The molecular structures of quinclorac were then located by employing the DFT calculation. The anionic quinclorac was directly located with the carboxylic group perpendicular to the aromatic ring, while neutral quinclorac was found to be the equivalent twin structures. The result was further confirmed by analyzing the UV/Vis and MS-MS2 spectra from both experimental and theoretical viewpoints. By employing the QSPR approach, the theoretical pKa of QCR was determined to be 2.50, which is excellent agreement with the experimental result obtained herein. The protonation of QCR at the carboxylic group instead of the quinoline structure was attributed to the weak electronegative property of nitrogen atom induced by the electron-withdrawing groups. It is anticipated that this work could not only help in gaining a deep insight into the acid dissociation of quinclorac but also offering the key information on its reaction and interaction with others.

  12. An approach to correlate experimental and theoretical thermal conductivity of MWNT/PMMA polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, M; Patidar, D; Sharma, K B; Saxena, N S

    2015-01-01

    In this paper an effort is made to correlate temperature dependent effective thermal conductivity measured by experimental method to theoretical results obtained from different models. MWNT/PMMA polymer nanocomposites were prepared by solution casting method, with different wt% of MWNT (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 1, 5, 10 wt%) dispersed in the PMMA matrix. The effective thermal conductivity from 30 °C to 110 °C is measured by Hot Disk Thermal Constant Analyser, based on transient plane source technique. Experimental study reveals that effective thermal conductivity increases with increasing concentration of MWNT in PMMA and increases exponentially at high temperatures for high (5, 10) wt% samples. This behavior of effective thermal conductivity is explained in terms of the interactions between polymer–MWNT and MWNT–MWNT. Consequently these results were found to be in agreement with theoretical models such as Series, Parallel, Lewis/Neilson and empirical formula. The discrepancy found in Lewis/Neilson model at high temperature for high wt% of MWNT in PMMA is due to some change in values of parameters incorporated in the model. (paper)

  13. Theoretical approaches of online social network interventions and implications for behavioral change: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguel, Amaël; Perez-Concha, Oscar; Li, Simon Y W; Lau, Annie Y S

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this review was to identify general theoretical frameworks used in online social network interventions for behavioral change. To address this research question, a PRISMA-compliant systematic review was conducted. A systematic review (PROSPERO registration number CRD42014007555) was conducted using 3 electronic databases (PsycINFO, Pubmed, and Embase). Four reviewers screened 1788 abstracts. 15 studies were selected according to the eligibility criteria. Randomized controlled trials and controlled studies were assessed using Cochrane Collaboration's "risk-of-bias" tool, and narrative synthesis. Five eligible articles used the social cognitive theory as a framework to develop interventions targeting behavioral change. Other theoretical frameworks were related to the dynamics of social networks, intention models, and community engagement theories. Only one of the studies selected in the review mentioned a well-known theory from the field of health psychology. Conclusions were that guidelines are lacking in the design of online social network interventions for behavioral change. Existing theories and models from health psychology that are traditionally used for in situ behavioral change should be considered when designing online social network interventions in a health care setting. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Merging Theoretical Models and Therapy Approaches in the Context of Internet Gaming Disorder: A Personal Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kimberly S.; Brand, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Although, it is not yet officially recognized as a clinical entity which is diagnosable, Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) has been included in section III for further study in the DSM-5 by the American Psychiatric Association (APA, 2013). This is important because there is increasing evidence that people of all ages, in particular teens and young adults, are facing very real and sometimes very severe consequences in daily life resulting from an addictive use of online games. This article summarizes general aspects of IGD including diagnostic criteria and arguments for the classification as an addictive disorder including evidence from neurobiological studies. Based on previous theoretical considerations and empirical findings, this paper examines the use of one recently proposed model, the Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE) model, for inspiring future research and for developing new treatment protocols for IGD. The I-PACE model is a theoretical framework that explains symptoms of Internet addiction by looking at interactions between predisposing factors, moderators, and mediators in combination with reduced executive functioning and diminished decision making. Finally, the paper discusses how current treatment protocols focusing on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Internet addiction (CBT-IA) fit with the processes hypothesized in the I-PACE model. PMID:29104555

  15. A novel multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation module: Design, experimental and theoretical approaches

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung Gil

    2016-10-24

    An economic desalination system with a small scale and footprint for remote areas, which have a limited and inadequate water supply, insufficient water treatment and low infrastructure, is strongly demanded in the desalination markets. Here, a direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process has the simplest configuration and potentially the highest permeate flux among all of the possible MD processes. This process can also be easily instituted in a multi-stage manner for enhanced compactness, productivity, versatility and cost-effectiveness. In this study, an innovative, multi-stage, DCMD module under countercurrent-flow configuration is first designed and then investigate both theoretically and experimentally to identify its feasibility and operability for desalination application. Model predictions and measured data for mean permeate flux are compared and shown to be in good agreement. The effect of the number of module stages on the mean permeate flux, performance ratio and daily water production of the MDCMD system has been theoretically identified at inlet feed and permeate flow rates of 1.5 l/min and inlet feed and permeate temperatures of 70 °C and 25 °C, respectively. The daily water production of a three-stage DCMD module with a membrane area of 0.01 m2 at each stage is found to be 21.5 kg.

  16. A novel multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation module: Design, experimental and theoretical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Gil; Kim, Woo-Seung; Choi, June-Seok; Ghaffour, Noreddine; Kim, Young-Deuk

    2016-12-15

    An economic desalination system with a small scale and footprint for remote areas, which have a limited and inadequate water supply, insufficient water treatment and low infrastructure, is strongly demanded in the desalination markets. Here, a direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process has the simplest configuration and potentially the highest permeate flux among all of the possible MD processes. This process can also be easily instituted in a multi-stage manner for enhanced compactness, productivity, versatility and cost-effectiveness. In this study, an innovative, multi-stage, DCMD module under countercurrent-flow configuration is first designed and then investigate both theoretically and experimentally to identify its feasibility and operability for desalination application. Model predictions and measured data for mean permeate flux are compared and shown to be in good agreement. The effect of the number of module stages on the mean permeate flux, performance ratio and daily water production of the MDCMD system has been theoretically identified at inlet feed and permeate flow rates of 1.5 l/min and inlet feed and permeate temperatures of 70 °C and 25 °C, respectively. The daily water production of a three-stage DCMD module with a membrane area of 0.01 m 2  at each stage is found to be 21.5 kg. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Game Theoretical Approach to Hacktivism: Is Attack Likelihood a Product of Risks and Payoffs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodford, Jessica E; Kwan, Virginia S Y

    2018-02-01

    The current study examines hacktivism (i.e., hacking to convey a moral, ethical, or social justice message) through a general game theoretic framework-that is, as a product of costs and benefits. Given the inherent risk of carrying out a hacktivist attack (e.g., legal action, imprisonment), it would be rational for the user to weigh these risks against perceived benefits of carrying out the attack. As such, we examined computer science students' estimations of risks, payoffs, and attack likelihood through a game theoretic design. Furthermore, this study aims at constructing a descriptive profile of potential hacktivists, exploring two predicted covariates of attack decision making, namely, peer prevalence of hacking and sex differences. Contrary to expectations, results suggest that participants' estimations of attack likelihood stemmed solely from expected payoffs, rather than subjective risks. Peer prevalence significantly predicted increased payoffs and attack likelihood, suggesting an underlying descriptive norm in social networks. Notably, we observed no sex differences in the decision to attack, nor in the factors predicting attack likelihood. Implications for policymakers and the understanding and prevention of hacktivism are discussed, as are the possible ramifications of widely communicated payoffs over potential risks in hacking communities.

  18. Merging Theoretical Models and Therapy Approaches in the Context of Internet Gaming Disorder: A Personal Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kimberly S; Brand, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Although, it is not yet officially recognized as a clinical entity which is diagnosable, Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) has been included in section III for further study in the DSM-5 by the American Psychiatric Association (APA, 2013). This is important because there is increasing evidence that people of all ages, in particular teens and young adults, are facing very real and sometimes very severe consequences in daily life resulting from an addictive use of online games. This article summarizes general aspects of IGD including diagnostic criteria and arguments for the classification as an addictive disorder including evidence from neurobiological studies. Based on previous theoretical considerations and empirical findings, this paper examines the use of one recently proposed model, the Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE) model, for inspiring future research and for developing new treatment protocols for IGD. The I-PACE model is a theoretical framework that explains symptoms of Internet addiction by looking at interactions between predisposing factors, moderators, and mediators in combination with reduced executive functioning and diminished decision making. Finally, the paper discusses how current treatment protocols focusing on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Internet addiction (CBT-IA) fit with the processes hypothesized in the I-PACE model.

  19. Merging Theoretical Models and Therapy Approaches in the Context of Internet Gaming Disorder: A Personal Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly S. Young

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Although, it is not yet officially recognized as a clinical entity which is diagnosable, Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD has been included in section III for further study in the DSM-5 by the American Psychiatric Association (APA, 2013. This is important because there is increasing evidence that people of all ages, in particular teens and young adults, are facing very real and sometimes very severe consequences in daily life resulting from an addictive use of online games. This article summarizes general aspects of IGD including diagnostic criteria and arguments for the classification as an addictive disorder including evidence from neurobiological studies. Based on previous theoretical considerations and empirical findings, this paper examines the use of one recently proposed model, the Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE model, for inspiring future research and for developing new treatment protocols for IGD. The I-PACE model is a theoretical framework that explains symptoms of Internet addiction by looking at interactions between predisposing factors, moderators, and mediators in combination with reduced executive functioning and diminished decision making. Finally, the paper discusses how current treatment protocols focusing on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Internet addiction (CBT-IA fit with the processes hypothesized in the I-PACE model.

  20. New aspects of the antioxidant properties of phenolic acids: a combined theoretical and experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anouar, E; Kosinová, P; Kozlowski, D; Mokrini, R; Duroux, J L; Trouillas, P

    2009-09-21

    Ferulic acid is widely distributed in the leaves and seeds of cereals as well as in coffee, apples, artichokes, peanuts, oranges and pineapples. Like numerous other natural polyphenols it exhibits antioxidant properties. It is known to act as a free radical scavenger by H atom transfer from the phenolic OH group. In the present joint experimental and theoretical studies we studied a new mechanism to explain such activities. Ferulic acid can indeed act by radical addition on the alpha,beta-double bond. On the basis of the identification of metabolites formed in an oxidative radiolytic solution and after DFT calculations, we studied the thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of this reaction. Addition and HAT reactions were treated as competitive reactions. The possibility of dimer formation was also investigated from a theoretical point of view; the high barriers we obtained contribute to explaining why we did not observe those compounds as major radiolytic compounds. The DPPH free radical scavenging capacity of ferulic acid and the oxidative products was measured and is discussed on the basis of DFT calculations (BDEs and spin densities).

  1. Electronic properties of Fe charge transfer complexes – A combined experimental and theoretical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Hendrik; Eschwege, Karel G. von; Conradie, Jeanet

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental and computational study of Fe II -phen, -bpy & -tpy compleesx. • Close correlations between experimental redox and spectral, and computational data. • Computational methods fast-track DSSC research. - Abstract: Dye-sensitized solar cell technology holds huge potential in renewable electricity generation of the future. Due to demand urgency, ways need to be explored to reduce research time and cost. Against this background, quantum computational chemistry is illustrated to be a reliable tool at the onset of studies in this field, simulating charge transfer, spectral (solar energy absorbed) and electrochemical (ease by which electrons may be liberated) tuning of related photo-responsive dyes. Comparative experimental and theoretical DFT studies were done under similar conditions, involving an extended series of electrochemically altered phenanthrolines, bipyridyl and terpyridyl complexes of Fe II . Fe II/III oxidation waves vary from 0.363 V for tris(3,6-dimethoxybipyridyl)Fe II to 0.894 V (versus Fc/Fc + ) for the 5-nitrophenanthroline complex. Theoretical DFT computed ionization potentials in the bipyridyl sub-series achieved an almost 100% linear correlation with experimental electrochemical oxidation potentials, while the phenanthroline sub-series gave R 2 = 0.95. Apart from the terpyridyl complex which accorded an almost perfect match, in general, TDDFT oscillators were computed at slightly lower energies than what was observed experimentally, while molecular HOMO and LUMO renderings reveal desired complexes with directional charge transfer propensities.

  2. Green roof rainfall-runoff modelling: is the comparison between conceptual and physically based approaches relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versini, Pierre-Antoine; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Green roofs are commonly considered as efficient tools to mitigate urban runoff as they can store precipitation, and consequently provide retention and detention performances. Designed as a compromise between water holding capacity, weight and hydraulic conductivity, their substrate is usually an artificial media differentiating significantly from a traditional soil. In order to assess green roofs hydrological performances, many models have been developed. Classified into two categories (conceptual and physically based), they are usually applied to reproduce the discharge of a particular monitored green roof considered as homogeneous. Although the resulted simulations could be satisfactory, the question of robustness and consistency of the calibrated parameters is often not addressed. Here, a modeling framework has been developed to assess the efficiency and the robustness of both modelling approaches (conceptual and physically based) in reproducing green roof hydrological behaviour. SWMM and VS2DT models have been used for this purpose. This work also benefits from an experimental setup where several green roofs differentiated by their substrate thickness and vegetation cover are monitored. Based on the data collected for several rainfall events, it has been studied how the calibrated parameters are effectively linked to their physical properties and how they can vary from one green roof configuration to another. Although both models reproduce correctly the observed discharges in most of the cases, their calibrated parameters exhibit a high inconsistency. For a same green roof configuration, these parameters can vary significantly from one rainfall event to another, even if they are supposed to be linked to the green roof characteristics (roughness, residual moisture content for instance). They can also be different from one green roof configuration to another although the implemented substrate is the same. Finally, it appears very difficult to find any

  3. Performance analysis of demodulation with diversity -- A combinatorial approach I: Symmetric function theoretical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Dornstetter

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the presentation of a combinatorial approach, based on the theory of symmetric functions, for analyzing the performance of a family of demodulation methods used in mobile telecommunications.

