Little is known about the barriers, facilitators and interventions that impact on systematic review uptake. The objective of this study was to identify how uptake of systematic reviews can be improved.
Full Text Available Stretching exercises to increase the range of motion (ROM of joints have been used by sports coaches and medical professionals for improving performance and rehabilitation. The ability of connective and muscular tissues to change their architecture in response to stretching is important for their proper function, repair and performance. Given the dearth of relevant data in the literature, this review examined two key elements of stretching: stretch intensity and stretch position; and their significance to ROM, delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS, and inflammation in different populations. A search of three databases, Pub-Med, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Reviews, identified 152 articles, which were subsequently categorized into four groups; athletes (n = 24, clinical (n = 29, elderly (n = 12, and general population (n = 87. The use of different populations facilitated a wider examination of the stretching components and their effects. All 152 articles incorporated information regarding duration, frequency and stretch position, whereas only 79 referred to the intensity of stretching and 22 of these 79 studies were deemed high quality. It appears that the intensity of stretching is relatively under-researched, and the importance of body position and its influence on stretch intensity, is largely unknown. In conclusion, this review has highlighted areas for future research, including stretch intensity and position and their effect on musculo-tendinous tissue, in relation to the sensation of pain, delayed onset muscle soreness, inflammation, as well as muscle health and performance
Lødrup, Anders Bergh; Reimer, Christina; Bytzer, Peter
in getting off acid-suppressive medication and partly explain the increase in long-term use of PPI. A number of studies addressing this issue have been published recently. The authors aimed to systematically review the existing evidence of clinically relevant symptoms caused by acid rebound following PPI...
Kwan, Yu Heng; Fong, Warren; Tan, Victoria Ie Ching; Lui, Nai Lee; Malhotra, Rahul; Østbye, Truls; Thumboo, Julian
To summarize, from the literature, quality-of-life (QoL) domains and items relevant to patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA), and to determine if commonly used SpA patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments include the identified domains. We used PRISMA statement for systematic review and searched Medline(®) , Embase(®), and PsycInfo(®) using relevant keywords. In addition, hand searches of references of the included articles were conducted. All articles were reviewed for inclusion by 2 independent reviewers. QoL domains and items relevant to patients with axial or peripheral SpA were extracted and presented using the adapted World Health Organization Quality-of-Life (WHOQOL) domain framework. SpA PROs were assessed to determine if they included the domains identified. We retrieved 14,343 articles, of which 34 articles fulfilled inclusion criteria for review. Twenty-five articles were conducted in the European population. Domains such as negative feelings and activities of daily living were found to be present in 28 and 27 articles, respectively. SpA impacted QoL in all domains of the adapted WHOQOL framework. Domains that differed between types of SpA were financial resources, general levels of independence and medication side effects. Embarrassment, self-image, and premature ageing were items that differed by geographical setting. PROs to capture domains for peripheral SpA were similar for axial SpA. We found that a wide range of domains and items of QoL were relevant to patients with SpA with minimal differences between patients with axial and peripheral SpA. Clinicians may consider using peripheral SpA PROs to measure QoL of patients with axial SpA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders are highly prevalent and disabling conditions of increasing public health relevance. Much recent research has focused on the role of cytokines in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders; however the related family of immune proteins designated chemokines has been relatively neglected. Chemokines were originally identified as having chemotactic function on immune cells, however recent evidence has begun to elucidate novel, brain-specific functions of these proteins of relevance to the mechanisms of psychiatric disorders. A systematic review of both human and animal literature in the PubMed and Google Scholar databases was undertaken. After application of all inclusion and exclusion criteria, 157 references were remained for the review. Some early mechanistic evidence does associate select chemokines with the neurobiological processes, including neurogenesis, modulation of the neuroinflammatory response, regulation of the HPA axis, and modulation of neurotransmitter systems. This early evidence however does not clearly demonstrate any specificity for a certain psychiatric disorder, but is primarily relevant to mechanisms which are shared across disorders. Notable exceptions include CCL11 which has recently been shown to impair hippocampal function in aging - of distinct relevance to Alzheimer’s disease and depression in the elderly, and prenatal exposure to CXCL8 that may disrupt early neurodevelopmental periods predisposing to schizophrenia. Pro-inflammatory chemokines, such as CCL2, CCL7, CCL8, CCL12, CCL13, have been shown to drive chemotaxis of pro-inflammatory cells to the inflamed or injured CNS. Likewise, CX3CL has been implicated in promoting glial cells activation, proinflammatory cytokines secretion, expression of ICAM-1 and recruitment of CD4+ T-cells into the CNS during neuroinflammatory processes. With further translational research, chemokines may present novel diagnostic and/or therapeutic targets in
Dik, S.; Scheepers, P.T.J.; Godderis, L.
Carcinogenesis is a complex process involving both genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. The cellular molecular epigenetic machinery, including histone modifications, is associated with changes in gene expression induced by exposure to environmental agents. In this paper, we systematically reviewed pub
Rudan, Igor; Lawn, Joy; Cousens, Simon; Rowe, Alexander K; Boschi-Pinto, Cynthia; Tomasković, Lana; Mendoza, Walter; Lanata, Claudio F; Roca-Feltrer, Arantxa; Carneiro, Ilona; Schellenberg, Joanna A; Polasek, Ozren; Weber, Martin; Bryce, Jennifer; Morris, Saul S; Black, Robert E; Campbell, Harry
Valid information about cause-specific child mortality and morbidity is an essential foundation for national and international health policy. We undertook a systematic review to investigate the geographical dispersion of and time trends in publication for policy-relevant information about children's health and to assess associations between the availability of reliable data and poverty. We identified data available on Jan 1, 2001, and published since 1980, for the major causes of morbidity and mortality in young children. Studies with relevant data were assessed against a set of inclusion criteria to identify those likely to provide unbiased estimates of the burden of childhood disease in the community. Only 308 information units from more than 17,000 papers identified were regarded as possible unbiased sources for estimates of childhood disease burden. The geographical distribution of these information units revealed a pattern of small well-researched populations surrounded by large areas with little available information. No reliable population-based data were identified from many of the world's poorest countries, which account for about a third of all deaths of children worldwide. The number of new studies diminished over the last 10 years investigated. The number of population-based studies yielding estimates of burden of childhood disease from less developed countries was low. The decreasing trend over time suggests reductions in research investment in this sphere. Data are especially sparse from the world's least developed countries with the highest child mortality. Guidelines are needed for the conduct of burden-of-disease studies together with an international research policy that gives increased emphasis to global equity and coverage so that knowledge can be generated from all regions of the world.
Schulkes, Karlijn J G; Hamaker, Marije E; van den Bos, Frederiek; van Elden, Leontine J R
Lung cancer is predominantly a disease of the elderly: one half of all newly diagnosed patients will be > 70 years old. In the Netherlands, > 12,000 new cases are diagnosed annually. We sought to assemble all available evidence on the relevance of a geriatric assessment for lung cancer patients. A systematic Medline and Embase search was performed for studies in which a geriatric assessment was used to detect health issues or that had addressed the association between a baseline geriatric assessment (composed of ≥ 2 of the following domains: cognitive function, mood/depression, nutritional status, activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, polypharmacy, objectively measured physical capacity, social support and frailty) and outcome. A total of 23 publications from 18 studies were included. The median age of patients was 76 years (range, 73-81 years). Despite generally good Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, the prevalence of geriatric impairments was high, with the median ranging from 29% for cognitive impairment to 70% for instrumental activities of daily living impairment. Objective physical capacity and nutritional status, as items of the geriatric assessment, had a consistent association with mortality. The information revealed by a geriatric assessment led to changes in oncologic treatment and nononcologic interventions. The present review has demonstrated that a geriatric assessment can detect multiple health issues not reflected in the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status. Impairments in geriatric domains have predictive value for mortality and appear to be associated with treatment completion. It would be useful to develop and validate an individualized treatment algorithm that includes these geriatric domains.
Livas, Christos; Pandis, Nikolaos; Ren, Yijin
Introduction: As the importance of systematic review (SR) conclusions relies upon the scientific rigor of methods and the currency of evidence, we aimed to investigate the currency of orthodontic SRs using as proxy the time from the initial search to publication. Additionally, SR information regardi
Livas, Christos; Pandis, Nikolaos; Ren, Yijin
Introduction: As the importance of systematic review (SR) conclusions relies upon the scientific rigor of methods and the currency of evidence, we aimed to investigate the currency of orthodontic SRs using as proxy the time from the initial search to publication. Additionally, SR information
Full Text Available Abstract Background The major metabolic complications of obesity and type 2 diabetes may be prevented and managed with dietary modification. The use of sweeteners that provide little or no calories may help to achieve this objective. Methods We did a systematic review and network meta-analysis of the comparative effectiveness of sweetener additives using Bayesian techniques. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and CAB Global were searched to January 2011. Randomized trials comparing sweeteners in obese, diabetic, and healthy populations were selected. Outcomes of interest included weight change, energy intake, lipids, glycated hemoglobin, markers of insulin resistance and glycemic response. Evidence-based items potentially indicating risk of bias were assessed. Results Of 3,666 citations, we identified 53 eligible randomized controlled trials with 1,126 participants. In diabetic participants, fructose reduced 2-hour blood glucose concentrations by 4.81 mmol/L (95% CI 3.29, 6.34 compared to glucose. Two-hour blood glucose concentration data comparing hypocaloric sweeteners to sucrose or high fructose corn syrup were inconclusive. Based on two ≤10-week trials, we found that non-caloric sweeteners reduced energy intake compared to the sucrose groups by approximately 250-500 kcal/day (95% CI 153, 806. One trial found that participants in the non-caloric sweetener group had a decrease in body mass index compared to an increase in body mass index in the sucrose group (-0.40 vs 0.50 kg/m2, and -1.00 vs 1.60 kg/m2, respectively. No randomized controlled trials showed that high fructose corn syrup or fructose increased levels of cholesterol relative to other sweeteners. Conclusions Considering the public health importance of obesity and its consequences; the clearly relevant role of diet in the pathogenesis and maintenance of obesity; and the billions of dollars spent on non-caloric sweeteners, little high-quality clinical research has been done. Studies are
Wiebe, Natasha; Padwal, Raj; Field, Catherine; Marks, Seth; Jacobs, Rene; Tonelli, Marcello
The major metabolic complications of obesity and type 2 diabetes may be prevented and managed with dietary modification. The use of sweeteners that provide little or no calories may help to achieve this objective. We did a systematic review and network meta-analysis of the comparative effectiveness of sweetener additives using Bayesian techniques. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and CAB Global were searched to January 2011. Randomized trials comparing sweeteners in obese, diabetic, and healthy populations were selected. Outcomes of interest included weight change, energy intake, lipids, glycated hemoglobin, markers of insulin resistance and glycemic response. Evidence-based items potentially indicating risk of bias were assessed. Of 3,666 citations, we identified 53 eligible randomized controlled trials with 1,126 participants. In diabetic participants, fructose reduced 2-hour blood glucose concentrations by 4.81 mmol/L (95% CI 3.29, 6.34) compared to glucose. Two-hour blood glucose concentration data comparing hypocaloric sweeteners to sucrose or high fructose corn syrup were inconclusive. Based on two ≤10-week trials, we found that non-caloric sweeteners reduced energy intake compared to the sucrose groups by approximately 250-500 kcal/day (95% CI 153, 806). One trial found that participants in the non-caloric sweetener group had a decrease in body mass index compared to an increase in body mass index in the sucrose group (-0.40 vs 0.50 kg/m2, and -1.00 vs 1.60 kg/m2, respectively). No randomized controlled trials showed that high fructose corn syrup or fructose increased levels of cholesterol relative to other sweeteners. Considering the public health importance of obesity and its consequences; the clearly relevant role of diet in the pathogenesis and maintenance of obesity; and the billions of dollars spent on non-caloric sweeteners, little high-quality clinical research has been done. Studies are needed to determine the role of hypocaloric sweeteners in a wider
Goolsby, Tiffany A; Jakeman, Bernadette; Gaynes, Robert P
The objective of this paper was to review and evaluate the literature on metronidazole-associated peripheral neuropathy and determine the relevance in clinical practice. MEDLINE/PubMed, EBSCO, and Google Scholar were searched through February 2017 using the search terms metronidazole and peripheral neuropathy, or polyneuropathy, or paresthesia, or neurotoxicity. Relevant case reports, retrospective studies, surveys, and review articles were included. Bibliographies of all relevant articles were reviewed for additional sources. Overall, metronidazole is generally well tolerated but serious neurotoxicity, including peripheral neuropathy, has been reported. The overall incidence of peripheral neuropathy associated with metronidazole is unknown. Our review found 36 case reports (40 unique patients) of metronidazole-associated peripheral neuropathy with the majority of cases receiving >42 total grams (>4 weeks) of therapy (31 out of 40). In addition, we reviewed 13 clinical studies and found varying rates of peripheral neuropathy from 0-50%. Within these clinical studies, we found a higher incidence of peripheral neuropathy in patients receiving >42 total grams (>4 weeks) of metronidazole compared to those patients receiving ≤ 42 total grams (17.9% vs 1.7%). Nearly all patients had complete resolution of symptoms. In conclusion, peripheral neuropathy is exceedingly rare in patients who receive ≤ 42 total grams of metronidazole. Patients who receive larger total doses may be at higher risk of peripheral neuropathy but most patients have resolution of symptoms after discontinuing therapy. Antimicrobial stewardship programs may consider use of antibiotic combinations that include metronidazole over broad-spectrum alternatives when treating with ≤42 grams of the drug (≤4 weeks). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Title: Systematic review a method to promote nursing students skills in Evidence Based Practice Background: Department of nursing educate students to practice Evidence Based Practice (EBP), where clinical decisions is based on the best available evidence, patient preference, clinical experience...... with systematic review is used to develop didactic practice end evidence based teaching in different part of the education. Findings: The poster will present how teacher’s training and experiences with systematic review contribute to the nursing education in relation to didactic, research methodology and patient...... sources of evidence influence EBP. Furthermore teachers skills in systematic review will be used to develop systematic reviews on topics in the education where there aren’t any in order to promote Evidence Based Teaching....
Gimenez, Thais; Piovesan, Chaiana; Braga, Mariana M; Raggio, Daniela P; Deery, Chris; Ricketts, David N; Ekstrand, Kim R; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros
Although visual inspection is the most commonly used method for caries detection, and consequently the most investigated, studies have not been concerned about the clinical relevance of this procedure. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review in order to perform a critical evaluation considering the clinical relevance and methodological quality of studies on the accuracy of visual inspection for assessing caries lesions. Two independent reviewers searched several databases through July 2013 to identify papers/articles published in English. Other sources were checked to identify unpublished literature. The eligible studies were those which (1) assessed the accuracy of the visual method for detecting caries lesions on occlusal, approximal or smooth surfaces, in primary or permanent teeth, (2) used a reference standard, and (3) reported data about sample size and accuracy of the methods. Aspects related to clinical relevance and the methodological quality of the studies were evaluated. 96 of the 5,578 articles initially identified met the inclusion criteria. In general, most studies failed in considering some clinically relevant aspects: only 1 included study validated activity status of lesions, no study considered its prognosis, 79 studies did not consider a clinically relevant outcome, and only 1 evaluated a patient-centred outcome. Concerning methodological quality, the majority of the studies presented a high risk of bias in sample selection. In conclusion, studies on the accuracy of the visual method for caries detection should consider clinically relevant outcomes besides accuracy; moreover, they should be conducted with higher methodological quality, mainly regarding sample selection.
Apostolopoulos, Nikos; Metsios, George S.; Flouris, Andreas D.; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Wyon, Matthew A.
Stretching exercises to increase the range of motion (ROM) of joints have been used by sports coaches and medical professionals for improving performance and rehabilitation. The ability of connective and muscular tissues to change their architecture in response to stretching is important for their proper function, repair, and performance. Given the dearth of relevant data in the literature, this review examined two key elements of stretching: stretch intensity and stretch position; and their significance to ROM, delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), and inflammation in different populations. A search of three databases, Pub-Med, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Reviews, identified 152 articles, which were subsequently categorized into four groups: athletes (24), clinical (29), elderly (12), and general population (87). The use of different populations facilitated a wider examination of the stretching components and their effects. All 152 articles incorporated information regarding duration, frequency and stretch position, whereas only 79 referred to the intensity of stretching and 22 of these 79 studies were deemed high quality. It appears that the intensity of stretching is relatively under-researched, and the importance of body position and its influence on stretch intensity, is largely unknown. In conclusion, this review has highlighted areas for future research, including stretch intensity and position and their effect on musculo-tendinous tissue, in relation to the sensation of pain, delayed onset muscle soreness, inflammation, as well as muscle health and performance. PMID:26347668
Livas, Christos; Pandis, Nikolaos; Ren, Yijin
As the importance of systematic review (SR) conclusions relies upon the scientific rigor of methods and the currency of evidence, we aimed to investigate the currency of orthodontic SRs using as proxy the time from the initial search to publication. Additionally, SR information regarding reporting guidelines, registration, and literature searches were recorded when available. A systematic PubMed search was carried out using the Clinical Queries page to identify orthodontic SRs cited between 1 January 2008 and 7 November 2013. Data related to reporting guidelines, review registration, dates of review processing, literature search, and abstract reporting were retrieved and classified by journal type. Survival analysis was used to assess the time to reach predefined manuscript stages for orthodontic and non-orthodontic journals. One hundred twenty seven of the originally identified 585 SRs were considered eligible. The median interval from search until publication was 13.2 months (interquartile range: IQR = 9.7 months) irrespective of the journal type. There was evidence (P = 0.05) that SRs published by non-orthodontic journals appeared in PubMed faster than in orthodontic journals (non-orthodontic: median = 6.5 months; IQR = 5.7 months; orthodontic: median = 10.2 months; IQR = 5.6 months) from submission to publication and from acceptance to publication (non-orthodontic: median = 1.5 months; IQR = 2.4 months; orthodontic: median = 6.0 months; IQR = 6.2 months; P orthodontic and orthodontic periodicals, respectively. This study indicates that SR users should be aware that median time for orthodontic SRs from search to publication is 13.2 months. SRs published in non-orthodontic journals are likely to be more current in terms of submission until time to publication and acceptance until time to publication compared with those published in orthodontic journals. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All
Merashli, Mira; Alves, Jose'Delgado; Ames, Paul R J
To evaluate the clinical relevance of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) in systemic sclerosis (SSc). A systematic search of EMBASE and PubMed databases from January 1983 to July 2016 was carried out according to PRISMA guidelines whereas Peto׳s odds ratio (OR) for rare events was used for the meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of participants positive for IgG and IgM anticardiolipin (aCL) antibodies was higher in SSc than controls (12.8% vs 1.6% and 7.8% vs 0.6%; p < 0.0001 for both) as was that of IgG and IgM anti-beta-2-glycoprotein-I antibodies (aβ2GPI) (6.1% vs 0.58%, p < 0.0001; 3.5% vs 0.3%, p = 0.001). The pooled prevalence of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) was more common in SSc positive than negative patients for aCL (IgG/IgM combined) (26.5% vs 10.9%, p < 0.0001) whereas the pooled prevalence of renal disease (RD) was more common in IgG aCL positive than negative patients (36.3% vs 10.9%, p = 0.02). The pooled prevalence of thrombosis was higher in IgG aCL, IgM aCL, and IgM aβ2GPI positive than negative SSc patients (12.6% vs 1.4%, p < 0.0001), (15.1% vs 2.7%, p = 0.002) and (15% vs 0.78%, p = 0.009), respectively. The pooled prevalence of digital infarction/ischemia (DI) was higher in IgG aCL and IgM positive than negative SSc (52.8% vs 39.8%, p = 0.002) and (68.1% vs 29%, p = 0.07). A strong relationship exists between aCL and aβ2GPI of IgG/IgM isotype and SSc; patients positive for these antibodies are more likely to suffer from PAH, RD, thrombosis, and DI. However, data expressed as frequency of aPL positive patients rather than average antibody titers preclude further insight into the relevance of these assumptions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Quiñonez-Flores, Celia María; González-Chávez, Susana Aideé; Del Río Nájera, Danyella; Pacheco-Tena, César
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease whose pathogenic mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The oxidative stress and antioxidants play an important role in the disease process of RA. The study of oxidants and antioxidants biomarkers in RA patients could improve our understanding of disease pathogenesis; likely determining the oxidative stress levels in these patients could prove helpful in assessing disease activity and might also have prognostic implications. To date, the usefulness of oxidative stress biomarkers in RA patients is unclear and the evidence supporting them is heterogeneous. In order to resume and update the information in the status of oxidants and antioxidants and their connection as biomarkers in RA, we performed a systematic literature search in the PubMed database, including clinical trials published in the last five years using the word combination “rheumatoid arthritis oxidative stress”. In conclusion, this review supports the fact that the oxidative stress is an active process in RA pathogenesis interrelated to other better known pathogenic elements. However, some controversial results preclude a definite conclusion. PMID:27340664
Wyatt, Kirk D; Anderson, Ryan T; Creedon, Douglas; Montori, Victor M; Bachman, John; Erwin, Patricia; LeBlanc, Annie
Women can choose from a range of contraceptive methods that differ in important ways. Inadequate decision support may lead them to select a method that poorly fits their circumstances, leading to dissatisfaction, misuse, or nonuse. Decision support interventions, such as decision aids, may help women choose a method of contraception that best fits their personal circumstances. To guide future decision aid development, we aim to summarize the attributes of contraceptive methods included in available decision aids as well as surveys and interviews of women actively choosing a contraceptive method. We conducted a systematic review to identify attributes of contraceptive methods that may be important to women when engaging in this decision making process. We performed a database search of MEDLINE/PubMed, Ovid EMBASE, OVID CENTRAL, Ovid PsycInfo, EBSCO CINAHL, Popline, and Scopus from 1985 until 2013 to identify decision aids, structured interviews and questionnaires reporting attributes of contraceptive options that are of importance to women. A free-text internet search was also performed to identify additional decision support tools. All articles and tools were reviewed in duplicate for inclusion, and a summary list of attributes was compiled. We included 20 surveys, 1 semistructured interview report and 19 decision aids, reporting 32 unique attributes. While some attributes were consistently included in surveys/interviews and decision aids, several were included more often in decision aids as opposed to surveys/interviews (e.g., STI prevention, noncontraceptive benefits, how the method is used, requirement of a healthcare provider), and vice versa (e.g., a woman's vicarious experience with contraceptive methods). Key attributes mentioned in both surveys/interviews and decision aids include efficacy (29 total mentioned) and side effects/health risks (28 total mentioned). While a limited number of decision support tools were formally evaluated, many were not
Systematic reviews, a cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, are not produced quickly enough to support clinical practice. The cost of production, availability of the requisite expertise and timeliness are often quoted as major contributors for the delay. This detailed survey of the state of the art of information systems designed to support or automate individual tasks in the systematic review, and in particular systematic reviews of randomized controlled clinical trials, reveals trends that see the convergence of several parallel research projects. We surveyed literature describing informatics systems that support or automate the processes of systematic review or each of the tasks of the systematic review. Several projects focus on automating, simplifying and/or streamlining specific tasks of the systematic review. Some tasks are already fully automated while others are still largely manual. In this review, we describe each task and the effect that its automation would have on the entire systematic review process, summarize the existing information system support for each task, and highlight where further research is needed for realizing automation for the task. Integration of the systems that automate systematic review tasks may lead to a revised systematic review workflow. We envisage the optimized workflow will lead to system in which each systematic review is described as a computer program that automatically retrieves relevant trials, appraises them, extracts and synthesizes data, evaluates the risk of bias, performs meta-analysis calculations, and produces a report in real time. PMID:25005128
Abuzahra, Muna E.; Keller, Sophie; Mann, Eva; Faller, Barbara; Sommerauer, Christina; Höck, Jennifer; Löffler, Christin; Köchling, Anna; Schuler, Jochen; Flamm, Maria; Sönnichsen, Andreas
Aim The aim of the present study was to explore the impact of strategies to reduce polypharmacy on mortality, hospitalization and change in number of drugs. Methods Systematic review and meta‐analysis: a systematic literature search targeting patients ≥65 years with polypharmacy (≥4 drugs), focusing on patient‐relevant outcome measures, was conducted. We included controlled studies aiming to reduce polypharmacy. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for eligibility, extracted data and evaluated study quality. Results Twenty‐five studies, including 10 980 participants, were included, comprising 21 randomized controlled trials and four nonrandomized controlled trials. The majority of the included studies aimed at improving quality or the appropriateness of prescribing by eliminating inappropriate and non‐evidence‐based drugs. These strategies to reduce polypharmacy had no effect on all‐cause mortality (odds ratio 1.02; 95% confidence interval 0.84, 1.23). Only single studies found improvements, in terms of reducing the number of hospital admissions, in favour of the intervention group. At baseline, patients were taking, on average, 7.4 drugs in both the intervention and the control groups. At follow‐up, the weighted mean number of drugs was reduced (−0.2) in the intervention group but increased (+0.2) in controls. Conclusions There is no convincing evidence that the strategies assessed in the present review are effective in reducing polypharmacy or have an impact on clinically relevant endpoints. Interventions are complex; it is still unclear how best to organize and implement them to achieve a reduction in inappropriate polypharmacy. There is therefore a need to develop more effective strategies to reduce inappropriate polypharmacy and to test them in large, pragmatic randomized controlled trials on effectiveness and feasibility. PMID:27059768
Toledo, Joao; George, Leyanna; Martinez, Eric; Lazaro, Adhara; Han, Wai Wai; Coelho, Giovanini E; Runge Ranzinger, Silvia; Horstick, Olaf
Patients with dengue fever and comorbidities seem to be at higher risk of developing complications and/or severe dengue compared to healthier individuals. This study systematically reviews the evidence related to comorbidities and dengue. A systematic literature review was performed in five databases (EMBASE, PUBMED, Global Health, SciELO, Cochrane) and grey literature for full-text articles since its inceptions until October 10, 2015. A total of 230 articles were retrieved. Sixteen studies were analysed after applying all inclusion and exclusion criteria. Seven case control studies and nine retrospective cohort studies showed that comorbidities may contribute to severe dengue, especially 1) cardiovascular disease, 2) stroke, 3) diabetes, 4) respiratory disease and 5) renal disease, as well as old age. However, due to heterogeneity in studies, the real estimate effect of comorbidities as modifiers of dengue severity could not be established. Further research in regions with high prevalence of dengue infection would contribute to a better understanding of the relevance of comorbidities in severe dengue, especially with a standardised protocol, for outcomes, specific comorbidities, study design-best using prospective designs-and sample sizes.
Toledo, Joao; George, Leyanna; Martinez, Eric; Lazaro, Adhara; Han, Wai Wai; Coelho, Giovanini E.; Runge Ranzinger, Silvia; Horstick, Olaf
Patients with dengue fever and comorbidities seem to be at higher risk of developing complications and/or severe dengue compared to healthier individuals. This study systematically reviews the evidence related to comorbidities and dengue. A systematic literature review was performed in five databases (EMBASE, PUBMED, Global Health, SciELO, Cochrane) and grey literature for full-text articles since its inceptions until October 10, 2015. A total of 230 articles were retrieved. Sixteen studies were analysed after applying all inclusion and exclusion criteria. Seven case control studies and nine retrospective cohort studies showed that comorbidities may contribute to severe dengue, especially 1) cardiovascular disease, 2) stroke, 3) diabetes, 4) respiratory disease and 5) renal disease, as well as old age. However, due to heterogeneity in studies, the real estimate effect of comorbidities as modifiers of dengue severity could not be established. Further research in regions with high prevalence of dengue infection would contribute to a better understanding of the relevance of comorbidities in severe dengue, especially with a standardised protocol, for outcomes, specific comorbidities, study design—best using prospective designs—and sample sizes. PMID:26727113
Full Text Available Lyme disease has become a global public health problem and a prototype of an emerging infection. Both treatment-refractory infection and symptoms that are related to Borrelia burgdorferi infection remain subject to controversy. Because of the absence of solid evidence on prevalence, causes, diagnostic criteria, tools and treatment options, the role of autoimmunity to residual or persisting antigens, and the role of a toxin or other bacterial-associated products that are responsible for the symptoms and signs, chronic Lyme disease (CLD remains a relatively poorly understood chronic disease construct. The role and performance of family medicine in the detection, integrative treatment, and follow-up of CLD are not well studied either. The purpose of this paper is to describe insights into the complexity of CLD as a multidimensional chronic disease construct and its relevance to family medicine by means of a systematic literature review.
Borgermans, Liesbeth; Goderis, Geert; Vandevoorde, Jan; Devroey, Dirk
Lyme disease has become a global public health problem and a prototype of an emerging infection. Both treatment-refractory infection and symptoms that are related to Borrelia burgdorferi infection remain subject to controversy. Because of the absence of solid evidence on prevalence, causes, diagnostic criteria, tools and treatment options, the role of autoimmunity to residual or persisting antigens, and the role of a toxin or other bacterial-associated products that are responsible for the symptoms and signs, chronic Lyme disease (CLD) remains a relatively poorly understood chronic disease construct. The role and performance of family medicine in the detection, integrative treatment, and follow-up of CLD are not well studied either. The purpose of this paper is to describe insights into the complexity of CLD as a multidimensional chronic disease construct and its relevance to family medicine by means of a systematic literature review.
Full Text Available A Review of: Eysenbach, G., Tuische, J. & Diepgen, T.L. (2001. Evaluation of the usefulness of Internet searches to identify unpublished clinical trials for systematic reviews. Medical Informatics and the Internet in Medicine, 26(3, 203-218. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14639230110075459 Objective – To consider whether web searching is a useful method for identifying unpublished studies for inclusion in systematic reviews. Design – Retrospective web searches using the AltaVista search engine were conducted to identify unpublished studies – specifically, clinical trials – for systematic reviews which did not use a web search engine. Setting – The Department of Clinical Social Medicine, University of Heidelberg, Germany. Subjects – n/a Methods – Pilot testing of 11 web search engines was carried out to determine which could handle complex search queries. Pre-specified search requirements included the ability to handle Boolean and proximity operators, and truncation searching. A total of seven Cochrane systematic reviews were randomly selected from the Cochrane Library Issue 2, 1998, and their bibliographic database search strategies were adapted for the web search engine, AltaVista. Each adaptation combined search terms for the intervention, problem, and study type in the systematic review. Hints to planned, ongoing, or unpublished studies retrieved by the search engine, which were not cited in the systematic reviews, were followed up by visiting websites and contacting authors for further details when required. The authors of the systematic reviews were then contacted and asked to comment on the potential relevance of the identified studies. Main Results – Hints to 14 unpublished and potentially relevant studies, corresponding to 4 of the 7 randomly selected Cochrane systematic reviews, were identified. Out of the 14 studies, 2 were considered irrelevant to the corresponding systematic review by the systematic review authors. The
Seyedeh Azam Sajadi
Full Text Available Background: Family caregivers are considered as hidden patients experiencing physical and mental disorders. This affects the quality of not only their lives but also the health care provided to patients.This study aimed to investigate the quality of life (QOL and its related factors among the caregivers of patients undergoing hemodialysis. Methods: This systematic review was conducted based on the eight-step guidelines presented by the York University. The databases relevant to the medical field including Nursing and Allied Health, Web of Science, Scopus, Pubmed, Embase, PsycINFO and Psychology Library were used. Finally, 12 articles observing the inclusion criteria and with regard to the research questions were found. The data obtained from these articles were summarized, classified, and analyzed. Results: QOL among Family Caregivers of Patients on Hemodialysis is low, compared to the general population; however, their QOL is higher than the patients under their care. Factors relevant to the QOL for caregivers including age, gender, perceived social support, perceived burden of care, affliction with other diseases (lupus, hypertension, hypothyroidism and depression, intellectual understanding of the limitations of the patient’s disease in their daily life, employment of adaptation strategies, better marital relationships, accepting self and family relationship with the patient (mother and wife. Furthermore, the factors associated with care takers affecting the quality of caregivers’ lives were age, QOL and the type of treatment. Conclusions: Caregivers of patients undergoing hemodialysis enjoyed low QOL. Since there is a direct relationship between family caregivers’ quality and patients’ QOL, health care system and health policy makers should pay more attention to family caregivers.
Townsend, Ellen; Walker, Dawn-Marie; Sargeant, Sally; Vostanis, Panos; Hawton, Keith; Stocker, Olivia; Sithole, Jabulani
Background: Mood and anxiety disorders, and problems with self-harm are significant and serious issues that are common in young people in the Criminal Justice System. Aims: To examine whether interventions relevant to young offenders with mood or anxiety disorders, or problems with self-harm are effective. Method: Systematic review and…
Seet Khing Chiew
Full Text Available Background: Plantar fasciitis (PF is a common foot complaint, affects both active sportsmen and physically inactive middle age group. It is believed that PF results from degenerative changes rather than inflammation. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP therapy has been introduced as an alternative therapy for PF. This study is aimed to systematically review to the effectiveness and relevant factors of PRP treatment in managing PF. Materials and Methods: A search was conducted in electronic databases, including PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar using different keywords. Publications in English-language from 2010 to 2015 were included. Two reviewers extracted data from selected articles after the quality assessment was done. Results: A total of 1126 articles were retrieved, but only 12 articles met inclusion and exclusion criteria. With a total of 455 patients, a number of potentially influencing factors on the effectiveness of PRP for PF was identified. In all these studies, PRP had been injected directly into the plantar fascia, with or without ultrasound guidance. Steps from preparation to injection were found equally crucial. Amount of collected blood, types of blood anti-coagulant, methods in preparing PRP, speed, and numbers of time the blood samples were centrifuged, activating agent added to the PRP and techniques of injection, were varied between different studies. Regardless of these variations, superiority of PRP treatment compared to steroid was reported in all studies. Conclusion: In conclusion, PRP therapy might provide an effective alternative to conservative management of PF with no obvious side effect or complication. The onset of action after PRP injection also greatly depended on the degree of degeneration.
Andrea Goettler; Haslberger, Alexander G.; Elena Ambrosino
Background: Personalised medicine has gained attention as a result of the advances of genomic research in the last decade. This includes the rise in epigenetic research, which focuses on the environmental influences on the genome and examines biomarkers that might be useful for cancer therapy. This study investigates the epigenetic biomarkers for breast cancer and its risk factor, obesity, and evaluates their relevance for global public health. Methods: A systematic search of articles pub...
Brendan Wilson; Andrea Bialocerkowski
Objective To identify, evaluate and synthesise evidence on the effect of kinesiotape applied to the lateral aspect of the ankle, through a systematic review of quantitative studies. Data Sources A search for quantitative studies was undertaken using key terms of “kinesiotape” and “ankle” in seven electronic databases, using the maximum date ranges. Databases included: the Cochrane Library, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Medline, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, Scop...
Borup, H; Kirkeskov, L; Hanskov, Dorte Jessing Agerby
of airway obstruction among workers in the construction industry. The authors independently assessed studies to determine their eligibility and performed a quality assessment of the included papers. Results: Twelve studies were included. Nine studies found a statistically significant association between......: To assess the occurrence of COPD among construction workers. Methods: We performed a systematic search in PubMed and Embase between 1 January 1990 and 31 August 2016 in order to identify epidemiological studies with a risk estimate for either COPD morbidity/mortality or a spirometry-based definition......Background: Between 15 and 20% of prevalent cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been attributed to occupational exposures to vapours, gases, dusts and fumes. Dust at construction sites is still a challenge, but no overview exists of COPD among construction workers. Aims...
Uterine cavity measurement began with evaluation of post-mortem and surgical specimens. It has been extended in vivo by use of mechanical instruments and visualization techniques. This is a systematic review of the range of values for the uterine cavity and the practical implications of these measurements, Following a review of multiple data bases & a QUORUM analysis. Only articles with clearly defined quantitative measurements were included. Mechanical cavity measurements with a variety of instruments gave a mean endometrial cavity length (ECL) of 33.73 mm (18-22.1) and a mean endometrial cavity width (ECW) of 25.1 mm (17.8-32.2) for nulliparae. The values for multiparae were mean ECL 38.6mm(20.61-40.3) and mean ECW 34.9 mm (23.4-53). Imaging measurements for the uterine cavity by hysterography and ultrasound were mean ECL 44.3 mm (29-64) for multiparae and ECL 37 mm for nulliparae. Mean ECW was 28.2 mm (21-33) for nulliparae and 32.1 mm (26-38) for multiparae. There were wide variations due to parity, ethnicity and gestational states. Accurate measurement of intrauterine parameters is valuable for improving and enhancing many intrauterine procedures including IUD insertion, endometrial ablation, embryo placement in IVF and management of spontaneous and therapeutic abortion.
Wilson, Brendan; Bialocerkowski, Andrea
Objective To identify, evaluate and synthesise evidence on the effect of kinesiotape applied to the lateral aspect of the ankle, through a systematic review of quantitative studies. Data Sources A search for quantitative studies was undertaken using key terms of “kinesiotape” and “ankle” in seven electronic databases, using the maximum date ranges. Databases included: the Cochrane Library, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Medline, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, Scopus, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science. Study Selection Database hits were evaluated against explicit inclusion criteria. From 107 database hits, 8 quantitative studies were included. Data Extraction Two independent reviewers appraised the methodological rigour of the studies using the McMaster Critical Review Form for Quantitative Studies. Data were extracted on participant characteristics, kinesiotape parameters, comparison interventions, outcome measures and findings. Data Syntheses Most studies (n=7) had good to very good methodological rigour. Meta-analysis was not possible due to heterogeneity in participants, interventions and outcome measures. No adverse events were reported. Kinesiotape may produce different effects in healthy and injured ankles. In healthy ankles, kinesiotape may increase postural control, whereas in injured ankles it may improve proprioception, plantarflexor endurance and the performance of activities. These trends were identified from a small body of evidence including 276 participants. Conclusions It is recommended that kinesiotape may be used in clinical practice to prevent lateral ankle injuries (through its effects on postural control) and manage lateral ankle injuries due to its positive effects on proprioception, muscle endurance and activity performance. It appears that kinesiotape may not provide sufficient mechanical support to improve postural control in unstable ankles. Adverse events associated with kinseiotape are unlikely. PMID
Full Text Available To identify, evaluate and synthesise evidence on the effect of kinesiotape applied to the lateral aspect of the ankle, through a systematic review of quantitative studies.A search for quantitative studies was undertaken using key terms of "kinesiotape" and "ankle" in seven electronic databases, using the maximum date ranges. Databases included: the Cochrane Library, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Medline, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, Scopus, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science.Database hits were evaluated against explicit inclusion criteria. From 107 database hits, 8 quantitative studies were included.Two independent reviewers appraised the methodological rigour of the studies using the McMaster Critical Review Form for Quantitative Studies. Data were extracted on participant characteristics, kinesiotape parameters, comparison interventions, outcome measures and findings.Most studies (n=7 had good to very good methodological rigour. Meta-analysis was not possible due to heterogeneity in participants, interventions and outcome measures. No adverse events were reported. Kinesiotape may produce different effects in healthy and injured ankles. In healthy ankles, kinesiotape may increase postural control, whereas in injured ankles it may improve proprioception, plantarflexor endurance and the performance of activities. These trends were identified from a small body of evidence including 276 participants.It is recommended that kinesiotape may be used in clinical practice to prevent lateral ankle injuries (through its effects on postural control and manage lateral ankle injuries due to its positive effects on proprioception, muscle endurance and activity performance. It appears that kinesiotape may not provide sufficient mechanical support to improve postural control in unstable ankles. Adverse events associated with kinseiotape are unlikely.
Singh, Ruma G; Yoon, Harry D; Wu, Landy M; Lu, Jun; Plank, Lindsay D; Petrov, Maxim S
Growing evidence suggests that individuals with excessive fat in the pancreas are at an increased risk of chronic metabolic disorders. The aim was to systematically review studies on non-alcoholic fatty pancreas disease (NAFPD) with a view to determine its prevalence, associations with metabolic co-morbidities, and to suggest normal pancreatic fat percentage threshold. Three electronic databases (MEDLINE, Scopus, and Embase) were queried. Studies in humans were eligible for inclusion if they provided data on NAFPD and/or pancreatic fat percentage. Where possible, data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis and the effect of covariates analysed using meta-regression. Pooling data on pancreatic fat percentage from nine studies (1209 healthy individuals who underwent magnetic resonance imaging), yielded the weighted mean and weighted standard deviation of 4.48% and 0.87%, respectively. Pooling data on NAFPD from eleven studies (12,675 individuals), yielded the pooled prevalence of 33% (95% confidence interval, 24% - 41%). Meta-regression analysis showed that the prevalence of NAFPD was independent of age and sex. The presence of NAFPD was associated with a significantly increased risk of arterial hypertension (risk ratio 1.67; 95% confidence interval, 1.32-2.10; p<0.0001), diabetes mellitus (risk ratio 2.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.44-3.00; p=0.0001), and metabolic syndrome (risk ratio 2.37; 95% confidence interval, 2.07-2.71; p<0.0001). The findings indicate that NAFPD is a frequent clinical entity, associated with significantly increased risk of metabolic syndrome and its components. The normal pancreatic fat cut-off point of 6.2% may be recommended for use in future prospective studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lubowitz, James H; Brand, Jefferson C; Provencher, Matthew T; Rossi, Michael J
Sometimes systematic reviews seem overprevalent, and some systematic reviews can be "inconclusive," which does not improve clinical decision making. On the other hand, systematic reviews can make a positive impact on patient outcomes by summarizing clinically relevant literature for arthroscopic surgeons and related researchers.
Full Text Available Introduction: Social defeat (SD in rats, which results from male intraspecific confrontations, is ethologically relevant and useful to understand stress effects on physiology and behavior.Methods: A systematic review of studies about biomarkers induced by the SD protocol and published from 2002 to 2013 was carried out in the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Knowledge and ScienceDirect. The search terms were: social defeat, rat, neurotrophins, neuroinflammatory markers, and transcriptional factors.Results: Classical and recently discovered biomarkers were found to be relevant in stress-induced states. Findings were summarized in accordance to the length of exposure to stress: single, repeated, intermittent and continuous SD. This review found that the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is a distinct marker of stress adaptation. Along with glucocorticoids and catecholamines, BDNF seems to be important in understanding stress physiology.Conclusion: The SD model provides a relevant tool to study stress response features, development of addictive behaviors, clinic depression and anxiety, as well as individual differences in vulnerability and resilience to stress.
Aim This paper offers a discussion of the reading and writing practices that define systematic review. Background Although increasingly popular, systematic review has engendered a critique of the claims made for it as a more objective method for summing up research findings than other kinds of reviews. Discussion An alternative understanding of systematic review is as a highly subjective, albeit disciplined, engagement between resisting readers and resistant texts. Reviewers of research exemplify the resisting reader when they exclude reports on grounds of relevance, quality, or methodological difference. Research reports exemplify resistant texts as they do not simply yield their findings, but rather must be made docile to review. These acts of resistance make systematic review possible, but challenge claims of its greater capacity to control bias. Conclusion An understanding of the reading and writing practices that define systematic review still holds truth and objectivity as regulative ideals, but is aware of the reading and writing practices that both enable and challenge those ideals. PMID:18721156
Ng, K H; Peh, W C
Evidence-based medicine (EBM) aims to combine the best available scientific evidence with clinical experience and individual judgment of patient needs. In the hierarchy of scientific evidence, systematic reviews (along with meta-analyses) occupy the highest levels in terms of the quality of evidence. A systematic review is the process of searching, selecting, appraising, synthesising and reporting clinical evidence on a particular question or topic. It is currently considered the best, least biased and most rational way to organise, gather, evaluate and integrate scientific evidence from the rapidly-changing medical and healthcare literature. Systematic reviews could be used to present current concepts or serve as review articles and replace the traditional expert opinion or narrative review. This article explains the structure and content of a systematic review.
Full Text Available Internationally, health systems face an increasing demand for services from people living with multimorbidity. Multimorbidity is often associated with high levels of treatment burden. Targeting lifestyle factors that impact across multiple conditions may promote quality of life and better health outcomes for people with multimorbidity. Motivational interviewing (MI has been studied as one approach to supporting lifestyle behaviour change. A systematic review was conducted to assess the effectiveness of MI in healthcare settings and to consider its relevance for multimorbidity. Twelve meta-analyses pertinent to multimorbidity lifestyle factors were identified. As an intervention, MI has been found to have a small-to-medium statistically significant effect across a wide variety of single diseases and for a range of behavioural outcomes. This review highlights the need for specific research into the application of MI to determine if the benefits of MI seen with single diseases are also present in the context of multimorbidity. Journal of Comorbidity 2015;5:162–174
Vergnes, Jean-Noel; Marchal-Sixou, Christine; Nabet, Cathy; Maret, Delphine; Hamel, Olivier
Since its introduction by the Nuremberg Code and the Declaration of Helsinki, the place held by ethics in biomedical research has been continuously increasing in importance. The past 30 years have also seen exponential growth in the number of biomedical articles published. A systematic review of the literature is the scientific way of synthesising a plethora of information, by exhaustively searching out and objectively analysing the studies dealing with a given issue. However, the question of ethics in systematic reviews is rarely touched upon. This could lead to some drawbacks, as systematic reviews may contain studies with ethical insufficiencies, may be a possible way to publish unethical research and may also be prone to conflict of interest. Finally, informed consent given for an original study is not necessarily still valid at the systematic review level. There is no doubt that routine ethical assessment in systematic reviews would help to improve the ethical and methodological quality of studies in general. However, ethical issues change so much with time and location, and are so broad in scope and in context that it appears illusory to search for a universal, internationally accepted standard for ethical assessment in systematic reviews. Some simple suggestions could nevertheless be drawn from the present reflection and are discussed in the paper.