  4. Performance analysis of demodulation with diversity -- A combinatorial approach I: Symmetric function theoretical methods

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Louis Dornstetter; Daniel Krob; Jean-Yves Thibon; Ekaterina A. Vassilieva

    2002-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the presentation of a combinatorial approach, based on the theory of symmetric functions, for analyzing the performance of a family of demodulation methods used in mobile telecommunications.

  5. A Game-theoretical Approach for Distributed Cooperative Control of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Yimeng

    2018-01-01

    design and learning process of the algorithm are modified to fit specific constraints of underwater exploration/monitoring tasks. The revised approach can take the real scenario of underwater monitoring applications such as the effect of sea current

  6. The combined theoretical and experimental approach to arrive at optimum parameters in friction stir welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadeesha, C. B.

    2017-12-01

    Even though friction stir welding was invented long back (1991) by TWI England, till now there has no method or procedure or approach developed, which helps to obtain quickly optimum or exact parameters yielding good or sound weld. An approach has developed in which an equation has been derived, by which approximate rpm can be obtained and by setting range of rpm ±100 or 50 rpm over approximate rpm and by setting welding speed equal to 60 mm/min or 50 mm/min one can conduct FSW experiment to reach optimum parameters; one can reach quickly to optimum parameters, i.e. desired rpm, and welding speed, which yield sound weld by the approach. This approach can be effectively used to obtain sound welds for all similar and dissimilar combinations of materials such as Steel, Al, Mg, Ti, etc.

  7. A Comparison of Approaches for Solving Hard Graph-Theoretic Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-29

    and Search”, in Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications, Book 7, CRC Press (1998): Boca Raton. [6] A. Lucas, “Ising Formulations of Many NP Problems...owner. 14. ABSTRACT In order to formulate mathematical conjectures likely to be true, a number of base cases must be determined. However, many... combinatorial problems are NP-hard and the computational complexity makes this research approach difficult using a standard brute force approach on a

  8. Three-dimensionality of space and the quantum bit: an information-theoretic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Markus P; Masanes, Lluís

    2013-01-01

    It is sometimes pointed out as a curiosity that the state space of quantum two-level systems, i.e. the qubit, and actual physical space are both three-dimensional and Euclidean. In this paper, we suggest an information-theoretic analysis of this relationship, by proving a particular mathematical result: suppose that physics takes place in d spatial dimensions, and that some events happen probabilistically (not assuming quantum theory in any way). Furthermore, suppose there are systems that carry ‘minimal amounts of direction information’, interacting via some continuous reversible time evolution. We prove that this uniquely determines spatial dimension d = 3 and quantum theory on two qubits (including entanglement and unitary time evolution), and that it allows observers to infer local spatial geometry from probability measurements. (paper)

  9. THE NECESSITY OF APPROACHING THE ENTERPRISE PERFORMANCE CONCEPT THROUGH A THEORETICAL FUNDAMENTAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEAC VERONICA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to justify the necessity of building of a theoretical-fundamental system to define and delimitate the integrated notions applicable to the concept of enterprise performance. Standing as a fundamental research, the present paper argues and shows that the literature in this field and the applied environment, as well, require a more clearer segregation, respectively an increase of specificity of the concept "enterprise performance" considering that it is not unanimously defined, on one hand, and, especially, due to the fact that it represents a key concept widely used, which, ultimately, has to be measured in order to be helpful, on the other hand. Moreover, the present paper would be useful to scholars working in the field of firm performance who are willing to understand this concept and to develop the future research referring to enterprise performance measurement.

  10. Role of word-of-mouth for programs of voluntary vaccination: A game-theoretic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Samit; Bauch, Chris T; Breban, Romulus

    2015-11-01

    We propose a model describing the synergetic feedback between word-of-mouth (WoM) and epidemic dynamics controlled by voluntary vaccination. The key feature consists in combining a game-theoretic model for the spread of WoM and a compartmental model describing VSIR disease dynamics in the presence of a program of voluntary vaccination. We evaluate and compare two scenarios for determinants of behavior, depending on what WoM disseminates: (1) vaccine advertising, which may occur whether or not an epidemic is ongoing and (2) epidemic status, notably disease prevalence. Understanding the synergy between the two strategies could be particularly important for designing voluntary vaccination campaigns. We find that, in the initial phase of an epidemic, vaccination uptake is determined more by vaccine advertising than the epidemic status. As the epidemic progresses, epidemic status becomes increasingly important for vaccination uptake, considerably accelerating vaccination uptake toward a stable vaccination coverage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. On Innovation: A Theoretical Approach on the Challenges of Utilities Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina PÎNZARU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the markets not long ago closed and completely regulated is now in the growing process of liberalization and deregulation: it is the utilities market we refer to (water, sewege, gas, electricity, waste collection. The deregulation of a market is usually followed by the appearance of competition expression conditions and, unassailably, the occurrence of specific marketing strategies. This paper investigates the specific of utilities marketing as it develops now, an bourgeoning domain, although with a rather discreet presence in this field’s theoretical analysis studies. Exploratory research on the analysis type products, promotional offers and communication of this market’s players shows an effervescent players practice, but also a continuous innovation necessary in a market where consumers are unfamiliar with bein persuaded by commercial means

  12. A theoretical approach to the restoration of azulejos by re-firing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Manuel Mimoso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available LNEC found, as a by-product of another research project, that in at least some cases, glazed ceramic tiles (azulejos could be restored by re-firing. The re-firing of façade glazed tiles as a viable alternative to their outright dumping should, in principle, present no doubts. However the mere idea of restoring in the kiln brings forth methodologic arguments unparalleled in other restoration techniques. The present communication discusses the re-firing of azulejos based on theoretical restoration principles, aiming to demonstrate that it cannot be discarded straightforwardly without considering individually its advantages and possible applications. However, and although no damaging consequences where identified, the eventual application of this method to azulejos that are not considered as industrial products still requires complementary studies regarding its long-term dangerousness.

  13. Field theory approaches to new media practices: An introduction and some theoretical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Willig

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article introducing the theme of the special issue we argue that studies of new media practices might benefit from especially Pierre Bourdieu’s research on cultural production. We introduce some of the literature, which deals with the use of digital media, and which have taken steps to develop field theory in this context. Secondly, we present the four thematic articles in this issue and the articles outside the theme, which includes two translations of classic texts within communication and media research. This introduction article concludes by encouraging media scholars to embark on more studies within a field theory framework, as the ability of the comprehensive theoretical work and the ideas of a reflexive sociology is able to trigger the good questions, more than it claims to offer a complete and self-sufficient sociology of media and inherent here also new media.

  14. Formation of Virtual Organizations in Grids: A Game-Theoretic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Thomas E.; Grosu, Daniel

    The execution of large scale grid applications requires the use of several computational resources owned by various Grid Service Providers (GSPs). GSPs must form Virtual Organizations (VOs) to be able to provide the composite resource to these applications. We consider grids as self-organizing systems composed of autonomous, self-interested GSPs that will organize themselves into VOs with every GSP having the objective of maximizing its profit. We formulate the resource composition among GSPs as a coalition formation problem and propose a game-theoretic framework based on cooperation structures to model it. Using this framework, we design a resource management system that supports the VO formation among GSPs in a grid computing system.

  15. Structural modeling and analysis of an effluent treatment process for electroplating--a graph theoretic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Clement, Shibu; Agrawal, V P

    2010-07-15

    An attempt is made to address a few ecological and environment issues by developing different structural models for effluent treatment system for electroplating. The effluent treatment system is defined with the help of different subsystems contributing to waste minimization. Hierarchical tree and block diagram showing all possible interactions among subsystems are proposed. These non-mathematical diagrams are converted into mathematical models for design improvement, analysis, comparison, storage retrieval and commercially off-the-shelf purchases of different subsystems. This is achieved by developing graph theoretic model, matrix models and variable permanent function model. Analysis is carried out by permanent function, hierarchical tree and block diagram methods. Storage and retrieval is done using matrix models. The methodology is illustrated with the help of an example. Benefits to the electroplaters/end user are identified. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A New Theoretical Approach to Single-Molecule Fluorescence Optical Studies of RNA Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xinghai; Shan Guangcun; Bao Shuying

    2011-01-01

    Single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy in condensed phases has many important chemical and biological applications. The single-molecule fluorescence measurements contain information about conformational dynamics on a vast range of time scales. Based on the data analysis protocols methodology proposed by X. Sunney Xie, the theoretical study here mainly focuses on the single-molecule studies of single RNA with interconversions among different conformational states, to with a single FRET pair attached. We obtain analytical expressions for fluorescence lifetime correlation functions that relate changes in fluorescence lifetime to the distance-dependent FRET mechanism within the context of the Smoluchowski diffusion model. The present work establishes useful guideline for the single-molecule studies of biomolecules to reveal the complicated folding dynamics of single RNA molecules at nanometer scale.

  17. Matched pairs approach to set theoretic solutions of the Yang-Baxter equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gateva-Ivanova, T.; Majid, S.

    2005-08-01

    We study set-theoretic solutions (X,r) of the Yang-Baxter equations on a set X in terms of the induced left and right actions of X on itself. We give a characterization of involutive square-free solutions in terms of cyclicity conditions. We characterise general solutions in terms of an induced matched pair of unital semigroups S(X,r) and construct (S,r S ) from the matched pair. Finally, we study extensions of solutions in terms of matched pairs of their associated semigroups. We also prove several general results about matched pairs of unital semigroups of the required type, including iterated products S bowtie S bowtie S underlying the proof that r S is a solution, and extensions (S bowtie T, r Sb owtie T ). Examples include a general 'double' construction (S bowtie S,r Sb owtie S ) and some concrete extensions, their actions and graphs based on small sets. (author)

  18. Theoretical Approach to Synergistic Interaction of Ionizing Radiation with Other Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Petinb, Vladislav G.

    2005-01-01

    Living objects including men are never exposed to merely one harmful agent. Many physical, chemical, biological and social factors may simultaneously exert their deleterious influence to man and the environment. Risk assessment is generally performed with the simplest assumption that the factor under consideration acts largely independently of others. However, the combined exposure to two harmful agents could result in a higher effect than would be expected from the addition of the separate exposures to individual agents. Hence, there is a possibility that, at least at high exposures, the combined effect of ionizing radiation with other environmental factors can be resulted in a greater overall risk. The problem is not so clear for low intensity and there is no possibility of testing all conceivable combinations of agents. For further insight into the mode of synergistic interaction, discussed are a common feature of synergistic interaction display and a theoretical model to describe, optimize and predict the synergistic effects

  19. A game theoretical approach for QoS provisioning in heterogeneous networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S.M. Zadid Shifat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available With the proliferation of mobile phone users, interference management is a big concern in this neoteric years. To cope with this problem along with ensuring better Quality of Service (QoS, femtocell plays an imperious preamble in heterogeneous networks (HetNets for some of its noteworthy characteristics. In this paper, we propose a game theoretic algorithm along with dynamic channel allocation and hybrid access mechanism with self-organizing power control scheme. With a view to resolving prioritized access issue, the concept of primary and secondary users is applied. Existence of pure strategy Nash equilibrium (NE has been investigated and comes to a perfection that our proposed scheme can be adopted both increasing capacity and increasing revenue of operators considering optimal price for consumers.

  20. Transmedial Worlds: Conceptual Review and Theoretical Approaches on the Art of Worldmaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves Rosendo Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of transmedia storytelling introduced by Henry Jenkins (2003, 2006 has been widely developed in the academic field, getting popular and being redefined with time. In transmedia storytelling’s definition we can observe the focus on the concept of world, which from a theoretical and critical perspective did not had the development that the relationship among narrative and media had. This work gathers and analyzes a selection of references from the main authors that have defined the nature, limits and transferability of the so called transmedial worlds, proposing conclusions related to the need to observe the phenomenon of transmedia narratives, its founding elements and the processes related to them, with the aim to elaborate a catalogue of criteria for the analysis and consideration of key element of transmedia storytelling.

  1. Theoretical and methodological approaches to determining the effectiveness of medical services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Yu. Shvets

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the results of theoretical and methodological studies on the effectiveness of the health care system. It formulated the concept and components of the efficiency of medical services it is an economic category of health care operations. In particular, it is determined that the efficiency of medical services is a characteristic effect and shows the feasibility of the use of material, financial and human resources in this event, method, intervention. The results showed that in respect of medical services is determined by the medical, social and economic efficiency, between which there is a relationship and interdependence. The article analyzes the fundamentals and methodological bases of social, medical and economic efficiency of medical services. It was determined that a priority in the health system are the very social and medical effectiveness, taking into account those of socially important tasks to perform which is directed the whole health system in the country. Given the ambiguous understanding of the relationship of efficiency of medical services with its quality, based on the analysis of theoretical developments, identified the common and distinctive features of the characteristics of the health service in order to determine their impact on software quality and affordable health care services to the population. In particular, the efficiency of medical services is considered in close conjunction with its quality. The quality and efficiency of medical services are interrelated characteristics. However, the results showed that it is not always effective healthcare services, particularly in terms of economic efficiency, can be qualitative, and not always high-quality medical services – can be called economically efficient.