Kuijpers, Wilma; Groen, Wim G; Aaronson, Neil K
Background Patient empowerment reflects the ability of patients to positively influence their health and health behavior such as physical activity. While interactive Web-based interventions are increasingly used in various chronic disease settings to enhance empowerment and physical activity, such interventions are still uncommon for cancer survivors. Objective The objective of this study was to systematically review the literature regarding interactive Web-based interventions. We focused on interventions aimed at increasing patient empowerment and physical activity for various chronic conditions, and explored their possible relevance for cancer survivors. Methods Searches were performed in PubMed, Embase, and Scopus to identify peer-reviewed papers reporting on randomized controlled trials that studied the effects of Web-based interventions. These interventions were developed for adults with diabetes, cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart failure, or cancer. Intervention characteristics, effects on patient empowerment and physical activity, information on barriers to and facilitators of intervention use, users’ experiences, and methodological quality were assessed. Results were summarized in a qualitative way. We used the recommendations of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) regarding cancer survivorship care to explore the relevance of the interventions for cancer survivors. Results We included 19 papers reporting on trials with 18 unique studies. Significant, positive effects on patient empowerment were reported by 4 studies and 2 studies reported positive effects on physical activity. The remaining studies yielded mixed results or no significant group differences in these outcomes (ie, no change or improvement for all groups). Although the content, duration, and frequency of interventions varied considerably across studies, commonly used elements included education, self-monitoring, feedback/tailored information, self
Full Text Available There is a wide recognition that, innovation is a key and strategic process, that is, essential for the survival and growth of individual firms, and also, for sustainable national and regional economic growth. Meanwhile, on the one hand, collaboration is a necessary approach for the innovation process in today's environment, and, on the other hand, information technology (IT tools are indispensable means for collaboration across different boundaries. Web 2.0 is a new generation of web tools that are providing new ways for work and new opportunities for interaction and collaboration. These new tools are increasingly being used by various organizations to enhance collaboration, to the end of, supporting and improving the innovation process. This review aims to assess the extent and scope to which the literature has examined web 2.0 tools in the context of the innovation process. For this purpose, scholarly articles, published from 2002 to 2012, on each of the topics of innovation and web 2.0, were collected by the literature search. The study here adopted the systematic approach of lexical analysis for extracting relevant articles from the corpus and for the analysis of those articles.
Hansen, L.H.; Lundsager, P.
The report presents the results of a review of studies relating to integration of wind energy in isolated power supply systems, based on a systematic literature survey. The purpose of the study is to develop a methodology consisting of a set of guidelinesfor wind energy projects in isolated energy...... systems and a set of tools and models that are operational on an engineering level. The review is based on a literature search in the ETDE Energy Database with a main search covering the period 7/88 to 6/97 andsupplemented by partial update periods. A few newer references have been included in the review......, most notably the IEC/PAS 62111 specification. The amount of wind energy literature related to the subject is excessively large, and a complete review inwhich every relevant abstract is identified and examined is not feasible within the framework of this (or probably any other) study. The review results...
Becker, Sara J; Midoun, Miriam M
To systematically analyze the effects of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) on patient requests for medication and physician prescribing across psychiatry-relevant studies. MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Thomson Reuters' ISI Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar were searched (1999-2014) using variations of the terms direct-to-consumer advertising and psychiatric. Reference lists and an online repository of DTCA manuscripts were also scrutinized. English-language studies collecting data at the point of service, focusing on or including psychiatric medication, and assessing the effects of DTCA on patient and/or physician behavior were included. Of 989 articles identified, 69 received full-text review. Four studies across 5 manuscripts met inclusion criteria. Data were extracted on participants, study design, methodological quality, and results. Methodological quality of individual studies was assessed using adapted criteria from the Effective Public Health Practice Project. Confidence in conclusions across studies was determined using principles from the well-established GRADE system. Due to lack of replication across strong randomized controlled trials (RCTs), no conclusions merited high confidence. With moderate confidence, we concluded that DTCA requests (1) are granted most of the time (1 RCT, 3 observational), (2) prompt higher prescribing volume (1 RCT, 1 observational), (3) promote greater adherence to minimally acceptable treatment guidelines for patients with depression (1 RCT), and (4) stimulate overprescribing among patients with an adjustment disorder (1 RCT). Findings suggest that DTCA requests are typically accommodated, promote higher prescribing volume, and have competing effects on treatment quality. More methodologically strong studies are needed to increase confidence in conclusions.
van Sleuwen, Bregje E.; Engelberts, Adele C.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M.; Kuis, Wietse; Schulpen, Tom W. J.; L'Hoir, Monique P.
Swaddling was an almost universal child-care practice before the 18th century. It is still tradition in certain parts of the Middle East and is gaining popularity in the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Netherlands to curb excessive crying. We have systematically reviewed all articles on s
Sleuwen, van Bregje E.; Engelberts, Adèle C.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M.; Kuis, Wietse; Schulpen, Tom W.J.
Swaddling was an almost universal child-care practice before the 18th century. It is still tradition in certain parts of the Middle East and is gaining popularity in the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Netherlands to curb excessive crying. We have systematically reviewed all articles on s
van Sleuwen, Bregje E.; Engelberts, Adele C.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M.; Kuis, Wietse; Schulpen, Tom W. J.; L'Hoir, Monique P.
Swaddling was an almost universal child-care practice before the 18th century. It is still tradition in certain parts of the Middle East and is gaining popularity in the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Netherlands to curb excessive crying. We have systematically reviewed all articles on
van Sleuwen, Bregje E.; Engelberts, Adèle C.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magdalena M.; Kuis, Wietse; Schulpen, Tom W.J.
Swaddling was an almost universal child-care practice before the 18th century. It is still tradition in certain parts of the Middle East and is gaining popularity in the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Netherlands to curb excessive crying. We have systematically reviewed all articles on
van Sleuwen, Bregje E.; Engelberts, Adèle C.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magdalena M.; Kuis, Wietse; Schulpen, Tom W.J.
Swaddling was an almost universal child-care practice before the 18th century. It is still tradition in certain parts of the Middle East and is gaining popularity in the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Netherlands to curb excessive crying. We have systematically reviewed all articles on s
Hunt, D L; Haynes, R B
A systematic review is a carefully planned and conducted study designed to answer a specific focused clinical question. A systematic review differs from the frequently encountered narrative review article. Systematic review must be completed using a prespecified methodology. The reader must ask eight important questions when reading a systematic review: (i) did the review address a focused clinical question (ii) is it likely that important, relevant studies are missed (iii) were the inclusion criteria used to select appropriate articles (iv) was the validity of the included studies assessed (v) were the assessments of studies reproducible (vi) were the results similar from study to study (vii) what were the overall results and how precise are they and (viii) will the results help in caring for patients. The article also provides sources for systematic reviews.
A. Lundh; S.L. Knijnenburg; A.W. Jørgensen; E.C. van Dalen; L.C.M. Kremer
Background: To ensure evidence-based decision making in pediatric oncology systematic reviews are necessary. The objective of our study was to evaluate the methodological quality of all currently existing systematic reviews in pediatric oncology. Methods: We identified eligible systematic reviews th
Benchimol-Barbosa, Paulo Roberto
When writing a review manuscript, choosing among potentially citable references is an arduous task. Decisions are commonly based on several aspects, ranging from obvious content relevance, passing through impact factor of the journal in which a prospective citable article was written, and reaching to sovereign personal preferences. Articles written in non-English languages or ranked in low impact factor journals are generally overlooked. On the other hand, articles published by outstanding physicians in the 'hidden world' may bear historical relevance and foster scientific progress.
Relevance theory has had an impact on the study in various disciplines including linguistics,literature and so on. This paper gives a brief review of the relevance theory and two principles of relevance.
Gardiner, Clare; Ingleton, Christine; Ryan, Tony; Ward, Sue; Gott, Merryn
It is important to understand the costs of palliative and end-of-life care in order to inform decisions regarding cost allocation. However, economic research in palliative care is very limited and little is known about the range and extent of the costs that are involved in palliative care provision. To undertake a systematic review of the health and social care literature to determine the range of financial costs related to a palliative care approach and explore approaches used to measure these costs. A systematic review of empirical literature with thematic synthesis. Study quality was evaluated using the Weight of Evidence Framework. The databases CINAHL, Cochrane, PsycINFO and Medline were searched from 1995 to November 2015 for empirical studies which presented data on the financial costs associated with palliative care. A total of 38 papers met our inclusion criteria. Components of palliative care costs were incurred within four broad domains: hospital care, community or home-based care, hospice care and informal care. These costs could be considered from the economic viewpoint of three providers: state or government, insurers/third-party/not-for-profit organisations and patient and family and/or society. A wide variety of costing approaches were used to derive costs. The evidence base regarding the economics of palliative care is sparse, particularly relating to the full economic costs of palliative care. Our review provides a framework for considering these costs from a variety of economic viewpoints; however, further research is required to develop and refine methodologies.
Aagaard, Thomas; Lund, Hans; Juhl, Carsten Bogh
BACKGROUND: When conducting systematic reviews, it is essential to perform a comprehensive literature search to identify all published studies relevant to the specific research question. The Cochrane Collaborations Methodological Expectations of Cochrane Intervention Reviews (MECIR) guidelines...... of musculoskeletal disorders. METHODS: Data sources were systematic reviews published by the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Review Group, including at least five RCTs, reporting a search history, searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and adding reference- and hand-searching. Additional databases were deemed eligible...... if they indexed RCTs, were in English and used in more than three of the systematic reviews. Relative recall was calculated as the number of studies identified by the literature search divided by the number of eligible studies i.e. included studies in the individual systematic reviews. Finally, cumulative median...
Mejàre, Ingegerd A; Klingberg, Gunilla; Mowafi, Frida K
OBJECTIVES: To identify, appraise and summarize existing knowledge and knowledge gaps in practice-relevant questions in pediatric dentistry. METHODS: A systematic mapping of systematic reviews was undertaken for domains considered important in daily clinical practice. The literature search covere...
There has recently been interest in applying the techniques of systematic review to bioethics literature. In this paper, I identify the three models of systematic review proposed to date in bioethics: systematic reviews of empirical bioethics research, systematic reviews of normative bioethics literature, and systematic reviews of reasons. I argue that all three types yield information useful to scholarship in bioethics, yet they also face significant challenges particularly in relation to terminology and time. Drawing on my recent experience conducting a systematic review, I suggest that complete comprehensiveness may not always be an appropriate goal of a literature review in bioethics, depending on the research question. In some cases, all the relevant ideas may be captured without capturing all the relevant literature. I conclude that systematic reviews in bioethics have an important role to play alongside the traditional broadbrush approach to reviewing literature in bioethics.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Policy makers and others often require synthesis of knowledge in an area within six months or less. Traditional systematic reviews typically take at least 12 months to conduct. Rapid reviews streamline traditional systematic review methods in order to synthesize evidence within a shortened timeframe. There is great variation in the process of conducting rapid reviews. This review sought to examine methods used for rapid reviews, as well as implications of methodological streamlining in terms of rigour, bias, and results. Methods A comprehensive search strategy--including five electronic databases, grey literature, hand searching of relevant journals, and contacting key informants--was undertaken. All titles and abstracts (n = 1,989 were reviewed independently by two reviewers. Relevance criteria included articles published between 1995 and 2009 about conducting rapid reviews or addressing comparisons of rapid reviews versus traditional reviews. Full articles were retrieved for any titles deemed relevant by either reviewer (n = 70. Data were extracted from all relevant methodological articles (n = 45 and from exemplars of rapid review methods (n = 25. Results Rapid reviews varied from three weeks to six months; various methods for speeding up the process were employed. Some limited searching by years, databases, language, and sources beyond electronic searches. Several employed one reviewer for title and abstract reviewing, full text review, methodological quality assessment, and/or data extraction phases. Within rapid review studies, accelerating the data extraction process may lead to missing some relevant information. Biases may be introduced due to shortened timeframes for literature searching, article retrieval, and appraisal. Conclusions This review examined the continuum between diverse rapid review methods and traditional systematic reviews. It also examines potential implications of streamlined review methods. More of
DiSilvestro, Kevin J; Tjoumakaris, Fotios P; Maltenfort, Mitchell G; Spindler, Kurt P; Freedman, Kevin B
The number of systematic reviews published in the orthopaedic literature has increased, and these reviews can help guide clinical decision making. However, the quality of these reviews can affect the reader's ability to use the data to arrive at accurate conclusions and make clinical decisions. To evaluate the methodological and reporting quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses in the sports medicine literature to determine whether such reviews should be used to guide treatment decisions. The hypothesis was that many systematic reviews in the orthopaedic sports medicine literature may not follow the appropriate reporting guidelines or methodological criteria recommended for systematic reviews. Systematic review. All clinical sports medicine systematic reviews and meta-analyses from 2009 to 2013 published in The American Journal of Sports Medicine (AJSM), The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (JBJS), Arthroscopy, Sports Health, and Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy (KSSTA) were reviewed and evaluated for level of evidence according to the guidelines from the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, for reporting quality according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement, and for methodological quality according to the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) tool. Analysis was performed by year and journal of publication, and the levels of evidence included in the systematic reviews were also analyzed. A total of 200 systematic reviews and meta-analyses were identified over the study period. Of these, 53% included evidence levels 4 and 5 in their analyses, with just 32% including evidence levels 1 and 2 only. There were significant differences in the proportion of articles with high levels of evidence (P Sports Health and KSSTA on the PRISMA and AMSTAR. The average PRISMA score by year varied from 85% to 89%, and the average AMSTAR score varied from 70% to 76%. Systematic reviews
Full Text Available Purpose. We conducted a systematic search of published literature, to assess (i quality of life (QoL for survivors of a bone tumour compared with the normal population; (ii QoL implications following amputation, successful or failed limb salvage; (iii adaptation of young children to amputation compared with older children or adolescents.
Tang, I P; Freeman, S R; Kontorinis, G; Tang, M Y; Rutherford, S A; King, A T; Lloyd, S K W
To systematically summarise the peer-reviewed literature relating to the aetiology, clinical presentation, investigation and treatment of geniculate neuralgia. Articles published in English between 1932 and 2012, identified using Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases. The search terms 'geniculate neuralgia', 'nervus intermedius neuralgia', 'facial pain', 'otalgia' and 'neuralgia' were used to identify relevant papers. Fewer than 150 reported cases were published in English between 1932 and 2012. The aetiology of the condition remains unknown, and clinical presentation varies. Non-neuralgic causes of otalgia should always be excluded by a thorough clinical examination, audiological assessment and radiological investigations before making a diagnosis of geniculate neuralgia. Conservative medical treatment is always the first-line therapy. Surgical treatment should be offered if medical treatment fails. The two commonest surgical options are transection of the nervus intermedius, and microvascular decompression of the nerve at the nerve root entry zone of the brainstem. However, extracranial intratemporal division of the cutaneous branches of the facial nerve may offer a safer and similarly effective treatment. The response to medical treatment for this condition varies between individuals. The long-term outcomes of surgery remain unknown because of limited data.
Westgate, Martin J; Lindenmayer, David B
The need for robust evidence to support conservation actions has driven the adoption of systematic approaches to research synthesis in ecology. However, applying systematic review to complex or open questions remains challenging, and this task is becoming more difficult as the quantity of scientific literature increases. We drew on the science of linguistics for guidance as to why the process of identifying and sorting information during systematic review remains so labor intensive, and to provide potential solutions. Several linguistic properties of peer-reviewed corpora-including nonrandom selection of review topics, small-world properties of semantic networks, and spatiotemporal variation in word meaning-greatly increase the effort needed to complete the systematic review process. Conversely, the resolution of these semantic complexities is a common motivation for narrative reviews, but this process is rarely enacted with the rigor applied during linguistic analysis. Therefore, linguistics provides a unifying framework for understanding some key challenges of systematic review and highlights 2 useful directions for future research. First, in cases where semantic complexity generates barriers to synthesis, ecologists should consider drawing on existing methods-such as natural language processing or the construction of research thesauri and ontologies-that provide tools for mapping and resolving that complexity. These tools could help individual researchers classify research material in a more robust manner and provide valuable guidance for future researchers on that topic. Second, a linguistic perspective highlights that scientific writing is a rich resource worthy of detailed study, an observation that can sometimes be lost during the search for data during systematic review or meta-analysis. For example, mapping semantic networks can reveal redundancy and complementarity among scientific concepts, leading to new insights and research questions. Consequently
Salles, Léia Fortes; Silva, Maria Júlia Paes
This study is a literature review about Iridology/Irisdiagnose in the period from 1970 to 2005. The objective was to identify the worldwide scientific publications (articles) in this field and the opinions about the method. Twenty-five articles were found, four of them from Brazilian authors. About the category, 1 was literature review, 12 research studies and 12 updates, historical reviews or editorials. The countries that have contributed more with the studies were Brazil and Russia. Fifteen of those are in favor of the method and 10 are against it. In conclusion, it is necessary to develop more studies inside the methodological rigor, once Iridology brings hope to preventive medicine.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternity care providers, particularly midwives, have a window of opportunity to influence pregnant women about positive health choices. This aim of this paper is to identify evidence of effective public health interventions from good quality systematic reviews that could be conducted by midwives. Methods Relevant databases including MEDLINE, Pubmed, EBSCO, CRD, MIDIRS, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library and Econlit were searched to identify systematic reviews in October 2010. Quality assessment of all reviews was conducted. Results Thirty-six good quality systematic reviews were identified which reported on effective interventions. The reviews were conducted on a diverse range of interventions across the reproductive continuum and were categorised under: screening; supplementation; support; education; mental health; birthing environment; clinical care in labour and breast feeding. The scope and strength of the review findings are discussed in relation to current practice. A logic model was developed to provide an overarching framework of midwifery public health roles to inform research policy and practice. Conclusions This review provides a broad scope of high quality systematic review evidence and definitively highlights the challenge of knowledge transfer from research into practice. The review also identified gaps in knowledge around the impact of core midwifery practice on public health outcomes and the value of this contribution. This review provides evidence for researchers and funders as to the gaps in current knowledge and should be used to inform the strategic direction of the role of midwifery in public health in policy and practice.
Ejzenberg, Dani; Mendes, Luana Regina Baratelli Carelli; de Paiva Haddad, Luciana Bertocco; Baracat, Edmund Chada; D’Albuquerque, Luiz Augusto Carneiro; Andraus, Wellington
Up to 15% of the reproductive population is infertile, and 3 to 5% of these cases are caused by uterine dysfunction. This abnormality generally leads women to consider surrogacy or adoption. Uterine transplantation, although still experimental, may be an option in these cases. This systematic review will outline the recommendations, surgical aspects, immunosuppressive drugs and reproductive aspects related to experimental uterine transplantation in women. PMID:27982170
Full Text Available Up to 15% of the reproductive population is infertile, and 3 to 5% of these cases are caused by uterine dysfunction. This abnormality generally leads women to consider surrogacy or adoption. Uterine transplantation, although still experimental, may be an option in these cases. This systematic review will outline the recommendations, surgical aspects, immunosuppressive drugs and reproductive aspects related to experimental uterine transplantation in women.
Lundh, Andreas; Knijnenburg, Sebastiaan L; Jørgensen, Anders W
BACKGROUND: To ensure evidence-based decision making in pediatric oncology systematic reviews are necessary. The objective of our study was to evaluate the methodological quality of all currently existing systematic reviews in pediatric oncology. METHODS: We identified eligible systematic reviews...... through a systematic search of the literature. Data on clinical and methodological characteristics of the included systematic reviews were extracted. The methodological quality of the included systematic reviews was assessed using the overview quality assessment questionnaire, a validated 10-item quality...... assessment tool. We compared the methodological quality of systematic reviews published in regular journals with that of Cochrane systematic reviews. RESULTS: We included 117 systematic reviews, 99 systematic reviews published in regular journals and 18 Cochrane systematic reviews. The average methodological...
Liu, Lizhou; Skinner, Margot; McDonough, Suzanne; Mabire, Leon; Baxter, George David
Objective. As evidence of the effectiveness of acupuncture for low back pain (LBP) is inconsistent, we aimed to critically appraise the evidence from relevant systematic reviews. Methods. Systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) concerning acupuncture and LBP were searched in seven databases. Internal validity and external validity of systematic reviews were assessed. Systematic reviews were categorized and high quality reviews assigned greater weightings. Conclusions were generated from a narrative synthesis of the outcomes of subgroup comparisons. Results. Sixteen systematic reviews were appraised. Overall, the methodological quality was low and external validity weak. For acute LBP, evidence that acupuncture has a more favorable effect than sham acupuncture in relieving pain was inconsistent; it had a similar effect on improving function. For chronic LBP, evidence consistently demonstrated that acupuncture provides short-term clinically relevant benefits for pain relief and functional improvement compared with no treatment or acupuncture plus another conventional intervention. Conclusion. Systematic reviews of variable quality showed that acupuncture, either used in isolation or as an adjunct to conventional therapy, provides short-term improvements in pain and function for chronic LBP. More efforts are needed to improve both internal and external validity of systematic reviews and RCTs in this area.
Full Text Available Objective. As evidence of the effectiveness of acupuncture for low back pain (LBP is inconsistent, we aimed to critically appraise the evidence from relevant systematic reviews. Methods. Systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCTs concerning acupuncture and LBP were searched in seven databases. Internal validity and external validity of systematic reviews were assessed. Systematic reviews were categorized and high quality reviews assigned greater weightings. Conclusions were generated from a narrative synthesis of the outcomes of subgroup comparisons. Results. Sixteen systematic reviews were appraised. Overall, the methodological quality was low and external validity weak. For acute LBP, evidence that acupuncture has a more favorable effect than sham acupuncture in relieving pain was inconsistent; it had a similar effect on improving function. For chronic LBP, evidence consistently demonstrated that acupuncture provides short-term clinically relevant benefits for pain relief and functional improvement compared with no treatment or acupuncture plus another conventional intervention. Conclusion. Systematic reviews of variable quality showed that acupuncture, either used in isolation or as an adjunct to conventional therapy, provides short-term improvements in pain and function for chronic LBP. More efforts are needed to improve both internal and external validity of systematic reviews and RCTs in this area.
Carrozzino, Danilo; Bech, Per; Patierno, Chiara; Onofrj, Marco; Morberg, Bo Mohr; Thomas, Astrid; Bonanni, Laura; Fulcheri, Mario
The current systematic review study is aimed at critically analyzing from a clinimetric viewpoint the clinical consequence of somatization in Parkinson's Disease (PD). By focusing on the International Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we conducted a comprehensive electronic literature research strategy on ISI Web-of-Science, PsychINFO, PubMed, EBSCO, ScienceDirect, MEDLINE, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. Out of 2.926 initial records, only a total of 9 studies were identified as clearly relevant and analyzed in this systematic review. The prevalence of somatization in PD has been found to range between 7.0% and 66.7%, with somatoform disorders acting as clinical factor significantly contributing to predict a progressive cognitive impairment. We highlighted that somatization is a highly prevalent comorbidity affecting PD. However, the clinical consequence of such psychiatric symptom should be further evaluated by replacing the clinically inadequate diagnostic label of psychogenic parkinsonism with the psychosomatic concept of persistent somatization as conceived by the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research (DCPR). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mota, Vitor Gomes; Markman Filho, Brivaldo
Doppler echocardiography (Echo) is a non-invasive method of excellent accuracy to screen portopulmonary hypertension (PPH) and to assess intrapulmonary shunts (IPS) in chronic liver disease (CLD). In the past decade, Echo proved to play a fundamental role in the diagnosis of cirrhotic cardiomyopathy (CCM). To perform a systematic review of relevant articles on the subject 'Echo in CLD'. In November 2011, a systematic review was performed in the PubMed, LILACS and SciELO databases, and the characteristics of the studies selected were reported. The search based on descriptors and free terms obtained 204 articles (179 in Pubmed, 21 in LILACS, and 1 in SciELO). Of those 204 articles, 22 were selected for systematic review. A meta-analysis could not be performed because of the heterogeneity of the articles. Echo should be part of CLD stratification for screening PPH, IPS and CCM, because, most of the time, such complications are diagnosed only when patients are already waiting for a liver transplant.
O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Thomas, James; McNaught, John; Miwa, Makoto; Ananiadou, Sophia
The large and growing number of published studies, and their increasing rate of publication, makes the task of identifying relevant studies in an unbiased way for inclusion in systematic reviews both complex and time consuming. Text mining has been offered as a potential solution: through automating some of the screening process, reviewer time can be saved. The evidence base around the use of text mining for screening has not yet been pulled together systematically; this systematic review fills that research gap. Focusing mainly on non-technical issues, the review aims to increase awareness of the potential of these technologies and promote further collaborative research between the computer science and systematic review communities. Five research questions led our review: what is the state of the evidence base; how has workload reduction been evaluated; what are the purposes of semi-automation and how effective are they; how have key contextual problems of applying text mining to the systematic review field been addressed; and what challenges to implementation have emerged? We answered these questions using standard systematic review methods: systematic and exhaustive searching, quality-assured data extraction and a narrative synthesis to synthesise findings. The evidence base is active and diverse; there is almost no replication between studies or collaboration between research teams and, whilst it is difficult to establish any overall conclusions about best approaches, it is clear that efficiencies and reductions in workload are potentially achievable. On the whole, most suggested that a saving in workload of between 30% and 70% might be possible, though sometimes the saving in workload is accompanied by the loss of 5% of relevant studies (i.e. a 95% recall). Using text mining to prioritise the order in which items are screened should be considered safe and ready for use in 'live' reviews. The use of text mining as a 'second screener' may also be used cautiously
Fiedler, Friederike; Stangl, Gabriele I; Fiedler, Eckhard; Taube, Klaus-Michael
Few well-defined, evidence-based nutritional recommendations for people with skin diseases have been published in the scientific literature and standard dermatological textbooks. Using a systematic review of acne vulgaris as an example, the aim of this study was to determine whether there are systematic studies on the topic and, if so, of what quality. Four evidence levels were defined: (A) double-blind randomized study; (B) randomized study with serious limitations/low number of cases; (C) case-control or cohort study; and (D) expert opinion/case report. PubMed and Cochrane searches were performed using combinations of the terms "diet", "nutrition", "meal" and "food" with "acne". Foodstuffs mentioned in relevant articles were subdivided by evidence level and recorded as having a beneficial (+), neutral (0) or adverse (-) effect. However, only a small proportion of studies met sufficiently high scientific standards that would enable therapeutic recommendations to be made in practice.
Archer, Daniel E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hornback, Donald Eric [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Jeffrey O. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nicholson, Andrew D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Patton, Bruce W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peplow, Douglas E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Miller, Thomas Martin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ayaz-Maierhafer, Birsen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
This report summarizes the findings of a two year effort to systematically assess neutron and gamma backgrounds relevant to operational modeling and detection technology implementation. The first year effort focused on reviewing the origins of background sources and their impact on measured rates in operational scenarios of interest. The second year has focused on the assessment of detector and algorithm performance as they pertain to operational requirements against the various background sources and background levels.
Background An exponential increase in the number of systematic reviews published, and constrained resources for new reviews, means that there is an urgent need for guidance on explicitly and transparently integrating existing reviews into new systematic reviews. The objectives of this paper are: 1) to identify areas where existing guidance may be adopted or adapted, and 2) to suggest areas for future guidance development. Methods We searched documents and websites from healthcare focused systematic review organizations to identify and, where available, to summarize relevant guidance on the use of existing systematic reviews. We conducted informational interviews with members of Evidence-based Practice Centers (EPCs) to gather experiences in integrating existing systematic reviews, including common issues and challenges, as well as potential solutions. Results There was consensus among systematic review organizations and the EPCs about some aspects of incorporating existing systematic reviews into new reviews. Current guidance may be used in assessing the relevance of prior reviews and in scanning references of prior reviews to identify studies for a new review. However, areas of challenge remain. Areas in need of guidance include how to synthesize, grade the strength of, and present bodies of evidence composed of primary studies and existing systematic reviews. For instance, empiric evidence is needed regarding how to quality check data abstraction and when and how to use study-level risk of bias assessments from prior reviews. Conclusions There remain areas of uncertainty for how to integrate existing systematic reviews into new reviews. Methods research and consensus processes among systematic review organizations are needed to develop guidance to address these challenges. PMID:24956937
Rensink, Marijke; Schuurmans, Marieke; Lindeman, Eline; Hafsteinsdottir, Thora
Task-oriented training in rehabilitation after stroke: systematic review. This paper is a report of a review conducted to provide an overview of the evidence in the literature on task-oriented training of stroke survivors and its relevance in daily nursing practice. Stroke is the second leading
Vondráčková, Petra; Gabrhelík, Roman
Background and aims Out of a large number of studies on Internet addiction, only a few have been published on the prevention of Internet addiction. The aim of this study is provide a systematic review of scientific articles regarding the prevention of Internet addiction and to identify the relevant topics published in this area of interest. Methods The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were adopted. The EBSCO, ProQuest Central, and PubMed databases were searched for texts published in English and Spanish between January 1995 and April 2016. A total of 179 original texts were obtained. After de-duplication and topic-relevance review, 108 texts were systematically classified and subjected to descriptive analysis and subsequent content analysis. Results The results of the content analysis yielded the following thematic areas: (a) target groups, (b) the improvement of specific skills, (c) program characteristics, and (d) environmental interventions. Discussion and conclusion Literature on the prevention of Internet addiction is scarce. There is an urgent need to introduce and implement new interventions for different at-risk populations, conduct well-designed research, and publish data on the effectiveness of these interventions. Developing prevention interventions should primarily target children and adolescents at risk of Internet addiction but also parents, teachers, peers, and others who are part of the formative environment of children and adolescents at risk of Internet addiction. Newly designed interventions focused on Internet addiction should be rigorously evaluated and the results published.
Vondráčková, Petra; Gabrhelík, Roman
Background and aims Out of a large number of studies on Internet addiction, only a few have been published on the prevention of Internet addiction. The aim of this study is provide a systematic review of scientific articles regarding the prevention of Internet addiction and to identify the relevant topics published in this area of interest. Methods The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were adopted. The EBSCO, ProQuest Central, and PubMed databases were searched for texts published in English and Spanish between January 1995 and April 2016. A total of 179 original texts were obtained. After de-duplication and topic-relevance review, 108 texts were systematically classified and subjected to descriptive analysis and subsequent content analysis. Results The results of the content analysis yielded the following thematic areas: (a) target groups, (b) the improvement of specific skills, (c) program characteristics, and (d) environmental interventions. Discussion and conclusion Literature on the prevention of Internet addiction is scarce. There is an urgent need to introduce and implement new interventions for different at-risk populations, conduct well-designed research, and publish data on the effectiveness of these interventions. Developing prevention interventions should primarily target children and adolescents at risk of Internet addiction but also parents, teachers, peers, and others who are part of the formative environment of children and adolescents at risk of Internet addiction. Newly designed interventions focused on Internet addiction should be rigorously evaluated and the results published. PMID:27998173
Ahmed Mohammed Lutfi Al-Imam
Full Text Available Objective: To collect detailed up-to-date knowledge, using a detailed systematic review of the literature, that is specific to the condition of Ekbom Syndrome, also known as Delusional Parasitosis (DP. This article will review: Historical facts, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, subtypes and related conditions, associated diseases, psychosocial impact, economic considerations and treatment. Background: DP is a psychiatric condition and can be the earliest sign of a major psychotic illness. The condition was described as early as the late 17th century in France. The etiology is neuro-chemical. The classic “matchbox” and “specimen” signs can lead to a successful diagnosis. Treatment is via a multidisciplinary approach. Methods: A detailed search strategy was utilized across six databases led by pre-specified keywords (62 in number, followed by the application of database-specific filters to scrutinize the hierarchy of literature, from guidelines, systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials to medical papers with weak evidence, including anecdotal reports. One article was translated from French. Results: Forty references were used to extract the most relevant data. This article is divided into sections of topics, starting from methodology to a conclusion. Conclusion: This review article will enable the medical researcher to obtain a detailed perspective of the condition of DP. Thus, a researcher can seek the highest available evidence from the literature and use it as a starting point for his original research.
Matthews, Melissa A; Horacek, Tanya M
The nutritional quality of food and beverage products sold in vending machines has been implicated as a contributing factor to the development of an obesogenic food environment. How comprehensive, reliable, and valid are the current assessment tools for vending machines to support or refute these claims? A systematic review was conducted to summarize, compare, and evaluate the current methodologies and available tools for vending machine assessment. A total of 24 relevant research studies published between 1981 and 2013 met inclusion criteria for this review. The methodological variables reviewed in this study include assessment tool type, study location, machine accessibility, product availability, healthfulness criteria, portion size, price, product promotion, and quality of scientific practice. There were wide variations in the depth of the assessment methodologies and product healthfulness criteria utilized among the reviewed studies. Of the reviewed studies, 39% evaluated machine accessibility, 91% evaluated product availability, 96% established healthfulness criteria, 70% evaluated portion size, 48% evaluated price, 52% evaluated product promotion, and 22% evaluated the quality of scientific practice. Of all reviewed articles, 87% reached conclusions that provided insight into the healthfulness of vended products and/or vending environment. Product healthfulness criteria and complexity for snack and beverage products was also found to be variable between the reviewed studies. These findings make it difficult to compare results between studies. A universal, valid, and reliable vending machine assessment tool that is comprehensive yet user-friendly is recommended.
Jose Antonio Garbino
Full Text Available The authors proposed a systematic review on the current concepts of primary neural leprosy by consulting the following online databases: MEDLINE, Lilacs/SciELO, and Embase. Selected studies were classified based on the degree of recommendation and levels of scientific evidence according to the “Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine”. The following aspects were reviewed: cutaneous clinical and laboratorial investigations, i.e. skin clinical exam, smears, and biopsy, and Mitsuda's reaction; neurological investigation (anamnesis, electromyography and nerve biopsy; serological investigation and molecular testing, i.e. serological testing for the detection of the phenolic glycolipid 1 (PGL-I and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR; and treatment (classification criteria for the definition of specific treatment, steroid treatment, and cure criteria.
Audsley, Annie; Wallace, Rebecca M M; Price, Martin F
Objectives This systematic review identifies and reviews both peer-reviewed and 'grey' literature, across a range of disciplines and from diverse sources, relating to the condition of children living in mountain communities in low- and middle-income countries. Findings The literature on poverty in these communities does not generally focus on the particular vulnerabilities of children or the impact of intersecting vulnerabilities on the most marginalised members of communities. However, this literature does contribute analyses of the broader context and variety of factors impacting on human development in mountainous areas. The literature on other areas of children's lives-health, nutrition, child mortality, education, and child labour-focuses more specifically on children's particular vulnerabilities or experiences. However, it sometimes lacks the broader analysis of the many interrelated characteristics of a mountainous environment which impact on children's situations. Themes Nevertheless, certain themes recur across many disciplines and types of literature, and point to some general conclusions: mountain poverty is influenced by the very local specificities of the physical environment; mountain communities are often politically and economically marginalised, particularly for the most vulnerable within these communities, including children; and mountain communities themselves are an important locus for challenging and interrupting cycles of increasing inequality and disadvantage. While this broad-scale review represents a modest first step, its findings provide the basis for further investigation.
Bearman, Margaret; Smith, Calvin D.; Carbone, Angela; Slade, Susan; Baik, Chi; Hughes-Warrington, Marnie; Neumann, David L.
Systematic review methodology can be distinguished from narrative reviews of the literature through its emphasis on transparent, structured and comprehensive approaches to searching the literature and its requirement for formal synthesis of research findings. There appears to be relatively little use of the systematic review methodology within the…
Strech, Daniel; Sofaer, Neema
Systematic reviews, which were developed to improve policy-making and clinical decision-making, answer an empirical question based on a minimally biased appraisal of all the relevant empirical studies. A model is presented here for writing systematic reviews of argument-based literature: literature that uses arguments to address conceptual questions, such as whether abortion is morally permissible or whether research participants should be legally entitled to compensation for sustaining research-related injury. Such reviews aim to improve ethically relevant decisions in healthcare, research or policy. They are better tools than informal reviews or samples of literature with respect to the identification of the reasons relevant to a conceptual question, and they enable the setting of agendas for conceptual and empirical research necessary for sound policy-making. This model comprises prescriptions for writing the systematic review's review question and eligibility criteria, the identification of the relevant literature, the type of data to extract on reasons and publications, and the derivation and presentation of results. This paper explains how to adapt the model to the review question, literature reviewed and intended readers, who may be decision-makers or academics. Obstacles to the model's application are described and addressed, and limitations of the model are identified.
Curto, Martina; Girardi, Nicoletta; Lionetto, Luana; Ciavarella, Giuseppino M; Ferracuti, Stefano; Baldessarini, Ross J
Clozapine is exceptionally effective in psychotic disorders and can reduce suicidal risk. Nevertheless, its use is limited due to potentially life-threatening adverse effects, including myocarditis and cardiomyopathy. Given their clinical importance, we systematically reviewed research on adverse cardiac effects of clozapine, aiming to improve estimates of their incidence, summarize features supporting their diagnosis, and evaluate proposed monitoring procedures. Incidence of early (≤2 months) myocarditis ranges from <0.1 to 1.0 % and later (3-12 months) cardiomyopathy about 10 times less. Diagnosis rests on relatively nonspecific symptoms, ECG changes, elevated indices of myocardial damage, cardiac MRI findings, and importantly, echocardiographic evidence of developing ventricular failure. Treatment involves stopping clozapine and empirical applications of steroids, diuretics, beta-blockers, and antiangiotensin agents. Mortality averages approximately 25 %. Safety of clozapine reuse remains uncertain. Systematic studies are needed to improve knowledge of the epidemiology, avoidance, early identification, and treatment of these adverse effects, with effective and practicable monitoring protocols.
Crowther, David M
The purpose of this article is to discuss systematic reviews, how they are performed, and their associated strengths and limitations. A systematic review is an assessment of evidence involving exact methods to systematically identify, select, and critically evaluate all available literature on a particular topic. Unlike most narrative reviews, systematic reviews have defined methods established a priori for searching, evaluating, extracting, synthesizing, and reporting available evidence. Key characteristics differentiating systematic reviews from most narrative reviews include: clearly stated objectives, pre-defined inclusion/exclusion criteria, an explicit reproducible methodology, systematic exhaustive searches to identify all sources of evidence, an assessment of the validity for each included study, and a systematic presentation of the study characteristics/results. Though there are significant advantages to systematic reviews, there are also clear limitations such as: the quality of included evidence; heterogeneity and homogeneity of included studies; and publication bias. Even with these limitations, systematic reviews are beneficial to front line clinicians when the quantity of evidence is so substantial that reviewing and synthesizing it is not feasible, available evidence is conflicting, or when the robustness of available evidence is unknown.
COOK, CARLY N; POSSINGHAM, HUGH P; FULLER, RICHARD A
Systematic reviews comprehensively summarize evidence about the effectiveness of conservation interventions. We investigated the contribution to management decisions made by this growing body of literature. We identified 43 systematic reviews of conservation evidence, 23 of which drew some concrete conclusions relevant to management. Most reviews addressed conservation interventions relevant to policy decisions; only 35% considered practical on-the-ground management interventions. The majority of reviews covered only a small fraction of the geographic and taxonomic breadth they aimed to address (median = 13% of relevant countries and 16% of relevant taxa). The likelihood that reviews contained at least some implications for management tended to increase as geographic coverage increased and to decline as taxonomic breadth increased. These results suggest the breadth of a systematic review requires careful consideration. Reviews identified a mean of 312 relevant primary studies but excluded 88% of these because of deficiencies in design or a failure to meet other inclusion criteria. Reviews summarized on average 284 data sets and 112 years of research activity, yet the likelihood that their results had at least some implications for management did not increase as the amount of primary research summarized increased. In some cases, conclusions were elusive despite the inclusion of hundreds of data sets and years of cumulative research activity. Systematic reviews are an important part of the conservation decision making tool kit, although we believe the benefits of systematic reviews could be significantly enhanced by increasing the number of reviews focused on questions of direct relevance to on-the-ground managers; defining a more focused geographic and taxonomic breadth that better reflects available data; including a broader range of evidence types; and appraising the cost-effectiveness of interventions. Contribuciones de las Revisiones Sistemáticas a las
Mahood, Quenby; Van Eerd, Dwayne; Irvin, Emma
There is ongoing interest in including grey literature in systematic reviews. Including grey literature can broaden the scope to more relevant studies, thereby providing a more complete view of available evidence. Searching for grey literature can be challenging despite greater access through the Internet, search engines and online bibliographic databases. There are a number of publications that list sources for finding grey literature in systematic reviews. However, there is scant information about how searches for grey literature are executed and how it is included in the review process. This level of detail is important to ensure that reviews follow explicit methodology to be systematic, transparent and reproducible. The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed account of one systematic review team's experience in searching for grey literature and including it throughout the review. We provide a brief overview of grey literature before describing our search and review approach. We also discuss the benefits and challenges of including grey literature in our systematic review, as well as the strengths and limitations to our approach. Detailed information about incorporating grey literature in reviews is important in advancing methodology as review teams adapt and build upon the approaches described.
Jaberidoost, Mona; Nikfar, Shekoufeh; Abdollahiasl, Akbar; Dinarvand, Rassoul
Supply of medicine as a strategic product in any health system is a top priority. Pharmaceutical companies, a major player of the drug supply chain, are subject to many risks. These risks disrupt the supply of medicine in many ways such as their quantity and quality and their delivery to the right place and customers and at the right time. Therefore risk identification in the supply process of pharmaceutical companies and mitigate them is highly recommended. In this study it is attempted to investigate pharmaceutical supply chain risks with perspective of manufacturing companies. Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science bibliographic databases and Google scholar scientific search engines were searched for pharmaceutical supply chain risk management studies with 6 different groups of keywords. All results found by keywords were reviewed and none-relevant articles were excluded by outcome of interests and researcher boundaries of study within 4 steps and through a systematic method. Nine articles were included in the systematic review and totally 50 main risks based on study outcome of interest extracted which classified in 7 categories. Most of reported risks were related to supply and supplier issues. Organization and strategy issues, financial, logistic, political, market and regulatory issues were in next level of importance. It was shown that the majority of risks in pharmaceutical supply chain were internal risks due to processes, people and functions mismanagement which could be managed by suitable mitigation strategies.
Chuang, Alice T; Margo, Curtis E; Greenberg, Paul B
Retinal implants present an innovative way of restoring sight in degenerative retinal diseases. Previous reviews of research progress were written by groups developing their own devices. This systematic review objectively compares selected models by examining publications describing five representative retinal prostheses: Argus II, Boston Retinal Implant Project, Epi-Ret 3, Intelligent Medical Implants (IMI) and Alpha-IMS (Retina Implant AG). Publications were analysed using three criteria for interim success: clinical availability, vision restoration potential and long-term biocompatibility. Clinical availability: Argus II is the only device with FDA approval. Argus II and Alpha-IMS have both received the European CE Marking. All others are in clinical trials, except the Boston Retinal Implant, which is in animal studies. Vision restoration: resolution theoretically correlates with electrode number. Among devices with external cameras, the Boston Retinal Implant leads with 100 electrodes, followed by Argus II with 60 electrodes and visual acuity of 20/1262. Instead of an external camera, Alpha-IMS uses a photodiode system dependent on natural eye movements and can deliver visual acuity up to 20/546. Long-term compatibility: IMI offers iterative learning; Epi-Ret 3 is a fully intraocular device; Alpha-IMS uses intraocular photosensitive elements. Merging the results of these three criteria, Alpha-IMS is the most likely to achieve long-term success decades later, beyond current clinical availability.
Backhaus, Autumn; Agha, Zia; Maglione, Melissa L; Repp, Andrea; Ross, Bridgett; Zuest, Danielle; Rice-Thorp, Natalie M; Lohr, James; Thorp, Steven R
Individuals with mental health problems may face barriers to accessing effective psychotherapies. Videoconferencing technology, which allows audio and video information to be shared concurrently across geographical distances, offers an alternative that may improve access. We conducted a systematic literature review of the use of videoconferencing psychotherapy (VCP), designed to address 10 specific questions, including therapeutic types/formats that have been implemented, the populations with which VCP is being used, the number and types of publications related to VCP, and available satisfaction, feasibility, and outcome data related to VCP. After electronic searches and reviews of reference lists, 821 potential articles were identified, and 65 were selected for inclusion. The results indicate that VCP is feasible, has been used in a variety of therapeutic formats and with diverse populations, is generally associated with good user satisfaction, and is found to have similar clinical outcomes to traditional face-to-face psychotherapy. Although the number of articles being published on VCP has increased in recent years, there remains a need for additional large-scale clinical trials to further assess the efficacy and effectiveness of VCP.
Bobrie, Guillaume; Clerson, Pierre; Ménard, Joël; Postel-Vinay, Nicolas; Chatellier, Gilles; Plouin, Pierre-François
The purpose of this research was to review the literature on masked hypertension. Studies, reviews and editorials on masked hypertension were identified by PubMed, Pascal BioMed and Cochrane literature systematic searches. Then, we carried out a meta-analysis of the six cohort studies reporting quantitative data for masked hypertension prognosis. There is still no clear consensus definition of masked hypertension and the reproducibility of the phenomenon is unknown. Nevertheless, the prevalence of masked hypertension seems to lie between 8 and 20%, and can be up to 50% in treated hypertensive patients. Subjects with masked hypertension have a higher risk of cardiovascular accidents [hazard ratios: 1.92 (1.51-2.44)] than normotensive subjects. This is due to a possible failure to recognize and appropriately manage this particular form of hypertension, the frequent association with other risk factors and coexisting target organ damage. The remaining unresolved questions are as follows: is masked hypertension a clinical entity that requires identification and characterization or a statistical phenomenon linked to the variability of blood pressure measurements?; because screening of the entire population is not feasible, how to identify individuals with masked hypertension?; and, in the absence of randomized trial, how to treat masked hypertension?
Full Text Available Nádia Nara Rolim Lima,1 Vânia Barbosa do Nascimento,1 Sionara Melo Figueiredo de Carvalho,1 Luiz Carlos de Abreu,1,3 Modesto Leite Rolim Neto,2 Aline Quental Brasil,2 Francisco Telésforo Celestino Junior,2 Gislene Farias de Oliveira,2 Alberto Olavo Advíncula Reis3 1Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Departamento de Medicina. Universidade Federal do Ceará, UFC, Barbalha, Ceará, Brazil; 3Departamento de Saúde Materno Infantil, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: As an important public health issue, childhood depression deserves special attention, considering the serious and lasting consequences of the disease to child development. Taking this into consideration, the present study was based on the following question: what practical contributions to clinicians and researchers does the current literature on childhood depression have to offer? The objective of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of articles regarding childhood depression. To accomplish this purpose, a systematic review of articles on childhood depression, published from January 1, 2010 to November 24, 2012, on MEDLINE and SciELO databases was carried out. Search terms were “depression” (medical subject headings [MeSH], “child” (MeSH, and "childhood depression" (keyword. Of the 180 retrieved studies, 25 met the eligibility criteria. Retrieved studies covered a wide range of aspects regarding childhood depression, such as diagnosis, treatment, prevention and prognosis. Recent scientific literature regarding childhood depression converge to, directly or indirectly, highlight the negative impacts of depressive disorders to the children's quality of life. Unfortunately, the retrieved studies show that childhood depression commonly grows in a background of vulnerability and poverty, where individual and familiar needs
Mueller, Katharina F; Briel, Matthias; Strech, Daniel; Meerpohl, Joerg J; Lang, Britta; Motschall, Edith; Gloy, Viktoria; Lamontagne, Francois; Bassler, Dirk
Systematic reviews of preclinical studies, in vivo animal experiments in particular, can influence clinical research and thus even clinical care. Dissemination bias, selective dissemination of positive or significant results, is one of the major threats to validity in systematic reviews also in the realm of animal studies. We conducted a systematic review to determine the number of published systematic reviews of animal studies until present, to investigate their methodological features especially with respect to assessment of dissemination bias, and to investigate the citation of preclinical systematic reviews on clinical research. Eligible studies for this systematic review constitute systematic reviews that summarize in vivo animal experiments whose results could be interpreted as applicable to clinical care. We systematically searched Ovid Medline, Embase, ToxNet, and ScienceDirect from 1st January 2009 to 9th January 2013 for eligible systematic reviews without language restrictions. Furthermore we included articles from two previous systematic reviews by Peters et al. and Korevaar et al. The literature search and screening process resulted in 512 included full text articles. We found an increasing number of published preclinical systematic reviews over time. The methodological quality of preclinical systematic reviews was low. The majority of preclinical systematic reviews did not assess methodological quality of the included studies (71%), nor did they assess heterogeneity (81%) or dissemination bias (87%). Statistics quantifying the importance of clinical research citing systematic reviews of animal studies showed that clinical studies referred to the preclinical research mainly to justify their study or a future study (76%). Preclinical systematic reviews may have an influence on clinical research but their methodological quality frequently remains low. Therefore, systematic reviews of animal research should be critically appraised before translating them
Katharina F Mueller
Full Text Available Systematic reviews of preclinical studies, in vivo animal experiments in particular, can influence clinical research and thus even clinical care. Dissemination bias, selective dissemination of positive or significant results, is one of the major threats to validity in systematic reviews also in the realm of animal studies. We conducted a systematic review to determine the number of published systematic reviews of animal studies until present, to investigate their methodological features especially with respect to assessment of dissemination bias, and to investigate the citation of preclinical systematic reviews on clinical research.Eligible studies for this systematic review constitute systematic reviews that summarize in vivo animal experiments whose results could be interpreted as applicable to clinical care. We systematically searched Ovid Medline, Embase, ToxNet, and ScienceDirect from 1st January 2009 to 9th January 2013 for eligible systematic reviews without language restrictions. Furthermore we included articles from two previous systematic reviews by Peters et al. and Korevaar et al.The literature search and screening process resulted in 512 included full text articles. We found an increasing number of published preclinical systematic reviews over time. The methodological quality of preclinical systematic reviews was low. The majority of preclinical systematic reviews did not assess methodological quality of the included studies (71%, nor did they assess heterogeneity (81% or dissemination bias (87%. Statistics quantifying the importance of clinical research citing systematic reviews of animal studies showed that clinical studies referred to the preclinical research mainly to justify their study or a future study (76%.Preclinical systematic reviews may have an influence on clinical research but their methodological quality frequently remains low. Therefore, systematic reviews of animal research should be critically appraised before
Full Text Available The present article aims to review the available literature on match analysis in adult male Volleyball. Specific key words "performance analysis", "match analysis", "game analysis", "notational analysis", "tactical analysis", "technical analysis", "outcome" and "skills" were used to search relevant databases (PubMed, Web of Science, SportDiscus, Academic Search Complete and the International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport. The research was conducted according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta analyses guidelines. Of 3407 studies initially identified, only 34 were fully reviewed, and their outcome measures extracted and analyzed. Studies that fit all inclusion criteria were organized into two levels of analysis, according to their research design (comparative or predictive and depending on the type of variables analyzed (skills and their relationship with success, play position and match phase. Results show that from a methodological point of view, comparative studies where currently complemented with some predictive studies. This predictive approach emerged with the aim to identify the relationship between variables, considering their possible interactions and consequently its effect on team performance, contributing to a better understanding of Volleyball game performance through match analysis. Taking into account the limitations of the reviewed studies, future research should provide comprehensive operational definitions for the studied variables, using more recent samples, and consider integrating the player positions and match phase contexts into the analysis of Volleyball.
Heetun, Zaid S; Quigley, Eamonn M M
Some of the gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms commonly experienced by patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have been attributed to gastroparesis; however, the precise prevalence and relevance of gastric emptying delay in PD is unclear. The definition of gastroparesis varies; currently the most widely accepted definition (from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Gastroparesis Clinical Research Consortium) is the presence of appropriate symptoms (including nausea, retching, vomiting, stomach fullness, and inability to finish a meal) for ≥ 12 weeks, together with delayed gastric emptying on scintigraphy and the absence of any obstructive lesions on upper GI endoscopy. In PD patients, gastroparesis has the potential to affect nutrition and quality of life, as well as the absorption of PD medications, including L-dopa. This reduced absorption of L-dopa has implications for the control of the PD motor symptoms for which it is administered. We performed a systematic review of the literature on gastroparesis in PD with the aim of developing an evidence-based approach to its management. Based on this review, we conclude that while gastric emptying has been reported to be frequently delayed in PD, the existing data do not permit definitive conclusions concerning its true prevalence, relationship to the underlying disease process, relevance to PD management, or the optimal therapy of related GI symptoms. Further study of these important issues is, therefore, required.
Full Text Available Antiprotons have been proposed as possible particles for radiotherapy; over the past years, the renewed interest in the potential biomedical relevance led to an increased research activity. It is the aim of this review to deliver a comprehensive overview regarding the evidence accumulated so far, analysing the background and depicting the current status of antiprotons in radiotherapy. A literature search has been conducted, including major scientific and commercial databases. All articles and a number of relevant conference abstracts published in the respective field have been included in this systematic review. The physical basis of antiproton radiotherapy is complex; however, the characterisation of the energy deposition profile supports its potential use in radiotherapy. Also the dosimetry improved considerably over the past few years. Regarding the biological properties, data on the effects on cells are presented; however, definite conclusions regarding the relative biological effectiveness cannot be made at the moment and radiobiological evidence of enhanced effectiveness remains scarce. In addition, there is new evidence supporting the potential imaging properties, for example for online dose verification. Clinical settings which might profit from the use of antiprotons have been further tracked. Judging from the evidence available so far, clinical constellations requiring optimal sparing in the entrance region of the beam and re-irradiations might profit most from antiproton radiotherapy. While several open questions remain to be answered, first steps towards a thorough characterisation of this interesting modality have been made.
Leandro Gobbo Braz
Full Text Available This systematic review of the Brazilian and worldwide literature aims to evaluate the incidence and causes of perioperative and anesthesia-related mortality. Studies were identified by searching the Medline and Scielo databases, followed by a manual search for relevant articles. Our review includes studies published between 1954 and 2007. Each publication was reviewed to identify author(s, study period, data source, perioperative mortality rates, and anesthesia-related mortality rates. Thirty-three trials were assessed. Brazilian and worldwide studies demonstrated a similar decline in anesthesia-related mortality rates, which amounted to fewer than 1 death per 10,000 anesthetics in the past two decades. Perioperative mortality rates also decreased during this period, with fewer than 20 deaths per 10,000 anesthetics in developed countries. Brazilian studies showed higher perioperative mortality rates, from 19 to 51 deaths per 10,000 anesthetics. The majority of perioperative deaths occurred in neonates, children under one year, elderly patients, males, patients of ASA III physical status or poorer, emergency surgeries, during general anesthesia, and cardiac surgery followed by thoracic, vascular, gastroenterologic, pediatric and orthopedic surgeries. The main causes of anesthesia-related mortality were problems with airway management and cardiocirculatory events related to anesthesia and drug administration. Our systematic review of the literature shows that perioperative mortality rates are higher in Brazil than in developed countries, while anesthesia-related mortality rates are similar in Brazil and in developed countries. Most cases of anesthesia-related mortality are associated with cardiocirculatory and airway events. These data may be useful in developing strategies to prevent anesthesia-related deaths.
Duijvestijn, YCM; Brand, PLP
A systematic review was carried out to evaluate whether the use of N-acetylcysteine to improve lung function in patients with cystic fibrosis is supported by published evidence. Medline and the Cochrane Library were searched and the reference lists of all retrieved papers and of relevant chapters of
Meskal, I.; Gehring, K.; Rutten, G.J.M.; Sitskoorn, M.M.
This systematic review evaluates relevant findings and methodologic aspects of studies on cognitive functioning in meningioma patients prior to and/or following surgery with or without adjuvant radiotherapy. PubMed and Web of Science electronic databases were searched until December 2015. From 1012
Duijvestijn, YCM; Brand, PLP
A systematic review was carried out to evaluate whether the use of N-acetylcysteine to improve lung function in patients with cystic fibrosis is supported by published evidence. Medline and the Cochrane Library were searched and the reference lists of all retrieved papers and of relevant chapters of
Mahood, Quenby; Van Eerd, Dwayne; Irvin, Emma
There is ongoing interest in including grey literature in systematic reviews. Including grey literature can broaden the scope to more relevant studies, thereby providing a more complete view of available evidence. Searching for grey literature can be challenging despite greater access through the Internet, search engines and online bibliographic…
Duijvestijn, YCM; Brand, PLP
A systematic review was carried out to evaluate whether the use of N-acetylcysteine to improve lung function in patients with cystic fibrosis is supported by published evidence. Medline and the Cochrane Library were searched and the reference lists of all retrieved papers and of relevant chapters of
Full Text Available A systematic review is a summary of existing evidence that answers a specific clinical question, contains a thorough, unbiased search of the relevant literature, explicit criteria for assessing studies and structured presentation of the results. A systematic review that incorporates quantitative pooling of similar studies to produce an overall summary of treatment effects is a meta-analysis. A systematic review should have clear, focused clinical objectives containing four elements expressed through the acronym PICO ( Patient, group of patients, or problem, an Intervention, a Comparison intervention and specific O utcomes. Explicit and thorough search of the literature is a pre-requisite of any good systematic review. Reviews should have pre-defined explicit criteria for what studies would be included and the analysis should include only those studies that fit the inclusion criteria. The quality (risk of bias of the primary studies should be critically appraised. Particularly the role of publication and language bias should be acknowledged and addressed by the review, whenever possible. Structured reporting of the results with quantitative pooling of the data must be attempted, whenever appropriate. The review should include interpretation of the data, including implications for clinical practice and further research. Overall, the current quality of reporting of systematic reviews remains highly variable.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Since its inception, evidence-based medicine and its application through systematic reviews, has been widely accepted. However, it has also been strongly criticised and resisted by some academic groups and clinicians. One of the main criticisms of evidence-based medicine is that it appears to claim to have unique access to absolute scientific truth and thus devalues and replaces other types of knowledge sources. Discussion The various types of clinical knowledge sources are categorised on the basis of Kant's categories of knowledge acquisition, as being either 'analytic' or 'synthetic'. It is shown that these categories do not act in opposition but rather, depend upon each other. The unity of analysis and synthesis in knowledge acquisition is demonstrated during the process of systematic reviewing of clinical trials. Systematic reviews constitute comprehensive synthesis of clinical knowledge but depend upon plausible, analytical hypothesis development for the trials reviewed. The dangers of systematic error regarding the internal validity of acquired knowledge are highlighted on the basis of empirical evidence. It has been shown that the systematic review process reduces systematic error, thus ensuring high internal validity. It is argued that this process does not exclude other types of knowledge sources. Instead, amongst these other types it functions as an integrated element during the acquisition of clinical knowledge. Conclusions The acquisition of clinical knowledge is based on interaction between analysis and synthesis. Systematic reviews provide the highest form of synthetic knowledge acquisition in terms of achieving internal validity of results. In that capacity it informs the analytic knowledge of the clinician but does not replace it.
Since its inception, evidence-based medicine and its application through systematic reviews, has been widely accepted. However, it has also been strongly criticised and resisted by some academic groups and clinicians. One of the main criticisms of evidence-based medicine is that it appears to claim to have unique access to absolute scientific truth and thus devalues and replaces other types of knowledge sources. The various types of clinical knowledge sources are categorised on the basis of Kant's categories of knowledge acquisition, as being either 'analytic' or 'synthetic'. It is shown that these categories do not act in opposition but rather, depend upon each other. The unity of analysis and synthesis in knowledge acquisition is demonstrated during the process of systematic reviewing of clinical trials. Systematic reviews constitute comprehensive synthesis of clinical knowledge but depend upon plausible, analytical hypothesis development for the trials reviewed. The dangers of systematic error regarding the internal validity of acquired knowledge are highlighted on the basis of empirical evidence. It has been shown that the systematic review process reduces systematic error, thus ensuring high internal validity. It is argued that this process does not exclude other types of knowledge sources. Instead, amongst these other types it functions as an integrated element during the acquisition of clinical knowledge. The acquisition of clinical knowledge is based on interaction between analysis and synthesis. Systematic reviews provide the highest form of synthetic knowledge acquisition in terms of achieving internal validity of results. In that capacity it informs the analytic knowledge of the clinician but does not replace it.
van der Valk, J P M; Dubois, A E J; Gerth van Wijk, R; Wichers, H J; de Jong, N W
Recent studies on cashew nut allergy suggest that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing. Cashew nut consumption by allergic patients can cause severe reactions, including anaphylaxis. This review summarizes current knowledge on cashew nut allergy to facilitate timely clinical recognition and to promote awareness of this emerging food allergy amongst clinicians. The goal of this study is to present a systematic review focused on the clinical aspects of allergy to cashew nut including the characteristics of cashew nut, the prevalence, allergenic components, cross-reactivity, diagnosis and management of cashew nut allergy. The literature search yielded 255 articles of which 40 met our selection criteria and were considered to be relevant for this review. The 40 articles included one prospective study, six retrospective studies and seven case reports. The remaining 26 papers were not directly related to cashew nut allergy. The literature suggests that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing, although the level of evidence for this is low. A minimal amount of cashew nut allergen may cause a severe allergic reaction, suggesting high potency comparable with other tree nuts and peanuts. Cashew allergy is clearly an underestimated important healthcare problem, especially in children.
Evans, W Douglas; Blitstein, Jonathan; Hersey, James C; Renaud, Jeanette; Yaroch, Amy L
Brands build relationships between consumers and products, services, or lifestyles by providing beneficial exchanges and adding value to their objects. Brands can be measured through associations that consumers hold for products and services. Public health brands are the associations that individuals hold for health behaviors, or lifestyles that embody multiple health behaviors. We systematically reviewed the literature on public health brands; developed a methodology for describing branded health messages and campaigns; and examined specific branding strategies across a range of topic areas, campaigns, and global settings. We searched the literature for published studies on public health branding available through all relevant, major online publication databases. Public health branding was operationalized as any manuscripts in the health, social science, and business literature on branding or brands in health promotion marketing. We developed formalized decision rules and applied them in identifying articles for review. We initially identified 154 articles and reviewed a final set of 37, 10 from Africa, Australia, and Europe. Branded health campaigns spanned most of the major domains of public health and numerous communication strategies and evaluation methodologies. Most studies provided clear information on planning, development, and evaluation of the branding effort, while some provided minimal information. Branded health messages typically are theory based, and there is a body of evidence on their behavior change effectiveness, especially in nutrition, tobacco control, and HIV/AIDS. More rigorous research is needed, however, on how branded health messages impact specific populations and behaviors.
Bertha, Eszter A; Balázs, Judit
In adolescence, the number of depressive symptoms is rising notably. Individuals may have relevant depressive symptoms without meeting the full criteria of a major depressive episode (MDE), a condition referred to as subthreshold depression (sD). This article presents a review on adolescent sD examining the prevalence, the quality of life (QoL), the risk of developing MDE, and preventive programs available for adolescents living with sD. A systematic literature search from the year of the introduction of Diagnostic and Statistic Manual for Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) until 2012 (18 years) was conducted with a special focus on adolescent sD. Data from 27 studies were included into this review. The results show high prevalence of sD among adolescents, with a negative impact on QoL, and provide evidence that sD is a significant risk indicator of later MDE; therefore, individuals with sD represent good targets for preventive interventions. Our review highlights the fact that sD is a significant health problem among adolescents indeed, and adolescents with sD could be a subgroup of youth, who need further help to reduce their clinically significant depressive symptoms for the successful prevention of a later MDE.
Haddaway, Neal R; Collins, Alexandra M; Coughlin, Deborah; Kohl, Christian
Systematic reviews and maps should be based on the best available evidence, and reviewers should make all reasonable efforts to source and include potentially relevant studies. However, reviewers may not be able to consider all existing evidence, since some data and studies may not be publicly available. Including non-public studies in reviews provides a valuable opportunity to increase systematic review/map comprehensiveness, potentially mitigating negative impacts of publication bias. Studies may be non-public for many reasons: some may still be in the process of being published (publication can take a long time); some may not be published due to author/publisher restrictions; publication bias may make it difficult to publish non-significant or negative results. Here, we consider what forms these non-public studies may take and the implications of including them in systematic reviews and maps. Reviewers should carefully consider the advantages and disadvantages of including non-public studies, weighing risks of bias against benefits of increased comprehensiveness. As with all systematic reviews and maps, reviewers must be transparent about methods used to obtain data and avoid risks of bias in their synthesis. We make tentative suggestions for reviewers in situations where non-public data may be present in an evidence base.
Various treatment modalities are available for cutaneous lichen planus. Pubmed, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, and Health Technology Assessment Database were searched for all the systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials related to cutaneous lichen planus. Two systematic reviews and nine relevant randomized controlled trials were identified. Acitretin, griseofulvin, hydroxychloroquine and narrow band ultraviolet B are demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of cutaneous lichen planus. Sulfasalazine is effective, but has an unfavorable safety profile. KH1060, a vitamin D analogue, is not beneficial in the management of cutaneous lichen planus. Evidence from large scale randomized trials demonstrating the safety and efficacy for many other treatment modalities used to treat cutaneous lichen planus is simply not available.
Abernethy, Liz; Bleakley, Chris
This systematic review set out to identify randomised controlled trials and controlled intervention studies that evaluated the effectiveness of preventive strategies in adolescent sport and to draw conclusions on the strength of the evidence. A literature search in seven databases (Medline, SportDiscus, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro, Cochrane Review and DARE) was carried out using four keywords: adolescent, sport, injury and prevention (expanded to capture any relevant literature). Assessment of 154 ...
Van Camp, L S C; Sabbe, B G C; Oldenburg, J F E
Cognitive insight is the ability to re-evaluate thoughts and beliefs in order to make thoughtful conclusions. It differs from clinical insight, as it focuses on more general metacognitive processes. Therefore, it could be relevant to diverse disorders and non-clinical subjects. There is a growing body of research on cognitive insight in individuals with and without psychosis. This review has summarised the current state of the art regarding this topic. We conclude that while cognitive insight in its current form seems valid for use in individuals with psychosis, it is less so for individuals without psychosis. Additionally, higher cognitive insight not always leads to better psychological functioning. For instance, higher levels of self-reflection are often associated with depressive mood. We therefore recommend the sub-components of cognitive insight to be studied separately. Also, it is unclear what position cognitive insight takes within the spectrum of metacognitive processes and how it relates to other self-related concepts that have been defined previously in literature. Combining future and past research on cognitive insight and its analogue concepts will help in the formation of a uniform definition that fits all subjects discussed here. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Aromataris, Edoardo; Fernandez, Ritin; Godfrey, Christina M; Holly, Cheryl; Khalil, Hanan; Tungpunkom, Patraporn
With the increase in the number of systematic reviews available, a logical next step to provide decision makers in healthcare with the evidence they require has been the conduct of reviews of existing systematic reviews. Syntheses of existing systematic reviews are referred to by many different names, one of which is an umbrella review. An umbrella review allows the findings of reviews relevant to a review question to be compared and contrasted. An umbrella review's most characteristic feature is that this type of evidence synthesis only considers for inclusion the highest level of evidence, namely other systematic reviews and meta-analyses. A methodology working group was formed by the Joanna Briggs Institute to develop methodological guidance for the conduct of an umbrella review, including diverse types of evidence, both quantitative and qualitative. The aim of this study is to describe the development and guidance for the conduct of an umbrella review. Discussion and testing of the elements of methods for the conduct of an umbrella review were held over a 6-month period by members of a methodology working group. The working group comprised six participants who corresponded via teleconference, e-mail and face-to-face meeting during this development period. In October 2013, the methodology was presented in a workshop at the Joanna Briggs Institute Convention. Workshop participants, review authors and methodologists provided further testing, critique and feedback on the proposed methodology. This study describes the methodology and methods developed for the conduct of an umbrella review that includes published systematic reviews and meta-analyses as the analytical unit of the review. Details are provided regarding the essential elements of an umbrella review, including presentation of the review question in a Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome format, nuances of the inclusion criteria and search strategy. A critical appraisal tool with 10 questions to
Golder, Su; Loke, Yoon K; Zorzela, Liliane
Research indicates that the methods used to identify data for systematic reviews of adverse effects may need to differ from other systematic reviews. To compare search methods in systematic reviews of adverse effects with other reviews. The search methodologies in 849 systematic reviews of adverse effects were compared with other reviews. Poor reporting of search strategies is apparent in both systematic reviews of adverse effects and other types of systematic reviews. Systematic reviews of adverse effects are less likely to restrict their searches to MEDLINE or include only randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The use of other databases is largely dependent on the topic area and the year the review was conducted, with more databases searched in more recent reviews. Adverse effects search terms are used by 72% of reviews and despite recommendations only two reviews report using floating subheadings. The poor reporting of search strategies in systematic reviews is universal, as is the dominance of searching MEDLINE. However, reviews of adverse effects are more likely to include a range of study designs (not just RCTs) and search beyond MEDLINE. © 2014 Crown Copyright.
Im, Eun-Ok; Chang, Sun Ju
As faculty members, we frequently find that first-year doctoral students in nursing are confused about how to conduct a systematic integrated literature review. This could be due to its vague definition and a lack of recent literature that provides directions for conducting a systematic integrated literature review. This article aims to provide directions for conducting a systematic integrated literature review by identifying the essential components of published literature reviews in nursing. To achieve this goal, the literature was searched by using the keywords nursing, systematic, and review in multiple databases. A total of 267 articles were selected and are included in this systematic integrated literature review. The articles were then sorted by study design and analyzed in six areas of interests. Finally, a practical guideline for conducting systematic integrated literature reviews is proposed based on the analysis of the literature.
Full Text Available Objective. This systematic review aimed to assess the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for lateral epicondylitis (LE. Methods. Seven databases and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform Search Portal were searched to identify relevant studies. The data were extracted and assessed by two independent authors, and Review Manager Software (V.5.3 was used for data synthesis with effect estimate presented as standard mean difference (SMD and mean difference (MD with a 95% confidence interval. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE was used to assess the level of evidence. Results. Four RCTs with 309 participants were included with poor methodological quality. Participants who received acupuncture and acupuncture plus moxibustion with material insulation were likely to have an improvement in elbow functional status and/or myodynamia. The overall quality rated by GRADE was from very low to low. Two studies reported that the needle pain would be the main reason for the dropout. Conclusion. For the small number of included studies with poor methodological quality, no firm conclusion can be drawn regarding the effect of acupuncture of elbow functional status and myodynamia for LE. This trial is registered with CRD42015016199.
Alderman, Katarzyna; Turner, Lyle R; Tong, Shilu
Floods are the most common type of disaster globally, responsible for almost 53,000 deaths in the last decade alone (23:1 low- versus high-income countries). This review assessed recent epidemiological evidence on the impacts of floods on human health. Published articles (2004-2011) on the quantitative relationship between floods and health were systematically reviewed. 35 relevant epidemiological studies were identified. Health outcomes were categorized into short- and long-term and were found to depend on the flood characteristics and people's vulnerability. It was found that long-term health effects are currently not well understood. Mortality rates were found to increase by up to 50% in the first year post-flood. After floods, it was found there is an increased risk of disease outbreaks such as hepatitis E, gastrointestinal disease and leptospirosis, particularly in areas with poor hygiene and displaced populations. Psychological distress in survivors (prevalence 8.6% to 53% two years post-flood) can also exacerbate their physical illness. There is a need for effective policies to reduce and prevent flood-related morbidity and mortality. Such steps are contingent upon the improved understanding of potential health impacts of floods. Global trends in urbanization, burden of disease, malnutrition and maternal and child health must be better reflected in flood preparedness and mitigation programs. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Systematic reviews are valuable tools for staying abreast of evolving nutrition and aging -related topics, formulating dietary guidelines, establishing nutrient reference intakes, formulating clinical practice guidance, evaluating health claims, and setting research agendas. Basic steps of conductin...
Bonilha, Heather Shaw; Focht, Kendrea L; Martin-Harris, Bonnie
Laryngeal endoscopy with stroboscopy (LES) remains the clinical gold standard for assessing vocal fold function. LES is used to evaluate the efficacy of voice treatments in research studies and clinical practice. LES as a voice treatment outcome tool is only as good as the clinician interpreting the recordings. Research using LES as a treatment outcome measure should be evaluated based on rater methodology and reliability. The purpose of this literature review was to evaluate the rater-related methodology from studies that use stroboscopic findings as voice treatment outcome measures. Systematic literature review. Computerized journal databases were searched for relevant articles using terms: stroboscopy and treatment. Eligible articles were categorized and evaluated for the use of rater-related methodology, reporting of number of raters, types of raters, blinding, and rater reliability. Of the 738 articles reviewed, 80 articles met inclusion criteria. More than one-third of the studies included in the review did not report the number of raters who participated in the study. Eleven studies reported results of rater reliability analysis with only two studies reporting good inter- and intrarater reliability. The comparability and use of results from treatment studies that use LES are limited by a lack of rigor in rater methodology and variable, mostly poor, inter- and intrarater reliability. To improve our ability to evaluate and use the findings from voice treatment studies that use LES features as outcome measures, greater consistency of reporting rater methodology characteristics across studies and improved rater reliability is needed. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lee, Myeong Soo; Choi, Jiae; Posadzki, Paul; Ernst, Edzard
Aromatherapy is the therapeutic use of essential oil from herbs, flowers, and other plants. The aim of this overview was to provide an overview of systematic reviews evaluating the effectiveness of aromatherapy. We searched 12 electronic databases and our departmental files without restrictions of time or language. The methodological quality of all systematic reviews was evaluated independently by two authors. Of 201 potentially relevant publications, 10 met our inclusion criteria. Most of the systematic reviews were of poor methodological quality. The clinical subject areas were hypertension, depression, anxiety, pain relief, and dementia. For none of the conditions was the evidence convincing. Several SRs of aromatherapy have recently been published. Due to a number of caveats, the evidence is not sufficiently convincing that aromatherapy is an effective therapy for any condition.
Hartling, Lisa; Vandermeer, Ben; Fernandes, Ricardo M
The Cochrane Collaboration has been at the forefront of developing methods for knowledge synthesis internationally. We discuss three approaches to synthesize evidence for healthcare interventions: systematic reviews (SRs), overviews of reviews and comparative effectiveness reviews. We illustrate these approaches with examples from knowledge syntheses on interventions for bronchiolitis, a common acute paediatric condition. Some of the differences among these approaches are subtle and methods are not necessarily mutually exclusive to a single review type. Systematic reviews bring together evidence from multiple studies in a rigorous fashion for a single intervention or group of interventions. Systematic reviews, as they have developed within healthcare, often focus on single or select interventions and direct pairwise comparisons; therefore, end-users may need to read several individual SRs to inform decision making. Overviews of reviews compile information from multiple SRs relevant to a single health problem. Overviews provide the end-user with a quick overview of the available evidence; however, overviews are dependent on the methods and decisions employed at the SR level. Furthermore, overviews do not often integrate evidence from different SRs quantitatively. Comparative effectiveness reviews, as we define them here, synthesize relevant evidence from individual studies to describe the relative benefits (or harms) of a range of interventions. Comparative effectiveness reviews may use statistical methods (network meta-analysis) to incorporate direct and indirect evidence; therefore, they can provide stronger inferences about the relative effectiveness (or safety) of interventions. While potentially more expensive and time-consuming to produce, a comparative effectiveness review provides a synthesis of a range of interventions for a given condition and the relative efficacy across interventions using consistent and standardized methodology. Copyright © 2014 The
Thompson, Jenna; Davis, Jacqueline; Mazerolle, Lorraine
The wide variety of readily available electronic media grants anyone the freedom to retrieve published references from almost any area of research around the world. Despite this privilege, keeping up with primary research evidence is almost impossible because of the increase in professional publishing across disciplines. Systematic reviews are a…
Thompson, Jenna; Davis, Jacqueline; Mazerolle, Lorraine
The wide variety of readily available electronic media grants anyone the freedom to retrieve published references from almost any area of research around the world. Despite this privilege, keeping up with primary research evidence is almost impossible because of the increase in professional publishing across disciplines. Systematic reviews are a…
Hargrove, Patricia; Lund, Bonnie; Griffer, Mona
This article focuses on applying systematic reviews to the Early Intervention (EI) literature. Systematic reviews are defined and differentiated from traditional, or narrative, reviews and from meta-analyses. In addition, the steps involved in critiquing systematic reviews and an illustration of a systematic review from the EI literature are…
The recent interest in systematic review methods in bioethics has highlighted the need for greater transparency in all literature review processes undertaken in bioethics projects. In this article, I articulate features of a good bioethics literature review that does not aim to be systematic, but rather to capture and analyse the key ideas relevant to a research question. I call this a critical interpretive literature review. I begin by sketching and comparing three different types of literature review conducted in bioethics scholarship. Then, drawing on Dixon-Wood's concept of critical interpretive synthesis, I put forward six features of a good critical interpretive literature review in bioethics: answering a research question, capturing the key ideas relevant to the research question, analysing the literature as a whole, generating theory, not excluding papers based on rigid quality assessment criteria, and reporting the search strategy.
Cohen, Jérémie F; Korevaar, Daniël A; Wang, Junfeng; Spijker, René; Bossuyt, Patrick M
Chinese biomedical databases contain a large number of publications available to systematic reviewers, but it is unclear whether they are used for synthesizing the available evidence. We report a case of two systematic reviews on the accuracy of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide for diagnosing rheumatoid arthritis. In one of these, the authors did not search Chinese databases; in the other, they did. We additionally assessed the extent to which Cochrane reviewers have searched Chinese databases in a systematic overview of the Cochrane Library (inception to 2014). The two diagnostic reviews included a total of 269 unique studies, but only 4 studies were included in both reviews. The first review included five studies published in the Chinese language (out of 151) while the second included 114 (out of 118). The summary accuracy estimates from the two reviews were comparable. Only 243 of the published 8,680 Cochrane reviews (less than 3%) searched one or more of the five major Chinese databases. These Chinese databases index about 2,500 journals, of which less than 6% are also indexed in MEDLINE. All 243 Cochrane reviews evaluated an intervention, 179 (74%) had at least one author with a Chinese affiliation; 118 (49%) addressed a topic in complementary or alternative medicine. Although searching Chinese databases may lead to the identification of a large amount of additional clinical evidence, Cochrane reviewers have rarely included them in their search strategy. We encourage future initiatives to evaluate more systematically the relevance of searching Chinese databases, as well as collaborative efforts to allow better incorporation of Chinese resources in systematic reviews.
Full Text Available Mohammad-Ali Abtahi1–3, Seyed-Hossein Abtahi1,3,4, Farhad Fazel2,3, Peyman Roomizadeh1,4, Masoud Etemadifar5, Keivan Jenab2,3, Mojtaba Akbari11Medical School, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 2Ophthalmology Ward, Feiz Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 3Isfahan Eye Research Center (IERC, Feiz Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 4Isfahan Medical Students Research Center (IMSRC, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 5Department of Neurology, Medical School, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IranBackground and purpose: Topiramate (TPM is a sulfa-derivative monosaccharide that is used mainly for treating epilepsy and preventing migraine. Within the gamut of side effects attributable to this drug, ophthalmologic manifestations are of crucial importance. In this study, for the first time, the aim was to provide a systematic literature review regarding this issue.Methods: For the time period 1996–2011, a PubMed search was made for the studies concerning the adverse/beneficial effects of TPM on vision. Overall, 404 citations out of a total of 2756 TPM-related studies were examined for relevance.Results: A total of 74 relevant studies were reviewed, 65 of which comprise small observational studies describing the ophthalmic side effects of TPM in 84 patients. Of these patients, 66 were affected by ciliochoroidal effusion syndrome as the cardinal ocular side effect of TPM (17 cases of myopic shift and 49 cases of angle closure glaucoma. A comprehensive statistical analysis is provided on these 66 subjects. Other rare side effects of TPM on the vision were also reviewed, including massive choroidal effusion, ocular inflammatory reactions, visual field defects, probable effects on retina, cornea, and sclera, and neuroophthalmologic complications. In addition, a framework is provided to classify these results.Discussion: Due to the expanding spectrum of indications for the administration of TPM
Thompson, Jenna; Davis, Jacqueline; Mazerolle, Lorraine
The wide variety of readily available electronic media grants anyone the freedom to retrieve published references from almost any area of research around the world. Despite this privilege, keeping up with primary research evidence is almost impossible because of the increase in professional publishing across disciplines. Systematic reviews are a solution to this problem as they aim to synthesize all current information on a particular topic and present a balanced and unbiased summary of the findings. They are fast becoming an important method of research across a number of fields, yet only a small number of guidelines exist on how to define and select terms for a systematic search. This article presents a replicable method for selecting terms in a systematic search using the semantic concept recognition software called leximancer (Leximancer, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia). We use this software to construct a set of terms from a corpus of literature pertaining to transborder interventions for drug control and discuss the applicability of this method to systematic reviews in general. This method aims to contribute a more 'systematic' approach for selecting terms in a manner that is entirely replicable for any user.
Wells, Cherie; Kolt, Gregory S; Bialocerkowski, Andrea
To describe Pilates exercise according to peer-reviewed literature, and compare definitions used in papers with healthy participants and those with low back pain. A systematic review of literature was conducted. A search for "pilates" within the maximal date ranges of the Cochrane Library, Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, ProQuest: Nursing and Allied Health Source, Proquest: Medical and Health Complete, Scopus, Sport Discus, and Web of Science, was undertaken. To be included, papers needed to describe Pilates exercise, and be published in English within an academic, peer-reviewed journal. There were no restrictions on the methodological design or quality of papers. Content analysis was used to record qualitative definitions of Pilates. Frequencies were calculated for mention of content categories, equipment, and traditional Pilates principles. Frequencies were then compared statistically in papers with healthy participants and those with low back pain. 119 papers fulfilled inclusion criteria. Findings suggest that Pilates is a mind-body exercise that focuses on strength, core stability, flexibility, muscle control, posture and breathing. Exercises can be mat-based or involve use of specialised equipment. Posture was discussed statistically significantly more often in papers with participants with low back pain compared to papers with healthy participants. Traditional Pilates principles of centering, concentration, control, precision, flow, and breathing were discussed on average in 23% of papers. Apart from breathing, these principles were not mentioned in papers with low back pain participants. There is a general consensus in the literature of the definition of Pilates exercise. A greater emphasis may be placed on posture in people with low back pain, whilst traditional principles, apart from breathing, may be less relevant. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maria Regina Torloni
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rising cesarean section (CS rates are a major public health concern and cause worldwide debates. To propose and implement effective measures to reduce or increase CS rates where necessary requires an appropriate classification. Despite several existing CS classifications, there has not yet been a systematic review of these. This study aimed to 1 identify the main CS classifications used worldwide, 2 analyze advantages and deficiencies of each system. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Three electronic databases were searched for classifications published 1968-2008. Two reviewers independently assessed classifications using a form created based on items rated as important by international experts. Seven domains (ease, clarity, mutually exclusive categories, totally inclusive classification, prospective identification of categories, reproducibility, implementability were assessed and graded. Classifications were tested in 12 hypothetical clinical case-scenarios. From a total of 2948 citations, 60 were selected for full-text evaluation and 27 classifications identified. Indications classifications present important limitations and their overall score ranged from 2-9 (maximum grade =14. Degree of urgency classifications also had several drawbacks (overall scores 6-9. Woman-based classifications performed best (scores 5-14. Other types of classifications require data not routinely collected and may not be relevant in all settings (scores 3-8. CONCLUSIONS: This review and critical appraisal of CS classifications is a methodologically sound contribution to establish the basis for the appropriate monitoring and rational use of CS. Results suggest that women-based classifications in general, and Robson's classification, in particular, would be in the best position to fulfill current international and local needs and that efforts to develop an internationally applicable CS classification would be most appropriately placed in building upon this
Frewer, L.J.; Lans, van der I.A.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Reinders, M.J.; Menozzi, D.; Zhang, X.Y.; Berg, van den I.; Zimmermann, K.L.
An extensive literature relating to public perceptions of genetically modified foods applied to agri-food production has been identified through the process of systematic review. Application of systematic review criteria indicated that 335 papers were of appropriate quality or relevance to be consid
Frewer, L.J.; Lans, van der I.A.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Reinders, M.J.; Menozzi, D.; Zhang, X.Y.; Berg, van den I.; Zimmermann, K.L.
An extensive literature relating to public perceptions of genetically modified foods applied to agri-food production has been identified through the process of systematic review. Application of systematic review criteria indicated that 335 papers were of appropriate quality or relevance to be
Ives, J.A.; Wijk, E.P.A. van; Bat, N.; Crawford, C.; Walter, A.; Jonas, W.B.; Wijk, R. van; Greef, J. van der
We conducted a systematic review (SR) of the peer reviewed scientific literature on ultraweak photon emissions (UPE) from humans. The question was: Can ultraweak photon emissions from humans be used as a non-invasive health assessment? A systematic search was conducted across eight relevant database
Frewer, L.J.; Lans, van der I.A.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Reinders, M.J.; Menozzi, D.; Zhang, X.Y.; Berg, van den I.; Zimmermann, K.L.
An extensive literature relating to public perceptions of genetically modified foods applied to agri-food production has been identified through the process of systematic review. Application of systematic review criteria indicated that 335 papers were of appropriate quality or relevance to be consid
Peltopuro, Minna; Ahonen, Timo; Kaartinen, Jukka; Seppälä, Heikki; Närhi, Vesa
The literature related to people with borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) was systematically reviewed in order to summarize the present knowledge. Database searches yielded 1,726 citations, and 49 studies were included in the review. People with BIF face a variety of hardships in life, including neurocognitive, social, and mental health…
Leeflang, Mariska M G; Deeks, Jonathan J; Gatsonis, Constantine
More and more systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy studies are being published, but they can be methodologically challenging. In this paper, the authors present some of the recent developments in the methodology for conducting systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy studies....... Restrictive electronic search filters are discouraged, as is the use of summary quality scores. Methods for meta-analysis should take into account the paired nature of the estimates and their dependence on threshold. Authors of these reviews are advised to use the hierarchical summary receiver...
James P. Johnston
“buoyancy” currents in cases where density gradients occur. Turbulence modification involves reduction (stabilization or increase (destabilization of turbulent Reynolds stresses by Coriolis forces; effects which areof special importance for the understanding and prediction of flows in radial and mixed flow pump and compressor rotors. Stabilization/destabilization effects are discussed by a selective review of the basic research literature on flows in straight, radial, rotating channels and diffusers.
Hillier, Susan; Immink, Maarten; Thewlis, Dominic
Proprioception is a vital aspect of motor control and when degraded or lost can have a profound impact on function in diverse clinical populations. This systematic review aimed to identify clinically related tools to measure proprioceptive acuity, to classify the construct(s) underpinning the tools, and to report on the clinimetric properties of the tools. We searched key databases with the pertinent search terms, and from an initial list of 935 articles, we identified 57 of relevance. These articles described 32 different tools or methods to quantify proprioception. There was wide variation in methods, the joints able to be tested, and the populations sampled. The predominant construct was active or passive joint position detection, followed by passive motion detection and motion direction discrimination. The clinimetric properties were mostly poorly evaluated or reported. The Rivermead Assessment of Somatosensory Perception was generally considered to be a valid and reliable tool but with low precision; other tools with higher precision are potentially not clinically feasible. Clinicians and clinical researchers can use the summary tables to make more informed decisions about which tool to use to match their predominant requirements. Further discussion and research is needed to produce measures of proprioception that have improved validity and utility.
Lerchbaum, Elisabeth; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara
Vitamin D has been well-known for its function in maintaining calcium and phosphorus homeostasis and promoting bone mineralization. There is some evidence that in addition to sex steroid hormones, the classic regulators of human reproduction, vitamin D also modulates reproductive processes in women and men. The aim of this review was to assess the studies that evaluated the relationship between vitamin D and fertility in women and men as well as in animals. We performed a systematic literature search in Pubmed for relevant English language publications published until October 2011. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) and vitamin D metabolizing enzymes are found in reproductive tissues of women and men. Vdr knockout mice have significant gonadal insufficiency, decreased sperm count and motility, and histological abnormalities of testis, ovary and uterus. Moreover, we present evidence that vitamin D is involved in female reproduction including IVF outcome (clinical pregnancy rates) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In PCOS women, low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels are associated with obesity, metabolic, and endocrine disturbances and vitamin D supplementation might improve menstrual frequency and metabolic disturbances in those women. Moreover, vitamin D might influence steroidogenesis of sex hormones (estradiol and progesterone) in healthy women and high 25(OH)D levels might be associated with endometriosis. In men, vitamin D is positively associated with semen quality and androgen status. Moreover, vitamin D treatment might increase testosterone levels. Testiculopathic men show low CYP21R expression, low 25(OH)D levels, and osteoporosis despite normal testosterone levels.
Tebogo Gilbert Sethibe
Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to consolidate the published scientific knowledge about the impact of leadership styles on the relationship between innovation and organisational performance. Concepts, statements and conceptual frameworks were used as structure to analyse the body of scientific knowledge. After consulting 31 major research databases using the systematic literature review methodology, only seven journals articles that examined the link between leadership, innovation and organisational performance were identified. The synthesis of the journal articles revealed (a that consensus exists among researchers as far as the relevant concepts are concerned; (b that most agree on the definition of leadership and innovation but that a uniform understanding of what constitutes organisational performance is lacking; and (c that conceptual models are too simplistic and do not consider mediator variables or multiple financial criteria measures. The findings further reveal that innovation is significantly and positively related to superior organisational performance, and that, although transformational leadership style is significantly and positively related to innovation, transactional leadership style is more appropriate when the aim is to instil a culture of innovation. Transformational leadership style, by contrast, is mostly associated with organisational performance. In addition, the findings further reveal that none of the studies investigate the mediating effect of the nature of innovation (incremental and radical on the relationship between leadership and organisational performance, and that none of the studies use the objective measures of financial performance such as ROA, ROE, price/earnings (P/E and Tobin’s Q calculated from annual financial reports.
Stuck, Boris A; Hummel, Thomas
Olfactory dysfunction is a key symptom in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR). Despite the implications for quality of life, relatively few articles have tested olfactory function in their investigations. The current systematic review aimed to investigate the following 2 questions: (1) What does AR do to human olfaction? (2) How effective is the treatment of AR in restoring the sense of smell? A comprehensive literature search was performed, and human studies of any design were included. A total of 420 articles were identified, and 36 articles were considered relevant. Data indicate that the frequency of olfactory dysfunction increases with the duration of the disorder, and most studies report a frequency in the range of 20% to 40%. Although olfactory dysfunction does not appear to be very severe in patients with AR, its presence seems to increase with the severity of the disease. There is very limited evidence that antihistamines improve olfactory function. In addition, there is limited evidence that topical steroids improve the sense of smell, especially in patients with seasonal AR. This is also the case for specific immunotherapy. However, many questions remain unanswered because randomized controlled trials are infrequent and only a few studies rely on quantitative measurement of olfactory function.
Frédérique Thonon; Rym Boulkedid; Tristan Delory; Sophie Rousseau; Mahasti Saghatchian; Wim van Harten; Claire O'Neill; Corinne Alberti
Background There is an increasing need to evaluate the production and impact of medical research produced by institutions. Many indicators exist, yet we do not have enough information about their relevance. The objective of this systematic review was (1) to identify all the indicators that could be used to measure the output and outcome of medical research carried out in institutions and (2) enlist their methodology, use, positive and negative points. Methodology We have searched 3 databases ...
Böhm, M; vom Dorp, F; Schostak, M; Hakenberg, O W
Urine cytology is an important element of the diagnosis and follow-up of urothelial carcinomas and is recommended in most relevant guidelines. Urine-based marker systems are advocated as an adjunct to or a replacement of urine cytology. Urine cytology also has its place in the diagnosis of benign diseases. This systematic review describes and discusses the literature on urine cytology published since 2010.
Han Chae; Soo Hyun Park; Soo Jin Lee; Myoung-geun Kim; Danny Wedding; Young-Kyu Kwon
A systematic review of studies related to the psychological characteristics of Sasang types was conducted with the goal of delineating generalizable psychological profiles based on Sasang typology, a traditional Korean medical typology with medical herbs and acupuncture that is characterized as personalized medicine. Journal articles pertaining to Sasang typology were collected using five electronic database systems in Korea and in the USA. As a result, 64 potentially relevant studies were id...