  2. Impaired cerebral blood flow networks in temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis: A graph theoretical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sone, Daichi; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Ota, Miho; Maikusa, Norihide; Kimura, Yukio; Sumida, Kaoru; Yokoyama, Kota; Imabayashi, Etsuko; Watanabe, Masako; Watanabe, Yutaka; Okazaki, Mitsutoshi; Sato, Noriko

    2016-09-01

    Graph theory is an emerging method to investigate brain networks. Altered cerebral blood flow (CBF) has frequently been reported in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), but graph theoretical findings of CBF are poorly understood. Here, we explored graph theoretical networks of CBF in TLE using arterial spin labeling imaging. We recruited patients with TLE and unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS) (19 patients with left TLE, and 21 with right TLE) and 20 gender- and age-matched healthy control subjects. We obtained all participants' CBF maps using pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling and analyzed them using the Graph Analysis Toolbox (GAT) software program. As a result, compared to the controls, the patients with left TLE showed a significantly low clustering coefficient (p=0.024), local efficiency (p=0.001), global efficiency (p=0.010), and high transitivity (p=0.015), whereas the patients with right TLE showed significantly high assortativity (p=0.046) and transitivity (p=0.011). The group with right TLE also had high characteristic path length values (p=0.085), low global efficiency (p=0.078), and low resilience to targeted attack (p=0.101) at a trend level. Lower normalized clustering coefficient (p=0.081) in the left TLE and higher normalized characteristic path length (p=0.089) in the right TLE were found also at a trend level. Both the patients with left and right TLE showed significantly decreased clustering in similar areas, i.e., the cingulate gyri, precuneus, and occipital lobe. Our findings revealed differing left-right network metrics in which an inefficient CBF network in left TLE and vulnerability to irritation in right TLE are suggested. The left-right common finding of regional decreased clustering might reflect impaired default-mode networks in TLE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Transforming Big Data into cancer-relevant insight: An initial, multi-tier approach to assess reproducibility and relevance* | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Target Discovery and Development (CTD^2) Network was established to accelerate the transformation of "Big Data" into novel pharmacological targets, lead compounds, and biomarkers for rapid translation into improved patient outcomes. It rapidly became clear in this collaborative network that a key central issue was to define what constitutes sufficient computational or experimental evidence to support a biologically or clinically relevant finding.

  4. Theoretical approaches to many-body perturbation theory and the challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, Bruce R

    2005-01-01

    A brief review of the history of many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) and its applications in nuclear physics is given. Problems regarding its application to nuclear-structure calculations are discussed and analysed. It is concluded that the usefulness of nuclear MBPT in terms of an expansion in the nuclear reaction matrix G for the calculation of effective interactions in shell-model investigations is severely challenged and restricted by the problems and uncertainties connected with this approach. New methods based on unitary transformation approaches have proven to be more accurate and reliable, particularly for light nuclei

  5. Psychological resilience: an approach to the concept, theoretical framework and relation with child sexual abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Gustavo Pinto-Cortez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Child sexual abuse is a serious public health problem and a violation of human rights from children and adolescents. A prolific research has been developed to determine the magnitude of the problem, psychological effects, risk factors and protective factors. In this context, resilience approach becomes important by explain the mechanisms that promote positive adaptation to adversity. In this paper, it is discussed in the first part, the analysis of the concept of resilience and its various stages of investigation over time. Finally, an integration of this model in understanding and approaching child and adolescent victimization is done.

  6. 2-D Fused Image Reconstruction approach for Microwave Tomography: a theoretical assessment using FDTD Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindu, G; Semenov, S

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an efficient two-dimensional fused image reconstruction approach for Microwave Tomography (MWT). Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) models were created for a viable MWT experimental system having the transceivers modelled using thin wire approximation with resistive voltage sources. Born Iterative and Distorted Born Iterative methods have been employed for image reconstruction with the extremity imaging being done using a differential imaging technique. The forward solver in the imaging algorithm employs the FDTD method of solving the time domain Maxwell's equations with the regularisation parameter computed using a stochastic approach. The algorithm is tested with 10% noise inclusion and successful image reconstruction has been shown implying its robustness.

  7. THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF READINESS OF TEACHERS IN VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS TO IMPLEMENT STUDENT-CENTERED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Tkachuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problem of readiness for professional (educational activity of teachers in vocational schools. The paper determines the relevance of readiness of teachers of special subjects of vocational schools to personality-oriented professional interaction with students and singled pedagogical conditions that determine this process. The analysis of psychological and pedagogical literature on the interpretation of the concepts of "readiness" and "commitment to the professional (educational activities" is conducted. The features of this type of activity are revealed. It is determined that in the modern branch of science the phenomenon of readiness for professional work is studied at the personal, functional and personal-activity levels. The author suggests the generalized definition of "readiness for professional (teaching activity" in the context of personal interaction between the participants of the educational process of vocational school.

  8. Backward Dependencies and in-Situ wh-Questions as Test Cases on How to Approach Experimental Linguistics Research That Pursues Theoretical Linguistics Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablos, Leticia; Doetjes, Jenny; Cheng, Lisa L-S

    2017-01-01

    The empirical study of language is a young field in contemporary linguistics. This being the case, and following a natural development process, the field is currently at a stage where different research methods and experimental approaches are being put into question in terms of their validity. Without pretending to provide an answer with respect to the best way to conduct linguistics related experimental research, in this article we aim at examining the process that researchers follow in the design and implementation of experimental linguistics research with a goal to validate specific theoretical linguistic analyses. First, we discuss the general challenges that experimental work faces in finding a compromise between addressing theoretically relevant questions and being able to implement these questions in a specific controlled experimental paradigm. We discuss the Granularity Mismatch Problem (Poeppel and Embick, 2005) which addresses the challenges that research that is trying to bridge the representations and computations of language and their psycholinguistic/neurolinguistic evidence faces, and the basic assumptions that interdisciplinary research needs to consider due to the different conceptual granularity of the objects under study. To illustrate the practical implications of the points addressed, we compare two approaches to perform linguistic experimental research by reviewing a number of our own studies strongly grounded on theoretically informed questions. First, we show how linguistic phenomena similar at a conceptual level can be tested within the same language using measurement of event-related potentials (ERP) by discussing results from two ERP experiments on the processing of long-distance backward dependencies that involve coreference and negative polarity items respectively in Dutch. Second, we examine how the same linguistic phenomenon can be tested in different languages using reading time measures by discussing the outcome of four self

  9. Backward Dependencies and in-Situ wh-Questions as Test Cases on How to Approach Experimental Linguistics Research That Pursues Theoretical Linguistics Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablos, Leticia; Doetjes, Jenny; Cheng, Lisa L.-S.

    2018-01-01

    The empirical study of language is a young field in contemporary linguistics. This being the case, and following a natural development process, the field is currently at a stage where different research methods and experimental approaches are being put into question in terms of their validity. Without pretending to provide an answer with respect to the best way to conduct linguistics related experimental research, in this article we aim at examining the process that researchers follow in the design and implementation of experimental linguistics research with a goal to validate specific theoretical linguistic analyses. First, we discuss the general challenges that experimental work faces in finding a compromise between addressing theoretically relevant questions and being able to implement these questions in a specific controlled experimental paradigm. We discuss the Granularity Mismatch Problem (Poeppel and Embick, 2005) which addresses the challenges that research that is trying to bridge the representations and computations of language and their psycholinguistic/neurolinguistic evidence faces, and the basic assumptions that interdisciplinary research needs to consider due to the different conceptual granularity of the objects under study. To illustrate the practical implications of the points addressed, we compare two approaches to perform linguistic experimental research by reviewing a number of our own studies strongly grounded on theoretically informed questions. First, we show how linguistic phenomena similar at a conceptual level can be tested within the same language using measurement of event-related potentials (ERP) by discussing results from two ERP experiments on the processing of long-distance backward dependencies that involve coreference and negative polarity items respectively in Dutch. Second, we examine how the same linguistic phenomenon can be tested in different languages using reading time measures by discussing the outcome of four self

  10. Backward Dependencies and in-Situ wh-Questions as Test Cases on How to Approach Experimental Linguistics Research That Pursues Theoretical Linguistics Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Pablos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The empirical study of language is a young field in contemporary linguistics. This being the case, and following a natural development process, the field is currently at a stage where different research methods and experimental approaches are being put into question in terms of their validity. Without pretending to provide an answer with respect to the best way to conduct linguistics related experimental research, in this article we aim at examining the process that researchers follow in the design and implementation of experimental linguistics research with a goal to validate specific theoretical linguistic analyses. First, we discuss the general challenges that experimental work faces in finding a compromise between addressing theoretically relevant questions and being able to implement these questions in a specific controlled experimental paradigm. We discuss the Granularity Mismatch Problem (Poeppel and Embick, 2005 which addresses the challenges that research that is trying to bridge the representations and computations of language and their psycholinguistic/neurolinguistic evidence faces, and the basic assumptions that interdisciplinary research needs to consider due to the different conceptual granularity of the objects under study. To illustrate the practical implications of the points addressed, we compare two approaches to perform linguistic experimental research by reviewing a number of our own studies strongly grounded on theoretically informed questions. First, we show how linguistic phenomena similar at a conceptual level can be tested within the same language using measurement of event-related potentials (ERP by discussing results from two ERP experiments on the processing of long-distance backward dependencies that involve coreference and negative polarity items respectively in Dutch. Second, we examine how the same linguistic phenomenon can be tested in different languages using reading time measures by discussing the outcome of

  11. A Theoretical Framework for Media Law Courses (Approaches to Teaching Freedom of Expression).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helle, Steven

    1991-01-01

    Suggests that most students prefer teachers have a theme that provides coherence and cohesiveness to media law courses. Explains how libertarian and neoliberal themes can guide learning and enumerates some of the principles of the two theories. Identifies drawbacks of the case analysis approach to such courses. (SG)

  12. Free radical scavenging and COX-2 inhibition by simple colon metabolites of polyphenols: A theoretical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amić, Ana; Marković, Zoran; Marković, Jasmina M Dimitrić; Jeremić, Svetlana; Lučić, Bono; Amić, Dragan

    2016-12-01

    Free radical scavenging and inhibitory potency against cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) by two abundant colon metabolites of polyphenols, i.e., 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (3-HPAA) and 4-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid (4-HPPA) were theoretically studied. Different free radical scavenging mechanisms are investigated in water and pentyl ethanoate as a solvent. By considering electronic properties of scavenged free radicals, hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) and sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET) mechanisms are found to be thermodynamically probable and competitive processes in both media. The Gibbs free energy change for reaction of inactivation of free radicals indicates 3-HPAA and 4-HPPA as potent scavengers. Their reactivity toward free radicals was predicted to decrease as follows: hydroxyl>alkoxyls>phenoxyl≈peroxyls>superoxide. Shown free radical scavenging potency of 3-HPAA and 4-HPPA along with their high μM concentration produced by microbial colon degradation of polyphenols could enable at least in situ inactivation of free radicals. Docking analysis with structural forms of 3-HPAA and 4-HPPA indicates dianionic ligands as potent inhibitors of COX-2, an inducible enzyme involved in colon carcinogenesis. Obtained results suggest that suppressing levels of free radicals and COX-2 could be achieved by 3-HPAA and 4-HPPA indicating that these compounds may contribute to reduced risk of colon cancer development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Perturbative Field-Theoretical Renormalization Group Approach to Driven-Dissipative Bose-Einstein Criticality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe C. Täuber

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The universal critical behavior of the driven-dissipative nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein condensation transition is investigated employing the field-theoretical renormalization group method. Such criticality may be realized in broad ranges of driven open systems on the interface of quantum optics and many-body physics, from exciton-polariton condensates to cold atomic gases. The starting point is a noisy and dissipative Gross-Pitaevski equation corresponding to a complex-valued Landau-Ginzburg functional, which captures the near critical nonequilibrium dynamics, and generalizes model A for classical relaxational dynamics with nonconserved order parameter. We confirm and further develop the physical picture previously established by means of a functional renormalization group study of this system. Complementing this earlier numerical analysis, we analytically compute the static and dynamical critical exponents at the condensation transition to lowest nontrivial order in the dimensional ε expansion about the upper critical dimension d_{c}=4 and establish the emergence of a novel universal scaling exponent associated with the nonequilibrium drive. We also discuss the corresponding situation for a conserved order parameter field, i.e., (subdiffusive model B with complex coefficients.

  14. An experimental and theoretical approach to the study of the photoacoustic signal produced by cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pérez Solano

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The distinctive spectral absorption characteristics of cancer cells make photoacoustic techniques useful for detection in vitro and in vivo. Here we report on our evaluation of the photoacoustic signal produced by a series of monolayers of different cell lines in vitro. Only the melanoma cell line HS936 produced a detectable photoacoustic signal in which amplitude was dependent on the number of cells. This finding appears to be related to the amount of melanin available in these cells. Other cell lines (i.e. HL60, SK-Mel-1, T47D, Hela, HT29 and PC12 exhibited values similar to a precursor of melanin (tyrosinase, but failed to produce sufficient melanin to generate a photoacoustic signal that could be distinguished from background noise. To better understand this phenomenon, we determined a formula for the time-domain photoacoustic wave equation for a monolayer of cells in a non-viscous fluid on the thermoelastic regime. The theoretical results showed that the amplitude and profile of the photoacoustic signal generated by a cell monolayer depended upon the number and distribution of the cells and the location of the point of detection. These findings help to provide a better understanding of the factors involved in the generation of a photoacoustic signal produced by different cells in vitro and in vivo.

  15. [Specific developmental language disorder: a theoretical approach to its diagnosis, aetiology and clinical symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Rebolledo, R; Giraldo-Prieto, M; Hincapié-Henao, L; Lopera, F; Pineda, D A

    This article presents an updated review about the definition, diagnostic criteria, classifications, etiology and the evolution of the specific language impairment (SLI). The specific language impairment is characterized by a developmental language delay and an impaired language, that persist over time and it is not explained by sensorial, motor and mental disabilities, neither by psycopathological disorders, socio-emotional deprivation, nor brain injury. The diagnosis is based on exclusional criteria. Some researchers propose different classifications considering the children performance in language comprehension and language production. Genetical linkage to the FOXP2 gen in the SPCH1 region of the chromosome 7 and to the chromosomes 13, 16 y 19 has been reported. The neuroimage studies have shown alterations in the volume and perfusion of some brain structures related to language. The manifestations of SLI may change during the development of the children and may disturb the self-esteem, the academic performance and the social abilities. The variability in the linguistic and cognitive performance, and the variety in the etiological findings in children with SLI, don't allow to settle the affected population as an homogeneous group. Different theoretical positions have emerged as a consequence of this condition.

  16. Theoretical approach to study the light particles induced production routes of 22Na

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eslami, M.; Kakavand, T.; Mirzaii, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Excitation function of 22 Na via thirty-three various reactions. • Various theoretical frameworks along with adjustments are employed in the calculations. • The results are given at energy range from the threshold up to 100 MeV. • The results are compared with each other and corresponding experimental data. - Abstract: To create a roadmap for the industrial-scale production of sodium-22, various production routes of this radioisotope involving light charged-particle-induced reactions at the bombarding energy range of threshold to a maximum of 100 MeV have been calculated. The excitation functions are calculated by using various nuclear models. Reaction pre-equilibrium process calculations have been made in the framework of the hybrid and geometry dependent hybrid models using ALICE/ASH code, and in the framework of the exciton model using TALYS-1.4 code. To calculate the compound nucleus evaporation process, both Weisskopf–Ewing and Hauser–Feshbach theories have been employed. The cross sections have also separately been estimated with five different level density models at the whole projectile energies. A comparison with calculations based on the codes, on one hand, and experimental data, on the other hand, is arranged and discussed

  17. Annual Gross Primary Production from Vegetation Indices: A Theoretically Sound Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Amparo Gilabert

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A linear relationship between the annual gross primary production (GPP and a PAR-weighted vegetation index is theoretically derived from the Monteith equation. A semi-empirical model is then proposed to estimate the annual GPP from commonly available vegetation indices images and a representative PAR, which does not require actual meteorological data. A cross validation procedure is used to calibrate and validate the model predictions against reference data. As the calibration/validation process depends on the reference GPP product, the higher the quality of the reference GPP, the better the performance of the semi-empirical model. The annual GPP has been estimated at 1-km scale from MODIS NDVI and EVI images for eight years. Two reference data sets have been used: an optimized GPP product for the study area previously obtained and the MOD17A3 product. Different statistics show a good agreement between the estimates and the reference GPP data, with correlation coefficient around 0.9 and relative RMSE around 20%. The annual GPP is overestimated in semiarid areas and slightly underestimated in dense forest areas. With the above limitations, the model provides an excellent compromise between simplicity and accuracy for the calculation of long time series of annual GPP.

  18. Relativistic many-body theory a new field-theoretical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Lindgren, Ingvar

    2016-01-01

    This revised second edition of the author’s classic text offers readers a comprehensively updated review of relativistic atomic many-body theory, covering the many developments in the field since the publication of the original title.  In particular, a new final section extends the scope to cover the evaluation of QED effects for dynamical processes. The treatment of the book is based upon quantum-field theory, and demonstrates that when the procedure is carried to all orders of perturbation theory, two-particle systems are fully compatible with the relativistically covariant Bethe-Salpeter equation. This procedure can be applied to arbitrary open-shell systems, in analogy with the standard many-body theory, and it is also applicable to systems with more than two particles. Presently existing theoretical procedures for treating atomic systems are, in several cases, insufficient to explain the accurate experimental data recently obtained, particularly for highly charged ions. The main text is divided into...

  19. Rethinking theoretical approaches to stigma: a Framework Integrating Normative Influences on Stigma (FINIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescosolido, Bernice A; Martin, Jack K; Lang, Annie; Olafsdottir, Sigrun

    2008-08-01

    A resurgence of research and policy efforts on stigma both facilitates and forces a reconsideration of the levels and types of factors that shape reactions to persons with conditions that engender prejudice and discrimination. Focusing on the case of mental illness but drawing from theories and studies of stigma across the social sciences, we propose a framework that brings together theoretical insights from micro, meso and macro level research: Framework Integrating Normative Influences on Stigma (FINIS) starts with Goffman's notion that understanding stigma requires a language of social relationships, but acknowledges that individuals do not come to social interaction devoid of affect and motivation. Further, all social interactions take place in a context in which organizations, media and larger cultures structure normative expectations which create the possibility of marking "difference". Labelling theory, social network theory, the limited capacity model of media influence, the social psychology of prejudice and discrimination, and theories of the welfare state all contribute to an understanding of the complex web of expectations shaping stigma. FINIS offers the potential to build a broad-based scientific foundation based on understanding the effects of stigma on the lives of persons with mental illness, the resources devoted to the organizations and families who care for them, and policies and programs designed to combat stigma. We end by discussing the clear implications this framework holds for stigma reduction, even in the face of conflicting results.

  20. A Bayesian Decision-Theoretic Approach to Logically-Consistent Hypothesis Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Miranda da Silva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses an important issue regarding the performance of simultaneous test procedures: the construction of multiple tests that at the same time are optimal from a statistical perspective and that also yield logically-consistent results that are easy to communicate to practitioners of statistical methods. For instance, if hypothesis A implies hypothesis B, is it possible to create optimal testing procedures that reject A whenever they reject B? Unfortunately, several standard testing procedures fail in having such logical consistency. Although this has been deeply investigated under a frequentist perspective, the literature lacks analyses under a Bayesian paradigm. In this work, we contribute to the discussion by investigating three rational relationships under a Bayesian decision-theoretic standpoint: coherence, invertibility and union consonance. We characterize and illustrate through simple examples optimal Bayes tests that fulfill each of these requisites separately. We also explore how far one can go by putting these requirements together. We show that although fairly intuitive tests satisfy both coherence and invertibility, no Bayesian testing scheme meets the desiderata as a whole, strengthening the understanding that logical consistency cannot be combined with statistical optimality in general. Finally, we associate Bayesian hypothesis testing with Bayes point estimation procedures. We prove the performance of logically-consistent hypothesis testing by means of a Bayes point estimator to be optimal only under very restrictive conditions.

  1. Filling Source Feedthrus with Alumina/Molybdenum CND50 Cermet: Experimental, Theoretical, and Computational Approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STUECKER, JOHN N.; CESARANO III, JOSEPH; CORRAL, ERICA LORRANE; SHOLLENBERGER, KIM ANN; ROACH, R. ALLEN; TORCZYNSKI, JOHN R.; THOMAS, EDWARD V.; VAN ORNUM, DAVID J.

    2001-01-01

    This report is a summary of the work completed in FY00 for science-based characterization of the processes used to fabricate cermet vias in source feedthrus. In particular, studies were completed to characterize the CND50 cermet slurry, characterize solvent imbibition, and identify critical via filling variables. These three areas of interest are important to several processes pertaining to the production of neutron generator tubes. Rheological characterization of CND50 slurry prepared with 94ND2 and Sandi94 primary powders were also compared. The 94ND2 powder was formerly produced at the GE Pinellas Plant and the Sandi94 is the new replacement powder produced at CeramTec. Processing variables that may effect the via-filling process were also studied and include: the effect of solids loading in the CND50 slurry; the effect of milling time; and the effect of Nuosperse (a slurry ''conditioner''). Imbibition characterization included a combination of experimental, theoretical, and computational strategies to determine solvent migration though complex shapes, specifically vias in the source feedthru component. Critical factors were determined using a controlled set of experiments designed to identify those variables that influence the occurrence of defects within the cermet filled via. These efforts were pursued to increase part production reliability, understand selected fundamental issues that impact the production of slurry-filled parts, and validate the ability of the computational fluid dynamics code, GOMA, to simulate these processes. Suggestions are made for improving the slurry filling of source feedthru vias

  2. Theoretical Framework of Organizational Intelligence: A Managerial Approach to Promote Renewable Energy in Rural Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Istudor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The companies involved in the energy sector must reinvent themselves to be innovative and adaptable to contemporary environmental changes. The promotion of renewable energy in rural communities is a great challenge for these companies. They should focus on improving the environment scanning actions and the knowledge management (KM system and enhancing the collective intelligence to avoid the loss of information, to foster innovation, and to maintain a competitive advantage. To achieve these goals, energy companies require appropriate management tools and practices. The purpose of this study is to propose a theoretical framework of organizational intelligence (OI supported by a cross-perspective analysis of various aspects: economic intelligence (EI and KM practices, entropy processes, and organizational enablers. A pilot investigation for testing the framework in the case of Transelectrica S.A. has been elaborated. The findings reveal that the elements of the OI framework are embedded in Transelectrica’s system and they need to be further developed. As an intelligent company acting in the Romanian energy market, Transelectrica has a higher potential to promote projects in the renewable energy sector. The main conclusion highlights that OI is a multidimensional construct that provides the organization the ability to deal with environmental challenges in a “new economy”.

  3. Margins of freedom: a field-theoretic approach to class-based health dispositions and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Patrick John; Veenstra, Gerry

    2017-09-01

    Pierre Bourdieu's theory of practice situates social practices in the relational interplay between experiential mental phenomena (habitus), resources (capitals) and objective social structures (fields). When applied to class-based practices in particular, the overarching field of power within which social classes are potentially made manifest is the primary field of interest. Applying relational statistical techniques to original survey data from Toronto and Vancouver, Canada, we investigated whether smoking, engaging in physical activity and consuming fruit and vegetables are dispersed in a three-dimensional field of power shaped by economic and cultural capitals and cultural dispositions and practices. We find that aesthetic dispositions and flexibility of developing and established dispositions are associated with positioning in the Canadian field of power and embedded in the logics of the health practices dispersed in the field. From this field-theoretic perspective, behavioural change requires the disruption of existing relations of harmony between the habitus of agents, the fields within which the practices are enacted and the capitals that inform and enforce the mores and regularities of the fields. The three-dimensional model can be explored at: http://relational-health.ca/margins-freedom. © 2017 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  4. A Game-Theoretic approach to Fault Diagnosis of Hybrid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Bresolin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical systems can fail. For this reason the problem of identifying and reacting to faults has received a large attention in the control and computer science communities. In this paper we study the fault diagnosis problem for hybrid systems from a game-theoretical point of view. A hybrid system is a system mixing continuous and discrete behaviours that cannot be faithfully modeled neither by using a formalism with continuous dynamics only nor by a formalism including only discrete dynamics. We use the well known framework of hybrid automata for modeling hybrid systems, and we define a Fault Diagnosis Game on them, using two players: the environment and the diagnoser. The environment controls the evolution of the system and chooses whether and when a fault occurs. The diagnoser observes the external behaviour of the system and announces whether a fault has occurred or not. Existence of a winning strategy for the diagnoser implies that faults can be detected correctly, while computing such a winning strategy corresponds to implement a diagnoser for the system. We will show how to determine the existence of a winning strategy, and how to compute it, for some decidable classes of hybrid automata like o-minimal hybrid automata.

  5. An information theoretic approach to use high-fidelity codes to calibrate low-fidelity codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Allison, E-mail: lewis.allison10@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Smith, Ralph [Department of Mathematics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Williams, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Figueroa, Victor [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    For many simulation models, it can be prohibitively expensive or physically infeasible to obtain a complete set of experimental data to calibrate model parameters. In such cases, one can alternatively employ validated higher-fidelity codes to generate simulated data, which can be used to calibrate the lower-fidelity code. In this paper, we employ an information-theoretic framework to determine the reduction in parameter uncertainty that is obtained by evaluating the high-fidelity code at a specific set of design conditions. These conditions are chosen sequentially, based on the amount of information that they contribute to the low-fidelity model parameters. The goal is to employ Bayesian experimental design techniques to minimize the number of high-fidelity code evaluations required to accurately calibrate the low-fidelity model. We illustrate the performance of this framework using heat and diffusion examples, a 1-D kinetic neutron diffusion equation, and a particle transport model, and include initial results from the integration of the high-fidelity thermal-hydraulics code Hydra-TH with a low-fidelity exponential model for the friction correlation factor.

  6. On the Users’ Acceptance of IoT Systems: A Theoretical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rino Falcone

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the next future the IoT system will introduce extraordinary changes in our daily life. We will communicate with our domestic appliances to inform them about our preferences and goals and they will develop initiative and autonomy to be put at our service. But are we sure that we can afford all the automation they could offer? Are we able to manage it? Is it compatible with our cognitive attitudes and our actual and real goals? In this paper, we face the question of the IoT from the point of view of the user. We start analyzing which reasons undermine the acceptance of IoT systems and then we propose a possible solution. The first contribution of this work is the level characterization of the autonomy a user can grant to an IoT device. The second contribution is a theoretical model to deal with users and to stimulate users’ acceptance. By the means of simulation, we show how the model works and we prove that it leads the system to an optimal solution.

  7. Design of new triphenylamine-sensitized solar cells: a theoretical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preat, Julien; Jacquemin, Denis; Perpète, Eric A

    2010-07-15

    This work reports a theoretical study of the photovoltaic properties of a series of original conjugated metal-free organic dyes containing the triphenylamine (TPA) moiety. These compounds have recently been develop for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Our (TD)DFT-based procedure made it possible to get insights into the geometrical and electronic structures of the dyes and to unravel the structural modifications optimizing the properties of TPA-based DSSCs. In particular, we aimed at improving the electron injection process as well as the light harvesting efficiency of the dyes. On the other hand, molecular dynamic (MD) investigations of the kinetics of the regeneration step have been performed for both "classical" (CHCl(3)/I(3)(-)/I(-)/Li(+)) and iodide imidazolium-based solvent-free electrolytes (DMII(+)/I(-)). The MD simulations helped to understand the regeneration mechanism for the solvent-free electrolyte: it combines the DMII(+)/DMII(0) couple to the I(3)(-)/I(-) redox system which acts as a "mediator".