Cui, Xiaoming; Li, Xiaoli; Peng, Weina; Zhou, Jing; Yu, Jinna; Ye, Yongming; Liu, Zhishun
This systematic review protocol aims to provide a protocol for assessing the safety and effectiveness of acupuncture for the treatment of erectile dysfunction(ED). Previous systematic reviews did not draw convincing conclusions owing to high heterogeneity and few included randomised controlled trials, so it is necessary to reassess the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for ED. Eight electronic databases will be searched: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, PsycInfo, the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), the Chinese Medical Current Content (CMCC) and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). Related Chinese literature will be searched in other Chinese databases. All relevant randomised controlled trials in English or Chinese without any restrictions of publication type will be included. The main outcome measure will be improvements in sexual activity assessed by validated questionnaires. Assessment of risk of bias, data synthesis and subgroup analysis will be carried out using Review Manager 5.3. The results of the systematic review will be disseminated via publication in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at a relevant conference. The data we will use do not include individual patient data, so ethical approval is not required. PROSPERO CRD42014013575. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Detollenaere, R.J.; Boon, J. den; Vierhout, M.E.; Eijndhoven, H.W. van
OBJECTIVE: To compare the outcomes of uterus preserving procedures and vaginal hysterectomy in treatment of uterine prolapse. DESIGN: Systematic review. METHOD: We searched in Pubmed, Embase, the Cochrane Library and the reference lists of relevant publications for articles comparing uterus
Clarke, Mike [National Institute for Health Research, UK Cochrane Centre, Oxford (United Kingdom)
Systematic reviews of systematic reviews identify good quality reviews of earlier studies of medical conditions. This article describes a systematic review of systematic reviews performed to investigate factors that might influence the risk of rupture of an intracranial aneurysm. It exemplifies the technique of this type of research and reports the finding of a specific study. The annual incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage resulting from the rupture of intracranial aneurysms is estimated to be nine per 100,000. A large proportion of people who have this bleed, will die or remain dependent on the care of others for some time. Reliable knowledge about the risks of subarachnoid haemorrhage in different populations will help in planning, screening and prevention strategies and in predicting the prognosis of individual patients. If the necessary data were available in the identified reviews, an estimate for the numerical relationship between a particular characteristic and the risk of subarachnoid haemorrhage was included in this report. The identification of eligible systematic reviews relied mainly on the two major bibliographic databases of the biomedical literature: PubMed and EMBASE. These were searched in 2006, using specially designed search strategies. Approximately 2,000 records were retrieved and each of these was checked carefully against the eligibility criteria for this systematic review. These criteria required that the report be a systematic review of studies assessing the risk of subarachnoid haemorrhage in patients known to have an unruptured intracranial aneurysm or of studies that had investigated the characteristics of people who experienced a subarachnoid haemorrhage without previously being known to have an unruptured aneurysm. Reports which included more than one systematic review were eligible and each of these reviews was potentially eligible. The quality of each systematic review was assessed. In this review, 16 separate reports were
Full Text Available Background: Injuries are the second greatest cause of mortality in Iran. Information about the epidemiological pattern of injuries is effective in decision-making. In this regard, the aim of the current study is to elaborate on the epidemiology of injuries in Iran through a systematic review. Methods: Required data were collected searching the following key words and their Persian equivalents; trauma, injury, accident, epidemiology, prevalence, Pattern, etiology, risk factors and Iran. The following databases were searched: Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, MagIran, Iranian scientific information database (SID and Iran Medex. Some of the relevant journals and web sites were searched manually. The lists of references from the selected articles were also investigated. We have also searched the gray literature and consulted some experts. Results: Out of 2747 retrieved articles, 25 articles were finally included in the review. A total of 3234481 cases have been investigated. Mean (SD age among these cases was 30 (17.4 years. Males comprised 75.7% of all the patients. Only 31.1% of patients were transferred to hospital by ambulance. The most common mechanism of injuries was road traffic accidents (50.1%, followed by falls (22.3%. In road traffic accidents, motorcyclists have accounted for the majority of victims (45%. Roads were the most common accident scene for the injuries (57.5%. The most common injuries were to the head and neck. (47.3%. The mean (SD Injury Severity Score (ISS was 8.1(8.6%. The overall case-fatality proportion was 3.8% and 75% of all the mortalities related to road traffic accidents. Conclusions: The main priorities in reducing the burden of injuries include: the young, male target group, improving pre-hospital and ambulance services, preventing road traffic accidents, improving road safety and the safety of motorcyclists (compulsory helmet use, safer vehicles, dedicated motorcycle lanes.
Strzelczyk, Adam; Reese, Jens Peter; Dodel, Richard; Hamer, Hajo M
The objective of this review was to overview published cost-of-illness (COI) studies of epilepsy and their methodological approaches. Epilepsy imposes a substantial burden on individuals and society as a whole. The mean prevalence of epilepsy is estimated at 0.52% in Europe, 0.68% in the US, and peaks up to 1.5% in developing countries. Estimation of the economic burden of epilepsy is of pivotal relevance to enable a rational distribution of healthcare resources. This is especially so with the introduction of the newer antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), the marketing of vagal-nerve stimulators and the resurgence of new surgical treatment options, which have the potential to considerably increase the costs of treating epilepsy.A systematic literature review was performed to identify studies that evaluated direct and indirect costs of epilepsy. Using a standardized assessment form, information on the study design, methodological framework and data sources were extracted from each publication and systematically reported. We identified 22 studies worldwide on costs of epilepsy. The majority of the studies reflected the costs of epilepsy in Europe (three studies each for the UK and Italy, one study each for Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, France and the EU) and the US (four studies), but studies were also available from India (two), Hong Kong, Oman, Burundi, Chile and Mexico. The studies utilized different frameworks to evaluate costs. All used a bottom-up approach; however, only 12 studies (55%) evaluated direct as well as indirect costs. The range for the mean annual direct costs lay between 40 International Dollar purchasing power parities (PPP-$) in rural Burundi and PPP-$4748 (adjusted to 2006 values) in a German epilepsy centre. Recent studies suggest AEDs are becoming the main contributor to direct costs. The mean indirect costs ranged between 12% and 85% of the total annual costs. Epilepsy is a cost-intensive disorder. A reliable comparison of the different COI
Leenaars, Marlies; Hooijmans, Carlijn R; van Veggel, Nieky; ter Riet, Gerben; Leeflang, Mariska; Hooft, Lotty; van der Wilt, Gert Jan; Tillema, Alice; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel
Before starting a new animal experiment, thorough analysis of previously performed experiments is essential from a scientific as well as from an ethical point of view. The method that is most suitable to carry out such a thorough analysis of the literature is a systematic review (SR). An essential first step in an SR is to search and find all potentially relevant studies. It is important to include all available evidence in an SR to minimize bias and reduce hampered interpretation of experimental outcomes. Despite the recent development of search filters to find animal studies in PubMed and EMBASE, searching for all available animal studies remains a challenge. Available guidelines from the clinical field cannot be copied directly to the situation within animal research, and although there are plenty of books and courses on searching the literature, there is no compact guide available to search and find relevant animal studies. Therefore, in order to facilitate a structured, thorough and transparent search for animal studies (in both preclinical and fundamental science), an easy-to-use, step-by-step guide was prepared and optimized using feedback from scientists in the field of animal experimentation. The step-by-step guide will assist scientists in performing a comprehensive literature search and, consequently, improve the scientific quality of the resulting review and prevent unnecessary animal use in the future.
Innovative pharmaceutical interventions in cardiovascular disease: Focusing on the contribution of non-HDL-C/LDL-C-lowering versus HDL-C-raising: A systematic review and meta-analysis of relevant preclinical studies and clinical trials.
Kühnast, Susan; Fiocco, Marta; van der Hoorn, José W A; Princen, Hans M G; Jukema, J Wouter
Non-HDL-cholesterol is well recognised as a primary causal risk factor in cardiovascular disease. However, despite consistent epidemiological evidence for an inverse association between HDL-C and coronary heart disease, clinical trials aimed at raising HDL-C (AIM-HIGH, HPS2-THRIVE, dal-OUTCOMES) failed to meet their primary goals. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the effects of established and novel treatment strategies, specifically targeting HDL, on inhibition of atherosclerosis in cholesteryl ester transfer protein-expressing animals, and the prevention of clinical events in randomised controlled trials. Linear regression analyses using data from preclinical studies revealed associations for TC and non-HDL-C and lesion area (R(2)=0.258, P=0.045; R(2)=0.760, PHDL-C (R(2)=0.030, P=0.556). In clinical trials, non-fatal myocardial infarction risk was significantly less in the treatment group with pooled odd ratios of 0.87 [0.81; 0.94] for all trials and 0.85 [0.78; 0.93] after excluding some trials due to off-target adverse events, whereas all-cause mortality was not affected (OR 1.05 [0.99-1.10]). Meta-regression analyses revealed a trend towards an association between between-group differences in absolute change from baseline in LDL-C and non-fatal myocardial infarction (P=0.066), whereas no correlation was found for HDL-C (P=0.955). We conclude that the protective role of lowering LDL-C and non-HDL-C is well-established. The contribution of raising HDL-C on inhibition of atherosclerosis and the prevention of cardiovascular disease remains undefined and may be dependent on the mode of action of HDL-C-modification. Nonetheless, treatment strategies aimed at improving HDL function and raising apolipoprotein A-I may be worth exploring.
Abstract Background Hundreds of studies of maternity care interventions have been published, too many for most people involved in providing maternity care to identify and consider when making decisions. It became apparent that systematic reviews of individual studies were required to appraise, summarise and bring together existing studies in a single place. However, decision makers are increasingly faced by a plethora of such reviews and these are likely to be of variable quality and scope, with more than one review of important topics. Systematic reviews (or overviews) of reviews are a logical and appropriate next step, allowing the findings of separate reviews to be compared and contrasted, providing clinical decision makers with the evidence they need. Methods The methods used to identify and appraise published and unpublished reviews systematically, drawing on our experiences and good practice in the conduct and reporting of systematic reviews are described. The process of identifying and appraising all published reviews allows researchers to describe the quality of this evidence base, summarise and compare the review\\'s conclusions and discuss the strength of these conclusions. Results Methodological challenges and possible solutions are described within the context of (i) sources, (ii) study selection, (iii) quality assessment (i.e. the extent of searching undertaken for the reviews, description of study selection and inclusion criteria, comparability of included studies, assessment of publication bias and assessment of heterogeneity), (iv) presentation of results, and (v) implications for practice and research. Conclusion Conducting a systematic review of reviews highlights the usefulness of bringing together a summary of reviews in one place, where there is more than one review on an important topic. The methods described here should help clinicians to review and appraise published reviews systematically, and aid evidence-based clinical decision-making.
Andersen, C.L.; Hasselbalch, H.C.; Kristensen, T.K.;
of the cell has been described and its fascinating biology has only recently been depicted. We here give a review of systemic mastocytosis in regards to cell biology, diagnostic approaches and clinical practice. METHODS: A search was made in PubMed in August 2011 entering the keywords: mastocytosis, (systemic...
Rafie, Nahid; Golpour Hamedani, Sahar; Ghiasvand, Reza; Miraghajani, Maryam
Some studies have suggested chemopreventive effects of kefir, a fermented milk product, on carcinogenesis. The aim of this review study was to evaluate the scientific evidence for effects of kefir on cancer prevention and treatment. We systematically searched for all relevant studies published before June 2015, using PubMed, Google scholar, Cochrane and Science Direct, SID, MedLib and Srlst databases. Relevant studies were reviewed based on systematic review (PRISMA) guidelines. From a total of 2208 papers obtained at the initial database search, 11 publications including 7 in vitro and 4 experimental studies were eligible. In vitro studies on breast, colon, skin and gastric cancers and leukemia cell lines and experimental studies on different sarcomas consistently showed beneficial effects of kefir on cancer prevention and treatment. The results of this systematic review suggest that kefir may be associated with cancer prevention and it also has beneficial effects in cancer treatment. This protection may be associated with kefir bioactive components including peptides, polysaccharides and sphingolipids.
Michel Marcos Dalmedico
Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effectiveness of hyaluronic acid in the healing of partial thickness burns. METHOD Systematic review of randomized controlled trials on the use of hyaluronic acid for the topical treatment of skin burns, based on recommendations of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. RESULTS Two randomized controlled trials that analyzed 143 patients with partial thickness burns and/or deep partial thickness burns were selected. They compared the application of hyaluronic acid 0.2% associated to silver sulfadiazine 1% 5g/cm2 versus silver sulfadiazine 1% 5g/cm2 alone for the outcome of complete healing. CONCLUSION This review emphasizes the need for new well-designed randomized controlled trials to establish the therapeutic relevance of hyaluronic acid with respect to the healing of burns of partial thickness or deep partial thickness.
Bragaru, Mihail; Dekker, Rienk; Geertzen, Jan H B; Dijkstra, Pieter U
Amputation of a limb may have a negative impact on the psychological and physical well-being, mobility and social life of individuals with limb amputations. Participation in sports and/or regular physical activity has a positive effect on the above mentioned areas in able-bodied individuals. Data concerning participation in sports or regular physical activity together with its benefits and risks for individuals with limb amputations are scarce. No systematic review exists that addresses a wide range of outcomes such as biomechanics, cardiopulmonary function, psychology, sport participation and sport injuries. Therefore, the aim of this article is to systematically review the literature about individuals with limb amputations and sport participation. MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, CINAHL® and SportDiscus® were searched without time or language restrictions using free text words and MeSH terms. The last search date was 31 March 2010. Books, internet sites and references of included papers were checked for papers relevant to the topic under review. Papers were included if the research topic concerned sports and a minimum of ten individuals with limb amputations were part of the study population. Papers were excluded if they included individuals with amputations of body parts other than upper or lower limbs or more distal than the wrist or ankle, or if they consisted of case reports, narrative reviews, books, notes or letters to the editor. Title, abstract and full-text assessments were performed by two independent observers following a list of preset criteria. Of the 3689 papers originally identified, 47 were included in the review. Most of the included studies were older than 10 years and had cross-sectional designs. Study participants were generally younger and often had more traumatic amputations than the general population of individuals with limb amputations. Heterogeneity in population characteristics, intervention types and main outcomes made data pooling
Mertz, Marcel; Kahrass, Hannes; Strech, Daniel
Modern standards for evidence-based decision making in clinical care and public health still rely solely on eminence-based input when it comes to normative ethical considerations. Manuals for clinical guideline development or health technology assessment (HTA) do not explain how to search, analyze, and synthesize relevant normative information in a systematic and transparent manner. In the scientific literature, however, systematic or semi-systematic reviews of ethics literature already exist, and scholarly debate on their opportunities and limitations has recently bloomed. A systematic review was performed of all existing systematic or semi-systematic reviews for normative ethics literature on medical topics. The study further assessed how these reviews report on their methods for search, selection, analysis, and synthesis of ethics literature. We identified 84 reviews published between 1997 and 2015 in 65 different journals and demonstrated an increasing publication rate for this type of review. While most reviews reported on different aspects of search and selection methods, reporting was much less explicit for aspects of analysis and synthesis methods: 31 % did not fulfill any criteria related to the reporting of analysis methods; for example, only 25 % of the reviews reported the ethical approach needed to analyze and synthesize normative information. While reviews of ethics literature are increasingly published, their reporting quality for analysis and synthesis of normative information should be improved. Guiding questions are: What was the applied ethical approach and technical procedure for identifying and extracting the relevant normative information units? What method and procedure was employed for synthesizing normative information? Experts and stakeholders from bioethics, HTA, guideline development, health care professionals, and patient organizations should work together to further develop this area of evidence-based health care.
Ingegerd A Mejàre
Full Text Available To identify, appraise and summarize existing knowledge and knowledge gaps in practice-relevant questions in pediatric dentistry.A systematic mapping of systematic reviews was undertaken for domains considered important in daily clinical practice. The literature search covered questions in the following domains: behavior management problems/dental anxiety; caries risk assessment and caries detection including radiographic technologies; prevention and non-operative treatment of caries in primary and young permanent teeth; operative treatment of caries in primary and young permanent teeth; prevention and treatment of periodontal disease; management of tooth developmental and mineralization disturbances; prevention and treatment of oral conditions in children with chronic diseases/developmental disturbances/obesity; diagnosis, prevention and treatment of dental erosion and tooth wear; treatment of traumatic injuries in primary and young permanent teeth and cost-effectiveness of these interventions. Abstracts and full text reviews were assessed independently by two reviewers and any differences were solved by consensus. AMSTAR was used to assess the risk of bias of each included systematic review. Reviews judged as having a low or moderate risk of bias were used to formulate existing knowledge and knowledge gaps.Out of 81 systematic reviews meeting the inclusion criteria, 38 were judged to have a low or moderate risk of bias. Half of them concerned caries prevention. The quality of evidence was high for a caries-preventive effect of daily use of fluoride toothpaste and moderate for fissure sealing with resin-based materials. For the rest the quality of evidence for the effects of interventions was low or very low.There is an urgent need for primary clinical research of good quality in most clinically-relevant domains in pediatric dentistry.
Full Text Available Haematospermia (or haemospermia is a distressing symptom in sexually active men. In most cases, it is caused by non-specific inflammation of the prostate and seminal vesicles. In a small percentage of men, however, it may be a manifestation of genito-urinary or systemic malignancy, in particular prostate cancer. The purpose of this review is to explain the causes and management of patients with haematospermia.
El-Jardali, Fadi; Akl, Elie A; Karroum, Lama Bou; Kdouh, Ola; Akik, Chaza; Fadlallah, Racha; Hammoud, Rawan
Systematic reviews can offer policymakers and stakeholders concise, transparent, and relevant evidence pertaining to pressing policy priorities to help inform the decision-making process. The production and the use of systematic reviews are specifically limited in the Eastern Mediterranean region. The extent to which published systematic reviews address policy priorities in the region is still unknown. This situational analysis exercise aims at assessing the extent to which published systematic reviews address policy priorities identified by policymakers and stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean region countries. It also provides an overview about the state of systematic review production in the region and identifies knowledge gaps. We conducted a systematic search of the Health System Evidence database to identify published systematic reviews on policy-relevant priorities pertaining to the following themes: human resources for health, health financing, the role of the non-state sector, and access to medicine. Priorities were identified from two priority-setting exercises conducted in the region. We described the distribution of these systematic reviews across themes, sub-themes, authors' affiliations, and countries where included primary studies were conducted. Out of the 1,045 systematic reviews identified in Health System Evidence on selected themes, a total of 200 systematic reviews (19.1%) addressed the priorities from the Eastern Mediterranean region. The theme with the largest number of systematic reviews included was human resources for health (115) followed by health financing (33), access to medicine (27), and role of the non-state sector (25). Authors based in the region produced only three systematic reviews addressing regional priorities (1.5%). Furthermore, no systematic review focused on the Eastern Mediterranean region. Primary studies from the region had limited contribution to systematic reviews; 17 systematic reviews (8.5%) included primary
Phuong, Linny Kimly; Bonetto, Caterina; Buttery, Jim; Pernus, Yolanda Brauchli; Chandler, Rebecca; Felicetti, Patrizia; Goldenthal, Karen L; Kucuku, Merita; Monaco, Giuseppe; Pahud, Barbara; Shulman, Stanford T; Top, Karina A; Trotta, Francesco; Ulloa-Gutierrez, Rolando; Varricchio, Frederick; de Ferranti, Sarah; Newburger, Jane W; Dahdah, Nagib; Singh, Surjit; Bonhoeffer, Jan; Burgner, David
Kawasaki disease is a complex and potentially serious condition. It has been observed in temporal relation to immunisation. We conducted a systematic literature review using various reference sources to review the available evidence published in the literature. We identified twenty seven publications reporting a temporal association between immunisation and Kawasaki disease. We present a systematic review of data drawn from randomised controlled trials, observational studies, case series and reports, and reviews. Overall there was a lack of standardised case definitions, making data interpretation and comparability challenging. Although a temporal relationship between immunisation and Kawasaki disease is suggested, evidence for an increased risk or a causal association is lacking. Implementation of a standardised Kawasaki disease case definition would increase confidence in the findings and add value to future studies of pre- or post-licensure vaccine safety studies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available Objective. To systematically review the international literature for internal nasal septal deviation classification systems and summarize them for clinical and research purposes. Data Sources. Four databases (including PubMed/MEDLINE were systematically searched through December 16, 2015. Methods. Systematic review, adhering to PRISMA. Results. After removal of duplicates, this study screened 952 articles for relevance. A final comprehensive review of 50 articles identified that 15 of these articles met the eligibility criteria. The classification systems defined in these articles included C-shaped, S-shaped, reverse C-shaped, and reverse S-shaped descriptions of the septal deviation in both the cephalocaudal and anteroposterior dimensions. Additional studies reported use of computed tomography and categorized deviation based on predefined locations. Three studies graded the severity of septal deviations based on the amount of deflection. The systems defined in the literature also included an evaluation of nasal septal spurs and perforations. Conclusion. This systematic review ascertained that the majority of the currently published classification systems for internal nasal septal deviations can be summarized by C-shaped or reverse C-shaped, as well as S-shaped or reverse S-shaped deviations in the anteroposterior and cephalocaudal dimensions. For imaging studies, predefined points have been defined along the septum. Common terminology can facilitate future research.
Teixeira, Jeffrey; Certal, Victor; Chang, Edward T.; Camacho, Macario
Objective. To systematically review the international literature for internal nasal septal deviation classification systems and summarize them for clinical and research purposes. Data Sources. Four databases (including PubMed/MEDLINE) were systematically searched through December 16, 2015. Methods. Systematic review, adhering to PRISMA. Results. After removal of duplicates, this study screened 952 articles for relevance. A final comprehensive review of 50 articles identified that 15 of these articles met the eligibility criteria. The classification systems defined in these articles included C-shaped, S-shaped, reverse C-shaped, and reverse S-shaped descriptions of the septal deviation in both the cephalocaudal and anteroposterior dimensions. Additional studies reported use of computed tomography and categorized deviation based on predefined locations. Three studies graded the severity of septal deviations based on the amount of deflection. The systems defined in the literature also included an evaluation of nasal septal spurs and perforations. Conclusion. This systematic review ascertained that the majority of the currently published classification systems for internal nasal septal deviations can be summarized by C-shaped or reverse C-shaped, as well as S-shaped or reverse S-shaped deviations in the anteroposterior and cephalocaudal dimensions. For imaging studies, predefined points have been defined along the septum. Common terminology can facilitate future research. PMID:26933510
Papadiochou, Sofia; Emmanouil, Ioannis; Papadiochos, Ioannis
Denture adhesives have been the objective of scientific research for over half a century. Although they are used by denture wearers worldwide, investigations of their effectiveness and biocompatibility have led to controversial conclusions. The purpose of this study was to review the literature data with regard to the effectiveness and biocompatibility of denture adhesives as well as the attitudes of both patients and dental professionals toward these materials. An electronic search of English peer-reviewed dental literature in the Medline database was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and biocompatibility of denture adhesives. There was no limitation in publication year, so the search included all the available scientific evidence included in that particular database until March 2014. Specific inclusion criteria were used for the selection of the appropriate articles. A manual search of the citations of the obtained articles followed to extend the electronic search. A full text review was carried out for only 32 articles. Of the 32 articles, 21 examined the efficacy of denture adhesives in terms of retention and stability and masticatory performance, 6 evaluated the issue of the biocompatibility of denture adhesives, and 5 presented the attitudes of either professionals or patients toward these materials. The majority of clinical studies supported the fact that denture adhesives enhance the retention, stability, and masticatory performance of a removable prosthesis. In terms of biocompatibility, long-term in vivo studies to investigate potential harmful effects were lacking. Patients are satisfied with denture adhesives that meet their needs. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Grivas, E; Roudsari, R V; Satterthwaite, J D
The purpose of this study is to review the available literature related to composite inlays. Electronic databases published up to November 2013 were searched. Studies that evaluate composite resin inlays for the restoration of posterior teeth were selected. The studies should compare composite inlays against gold inlays, ceramic inlays and direct composite fillings regarding longevity, aesthetic quality and postoperative sensitivity or comparing the clinical effectiveness of them on premolars versus molars or on 1-2 surface preparations versus multi-surface preparations. Despite the heterogeneity of the available clinical trials composite inlays seem to be an effective method for the restoration of posterior teeth.
Full Text Available In countries with low tuberculosis (TB incidence, immigrants from higher incidence countries represent the major pool of individuals with latent TB infection (LTBI. The antenatal period represents an opportunity for immigrant women to access the medical system, and hence for potential screening and treatment of LTBI. However, such screening and treatment during pregnancy remains controversial.In order to further understand the prevalence, natural history, screening and management of LTBI in pregnancy, we conducted a systematic literature review addressing the screening and treatment of LTBI, in pregnant women without known HIV infection.A systematic review of 4 databases (Embase, Embase Classic, Medline, Cochrane Library covering articles published from January 1st 1980 to April 30th 2014. Articles in English, French or Spanish with relevant information on prevalence, natural history, screening tools, screening strategies and treatment of LTBI during pregnancy were eligible for inclusion. Articles were excluded if (1 Full text was not available (2 they were case series or case studies (3 they focused exclusively on prevalence, diagnosis and treatment of active TB (4 the study population was exclusively HIV-infected.Of 4,193 titles initially identified, 208 abstracts were eligible for review. Of these, 30 articles qualified for full text review and 22 were retained: 3 cohort studies, 2 case-control studies, and 17 cross-sectional studies. In the USA, the estimated prevalence of LTBI ranged from 14 to 48% in women tested, and tuberculin skin test (TST positivity was associated with ethnicity. One study suggested that incidence of active TB was significantly increased during the 180 days postpartum (Incidence rate ratio, 1.95 (95% CI 1.24-3.07. There was a high level of adherence with both skin testing (between 90-100% and chest radiography (93-100%.. In three studies from low incidence settings, concordance between TST and an interferon
Fitzstevens, John L; Smith, Kelsey C; Hagadorn, James I; Caimano, Melissa J; Matson, Adam P; Brownell, Elizabeth A
Human milk-associated microbes are among the first to colonize the infant gut and may help to shape both short- and long-term infant health outcomes. We performed a systematic review to characterize the microbiota of human milk. Relevant primary studies were identified through a comprehensive search of PubMed (January 1, 1964, to June 31, 2015). Included studies were conducted among healthy mothers, were written in English, identified bacteria in human milk, used culture-independent methods, and reported primary results at the genus level. Twelve studies satisfied inclusion criteria. All varied in geographic location and human milk collection/storage/analytic methods. Streptococcus was identified in human milk samples in 11 studies (91.6%) and Staphylococcus in 10 (83.3%); both were predominant genera in 6 (50%). Eight of the 12 studies used conventional ribosomal RNA (rRNA) polymerase chain reaction (PCR), of which 7 (87.5%) identified Streptococcus and 6 (80%) identified Staphylococcus as present. Of these 8 studies, 2 (25%) identified Streptococcus and Staphylococcus as predominant genera. Four of the 12 studies used next-generation sequencing (NGS), all of which identified Streptococcus and Staphylococcus as present and predominant genera. Relative to conventional rRNA PCR, NGS is a more sensitive method to identify/quantify bacterial genera in human milk, suggesting the predominance of Streptococcus and Staphylococcus may be underestimated in studies using older methods. These genera, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus, may be universally predominant in human milk, regardless of differences in geographic location or analytic methods. Primary studies designed to evaluate the effect of these 2 genera on short- and long-term infant outcomes are warranted.
Adefurin, Abiodun; Sammons, Helen; Jacqz-Aigrain, Evelyne; Choonara, Imti
Objective To determine the safety of ciprofloxacin in paediatric patients in relation to arthropathy, any other adverse events (AEs) and drug interactions. Methods A systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, CENTRAL and bibliographies of relevant articles was carried out for all published articles, regardless of design, that involved the use of ciprofloxacin in any paediatric age group ≤17 years. Only articles that reported on safety were included. Results 105 articles met the inclusion criteria and involved 16 184 paediatric patients. There were 1065 reported AEs (risk 7%, 95% CI 3.2% to 14.0%). The most frequent AEs were musculoskeletal AEs, abnormal liver function tests, nausea, changes in white blood cell counts and vomiting. There were six drug interactions (with aminophylline (4) and methotrexate (2)). The only drug related death occurred in a neonate who had an anaphylactic reaction. 258 musculoskeletal events occurred in 232 paediatric patients (risk 1.6%, 95% CI 0.9% to 2.6%). Arthralgia accounted for 50% of these. The age of occurrence of arthropathy ranged from 7 months to 17 years (median 10 years). All cases of arthropathy resolved or improved with management. One prospective controlled study estimated the risk of arthropathy as 9.3 (OR 95% CI 1.2 to 195). Pooled safety data of controlled trials in this review estimated the risk of arthropathy as 1.57 (OR 95% CI 1.26 to 1.97). Conclusion Musculoskeletal AEs occur due to ciprofloxacin use. However, these musculoskeletal events are reversible with management. It is recommended that further prospective controlled studies should be carried out to evaluate the safety of ciprofloxacin, with particular focus on the risk of arthropathy. PMID:21785119
Dhami, S.; Panesar, S. S.; Roberts, G.; Muraro, A.; Worm, M.; Bilo, M. B.; Cardona, V.; Dubois, A. E. J.; DunnGalvin, A.; Eigenmann, P.; Fernandez-Rivas, M.; Halken, S.; Lack, G.; Niggemann, B.; Rueff, F.; Santos, A. F.; Vlieg-Boerstra, B.; Zolkipli, Z. Q.; Sheikh, A.
To establish the effectiveness of interventions for the acute and long-term management of anaphylaxis, seven databases were searched for systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, quasi-randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, controlled before-after studies and interrupted t
Hoogeveen, Eelke J.; Jansma, Johan; Ren, Yijin
INTRODUCTION: Corticotomy and dental distraction have been proposed as effective and safe methods to shorten orthodontic treatment duration in adolescent and adult patients. A systematic review was performed to evaluate the evidence supporting these claims. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane data
Vroomen, PCAJ; de Krom, MCTFM; Slofstra, PD; Knottnerus, JA
Most patients with sciatica (often caused by disc herniations) are managed conservatively at first. The natural course seems to be favorable. The additional value of many conservative therapies remains controversial. Because a systematic review of the conservative treatment of sciatica is lacking, s
Tumours rarely metastasise to the pancreas. While surgical resection of such metastases is believed to confer a survival benefit, there is limited data to support such management. We present a systematic review of case series of pancreatic metastasectomy and analysis of survival outcomes.
Bjørn, Maya Xania; Perdawood, Sharaf Karim
of the dissection. We aimed to evaluate the literature on TaTME. METHODS: We performed a systematic search of the literature in the PubMed and Embase databases. Both authors assessed the studies. All publications on TaTME were included with the exception of review articles. RESULTS: A total of 29 studies (336...
Hoogeveen, Eelke J.; Jansma, Johan; Ren, Yijin
INTRODUCTION: Corticotomy and dental distraction have been proposed as effective and safe methods to shorten orthodontic treatment duration in adolescent and adult patients. A systematic review was performed to evaluate the evidence supporting these claims. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane
Kastner, Monika; Straus, Sharon; Goldsmith, Charlie H
Researchers conducting systematic reviews need to search multiple bibliographic databases such as MEDLINE and EMBASE. However, researchers have no rational search stopping rule when looking for potentially-relevant articles. We empirically tested a stopping rule based on the concept of capture-mark-recapture (CMR), which was first pioneered in ecology. The principles of CMR can be adapted to systematic reviews and meta-analyses to estimate the Horizon of articles in the literature with its confidence interval. We retrospectively tested this Horizon Estimation using a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated clinical decision support tools for osteoporosis disease management. The Horizon Estimation was calculated based on 4 bibliographic databases that were included as the main data sources for the review in the following order: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and EBM Reviews. The systematic review captured 68% of known articles from the 4 data sources, which represented 592 articles that were estimated as missing from the Horizon.
Chae, Han; Park, Soo Hyun; Lee, Soo Jin; Kim, Myoung-Geun; Wedding, Danny; Kwon, Young-Kyu
A systematic review of studies related to the psychological characteristics of Sasang types was conducted with the goal of delineating generalizable psychological profiles based on Sasang typology, a traditional Korean medical typology with medical herbs and acupuncture that is characterized as personalized medicine. Journal articles pertaining to Sasang typology were collected using five electronic database systems in Korea and in the USA. As a result, 64 potentially relevant studies were identified and 21 peer-reviewed research articles that employed psychometric inventories were included. Beginning with the use of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory in 1992, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, NEO-Personality Inventory, Temperament and Character Inventory and other personality assessment tools were employed in the identified studies. Because data synthesis could not be carried out due to the heterogeneity of the studies, the present review article sought to delineate the mutual relevance of the studies based on research results pertaining to the correlation between the aforementioned psychological assessment instruments. Results of the review indicate that two super-factors, Extraversion and Neuroticism, serve as the foundation in regards to delineating personality constructs, such that the So-Yang type scored high on the Extraversion dimension and low on the Neuroticism dimension, while the So-Eum type scored low on the Extraversion dimension and high on the Neuroticism dimension. The present systematic review indicates that Sasang typology shares similarities with the Western psychological tradition.
Full Text Available A systematic review of studies related to the psychological characteristics of Sasang types was conducted with the goal of delineating generalizable psychological profiles based on Sasang typology, a traditional Korean medical typology with medical herbs and acupuncture that is characterized as personalized medicine. Journal articles pertaining to Sasang typology were collected using five electronic database systems in Korea and in the USA. As a result, 64 potentially relevant studies were identified and 21 peer-reviewed research articles that employed psychometric inventories were included. Beginning with the use of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory in 1992, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, NEO-Personality Inventory, Temperament and Character Inventory and other personality assessment tools were employed in the identified studies. Because data synthesis could not be carried out due to the heterogeneity of the studies, the present review article sought to delineate the mutual relevance of the studies based on research results pertaining to the correlation between the aforementioned psychological assessment instruments. Results of the review indicate that two super-factors, Extraversion and Neuroticism, serve as the foundation in regards to delineating personality constructs, such that the So-Yang type scored high on the Extraversion dimension and low on the Neuroticism dimension, while the So-Eum type scored low on the Extraversion dimension and high on the Neuroticism dimension. The present systematic review indicates that Sasang typology shares similarities with the Western psychological tradition.
Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Raymer, Anastasia; Cherney, Leora R
To update a previous systematic review describing the effect of communication partner training on individuals with aphasia and their communication partners, with clinical questions addressing effects of partner training on language, communication activity/participation, psychosocial adjustment, and quality of life. Twelve electronic databases were searched using 23 search terms. References from relevant articles were hand searched. Three reviewers independently reviewed abstracts, excluding those that failed to meet inclusion criteria. Thirty-two full text articles were reviewed by 2 independent reviewers. Articles not meeting inclusion criteria were eliminated, resulting in a corpus of 25 articles for full review. For the 25 articles, 1 reviewer extracted descriptive data regarding participants, intervention, outcome measures, and results. A second reviewer verified the accuracy of the extracted data. The 3-member review team classified studies using the American Academy of Neurology levels of evidence. Two independent reviewers evaluated each article using design-specific tools to assess research quality. All 25 of the current review articles reported positive changes from partner training. Therefore, to date, 56 studies across 2 systematic reviews have reported positive outcomes from communication partner training in aphasia. The results of the current review are consistent with the previous review and necessitate no change to the earlier recommendations, suggesting that communication partner training should be conducted to improve partner skill in facilitating the communication of people with chronic aphasia. Additional high-quality research is needed to strengthen the original 2010 recommendations and expand recommendations to individuals with acute aphasia. High-quality clinical trials are also needed to demonstrate implementation of communication partner training in complex environments (eg, health care). Copyright Â© 2016 American Congress of
Luís Carlos Machado Júnior
Full Text Available Objective: this study aimed to review the literature regarding late preterm births (34 weeks to 36 weeks and 6 days of gestation in its several aspects. Sources: the MEDLINE, LILACS, and Cochrane Library databases were searched, and the references of the articles retrieved were also used, with no limit of time. Data synthesis: numerous studies showed a recent increase in late preterm births. In all series, late preterm comprised the majority of preterm births. Studies including millions of births showed a strong association between late preterm birth and neonatal mortality. A higher mortality in childhood and among young adults was also observed. Many studies found an association with several neonatal complications, and also with long-term disorders and sequelae: breastfeeding problems, cerebral palsy, asthma in childhood, poor school performance, schizophrenia, and young adult diabetes. Some authors propose strategies to reduce late preterm birth, or to improve neonatal outcome: use of antenatal corticosteroids, changes in some of the guidelines for early delivery in high-risk pregnancies, and changes in neonatal care for this group. Conclusions: numerous studies show greater mortality and morbidity in late preterm infants compared with term infants, in addition to long-term disorders. More recent studies evaluated strategies to improve the outcomes of these neonates. Further studies on these strategies are needed.
Machado Júnior, Luís Carlos; Passini Júnior, Renato; Rodrigues Machado Rosa, Izilda
this study aimed to review the literature regarding late preterm births (34 weeks to 36 weeks and 6 days of gestation) in its several aspects. the MEDLINE, LILACS, and Cochrane Library databases were searched, and the references of the articles retrieved were also used, with no limit of time. numerous studies showed a recent increase in late preterm births. In all series, late preterm comprised the majority of preterm births. Studies including millions of births showed a strong association between late preterm birth and neonatal mortality. A higher mortality in childhood and among young adults was also observed. Many studies found an association with several neonatal complications, and also with long-term disorders and sequelae: breastfeeding problems, cerebral palsy, asthma in childhood, poor school performance, schizophrenia, and young adult diabetes. Some authors propose strategies to reduce late preterm birth, or to improve neonatal outcome: use of antenatal corticosteroids, changes in some of the guidelines for early delivery in high-risk pregnancies, and changes in neonatal care for this group. numerous studies show greater mortality and morbidity in late preterm infants compared with term infants, in addition to long-term disorders. More recent studies evaluated strategies to improve the outcomes of these neonates. Further studies on these strategies are needed. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Martinasek, Mary P; McGrogan, Jamie B; Maysonet, Alisha
This systematic review focuses on respiratory effects of inhalational marijuana. The systematic review of the literature was conducted using a comparative method between 2 researchers. Abstracts were reviewed for inclusion of respiratory effects related to inhalational marijuana. Relevant abstracts were collected, and full text articles were retrieved for review. Articles were removed if they did not contain burning marijuana; were animal studies; or were editorials, systematic reviews, commentaries, non-English language, or non-respiratory-related articles. Forty-eight articles were collected and categorized by respiratory effects. In particular, lung cancer, bullous emphysema/COPD, and other respiratory symptoms were the primary categories. Articles were noted by study population country, sample size, age distribution, and findings that were pertinent to respiratory health. The research indicates that there is a risk of lung cancer from inhalational marijuana as well as an association between inhalational marijuana and spontaneous pneumothorax, bullous emphysema, or COPD. A variety of symptoms have been reported by inhalational marijuana smokers, including wheezing, shortness of breath, altered pulmonary function tests, cough, phlegm production, bronchodilation, and other symptoms. It is important to stay current with research findings to educate patients on this smoking behavior. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.
Muñoz-Ortego, Juan; Solans-Domènech, Maite; Carrion, Carme
Acupuncture is a medical procedure with a very wide range of indications according to the WHO. However the indications require robust scientific evidence to support them. We have conducted a systematic review (2010-2015) in order to define in which pathologies acupuncture can be an effective strategy, STRICTA criteria that aim to set up acupuncture clinical trials standard criteria were defined in 2010. Only systematic reviews and meta-analyses of good or very good methodological quality according to SIGN criteria were selected. Its main objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of acupuncture in the management of any disease. Most of the final 31 selected reviews focus on chronic pain-related diseases, mainly in the disciplines of Neurology, Orthopaedics and Rheumatology. Current evidence supports the use of acupuncture in the treatment of headaches, migraines, back pain, cervical pain and osteoarthritis. The remaining pathologies still require further good quality studies.
Leeflang, Mariska M G; Deeks, Jonathan J; Gatsonis, Constantine; Bossuyt, Patrick M M
More and more systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy studies are being published, but they can be methodologically challenging. In this paper, the authors present some of the recent developments in the methodology for conducting systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy studies. Restrictive electronic search filters are discouraged, as is the use of summary quality scores. Methods for meta-analysis should take into account the paired nature of the estimates and their dependence on threshold. Authors of these reviews are advised to use the hierarchical summary receiver-operating characteristic or the bivariate model for the data analysis. Challenges that remain are the poor reporting of original diagnostic test accuracy studies and difficulties with the interpretation of the results of diagnostic test accuracy research.
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Systematic review for declassification. 1045.43 Section... Systematic review for declassification. (a) The Secretary shall ensure that RD documents, and the DoD shall... Classification (and with the DoD for FRD) to ensure the systematic review of RD and FRD documents. (c) Review...
Paolla Magioni Santini
Full Text Available Abstract Studies have shown that corporal punishment against children is a common family practice, causing damage to child development. Considering that parents are the main perpetrators of this type of aggression, parenting programs are needed to raise children without violence. This study aimed at performing a systematic review of parenting programs evaluations to reduce corporal punishment. Intervention procedures, as well as design, results and limitations were identified for each study. The PRISMA protocol (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses was used for reporting the results. A literature survey was conducted in Brazilian databases, as well as English ones from 1994-2014. One Brazilian study and eight international studies were selected as relevant, and only four used randomized controlled trials (RCT. All studies reported satisfactory results in decreasing aggression by parents against their children. Further research in the area with solid methodology is recommended.
O'Connor, A M; Anderson, K M; Goodell, C K; Sargeant, J M
This article is the fourth of six articles addressing systematic reviews in animal agriculture and veterinary medicine. Previous articles in the series have introduced systematic reviews, discussed study designs and hierarchies of evidence, and provided details on conducting randomized controlled trials, a common design for use in systematic reviews. This article describes development of a review protocol and the first two steps in a systematic review: formulating a review question, and searching the literature for relevant research. The emphasis is on systematic reviews of questions related to interventions. The review protocol is developed prior to conducting the review and specifies the plan for the conduct of the review, identifies the roles and responsibilities of the review team and provides structured definitions related to the review question. For intervention questions, the review question should be defined by the PICO components: population, intervention, comparison and outcome(s). The literature search is designed to identify all potentially relevant original research that may address the question. Search terms related to some or all of the PICO components are entered into literature databases, and searches for unpublished literature also are conducted. All steps of the literature search are documented to provide transparent reporting of the process. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Lankhaar, Jeannette A. C.; de Vries, Wouter R.; Jansen, Jaap A. C. G.; Zelissen, Pierre M. J.; Backx, Frank J. G.
Purpose: This systematic review describes the state of the art of the impact of hypothyroidism on exercise tolerance and physical performance capacity in untreated and treated patients with hypothyroidism. Method: A systematic computer-aided search was conducted using biomedical databases. Relevant studies in English, German, and Dutch, published…
Martín-Valero, Rocío; De La Casa Almeida, Maria; Casuso-Holgado, Maria Jesus; Heredia-Madrazo, Alfonso
This systematic review examines levels of evidence and recommendation grades of various therapeutic interventions of inspiratory muscle training in people who have had a stroke. Benefits from different levels of force and resistance in respiratory muscles are shown in this population. This review was conducted following the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) directives and was completed in November 2014. The search limits were studies published in English between 2004 and 2014. Relevant studies were searched for in MEDLINE, PEDro, OAIster, Scopus, PsycINFO, Web of Knowledge, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, DOAJ, Cochrane, Embase, Academic Search Complete, Fuente Académica, and MedicLatina. Initially, 20 articles were identified. After analyzing all primary documents, 14 studies were excluded. Only 6 studies were relevant to this review. Three different types of interventions were found (maximum inspiratory training, controlled training, and nonintervention) in 3 different groups. One specific study compared 3 inspiratory muscle training groups with a group of breathing exercises (diaphragmatic exercises with pursed lips) and a control group. Future long-term studies with larger sample sizes are needed. It is necessary to apply respiratory muscle training as a service of the national health system and to consider its inclusion in the conventional neurological program.
Chiesa, Alberto; Fazia, Teresa; Bernardinelli, Luisa; Morandi, Gabriella
We performed a citation analysis of the literature about mindfulness aimed at describing the most significant topics and the impact of more relevant papers. We classified 128 systematic reviews about mindfulness-based intervention retrieved in Scopus according to their object, the population included and the type of mindfulness proposed. The citation counting was reported. The cumulative citation numbers per chronological years and article life were analyzed thorough a linear regression model. 1) We observed a general increase in the number of reviews published from 2003 to 2016; 2) two reviews collected the 33% of the overall citations; 3) citation counting for clinical and mixed population collected the 90% of total citations; 4) clinical reviews had higher cumulative citation per publication/year growth. As mindfulness research advances, higher attention should be given to the mechanisms by which mindfulness interventions work so as to provide fruitful insights for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Peacock, Shelley; Forbes, Dorothy
Systematic reviews are an objective, rigorous assessment of both published and unpublished research that enable the reviewer to make recommendations to clinicians, policy-makers, consumers, and researchers. The steps in a systematic review include: (a) developing a research question, (b) developing relevance and validity tools, (c) conducting a thorough literature search of published and unpublished studies, (d) using relevance and validity tools to assess the studies, (e) completing data extraction for each study, (f) synthesizing the findings and, (g) writing the report. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the value of providing health science graduate students with the opportunity to learn about the conduct of a systematic review. An example of a thesis utilizing the method of a systematic review is presented.
Henchion, Maeve M; McCarthy, Mary; Resconi, Virginia C
Informed by quality theory, this systematic literature review seeks to determine the relative importance of beef quality attributes from a consumer perspective, considering search, experience and credence quality attributes. While little change is anticipated in consumer ranking of search and experience attributes in the future, movement is expected in terms of ranking within the credence category and also in terms of the ranking of credence attributes overall. This highlights an opportunity for quality assurance schemes (QAS) to become more consumer focused through including a wider range of credence attributes. To capitalise on this opportunity, the meat industry should actively anticipate new relevant credence attributes and researchers need to develop new or better methods to measure them. This review attempts to identify the most relevant quality attributes in beef that may be considered in future iterations of QAS, to increase consumer satisfaction and, potentially, to increase returns to industry.
Santucci, Neha R; Hyman, Paul E; Harmon, Carroll M; Schiavo, Julie H; Hussain, Sunny Z
Cholecystectomy rates for biliary dyskinesia in children are rising in the United States, but not in other countries. Biliary dyskinesia is a validated functional gallbladder disorder in adults, requiring biliary colic in the diagnosis. In contrast, most studies in children require upper abdominal pain, absent gallstones on ultrasound, and an abnormal gallbladder ejection fraction (GBEF) on cholecystokinin-stimulated cholescintigraphy for diagnosis. We aimed to systematically review existing literature in biliary dyskinesia in children, determine the validity and reliability of diagnostic criteria, GBEF, and to assess outcomes following cholecystectomy. We performed a systematic review following the PRISMA checklist and searched 7 databases including PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Ovid, MEDLINE, ProQuest, Web of Science, and the Cochrane library. Bibliographies of articles were screened for additional studies. Our search terms yielded 916 articles of which 28 were included. Three articles were manually added from searched references. We reviewed 31 peer-reviewed publications, all retrospective chart reviews. There was heterogeneity in diagnostic criteria and GBEF values. Outcomes after laparoscopic cholecystectomy varied from 34% to 100% success, and there was no consensus concerning factors influencing outcomes. The observational, retrospective study designs that comprised our review limited interpretation of safety and efficacy of the investigations and treatment in biliary dyskinesia in children. Symptoms of biliary dyskinesia overlapped with functional dyspepsia. There is a need for consensus on symptoms defining biliary dyskinesia, validation of testing required for diagnosis of biliary dyskinesia, and randomized controlled trials comparing medical versus surgical management in children with upper abdominal pain.