  8. Relativistic Many-Body Theory A New Field-Theoretical Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Lindgren, Ingvar

    2011-01-01

    Relativistic Many-Body Theory treats — for the first time — the combination of relativistic atomic many-body theory with quantum-electrodynamics (QED) in a unified manner. This book can be regarded as a continuation of the book by Lindgren and Morrison, Atomic Many-Body Theory (Springer 1986), which deals with the non-relativistic theory of many-electron systems, describing several means of treating the electron correlation to essentially all orders of perturbation theory. The treatment of the present book is based upon quantum-field theory, and demonstrates that when the procedure is carried to all orders of perturbation theory, two-particle systems are fully compatible with the relativistically covariant Bethe-Salpeter equation. This procedure can be applied to arbitrary open-shell systems, in analogy with the standard many-body theory, and it is also applicable to systems with more than two particles. Presently existing theoretical procedures for treating atomic systems are, in several cases, insuffici...

  9. Development of theoretical oxygen saturation calibration curve based on optical density ratio and optical simulation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumadi, Nur Anida; Beng, Gan Kok; Ali, Mohd Alauddin Mohd; Zahedi, Edmond; Morsin, Marlia

    2017-09-01

    The implementation of surface-based Monte Carlo simulation technique for oxygen saturation (SaO2) calibration curve estimation is demonstrated in this paper. Generally, the calibration curve is estimated either from the empirical study using animals as the subject of experiment or is derived from mathematical equations. However, the determination of calibration curve using animal is time consuming and requires expertise to conduct the experiment. Alternatively, an optical simulation technique has been used widely in the biomedical optics field due to its capability to exhibit the real tissue behavior. The mathematical relationship between optical density (OD) and optical density ratios (ODR) associated with SaO2 during systole and diastole is used as the basis of obtaining the theoretical calibration curve. The optical properties correspond to systolic and diastolic behaviors were applied to the tissue model to mimic the optical properties of the tissues. Based on the absorbed ray flux at detectors, the OD and ODR were successfully calculated. The simulation results of optical density ratio occurred at every 20 % interval of SaO2 is presented with maximum error of 2.17 % when comparing it with previous numerical simulation technique (MC model). The findings reveal the potential of the proposed method to be used for extended calibration curve study using other wavelength pair.

  10. COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN TRADITIONAL AND ENTERPRISE RISK MANAGEMENT -A THEORETICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cican Simona-Iulia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The complexity, volatility and unpredictability of the current economic environment are a daily reminder that organizations face many risks. The traditional approach, according to which risk is a necessary evil which must be removed, is no longer sufficient and that is why companies nowadays are forced to spend significant resources to manage risks. Risk transparency is what one looks for; therefore, identification and management of risks within an organization become increasingly necessary for success and longevity. Risk approach has a major role in a company’s ability to avoid, reduce and turn risks into opportunities. Enterprise risk management is a new concept that revolutionizes the traditional approach and summarizes risk management in an integrated, comprehensive and strategic system. Studies use several synonyms for enterprise risk management such as integrated risk management, holistic risk management, global risk management and strategic risk management. Enterprise risk management implements at the end of the last century a new way to deal with risks: the holistic approach. This risks approach – i.e. interaction of several types of risks which become increasingly threatening and varied and may cause more damage than individual risk – brings forward the need of risk management and raises issues at the highest level of company management. For a proper view on company risks, each individual risk and the possibility of risk interaction must be understood. This is essential to establish a risk classification according to their impact on the company. Traditional approach on risk management, as a management function, is limited to only threats and losses, so relatively few organizations see risks as potential earning-generated opportunities. However, risk management process is not radically changed. Enterprise risk management is an improved version of the traditional risk management, created by expanding its scope. The new risk

  11. Modern approaches for the theoretical description of multiparticle scattering and nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukulin, V. I.; Rubtsova, O. A.

    2012-01-01

    A review of novel approaches to solution of multiparticle scattering problems in the area above three-body breakup together with the review of new computational technologies which provide very effective and ultrafast realization of the novel approaches with ordinary PC are given. The novel direction presented here is based on two key points: a new formulation of the quantum scattering theory in a discrete Hilbert space of stationary wave packets and the massive-parallel solution of the resulted matrix equations with usage of ultrafast graphic processors (the so called GPU-computations). For the reader’s convenience, a short review of the modern GPU calculations for the medicine, physics, military applications etc. is presented.

  12. Theoretical aspects of self-assembly of proteins: A Kirkwood-Buff-theory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Naim, Arieh

    2013-06-01

    A new approach to the problem of self-assembly of proteins induced by temperature, pressure, or changes in solute concentration is presented. The problem is formulated in terms of Le Chatelier principle, and a solution is sought in terms of the Kirkwood-Buff theory of solutions. In this article we focus on the pressure and solute effects on the association-dissociation equilibrium. We examine the role of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic effects. We argue that the latter are more important than the former. The solute effect, on the other hand, depends on the preferential solvation of the monomer and the aggregate with respect to solvent and co-solvent molecules. An experimental approach based on model compounds to study these effects is suggested.

  13. A theoretical basis of the approach for the magnetic field penetration measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezotosnyi, P I; Gavrilkin, S Yu; Ivanenko, O M; Mitsen, K V; Tsvetkov, A Yu

    2016-01-01

    An approach for the assessment of London penetration depth of superconducting films is proposed. This approach is based on the analysis of linear response of the sample to a local low-frequency alternating magnetic field generated by the measuring coil disposed near the film surface. A visual “electrical engineering” model of induced currents distribution in the superconductor taking into account the kinetic inductance was developed for a description of this response. The possibility of determining of the penetration depth from changing the inductance of the system “coil-sample” is shown in the framework of this model. The sensitivity of the proposed method for the films with different thicknesses is considered. (paper)

  14. Finite element methods for engineering sciences. Theoretical approach and problem solving techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaskalovic, J. [Ariel University Center of Samaria (Israel); Pierre and Marie Curie (Paris VI) Univ., 75 (France). Inst. Jean le Rond d' Alembert

    2008-07-01

    This self-tutorial offers a concise yet thorough grounding in the mathematics necessary for successfully applying FEMs to practical problems in science and engineering. The unique approach first summarizes and outlines the finite-element mathematics in general and then, in the second and major part, formulates problem examples that clearly demonstrate the techniques of functional analysis via numerous and diverse exercises. The solutions of the problems are given directly afterwards. Using this approach, the author motivates and encourages the reader to actively acquire the knowledge of finite- element methods instead of passively absorbing the material, as in most standard textbooks. The enlarged English-language edition, based on the original French, also contains a chapter on the approximation steps derived from the description of nature with differential equations and then applied to the specific model to be used. Furthermore, an introduction to tensor calculus using distribution theory offers further insight for readers with different mathematical backgrounds. (orig.)

  15. Systemic-constructivist couple therapy (SCCT): Description of approach, theoretical advances, and published longitudinal evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, David W; Doell, Faye K; Dalton, E Jane; Ahmad, Saunia

    2008-12-01

    The systemic-constructivist approach to studying and benefiting couples was derived from qualitative and quantitative research on distressed couples over the past 10 years. Systemic-constructivist couple therapy (SCCT) is the clinical intervention that accompanies the approach. SCCT guides the therapist to work with both the intrapersonal and the interpersonal aspects of marriage while also integrating the social-environmental context of the couple. The theory that underlies SCCT is explained, including concepts such as we-ness and interpersonal processing. The primary components of the therapy are described. Findings described previously in an inaugural monograph containing extensive research demonstrating the long-term utility of SCCT are reviewed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Social representations: a theoretical approach in health - doi:10.5020/18061230.2011.p80

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaiane Santos Bittencourt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present the theory of social representations, placing its epistemology and knowing the basic concepts of its approach as a structural unit of knowledge for health studies. Justification: The use of this theory comes from the need to understand social events under the lens of the meanings constructed by the community. Data Synthesis: This was a descriptive study of literature review, which used as a source of data collection the classical authors of social representations supported by articles from electronic search at Virtual Health Library (VHL. The definition and discussion of collected data enabled to introduce two themes, versed on the history and epistemology of representations and on the structural approach of representations in health studies. Conclusion: This review allowed highlight the importance of locating the objects of study with regard to contextual issues of individual and collective histories, valuing the plurality of relations, to come closer to reality that is represented by the subjects.

  17. THE QUALITY OF HUMAN RESOURCES – A REQUEST FOR HOTEL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT. A THEORETICAL APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Arustei Carmen Claudia

    2013-01-01

    In this article we focus on the importance of human resource quality from hotel industry in obtaining quality services and further more in obtaining hotel industry development. We address this issue due to the fact that, usually, when talking about tourism or hotel industry development, the literature in the field offers macro solutions like, infrastructure development, service/product development and/or improving service quality. We consider that a micro approach is also important and from t...

  18. On Cyber Risk Management of Blockchain Networks: A Game Theoretic Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Shaohan; Wang, Wenbo; Xiong, Zehui; Niyato, Dusit; Wang, Ping; Wang, Shaun Shuxun

    2018-01-01

    Open-access blockchains based on proof-of-work protocols have gained tremendous popularity for their capabilities of providing decentralized tamper-proof ledgers and platforms for data-driven autonomous organization. Nevertheless, the proof-of-work based consensus protocols are vulnerable to cyber-attacks such as double-spending. In this paper, we propose a novel approach of cyber risk management for blockchain-based service. In particular, we adopt the cyber-insurance as an economic tool for...

  19. Prediction of the dollar to the ruble rate. A system-theoretic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodachev, Sergey M.

    2017-07-01

    Proposed a simple state-space model of dollar rate formation based on changes in oil prices and some mechanisms of money transfer between monetary and stock markets. Comparison of predictions by means of input-output model and state-space model is made. It concludes that with proper use of statistical data (Kalman filter) the second approach provides more adequate predictions of the dollar rate.

  20. A Spatial Analysis and Game Theoretical Approach Over the Disputed Islands in the Aegean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    sovereignty of the “Gray Zone Islands” comes forth as the basic conflict between the two countries. This thesis proposes an approach to reconcile this...Thrace. It holds a very important position providing one of the major trade routes between the Eastern and Western worlds. It is the only way to the...disputed islands (Gray Zone Islands) During the 20th century, tensions between both countries have been strained by these issues. Furthermore, the two

  1. Planning additional drilling campaign using two-space genetic algorithm: A game theoretical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumral, Mustafa; Ozer, Umit

    2013-03-01

    Grade and tonnage are the most important technical uncertainties in mining ventures because of the use of estimations/simulations, which are mostly generated from drill data. Open pit mines are planned and designed on the basis of the blocks representing the entire orebody. Each block has different estimation/simulation variance reflecting uncertainty to some extent. The estimation/simulation realizations are submitted to mine production scheduling process. However, the use of a block model with varying estimation/simulation variances will lead to serious risk in the scheduling. In the medium of multiple simulations, the dispersion variances of blocks can be thought to regard technical uncertainties. However, the dispersion variance cannot handle uncertainty associated with varying estimation/simulation variances of blocks. This paper proposes an approach that generates the configuration of the best additional drilling campaign to generate more homogenous estimation/simulation variances of blocks. In other words, the objective is to find the best drilling configuration in such a way as to minimize grade uncertainty under budget constraint. Uncertainty measure of the optimization process in this paper is interpolation variance, which considers data locations and grades. The problem is expressed as a minmax problem, which focuses on finding the best worst-case performance i.e., minimizing interpolation variance of the block generating maximum interpolation variance. Since the optimization model requires computing the interpolation variances of blocks being simulated/estimated in each iteration, the problem cannot be solved by standard optimization tools. This motivates to use two-space genetic algorithm (GA) approach to solve the problem. The technique has two spaces: feasible drill hole configuration with minimization of interpolation variance and drill hole simulations with maximization of interpolation variance. Two-space interacts to find a minmax solution

  2. Improving the GIS-DRP Approach by Means of DelineatingRunoff Characteristics with New Discharge Relevant Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Hümann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available At present it is common to use geographic information system (GIS applications to assess runoff generation. One of these GIS-based tools to generate maps of dominant runoff processes is the so called GIS-DRP approach. The tool, which has been developed mainly based on agricultural areas, uses commonly available input data like a digital elevation model (DEM, geological information as well as land use information. The aim of this study is to test, validate and improve this GIS-DRP method for forested and silviculture areas. Hence, soil-hydrologic investigations and several mapping techniques of dominant runoff processes were conducted on 25 test-plots in four forested catchments in Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. By comparing the results of the mapping techniques and those of the test plots, weak points in the original GIS-DRP method were detected. Subsequently, it was possible to enhance the GIS-DRP approach by incorporating new discharge relevant parameters like topsoil sealing, extreme weather events and semipermeability of the substratum. Moreover, the improved GIS-DRP approach can be widely used in different landscapes and for different fields of application. The adapted method can now support foresters and decision makers in forestry planning, answer questions concerning the landscape water balance and peripheral water retention or provide extra information for sustainable forest planning in times of a changing climate.

  3. Inelastic molecular collisions: application of theoretical methods to problems relevant to laser operation. Progress report, February 1, 1976--November 1, 1976. [Summary of research activities at Princeton Univ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabitz, H

    1976-01-01

    The main goals of this research are to develop and implement various techniques for describing molecular collision phenomena. The aim is to achieve sufficient understanding of these processes such that collision rates of interest (e.g., for gas lasers) may be reliably estimated. Several areas of research are being explored to achieve this goal. The specific molecular systems of H/sub 2/-H/sub 2/, HF-He, HF-Ar and HCl-Ar are being studied as examples of inelastic molecular collisions. In addition, during the past year further theoretical development was conducted in the area of decomposition techniques and effective Hamiltonian theory. Considerable progress was made in these various areas during the past year. This research represents a collaboration under this contract and with Professor R. Conn, University of Wisconsin, under contract AT(11-1)-2555. Much of the material in this report has been published or is presently in press (items indicated by * in the references).

  4. State and multilateralism, a theoretical approach. Transformations in a globalized international society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma González del Miño

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The State, classical international actor, has had to readaption to the new dynamics in the International Society and has given prominence to other actors. In this logic, it´s relevant to analyze the role in the international system after the Cold War to evaluare whether it is still an actor capable of responding to the functional needs of the society. For this, reaffirms its commitment to multilateralism as a response to the main issue on the international agenda. Namely, is reactivated as an ideal tool to manage structural changes, despite the different interpretations of United States, the European Union or the BRICS. The object of this analysis contribute to the academic debate and focuses on studying the transformations of the State in the globalized international society where multilateralism has become a concept discussed and a common practice in the international discourse, despite its complexity and the different visions and interpretations by different actors. Multilateralism granted the State a path of cooperation and understanding as a guiding principle and foreign policy legitimizing discourse.

  5. A Theoretical Approach to Electronic Prescription System: Lesson Learned from Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadbeik, Mahnaz; Ahmadi, Maryam; Hosseini Asanjan, Seyed Masoud

    2013-01-01

    Context The tendency to use advanced technology in healthcare and the governmental policies have put forward electronic prescription. Electronic prescription is considered as the main solution to overcome the major drawbacks of the paper-based medication prescription, such as transcription errors. This study aims to provide practical information concerning electronic prescription system to a variety of stakeholders. Evidence Acquisition In this review study, PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, EMBASE databases, Iranian National Library Of Medicine (INLM) portal, Google Scholar, Google and Yahoo were searched for relevant English publications concerning the problems of paper-based prescription, and concept, features, levels, benefits, stakeholders and standards of electronic prescription system. Results There are many problems with the paper prescription system which, according to studies have jeopardized patients’ safety and negatively affected the outcomes of medication therapy. All of these problems are remedied through the implementation of e-prescriptions. Conclusions The sophistication of electronic prescription and integration with EHR will become a reality, if all its stakeholders collaborate in developing fast and secure electronic prescription systems. It is plausible that the required infrastructure should be provided for implementation of the national integrated electronic prescription systems in countries without the system. Given the barriers to the implementation and use, policymakers should consider multiple strategies and offer incentives to encourage e-prescription initiatives. This will result in widespread adoption of the system. PMID:24693376

  6. Oxidative Stress Implications in the Affective Disorders: Main Biomarkers, Animal Models Relevance, Genetic Perspectives, and Antioxidant Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmus, Ioana Miruna; Ciobica, Alin; Antioch, Iulia; Dobrin, Romeo; Timofte, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The correlation between the affective disorders and the almost ubiquitous pathological oxidative stress can be described in a multifactorial way, as an important mechanism of central nervous system impairment. Whether the obvious changes which occur in oxidative balance of the affective disorders are a part of the constitutive mechanism or a collateral effect yet remains as an interesting question. However it is now clear that oxidative stress is a component of these disorders, being characterized by different aspects in a disease-dependent manner. Still, there are a lot of controversies regarding the relevance of the oxidative stress status in most of the affective disorders and despite the fact that most of the studies are showing that the affective disorders development can be correlated to increased oxidative levels, there are various studies stating that oxidative stress is not linked with the mood changing tendencies. Thus, in this minireview we decided to describe the way in which oxidative stress is involved in the affective disorders development, by focusing on the main oxidative stress markers that could be used mechanistically and therapeutically in these deficiencies, the genetic perspectives, some antioxidant approaches, and the relevance of some animal models studies in this context.

  7. Linear game non-contextuality and Bell inequalities—a graph-theoretic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosicka, M; Ramanathan, R; Gnaciński, P; Horodecki, M; Horodecki, K; Horodecki, P; Severini, S

    2016-01-01

    We study the classical and quantum values of a class of one- and two-party unique games, that generalizes the well-known XOR games to the case of non-binary outcomes. In the bipartite case the generalized XOR (XOR-d) games we study are a subclass of the well-known linear games. We introduce a ‘constraint graph’ associated to such a game, with the constraints defining the game represented by an edge-coloring of the graph. We use the graph-theoretic characterization to relate the task of finding equivalent games to the notion of signed graphs and switching equivalence from graph theory. We relate the problem of computing the classical value of single-party anti-correlation XOR games to finding the edge bipartization number of a graph, which is known to be MaxSNP hard, and connect the computation of the classical value of XOR-d games to the identification of specific cycles in the graph. We construct an orthogonality graph of the game from the constraint graph and study its Lovász theta number as a general upper bound on the quantum value even in the case of single-party contextual XOR-d games. XOR-d games possess appealing properties for use in device-independent applications such as randomness of the local correlated outcomes in the optimal quantum strategy. We study the possibility of obtaining quantum algebraic violation of these games, and show that no finite XOR-d game possesses the property of pseudo-telepathy leaving the frequently used chained Bell inequalities as the natural candidates for such applications. We also show this lack of pseudo-telepathy for multi-party XOR-type inequalities involving two-body correlation functions. (paper)

  8. Linear game non-contextuality and Bell inequalities—a graph-theoretic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosicka, M.; Ramanathan, R.; Gnaciński, P.; Horodecki, K.; Horodecki, M.; Horodecki, P.; Severini, S.

    2016-04-01

    We study the classical and quantum values of a class of one- and two-party unique games, that generalizes the well-known XOR games to the case of non-binary outcomes. In the bipartite case the generalized XOR (XOR-d) games we study are a subclass of the well-known linear games. We introduce a ‘constraint graph’ associated to such a game, with the constraints defining the game represented by an edge-coloring of the graph. We use the graph-theoretic characterization to relate the task of finding equivalent games to the notion of signed graphs and switching equivalence from graph theory. We relate the problem of computing the classical value of single-party anti-correlation XOR games to finding the edge bipartization number of a graph, which is known to be MaxSNP hard, and connect the computation of the classical value of XOR-d games to the identification of specific cycles in the graph. We construct an orthogonality graph of the game from the constraint graph and study its Lovász theta number as a general upper bound on the quantum value even in the case of single-party contextual XOR-d games. XOR-d games possess appealing properties for use in device-independent applications such as randomness of the local correlated outcomes in the optimal quantum strategy. We study the possibility of obtaining quantum algebraic violation of these games, and show that no finite XOR-d game possesses the property of pseudo-telepathy leaving the frequently used chained Bell inequalities as the natural candidates for such applications. We also show this lack of pseudo-telepathy for multi-party XOR-type inequalities involving two-body correlation functions.

  9. A Game-Theoretic Approach to Information-Flow Control via Protocol Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário S. Alvim

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In the inference attacks studied in Quantitative Information Flow (QIF, the attacker typically tries to interfere with the system in the attempt to increase its leakage of secret information. The defender, on the other hand, typically tries to decrease leakage by introducing some controlled noise. This noise introduction can be modeled as a type of protocol composition, i.e., a probabilistic choice among different protocols, and its effect on the amount of leakage depends heavily on whether or not this choice is visible to the attacker. In this work, we consider operators for modeling visible and hidden choice in protocol composition, and we study their algebraic properties. We then formalize the interplay between defender and attacker in a game-theoretic framework adapted to the specific issues of QIF, where the payoff is information leakage. We consider various kinds of leakage games, depending on whether players act simultaneously or sequentially, and on whether or not the choices of the defender are visible to the attacker. In the case of sequential games, the choice of the second player is generally a function of the choice of the first player, and his/her probabilistic choice can be either over the possible functions (mixed strategy or it can be on the result of the function (behavioral strategy. We show that when the attacker moves first in a sequential game with a hidden choice, then behavioral strategies are more advantageous for the defender than mixed strategies. This contrasts with the standard game theory, where the two types of strategies are equivalent. Finally, we establish a hierarchy of these games in terms of their information leakage and provide methods for finding optimal strategies (at the points of equilibrium for both attacker and defender in the various cases.

  10. Cell death following BNCT: A theoretical approach based on Monte Carlo simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballarini, F., E-mail: francesca.ballarini@pv.infn.it [University of Pavia, Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy)] [INFN (National Institute of Nuclear Physics)-Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy); Bakeine, J. [University of Pavia, Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy); Bortolussi, S. [University of Pavia, Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy)] [INFN (National Institute of Nuclear Physics)-Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy); Bruschi, P. [University of Pavia, Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy); Cansolino, L.; Clerici, A.M.; Ferrari, C. [University of Pavia, Department of Surgery, Experimental Surgery Laboratory, Pavia (Italy); Protti, N.; Stella, S. [University of Pavia, Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy)] [INFN (National Institute of Nuclear Physics)-Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy); Zonta, A.; Zonta, C. [University of Pavia, Department of Surgery, Experimental Surgery Laboratory, Pavia (Italy); Altieri, S. [University of Pavia, Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy)] [INFN (National Institute of Nuclear Physics)-Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    In parallel to boron measurements and animal studies, investigations on radiation-induced cell death are also in progress in Pavia, with the aim of better characterisation of the effects of a BNCT treatment down to the cellular level. Such studies are being carried out not only experimentally but also theoretically, based on a mechanistic model and a Monte Carlo code. Such model assumes that: (1) only clustered DNA strand breaks can lead to chromosome aberrations; (2) only chromosome fragments within a certain threshold distance can undergo misrejoining; (3) the so-called 'lethal aberrations' (dicentrics, rings and large deletions) lead to cell death. After applying the model to normal cells exposed to monochromatic fields of different radiation types, the irradiation section of the code was purposely extended to mimic the cell exposure to a mixed radiation field produced by the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}) {sup 7}Li reaction, which gives rise to alpha particles and Li ions of short range and high biological effectiveness, and by the {sup 14}N(n,p){sup 14}C reaction, which produces 0.58 MeV protons. Very good agreement between model predictions and literature data was found for human and animal cells exposed to X- or gamma-rays, protons and alpha particles, thus allowing to validate the model for cell death induced by monochromatic radiation fields. The model predictions showed good agreement also with experimental data obtained by our group exposing DHD cells to thermal neutrons in the TRIGA Mark II reactor of University of Pavia; this allowed to validate the model also for a BNCT exposure scenario, providing a useful predictive tool to bridge the gap between irradiation and cell death.

  11. Quantification of complex DNA damage by ionising radiation. An experimental and theoretical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulford, J.

    2000-05-01

    Ionising radiation potentially produces a broad spectrum of damage in DNA including single and double strand breaks (ssb and dsb) and base damages. It has been hypothesised that sites of complex damage within cellular DNA have particular biological significance due to an associated decreased efficiency in repair. The aim of this study is to gain further understanding of the formation of complex DNA damage. Irradiations of plasmid DNA illustrate that an increase in ionising density of the radiation results in a decrease in ssb yields/Gy but an increase in dsb per ssb, indicative of an increase in the number of complex damage sites per simple isolated damage site. As the mechanism for damage formation shifts from purely indirect at low scavenging capacities to a significant proportion of direct at higher scavenging capacities the proportion of complex damage increases. Comparisons with the yields of ssb and dsb simulated by Monte-Carlo calculations for Al K USX and α-particles also indicate this correspondence. The ionisation density of low energy, secondary electrons produced by photons was assessed experimentally from the dependence of the yield of OH radicals escaping intra-track recombination on photon energy. As energy decreases the OH radical yield initially decreases reflecting an increased ionisation density. However, with further decrease in photon energy the yield of OH radicals increases in line with theoretical calculations. Base damage yields were determined for low and high ionising density radiation over a range of scavenging capacities. As scavenging capacity increases the base damage: ssb ratios increases implying a contribution from electrons to base damage. It is proposed that base damage contributes to DNA damage complexity. Complex damage analysis reveals that at cell mimetic scavenging capacities, 23% and 72% of ssb have an additional spatially close damage site following γ-ray and α-particle irradiation respectively. (author)

  12. Excitation and ionization of hydrogen and helium atoms by femtosecond laser pulses: theoretical approach by Coulomb-Volkov states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guichard, R.