Cohen, A K; Rai, M; Rehkopf, D H; Abrams, B
Although previous systematic reviews considered the relationship between socioeconomic status and obesity, almost 200 peer-reviewed articles have been published since the last review on that topic, and this paper focuses specifically on education, which has different implications. The authors systematically review the peer-reviewed literature from around the world considering the association between educational attainment and obesity. Databases from public health and medicine, education, psychology, economics, and other social sciences were searched, and articles published in English, French, Portuguese and Spanish were included. This paper includes 289 articles that report on 410 populations in 91 countries. The relationship between educational attainment and obesity was modified by both gender and the country's economic development level: an inverse association was more common in studies of higher-income countries and a positive association was more common in lower-income countries, with stronger social patterning among women. Relatively few studies reported on lower-income countries, controlled for a comprehensive set of potential confounding variables and/or attempted to assess causality through the use of quasi-experimental designs. Future research should address these gaps to understand if the relationship between educational attainment and obesity may be causal, thus supporting education policy as a tool for obesity prevention. © 2013 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.
Edward, Karen-Leigh; Hercelinskyj, Gylo; Giandinoto, Jo-Ann
Emotional labour is the effort consumed by suppressing one's own emotions to care for others effectively while also caring for oneself. Mental health nurses are required to engage in effective therapeutic interactions in emotionally-intense situations. The aim of the present integrative systematic review was to investigate the emotional labour of mental health work and how this manifested, the impacts, and the ways to mitigate these impacts. In June 2016, using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses methodology, a systematic search of the bibliographic databases was undertaken to identify relevant literature. Screening, data extraction, and synthesis were performed by three reviewers. The inclusion criteria included any original research that investigated the emotional work of mental health nurses. We identified a total of 20 papers to be included in this review. Thematic synthesis of the findings revealed three emergent themes: emotional labour and caring, emotional exhaustion, and self-protection (expressed as emotional intelligence). Emotional labour, emotional exhaustion, and emotional intelligence were considered to be intrinsically linked, where they were both the influencing factor for burnout and a contributor to attrition. The results highlighted that emotional labour could inspire the development and personal growth of emotional intelligence in mental health nurses. In light of these findings, recommendations for clinical practice were considered; they included supportive work environments, involving nurses in shared decision-making, and the provision of ongoing professional development opportunities that facilitate the development of emotional intelligence and resilience. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Dreier, Julie Werenberg; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele
was to systematically review evidence from epidemiologic studies on adverse health outcomes of the offspring in relation to exposure to maternal fever during pregnancy. METHODS: Systematic searches in PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were performed by using Medical Subject Headings, Boolean operators......, and truncation, and references of references were reviewed. Cohort and case-control studies addressing health outcomes of prenatal fever exposure in humans were eligible for inclusion. Studies with no direct reference to fever, studies in selected populations (eg, preterm births), and studies published before.......5- and nearly 3-fold increased risk with fever exposure in the first trimester. We did not find strong evidence of a dose-response relationship, but there was some evidence that antipyretic medications may have a protective effect when used in relation to febrile episodes. CONCLUSIONS: We found substantial...
Dieste Tubio, Oscar; Juristo Juzgado, Natalia; Martínez, Mauro Danilo
There is no specialized survey of experiments conducted in the software industry. Goal: Identify the major features of software industry experiments, such as time distribution, independent and dependent variables, subject types, design types and challenges. Method: Systematic literature review, taking the form of a scoping study. Results: We have identified 10 experiments and five quasi-experiments up to July 2012. Most were run as of 2003. The main features of these studies are that they tes...
Carmo,Julia Fabres do; Morelato,Renato Lirio; Pinto,Hudson Pereira; Oliveira,Elizabete Regina Araujo de
Introduction Stroke is the most common cause of disability in Western countries, yet there is no consensus in the literature on how to measure and describe disability from stroke. Objective To conduct a systematic literature review on disability in stroke survivors. Method Observational studies published in the PubMed, LILACS and SciELO online databases were selected, to evaluate disability in adults and in the elderly after stroke in the period 2002–2012. The Downs and Black check...
The purpose of this study, based on a systematic literature review, was to describe the prevalence of physical activity (or inactivity) in the Brazilian population. The databases consulted were: LILACS, SciELO, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and the Google Scholar portal. The terms "physical activity", "physical exercise", "physical inactivity", "sedentary" "Brazil", and "Brazilian" were used in the search. Overall, 47 studies (all cross-sectional) with random samples were found, and in 26 studies ...
Sara Mota Borges Bottino; Cássio M. C. Bottino; Caroline Gomez Regina; Aline Villa Lobo Correia; Wagner Silva Ribeiro
Cyberbullying is a new form of violence that is expressed through electronic media and has given rise to concern for parents, educators and researchers. In this paper, an association between cyberbullying and adolescent mental health will be assessed through a systematic review of two databases: PubMed and Virtual Health Library (BVS). The prevalence of cyberbullying ranged from 6.5% to 35.4%. Previous or current experiences of traditional bullying were associated with victims and perpetrator...
Guo, Taipin; Chen, Xiao; Wu, Xiangnong; Shan, Exian; Jin, Yaju; Tai, Xiantao; Liu, Zili; Zhu, Bowen; Yuan, Kai; Chen, Zukun
Background Osteoporosis is a global high prevalence of chronic metabolic disease with serious disability-adjusted life years losing. Acupuncture is used to treat osteoporosis broadly in China and other countries although the evidence on effectiveness cannot give a certain answer. The aim of this systematic review protocol is to appraise the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for osteoporosis. Methods A literature search of randomized controlled trials focusing on acupuncture for osteoporosis ...
de Oliveira, Glória Maria; Camargo, Fábio Trinca; Gonçalves, Eduardo Costa; Duarte, Carlos Vinicius Nascimento; Guimarães, Carlos Alberto
The aim of this study is to perform a narrative review of systematic reviews of diagnostic tests accuracy. We undertook a search using The Cochrane Methodology Reviews (Cochrane Reviews of Diagnostic Test Accuracy), Medline and LILACS up to October 2009. Reference lists of included studies were also hand searched. The following search strategy was constructed by using a combination of subject headings and text words: 1. Cochrane Methodology Reviews: accuracy study "Methodology" 2. In Pubmed "Meta-Analysis" [Publication Type] AND "Evidence-Based Medicine" [Mesh]) AND "Sensitivity and Specificity" [Mesh] 3. LILACS (revisao sistematica) or "literatura de REVISAO como assunto" [Descritor de assunto] and (sistematica) or "SISTEMATICA" [Descritor de assunto] and (acuracia) or "SENSIBILIDADE e especificidade" [Descritor de assunto]. In summary, the methodological planning and preparation of systematic reviews of therapeutic interventions are prior to that used in systematic reviews of diagnostic tests accuracy. There are more sources of heterogeneity in design of diagnostic test studies, which impair the synthesis - meta-analysis - of the results. To work around this problem, there are currently uniform requirements for diagnostic test manuscripts submitted to leading biomedical journals.
Full Text Available End-stage kidney disease (ESKD patients are often prescribed multiple medications. Together with a demanding weekly schedule of dialysis sessions, increased number of medicines and associated regimen complexity pre-dispose them at high risk of medication nonadherence. This review summarizes existing literature on nonadherence and identifies factors associated with nonadherence to medication therapy in patients undergoing haemodialysis.A comprehensive search of PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, PsycInfo, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews covering the period from 1970 through November 2014 was performed following a predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Reference lists from relevant materials were reviewed. Data on study characteristics, measures of nonadherence, prevalence rates and factors associated with nonadherence were collected. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA guidelines was followed in conducting this systematic review.Of 920 relevant publications, 44 were included. The prevalence of medication nonadherence varied from 12.5% to 98.6%, with widespread heterogeneity in measures and definitions employed. Most common patient-related factors significantly associated with nonadherence were younger age, non-Caucasian ethnicity, illness interfering family life, being a smoker, and living single and being divorced or widowed. Similarly, disease-related factors include longevity of haemodialysis, recurrent hospitalization, depressive symptoms and having concomitant illness like diabetes and hypertension. Medication-related factors such as daily tablet count, total pill burden, number of phosphate binders prescribed and complexity of medication regimen were also associated with poor adherence.A number of patient-, disease-, and medication-related factors are associated with medication nonadherence in haemodialysis patients. Clinicians should be aware of such factors so that adherence to medications
Teich, Sorin T; Lang, Lisa A; Demko, Catherine A
The Cochrane Oral Health Group (COHG) was formed in 1994 with the aim of producing systematic reviews that primarily include oral health randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to characterize reviews published by the COHG. In September 2013, the COHG database was accessed, and all publications were downloaded. Reviews with no studies identified according to the inclusion criteria were labeled "empty reviews." The complete Cochrane database included a total of 5,697 reviews, of which the COHG database included 142 reviews. Of these 142, 69 (48.6%) did not reach a conclusion, including 20 (14.1%) that were identified as empty reviews. Of the 122 non-empty reviews, 116 (95.1%) were based exclusively on RCTs. The median number of RCTs and patients included in the non-empty reviews were seven and 489, respectively. The median number of included RCTs and patients for reviews that reached conclusions were 12 and 934, respectively, and there were five RCTs and 211 patients for reviews without conclusions. Overall, the characteristics of the Cochrane oral health reviews (OH-CSRs) were similar to Cochrane reviews published in other disciplines (All-CSRs). The authors observed a significant difference in the median number of RCTs and patients included when reviews that reached conclusions were separated from those that did not. A greater proportion of empty reviews were present in OH-CSRs compared with All-CSRs. Turning the Cochrane reviews into a tool that is more relevant in clinical practice will require implementation of a methodology allowing inclusion of non-RCTs while controlling for possible bias.
Zegers, Marieke; Hesselink, Gijs; Geense, Wytske; Vincent, Charles; Wollersheim, Hub
Objective To provide an overview of effective interventions aimed at reducing rates of adverse events in hospitals. Design Systematic review of systematic reviews. Data sources PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library and EMBASE were searched for systematic reviews published until October 2015. Study selection English-language systematic reviews of interventions aimed at reducing adverse events in hospitals, including studies with an experimental design and reporting adverse event rates, were included. Two reviewers independently assessed each study's quality and extracted data on the study population, study design, intervention characteristics and adverse patient outcomes. Results Sixty systematic reviews with moderate to high quality were included. Statistically significant pooled effect sizes were found for 14 types of interventions, including: (1) multicomponent interventions to prevent delirium; (2) rapid response teams to reduce cardiopulmonary arrest and mortality rates; (3) pharmacist interventions to reduce adverse drug events; (4) exercises and multicomponent interventions to prevent falls; and (5) care bundle interventions, checklists and reminders to reduce infections. Most (82%) of the significant effect sizes were based on 5 or fewer primary studies with an experimental study design. Conclusions The evidence for patient-safety interventions implemented in hospitals worldwide is weak. The findings address the need to invest in high-quality research standards in order to identify interventions that have a real impact on patient safety. Interventions to prevent delirium, cardiopulmonary arrest and mortality, adverse drug events, infections and falls are most effective and should therefore be prioritised by clinicians. PMID:27687901
Full Text Available Introduction. A burgeoning number of systematic reviews considering lurasidone in the treatment of bipolar depression have occurred since its Food and Drug Administration extended approval in 2013. While a paucity of available quantitative evidence still precludes preliminary meta-analysis on the matter, the present quality assessment of systematic review of systematic reviews, nonetheless, aims at highlighting current essential information on the topic. Methods. Both published and unpublished systematic reviews about lurasidone mono- or adjunctive therapy in the treatment of bipolar depression were searched by two independent authors inquiring PubMed/Cochrane/Embase/Scopus from inception until October 2016. Results. Twelve included systematic reviews were of moderate-to-high quality and consistent in covering the handful of RCTs available to date, suggesting the promising efficacy, safety, and tolerability profile of lurasidone. Concordance on the drug profile seems to be corroborated by a steadily increasing number of convergent qualitative reports on the matter. Limitations. Publication, sponsorship, language, citation, and measurement biases. Conclusions. Despite being preliminary in nature, this overview stipulates the effectiveness of lurasidone in the acute treatment of Type I bipolar depression overall. As outlined by most of the reviewed evidence, recommendations for future research should include further controlled trials of extended duration.
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... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Systematic review guidelines. 2008.13... REPRESENTATIVE Declassification and Downgrading § 2008.13 Systematic review guidelines. Within 180 days after the..., issue and maintain guidelines for systematic review of classified information originated by the...
Pereira Da Silva, Tiago; Justo Da Silva, Lincoln
For many years, appropriate relevance has not been given for pain in newborn infants, but research brought to light this important subject in neonatal medicine. Pain scores have been organized in scales and validated to be used in clinical practice. Currently, there are several scales based on different pain indicators. These scales should be used according to different circumstances. With the purpose of helping health professionals, a systematic review of neonatal pain scales based on gestational age, duration of painful episode and type of pain indicator was carried out. Data concerning validation of the scales were also analyzed and two scales for use in clinical practice or in research are suggested.
Hundreds of studies of maternity care interventions have been published, too many for most people involved in providing maternity care to identify and consider when making decisions. It became apparent that systematic reviews of individual studies were required to appraise, summarise and bring together existing studies in a single place. However, decision makers are increasingly faced by a plethora of such reviews and these are likely to be of variable quality and scope, with more than one review of important topics. Systematic reviews (or overviews) of reviews are a logical and appropriate next step, allowing the findings of separate reviews to be compared and contrasted, providing clinical decision makers with the evidence they need.
Lee, Joseph G L; Ylioja, Thomas; Lackey, Mellanye
Research on the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations can provide important information to address existing health inequalities. Finding existing research in LGBT health can prove challenging due to the plethora of terminology used. We sought to describe existing search strategies and to identify more comprehensive LGBT search terminology. We iteratively created a search string to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses about LGBT health and implemented it in Embase, PubMed/MEDLINE, and PsycINFO databases on May 28-29, 2015. We hand-searched the journal LGBT Health. Inclusion criteria were: systematic reviews and meta-analyses that addressed LGBT health, used systematic searching, and used independent coders for inclusion. The published search terminology in each record and search strings provided by authors on request were cross-referenced with our original search to identify additional terminology. Our search process identified 19 systematic reviews meeting inclusion criteria. The number of search terms used to identify LGBT-related records ranged from 1 to 31. From the included studies, we identified 46 new search terms related to LGBT health. We removed five search terms as inappropriate and added five search terms used in the field. The resulting search string included 82 terms. There is room to improve the quality of searching and reporting in LGBT health systematic reviews. Future work should attempt to enhance the positive predictive value of LGBT health searches. Our findings can assist LGBT health reviewers in capturing the diversity of LGBT terminology when searching.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews (SRs have become increasingly popular to a wide range of stakeholders. We set out to capture a representative cross-sectional sample of published SRs and examine them in terms of a broad range of epidemiological, descriptive, and reporting characteristics, including emerging aspects not previously examined. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We searched Medline for SRs indexed during November 2004 and written in English. Citations were screened and those meeting our inclusion criteria were retained. Data were collected using a 51-item data collection form designed to assess the epidemiological and reporting details and the bias-related aspects of the reviews. The data were analyzed descriptively. In total 300 SRs were identified, suggesting a current annual publication rate of about 2,500, involving more than 33,700 separate studies including one-third of a million participants. The majority (272 [90.7%] of SRs were reported in specialty journals. Most reviews (213 [71.0%] were categorized as therapeutic, and included a median of 16 studies involving 1,112 participants. Funding sources were not reported in more than one-third (122 [40.7%] of the reviews. Reviews typically searched a median of three electronic databases and two other sources, although only about two-thirds (208 [69.3%] of them reported the years searched. Most (197/295 [66.8%] reviews reported information about quality assessment, while few (68/294 [23.1%] reported assessing for publication bias. A little over half (161/300 [53.7%] of the SRs reported combining their results statistically, of which most (147/161 [91.3%] assessed for consistency across studies. Few (53 [17.7%] SRs reported being updates of previously completed reviews. No review had a registration number. Only half (150 [50.0%] of the reviews used the term "systematic review" or "meta-analysis" in the title or abstract. There were large differences between Cochrane reviews and non
Jasmine B. MacDonald
Full Text Available The present study aims to provide a concise, comprehensive, and systematic review of the quantitative literature relating to the experience of burnout in journalists of various specialties and mediums. The systematic review method adopted is that prescribed by Fink (2010, which contains three main elements: Sampling the literature, screening the literature, and extracting data. Results indicate that journalists most at risk of burnout are females who are younger, with fewer years of journalism experience, working in small circulation newspapers. Editors and reporters seem to experience higher levels of burnout than those in other roles, as do journalists in non-management positions. The thorough and structured process adopted in this review provides the ability to assert with some degree of certainty what areas within the burnout and journalism literature require further consideration. This review emphasises and problematises the large focus on male reporters in newspaper settings, settings that are becoming less significant over time. Studies have tended to focus on reporters, without providing a convincing a priori rationale. What is lacking is consideration of other role groups central to broadcast news, such as camera-operators. A range of methodological and theoretical issues and future areas of research are discussed.
Full Text Available Floods are the most common type of global natural disaster. Floods have a negative impact on mental health. Comprehensive evaluation and review of the literature are lacking.To systematically map and review available scientific evidence on mental health impacts of floods caused by extended periods of heavy rain in river catchments.We performed a systematic mapping review of published scientific literature in five languages for mixed studies on floods and mental health. PUBMED and Web of Science were searched to identify all relevant articles from 1994 to May 2014 (no restrictions.The electronic search strategy identified 1331 potentially relevant papers. Finally, 83 papers met the inclusion criteria. Four broad areas are identified: i the main mental health disorders-post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and anxiety; ii] the factors associated with mental health among those affected by floods; iii the narratives associated with flooding, which focuses on the long-term impacts of flooding on mental health as a consequence of the secondary stressors; and iv the management actions identified. The quantitative and qualitative studies have consistent findings. However, very few studies have used mixed methods to quantify the size of the mental health burden as well as exploration of in-depth narratives. Methodological limitations include control of potential confounders and short-term follow up.Floods following extreme events were excluded from our review.Although the level of exposure to floods has been systematically associated with mental health problems, the paucity of longitudinal studies and lack of confounding controls precludes strong conclusions.We recommend that future research in this area include mixed-method studies that are purposefully designed, using more rigorous methods. Studies should also focus on vulnerable groups and include analyses of policy and practical responses.
Fernandez, Ana; Black, John; Jones, Mairwen; Wilson, Leigh; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Astell-Burt, Thomas; Black, Deborah
Background Floods are the most common type of global natural disaster. Floods have a negative impact on mental health. Comprehensive evaluation and review of the literature are lacking. Objective To systematically map and review available scientific evidence on mental health impacts of floods caused by extended periods of heavy rain in river catchments. Methods We performed a systematic mapping review of published scientific literature in five languages for mixed studies on floods and mental health. PUBMED and Web of Science were searched to identify all relevant articles from 1994 to May 2014 (no restrictions). Results The electronic search strategy identified 1331 potentially relevant papers. Finally, 83 papers met the inclusion criteria. Four broad areas are identified: i) the main mental health disorders—post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and anxiety; ii] the factors associated with mental health among those affected by floods; iii) the narratives associated with flooding, which focuses on the long-term impacts of flooding on mental health as a consequence of the secondary stressors; and iv) the management actions identified. The quantitative and qualitative studies have consistent findings. However, very few studies have used mixed methods to quantify the size of the mental health burden as well as exploration of in-depth narratives. Methodological limitations include control of potential confounders and short-term follow up. Limitations Floods following extreme events were excluded from our review. Conclusions Although the level of exposure to floods has been systematically associated with mental health problems, the paucity of longitudinal studies and lack of confounding controls precludes strong conclusions. Implications We recommend that future research in this area include mixed-method studies that are purposefully designed, using more rigorous methods. Studies should also focus on vulnerable groups and include analyses of policy and practical
Kanewala, Upulee; Bieman, James M
Scientific software plays an important role in critical decision making, for example making weather predictions based on climate models, and computation of evidence for research publications. Recently, scientists have had to retract publications due to errors caused by software faults. Systematic testing can identify such faults in code. This study aims to identify specific challenges, proposed solutions, and unsolved problems faced when testing scientific software. We conducted a systematic literature survey to identify and analyze relevant literature. We identified 62 studies that provided relevant information about testing scientific software. We found that challenges faced when testing scientific software fall into two main categories: (1) testing challenges that occur due to characteristics of scientific software such as oracle problems and (2) testing challenges that occur due to cultural differences between scientists and the software engineering community such as viewing the code and the model that it implements as inseparable entities. In addition, we identified methods to potentially overcome these challenges and their limitations. Finally we describe unsolved challenges and how software engineering researchers and practitioners can help to overcome them. Scientific software presents special challenges for testing. Specifically, cultural differences between scientist developers and software engineers, along with the characteristics of the scientific software make testing more difficult. Existing techniques such as code clone detection can help to improve the testing process. Software engineers should consider special challenges posed by scientific software such as oracle problems when developing testing techniques.
Spineli, Loukia M.; Pandis, Nikolaos; Salanti, Georgia
Objectives: The purpose of the study was to provide empirical evidence about the reporting of methodology to address missing outcome data and the acknowledgement of their impact in Cochrane systematic reviews in the mental health field. Methods: Systematic reviews published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews after January 1, 2009 by…
Spineli, Loukia M.; Pandis, Nikolaos; Salanti, Georgia
Objectives: The purpose of the study was to provide empirical evidence about the reporting of methodology to address missing outcome data and the acknowledgement of their impact in Cochrane systematic reviews in the mental health field. Methods: Systematic reviews published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews after January 1, 2009 by…
Dzulkarnain, Ahmad Aidil Arafat; Wan Mhd Pandi, Wan Mahirah; Rahmat, Sarah; Zakaria, Nur 'Azzah
To systematically review the relevant peer-review literature investigating the outcome of simulated learning environment (SLE) training in audiology education. A systematic review research design. Fifteen databases were searched with four studies meeting the inclusion criteria. Three of the four studies revealed positive findings for the use of an SLE (that is, the SLE group showed a higher post-training score compared to the traditional training group or a significantly higher post-training score than the non-training groups). One study revealed negative findings where the traditional training group showed a significantly higher post-training score than the SLE group. In addition, both the studies comparing post- and pre-training scores reported significantly higher post-training scores than the pre-training scores of the participants that underwent SLE training. Overall, this review supports the notions that SLE training is an effective learning tool and can be used for basic clinical training. This conclusion should be treated with caution, considering the limited numbers of studies published in this area and future research should be conducted to cope with the gaps highlighted in this review.
Steele, Catriona M; Cichero, Julie A Y
Penetration-aspiration is considered the most serious component of oropharyngeal dysphagia. Clinicians regularly evaluate the pathophysiology of swallowing and postulate reasons or mechanisms behind penetration-aspiration. In this article we share the results of a two-stage literature review designed to elucidate the association between abnormalities in physiological measures of swallowing function and the occurrence of penetration-aspiration. In the first stage, a broad scoping review was undertaken using search terms for nine different structures involved in oropharyngeal swallowing. In the second stage, based on the results of the initial search, a more focused systematic review was undertaken which explored the association between aspiration and abnormalities in respiratory, tongue, hyoid, and laryngeal function in swallowing. A total of 37 articles underwent detailed quality review and data extraction in the systematic review. The results support measurement of tongue strength, anatomically normalized measures of hyoid movement, bolus dwell time in the pharynx while the larynx remains open, respiratory rate, and respiratory swallow phasing as parameters relevant to aspiration risk.
Khanna, Puja P; Gladue, Heather S; Singh, Manjit K; FitzGerald, John D; Bae, Sangmee; Prakash, Shraddha; Kaldas, Marian; Gogia, Maneesh; Berrocal, Veronica; Townsend, Whitney; Terkeltaub, Robert; Khanna, Dinesh
Acute gout is traditionally treated with NSAIDs, corticosteroids, and colchicine; however, subjects have multiple comorbidities that limit the use of some conventional therapies. We systematically reviewed the published data on the pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic agents used for the treatment of acute gouty arthritis. A systematic search was performed using PubMed and Cochrane database through May 2013. We included only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that included NSAIDs, corticosteroids, colchicine, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), interleukin-1 (IL-1) inhibitors, topical ice, or herbal supplements. Thirty articles were selected for systematic review. The results show that NSAIDs and COX-2 inhibitors are effective agents for the treatment of acute gout attacks. Systemic corticosteroids have similar efficacy to therapeutic doses of NSAIDs, with studies supporting oral and intramuscular use. ACTH is suggested to be efficacious in acute gout. Oral colchicine demonstrated to be effective, with low-dose colchicine demonstrating a comparable tolerability profile as placebo and a significantly lower side effect profile to high-dose colchicine. The IL-1β inhibitory antibody, canakinumab, was effective for the treatment of acute attacks in subjects refractory to and in those with contraindications to NSAIDs and/or colchicine. However, rilonacept was demonstrated to be not as effective, and there are no RCTs for the use of anakinra. NSAIDs, COX-2 selective inhibitors, corticosteroids, colchicine, ACTH, and canakinumab have evidence to suggest efficacy in treatment of acute gout. Published by Elsevier Inc.
McFadden, Paula; Taylor, Brian J.; Campbell, Anne; McQuilkin, Janice
Context: The development of a consolidated knowledge base for social work requires rigorous approaches to identifying relevant research. Method: The quality of 10 databases and a web search engine were appraised by systematically searching for research articles on resilience and burnout in child protection social workers. Results: Applied Social…
McFadden, Paula; Taylor, Brian J.; Campbell, Anne; McQuilkin, Janice
Context: The development of a consolidated knowledge base for social work requires rigorous approaches to identifying relevant research. Method: The quality of 10 databases and a web search engine were appraised by systematically searching for research articles on resilience and burnout in child protection social workers. Results: Applied Social…
Full Text Available Objective ‐ Within the health care field it becomes ever more critical to conduct systematic reviews of the research literature to guide programmatic activities, policy‐making decisions, and future research. Conducting systematic reviews requires a comprehensive search of behavioural, social, and policy research to identify relevant literature. As a result, the validity of the systematic review findings and recommendations is partly a function of the quality of the systematic search of the literature. Therefore, a carefully thought out and organized plan for developing and testing a comprehensive search strategy should be followed. This paper uses the HIV/AIDS prevention literature to provide a framework for developing, testing, and conducting a comprehensive search strategy looking beyond RCTs.Methods ‐ Comprehensive search strategies, including automated and manual search techniques, were developed, tested, and implemented to locate published and unpublished citations in order to build a database of HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases (STD literature. The search incorporated various automated and manual search methods to decrease the chance of missing pertinent information. The automated search was implemented in MEDLINE, EMBASE,PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts and AIDSLINE. These searches utilized both index terms as well as keywords including truncation, proximity, and phrases. The manual search method includes physically examining journals (hand searching, reference list checks, and researching key authors.Results ‐ Using automated and manual search components, the search strategy retrieved 17,493 articles about prevention of HIV/AIDS and STDs for the years 1988‐2005. The automated search found 91%, and the manual search contributed 9% of the articles reporting on HIV/AIDS or STD interventions with behavioural/biologic outcomes. Among the citations located with automated searches, 48% were found in only one database (20
Lang, Niklaus P.; Suvan, Jean E; Tonetti, Maurizio S
OBJECTIVES (i) To identify characteristics of currently published patient-based tools used to assess levels of risk for periodontitis progression and (ii) systematically review the evidence documenting the use of patient-based risk assessment tools for predicting periodontitis progression. MATERIAL AND METHODS A systematic review was prepared on the basis of an electronic search of the literature supplemented with manually searching the relevant journals of the latest 5 years. Prospective ...
Kapoor, Daljit; Nirola, Ashutosh; Kapoor, Vinod; Gambhir, Ramandeep Singh
Objectives: Proper handling, treatment and disposal of biomedical wastes are important elements in any health care setting. Not much attention has been paid to the management of Biomedical Waste (BMW) in recent years, in dental colleges and hospitals in India. The present systematic review was conducted to assess knowledge and awareness regarding BMW management among staff and students of dental teaching institutions in India. Material and Methods: A systematic review of relevant cross-sectio...
Somogyi, Balvinder K; Barker, Melanie; MacLean, Calvin; Grischkan, Pamela
Over the last century, Inuit have experienced rapid social changes that have greatly impacted their way of life, health, and intergenerational traditions. Although there is a growing body of research concerning Inuit youth, relatively little is known about elderly Inuit. In an effort to bridge this knowledge gap, a systematic review of peer-reviewed journal articles was conducted. This review identified a dearth of research on older Inuit, and highlighted limitations in service provision to this primarily rural and isolated population. Implications for policy and practice and recommendations for future research are also discussed.
van der Zande, ISE; Verhave, R; Browne, JL; van Delden, Johannes
This empirical chapter provides a systematic review of literature relevant to the inclusion of pregnant women in clinical trials. In particular, it addresses barriers to fair inclusion identified within the literature. The 31 articles reviewed discuss the exclusion of pregnant women from clinical tr
DeJong, Hannah; Bunton, Penny; Hare, Dougal J.
A systematic review was conducted to examine the efficacy of a range of treatments for autistic catatonia. The review identified 22 relevant papers, reporting a total of 28 cases including both adult and paediatric patients. Treatment methods included electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), medication, behavioural and sensory interventions. Quality…
Dasteh Goli N.*BSc
Full Text Available Abstract Aims: Intellectual disability is a condition characterised by the inability of a person to undertake normal psychological activities. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the intellectual disability in children and discuss the implications of different environmental and genetic factors, which describe particular categories of intellectual disable cases. Information & Methods: This systematic review was performed in 2014 by searching the existing literature in PubMed database in the scope of “intellectual disability in children”. 38 articles written from 1987 to 2014 were selected and surveyed for review. Findings: The prevalence of ID in the general population is estimated to be approximately 1%. ID disorder is multi-causal, encompassing all factors that interfere with brain development and functioning. Causes usually are classified according to the time of the insult, as prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal or acquired. Some causes, such as environmental toxins or endocrine disorders, may act at multiple times. Others, such as genetic disorders, have different manifestations during postnatal development. The outcome for ID is variable and depends upon the aetiology, associated conditions, and environmental and social factors. The goals of management of ID are to strengthen areas of reduced function, minimize extensive deterioration in mental cognitive and adaptability, and lastly, to promote optimum or normal functioning of the individuals in their community. Conclusion: Prominent features of ID include significant failures in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviour, which comprises daily social and practical life skills, commencing earlier in life.
Shiroma, M E; Botelho, N M; Damous, L L; Baracat, E C; Soares-Jr, J M
Melatonin is an indolamine produced by the pineal gland and it can exert a potent antioxidant effect. Its free radical scavenger properties have been used to advantage in different organ transplants in animal experiments. Several concentrations and administration pathways have been tested and melatonin has shown encouraging beneficial results in many transplants of organs such as the liver, lungs, heart, pancreas, and kidneys. The objective of the present study was to review the scientific literature regarding the use of melatonin in ovary transplantation. A systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement was carried out using the Cochrane and Pubmed databases and employing the terms 'melatonin' AND 'ovary' AND 'transplantation.' After analysis, 5 articles were extracted addressing melatonin use in ovary transplants and involving 503 animals. Melatonin enhanced various graft aspects like morphology, apoptosis, immunological reaction, revascularization, oxidative stress, and survival rate. Melatonin's antioxidative and antiapoptotic properties seemingly produce positive effects on ovarian graft activity. Despite the promising results, further studies in humans need to be conducted to consolidate its use, as ovary transplantation for fertility preservation is gradually being moved from the experimental stage to a clinical setting.
Mousnad, Mohamed Awad; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham
To systematically identify the main factors contributing to the increase in pharmaceutical expenditures. A systematic search of published studies was conducted utilising major widely used electronic databases using the search terms 'factors,' 'financing,' 'pharmaceutical,' and 'expenditures.' To be included, the studies needed to: (1) measure at least one of the following outcomes: total growth in pharmaceutical expenditures, price growth or quantity growth; (2) mention a clear method for analysing the impact of factors affecting the increases in drug expenditures; (3) be written in English. Nonprimary articles that were published only as an abstract, a review, a commentary or a letter were excluded. From a total of 2039 studies, only 25 were included in the full review. The main determinant categories that were identified in the review were factors related to price, utilisation, therapeutic choice, demand and health care system. The major cost drivers were found to be changes in drug quantities and therapies as well as new drugs. It is important for policymakers to understand pharmaceutical spending trends and the factors that influence them in order to formulate effective cost containment strategies and design optimum drug policy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is widely applied in the clinical practice of neck pain owing to cervical radiculopathy (CR. While many systematic reviews exist in CAM to improve CR, research is distributed across population, intervention, comparison, and setting. Objective. This overview aims to summarize the characteristics and evaluate critically the evidence from systematic reviews. Methods. A comprehensive literature search was performed in the six databases without language restrictions on February 24, 2015. We had identified relevant systematic reviews that examined the subjects with neck pain due to cervical radiculopathy undergoing CAM. Two authors independently appraised the methodological quality using the revised assessment of multiple systematic reviews instrument. Results. We had included eight systematic reviews. The effectiveness and safety of acupotomy, acupuncture, Jingfukang granule, manual therapies, and cervical spine manipulation were investigated. Based on available evidence, the systematic reviews supported various forms of CAM for CR. Nevertheless, the methodological quality for most of systematic reviews was low or moderate. In addition, adverse reactions of primary studies were infrequent. Conclusions. Current systematic reviews showed potential advantages to CAM for CR. Due to the frequently poor methodological quality of primary studies, the conclusions should be treated with caution for clinical practice.
Valerie J.M. Watzlaf
Full Text Available Healthcare professionals engaged in telehealth are faced with complex US federal regulations (e.g., HIPAA/HITECH and could benefit from the guidance provided by best practices in Privacy and Security (P&S. This article describes a systematic review protocol to address this need. The protocol described herein uses the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P. The PRISMA-P contains 17 items that are considered essential, as well as minimum components to include in systematic reviews. PICOS (participants, interventions, comparisons, outcome(s and study design of the systematic review are also relevant to the development of best practices in P&S in telehealth systems. A systematic process can best determine what information should be included and how this information should be retrieved, condensed, analyzed, organized, and disseminated.
Sambunjak, Dario; Straus, Sharon E; Marusić, Ana
Mentoring, as a partnership in personal and professional growth and development, is central to academic medicine, but it is challenged by increased clinical, administrative, research, and other educational demands on medical faculty. Therefore, evidence for the value of mentoring needs to be evaluated. To systematically review the evidence about the prevalence of mentorship and its relationship to career development. MEDLINE, Current Contents, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases from the earliest available date to May 2006. We identified all studies evaluating the effect of mentoring on career choices and academic advancement among medical students and physicians. Minimum inclusion criteria were a description of the study population and availability of extractable data. No restrictions were placed on study methods or language. The literature search identified 3640 citations. Review of abstracts led to retrieval of 142 full-text articles for assessment; 42 articles describing 39 studies were selected for review. Of these, 34 (87%) were cross-sectional self-report surveys with small sample size and response rates ranging from 5% to 99%. One case-control study nested in a survey used a comparison group that had not received mentoring, and 1 cohort study had a small sample size and a large loss to follow-up. Less than 50% of medical students and in some fields less than 20% of faculty members had a mentor. Women perceived that they had more difficulty finding mentors than their colleagues who are men. Mentorship was reported to have an important influence on personal development, career guidance, career choice, and research productivity, including publication and grant success. Mentoring is perceived as an important part of academic medicine, but the evidence to support this perception is not strong. Practical recommendations on mentoring in
Bjørn, Maya Xania; Perdawood, Sharaf Karim
of the dissection. We aimed to evaluate the literature on TaTME. METHODS: We performed a systematic search of the literature in the PubMed and Embase databases. Both authors assessed the studies. All publications on TaTME were included with the exception of review articles. RESULTS: A total of 29 studies (336...... the potential advantages seem to be related to a bulky mesorectum in the male pelvis. The preliminary results are encouraging and the most serious complication is urethral injury. The oncological results are acceptable, although the follow-up is short. CONCLUSION: TaTME is a feasible approach for mid and low...
Kimer, N; Krag, A; Møller, Søren;
BACKGROUND: Rifaximin is recommended for prevention of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). The effects of rifaximin on overt and minimal HE are debated. AIM: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on rifaximin for HE. METHODS: We performed electronic....... Overall, rifaximin had a beneficial effect on secondary prevention of HE (RR: 1.32; 95% CI 1.06-1.65), but not in a sensitivity analysis on rifaximin after TIPSS (RR: 1.27; 95% CI 1.00-1.53). Rifaximin increased the proportion of patients who recovered from HE (RR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.46-0.76) and reduced...
Wofford, Linda G
This systematic review identified the current state of the evidence related to the prevention of obesity in young children. The results indicate five areas of emphasis in the literature: prevalence of the problem; prevention as the best option; preschool population as the target; crucial parental involvement; and numerous guidelines. Because the gap between clear articulation of the problem as well as population and the best strategies to impact the prevention of the problem is evident, health care practitioners must be involved in well-constructed implementation and evaluation studies that build on the limited base of current evidence.
Issa, Isabela I.; Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; McAloone, Tim C.
structured approach to support EPIs selection is still lacking. This paper presents the efforts made in order to identify, classify and systematize the existing EPIs based on the systematic literature review. From the review, 261 EPIs were identified, classified, and then systematized in a digital database...
van Enst, W.A.
Evidence-Based Medicine is the integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values. Systematic reviews have become the cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, which is reflected in the position systematic reviews have in the pyramid of evidence-based medicine. Systematic
Rockers, Peter C; Feigl, Andrea B; Røttingen, John-Arne; Fretheim, Atle; de Ferranti, David; Lavis, John N; Melberg, Hans Olav; Bärnighausen, Till
At present, there exists no widely agreed upon set of study-design selection criteria for systematic reviews of health systems research, except for those proposed by the Cochrane Collaboration's Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) review group (which comprises randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, controlled before-after studies, and interrupted time series). We conducted a meta-review of the study-design selection criteria used in systematic reviews available in the McMaster University's Health Systems Evidence or the EPOC database. Of 414 systematic reviews, 13% did not indicate any study-design selection criteria. Of the 359 studies that described such criteria, 50% limited their synthesis to controlled trials and 68% to some or all of the designs defined by the EPOC criteria. Seven out of eight reviews identified at least one controlled trial that was relevant for the review topic. Seven percent of the reviews included either no or only one relevant primary study. Our meta-review reveals reviewers' preferences for restricting synthesis to controlled experiments or study designs that comply with the EPOC criteria. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the current practices regarding study-design selection in systematic reviews of health systems research as well as alternative approaches. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Appropriate screening may reduce the mortality and morbidity of colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers. However, effective implementation strategies are warranted if the full benefits of screening are to be realized. As part of a larger agenda to create an implementation guideline, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate interventions designed to increase the rate of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer (CRC screening. The interventions considered were: client reminders, client incentives, mass media, small media, group education, one-on-one education, reduction in structural barriers, reduction in out-of-pocket costs, provider assessment and feedback interventions, and provider incentives. Our primary outcome, screening completion, was calculated as the overall median post-intervention absolute percentage point (PP change in completed screening tests. Methods Our first step was to conduct an iterative scoping review in the research area. This yielded three relevant high-quality systematic reviews. Serving as our evidentiary foundation, we conducted a formal update. Randomized controlled trials and cluster randomized controlled trials, published between 2004 and 2010, were searched in MEDLINE, EMBASE and PSYCHinfo. Results The update yielded 66 studies new eligible studies with 74 comparisons. The new studies ranged considerably in quality. Client reminders, small media, and provider audit and feedback appear to be effective interventions to increase the uptake of screening for three cancers. One-on-one education and reduction of structural barriers also appears effective, but their roles with CRC and cervical screening, respectively, are less established. More study is required to assess client incentives, mass media, group education, reduction of out-of-pocket costs, and provider incentive interventions. Conclusion The new evidence generally aligns with the evidence and conclusions from the original systematic
Varatharajan, Lavanya; Thapar, Ankur; Lane, Tristan; Munster, Alex B; Davies, Alun Huw
The aim of this study was to systematically review the current evidence and determine whether there is a clinical benefit for using pharmacological agents as adjunctive treatment for chronic venous ulcers. A systematic review of the MEDLINE and EMBASE (from 1 January 1947 through 15 August 2013) and Cochrane databases (from inception through 15 August 2013) was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Inclusion criteria were all randomised controlled trials investigating pharmacological adjuncts for the treatment of venous ulcers with a minimum sample size of 20 patients for each treatment arm. Ten relevant articles were identified; one pilot randomised controlled trial and four Cochrane reviews were included. Pentoxifylline, aspirin, sulodexide, mesoglycan, flavonoids, thromboxane A2 antagonist (ifetroban), zinc, prostaglandin and prostacyclin analogues were the drugs reviewed. Pentoxifylline was found to be more effective than placebo in terms of complete ulcer healing or in causing a significant improvement (greater than 60% reduction in ulcer size) (RR 1.70, 95% CI 1.30 to 2.24). Aspirin and flavonoids show potential to be effective adjuncts but methodological shortcomings and issues with bias limit the validity of results from trials involving each of these drugs, respectively. There was no significant difference between placebo and Ifetroban and likewise pooled results from trials investigating sulodexide and zinc showed no benefit in comparison to placebo. Many systemic pharmacological agents have been investigated as adjuncts to venous ulcer healing; however, pentoxifylline (400 mg, three times a day) is currently the only drug that has promising evidence to support its use. Other compounds are in early stage research. © The Author(s) 2015.
Many mental health disorders emerge in late childhood and early adolescence and contribute to the burden of these disorders among young people and later in life. We systematically reviewed literature published up to December 2015 to identify systematic reviews on mental health interventions in adolescent population. A total of 38 systematic reviews were included. We classified the included reviews into the following categories for reporting the findings: school-based interventions (n = 12); c...
Sinnett, Philip Marcus; Carr, Branden; Cook, Gregory; Mucklerath, Halie; Varney, Laura; Weiher, Matt; Yerokhin, Vadim; Vassar, Matt
We examined the use of clinical trials registries in published systematic reviews and meta-analyses from clinical neurology. A review of publications between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2014 from five neuroscience journals (Annals of Neurology, Brain, Lancet Neurology, Neurology, and The Neuroscientist) was performed to identify eligible systematic reviews. The systematic reviews comprising the final sample were independently appraised to determine if clinical trials registries had been included as part of the search process. Studies acknowledging the use of a trials registry were further examined to determine whether trial data had been incorporated into the analysis. The initial search yielded 194 studies, of which 78 systematic reviews met the selection criteria. Of those, five acknowledged the use of a specific clinical trials registry: four reviewed unpublished trial data and two incorporated unpublished trial data into their results. Based on our sample of systematic reviews, there was no increase in the use of trials registries in systematic review searches over time. Few systematic reviews published in clinical neurology journals included data from relevant clinical trials registries.
Conde-Taboada, A; Aranegui, B; García-Doval, I; Dávila-Seijo, P; González-Castro, U
Systematic reviews -the most comprehensive type of literature review-should be taken into account before a clinical trial or a narrative review on a topic is undertaken. The objective of this study was to describe the use of systematic reviews in clinical trials and narrative reviews in dermatology. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. We selected randomized clinical trials and narrative reviews from the dermatological clinical research journals identified as most important (according to impact factor) and from Actas Dermosifiliográficas, and studied the bibliographies to ascertain whether the authors made reference to existing systematic reviews and Cochrane reviews. Of the 72 clinical trials for which a systematic review was available, 24 (33.3%) cited at least 1 review; reference was made to relevant Cochrane reviews in 15.6% of cases and to non-Cochrane reviews in 32%. In the case of the 24 narrative reviews for which a review was available, 10 (41.7%) cited at least 1 review; Cochrane reviews were cited in 20% and non-Cochrane reviews in 35.3%.In the case of Actas Dermosifiliográficas, very few clinical trials were found and the findings for narrative review articles were similar to those observed for the other journals. Systematic reviews are not often taken into account by the authors of clinical trials and narrative reviews and this may lead to redundant studies and publications. Authors appear to use Cochrane reviews even less than non-Cochrane reviews and are therefore ignoring one of the main sources of available evidence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.
Noronha, Alinea S; Markowitz, Lauri E; Dunne, Eileen F
Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is recommended in early adolescence, at an age when other vaccines are also recommended. Administration of multiple vaccines during one visit is an opportunity to improve uptake of adolescent vaccines. We conducted a systematic review of safety and immunogenicity of HPV vaccines coadministered with other vaccines. Our review included 9 studies, 4 of quadrivalent HPV vaccine and 5 of bivalent HPV vaccine; coadministered vaccines included: meningococcal conjugate, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, combined hepatitis A and B, tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis, and inactivated poliovirus vaccines. Studies varied in methods of data collection and measurement of immunogenicity and safety. Noninferiority of immune response and an acceptable safety profile were demonstrated when HPV vaccine was coadministered with other vaccines.
Figueiredo, Ricardo Rodrigues; de Azevedo, Andréia Aparecida; Penido, Norma de Oliveira
Tinnitus is considered a multi-factorial symptom. Arterial hypertension has been cited as a tinnitus etiological factor. To assess the scientific evidence on the associations between arterial hypertension and tinnitus. A systematic review was performed using PubMed, ISI Web, Lilacs and SciELO scientific databases. This review included articles published in Portuguese, Spanish, French and English correlating tinnitus with hypertension. Letters to editors and case reports were excluded. A total of 424 articles were identified, of which only 20 met the inclusion criteria. Studies that analyzed the incidence of hypertension in tinnitus patients tended to show an association, while those that evaluated the incidence of tinnitus in hypertensive patients did not. There is evidence of an association between tinnitus and hypertension, although a cause and effect relationship is uncertain. Changes in the cochlear microcirculation, resulting in hearing loss, may be an adjuvant factor in tinnitus pathophysiology.
Results: The original search yielded 239 articles, of which 52 articles described human cases. After following the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 32 studies describing 310 cases (151 females, 175 children of human poisoning with amitraz were included in this systematic review. The most commonly reported clinical features of amitraz poisoning were altered sensorium, miosis, hyperglycaemia, bradycardia, vomiting, respiratory failure, hypotension and hypothermia. Amitraz poisoning carried a good prognosis with only six reported deaths (case fatality rate, 1.9%. Nearly 20 and 11.9 per cent of the patients required mechanical ventilation and inotropic support, respectively. The role of decontamination methods, namely, gastric lavage and activated charcoal was unclear. Interpretation & conclusions: Our review shows that amitraz is an important agent for accidental or suicidal poisoning in both adults and children. It has a good prognosis with supportive management.
Silva, Alexandre Emidio Ribeiro; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Vargas-Ferreira, Fabiana; Peres, Marco Aurélio
Identifying, through a systematic literature review, evidence of a possible association between obesity and dental caries. A search of articles published between 2005 and January 2012 was performed in the Medline/PubMed, LILACS and Web of Science databases. The quality of scientific evidence of the selected articles was assessed by the items proposed for observational studies in the Downs & Black instrument. Initially, 537 references were found; after checking the titles and abstracts by two independent researchers, twenty-eight articles were selected for complete reading. Ten of them that assessed the primary and/or permanent dentition observed a positive association between obesity and dental caries and one study found an inverse association. According to the Downs & Black classification, thirteen articles with good scientific evidence were found. The present review did not find sufficient evidence regarding the association between obesity and dental caries, and it did not clarify the possible role of diet and other possible effect modifiers on this association.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The process of constructing a systematic review, a document that compiles the published evidence pertaining to a specified medical topic, is intensely time-consuming, often taking a team of researchers over a year, with the identification of relevant published research comprising a substantial portion of the effort. The standard paradigm for this information-seeking task is to use Boolean search; however, this leaves the user(s the requirement of examining every returned result. Further, our experience is that effective Boolean queries for this specific task are extremely difficult to formulate and typically require multiple iterations of refinement before being finalized. Methods We explore the effectiveness of using ranked retrieval as compared to Boolean querying for the purpose of constructing a systematic review. We conduct a series of experiments involving ranked retrieval, using queries defined methodologically, in an effort to understand the practicalities of incorporating ranked retrieval into the systematic search task. Results Our results show that ranked retrieval by itself is not viable for this search task requiring high recall. However, we describe a refinement of the standard Boolean search process and show that ranking within a Boolean result set can improve the overall search performance by providing early indication of the quality of the results, thereby speeding up the iterative query-refinement process. Conclusions Outcomes of experiments suggest that an interactive query-development process using a hybrid ranked and Boolean retrieval system has the potential for significant time-savings over the current search process in the systematic reviewing.
Purcell, Renee; McInnes, Susan; Halcomb, Elizabeth J
There has been growing interest regarding the impact of telemonitoring and its ability to reduce the increasing burden of chronic diseases, including chronic cardiovascular disease (CVD), on healthcare systems. A number of randomised trials have been undertaken internationally and synthesised into various systematic reviews to establish an evidence base for this model of care. This study sought to synthesise and critically evaluate this large body of evidence to inform clinicians, researchers and policy makers. A systematic review of systematic reviews investigating the impact of telemonitoring interventions in the primary care management of CVD was conducted. Reviews were included if they explored primary care based telemonitoring in either CVD, heart failure or hypertension, were reported in the English language and were published between 2000 and 2013. Data was extracted by one reviewer and checked by a second reviewer using a standardised form. Two assessors then rated the quality of each review using the Overview Quality Assessment Questionnaire (OQAQ). Of the 13 included reviews, four focused on telemonitoring interventions in hypertension or CVD management and the remaining 9 reviews investigated telemonitoring in HF management. Seven reviews scored a five or above on the OQAQ evidencing good quality reviews. Findings suggest that telemonitoring can contribute to significant reductions in blood pressure, decreased all-cause and HF related hospitalisations, reduced all-cause mortality and improved quality of life. Telemonitoring was also demonstrated to reduce health care costs and appears acceptable to patients. Telemonitoring has the potential to enhance primary care management of CVD by improving patient outcomes and reducing health costs. However, further research needs to explore the specific elements of telemonitoring interventions to determine the relative value of the various elements. Additionally, the ways in which telemonitoring care improves
Schädel-Höpfner, M; Diener, M K; Eisenschenk, A; Lögters, T; Windolf, J
Systematic reviews are fundamental decision-making tools for the assessment of the effectiveness of healthcare interventions and for determining future research fields. In the field of hand surgery, so far, there exists only a limited number of systematic reviews. According to the diversity and multitude of hand surgical topics, relevant fields for systematic reviews were identified by means of an expert ranking. A catalogue of 24 topics was extracted from publications of representative hand surgical journals. These topics were categorized and integrated into a questionnaire which was presented to 30 experts in the field of hand surgery. Every single topic had to be rated by marks from 1 (very relevant) to 5 (not relevant). Further topics could have been indicated. Averaging of the marks allowed to define a ranking and a prioritisation of the topics. 29 of 30 questionnaires were returned. The ranking showed scapholunate ligament injury, Kienboeck's disease and scaphoid nonunion to have the highest relevance, followed by 5 other topics dealing with wrist problems. The lowest relevance was attributed to neck fractures of the fifth metacarpal, ulnar collateral ligament injury of the thumb metacarpophalangeal joint and postoperative management following replantation. The results of the presented survey allow for a prioritisation of topics for systematic reviews in hand surgery. The ranking of the topics emphasises the particular relevance of injuries and diseases of the wrist. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Full Text Available Background & aim: Prenatal care is a key strategy for achieving public health goals, primary healthcare objectives, and the Millennium Development Goals. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors influencing the use of prenatal care services in order to design suitable interventions and promote the use of these services. Methods:In this systematic quantitative literature review, studies published in years 2010-2014 were evaluated. For this purpose, two international electronic databases, i.e., Scopus and PubMed, were explored to find English-language articles by using relevant keywords; moreover, the reference lists of the articles were hand-searched. We reviewed all cross-sectional and prospective studies, which focused on factors associated with the use of prenatal care services within the specified period of time. Results: In total, 17 relevant articles were included in our review. The results showed that late initiation and inadequate use of prenatal care services are independently associated with multiple variables, including demographic characteristics, socioeconomic factors, predisposing cultural and religious factors, social support, factors related to healthcare providers, women’s awareness and attitude, unintended pregnancy, high-risk medical or obstetric history, and health behaviors. Conclusion: Based on the literature review, proper use of prenatal care cannot be achieved merely by establishing healthcare centers. Utilization of maternal health services may be achieved and improved via developing socioeconomic factors and addressing patients' basic needs including education and financial independence.
Full Text Available The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of enteral nutrition in dementia. The prevalence of dementia is predicted to rise worldwide partly due to an aging population. People with dementia may experience both cognitive and physical complications that impact on their nutritional intake. Malnutrition and weight loss in dementia correlates with cognitive decline and the progress of the disease. An intervention for long term eating difficulties is the provision of enteral nutrition through a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy tube to improve both nutritional parameters and quality of life. Enteral nutrition in dementia has traditionally been discouraged, although further understanding of physical, nutritional and quality of life outcomes are required. The following electronic databases were searched: EBSCO Host, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar for publications from 1st January 2008 and up to and including 1st January 2014. Inclusion criteria included the following outcomes: mortality, aspiration pneumonia, pressure sores, nutritional parameters and quality of life. Each study included separate analysis for patients with a diagnosis of dementia and/or neurological disease. Retrospective and prospective observational studies were included. No differences in mortality were found for patients with dementia, without dementia or other neurological disorders. Risk factors for poor survival included decreased or decreasing serum albumin levels, increasing age or over 80 years and male gender. Evidence regarding pneumonia was limited, although did not impact on mortality. No studies explored pressure sores or quality of life.
Brooke, Joanne; Ojo, Omorogieva
The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of enteral nutrition in dementia. The prevalence of dementia is predicted to rise worldwide partly due to an aging population. People with dementia may experience both cognitive and physical complications that impact on their nutritional intake. Malnutrition and weight loss in dementia correlates with cognitive decline and the progress of the disease. An intervention for long term eating difficulties is the provision of enteral nutrition through a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy tube to improve both nutritional parameters and quality of life. Enteral nutrition in dementia has traditionally been discouraged, although further understanding of physical, nutritional and quality of life outcomes are required. The following electronic databases were searched: EBSCO Host, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar for publications from 1st January 2008 and up to and including 1st January 2014. Inclusion criteria included the following outcomes: mortality, aspiration pneumonia, pressure sores, nutritional parameters and quality of life. Each study included separate analysis for patients with a diagnosis of dementia and/or neurological disease. Retrospective and prospective observational studies were included. No differences in mortality were found for patients with dementia, without dementia or other neurological disorders. Risk factors for poor survival included decreased or decreasing serum albumin levels, increasing age or over 80 years and male gender. Evidence regarding pneumonia was limited, although did not impact on mortality. No studies explored pressure sores or quality of life.
Budnick, Karen; Campbell, Jennifer; Esau, Lauren; Lyons, Jessica; Rogers, Nikki; Haennel, R G
Current cardiac rehabilitation (CR) evidence was systematically evaluated to identify program components that may yield improvements in physiological and psychosocial outcomes in women. A search was conducted in the electronic databases: MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Scopus, Sport Discus and Cochrane Library. Search terms included women, heart disease, exercise therapy, and cardiac rehabilitation. A systematic elimination process was used with specific inclusion/exclusion criteria. Included articles were independently evaluated by four reviewers for level of evidence and internal validity. Specific recommendations were made based on trends in the literature and strength of supporting evidence. Thirty-seven articles were included with a combined sample of 3,807 subjects. Ten studies included an analysis of physiological effects of exercise. Aerobic, resistance, and combined exercise interventions all yield physiological benefits. CR yielded favourable health-related quality of life outcomes and women benefited from psychosocial support in both formal and informal environments. The following recommendations are based on the review: 1) For patients with good cardiac function, community/home-based programs are as effective as supervised programs (Level II, B); 2) resistance training should be included as an adjunct to aerobic training (Level I, A); 3) programs need to address the specific educational needs of women (Level I, A) and a stronger emphasis needs to be placed on social support (Level II, B).
Buekens, Pierre; Canfield, Caitlin; Padilla, Nicolas; Lara Lona, Elia; Lozano, Rafael
There is abundant literature on the birth outcomes of women of Mexican origin living in the United States, but in most cases it does not refer to data available in Mexico. We conducted a systematic review of available data regarding low birthweight (LBW) rates in Mexico. We searched official online Mexican administrative data bases and four literature databases: OVID (Global Health), EMBASE, PubMed, and Bireme. The following inclusion criteria were used: (1) study is in English, Spanish, or Portuguese; (2) study presents data regarding LBW or birthweight distribution in Mexico; (3) study defines LBW as either 7.9%). States at low altitudes (<50 m) had LBW rates lower than the median, with the exception of Yucatán state. The systematic literature review identified 22 hospital-based studies and three household interview surveys that met our inclusion criteria. The hospital-based LBW rates were relatively similar to the birth certificate data and slightly lower than survey data. Data on LBW rates are available in Mexico. They should be analyzed further and used for comparative studies.
Da Gama, Alana; Fallavollita, Pascal; Teichrieb, Veronica; Navab, Nassir
Interactive systems are being developed with the intention to help in the engagement of patients on various therapies. Amid the recent technological advances, Kinect™ from Microsoft (Redmond, WA) has helped pave the way on how user interaction technology facilitates and complements many clinical applications. In order to examine the actual status of Kinect developments for rehabilitation, this article presents a systematic review of articles that involve interactive, evaluative, and technical advances related to motor rehabilitation. Systematic research was performed in the IEEE Xplore and PubMed databases using the key word combination "Kinect AND rehabilitation" with the following inclusion criteria: (1) English language, (2) page number >4, (3) Kinect system for assistive interaction or clinical evaluation, or (4) Kinect system for improvement or evaluation of the sensor tracking or movement recognition. Quality assessment was performed by QualSyst standards. In total, 109 articles were found in the database research, from which 31 were included in the review: 13 were focused on the development of assistive systems for rehabilitation, 3 in evaluation, 3 in the applicability category, 7 on validation of Kinect anatomic and clinical evaluation, and 5 on improvement techniques. Quality analysis of all included articles is also presented with their respective QualSyst checklist scores. Research and development possibilities and future works with the Kinect for rehabilitation application are extensive. Methodological improvements when performing studies on this area need to be further investigated.
Randazzo, Michael; Pisapia, Jared M; Singh, Nickpreet; Thawani, Jayesh P
The recent expansion of three-dimensional (3D) printing technology into the field of neurosurgery has prompted a widespread investigation of its utility. In this article, we review the current body of literature describing rapid prototyping techniques with applications to the practice of neurosurgery. An extensive and systematic search of the Compendex, Scopus, and PubMed medical databases was conducted using keywords relating to 3D printing and neurosurgery. Results were manually screened for relevance to applications within the field. Of the search results, 36 articles were identified and included in this review. The articles spanned the various subspecialties of the field including cerebrovascular, neuro-oncologic, spinal, functional, and endoscopic neurosurgery. We conclude that 3D printing techniques are practical and anatomically accurate methods of producing patient-specific models for surgical planning, simulation and training, tissue-engineered implants, and secondary devices. Expansion of this technology may, therefore, contribute to advancing the neurosurgical field from several standpoints.
Lívia Juliana Silva Solino
Full Text Available The fast-fashion (FF is considered an approach and phenomenon of global influence that suit the requirements of a constantly changing and demanding market, since it is a business model resulting of a mixture of fast manufacturing, flexibility, low cost and agile retail approaches. Within this context, this research by a systematic literature review seeks to answer how the FF has been addressed in scientific studies published until the year 2013. Through the review, a total of 82 texts was analysed, among them articles, dissertations and theses. The research method employed is characterized as descriptive, regarding the objectives, and as qualitative and quantitative, on the approach. After conducting the classification of the material, it was possible to understand the state-of-the-art, and thus set a holistic concept and the appropriate term for the FF. As well as propose a research agenda with new approaches for future studies within the relevant topic.
Solimar Almeida de Oliveira
Full Text Available The objective of this systematic literature review was to identify the occurrence of opportunistic enteric parasites in chronic kidney patient undergoing hemodialysis. The review consisted on searching articles published on MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO, and PubMed databases between 1991 and 2013. A total 178 articles were identified, ten of which were considered relevant for the present study. In the referred studies, the researchers demonstrated that immunosuppressed patients undergoing hemodialysis are potentially infected by opportunistic enteric agents. Further studies are needed on this topic, as there is a growing global concern with chronic kidney diseases and the potential for these patients contracting opportunistic diseases, which, inclusively, could contaminate hospital environments with opportunistic enteric protozoa. Descriptors: Renal Dialysis; Blastocystis hominis; Cryptosporidium; Cyclospora; Isospora.
N.E. Lankhorst (Nienke); S.M. Bierma-Zeinstra (Sita); M. van Middelkoop (Marienke)
markdownabstractABSTRACT This review systematically summarises factors associated with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). A systematic literature search was conducted. Studies including ≥20 patients with PFPS that examined ≥1 possible factor associated with PFPS were included. A
Mishra, Sunil Kumar; Chowdhary, Ramesh; Chrcanovic, Bruno Ramos; Brånemark, Per-Ingvar
Replacement of lost teeth has significant functional and psychosocial effects. The capability of osseointegrated dental implants to transmit a certain amount of sensibility is still unclear. The phenomenon of developing a certain amount of tactile sensibility through osseointegrated dental implants is called osseoperception. The aim of this article is to evaluate the available literature to find osseoperception associated with dental implants. To identify suitable literature, an electronic search was performed using Medline and PubMed database. Articles published in English and articles whose abstract is available in English were included. The articles included in the review were based on osseoperception, tactile sensation, and neurophysiological mechanoreceptors in relation to dental implants. Articles on peri-implantitis and infection-related sensitivity were not included. Review articles without the original data were excluded, although references to potentially pertinent articles were noted for further follow-up. The phenomenon of osseoperception remains a matter of debate, so the search strategy mainly focused on articles on osseoperception and tactile sensibility of dental implants. This review presents the histological, neurophysiological, and psychophysical evidence of osseoperception and also the role of mechanoreceptors in osseoperception. The literature on osseoperception in dental implants is very scarce. The initial literature search resulted in 90 articles, of which 81 articles that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included in this systematic review. Patients restored with implant-supported prostheses reported improved tactile and motor function when compared with patients wearing complete dentures. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.
Full Text Available Taru Tervo,1 Anna Nordström2 1Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine, Floorball Research and Development Center, Umeå School of Sport Sciences, 2Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine, Umeå School of Sport Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden Background: The purpose of this study was to comprehensively review the scientific research on floorball at the competitive and recreational levels according to field of study. Methods: Full articles containing original data on floorball that had been published in English in peer-reviewed journals were considered for inclusion. Results: Of 75 articles screened, 19 were included in this systematic review. One article each was identified in the fields of sports management and sports psychology, and the remaining 17 articles were in the field of sports medicine. Injury epidemiology in floorball players was the most thoroughly examined topic of research. To date, no research has been performed on the incidence of floorball-related injury, or any aspect of the sport, in children and adolescents. Conclusion: Collaborative research among sports science disciplines is needed to identify strategies to reduce the incidence of injury and enhance the performance of licensed floorball players. Despite the increasing popularity of floorball in recent years, surprisingly little research has examined this sport. Keywords: floorball, unihockey, review
Tawalbeh, Loai I; Ahmad, Muayyad M
Social support is a key nursing variable. No review has yet systematically assessed the effectiveness of the personal resource questionnaire (PRQ) as a measure of perceived social support. This article reviewed nine previous studies that used the PRQ (Brandt & Weinert, 1981). Completed studies were identified through searches of indexes that included PubMed, the Cumulative Index for Nursing and EBSCO host, and Ovid. Studies that reported PRQ scores, sample descriptions, and sample sizes and that tested the relationship between the PRQ and study variables were included in the present review. Three other studies were included that did not report on PRQ correlations with other health variables. The included studies addressed a variety of health problems and different population in different settings. Cronbach's alphas for the included studies ranged from .87 to .93, supporting the internal consistency of the PRQ. Hypothesized relationships between the PRQ and study variables including health promotion behavior, self-care behavior, self-efficacy, self-esteem, stress, depression, loneliness, pain, and disability were supported, providing positive evidence for PRQ construct validity. Included studies used the PRQ to address disparate populations in terms of age, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and educational background. This review found the PRQ to be a reliable and valid tool for measuring perceived social support across a wide range of populations. Further studies are necessary to examine the relationship between social support and selected demographics among populations with different cultural backgrounds.
Zhang, Qian; Yang, Yejiao; He, Qi; Zhang, Xinghe
Background Cerebral palsy (CP), a childhood disease of high morbidity and serious harmfulness, has no effective therapies to completely relieve the associated pain. Acupuncture has been used widely in China to alleviate several CP symptoms, such as pain and motion disorders, despite the deficiency of high-quality evidence related to this practice. Objective The aim of this systematic review protocol is to assess the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for the treatment of children with CP. Methods The following electronic databases will be searched: Cochrane Library, Web of Science, EBASE, Springer, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wan-fang database, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, Chinese Scientific Journal Database, and other sources. All published randomized controlled trials from inception to December 2016 will be included. RevMan V.5.3 software will be implemented for the assessment of bias risk, data synthesis, subgroup analysis, and meta-analyses if inclusion conditions are met. Individuals recruited into the trials will include children with all types of CP, and these individuals will be involved as coresearchers to develop and evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for the treatment of children with CP. Due to language barriers, only English and Chinese articles will be retrieved. Results The systematic review will synthesize the available knowledge surrounding acupuncture for children with CP. The findings will be synthesized to determine the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for children with CP. Conclusions The review has not been completed. This protocol presents a proper method to implement the systematic review, and ensures transparency for the completed review. Findings from the systematic review will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and results will be presented at relevant conferences. The data of individual patients will not be included
Alexandre J.H.de O.Luna
Full Text Available Context : Agility at the business level requires Information Technology (IT environment flex ible and customizable, as well as effective and responsive governance in order to deliver value faster, bette r, and cheaper to the business. Objective : To understand better this context, our paper seeks to investigate how the domain of agile governance has evolved, as well as to derive implications for research and practice. Method : We conducted a systematic review about the state of art of the agile governance up to and including 2013. Our search strategy identified 1992 studies in 10 databases, of which 167 had the po tential to answer our research questions. Results : We organized the studies into four major groups: software engineering, enterprise, manufacturing and multidisciplinary; classifying them into 16 emerging categories. As a result, the review provides a convergent definition for agile governance, six meta - principles, and a map of findings organized by topic and classified by relevance and convergence. Conclusion : The found evidence lead us to believe that agile governance is a relatively new, wide and multidisciplinary area focused on organizational performance and compet itiveness that needs to be more intensively studied. Finally, we made improvements and additions to the methodological approach for systematic reviews and qualitative studies.
Lindberg, Per; Vingård, Eva
The purpose of this study was to systematically review the scientific literature and search for indicators of healthy work environments. A number of major national and international databases for scientific publication were searched for research addressing indicators of healthy work environments. Altogether 19,768 publications were found. After excluding duplicates, non-relevant publications, or publications that did not comply with the inclusion criteria 24 peer-reviewed publications remained to be included in this systematic review. Only one study explicitly addressing indicators of healthy work environments was found. That study suggested that the presence of stress management programs in an organization might serve as indicator of a 'good place to work', as these organizations were more likely to offer programs that encouraged employee well-being, safety and skill development than those without stress management programs. The other 23 studies either investigated employee's views of what constitute a healthy workplace or were guidelines for how to create such a workplace. Summarizing, the nine most pronounced factors considered as important for a healthy workplace that emerged from these studies were, in descending order: collaboration/teamwork: growth and development of the individual; recognition; employee involvement; positive, accessible and fair leader; autonomy and empowerment; appropriate staffing; skilled communication; and safe physical work.
Chris Ying Cao
Full Text Available This study aimed to review the laboratory methods on biomimetic remineralization of demineralized human dentine. A systematic search of the publications in the PubMed, TRIP, and Web of Science databases was performed. Titles and abstracts of initially identified publications were screened. Clinical trials, reviews, non-English articles, resin-dentine interface studies, hybrid layer studies, hybrid scaffolds studies, and irrelevant studies were excluded. The remaining papers were retrieved with full texts. Manual screening was conducted on the bibliographies of remaining papers to identify relevant articles. A total of 716 studies were found, and 690 were excluded after initial screening. Two articles were identified from the bibliographies of the remaining papers. After retrieving the full text, 23 were included in this systematic review. Sixteen studies used analogues to mimic the functions of non-collagenous proteins in biomineralization of dentine, and four studies used bioactive materials to induce apatite formation on demineralized dentine surface. One study used zinc as a bioactive element, one study used polydopamine, and another study constructed an agarose hydrogel system for biomimetic mineralization of dentine. Many studies reported success in biomimetic mineralization of dentine, including the use of non-collagenous protein analogues, bioactive materials, or elements and agarose hydrogel system.
Mavreas, Dimitrios; Athanasiou, Athanasios E
The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the literature for articles referring exclusively to the duration of orthodontic therapy and to explore the various factors that could affect this. A Medline search from 1990 to the first week of March 2005 was conducted, the Cochrane Database for Systematic Reviews was utilized, five orthodontic journals were hand searched, the abstracts of related articles were reviewed to search for any relevant studies that might have been missed, and the reference lists of the retrieved articles were hand assessed. Eligibility was determined by reading the reports identified by the search. The end result of this search provided 41 articles. Although there is a need for more conclusive research, the present review revealed several conclusions concerning the duration of orthodontic treatment: (1) there are indications that extraction treatment lasts longer than the non-extraction therapy; (2) age does not seem to play a role provided the patients are in the permanent dentition; (3) when Class II division 1 malocclusions are considered, there is evidence that the earlier the orthodontic treatment begins the longer its duration; (4) there is conflicting information regarding treatment duration within public health systems; (5) combined orthodontic-surgical treatment duration is variable and appears to be operator sensitive; (6) various factors, such as the technique employed, the skill and number of operators involved, the compliance of the patients, and the severity of the initial malocclusion, all seem to play a role; and (7) impacted maxillary canines appear to prolong treatment.
Cao, Chris Ying; Mei, May Lei; Li, Quan-Li; Lo, Edward Chin Man; Chu, Chun Hung
This study aimed to review the laboratory methods on biomimetic remineralization of demineralized human dentine. A systematic search of the publications in the PubMed, TRIP, and Web of Science databases was performed. Titles and abstracts of initially identified publications were screened. Clinical trials, reviews, non-English articles, resin-dentine interface studies, hybrid layer studies, hybrid scaffolds studies, and irrelevant studies were excluded. The remaining papers were retrieved with full texts. Manual screening was conducted on the bibliographies of remaining papers to identify relevant articles. A total of 716 studies were found, and 690 were excluded after initial screening. Two articles were identified from the bibliographies of the remaining papers. After retrieving the full text, 23 were included in this systematic review. Sixteen studies used analogues to mimic the functions of non-collagenous proteins in biomineralization of dentine, and four studies used bioactive materials to induce apatite formation on demineralized dentine surface. One study used zinc as a bioactive element, one study used polydopamine, and another study constructed an agarose hydrogel system for biomimetic mineralization of dentine. Many studies reported success in biomimetic mineralization of dentine, including the use of non-collagenous protein analogues, bioactive materials, or elements and agarose hydrogel system.
Systematic reviews with meta-analysis represent the gold standard for conducting reliable and transparent reviews of the literature. The purpose of this article is threefold: (a) to address why and when it is worthwhile to conduct a systematic review with meta-analysis, covering advantages of this a
Full Text Available Elizabeth Befekadu,1 Claudia Onofrei,1 Gene L Colice1,2 1MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC, USA; 2The George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC, USA Introduction: The objective of this paper is to systematically review the existing evidence of the effectiveness and safety profile of a long-acting inhaled muscarinic antagonist as add-on therapy in patients with asthma that is uncontrolled despite inhaled corticosteroid (ICS use. Methods: With the assistance of two experienced research librarians, we searched Ovid MEDLINE/PubMed (1946 to September 12, 2013, the Cochrane Library review, and the TRIP database. The key search terms were “tiotropium and asthma.” The search was limited to human data published in English. Included in the systematic review were all randomized controlled trials that evaluated the efficacy of tiotropium in patients with asthma. The clinical trials had to be at least 4 weeks in duration and to provide adequate information on clinically appropriate end points in asthma care (eg, change in lung function, exacerbation rates, and/or ICS dosing. Data on patient characteristics, study design, outcome measures, concomitant asthma medication, and adverse events were extracted from the full text of each included individual study. Marked heterogeneity of study design precluded statistical pooling of results for a meta-analysis. Consequently, only descriptive summaries of outcomes are provided. Results: Our database search retrieved 149 citations. We found five randomized controlled trials in humans that met our criteria for inclusion in the systematic review. We also found two open-label uncontrolled trials that were considered in the discussion. Each of the five included studies met the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials criteria for a well-designed randomized trial. Discussion: The five clinical studies included in this systematic review focused on evaluating
Büchtemann, Dorothea; Luppa, Melanie; Bramesfeld, Anke; Riedel-Heller, Steffi
In the past years, many studies have examined the prevalence of late-life depression. However, incidence studies, especially those including the oldest age groups, remained rare. The objective of this article is therefore to provide a systematic review on incidence of depressive disorders in latest life. A systematic search of the literature published between 1985 and 2011 was conducted using MEDLINE, Web of Science, PsycInfo and Cochrane databases. Inclusion criteria were: incidence specified for persons aged≥70 years at baseline, population-based sample or primary care sample. Incidence rates or risks were extracted or calculated. We found 20 studies reporting incidence according to categorical (n=14) or dimensional diagnoses (n=6). The incidence of depressive disorders varied considerably. Major Depression (MD) was found to occur less often than Minor Depression (MinD), whereas clinically relevant depressive symptoms are at least as frequent as MinD. The incidence rate of MD was 0.2-14.1/100 person-years, and incidence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms was 6.8/100 person-years. Female incidence was mostly higher than male. Associations between age and incidence revealed to be rather inconsistent between studies. Methodological diversity of the studies concerning diagnostics, data collection methods, incidence definitions and sampling make the results difficult to interprete. This review is the first to have focused on incidence studies on depression in latest life. The frequent occurrence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms will have to be considered in future health care planning. Physical health and psychosocial influences appear to be key variables in depression prevention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Leenaars, M.; Hooijmans, C.R.; Veggel, N. van; Riet, G. ter; Leeflang, M.; Hooft, L.; Wilt, G.J. van der; Tillema, A.; Ritskes-Hoitinga, M.
Before starting a new animal experiment, thorough analysis of previously performed experiments is essential from a scientific as well as from an ethical point of view. The method that is most suitable to carry out such a thorough analysis of the literature is a systematic review (SR). An essential f
Hijji, Fady Y; Narain, Ankur S; Bohl, Daniel D; Ahn, Junyoung; Long, William W; DiBattista, Jacob V; Kudaravalli, Krishna T; Singh, Kern
Lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) is a frequently used technique for the treatment of lumbar pathology. Despite its overall success, LLIF has been associated with a unique set of complications. However, there has been inconsistent evidence regarding the complication rate of this approach. To perform a systematic review analyzing the rates of medical and surgical complications associated with LLIF. Systematic review. 6,819 patients who underwent LLIF reported in clinical studies through June 2016. Frequency of complications within cardiac, vascular, pulmonary, urologic, gastrointestinal, transient neurologic, persistent neurologic, and spine (MSK) categories. This systematic review was performed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Relevant studies that identified rates of any complication following LLIF procedures were obtained from PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases. Articles were excluded if they did not report complications, presented mixed complication data from other procedures, or were characterized as single case reports, reviews, or case series containing less than 10 patients. The primary outcome was frequency of complications within cardiac, vascular, pulmonary, urologic, gastrointestinal, transient neurologic, persistent neurologic, and MSK categories. All rates of complications were based on the sample sizes of studies that mentioned the respective complications. The authors report no conflicts of interest directly or indirectly related to this work, and have not received any funds in support of this work. A total of 2,232 articles were identified. Following screening of title, abstract, and full-text availability, 63 articles were included in the review. A total of 6,819 patients had 11,325 levels fused. The rate of complications for the categories included were as follows: wound (1.38%; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.00%-1.85%), cardiac (1.86%; CI=1.33%-2.52%), vascular (0.81%; CI=0
Clarissa Pinto Pizarro de Freitas
Full Text Available The present study aimed to realize a systematic review of publications about personal growth initiative. A literature review was realized in Bireme, Index Psi, LILACS, PePSIC, Pubmed - Publisher's Medlme, Wiley Online Library, PsycINFO, OneFile, SciVerse ScienceDirect, ERIC, Emerald Journals, PsycARTICLES - American Psychological Association, Directory of Open Access Journals - DOAJ, SAGE Journals, SpringerLink, PLoS, IngentaConnect, IEEE Journals & Magazines and SciELO databases. The literature review was performed from December of 2014 to January of 2015, without stipulating date limits for the publication of the articles. It was found 53 studies, excluded seven, and analyzed 46 researches. The studies aimed to investigate the psychometric properties of personal growth initiative scale and personal growth initiative scale II. The relations of personal initiative growth and others constructs were also evaluated. Furthermore the studies investigated the impact of interventions to promote personal growth initiative. Results of these studies showed that personal growth initiative was positively related to levels of well-being, selfesteem and others positive dimensions, and negatively to anxiety, depression and others negative factors.
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to characterize and clarify the relationships between the various cognitive domains affected in COPD patients and the disease itself, as well as to determine the prevalence of impairment in the various cognitive domains in such patients. To that end, we performed a systematic review using the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect. We included articles that provided information on cognitive impairment in COPD patients. The review of the findings of the articles showed a significant relationship between COPD and cognitive impairment. The most widely studied cognitive domains are memory and attention. Verbal memory and learning constitute the second most commonly impaired cognitive domain in patients with COPD. The prevalence of impairment in visuospatial memory and intermediate visual memory is 26.9% and 19.2%, respectively. We found that cognitive impairment is associated with the profile of COPD severity and its comorbidities. The articles reviewed demonstrated that there is considerable impairment of the cognitive domains memory and attention in patients with COPD. Future studies should address impairments in different cognitive domains according to the disease stage in patients with COPD.
Agra, Lais C; Ferro, Jamylle N S; Barbosa, Fabiano T; Barreto, Emiliano
The purpose of this review was to systematically evaluate the literature on the efficacy of triterpenes for wound healing. We searched for original studies in the Medline, SCIDIRECT and LILACS databases published from 1910 to 2013. For each study, the title, abstract and full article were evaluated by two reviewers. We identified 2181 studies; however, after application of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, only 12 studies were subjected to further review. In surgical wounds, the triterpenes induced a reduction in time to closure, and this effect was reported in virtually all wound types. Triterpenes also modulate the production of ROS in the wound microenvironment, accelerating the process of tissue repair. Triterpenes may also induce cell migration, cell proliferation and collagen deposition. Although the pharmacological effects of triterpenes are well characterized, little is known about their effects in cells involved in healing, such as keratinocytes and fibroblasts. In addition, the lack of studies on the risks associated with the therapeutic use of triterpenes is worrisome. Our study reveals that triterpenes seem to favor wound healing; however, toxicological studies with these compounds are required. Taken together, these findings show that the triterpenes are a class of molecules with significant promise that leads for the development of new drugs to treat skin injury.
McIntosh Heather M
Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to carry out a methodological research survey of systematic reviews of adverse effects we needed to retrieve a sample of systematic reviews in which the primary outcome is an adverse effect or effects. Methods We carried out searches of the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR for systematic reviews of adverse effects published between 1994 to 2005. The search strategies used a combination of text words in the title and abstract, Medical Subject Headings (MeSH and subheadings/qualifiers. In addition, DARE records in progress were hand searched. No language restrictions were placed on any of the searches. The performance, in terms of sensitivity and precision, of the search strategies and their combinations were tested in DARE and CDSR. Results In total 3635 records were screened of which 257 met our inclusion criteria. The precision of the searches in CDSR was low (0% to 3%, and no one search strategy could retrieve all the relevant records in either DARE or CDSR. Hand searching the records from DARE and CDSR not retrieved by our searches indicated that we had missed relevant systematic reviews in both DARE and CDSR. The sensitivities of many of the search combinations were comparable to those found when searching for primary studies in which adverse effects are secondary outcomes. Conclusion Searching major databases of systematic reviews, for systematic reviews of adverse effects, proved more difficult than anticipated due to a lack of standard terminology used by the authors, inadequate indexing and the variations in the search interfaces of the databases. At present hand searching all records in DARE and CDSR seems to be the only way to ensure retrieval of all systematic reviews of adverse effects in these databases.
Background: “Open peer review” (OPR), despite being a major pillar of Open Science, has neither a standardized definition nor an agreed schema of its features and implementations. The literature reflects this, with a myriad of overlapping and often contradictory definitions. While the term is used by some to refer to peer review where the identities of both author and reviewer are disclosed to each other, for others it signifies systems where reviewer reports are published alongside articles. For others it signifies both of these conditions, and for yet others it describes systems where not only “invited experts” are able to comment. For still others, it includes a variety of combinations of these and other novel methods. Methods: Recognising the absence of a consensus view on what open peer review is, this article undertakes a systematic review of definitions of “open peer review” or “open review”, to create a corpus of 122 definitions. These definitions are then systematically analysed to build a coherent typology of the many different innovations in peer review signified by the term, and hence provide the precise technical definition currently lacking. Results: This quantifiable data yields rich information on the range and extent of differing definitions over time and by broad subject area. Quantifying definitions in this way allows us to accurately portray exactly how ambiguously the phrase “open peer review” has been used thus far, for the literature offers a total of 22 distinct configurations of seven traits, effectively meaning that there are 22 different definitions of OPR in the literature. Conclusions: Based on this work, I propose a pragmatic definition of open peer review as an umbrella term for a number of overlapping ways that peer review models can be adapted in line with the ethos of Open Science, including making reviewer and author identities open, publishing review reports and enabling greater participation in the
Full Text Available Objective: To systematically identify the various methods of speed management and their effects. Methods: A systematic search was performed in Science Direct, Ovid Medline, Scopus, PubMed and ProQuest databases from April to June 2015. Hand searching and reference of selected articles were used to improve article identification. Articles published after 1990 which had reported on efficacy/effectiveness of speed management strategies were included. Data were extracted using pre-defined extraction table. Results: Of the 803 retrieved articles, 22 articles were included in this review. Most of the included articles (63% had before-after design and were done in European countries. Speed cameras, engineering schemes, intelligent speed adaption (ISA, speed limits and zones, vehicle activated sign and integrated strategies were the most common strategies reported in the literature. Various strategies had different effects on mean speed of the vehicles ranging from 1.6 to 10 km/h. Moreover, 8-65% and 11-71% reduction was reported in person injured accidents and fatal accidents, respectively as a result of employing various strategies. Conclusion: Literature revealed positive effects of various speed management strategies. Using various strategies was mostly dependent on road characteristics, driver’s attitude about the strategy as well as economic and technological capabilities of the country. Political support is considered as a main determinant in selecting speed management strategies.
Full Text Available Background: Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR is a psychotherapeutic approach that has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD through several randomized controlled trials (RCT. Solid evidence shows that traumatic events can contribute to the onset of severe mental disorders and can worsen their prognosis. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the most important findings from RCT conducted in the treatment of comorbid traumatic events in psychosis, bipolar disorder, unipolar depression, anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, and chronic back pain.Methods: Using PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Scopus, we conducted a systematic literature search of RCT studies published up to December 2016 that used EMDR therapy in the mentioned psychiatric conditions.Results: RCT are still scarce in these comorbid conditions but the available evidence suggests that EMDR therapy improves trauma-associated symptoms and has a minor effect on the primary disorders by reaching partial symptomatic improvement.Conclusions: EMDR therapy could be a useful psychotherapy to treat trauma-associated symptoms in patients with comorbid psychiatric disorders. Preliminary evidence also suggests that EMDR therapy might be useful to improve psychotic or affective symptoms and could be an add-on treatment in chronic pain conditions.
Eichenberg, Christiane; Schott, Markus
In the evolving digital age, media applications are increasingly playing a greater role in the field of psychotherapy. While the Internet is already in the phase of being established when it comes to the care of mental disorders, experimentation is going on with other modern media such as serious games. A serious game is a game in which education and behavior change is the goal, alongside with entertainment. The objective of the present article was to provide a first empirical overview of serious games applied to psychotherapy and psychosomatic rehabilitation. Therefore, a systematic literature search, including the terms "serious game" or "computer game" and "psychotherapy" or "rehabilitation" or "intervention" or "mental disorders" in the databases Medline and PsycINFO, was performed. Subsequently, an Internet search was conducted to identify studies not published in journals. Publications not providing empirical data about effectiveness were excluded. On the basis of this systematic literature review, the results of N = 15 studies met inclusion criteria. They utilized primarily cognitive behavioral techniques and can be useful for treating a range of mental disorders. Serious games are effective both as a stand-alone intervention or part of psychotherapy and appeal to patients independent of age and sex. Included serious games proved to be an effective therapeutic component. Nonetheless, findings are not conclusive and more research is needed to further investigate the effectiveness of serious games for psychotherapeutic purposes.
Lawrence, Ryan E; Oquendo, Maria A; Stanley, Barbara
Although religion is reported to be protective against suicide, the empirical evidence is inconsistent. Research is complicated by the fact that there are many dimensions to religion (affiliation, participation, doctrine) and suicide (ideation, attempt, completion). We systematically reviewed the literature on religion and suicide over the last 10 years (89 articles) with a goal of identifying what specific dimensions of religion are associated with specific aspects of suicide. We found that religious affiliation does not necessarily protect against suicidal ideation, but does protect against suicide attempts. Whether religious affiliation protects against suicide attempts may depend on the culture-specific implications of affiliating with a particular religion, since minority religious groups can feel socially isolated. After adjusting for social support measures, religious service attendance is not especially protective against suicidal ideation, but does protect against suicide attempts, and possibly protects against suicide. Future qualitative studies might further clarify these associations.
Bjørn, Maya Xania; Perdawood, Sharaf Karim
of the dissection. We aimed to evaluate the literature on TaTME. METHODS: We performed a systematic search of the literature in the PubMed and Embase databases. Both authors assessed the studies. All publications on TaTME were included with the exception of review articles. RESULTS: A total of 29 studies (336...... patients) were included. Only low-quality evidence is available, and the literature consists of case reports and case series. Studies represent the initial experience of surgeons/centres. No precise indication for TaTME is yet specified other than the presence of mid and low rectal tumours, although...... the potential advantages seem to be related to a bulky mesorectum in the male pelvis. The preliminary results are encouraging and the most serious complication is urethral injury. The oncological results are acceptable, although the follow-up is short. CONCLUSION: TaTME is a feasible approach for mid and low...
Allen, Mark S; Walter, Emma E
This study systematically reviewed the evidence for personality as a correlate of body image. Electronic databases and reference lists were searched in May 2016 for studies reporting an association between at least one dimension of personality and at least one component of negative body image. Twenty-six studies (33 discrete samples) met inclusion criteria. Sixteen samples were coded as medium-high quality. The results indicated that negative body image was associated with higher levels of Neuroticism and lower levels of Extraversion. Agreeableness was not related to body image, and findings for Conscientiousness and Openness were indeterminate. After taking study quality into account, negative body image was also associated with lower levels of Conscientiousness. Neuroticism was associated with negative body image in both women and men. Sex moderation effects for Extraversion, Openness, and Conscientiousness were indeterminate. Large-sample, prospective studies of personality and body image are recommended.
Lauren J Stockman
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The SARS outbreak of 2002-2003 presented clinicians with a new, life-threatening disease for which they had no experience in treating and no research on the effectiveness of treatment options. The World Health Organization (WHO expert panel on SARS treatment requested a systematic review and comprehensive summary of treatments used for SARS-infected patients in order to guide future treatment and identify priorities for research. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In response to the WHO request we conducted a systematic review of the published literature on ribavirin, corticosteroids, lopinavir and ritonavir (LPV/r, type I interferon (IFN, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG, and SARS convalescent plasma from both in vitro studies and in SARS patients. We also searched for clinical trial evidence of treatment for acute respiratory distress syndrome. Sources of data were the literature databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL up to February 2005. Data from publications were extracted and evidence within studies was classified using predefined criteria. In total, 54 SARS treatment studies, 15 in vitro studies, and three acute respiratory distress syndrome studies met our inclusion criteria. Within in vitro studies, ribavirin, lopinavir, and type I IFN showed inhibition of SARS-CoV in tissue culture. In SARS-infected patient reports on ribavirin, 26 studies were classified as inconclusive, and four showed possible harm. Seven studies of convalescent plasma or IVIG, three of IFN type I, and two of LPV/r were inconclusive. In 29 studies of steroid use, 25 were inconclusive and four were classified as causing possible harm. CONCLUSIONS: Despite an extensive literature reporting on SARS treatments, it was not possible to determine whether treatments benefited patients during the SARS outbreak. Some may have been harmful. Clinical trials should be designed to validate a standard protocol for dosage
Zagouri, Flora; Sergentanis, Theodoros N; Chrysikos, Dimosthenis; Zografos, Constantine G; Filipits, Martin; Bartsch, Rupert; Dimopoulos, Meletios-Athanassios; Psaltopoulou, Theodora
Pertuzumab is a monoclonal antibody that represents the first among a new class of agents known as human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) dimerization inhibitors. This is the first systematic review according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines to synthesize all available data of pertuzumab in breast cancer. The search strategy retrieved 11 studies that evaluated pertuzumab. One study was conducted in the neoadjuvant setting (417 patients), whereas all the others dealt with patients with recurrent, metastatic, or refractory disease (1023 patients). Six studies were conducted in HER2(+) breast cancer population (1354 patients), whereas 5 studies (86 patients) were conducted in HER2(-) (or unknown HER2 status) disease. Pertuzumab is the most recent agent approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in combination with trastuzumab and docetaxel for the treatment of patients with HER2(+) metastatic breast cancer who have not received prior anti-HER2 therapy or chemotherapy for metastatic disease. This approval has been based on data from a phase III Clinical Evaluation of Pertuzumab and Trastuzumab (CLEOPATRA) study. The antitumor activity with the significant reduction in the risk of progression or death, as reflected upon the increase of 6.1 months in median progression-free survival, indicates that pertuzumab may provide an avenue for achieving additional benefit for patients with HER2(+). Moreover, pertuzumab seems to have a putative role in the management of patients with HER2 who are resistant to trastuzumab. The promising role of pertuzumab in the neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings remains to be further investigated and established in the future.
Jones, Andrew D; Hoey, Lesli; Blesh, Jennifer; Miller, Laura; Green, Ashley; Shapiro, Lilly Fink
Sustainability has become an integral consideration of the dietary guidelines of many countries in recent decades. However, a lack of clear metrics and a shared approach to measuring the multiple components of sustainable diets has hindered progress toward generating the evidence needed to ensure the credibility of new guidelines. We performed a systematic literature review of empirical research studies on sustainable diets to identify the components of sustainability that were measured and the methods applied to do so. Two independent reviewers systematically searched 30 databases and other sources with the use of a uniform set of search terms and a priori exclusion criteria. In total, 113 empirical studies were included in the final review. Nearly all of the studies were focused on high-income countries. Although there was substantial heterogeneity in the components of sustainability measured, the estimated greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs) of various dietary patterns were by far most commonly measured (n = 71 studies). Estimating the GHGEs of foods through various stages of production, use, and recycling with the use of the Life Cycle Assessment approach was the most common method applied to measure the environmental impacts of diets (n = 49 studies). Many components of sustainable diets identified in existing conceptual frameworks are disproportionately underrepresented in the empirical literature, as are studies that examine consumer demand for sustainable dietary alternatives. The emphasis in the literature on high-income countries also overlooks the production and dietary alternatives most relevant to low- and middle-income countries. We propose 3 methodological and measurement approaches that would both improve the global relevance of our understanding of sustainable diets and attend more completely to the existing multidimensional, multiscale conceptual framing of sustainable diets.