    2007-12-01

    We present a theoretical approach using Coulomb-Volkov states that appears useful for the study of atomic multi-photonic processes induced by intense XUV femtosecond laser pulses. It predicts hydrogen ionization spectra when it is irradiated by laser pulses in perturbations conditions. Three ways have been investigated. Extension to strong fields when ℎω > I p : it requires to include the hydrogen ground state population, introducing it in standard Coulomb-Volkov amplitude leads to saturated multi-photonic ionization. Extension to multi-photonic transitions with ℎω p : new quantum paths are open by the possibility to excite the lower hydrogen bound states. Multiphoton excitation of these states is investigated using a Coulomb-Volkov approach. Extension to helium: two-photon double ionization study shows the influence of electronic correlations in both ground and final state. Huge quantity of information such as angular and energetic distributions as well as total cross sections is available. (author)

  13. Generalised analysis of the potential of an enterprise as a function of environmental parameters (theoretical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karapeychik Igor M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Within the frameworks of the author’s concept of the potential of an enterprise as the ability to conduct its immanently appropriate activity and also the idea of presentation of the size of the potential in the form of potential function from parameters of the state of an enterprise and foreign economic environment the article develops a scientific and methodical approach to construction and analysis of the potential function of an enterprise. The offered approach envisages building an economic and mathematical model of an enterprise of the optimisation type with consideration of environmental factors, determination of the size of economic potential as a maximum possible (optimal with the set condition of an enterprise and external environment of net income, statistical test of the model with possible values of external parameters (formation of statistical sampling of the graph of the potential function of an enterprise and application of statistical methods including methods of correlation, factor and regression analysis, for the study of its properties. Operability of this approach is shown on the example of the study of properties of the potential function of a model enterprise. In the course of approbation the article demonstrates its ability to reveal specific features of impact of external factors on economic potential of an enterprise; establishes, as a common regularity, differential influence of various environmental factors, caused not only by the nature of these factors, but also production and economic specific features and specific state of an enterprise. The article shows that the quantitative values of the force of influence of the said factors upon the value of economic potential, obtained during statistical analysis of the potential function of an enterprise, could serve as an instrument of ranking these factors by the priority level in the goal setting tasks at the stage of formation of the strategy of enterprise development

  14. Theoretical approaches to the steady-state statistical physics of interacting dissipative units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Eric

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this review is to provide a concise overview of some of the generic approaches that have been developed to deal with the statistical description of large systems of interacting dissipative ‘units’. The latter notion includes, e.g. inelastic grains, active or self-propelled particles, bubbles in a foam, low-dimensional dynamical systems like driven oscillators, or even spatially extended modes like Fourier modes of the velocity field in a fluid. We first review methods based on the statistical properties of a single unit, starting with elementary mean-field approximations, either static or dynamic, that describe a unit embedded in a ‘self-consistent’ environment. We then discuss how this basic mean-field approach can be extended to account for spatial dependences, in the form of space-dependent mean-field Fokker-Planck equations, for example. We also briefly review the use of kinetic theory in the framework of the Boltzmann equation, which is an appropriate description for dilute systems. We then turn to descriptions in terms of the full N-body distribution, starting from exact solutions of one-dimensional models, using a matrix-product ansatz method when correlations are present. Since exactly solvable models are scarce, we also present some approximation methods which can be used to determine the N-body distribution in a large system of dissipative units. These methods include the Edwards approach for dense granular matter and the approximate treatment of multiparticle Langevin equations with colored noise, which models systems of self-propelled particles. Throughout this review, emphasis is put on methodological aspects of the statistical modeling and on formal similarities between different physical problems, rather than on the specific behavior of a given system.

  15. Theoretical aspects of the internal element connectivity parameterization approach for topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoon, Gil Ho; Kim, Y.Y.; Langelaar, M.

    2008-01-01

    The internal element connectivity parameterization (I-ECP) method is an alternative approach to overcome numerical instabilities associated with low-stiffness element states in non-linear problems. In I-ECP, elements are connected by zero-length links while their link stiffness values are varied....... Therefore, it is important to interpolate link stiffness properly to obtain stably converging results. The main objective of this work is two-fold (1) the investigation of the relationship between the link stiffness and the stiffness of a domain-discretizing patch by using a discrete model and a homogenized...

  16. Sum rules for the ed - NN scattering reactions and microscopic potential field-theoretical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machivariani, A.I.

    1996-01-01

    The connections between the equal-time commutators of nucleon and photon field-operators and relativistic potential approach of ed - NN scattering equations is established. Namely, it is demonstrated that: 1) equal-time commutator between nucleon field operators generated completeness condition for NN interaction functions, 2) the off-mass shell contributions in γd - NN exchange currents or in microscopic NN potential are determined by equal time commutator between nucleon field operator and photon or nucleon source operators, and 3) equal-time commutators between source operators produce sum rules for same vertex functions and effective potentials [ru

  17. Mining and territory: theoretical approaches to the field of environmental history through a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Panico

    2018-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to outline an epistemological framework for placing the field of environmental history in the context of the current endeavor of social sciences and humanities. The methodology used is defined here as “metabolic landmarks” because it is inspired by the approach of social metabolism. The results suggest that, in the study of environmental history, the specific historiographical object plays an essential role in defining the epistemic context of that hybrid field of historiography and, more generally, of social and environmental analyses.

  18. Information-theoretical approach to control of quantum-mechanical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Shiro

    2003-01-01

    Fundamental limits on the controllability of quantum mechanical systems are discussed in the light of quantum information theory. It is shown that the amount of entropy-reduction that can be extracted from a quantum system by feedback controller is upper bounded by a sum of the decrease of entropy achievable in open-loop control and the mutual information between the quantum system and the controller. This upper bound sets a fundamental limit on the performance of any quantum controllers whose designs are based on the possibilities to attain low entropy states. An application of this approach pertaining to quantum error correction is also discussed

  19. SCIENTIFIC/THEORETIC APPROACHES TO INNOVATIVE MANAGEMENT (WITH TRANSPORT AS AN EXAMPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Dounayev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovative management is a type of interactive activities based on a system of direct and reverse links with innovative process, the object of the management. At present, the innovative management concept is in the research and development phase as a part of the strategic management concept; the former having not yet get separated from the latter. So far as development of the innovative concept for the transport industry is concerned, the classical, evolutionary, behavior-dependent, institutional, strategic and entrepreneurship-dependent approaches are of special importance in terms of organization of the management. Key values of the transport innovative management organization system are formulated.

  20. Organizations in context: proposal for a new theoretical approach in prescriptive accident research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhrberg, Mette Bang; Jensen, Per Langå

    2004-01-01

    Lately, requests have been made for including the contexts of enterprises in models to prevent accidents at work. This paper/article presents different contextual theories in order to prove/analyze whether this type of theories could be a way to introduce the context. A differentiation is made...... between understanding the processes in the enterprises and understanding the contextual relations. Decision-making theories are used to explain the internal processes. And regulatory approaches are used to describe the role of the state in regard to accident prevention in enterprises. Eventually...

  1. What is the optimal value of the g-ratio for myelinated fibers in the rat CNS? A theoretical approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Chomiak

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The biological process underlying axonal myelination is complex and often prone to injury and disease. The ratio of the inner axonal diameter to the total outer diameter or g-ratio is widely utilized as a functional and structural index of optimal axonal myelination. Based on the speed of fiber conduction, Rushton was the first to derive a theoretical estimate of the optimal g-ratio of 0.6 [1]. This theoretical limit nicely explains the experimental data for myelinated axons obtained for some peripheral fibers but appears significantly lower than that found for CNS fibers. This is, however, hardly surprising given that in the CNS, axonal myelination must achieve multiple goals including reducing conduction delays, promoting conduction fidelity, lowering energy costs, and saving space.In this study we explore the notion that a balanced set-point can be achieved at a functional level as the micro-structure of individual axons becomes optimized, particularly for the central system where axons tend to be smaller and their myelin sheath thinner. We used an intuitive yet novel theoretical approach based on the fundamental biophysical properties describing axonal structure and function to show that an optimal g-ratio can be defined for the central nervous system (approximately 0.77. Furthermore, by reducing the influence of volume constraints on structural design by about 40%, this approach can also predict the g-ratio observed in some peripheral fibers (approximately 0.6.These results support the notion of optimization theory in nervous system design and construction and may also help explain why the central and peripheral systems have evolved different g-ratios as a result of volume constraints.

  2. What is the optimal value of the g-ratio for myelinated fibers in the rat CNS? A theoretical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomiak, Taylor; Hu, Bin

    2009-11-13

    The biological process underlying axonal myelination is complex and often prone to injury and disease. The ratio of the inner axonal diameter to the total outer diameter or g-ratio is widely utilized as a functional and structural index of optimal axonal myelination. Based on the speed of fiber conduction, Rushton was the first to derive a theoretical estimate of the optimal g-ratio of 0.6 [1]. This theoretical limit nicely explains the experimental data for myelinated axons obtained for some peripheral fibers but appears significantly lower than that found for CNS fibers. This is, however, hardly surprising given that in the CNS, axonal myelination must achieve multiple goals including reducing conduction delays, promoting conduction fidelity, lowering energy costs, and saving space. In this study we explore the notion that a balanced set-point can be achieved at a functional level as the micro-structure of individual axons becomes optimized, particularly for the central system where axons tend to be smaller and their myelin sheath thinner. We used an intuitive yet novel theoretical approach based on the fundamental biophysical properties describing axonal structure and function to show that an optimal g-ratio can be defined for the central nervous system (approximately 0.77). Furthermore, by reducing the influence of volume constraints on structural design by about 40%, this approach can also predict the g-ratio observed in some peripheral fibers (approximately 0.6). These results support the notion of optimization theory in nervous system design and construction and may also help explain why the central and peripheral systems have evolved different g-ratios as a result of volume constraints.

  3. Understanding small biomolecule-biomaterial interactions: a review of fundamental theoretical and experimental approaches for biomolecule interactions with inorganic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Dominique; Garrain, Pierre-Alain; Baaden, Marc

    2013-04-01

    Interactions between biomolecules and inorganic surfaces play an important role in natural environments and in industry, including a wide variety of conditions: marine environment, ship hulls (fouling), water treatment, heat exchange, membrane separation, soils, mineral particles at the earth's surface, hospitals (hygiene), art and buildings (degradation and biocorrosion), paper industry (fouling) and more. To better control the first steps leading to adsorption of a biomolecule on an inorganic surface, it is mandatory to understand the adsorption mechanisms of biomolecules of several sizes at the atomic scale, that is, the nature of the chemical interaction between the biomolecule and the surface and the resulting biomolecule conformations once adsorbed at the surface. This remains a challenging and unsolved problem. Here, we review the state of art in experimental and theoretical approaches. We focus on metallic biomaterial surfaces such as TiO(2) and stainless steel, mentioning some remarkable results on hydroxyapatite. Experimental techniques include atomic force microscopy, surface plasmon resonance, quartz crystal microbalance, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, fluorescence microscopy, polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, sum frequency generation and time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Theoretical models range from detailed quantum mechanical representations to classical forcefield-based approaches. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. PVTxy properties of CO2 mixtures relevant for CO2 capture, transport and storage: Review of available experimental data and theoretical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hailong; Jakobsen, Jana P.; Wilhelmsen, Oivind; Yan, Jinyue

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Accurate knowledge about the thermodynamic properties of CO 2 is essential in the design and operation of CCS systems. → Experimental data about the phase equilibrium and density of CO 2 -mixtures have been reviewed. → Equations of state have been reviewed too regarding CO 2 -mixtures. None has shown any clear advantage in CCS applications. → Identified knowledge gaps suggest to conducting more experiments and developing novel models. -- Abstract: The knowledge about pressure-volume-temperature-composition (PVTxy) properties plays an important role in the design and operation of many processes involved in CO 2 capture and storage (CCS) systems. A literature survey was conducted on both the available experimental data and the theoretical models associated with the thermodynamic properties of CO 2 mixtures within the operation window of CCS. Some gaps were identified between available experimental data and requirements of the system design and operation. The major concerns are: for the vapour-liquid equilibrium, there are no data about CO 2 /COS and few data about the CO 2 /N 2 O 4 mixture. For the volume property, there are no published experimental data for CO 2 /O 2 , CO 2 /CO, CO 2 /N 2 O 4 , CO 2 /COS and CO 2 /NH 3 and the liquid volume of CO 2 /H 2 . The experimental data available for multi-component CO 2 mixtures are also scarce. Many equations of state are available for thermodynamic calculations of CO 2 mixtures. The cubic equations of state have the simplest structure and are capable of giving reasonable results for the PVTxy properties. More complex equations of state such as Lee-Kesler, SAFT and GERG typically give better results for the volume property, but not necessarily for the vapour-liquid equilibrium. None of the equations of state evaluated in the literature show any clear advantage in CCS applications for the calculation of all PVTxy properties. A reference equation of state for CCS should, thus, be a future goal.

  5. An Evolutionary Game Theoretic Approach to Multi-Sector Coordination and Self-Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando P. Santos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Coordination games provide ubiquitous interaction paradigms to frame human behavioral features, such as information transmission, conventions and languages as well as socio-economic processes and institutions. By using a dynamical approach, such as Evolutionary Game Theory (EGT, one is able to follow, in detail, the self-organization process by which a population of individuals coordinates into a given behavior. Real socio-economic scenarios, however, often involve the interaction between multiple co-evolving sectors, with specific options of their own, that call for generalized and more sophisticated mathematical frameworks. In this paper, we explore a general EGT approach to deal with coordination dynamics in which individuals from multiple sectors interact. Starting from a two-sector, consumer/producer scenario, we investigate the effects of including a third co-evolving sector that we call public. We explore the changes in the self-organization process of all sectors, given the feedback that this new sector imparts on the other two.

  6. Alternative theoretical and methodological approaches for exploring higher education in Art and Crafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marte Sørebø Gulliksen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents and discusses approaches for exploring higher education in Art and Crafts. The concepts exploring versus research and the different foci in an insider perspective versus an outsider perspective introduces the theme. An insider perspective is said to be a useful starting point for inquiry, referring to Frayling’s trichotomy research into, research on and research through from 1993. The field of higher education in Art and Crafts education is shortly presented as comprising two main areas of knowledge: knowledge of education, and knowledge about the different subject areas within Art and Crafts. Both theory and practice are a part of these areas of knowledge. As higher education in Art and Crafts is a making profession, the most prominent challenge when exploring this today is thus said to be to develop research based knowledge on Education in Art and Crafts as a making discipline.  Two keywords are deemed to be useful in approaching this theme: Mode 2 knowledge production and transdisciplinarity. The article concludes with describing specific ways of doing this today from within the context of application. Two examples of large research projects in Scandinavia are presented as examples of such projects.