Galsworthy-Francis, Lisa; Allan, Steven
Evidence for the effectiveness of psychological therapies for anorexia nervosa (AN) is inconsistent. There have been no systematic reviews solely on the effectiveness for Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) for AN. This review aimed to synthesise and appraise the recent evidence for CBT as a treatment for AN. Using specific search criteria, 16 relevant articles were identified which evaluated CBT alone or as part of a broader randomised/non-randomised trial. Various formats of CBT were utilised in the reviewed papers. Studies were evaluated using established quality criteria. The evidence reviewed suggested that CBT demonstrated effectiveness as a means of improving treatment adherence and minimising dropout amongst patients with AN. While CBT appeared to demonstrate some improvements in key outcomes (body mass index, eating-disorder symptoms, broader psychopathology), it was not consistently superior to other treatments (including dietary counselling, non-specific supportive management, interpersonal therapy, behavioural family therapy). Numerous methodological limitations apply to the available evidence. Further research and ongoing review is needed to evaluate the settings, patient groups and formats in which CBT may be effective as a treatment for AN.
Chatzopoulos, Georgios S.; Koidou, Vasiliki-Petros
Background The aim of this review is to systematically investigate the effect of a susceptible genotype to periodontitis with the clinical outcomes of periodontal regeneration. Material and Methods Based on a focused question, an electronic search identified 155 unique citations. Three journals (Journal of Periodontology, Journal of Clinical Periodontology and Journal of Periodontal Research), references of relevant studies and review articles were hand-searched. Two independent reviewers imp...
Marshall, Gill, E-mail: email@example.com [Chair in Medical Imaging Education, Research Development Lead, School of Medical Imaging Sciences, Faculty of Health, Medical Sciences and Social Care, University of Cumbria, Lancaster, LA1 3JD (United Kingdom); Sykes, Anne E., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Directorate of Radiography School of Health, Sport and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Salford Frederick Road, M6 6PU (United Kingdom)
This paper offers guidance on performing systematic reviews to help up-skill radiographers and other health care professionals. It considers why systematic review is critically important to Radiography. Using a relevant example i.e. to investigate adverse effects related to MRI contrast agents it then examines the features of a systematic review and explains how diagnostic research evidence within a systematic review is evaluated. The paper then discusses the threats to validity of systematic reviews on a step by step basis. Five key steps are considered: Step 1: define the purpose of the review via a well-structured question. Step 2: determine the parameters (eligibility criteria) for a comprehensive systematic literature review that will address the research question. It is the wide range of material reviewed in this way that makes the work a systematic review, rather than an analysis of papers you happen to have. Step 3: Assess the quality of the literature you have found. Generally peer-reviewed papers published on a database such as Medline, which in the example given was established as an eligibility criterion, are considered to be high quality, but the actual impact factor/SCOPUS score of each journal is variable and should be considered. Step 4: Synthesise what the literature has revealed; appropriately extract data and summarise it; identifying any study differences. This requires the use of suitable methods for agreeing and summarising the results. This may involve a meta-analysis to collate the results from several studies. Step 5: interpret the findings to draw inferences from the resulting review and from the results of a meta-analysis if undertaken. This paper then provides a check list for guidance of those involved in writing systematic reviews and finally summarises the paper. A glossary of terms appears at the end of this paper.
Fung-Kee-Fung, M.; Kennedy, E.B.; Biagi, J.; Colgan, T.; D’Souza, D.; Elit, L.M.; Hunter, A.; Irish, J.; McLeod, R.; Rosen, B.
Background A system-level organizational guideline for gynecologic oncology was identified by a provincial cancer agency as a key priority based on input from stakeholders, data showing more limited availability of multidisciplinary or specialist care in lower-volume than in higher-volume hospitals in the relevant jurisdiction, and variable rates of staging for ovarian and endometrial cancer patients. Methods A systematic review assessed the relationship of the organization of gynecologic oncology services with patient survival and surgical outcomes. The electronic databases medline and embase (ovid: 1996 through 9 January 2015) were searched using terms related to gynecologic malignancies combined with organization of services, patterns of care, and various facility and physician characteristics. Outcomes of interest included overall or disease-specific survival, short-term survival, adequate staging, and degree of cytoreduction or optimal cytoreduction (or both) for ovarian cancer patients by hospital or physician type, and rate of discrepancy in initial diagnoses and intraoperative consultation between non-specialist pathologists and gyne-oncology–specialist pathologists. Results One systematic review and sixteen additional primary studies met the inclusion criteria. The evidence base as a whole was judged to be of lower quality; however, a trend toward improved outcomes with centralization of gynecologic oncology was found, particularly with respect to the gynecologic oncology care of patients with advanced-stage ovarian cancer. Conclusions Improvements in outcomes with centralization of gynecologic oncology services can be attributed to a number of factors, including access to specialist care and multidisciplinary team management. Findings of this systematic review should be used with caution because of the limitations of the evidence base; however, an expert consensus process made it possible to create recommendations for implementation. PMID:26300679
Kaguelidou, Florentia; Turner, Mark A; Choonara, Imti; Jacqz-Aigrain, Evelyne
ciprofloxacin has no marketing authorization for use in neonates worldwide but it is prescribed for the treatment of neonatal life-threatening infections, mainly in developing countries and in Europe. Given the concerns about its toxicity in this population and the necessity for its use in specific clinical situations, we conducted a systematic review of the use of ciprofloxacin in neonates. we performed a systematic search of PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and bibliographies of relevant articles. We included all studies, regardless of design, that reported efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin for the treatment of any neonatal infectious condition. We excluded letters, editorials, preliminary reports, and abstracts. observational cohort studies, case reports, and descriptions of patient series account for all literature reviewed. Ciprofloxacin was administrated in neonates as a salvage therapy for sepsis due to multidrug-resistant strains or with signs of clinical deterioration under first-line antibiotic treatment. Initial administration was always intravenous with variable dosing schedule. Clinical response to treatment was estimated at 64% and 91% in 2 cohort studies, with a median of 83% in case series. Of the 14 case reports, 12 yielded positive clinical outcomes. No serious adverse events, particularly joint toxicity, were observed, although evaluation was predominantly clinical and follow-up limited to few months after the end of treatment. the current literature provides some information to support the use of ciprofloxacin in neonates. Additional high quality studies should be undertaken to provide reliable data on pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and long-term safety.
Physical activity (PA) is associated with numerous health-related benefits among adults with chronic diseases and the general population. As the benefits are dose-dependent, this review aims to establish the PA levels of adults with spondyloarthritis and to compare these to the general population. Electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, MEDLINE\\/PubMed, PEDro, AMED, CINAHL) were systematically searched from inception to May 2014 using medical subject headings and keywords. This was supplemented by searching conference abstracts and hand-searching reference lists of included studies. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials and observational studies of adults with SpA in which free-living PA or energy expenditure levels were measured. Subjects less than 18 years or with juvenile-onset SpA were excluded. Outcomes included objective and self-report measurements. Two reviewers independently screened studies for inclusion and assessed methodological quality using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and the RTI item bank. From the 2,431 records reviewed, nine studies involving 2,972 participants were included. This review focused on qualitative synthesis. Meta-analyses were not undertaken due to differences in study design, measurement tools, and participant characteristics. This heterogeneity, coupled with the risk of bias inherent in the included observational studies, limits the generalizability of findings. Objective measurements suggest PA levels may be lower among adults with spondyloarthritis than in healthy population controls. Self-reported PA and self-reported rates of adherence to PA recommendations varied largely across studies; higher disease activity was associated with lower self-reported PA levels. Physical activity levels may be lower in adults with axial spondyloarthritis, with higher disease activity associated with lower PA levels.
Fruchtenicht, Ana Valéria Gonçalves; Poziomyck, Aline Kirjner; Kabke, Geórgia Brum; Loss, Sérgio Henrique; Antoniazzi, Jorge Luiz; Steemburgo, Thais; Moreira, Luis Fernando
Objective To systematically review the main methods for nutritional risk assessment used in critically ill cancer patients and present the methods that better assess risks and predict relevant clinical outcomes in this group of patients, as well as to discuss the pros and cons of these methods according to the current literature. Methods The study consisted of a systematic review based on analysis of manuscripts retrieved from the PubMed, LILACS and SciELO databases by searching for the key words “nutritional risk assessment”, “critically ill” and “cancer”. Results Only 6 (17.7%) of 34 initially retrieved papers met the inclusion criteria and were selected for the review. The main outcomes of these studies were that resting energy expenditure was associated with undernourishment and overfeeding. The high Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment score was significantly associated with low food intake, weight loss and malnutrition. In terms of biochemical markers, higher levels of creatinine, albumin and urea were significantly associated with lower mortality. The worst survival was found for patients with worse Eastern Cooperative Oncologic Group - performance status, high Glasgow Prognostic Score, low albumin, high Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment score and high alkaline phosphatase levels. Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index values Nutritional Index score was associated with abnormal nutritional status in critically ill cancer patients. Among the reviewed studies that examined weight and body mass index alone, no significant clinical outcome was found. Conclusion None of the methods reviewed helped to define risk among these patients. Therefore, assessment by a combination of weight loss and serum measurements, preferably in combination with other methods using scores such as Eastern Cooperative Oncologic Group - performance status, Glasgow Prognostic Score and Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment, is suggested given that
Chung-Yin Hsu; Ping-Lun Hsieh; Shu-Fang Hsiao; Meng-Yueh Chien
Objectives. Cardiac autonomic imbalance accompanies the progression of chronic heart failure (CHF). It is unclear whether exercise training could modulate autonomic control in CHF. This study aimed to review systematically the effects of exercise training on heart rate recovery (HRR) and heart rate variability (HRV) in patients with CHF. Methods. Literatures were systematically searched in electronic databases and relevant references. Only published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) focusin...
Frederick, Joseph; Saint Jean, Yvan; Lemoine, Jean Frantz; Dotson, Ellen M; Mace, Kimberly E; Chang, Michelle; Slutsker, Laurence; Le Menach, Arnaud; Beier, John C; Eisele, Thomas P; Okech, Bernard A; Beau de Rochars, Valery Madsen; Carter, Keith H; Keating, Joseph; Impoinvil, Daniel E
Haiti has a set a target of eliminating malaria by 2020. However, information on malaria vector research in Haiti is not well known. This paper presents results from a systematic review of the literature on malaria vector research, bionomics and control in Haiti. A systematic search of literature published in French, Spanish and English languages was conducted in 2015 using Pubmed (MEDLINE), Google Scholar, EMBASE, JSTOR WHOLIS and Web of Science databases as well other grey literature sources such as USAID, and PAHO. The following search terms were used: malaria, Haiti, Anopheles, and vector control. A total of 132 references were identified with 40 high quality references deemed relevant and included in this review. Six references dealt with mosquito distribution, seven with larval mosquito ecology, 16 with adult mosquito ecology, three with entomological indicators of malaria transmission, eight with insecticide resistance, one with sero-epidemiology and 16 with vector control. In the last 15 years (2000-2015), there have only been four published papers and three-scientific meeting abstracts on entomology for malaria in Haiti. Overall, the general literature on malaria vector research in Haiti is limited and dated. Entomological information generated from past studies in Haiti will contribute to the development of strategies to achieve malaria elimination on Hispaniola. However it is of paramount importance that malaria vector research in Haiti is updated to inform decision-making for vector control strategies in support of malaria elimination.
McColgan, P; McKeown, P P; Selai, C; Doherty-Allan, R; McCarron, M O
A fear of neurology and neural sciences (neurophobia) may have clinical consequences. There is therefore a need to formulate an evidence-based approach to neurology education. A comprehensive systematic review of educational interventions in neurology was performed. BEI, Cochrane Library, Dialog Datastar, EBSCO Biomedical, EBSCO Psychology & Behavioral Sciences, EMBASE, ERIC, First Search, MDConsult, Medline, Proquest Medical Library and Web of Knowledge databases were searched for all published studies assessing interventions in neurology education among undergraduate students, junior medical doctors and residents up to and including July 2012. Two independent literature searches were performed for relevant studies, which were then classified for level of evidence using the Centre of Evidence-based Medicine criteria and four levels of Kirkpatrick educational outcomes. One systematic review, 16 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), nine non-randomized cohort/follow-up studies, 33 case series or historically controlled studies and three mechanism-based reasoning studies were identified. Educational interventions showed favourable evaluation or assessment outcomes in 15 of 16 (94%) RCTs. Very few studies measured subsequent clinical behaviour (two studies) and patient outcomes (one study). There is very little high quality evidence of demonstrably effective neurology education. However, RCTs are emerging, albeit without meeting comprehensive educational criteria. An improving evidence base in the quality of neurology education will be important to reduce neurophobia. © 2013 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2013 EFNS.
Forestier, Romain; Erol Forestier, Fatma Begüm; Francon, Alain
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a public health problem that will probably increase in the future with the aging of the population. Crenobalneotherapy is commonly used to treat OA, but evidence from previous reviews was not sufficient. This systematic review aimed to identify the best evidence for the clinical effect of crenobalneotherapy for knee OA. We systematically searched MEDLINE via PubMed, PEDRO and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for articles published up to September 2015. Articles were included if trials were comparative, if one or more of the subgroups had knee OA with separate data, and if spa therapy or any hydrotherapy techniques involving mineral water or mineral mud was compared to any other intervention or no treatment. Statistical validity, external validity and quality of side effects assessment were evaluated by personal checklists. Risk of bias was assessed by the CLEAR NTP. Treatments (hot mineral water baths, mud therapy, hot showers, and sometimes massage and supervised water exercises) delivered in spa centers across Europe and the Middle East seem to improve symptoms in knee OA. They may be effective for pain and function. There are conflicting results about the effect on quality of life and drug consumption. Improvements with spa therapy for knee OA appear to be clinically relevant until 3 to 6 months and sometimes 9 months. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Soltani, Ahmad; Ardalan, Ali; Darvishi Boloorani, Ali; Haghdoost, AliAkbar; Hosseinzadeh-Attar, Mohammad Javad
Proper shelter site selection is necessary for long-term welfare of earthquake affected people. This study aims to explore the criteria that need to be considered after earthquakes. Through a systematic review, 273 articles found that were published till April 2014. Among these, seven articles have been selected and analyzed for the criteria that they introduced for sheltering site selection after earthquakes. Out of 27 proposed criteria, accessibility and proximity to homes of affected people were stressed in all the papers. Moreover, seven other criteria were the same in most of the papers including suitable size, suitable distance from hazardous areas, geological hazards and land slope, suitable distance from medical centers, water supply and Security. We categorized all the mentioned criteria in six main categories. Size and location, disaster risk reduction, relief and rescue facilities, feasibility of the site, environmental and social aspects are the main categories. Selection and applying proper criteria for shelter site selection after earthquakes is a multi-disciplinary task. The decision needs relevant models and/or tools. Geographic Information System (GIS) is a useful tool for this purpose. Key words: Disaster, earthquake, shelter, site selection, systematic review.
Pontes, Helena; Clément, Mallorie; Rollason, Victoria
Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) represent an important risk for patients and have a significant economic impact on health systems. ADRs are the fifth most common cause of hospital death, with a burden estimated at 197,000 deaths per year in the EU. This has a societal cost of 79 billion per year. Because of this strong impact in public health, regulatory authorities (RAs) worldwide are implementing new pharmacovigilance legislation to promote and protect public health by reducing the burden of ADRs through the detection of safety signals. Although, traditionally, signal detection activities have mainly been performed based on spontaneous reporting from healthcare professionals and national health RAs, the new pharmacovigilance legislation underlines the relevance of other sources of information (such as scientific literature) for the evaluation of the benefit-risk balance of a certain product. This review aims to highlight the relevance of periodic scientific literature screening in the safety signal detection process. The authors present four practical examples where a safety signal that was detected from a literature report had an impact on the lifecycle of a drug. In addition, based on practical experience of the screening of medical and scientific literature for safety purposes, this article analyses the requirements of the new pharmacovigilance guidelines on literature screening and highlights the need for the implementation of a literature review procedure and the main challenges encountered when performing literature screening for safety aspects.
Riethdorf, Sabine; Wikman, Harriet; Pantel, Klaus
The prognosis of cancer patients is largely determined by the occurrence of distant metastases. In patients with primary tumors, this relapse is mainly due to clinically occult micrometastasis present in secondary organs at primary diagnosis but not detectable even with high resolution imaging procedures. Sensitive and specific immunocytochemical and molecular assays enable the detection and characterization of disseminated tumor cells (DTC) at the single cell level in bone marrow (BM) as the common homing site of DTC and circulating tumor cells (CTC) in peripheral blood. Because of the high variability of results in DTC and CTC detection, there is an urgent need for standardized methods. In this review, we will focus on BM and present currently available methods for the detection and characterization of DTC. Furthermore, we will discuss data on the biology of DTC and the clinical relevance of DTC detection. While the prognostic impact of DTC in BM has clearly been shown for primary breast cancer patients, less is known about the clinical relevance of DTC in patients with other carcinomas. Current findings suggest that DTC are capable to survive chemotherapy and persist in a dormant nonproliferating state over years. To what extent these DTC have stem cell properties is subject of ongoing investigations. Further characterization is required to understand the biology of DTC and to identify new targets for improved risk prevention and tailoring of therapy. Our review will focus on breast, colon, lung, and prostate cancer as the main tumor entities in Europe and the United States.
Barbeiro, Fernanda Morena dos Santos; Fonseca, Sandra Costa; Tauffer, Mariana Girão; Ferreira, Mariana de Souza Santos; da Silva, Fagner Paulo; Ventura, Patrícia Mendonça; Quadros, Jesirée Iglesias
OBJECTIVE To review the frequency of and factors associated with fetal death in the Brazilian scientific literature. METHODS A systematic review of Brazilian studies on fetal deaths published between 2003 and 2013 was conducted. In total, 27 studies were analyzed; of these, 4 studies addressed the quality of data, 12 were descriptive studies, and 11 studies evaluated the factors associated with fetal death. The databases searched were PubMed and Lilacs, and data extraction and synthesis were independently performed by two or more examiners. RESULTS The level of completeness of fetal death certificates was deficient, both in the completion of variables, particularly sociodemographic variables, and in defining the underlying causes of death. Fetal deaths have decreased in Brazil; however, inequalities persist. Analysis of the causes of death indicated maternal morbidities that could be prevented and treated. The main factors associated with fetal deaths were absent or inadequate prenatal care, low education level, maternal morbidity, and adverse reproductive history. CONCLUSIONS Prenatal care should prioritize women that are most vulnerable (considering their social environment or their reproductive history and morbidities) with the aim of decreasing the fetal mortality rate in Brazil. Adequate completion of death certificates and investment in the committees that investigate fetal and infant deaths are necessary. PMID:25902565
Lee, Rachel M; Moore, Laura B; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Hotez, Peter J
Toxocariasis is an important neglected tropical disease that can manifest as visceral or ocular larva migrans, or covert toxocariasis. All three forms pose a public health problem and cause significant morbidity in areas of high prevalence. To determine the burden of toxocariasis in North America, we conducted a systematic review of the literature following PRISMA guidelines. We found 18 articles with original prevalence, incidence, or case data for toxocariasis. Prevalence estimates ranged from 0.6% in a Canadian Inuit community to 30.8% in Mexican children with asthma. Commonly cited risk factors included: African-American race, poverty, male sex, and pet ownership or environmental contamination by animal feces. Increased prevalence of Toxocara spp. infection was linked in a group of case control studies conducted in Mexico to several high risk groups including waste pickers, asthmatic children, and inpatient psychiatry patients. Further research is needed to determine the true current burden of toxocariasis in North America; however the prevalence estimates gathered in this review suggest that the burden of disease is significant.
Rachel M Lee
Full Text Available Toxocariasis is an important neglected tropical disease that can manifest as visceral or ocular larva migrans, or covert toxocariasis. All three forms pose a public health problem and cause significant morbidity in areas of high prevalence. To determine the burden of toxocariasis in North America, we conducted a systematic review of the literature following PRISMA guidelines. We found 18 articles with original prevalence, incidence, or case data for toxocariasis. Prevalence estimates ranged from 0.6% in a Canadian Inuit community to 30.8% in Mexican children with asthma. Commonly cited risk factors included: African-American race, poverty, male sex, and pet ownership or environmental contamination by animal feces. Increased prevalence of Toxocara spp. infection was linked in a group of case control studies conducted in Mexico to several high risk groups including waste pickers, asthmatic children, and inpatient psychiatry patients. Further research is needed to determine the true current burden of toxocariasis in North America; however the prevalence estimates gathered in this review suggest that the burden of disease is significant.
Fernanda Morena dos Santos Barbeiro
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To review the frequency of and factors associated with fetal death in the Brazilian scientific literature. METHODS A systematic review of Brazilian studies on fetal deaths published between 2003 and 2013 was conducted. In total, 27 studies were analyzed; of these, 4 studies addressed the quality of data, 12 were descriptive studies, and 11 studies evaluated the factors associated with fetal death. The databases searched were PubMed and Lilacs, and data extraction and synthesis were independently performed by two or more examiners. RESULTS The level of completeness of fetal death certificates was deficient, both in the completion of variables, particularly sociodemographic variables, and in defining the underlying causes of death. Fetal deaths have decreased in Brazil; however, inequalities persist. Analysis of the causes of death indicated maternal morbidities that could be prevented and treated. The main factors associated with fetal deaths were absent or inadequate prenatal care, low education level, maternal morbidity, and adverse reproductive history. CONCLUSIONS Prenatal care should prioritize women that are most vulnerable (considering their social environment or their reproductive history and morbidities with the aim of decreasing the fetal mortality rate in Brazil. Adequate completion of death certificates and investment in the committees that investigate fetal and infant deaths are necessary.
Schoenberg, Poppy L A; David, Anthony S
Biofeedback potentially provides non-invasive, effective psychophysiological interventions for psychiatric disorders. The encompassing purpose of this review was to establish how biofeedback interventions have been used to treat select psychiatric disorders [anxiety, autistic spectrum disorders, depression, dissociation, eating disorders, schizophrenia and psychoses] to date and provide a useful reference for consultation by clinicians and researchers planning to administer a biofeedback treatment. A systematic search of EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and WOK databases and hand searches in Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, and Journal of Neurotherapy, identified 227 articles; 63 of which are included within this review. Electroencephalographic neurofeedback constituted the most investigated modality (31.7%). Anxiety disorders were the most commonly treated (68.3%). Multi-modal biofeedback appeared most effective in significantly ameliorating symptoms, suggesting that targeting more than one physiological modality for bio-regulation increases therapeutic efficacy. Overall, 80.9% of articles reported some level of clinical amelioration related to biofeedback exposure, 65.0% to a statistically significant (p biofeedback interventions within mainstream psychiatry.
Kreitschmann-Andermahr, I; Siegel, S; Weber Carneiro, R; Maubach, J M; Harbeck, B; Brabant, G
Headache is very common in pituitary disease and is reported to be present in more than a third of all patients with pituitary adenomas. Tumour size, cavernous sinus invasion, traction or displacement of intracranial pain-sensitive structures such as blood vessels, cranial nerves and dura mater, and hormonal hypersecretion are implicated causes. The present review attempts to systematically review the literature for any combination of headache and pituitary or hormone overproduction or deficiency. Most data available are retrospective and/or not based on the International Headache Society (IHS) classification. Whereas in pituitary apoplexy a mechanical component explains the almost universal association of the condition with headaches, this correlation is less clear in other forms of pituitary disease and a positive impact of surgery on headaches is not guaranteed. Similarly, invasion into the cavernous sinus or local inflammatory changes have been linked to headaches without convincing evidence. Some studies suggest that oversecretion of GH and prolactin may be important for the development of headaches, and treatment, particularly with somatostatin analogues, has been shown to improve symptoms in these patients. Otherwise, treatment rests on general treatment options for headaches based on an accurate clinical history and a precise classification which includes assessment of the patient's psychosocial risk factors.
Full Text Available The idea of a sustainable agriculture has gained prominence since the publication of the Brundtland Report in 1987. Yet, the concept of sustainable agriculture is very vague and ambiguous in its meaning, which renders its use and implementation extremely difficult. In this systematic review paper, we aim to advance understandings of sustainable agriculture from a social science and governance perspective by identifying areas of complementarity and concern between emerging definitions of sustainable agriculture. For this purpose, we conducted a structured literature review in combination with a cluster analysis in order to (1 identify the overall ideas and aspects associated with sustainable agriculture; (2 detect patterns and differences in how these ideas and aspects are adopted or applied; (3 evaluate how the different ideas and aspects of sustainable agriculture are combined in the scientific debate, and assess whether these different conceptions match with those that have been claimed to exist in the debate. There are two valuable outcomes from this research. The first is a framework for understanding the components of sustainable agriculture. The second outcome is in highlighting ways for actors involved with sustainable agriculture to deal with the complexity and multiplicity of this concept in a constructive manner.
Botelho, Francisco; Pina, Francisco; Lunet, Nuno
Elevated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) blood concentration reflects its prostatic production, making this a potentially interesting tumour marker to support the decision of submitting a patient for prostatic biopsy. The objective was to review systematically the evidence on the role of VEGF blood concentration in prostate cancer detection. Published studies addressing the relation between serum or plasma VEGF levels and prostate cancer were identified by searching Pubmed, ISI Web of Knowledge, SCOPUS and LILACS up to January 2010, and reviewed following a standardized protocol. Three studies reported higher plasma VEGF (pg/ml) in patients with localized prostate cancer than in healthy controls (7.0 vs. 0.0, 9.9 vs. 2.2, and 210 vs. 26.5, Pprostate cancer patients than in patients with benign prostate hypertrophy (518.9 vs. 267.9, Pbenign prostate hypertrophy, localized or metastatic prostate cancer. The three studies that used controls with previous suspicion of prostatic cancer but a negative biopsy reported non-statistically significant difference in VEGF serum levels (pg/ml) between controls and localized prostate cancer patients (241 vs. 206; 69.5 vs. 55; 215.2 vs. 266.4). Higher VEGF plasma levels are observed in prostatic cancer patients compared with healthy controls, but serum levels do not appear to be useful in differentiating benign from malignant prostatic disease using, as controls, individuals with high risk of prostate cancer and negative biopsy.
Thys, Erik; Sabbe, Bernard; De Hert, Marc
The possible link between creativity and psychopathology has been a long-time focus of research up to the present day. However, the research results in this field are heterogeneous and contradictory. Links between creativity and specific psychiatric disorders have been confirmed and refuted in different studies. This disparity is partly explained by the methodological challenges peculiar to this field. In this systematic review of the literature from 1950, research articles in the field of creativity and psychopathology are presented, focusing on the methodology and results of the collected studies. This review confirms the methodological problems and the heterogeneity of the study designs and results. The assessment of psychopathology, but more so of creativity, remains a fundamental challenge. On the whole, study results cautiously confirm an association between creativity and both bipolar disorder and schizotypy. The research on creativity and psychopathology is hampered by serious methodological problems. Study results are to be interpreted with caution and future research needs more methodological rigor. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Alexandre Emidio Ribeiro Silva
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Identifying, through a systematic literature review, evidence of a possible association between obesity and dental caries. METHODS A search of articles published between 2005 and January 2012 was performed in the Medline/PubMed, LILACS and Web of Science databases. The quality of scientific evidence of the selected articles was assessed by the items proposed for observational studies in the Downs & Black instrument. RESULTS Initially, 537 references were found; after checking the titles and abstracts by two independent researchers, twenty-eight articles were selected for complete reading. Ten of them that assessed the primary and/or permanent dentition observed a positive association between obesity and dental caries and one study found an inverse association. According to the Downs & Black classification, thirteen articles with good scientific evidence were found. CONCLUSIONS The present review did not find sufficient evidence regarding the association between obesity and dental caries, and it did not clarify the possible role of diet and other possible effect modifiers on this association.
Oh, Soo Hee; Lee, Junghak
The present report provides an overview of terminology studies in audiology including topics and study characteristics, as well as categorizing the main issues. The goals are to improve the understanding of the current issues for terminology in audiology and to provide some basic information that will be useful to develop an international standard. Search procedures were completed over two phases. Phase 1 included a systematic electronic searches using MEDLINE (PubMed), Excerpta Medica Database, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and International Organization for Standardization with keywords related to terminology of audiology. The studies were initially identified according to the titles of 2921 publications following careful abstract examination. Of these, whole texts of 16 publications were retrieved. Five papers met the inclusion criteria were further investigated. In phase 2, a manual search was conducted to collect additional publications with keywords related to terminology project in audiology. A total of 16 papers were found. The essential terminology issues classified included 'appropriateness,' 'classification/framework,' 'inconsistency of terminology,' 'multilingual and international aspects,' and 'service quality/delivery including communication and accessibility.' This was indicative of the paucity of terminology research in audiology, despite recurring terminology issues. Establishment of standardized terminology in audiology may minimize current challenging terminology issues by improving appropriateness and consistency of terminology as well as communication among relevant stakeholders at national and international levels.
Zaugg, Vincent; Savoldelli, Virginie; Sabatier, Brigitte; Durieux, Pierre
The number of intervention studies designed to improve quality of care is increasing exponentially, making it difficult to access all available information on a given subject. Systematic reviews are tools that provide health professionals with comprehensive and objective information. This article describes the main phases of a systematic review: formulating the research question, search and selection of studies, data extraction and analysis, assessment of the methodological quality of studies, and synthesis of the results. Interventions designed to improve professional practices and organisation of care have specific characteristics that determine the methodology of systematic reviews. For example, the often substantial heterogeneity between populations, organisations, and intervention settings among studies must be taken into account, which makes meta-analysis more difficult. Knowledge on specific features of systematic reviews designed to improve quality of care is essential to ensure a good review of the literature, or to evaluate the level of evidence of published systematic reviews.
Aqueous solutions of the four highest vanadium oxidation states exhibit four diverse colors, which only hint at the diverse reactions that these ions can undergo. Cationic vanadium ions form complexes with ligands; anionic vanadium ions form complexes with ligands and self-react to form isopolyanions. All vanadium species undergo oxidation-reduction reactions. With a few exceptions, elucidation of the dynamics of these reactions awaited the development of fast reaction techniques before the kinetics of elementary ligation, condensation, reduction, and oxidation of the aqueous vanadium ions could be investigated. As the biological roles played by endogenous and therapeutic vanadium expand, it is appropriate to bring the results of the diverse kinetics studies under one umbrella. To achieve this goal this review presents a systematic examination of elementary aqueous vanadium ion dynamics.
Dudden, Rosalind F; Protzko, Shandra L
While the role of the librarian as an expert searcher in the systematic review process is widely recognized, librarians also can be enlisted to help systematic review teams with other challenges. This article reviews the contributions of librarians to systematic reviews, including communicating methods of the review process, collaboratively formulating the research question and exclusion criteria, formulating the search strategy on a variety of databases, documenting the searches, record keeping, and writing the search methodology. It also discusses challenges encountered such as irregular timelines, providing education, communication, and learning new technologies for record keeping. Rewards include building relationships with researchers, expanding professional expertise, and receiving recognition for contributions to health care outcomes.
: The following EMs were used: pain free at two hours (30%), headache relief at two hours (60%), sustained pain free for 24 hours (19%) and sustained headache relief for 24 hours (39%). These EMs were also used in four other Cochrane reviews of acute migraine treatment. Of these EMs sustained headache relief...... for 24 h is not judged clinically relevant. CONCLUSION: Pain free and sustained pain free are clinically relevant, but the responses are rather low, demonstrating that there is a need for improvement of acute drug treatment in migraine.......BACKGROUND: Cochrane Reviews are methodologically of high quality but the clinical relevance of analysed efficacy measures (EMs) should also be assessed. METHODS: The clinical relevance of EMs used in one systematic Cochrane review of oral zolmitriptan for migraine headache was evaluated. RESULTS...
O'Dwyer, Tom; O'Shea, Finbar; Wilson, Fiona
To evaluate the effects of therapeutic exercise on pain, stiffness, quality of life, physical function, disease activity, health-related fitness and cardiovascular risk factors in adults with spondyloarthritis (SpA). Electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, MEDLINE/PubMed, PEDro, AMED, CINAHL) were systematically searched from inception to October 2013 using medical subject headings and keywords. This was supplemented by searching conference abstracts and a hand search of reference lists of included studies. Randomised and quasi-randomised studies of adults with SpA in which at least one of the comparison groups received an exercise intervention were included. Outcomes of interest were pain, stiffness, quality of life, physical function and disease activity. Secondary outcomes were health-related fitness and cardiovascular risk factors. Two reviewers independently screened studies for inclusion. Methodological quality was assessed by two reviewers using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and the PEDro scale. Twenty-four studies, involving 1,498 participants, were included. Meta-analyses were not undertaken due to clinical heterogeneity, and this review focuses on qualitative synthesis. Moderate evidence supports exercise interventions in improving physical function, disease activity and chest expansion compared to controls; there is low-level evidence of improved pain, stiffness, spinal mobility and cardiorespiratory function. Supervised group exercise yields better outcomes than unsupervised home exercise. The addition of aerobic components to flexibility programmes improves cardiorespiratory outcomes, but not cardiovascular risk factors. The most effective exercise protocol remains unclear. Current evidence suggests that therapeutic exercises are beneficial for adults with ankylosing spondylitis; effects on other SpA subtypes are unknown.
Gual-Vaqués, Patricia; Jané-Salas, Enric; Egido-Moreno, Sonia; Ayuso-Montero, Raúl; Marí-Roig, Antoni
Introduction Inflammatory papillary hyperplasia (IPH) is a benign lesion of the palatal mucosa. It is usually found in denture-wearers but also has been reported in patients without a history of use of a maxillary prosthesis use. Objetives The aim of this study is to review the literature to assess the prevalence of denture stomatitis and inflammatory papillary hyperplasia and the etiological factors associated. Material and Methods A search was carried out in PubMed (January 2005 to October 2015) with the key words “inflammatory papillary hyperplasia”, “denture stomatitis”, “granular stomatitis” and “Newton’s type III” The inclusion criteria were studies including at least a sample of 50 apparently healthy patients, articles published from 2005 to 2015 written in English. The exclusion criteria were reviews and non-human studies. Results Out of the 190 studies obtained initially from the search 16 articles were selected to be included in our systematic review. The prevalence of denture stomatitis was 29.56% and 4.44% for IPH. We found 5 cases of denture stomatitis among non-denture-wearer individuals. All IPH cases were associated with the use of prosthesis. Smoking and continued use of ill-fitting dentures turned out to be the most frequent risk factors for developing IPH. Conclusions IPH is a rare oral lesion and its pathogenesis still remains unclear. Its presentation among non-denture-wearers is extremely unusual. Key words:Inflammatory papillary hyperplasia, denture stomatitis, prevalence, granular stomatitis, Newton’s type III stomatitis. PMID:27918740
Moran, Victoria Hall; Morgan, Heather; Rothnie, Kieran; MacLennan, Graeme; Stewart, Fiona; Thomson, Gillian; Crossland, Nicola; Tappin, David; Campbell, Marion; Hoddinott, Pat
Few women in industrialized countries achieve the World Health Organization's recommendation to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months. Governments are increasingly seeking new interventions to address this problem, including the use of incentives. The goal of this study was to assess the evidence regarding the effectiveness of incentive interventions, delivered within or outside of health care settings, to individuals and/or their families seeking to increase and sustain breastfeeding in the first 6 months after birth. Searches of electronic databases, reference lists, and grey literature were conducted to identify relevant reports of published, unpublished, and ongoing studies. All study designs published in English, which met our definition of incentives and that were from a developed country, were eligible for inclusion. Abstract and full-text article review with sequential data extraction were conducted by 2 independent authors. Sixteen full reports were included in the review. The majority evaluated multicomponent interventions of varying frequency, intensity, and duration. Incentives involved providing access to breast pumps, gifts, vouchers, money, food packages, and help with household tasks, but little consensus in findings was revealed. The lack of high-quality, randomized controlled trials identified by this review and the multicomponent nature of the interventions prohibited meta-analysis. This review found that the overall effect of providing incentives for breastfeeding compared with no incentives is unclear due to study heterogeneity and the variation in study quality. Further evidence on breastfeeding incentives offered to women is required to understand the possible effects of these interventions. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Burson, Randall C.; Buttenheim, Alison M.; Armstrong, Allison; Feemster, Kristen A.
ABSTRACT Vaccine-preventable deaths among adults remain a major public health concern, despite continued efforts to increase vaccination rates in this population. Alternative approaches to immunization delivery may help address under-vaccination among adults. This systematic review assesses the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of community pharmacies as sites for adult vaccination. We searched 5 electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Cochrane, LILACS) for studies published prior to June 2016 and identified 47 relevant articles. We found that pharmacy-based immunization services (PBIS) have been facilitated by state regulatory changes and training programs that allow pharmacists to directly provide vaccinations. These services are widely accepted by both patients and pharmacy staff, and are capable of improving access and increasing vaccination rates. However, political and organizational barriers limit the feasibility and effectiveness of vaccine delivery in pharmacies. These studies provide evidence to inform policy and organizational efforts that promote the efficacy and sustainability of PBIS. PMID:27715409
Bamberger, Simon Grandjean; Vinding, Anker Lund; Larsen, Anelia; Nielsen, Peter; Fonager, Kirsten; Nielsen, René Nesgaard; Ryom, Pia; Omland, Øyvind
Although limited evidence is available, organisational change is often cited as the cause of mental health problems. This paper provides an overview of the current literature regarding the impact of organisational change on mental health. A systematic search in PUBMED, PsychInfo and Web of Knowledge combining MeSH search terms for exposure and outcome. The criterion for inclusion was original data on exposure to organisational change with mental health problems as outcome. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies were included. We found in 11 out of 17 studies, an association between organisational change and elevated risk of mental health problems was observed, with a less provident association in the longitudinal studies. Based on the current research, this review cannot provide sufficient evidence of an association between organisational change and elevated risk of mental health problems. More studies of long-term effects are required including relevant analyses of confounders.
Schwanke, Enno; Krischel, Matthis; Gross, Dominik
Compared to the rich literature on Nazi medicine in general, the connection between dentists and National Socialism is less well documented. Neither the elites of the field from this era nor those excluded from the profession are catalogued in a systematic manner. The aims of this contribution are to assemble and review the relevant literature and show how German dentistry organizations have handled this chapter of their professional history. Trends in the literature since the 1980s are examined and it is pointed out, which areas have received some attention and which have not yet been addressed. Thus, this contribution will serve as both the basis and the starting point for new research into the field.
Wren, Tishya A L; Gorton, George E; Ounpuu, Sylvia; Tucker, Carole A
The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate and summarize the current evidence base related to the clinical efficacy of gait analysis. A literature review was conducted to identify references related to human gait analysis published between January 2000 and September 2009 plus relevant older references. The references were assessed independently by four reviewers using a hierarchical model of efficacy adapted for gait analysis, and final scores were agreed upon by at least three of the four reviewers. 1528 references were identified relating to human instrumented gait analysis. Of these, 116 original articles addressed technical accuracy efficacy, 89 addressed diagnostic accuracy efficacy, 11 addressed diagnostic thinking and treatment efficacy, seven addressed patient outcomes efficacy, and one addressed societal efficacy, with some of the articles addressing multiple levels of efficacy. This body of literature provides strong evidence for the technical, diagnostic accuracy, diagnostic thinking and treatment efficacy of gait analysis. The existing evidence also indicates efficacy at the higher levels of patient outcomes and societal cost-effectiveness, but this evidence is more sparse and does not include any randomized controlled trials. Thus, the current evidence supports the clinical efficacy of gait analysis, particularly at the lower levels of efficacy, but additional research is needed to strengthen the evidence base at the higher levels of efficacy.
Rankin, Jocelyn A; Grefsheim, Suzanne F; Canto, Candace C
A systematic literature review was conducted to synthesize what is known about informationists, highlight program models, and suggest areas for future research. Articles retrieved through database searching were reviewed for relevance. Informationist case reports were identified and coded according to an attributes checklist. Data from other retained publications were synthesized under broad themes. The few research studies found were reviewed for level of evidence. Of 113 papers reviewed, the study identified 7 classic and 8 emerging informationist programs. Two major models are apparent, clinical and research, with priorities differing according to program maturity. The literature synthesis also brought together current thinking about informationist qualifications; practice roles; setting characteristics; education and training; organizational, programmatic, and service provider success factors; and challenges and barriers. Program outcomes to date are reported, and future research topics suggested. Specific findings will assist informationist program planners. While the informationist concept remains in the early adopter stage, it appears that domain knowledge, continuous learning, and embedding (working in context) are essential to success. The need for librarians to transition to greater specialization and libraries to emphasize customized service was underscored. A research agenda focused on information management, dissemination, behaviors, and economics is proposed.
O'Sullivan, Kate; Newman, Emily F
There is a growing body of literature investigating the neuropsychological profile of panic disorder (PD), some of which suggests potential cognitive dysfunction. This paper systematically reviews the existing literature on neuropsychological performance in PD. PsycINFO, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycARTICLES databases were searched to identify articles reporting on neuropsychological function in PD published in English during the time period 1980 to March 2012. 14 studies were identified. There was limited support for impairment in short term memory among individuals with PD, although this was not found across all studies. Overall, the reviewed studies did not support the presence of impairment in other areas of cognitive functioning, including executive function, long term memory, visuospatial or perceptual abilities and working memory. Studies with samples of fewer than 15 participants per group were excluded from this review. A limited amount of research has been published on this topic and small sample sizes (under 25 per group) have been used by many studies. Therefore, the current review is based on a small number of studies with limited power. There is limited evidence of specific neuropsychological impairments in participants with PD. Impairments in short term memory warrant further investigation to establish their relevance to clinical practice. Larger sample sizes and appropriate statistical adjustment for multiple comparisons in future studies is highly recommended. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Colpani, Verônica; Bidinotto, Augusto Bacelo; Falavigna, Maicon; Giozza, Silvana Pereira; Benzaken, Adele Schwartz; Pimenta, Cristina; Maranhão, Ana Goretti Kalume; Domingues, Carla Magda Allan Santos; Hammes, Luciano Serpa; Wendland, Eliana M
Introduction Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a cause of premalignant and malignant cancer in the lower genital and digestive tracts. In Brazil, there have been no prevalence studies that included a nationwide sample, and the prevalence of HPV has not been determined in many regions. Methods We will search the EMBASE, LILACS, MEDLINE, Web of Science and SciELO databases and previously published review articles to identify original research articles assessing HPV prevalence of the perineal (cervical, penile and anal) and oral areas. No exclusion criteria related to language or publication date will apply. 2 reviewers will independently screen for eligibility and perform data extraction. Discrepancies will be resolved through consensus; the opinion of a third reviewer will be sought as necessary. Relevant measures and data about study and population characteristics will be extracted from the included studies. Where possible, study prevalence will be pooled using a random-effects meta-analysis. The methodological quality of the studies will be assessed using an adapted version of the NIH ‘Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies’. The overall quality of evidence will be assessed using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). Ethics and dissemination We expect to estimate the prevalence of perineal and oral HPV infection in the general population as well as the prevalence of HPV infection in individuals with premalignant and malignant lesions in Brazil and its 5 geographic regions. This systematic review does not require ethical approval. Trial registration number CRD42016032751. PMID:27881522
Paal, Piret; Helo, Yousef; Frick, Eckhard
This systematic review was conducted to assess the outcomes of spiritual care training. It outlines the training outcomes based on participants' oral/written feedback, course evaluation and performance assessment. Intervention was defined as any form of spiritual care training provided to healthcare professionals studying/working in an academic and/or clinical setting. An online search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, ERIC, PsycINFO, ASSIA, CSA, ATLA and CENTRAL up to Week 27 of 2013 by two independent investigators to reduce errors in inclusion. Only peer-reviewed journal articles reporting on training outcomes were included. A primary keyword-driven search found 4912 articles; 46 articles were identified as relevant for final analysis. The narrative synthesis of findings outlines the following outcomes: (1) acknowledging spirituality on an individual level, (2) success in integrating spirituality in clinical practice, (3) positive changes in communication with patients. This study examines primarily pre/post-effects within a single cohort. Due to an average study quality, the reported findings in this review are to be seen as indicators at most. Nevertheless, this review makes evident that without attending to one'the repeliefs and needs, addressing spirituality in patients will not be forthcoming. It also demonstrates that spiritual care training may help to challenge the spiritual vacuum in healthcare institutions.
Sohn, Kyungwoo; Jeong, Ansuk; Yoon, Miyoung; Lee, Sunkyung; Hwang, Sangmoon; Chae, Han
A systematic review on studies related to the genetic characteristics of Sasang types was conducted with the goal of delineating genetic characteristics of Sasang typology. Six electronic databases of up to the March 2011 were examined with the key words of Sasang typology, constitution, and genetics in both Korean and English. Predefined review criteria were used, including demographic characteristics, type classification methods, genotyping methods, and genotypes. Fifty-nine potentially relevant studies were identified and 40 peer reviewed research articles that contained genetic data were included. Fourteen articles reported statistically significant differences among Sasang types, which are heritability, structural variation, genome-wide screening, and pathophysiological function. Although significant genotypes were reported with vWA, CSF1PO, Penta D, HLA-Cw*04, HLA-Cw*07, PPAR-γ, MDR1, IL-α, IL-β, and IL-6 receptor, results of the review indicate that there was no conclusive genotype related to the Sasang typology. Considering the features of Sasang typology, it is recommended that the macroscopic systems medical approach on genetics be employed, rather than the single genes association approach.
Najafi, Behzad; Farzadfar, Farshad; Ghaderi, Hossein; Hadian, Mohammad
Although studies reported diabetes mellitus screening cost effective, the mass screening for type2 diabetes remains controversial. In this study we reviewed the recently evidence about the cost effectiveness of mass screening systematically. We reviewed the MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science (WOS), and Cochrane library databases by MeSH terms to identify relevant studies from 2000 to 2013. We had 4 inclusion and 6 exclusion criteria and used the Drummond's checklist for appraising the quality of studies. The initial search yielded 358 potentially related studies from selected databases. 6 studies met our inclusion and exclusion criteria and included in final review. 3 and 2 of them were conducted in Europe and America and only one of them in Asia. Quality-adjusted life year (QALY) was the main outcome to appraise the effectiveness in the studies. Incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) was computed in range from $516.33 to $126,238 per QALY in the studies. A review of previous diabetes screening cost effectiveness analysis showed that the studies varied in some aspects but reached similar conclusions. They concluded that the screening may be cost effective, however further studies is required to support the diabetes mass screening.