  7. Designing an optimal software intensive system acquisition: A game theoretic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner, Douglas John

    The development of schedule-constrained software-intensive space systems is challenging. Case study data from national security space programs developed at the U.S. Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center (USAF SMC) provide evidence of the strong desire by contractors to skip or severely reduce software development design and early defect detection methods in these schedule-constrained environments. The research findings suggest recommendations to fully address these issues at numerous levels. However, the observations lead us to investigate modeling and theoretical methods to fundamentally understand what motivated this behavior in the first place. As a result, Madachy's inspection-based system dynamics model is modified to include unit testing and an integration test feedback loop. This Modified Madachy Model (MMM) is used as a tool to investigate the consequences of this behavior on the observed defect dynamics for two remarkably different case study software projects. Latin Hypercube sampling of the MMM with sample distributions for quality, schedule and cost-driven strategies demonstrate that the higher cost and effort quality-driven strategies provide consistently better schedule performance than the schedule-driven up-front effort-reduction strategies. Game theory reasoning for schedule-driven engineers cutting corners on inspections and unit testing is based on the case study evidence and Austin's agency model to describe the observed phenomena. Game theory concepts are then used to argue that the source of the problem and hence the solution to developers cutting corners on quality for schedule-driven system acquisitions ultimately lies with the government. The game theory arguments also lead to the suggestion that the use of a multi-player dynamic Nash bargaining game provides a solution for our observed lack of quality game between the government (the acquirer) and "large-corporation" software developers. A note is provided that argues this multi

  8. Quantifying multi-dimensional functional trait spaces of trees: empirical versus theoretical approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, K.; Fell, M.; Barber, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    Empirical, field studies of plant functional traits have revealed important trade-offs among pairs or triplets of traits, such as the leaf (LES) and wood (WES) economics spectra. Trade-offs include correlations between leaf longevity (LL) vs specific leaf area (SLA), LL vs mass-specific leaf respiration rate (RmL), SLA vs RmL, and resistance to breakage vs wood density. Ordination analyses (e.g., PCA) show groupings of traits that tend to align with different life-history strategies or taxonomic groups. It is unclear, however, what underlies such trade-offs and emergent spectra. Do they arise from inherent physiological constraints on growth, or are they more reflective of environmental filtering? The relative importance of these mechanisms has implications for predicting biogeochemical cycling, which is influenced by trait distributions of the plant community. We address this question using an individual-based model of tree growth (ACGCA) to quantify the theoretical trait space of trees that emerges from physiological constraints. ACGCA's inputs include 32 physiological, anatomical, and allometric traits, many of which are related to the LES and WES. We fit ACGCA to 1.6 million USFS FIA observations of tree diameters and heights to obtain vectors of trait values that produce realistic growth, and we explored the structure of this trait space. No notable correlations emerged among the 496 trait pairs, but stepwise regressions revealed complicated multi-variate structure: e.g., relationships between pairs of traits (e.g., RmL and SLA) are governed by other traits (e.g., LL, radiation-use efficiency [RUE]). We also simulated growth under various canopy gap scenarios that impose varying degrees of environmental filtering to explore the multi-dimensional trait space (hypervolume) of trees that died vs survived. The centroid and volume of the hypervolumes differed among dead and live trees, especially under gap conditions leading to low mortality. Traits most predictive

  9. Theoretical aspects of pressure and solute denaturation of proteins: A Kirkwood-buff-theory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Naim, Arieh

    2012-12-01

    A new approach to the problem of pressure-denaturation (PD) and solute-denaturation (SD) of proteins is presented. The problem is formulated in terms of Le Chatelier principle, and a solution is sought in terms of the Kirkwood-Buff theory of solutions. It is found that both problems have one factor in common; the excluded volumes of the folded and the unfolded forms with respect to the solvent molecules. It is shown that solvent-induced effects operating on hydrophilic groups along the protein are probably the main reason for PD. On the other hand, the SD depends on the preferential solvation of the folded and the unfolded forms with respect to solvent and co-solvent molecules.

  10. Public policy managers councils under the focus of the theory of organizations : theoretical- conceptual approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Gabriela Gandra Pimenta Magalhães

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper do approaches between organizational theory and councils, proposing a deepening of the different perspectives of the object. The interfaces are displayed between the object and theory, followed by the similarities between them and the themes of organizational theory. The goal is to show the intersection points, the contribution of organizational studies for the understanding of this object. It was concluded that the different perspectives presented are complementary, indicating that the councils, places permeated by conflicts of power and cultural issues, constitute new organizational form that is implemented through partnerships networks between society and state. This infers also that the institutionalization of conuncils includes a new time and form of public management, developed under the logic of substantive rational action and humanistic paradigm.

  11. Groups, matrices, and vector spaces a group theoretic approach to linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Carrell, James B

    2017-01-01

    This unique text provides a geometric approach to group theory and linear algebra, bringing to light the interesting ways in which these subjects interact. Requiring few prerequisites beyond understanding the notion of a proof, the text aims to give students a strong foundation in both geometry and algebra. Starting with preliminaries (relations, elementary combinatorics, and induction), the book then proceeds to the core topics: the elements of the theory of groups and fields (Lagrange's Theorem, cosets, the complex numbers and the prime fields), matrix theory and matrix groups, determinants, vector spaces, linear mappings, eigentheory and diagonalization, Jordan decomposition and normal form, normal matrices, and quadratic forms. The final two chapters consist of a more intensive look at group theory, emphasizing orbit stabilizer methods, and an introduction to linear algebraic groups, which enriches the notion of a matrix group. Applications involving symm etry groups, determinants, linear coding theory ...

  12. Overview of the Practical and Theoretical Approaches to the Estimation of Mineral Resources. A Financial Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leontina Pavaloaia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mineral resources represent an important natural resource whose exploitation, unless it is rational, can lead to their exhaustion and the collapse of sustainable development. Given the importance of mineral resources and the uncertainty concerning the estimation of extant reserves, they have been analyzed by several national and international institutions. In this article we shall present a few aspects concerning the ways to approach the reserves of mineral resources at national and international level, by considering both economic aspects and those aspects concerned with the definition, classification and aggregation of the reserves of mineral resources by various specialized institutions. At present there are attempts to homogenize practices concerning these aspects for the purpose of presenting correct and comparable information.

  13. K theoretical approach to the fusion rules of conformal quantum field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recknagel, A.

    1993-09-01

    Conformally invariant quantum field theories are investigated using concepts of the algebraic approach to quantum field theory as well as techniques from the theory of operator algebras. Arguments from the study of statistical lattice models in one and two dimensions, from recent developments in algebraic quantum field theory, and from other sources suggest that there exists and intimate connection between conformal field theories and a special class of C*-algebras, the so-called AF-algebras. For a series of Virasoro minimal models, this correspondence is made explicit by constructing path representations of the irreducible highest weight modules. We then focus on the K 0 -invariant of these path AF-algebras and show how its functorial properties allow to exploit the abstract theory of superselection sectors in order to derive the fusion rules of the W-algebras hidden in the Virasoro minimal models. (orig.)

  14. Theoretical approaches to laser spectroscopy in the presence of gravitational fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borde, C.J.; Sharma, J.; Tourrenc, P.; Damour, T.

    1983-01-01

    We present a general framework in which non-linear optical phenomena for an ensemble of accelerated atoms can be studied. We show the equivalence of various approaches through frame transformations. This equivalence is understood within the context of a covariant formalism which is briefly sketched. The choice of the frame, in which the atoms are not accelerated but where the light spectrum and the atomic source term are correspondingly modified, leads to the simplest calculated. It enables one to use the usual density matrix diagrams and associated rules. Explicit examples are given in the case of a sinusoidal gravitational wave. Finally a brief discussion of the signal-to-noise of the sidebands induced by gravitational waves on saturation resonances is outlined

  15. Renormalization group-theoretic approach to electron localization in disordered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, N.; Heinrichs, J.

    1977-06-01

    The localization problem for the Anderson tight-binding model with site-diagonal (gaussian) disorder is studied, using a previously established analogy between this problem and the statistical mechanics of a zero-component classical field. The equivalent free-energy functional turns out to have complex coefficients in the bilinear terms but involves a real repulsive quartic interaction. The averaged one-electron propagator corresponds to the two-point correlation function for the equivalent statistical problem and the critical point gives the mobility edge, which is identified with the (real) fixed point energy of the associated renormalization group. Since for convergence reasons the conventional perturbative treatment of Wilson's formula is invalid, it is resorted to a non-perturbative approach which leads to a physical fixed point corresponding to a repulsive quartic interaction. The results for the mobility edge in three dimensions and for the critical disorder for an Anderson transition in two dimensions agree well with previous detailed predictions. The critical indices describing the approach of the transition at the mobility edge of various physical quantities, within the epsilon-expansion are also discussed. The more general problem where both diagonal and off-diagonal disorder is present in the Anderson hamiltonian is considered. In this case it is shown that the Hamilton function for the equivalent zero-component classical field model involves an additional biquadratic exchange term. From a simple generalization of Wilson's recursion relation and its non-perturbative solution explicit expressions for the mobility edges for weak diagonal and off-diagonal disorder in two and three dimensions are obtained. Our treatment casts doubts on the validity of recent conclusions about electron localization based on the renormalization group study of the nm-component spin model

  16. The question of representation in the psychoanalytical and cognitive-behavioural approaches. Some theoretical aspects and therapy considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe eDe Timary

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the cognitive-behavioural and psychoanalytical approaches with respect to the way in which each of them conceives of representation and deals with the issues that this involves. In both of them conscious and latent (unconscious representations play a crucial role. Highlighting similarities and differences facilitate communication on a theoretical level but also prove helpful to the clinical practitioners involved. We try to put forward an attempt at comparison, with the idea of going beyond the -- obviously important -- differences in vocabulary. In this attempt at comparison, we have successively compared the definitions of representation and the respective therapeutic interventions proposed by each approach. There are no doubt many overlapping elements in the way in which the workings of the mind are conceived of in these approaches, particularly as regards their links with affects. We next developed the implications of representation deficits in pathology, suggesting the important role played by elements that are avoided, suppressed from memory or repressed, and with respect to the need to treat such material in a specific manner so as to ensure some progress as to the symptoms presented. We finally summarized common and distinct aspects of the two perspectives. The very fact that two approaches that follow very distinct methodologies reach the same conclusion concerning the importance of distortions and failures of representation in generating mental distress strengthens, in our view, the epistemological reliability of the role of representation in psychopathology.

  17. THE THEORETICAL AND METHODICAL APPROACH TO AN ASSESSMENT OF A LEVEL OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE ENTERPRISE IN CONDITIONS OF GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Shved

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this article is theoretical, methodical and practical aspects of enterprise development in conditions of globalization. The purpose of this research is to provide theoretical and methodical approach to an assessment of a level of development of the enterprise, which is based on the relationship between the factors and influence, illustrating the effect of the internal and external environment of enterprises functioning, and indicates the level of development of the enterprise. Methodology. Theoretical basis of the study was the examination and rethinking of the main achievements of world and domestic science on the development of enterprises. To achieve the objectives of the research following methods were used: systemic and structural analysis for the formation of methodical approaches to the selection of the factors, influencing the development of enterprises; abstract and logical – for the formulation of conclusions and proposals; the method of valuation and expert assessments to the implementation of the proposed theoretical and methodical approach to an assessment of a level of development of the enterprise in conditions of globalization. Results of the research is the proposed theoretical and methodical to an assessment of a level of development of the enterprise in conditions of globalization, which is associated with the idea of development of the enterprise as a system with inputs–factors, influencing on the development , and outputs – indicators of the level of enterprise development within these factors. So, the chosen factors – resources, financial-economic activity, innovation and investment activities, competition, government influence, and foreign trade. Indicators that express these factors, are capital productivity, labour productivity, material efficiency within the first factor; the profitability of the activity, the coefficient of current assets, the total liquidity coefficient, financial stability

  18. A combined experimental and theoretical approach to establish the relationship between shear force and clay platelet delamination in melt-processed polypropylene nanocomposites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bandyopadhyay, J

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a combined experimental and theoretical approach has been proposed to establish a relationship between the required shear force and the degree of delamination of clay tactoids during the melt-processing of polymer nanocomposites...

  19. A Monte-Carlo game theoretic approach for Multi-Criteria Decision Making under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Kaveh; Lund, Jay R.

    2011-05-01

    Game theory provides a useful framework for studying Multi-Criteria Decision Making problems. This paper suggests modeling Multi-Criteria Decision Making problems as strategic games and solving them using non-cooperative game theory concepts. The suggested method can be used to prescribe non-dominated solutions and also can be used as a method to predict the outcome of a decision making problem. Non-cooperative stability definitions for solving the games allow consideration of non-cooperative behaviors, often neglected by other methods which assume perfect cooperation among decision makers. To deal with the uncertainty in input variables a Monte-Carlo Game Theory (MCGT) approach is suggested which maps the stochastic problem into many deterministic strategic games. The games are solved using non-cooperative stability definitions and the results include possible effects of uncertainty in input variables on outcomes. The method can handle multi-criteria multi-decision-maker problems with uncertainty. The suggested method does not require criteria weighting, developing a compound decision objective, and accurate quantitative (cardinal) information as it simplifies the decision analysis by solving problems based on qualitative (ordinal) information, reducing the computational burden substantially. The MCGT method is applied to analyze California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta problem. The suggested method provides insights, identifies non-dominated alternatives, and predicts likely decision outcomes.

  20. Theoretical modeling of electroosmotic flow in soft microchannels: A variational approach applied to the rectangular geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Arman

    2018-03-01

    Modeling of fluid flow in polyelectrolyte layer (PEL)-grafted microchannels is challenging due to their two-layer nature. Hence, the pertinent studies are limited only to circular and slit geometries for which matching the solutions for inside and outside the PEL is simple. In this paper, a simple variational-based approach is presented for the modeling of fully developed electroosmotic flow in PEL-grafted microchannels by which the whole fluidic area is considered as a single porous medium of variable properties. The model is capable of being applied to microchannels of a complex cross-sectional area. As an application of the method, it is applied to a rectangular microchannel of uniform PEL properties. It is shown that modeling a rectangular channel as a slit may lead to considerable overestimation of the mean velocity especially when both the PEL and electric double layer (EDL) are thick. It is also demonstrated that the mean velocity is an increasing function of the fixed charge density and PEL thickness and a decreasing function of the EDL thickness and PEL friction coefficient. The influence of the PEL thickness on the mean velocity, however, vanishes when both the PEL thickness and friction coefficient are sufficiently high.