Manuel Nienkemper; Jörg Handschel; Dieter Drescher
A growing number of studies have reported that mini-implants do not remain in exactly the same position during treatment, although they remain stable. The aim of this review was to collect data regarding primary displacement immediately straight after loading and secondary displacement over time. A systematic review was performed to investigate primary and secondary displacement. The amount and type of displacement were recorded. A total of 27 studies were included. Sixteen in vitro studies or studies using finite element analysis addressed primary displacement, and nine clinical studies and two animal studies addressed secondary displacement. Significant primary displacement was detected (6.4-24.4 mm) for relevant orthodontic forces (0.5-2.5 N). The mean secondary displacement ranged from 0 to 2.7 mm for entire mini-implants. The maximum values for each clinical study ranged from 1.0 to 4.1 mm for the head, 1.0 to 1.5 for the body and 1.0 to 1.92 mm for the tail part. The most frequent type of movement was controlled tipping or bodily movement. Primary displacement did not reach a clinically significant level. However, clinicians can expect relevant secondary displacement in the direction of force. Consequently, decentralized insertion within the inter-radicular space, away from force direction, might be favourable. More evidence is needed to provide quantitative recommendations.
Ubbink Dirk T
Full Text Available Abstract Background Various agents and techniques have been introduced to limit intra-operative blood loss from skin lesions. No uniformity regarding the type of haemostasis exists and this is generally based on the surgeon's preference. To study the effectiveness of haemostatic agents, standardized wounds like donor site wounds after split skin grafting (SSG appear particularly suitable. Thus, we performed a systematic review to assess the effectiveness of haemostatic agents in donor site wounds. Methods We searched all randomized clinical trials (RCTs on haemostasis after SSG in Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library until January 2011. Two reviewers independently assessed trial relevance and quality and performed data analysis. Primary endpoint was effectiveness regarding haemostasis. Secondary endpoints were wound healing, adverse effects, and costs. Results Nine relevant RCTs with a fair methodological quality were found, comparing epinephrine, thrombin, fibrin sealant, alginate dressings, saline, and mineral oil. Epinephrine achieved haemostasis significantly faster than thrombin (difference up to 2.5 minutes, saline or mineral oil (up to 6.5 minutes. Fibrin sealant also resulted in an up to 1 minute quicker haemostasis than thrombin and up to 3 minutes quicker than placebo, but was not directly challenged against epinephrine. Adverse effects appeared negligible. Due to lack of clinical homogeneity, meta-analysis was impossible. Conclusion According to best available evidence, epinephrine and fibrin sealant appear superior to achieve haemostasis when substantial topical blood loss is anticipated, particularly in case of (larger SSGs and burn debridement.
Amanda K Holland
Full Text Available There is an ongoing debate over the extent to which language development shares common processing mechanisms with other domains of learning. It is well-established that toddlers will systematically extend object labels to similarly-shaped category exemplars (e.g., Landau, Smith, & Jones, 1988; Markman & Hutchinson, 1984. However, previous research is inconclusive as to whether young children will similarly extend factual information about an object to other category members. We explicitly contrast facts varying in category relevance, and test for extension using two different tasks. Three- to four-year-olds (N = 61 were provided with one of three types of information about a single novel object: a category-relevant fact (‘it’s from a place called Modi’, a category-irrelevant fact (‘my uncle gave it to me’, or an object label (‘it’s called a Modi’. At test, children provided with the object name or category-relevant fact were significantly more likely to display systematic category extension than children who learnt the category-irrelevant fact. Our findings contribute to a growing body of evidence that the mechanisms responsible for word learning may be domain-general in nature.
Holland, Amanda K; Mather, Emily; Simpson, Andrew; Riggs, Kevin J
There is an ongoing debate over the extent to which language development shares common processing mechanisms with other domains of learning. It is well-established that toddlers will systematically extend object labels to similarly shaped category exemplars (e.g., Markman and Hutchinson, 1984; Landau et al., 1988). However, previous research is inconclusive as to whether young children will similarly extend factual information about an object to other category members. We explicitly contrast facts varying in category relevance, and test for extension using two different tasks. Three- to four-year-olds (N = 61) were provided with one of three types of information about a single novel object: a category-relevant fact ('it's from a place called Modi'), a category-irrelevant fact ('my uncle gave it to me'), or an object label ('it's called a Modi'). At test, children provided with the object name or category-relevant fact were significantly more likely to display systematic category extension than children who learnt the category-irrelevant fact. Our findings contribute to a growing body of evidence that the mechanisms responsible for word learning may be domain-general in nature.
O'Callaghan, Clare; Bonde, Lars Ole; Rickson, Daphne
This paper describes the kinds of literature reviews found in music therapy writings and offers ideas for authors preparing literature reviews related to their clinical practice and research. It includes a description of systematic review and lists samples of literature reviews and systematic...... reviews conducted in music therapy....
El Ghoch, Marwan; Soave, Fabio; Calugi, Simona; Dalle Grave, Riccardo
Background: Eating disorders are health problems that are particularly prevalent in adolescents and young adults. They are associated with considerable physical health and psychosocial morbidity, and increased risk of mortality. We set out to conduct a systematic review to determine their effect on physical fitness in the general population and on sport performance in athletes. Methods/Design: A systematic review of the relevant peer-reviewed literature was performed. For inclusion, articles retrieved from PubMed had to be published in English between 1977 and 2013. Wherever possible, methods and reporting adhere to the guidelines outlined in the PRISMA statement. Some additional studies were retrieved from among those cited in the reference lists of included studies and from non-electronic databases. Literature searches, study selection, method and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data was synthesized using a narrative approach. Results: Of the 1183 articles retrieved, twenty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria and were consequently analysed. The available data indicate that eating disorders have a negative effect on physical fitness and sport performance by causing low energy availability, excessive loss of fat and lean mass, dehydration, and electrolyte disturbance. Discussion: Although the paucity of the available data mean that findings to date should be interpreted with caution, the information collated in this review has several practical implications. First, eating disorders have a negative effect on both physical fitness and sport performance. Second athletics coaches should be targeted for education about the risk factors of eating disorders, as deterioration in sport performance in athletes, particularly if they are underweight or show other signs of an eating disorder, may indicate the need for medical intervention. However, future studies are needed, especially to assess the direct effect of eating disorders on
Marwan El Ghoch
Full Text Available Background: Eating disorders are health problems that are particularly prevalent in adolescents and young adults. They are associated with considerable physical health and psychosocial morbidity, and increased risk of mortality. We set out to conduct a systematic review to determine their effect on physical fitness in the general population and on sport performance in athletes. Methods/Design: A systematic review of the relevant peer-reviewed literature was performed. For inclusion, articles retrieved from PubMed had to be published in English between 1977 and 2013. Wherever possible, methods and reporting adhere to the guidelines outlined in the PRISMA statement. Some additional studies were retrieved from among those cited in the reference lists of included studies and from non-electronic databases. Literature searches, study selection, method and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data was synthesized using a narrative approach. Results: Of the 1183 articles retrieved, twenty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria and were consequently analysed. The available data indicate that eating disorders have a negative effect on physical fitness and sport performance by causing low energy availability, excessive loss of fat and lean mass, dehydration, and electrolyte disturbance. Discussion: Although the paucity of the available data mean that findings to date should be interpreted with caution, the information collated in this review has several practical implications. First, eating disorders have a negative effect on both physical fitness and sport performance. Second athletics coaches should be targeted for education about the risk factors of eating disorders, as deterioration in sport performance in athletes, particularly if they are underweight or show other signs of an eating disorder, may indicate the need for medical intervention. However, future studies are needed, especially to assess the direct effect of
Full Text Available Gynecomastia and/or mastodynia is a common medical problem in patients receiving antiandrogen (bicalutamide or flutamide treatment for prostate cancer; up to 70% of these patients result to be affected; furthermore, this can jeopardise patients' quality of life.To systematically review the quality of evidence of the current literature regarding treatment options for bicalutamide-induced gynecomastia, including efficacy, safety and patients' quality of life.The PubMed, Medline, Scopus, The Cochrane Library and SveMed+ databases were systematically searched between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2014. All searches were undertaken between January and February 2015. The search phrase used was:"gynecomastia AND treatment AND prostate cancer". Two reviewers assessed 762 titles and abstracts identified. The search and review process was done in accordance with the PRISMA statement. The PICOS (patients, intervention, comparator, outcomes and study design process was used to specify inclusion criteria. Quality of evidence was rated according to GRADE.Primary outcomes were: treatment effects, number of complications and side effects. Secondary outcome was: Quality of Life.Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria and are analysed in this review. Five studies reported pharmacological intervention with tamoxifen and/or anastrozole, either as prophylactic or therapeutic treatment. Four studies reported radiotherapy as prophylactic and/or therapeutic treatment. Two studies compared pharmacological treatment to radiotherapy. Most of the studies were randomized with varying risk of bias. According to GRADE, quality of evidence was moderate to high.Bicalutamide-induced gynecomastia and/or mastodynia can effectively be managed by oral tamoxifen (10-20 mg daily or radiotherapy without relevant side effects. Prophylaxis or therapeutic treatment with tamoxifen results to be more effective than radiotherapy.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews are used widely to guide health care decisions. Several tools have been created to assess systematic review quality. The measurement tool for assessing the methodological quality of systematic reviews known as the AMSTAR tool applies a yes/no score to eleven relevant domains of review methodology. This tool has been reworked so that each domain is scored based on a four point scale, producing R-AMSTAR. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We aimed to compare the AMSTAR and R-AMSTAR tools in assessing systematic reviews in the field of assisted reproduction for subfertility. All published systematic reviews on assisted reproductive technology, with the latest search for studies taking place from 2007-2011, were considered. Reviews that contained no included studies or considered diagnostic outcomes were excluded. Thirty each of Cochrane and non-Cochrane reviews were randomly selected from a search of relevant databases. Both tools were then applied to all sixty reviews. The results were converted to percentage scores and all reviews graded and ranked based on this. AMSTAR produced a much wider variation in percentage scores and achieved higher inter-rater reliability than R-AMSTAR according to kappa statistics. The average rating for Cochrane reviews was consistent between the two tools (88.3% for R-AMSTAR versus 83.6% for AMSTAR but inconsistent for non-Cochrane reviews (63.9% R-AMSTAR vs. 38.5% AMSTAR. In comparing the rankings generated between the two tools Cochrane reviews changed an average of 4.2 places, compared to 2.9 for non-Cochrane. CONCLUSION: R-AMSTAR provided greater guidance in the assessment of domains and produced quantitative results. However, there were many problems with the construction of its criteria and AMSTAR was much easier to apply consistently. We recommend that AMSTAR incorporates the findings of this study and produces additional guidance for its application in order to improve its reliability and
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Clinical practice guidelines can improve healthcare processes and patient outcomes, but are often of low quality. Guideline appraisal tools aim to help potential guideline users in assessing guideline quality. We conducted a systematic review of publications describing guideline appraisal tools in order to identify and compare existing tools. METHODS: Among others we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from 1995 to May 2011 for relevant primary and secondary publications. We also handsearched the reference lists of relevant publications. On the basis of the available literature we firstly generated 34 items to be used in the comparison of appraisal tools and grouped them into thirteen quality dimensions. We then extracted formal characteristics as well as questions and statements of the appraisal tools and assigned them to the items. RESULTS: We identified 40 different appraisal tools. They covered between three and thirteen of the thirteen possible quality dimensions and between three and 29 of the possible 34 items. The main focus of the appraisal tools were the quality dimensions "evaluation of evidence" (mentioned in 35 tools; 88%, "presentation of guideline content" (34 tools; 85%, "transferability" (33 tools; 83%, "independence" (32 tools; 80%, "scope" (30 tools; 75%, and "information retrieval" (29 tools; 73%. The quality dimensions "consideration of different perspectives" and "dissemination, implementation and evaluation of the guideline" were covered by only twenty (50% and eighteen tools (45% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Most guideline appraisal tools assess whether the literature search and the evaluation, synthesis and presentation of the evidence in guidelines follow the principles of evidence-based medicine. Although conflicts of interest and norms and values of guideline developers, as well as patient involvement, affect the trustworthiness of guidelines, they are currently
Keil, Lukas G; Platts-Mills, Timothy F; Jones, Christopher W
Publication bias compromises the validity of systematic reviews. This problem can be addressed in part through searching clinical trials registries to identify unpublished studies. This study aims to determine how often systematic reviews published in emergency medicine journals include clinical trials registry searches. We identified all systematic reviews published in the 6 highest-impact emergency medicine journals between January 1 and December 31, 2013. Systematic reviews that assessed the effects of an intervention were further examined to determine whether the authors described searching a clinical trials registry and whether this search identified relevant unpublished studies. Of 191 articles identified through PubMed search, 80 were confirmed to be systematic reviews. Our sample consisted of 41 systematic reviews that assessed a specific intervention. Eight of these 41 (20%) searched a clinical trials registry. For 4 of these 8 reviews, the registry search identified at least 1 relevant unpublished study. Systematic reviews published in emergency medicine journals do not routinely include searches of clinical trials registries. By helping authors identify unpublished trial data, the addition of registry searches may improve the validity of systematic reviews. Copyright © 2014 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vancampfort, D.; Vansteelandt, K.; Scheewe, T.; Probst, M.; Knapen, J.; De Herdt, A.; De Hert, M.
Vancampfort D, Vansteelandt K, Scheewe T, Probst M, Knapen J, De Herdt A, De Hert M. Yoga in schizophrenia: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Objective: The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effectiveness of yoga as a complementary treatment on general psychopa
... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Systematic review guidelines. 1312.10... Declassification of National Security Information § 1312.10 Systematic review guidelines. The EOP Security Officer will prepare and keep current such guidelines as are required by Executive Order 12958 for...
Vancampfort, D.; Vansteelandt, K.; Scheewe, T.; Probst, M.; Knapen, J.; De Herdt, A.; De Hert, M.
Vancampfort D, Vansteelandt K, Scheewe T, Probst M, Knapen J, De Herdt A, De Hert M. Yoga in schizophrenia: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Objective: The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effectiveness of yoga as a complementary treatment on general psychopa
Jansen, Sofie; Bhangu, Jaspreet; de Rooij, Sophia; Daams, Joost; Kenny, Rose Anne; van der Velde, Nathalie
Objective: Cardiovascular disorders are recognized as risk factors for falls in older adults. The aim of this systematic review was to identify cardiovascular disorders that are associated with falls, thus providing angles for optimization of fall-preventive care. Design: Systematic review. Data Sou
Marras, Connie; Hincapié, Cesar A; Kristman, Vicki L
of eligible articles and relevant systematic reviews and meta-analyses were also searched. STUDY SELECTION: Controlled clinical trials, cohort studies, and case-control studies were selected according to predefined criteria. Studies had to have a minimum of 30 concussion cases. DATA EXTRACTION: Eligible...
Weering, van Marit; Vollenbroek-Hutten, M.M.R.; Kotte, E.M.; Hermens, H.J.
Objective: To gain an insight into the daily physical activity levels of patients with chronic pain or fatigue compared with asymptomatic controls. Data sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Picarta, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, reference tracking and a manual search of relevant journals.
Bekema, Hendrika J.; MacLennan, Steven; Imamura, Mari; Lam, Thomas B. L.; Stewart, Fiona; Scott, Neil; MacLennan, Graeme; McClinton, Sam; Griffiths, T. R. Leyshon; Skolarikos, Andreas; MacLennan, Sara J.; Sylvester, Richard; Ljungberg, Borje; N'Dow, James
Context: Controversy remains over whether adrenalectomy and lymph node dissection (LND) should be performed concomitantly with radical nephrectomy (RN) for locally advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cT3-T4N0M0. Objective: To systematically review all relevant literature comparing oncologic, periope
Finnema, K.J.; Ozcan, M.; Post, W.J.; Ren, Y.J.; Dijkstra, P.U.
INTRODUCTION: The aims of this study were to systematically review the available literature regarding in-vitro orthodontic shear bond strength testing and to analyze the influence of test conditions on bond strength. METHODS: Our data sources were Embase and Medline. Relevant studies were selected b
Frewer, L.J.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Brennan, M.; Bánáti, D.; Lion, R.; Meertens, R.M.; Rowe, G.; Siegrist, M.; Verbeke, W.; Vereijken, C.M.J.L.
A systematic review relevant to the following research questions was conducted (1) the extent to which different theoretical frameworks have been applied to food risk/benefit communication and (2) the impact such food risk/benefit communication interventions have had on related risk/benefit attit
Oeseburg, Barth; Dijkstra, Geke J.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.
A systematic review of the prevalence rates of chronic health conditions in populations of children with intellectual disability was provided. We identified 2,994 relevant studies by searching Medline, Cinahl, and PsycINFO databases from 1996 to 2008. We included the 31 studies that had sufficient m
Mutlu, Akmer; Krosschell, Kristin; Spira, Deborah Gaebler
OKAim: The aim of this systematic review was to examine the literature on the effects of partial body-weight support treadmill training (PBWSTT) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) on functional outcomes and attainment of ambulation. Method: We searched the relevant literature from 1950 to July 2007. We found eight studies on the use of PWSBTT on…
Bekema, Hendrika J.; MacLennan, Steven; Imamura, Mari; Lam, Thomas B. L.; Stewart, Fiona; Scott, Neil; MacLennan, Graeme; McClinton, Sam; Griffiths, T. R. Leyshon; Skolarikos, Andreas; MacLennan, Sara J.; Sylvester, Richard; Ljungberg, Borje; N'Dow, James
Context: Controversy remains over whether adrenalectomy and lymph node dissection (LND) should be performed concomitantly with radical nephrectomy (RN) for locally advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cT3-T4N0M0. Objective: To systematically review all relevant literature comparing oncologic,
Hung, Ryan; Carroll, Linda J; Cancelliere, Carol;
OBJECTIVE: To synthesize the best available evidence on prognosis after pediatric mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). DATA SOURCES: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and SPORTDiscus (2001-2012), as well as reference lists of eligible articles, and relevant systematic reviews and meta...
Systematic, thematic, narrative review of qualitative literature. To systematically review qualitative research that explores the impact of spinal cord injury (SCI) on the gendered experience of men with SCI. A systematic search of databases and hand search of relevant journals to provide a thematic narrative review of articles, providing sufficient depth of information, relevant participant quotes and phenomenological insight into the gendered experience of men with SCI. Identified studies are summarised and common themes extracted and discussed in relation to relevant literature on masculinity, disability and health. Eight papers, representing four separate studies met the review criteria for relevance and rigour. Three broad, overlapping themes describing the gendered experience of men with SCI were identified: 'lost masculinity', outlining the impact of SCI on traditional masculine identity, 'fighting back', describing the battle to regain and reclaim masculinity and integrate disability into a revised identity and 'beyond hegemony', referring to possibilities beyond adherence to traditional masculine scripts. This review demonstrates a lack of explicit focus on men as gendered beings within the available qualitative literature. The findings are consistent with the limited quantitative data, which indicates that grappling with altered gendered identity is a central feature of life for men with SCI. Masculine identity emerges in this review as vulnerable to the impact of SCI, and given the strong links identified between masculinity, rehabilitation and health, as an aspect of experience that warrants more attention than it has received.
Xiong, Xingjiang; Wang, Pengqian; Li, Xiaoke; Zhang, Yuqing
The purpose of this review was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of qigong for hypertension.A systematic literature search was performed in 7 databases from their respective inceptions until April 2014, including the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PubMed, Chinese Scientific Journal Database, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, Wanfang database, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure. Randomized controlled trials of qigong as either monotherapy or adjunctive therapy with antihypertensive drugs versus no intervention, exercise, or antihypertensive drugs for hypertension were identified. The risk of bias was assessed using the tool described in Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Review of Interventions, version 5.1.0.Twenty trials containing 2349 hypertensive patients were included in the meta-analysis. The risk of bias was generally high. Compared with no intervention, qigong significantly reduced systolic blood pressure (SBP) (weighted mean difference [WMD] = -17.40 mm Hg, 95% confidence interval [CI] -21.06 to -13.74, P Qigong was inferior to exercise in decreasing SBP (WMD = 6.51 mm Hg, 95% CI 2.81 to 10.21, P = 0.0006), but no significant difference between the effects of qigong and exercise on DBP (WMD = 0.67 mm Hg, 95% CI -1.39 to 2.73, P = 0.52) was identified. Compared with antihypertensive drugs, qigong produced a clinically meaningful but not statistically significant reduction in SBP (WMD = -7.91 mm Hg, 95% CI -16.81 to 1.00, P = 0.08), but appeared to be more effective in lowering DBP (WMD = -6.08 mm Hg, 95% CI -9.58 to -2.58, P = 0.0007). Qigong plus antihypertensive drugs significantly lowered both SBP (WMD = -11.99 mm Hg, 95% CI -15.59 to -8.39, P qigong is an effective therapy for hypertension. However, more rigorously designed randomized controlled trials with long-term follow-up focusing on hard clinical outcomes are required to confirm the results.
PURPOSE: Hirschsprung\\'s disease is characterised by the congenital absence of ganglion cells beginning in the distal rectum and extending proximally for varying distances. \\'Zonal aganglionosis\\' is a phenomenon involving a zone of aganglionosis occurring within normally innervated intestine. \\'Skip segment\\' Hirschsprung\\'s disease (SSHD) involves a \\'skip area\\' of normally ganglionated intestine, surrounded proximally and distally by aganglionosis. While Hirschsprung\\'s disease is believed to be the result of incomplete craniocaudal migration of neural crest-derived cells, the occurrence of SSHD has no clear embryological explanation. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of SSHD, reported in the literature between 1954 and 2009, in order to determine the clinical characteristics of this rare entity and its significance. METHODS: The first reported case of SSHD was published in 1954. A systematic review of SSHD cases in the literature, from 1954 to 2009, was carried out using the electronic database \\'Pubmed\\'. Detailed information was recorded regarding the age, gender, presenting symptoms and location of the skip segment in each patient. RESULTS: 24 cases of SSHD have been reported in the literature to date. 18\\/24 (75%) of these cases were males and 6\\/24 (25%) were females. Of these, 22\\/24 (92%) were cases of total colonic aganglionosis (TCA), and 2\\/24 (8%) were rectosigmoid Hirschsprung\\'s disease. Of the 22 TCA cases, 9 (41%) had a skip segment in the transverse colon, 6 (27%) in the ascending colon, 2 (9%) in the caecum and 5 (23%) had multiple skip segments. In both rectosigmoid Hirschsprung\\'s disease cases, the skip segment was in the sigmoid colon. Overall, the length of the skip segment was variable, with the entire transverse colon ganglionated in some cases. CONCLUSION: SSHD occurs predominantly in patients with TCA. The existence of a skip area of normally innervated colon in TCA may influence surgical
Tarpada, Sandip P; Morris, Matthew T; Burton, Denver A
E-learning is the use of internet-based resources in education. In the field of surgical education, this definition includes the use of virtual patient cases, digital modeling, online tutorials, as well as video recordings of surgical procedures and lectures. In recent years, e-learning has increasingly been considered a viable alternative to traditional teaching within a number of surgical fields. Here we present (1) a systematic review of literature assessing the efficacy of e-learning modules for orthopedic education and (2) a discussion of their relevance. A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library was conducted according to the guidelines defined in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement (PRISMA). The search yielded a total of 255 non-duplicate citations that were screened using predetermined inclusion/exclusion criteria. A total of 9 full text articles met inclusion criteria, which included the use of an objective outcome measure to evaluate an orthopedic e-learning module. Six studies assessed knowledge using a multiple-choice test and 4 assessed skills using a clinical exam. All studies showed positive score improvement pre- to post-intervention, and a majority showed greater score improvement than standard teaching methods in both knowledge (4/6 studies) and clinical skills (3/4 studies). E-learning represents an effective supplement or even alternative to standard teaching techniques within orthopedic education for both medical students and residents. Future work should focus on validating specific e-learning programs using standardized outcome measures and assessing long-term knowledge retention using e-learning platforms.
Adriana Magalhaes Ribeiro Salles
Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the efficacy of antioxidants for preventing preeclampsia and other maternal and fetal complications among pregnant women with low, moderate, or high risk of preeclampsia. Methods. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, mRCT, and other databases, with no language or publication restrictions. Two independent reviewers selected randomized controlled trials that evaluated the use of antioxidants versus placebo and extracted the relevant data. Relative risks (RRs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs were calculated. The data were compiled through the random effects model. Main Results. Fifteen studies were included (21,012 women and 21,647 fetuses. No statistically significant difference was found between women who received antioxidant treatment and women who received placebo for preeclampsia (RR =0.92; 95% CI: 0.82–1.04, severe preeclampsia (RR =1.03; 95% CI: 0.87–1.22, preterm birth (RR =1.03; 95% CI: 0.94–1.14, and small for gestational age <10th centile (RR =0.92; 95% CI: 0.80–1.05. Side effects were numerically more frequent in the antioxidants group compared to placebo, but without significant statistical difference (RR =1.24; 95% CI: 0.85–1.80. Conclusions. The available evidence reviewed does not support the use of antioxidants during pregnancy for the prevention of preeclampsia and other outcomes.
Full Text Available Context Crush syndrome and its potentially life-threatening complications, such as acute kidney injury (AKI, are one of the most important medical problems of disaster victims. However, today, many unanswered questions abound about the potential risk factors of crush syndrome, predictive factors of AKI, proper amount of prophylactic hydration therapy, type of fluid, time of continuing fluid, intravenous versus oral hydration, etc. Therefore, this study was designed to review the findings on Iranian nephrologist experiences in diagnosis and management of traumatic rhabdomyolysis following the last two strong earthquakes of Bam (2003 and Manjil-Rudbar (1990. Evidence Acquisition The study was conducted according to the MOOSE reporting guideline. A literature review was conducted on the nephrologic aspects of earthquakes in Iran. Relevant articles were identified through a comprehensive search of online databases until 2014. The search was limited to articles studying the Iranian population published in English and Persian languages. The validated combination of MeSH terms and key words was used. In addition, a manual search was run among the references of all articles that met the entrance criteria and previous reviews. Only cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies were enrolled. Two reviewers independently reviewed the eligible studies, and another reviewer contributed in case of a disagreement. Basic information from each study was evaluated from the aspects of purpose and design, year of publication, methodology, main population, and source of data. The quality of the included studies was assessed using methods guide for effectiveness and comparative effectiveness reviews. Two reviewers independently rated each paper as “good”, “fair”, or “poor”. Results A total of 1256 non-duplicate articles were identified, but only 35 potentially relevant papers were screened. Finally, 21 articles were found eligible and studied in
Bender, R.; Bunce, C.; Clarke, M.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to describe the problem of multiple comparisons in systematic reviews and to provide some guidelines on how to deal with it in practice. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We describe common reasons for multiplicity in systematic reviews, and present some examples....... We provide guidance on how to deal with multiplicity when it is unavoidable. RESULTS: We identified six common reasons for multiplicity in systematic reviews: multiple outcomes, multiple groups, multiple time points, multiple effect measures, subgroup analyses, and multiple looks at accumulating data....... The existing methods to deal with multiplicity in single trials can not always be applied in systematic reviews. CONCLUSION: There is no simple and completely satisfactory solution to the problem of multiple comparisons in systematic reviews. More research is required to develop multiple comparison procedures...
Li, Tianjing; Vedula, S Swaroop; Hadar, Nira; Parkin, Christopher; Lau, Joseph; Dickersin, Kay
Data abstraction is a key step in conducting systematic reviews because data collected from study reports form the basis of appropriate conclusions. Recent methodological standards and expectations highlight several principles for data collection. To support implementation of these standards, this article provides a step-by-step tutorial for selecting data collection tools; constructing data collection forms; and abstracting, managing, and archiving data for systematic reviews. Examples are drawn from recent experience using the Systematic Review Data Repository for data collection and management. If it is done well, data collection for systematic reviews only needs to be done by 1 team and placed into a publicly accessible database for future use. Technological innovations, such as the Systematic Review Data Repository, will contribute to finding trustworthy answers for many health and health care questions.
Runnals, Jennifer J; Garovoy, Natara; McCutcheon, Susan J; Robbins, Allison T; Mann-Wrobel, Monica C; Elliott, Alyssa
Given recent, rapid growth in the field of women veterans' mental health, the goal of this review was to update the status of women veterans' mental health research and to identify current themes in this literature. The scope of this review included women veterans' unique mental health needs, as well as gender differences in veterans' mental health needs. Database searches were conducted for relevant articles published between January 2008 and July 2011. Searches were supplemented with bibliographic reviews and consultation with subject matter experts. The database search yielded 375 titles; 32 met inclusion/exclusion criteria. The women veterans' mental health literature crosses over several domains, including prevalence, risk factors, health care utilization, treatment preferences, and access barriers. Studies were generally cross-sectional, descriptive, mixed-gender, and examined Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care users from all service eras. Results indicate higher rates of specific disorders (e.g., depression) and comorbidities, with differing risk factors and associated medical and functional impairment for female compared with male veterans. Although satisfaction with VA health care is generally high, unique barriers to care and indices of treatment satisfaction exist for women. There is a breadth of descriptive knowledge in many content areas of women veterans' mental health; however, the research base examining interventional and longitudinal designs is less developed. Understudied content areas and targets for future research and development include certain psychiatric disorders (e.g., schizophrenia), the effects of deployment on woman veterans' families, and strategies to address treatment access, attrition, and provision of gender-sensitive care. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Systematic reviews provide clinical practice recommendations that are based on evaluation of primary evidence. When systematic reviews with the same aims have different conclusions, it is difficult to ascertain which review reported the most credible and robust findings. Methods This study examined five systematic reviews that have investigated the effectiveness of Pilates exercise in people with chronic low back pain. A four-stage process was used to interpret findings of the reviews. This process included comparison of research questions, included primary studies, and the level and quality of evidence of systematic reviews. Two independent reviewers assessed the level of evidence and the methodological quality of systematic reviews, using the National Health and Medical Research Council hierarchy of evidence, and the Revised Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews respectively. Any disagreements were resolved by a third researcher. Results A high level of consensus was achieved between the reviewers. Conflicting findings were reported by the five systematic reviews regarding the effectiveness of Pilates in reducing pain and disability in people with chronic low back pain. Authors of the systematic reviews included primary studies that did not match their questions in relation to treatment or population characteristics. A total of ten primary studies were identified across five systematic reviews. Only two of the primary studies were included in all of the reviews due to different inclusion criteria relating to publication date and status, definition of Pilates, and methodological quality. The level of evidence of reviews was low due to the methodological design of the primary studies. The methodological quality of reviews varied. Those which conducted a meta-analysis obtained higher scores. Conclusion There is inconclusive evidence that Pilates is effective in reducing pain and disability in people with chronic low back
Background Systematic reviews provide clinical practice recommendations that are based on evaluation of primary evidence. When systematic reviews with the same aims have different conclusions, it is difficult to ascertain which review reported the most credible and robust findings. Methods This study examined five systematic reviews that have investigated the effectiveness of Pilates exercise in people with chronic low back pain. A four-stage process was used to interpret findings of the reviews. This process included comparison of research questions, included primary studies, and the level and quality of evidence of systematic reviews. Two independent reviewers assessed the level of evidence and the methodological quality of systematic reviews, using the National Health and Medical Research Council hierarchy of evidence, and the Revised Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews respectively. Any disagreements were resolved by a third researcher. Results A high level of consensus was achieved between the reviewers. Conflicting findings were reported by the five systematic reviews regarding the effectiveness of Pilates in reducing pain and disability in people with chronic low back pain. Authors of the systematic reviews included primary studies that did not match their questions in relation to treatment or population characteristics. A total of ten primary studies were identified across five systematic reviews. Only two of the primary studies were included in all of the reviews due to different inclusion criteria relating to publication date and status, definition of Pilates, and methodological quality. The level of evidence of reviews was low due to the methodological design of the primary studies. The methodological quality of reviews varied. Those which conducted a meta-analysis obtained higher scores. Conclusion There is inconclusive evidence that Pilates is effective in reducing pain and disability in people with chronic low back pain. This is due to the small
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews (SRs should be up to date to maintain their importance in informing healthcare policy and practice. However, little guidance is available about when and how to update SRs. Moreover, the updating policies and practices of organizations that commission or produce SRs are unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The objective was to describe the updating practices and policies of agencies that sponsor or conduct SRs. An Internet-based survey was administered to a purposive non-random sample of 195 healthcare organizations within the international SR community. Survey results were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The completed response rate was 58% (n = 114 from across 26 countries with 70% (75/107 of participants identified as producers of SRs. Among responders, 79% (84/107 characterized the importance of updating as high or very-high and 57% (60/106 of organizations reported to have a formal policy for updating. However, only 29% (35/106 of organizations made reference to a written policy document. Several groups (62/105; 59% reported updating practices as irregular, and over half (53/103 of organizational respondents estimated that more than 50% of their respective SRs were likely out of date. Authors of the original SR (42/106; 40% were most often deemed responsible for ensuring SRs were current. Barriers to updating included resource constraints, reviewer motivation, lack of academic credit, and limited publishing formats. Most respondents (70/100; 70% indicated that they supported centralization of updating efforts across institutions or agencies. Furthermore, 84% (83/99 of respondents indicated they favoured the development of a central registry of SRs, analogous to efforts within the clinical trials community. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Most organizations that sponsor and/or carry out SRs consider updating important. Despite this recognition, updating practices are not regular, and many organizations lack
Green, Rosemary; Milner, James; Joy, Edward J M; Agrawal, Sutapa; Dangour, Alan D
Dietary patterns analysis is an emerging area of research. Identifying distinct patterns within a large dietary survey can give a more accurate representation of what people are eating. Furthermore, it allows researchers to analyse relationships between non-communicable diseases (NCD) and complete diets rather than individual food items or nutrients. However, few such studies have been conducted in developing countries including India, where the population has a high burden of diabetes and CVD. We undertook a systematic review of published and grey literature exploring dietary patterns and relationships with diet-related NCD in India. We identified eight studies, including eleven separate models of dietary patterns. Most dietary patterns were vegetarian with a predominance of fruit, vegetables and pulses, as well as cereals; dietary patterns based on high-fat, high-sugar foods and more meat were also identified. There was large variability between regions in dietary patterns, and there was some evidence of change in diets over time, although no evidence of different diets by sex or age was found. Consumers of high-fat dietary patterns were more likely to have greater BMI, and a dietary pattern high in sweets and snacks was associated with greater risk of diabetes compared with a traditional diet high in rice and pulses, but other relationships with NCD risk factors were less clear. This review shows that dietary pattern analyses can be highly valuable in assessing variability in national diets and diet-disease relationships. However, to date, most studies in India are limited by data and methodological shortcomings.
Peters, Micah D J
This article describes a novel approach for using EndNote to manage and code references in the conduct and reporting of systematic reviews and scoping reviews. The process is simple and easy for reviewers new to both EndNote and systematic reviews. This process allows reviewers to easily conduct and report systematic reviews in line with the internationally recognized PRISMA reporting guidelines and also facilitates the overall task of systematic or scoping review conduct and reporting from the initial search through to structuring the results, discussion, and conclusions in a rigorous, reproducible, and user-friendly manner.
Chacón, Fernando; Gutiérrez, Gema; Sauto, Verónica; Vecina, María L; Pérez, Alfonso
The objective of this research study was to conduct a systematic review of the research on volunteers using Clary et al.’s VFI (1998). A total of 48 research studies including 67 independent samples met eligibility criteria. The total sample of the studies analyzed ranged from 20375 to 21988 participants, depending on the motivation analyzed. The results show that the Values factor obtained the highest mean score, both overall and in each type of volunteering, whereas the lowest scores were for the Career and Enhancement factors. Studies conducted with samples with a mean age under 40 years obtain higher scores on Career and Understanding scales when compared to studies in older samples. The group of studies with less than 50% women yield higher mean scores on the Social scale than studies with more than 50% women in the sample. All the scales show reliability coefficients between .78 and .84. Only eight of the articles provide data on the reliability of the scale with a mean value of .90. Of the 26 studies that performed factor analysis, 18 confirmed the original structure of six factors.
Annibali, S; Cristalli, M P; Dell'Aquila, D; Bignozzi, I; La Monaca, G; Pilloni, A
Growing evidence has suggested the utility of short dental implants for oral reconstructive procedures in clinical situations of limited vertical bone height. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate clinical studies of implants type of edentulism, and prosthetic restoration. Two randomized controlled trials and 14 observational studies were selected and analyzed for data extraction. In total, 6193 short-implants were investigated from 3848 participants. The observational period was 3.2 ± 1.7 yrs (mean ± SD). The cumulative survival rate (CSR) was 99.1% (95%CI: 98.8-99.4). The biological success rate was 98.8% (95%CI: 97.8-99.8), and the biomechanical success rate was 99.9% (95%CI: 99.4-100.0). A higher CSR was reported for rough-surfaced implants. The provision of short implant-supported prostheses in patients with atrophic alveolar ridges appears to be a successful treatment option in the short term; however, more scientific evidence is needed for the long term.
Nicholls, Adam R; Polman, Remco C J
The aim of this paper was to systematically review the literature on coping in sport, examining evidence for both the trait and process perspectives, the types of coping strategies used by athletes, gender differences, age-related differences, and coping effectiveness. A comprehensive literature search of SPORTdiscus, PsychLIT, and PsychINFO in November 2004 yielded 64 studies spanning 16 years (1988 - 2004). The results indicated that athletes use a variety of coping strategies. Forty-six papers supported or adopted the process perspective (Lazarus, 1999; Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). There were also gender and age-related differences. Evidence was found to support three of the different models of coping effectiveness (goodness-of-fit approach, choice of coping strategy, and automacity). Based on this evidence, future research should address some of the methodological and measurement limitations of the sport psychology coping literature. In particular, prospective research designs that minimize the time delay between recall and the stressful experience are required to assess how coping changes over time. More attention to developmental issues to guide the formulation of sport-specific models to enhance our theoretical understanding is also required. Finally, coping effectiveness should be examined both in the short and long term, as a greater understanding of coping effectiveness has the potential to make a significant impact on applied practice.
Pennisi, Paola; Tonacci, Alessandro; Tartarisco, Gennaro; Billeci, Lucia; Ruta, Liliana; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Pioggia, Giovanni
Social robotics could be a promising method for Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) treatment. The aim of this article is to carry out a systematic literature review of the studies on this topic that were published in the last 10 years. We tried to address the following questions: can social robots be a useful tool in autism therapy? We followed the PRISMA guidelines, and the protocol was registered within PROSPERO database (CRD42015016158). We found many positive implications in the use of social robots in therapy as for example: ASD subjects often performed better with a robot partner rather than a human partner; sometimes, ASD patients had, toward robots, behaviors that TD patients had toward human agents; ASDs had a lot of social behaviors toward robots; during robotic sessions, ASDs showed reduced repetitive and stereotyped behaviors and, social robots manage to improve spontaneous language during therapy sessions. Therefore, robots provide therapists and researchers a means to connect with autistic subjects in an easier way, but studies in this area are still insufficient. It is necessary to clarify whether sex, intelligence quotient, and age of participants affect the outcome of therapy and whether any beneficial effects only occur during the robotic session or if they are still observable outside the clinical/experimental context.
Sawin, Erika Metzler; Sobel, Linda L; Annan, Sandra L; Schminkey, Donna L
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global public health and criminal justice concern with significant impacts; especially high rates are seen among rural Hispanic American (HA) communities, the fastest growing population in the United States. They experience additional barriers to care including extreme poverty, lesser education, gender norms, and language and immigration issues. A systematic literature review was conducted using Cooper's framework to identify evidence supporting associations between interventions and prevention, reduction, and elimination of IPV among rural HA women. Searches conducted on databases including CINAHL, PubMed, Medline, Women's Studies International, MedicLatina, and JSTOR used the MeSH terms Hispanic Americans (Latino/a and Hispanic), domestic violence, and intimate partner violence. Selected studies were published between January 1, 2000, and January 1, 2014. Of the 617 yielded articles, only 6 met the inclusion criteria. Of these, none closely examined rurality or provided valid and reliable measures of outcomes, instead reporting program descriptions and suggested interventions. We identify key findings to guide program, screening, and tool development. Our study identifies a gap in knowledge, research, and effective practices and issues a call for action to create evidence-based tools to prevent, reduce, and eliminate IPV in these underserved populations.
Noel Torres Júnior
Full Text Available Through the method of Systematic Review of Literature (SRL, this study conducted an analysis of productivity in services. For this purpose, fourteen journals of Operations Management and Scielo database were consulted. The studies were analyzed with respect to six criteria for classification: i type of study, ii investigated business sector, iii affiliation of authors, iv prevailing methodological approach, v themes, e vi methods used in comparative analyzes of performance. It was found that the greatest amount of work used the modeling approach to assess the productivity, particularly by linear programming methodology - Data Analysis Envelopment (DEA. It was observed that the vast majority of authors are academic, there are few publications of researchers from companies or that have both types of researchers. The study identified four recurring themes in the articles. Then, some studies have focused on the establishment of productivity indicators and their analysis over time, comparing the performance of different firms or industries. Other studies have identified the characteristics and difficulties of measuring productivity in services in relation to manufacturing companies. Different studies have proposed indicators to measure productivity in services. Finally, in light of the main textbooks on operation's management and service literature, this study identified key strategies and methods for improving productivity in services. It was found that the theme productivity in services is a promising research topic.
Tampi, Rajesh R; Maksimowski, Michael; Ahmed, Mohsina; Tampi, Deena J
The aim of this systematic review is to identify published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the use of oxytocin in individuals with frontotemporal dementia (FTD). A literature search was conducted of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Cochrane collaboration databases for RCTs in any language that evaluated the use of oxytocin in individuals with FTD. Bibliographic databases of published articles were also searched for additional studies. A total of two RCTs that evaluated the use of oxytocin in individuals with FTD were identified. In one study, the use of oxytocin in individuals with FTD produced a reduction in identification of negative facial expressions (anger and fear) which can be hypothesized to improve trust and increase cooperation in these individuals. Both studies noted oxytocin was well tolerated and showed short term benefits on behavioral symptoms in individuals with FTD. Oxytocin appears to improve social aspects of cognition and behavioral symptoms in individuals with FTD and is well tolerated. However, positive data from larger and longer duration RCTs are needed before the routine use of oxytocin in individuals with FTD can be recommended.
Marcelo do Amaral Ferreira
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A systematic review on nickel-titanium wires was performed. The strategy was focused on Entrez-PubMed-OLDMEDLINE, Scopus and BioMed Central from 1963 to 2008. METHODS: Papers in English and French describing the behavior of these wires and laboratorial methods to identify crystalline transformation were considered. A total of 29 papers were selected. RESULTS: Nickel-titanium wires show exceptional features in terms of elasticity and shape memory effects. However, clinical applications request a deeper knowledge of these properties in order to allow the professional to use them in a rational manner. In addition, the necessary information regarding each alloy often does not correspond to the information given by the manufacturer. Many alloys called "superelastic" do not present this effect; they just behave as less stiff alloys, with a larger springback if compared to the stainless steel wires. CONCLUSIONS: Laboratory tests are the only means to observe the real behavior of these materials, including temperature transition range (TTR and applied tensions. However, it is also possible to determine in which TTR these alloys change the crystalline structure.
Bottino, Sara Mota Borges; Bottino, Cássio M C; Regina, Caroline Gomez; Correia, Aline Villa Lobo; Ribeiro, Wagner Silva
Cyberbullying is a new form of violence that is expressed through electronic media and has given rise to concern for parents, educators and researchers. In this paper, an association between cyberbullying and adolescent mental health will be assessed through a systematic review of two databases: PubMed and Virtual Health Library (BVS). The prevalence of cyberbullying ranged from 6.5% to 35.4%. Previous or current experiences of traditional bullying were associated with victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. Daily use of three or more hours of Internet, web camera, text messages, posting personal information and harassing others online were associated with cyberbullying. Cybervictims and cyberbullies had more emotional and psychosomatic problems, social difficulties and did not feel safe and cared for in school. Cyberbullying was associated with moderate to severe depressive symptoms, substance use, ideation and suicide attempts. Health professionals should be aware of the violent nature of interactions occurring in the virtual environment and its harm to the mental health of adolescents.
Smit, Henriette A; Pinart, Mariona; Antó, Josep M; Keil, Thomas; Bousquet, Jean; Carlsen, Kai H; Moons, Karel G M; Hooft, Lotty; Carlsen, Karin C Lødrup
Early identification of children at risk of developing asthma at school age is crucial, but the usefulness of childhood asthma prediction models in clinical practice is still unclear. We systematically reviewed all existing prediction models to identify preschool children with asthma-like symptoms at risk of developing asthma at school age. Studies were included if they developed a new prediction model or updated an existing model in children aged 4 years or younger with asthma-like symptoms, with assessment of asthma done between 6 and 12 years of age. 12 prediction models were identified in four types of cohorts of preschool children: those with health-care visits, those with parent-reported symptoms, those at high risk of asthma, or children in the general population. Four basic models included non-invasive, easy-to-obtain predictors only, notably family history, allergic disease comorbidities or precursors of asthma, and severity of early symptoms. Eight extended models included additional clinical tests, mostly specific IgE determination. Some models could better predict asthma development and other models could better rule out asthma development, but the predictive performance of no single model stood out in both aspects simultaneously. This finding suggests that there is a large proportion of preschool children with wheeze for which prediction of asthma development is difficult.
Haddaway, Neal R; Bilotta, Gary S
The volume of scientific literature continues to expand and decision-makers are faced with increasingly unmanageable volumes of evidence to assess. Systematic reviews (SRs) are powerful tools that aim to provide comprehensive, transparent, reproducible and updateable summaries of evidence. SR methods were developed, and have been employed, in healthcare for more than two decades, and they are now widely used across a broad range of topics, including environmental management and social interventions in crime and justice, education, international development, and social welfare. Despite these successes and the increasing acceptance of SR methods as a 'gold standard' in evidence-informed policy and practice, misconceptions still remain regarding their applicability. The aim of this article is to separate fact from fiction, addressing twelve common misconceptions that can influence the decision as to whether a SR is the most appropriate method for evidence synthesis for a given topic. Through examples, we illustrate the flexibility of SR methods and demonstrate their suitability for addressing issues on environmental health and chemical risk assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sara Mota Borges Bottino
Full Text Available Cyberbullying is a new form of violence that is expressed through electronic media and has given rise to concern for parents, educators and researchers. In this paper, an association between cyberbullying and adolescent mental health will be assessed through a systematic review of two databases: PubMed and Virtual Health Library (BVS. The prevalence of cyberbullying ranged from 6.5% to 35.4%. Previous or current experiences of traditional bullying were associated with victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. Daily use of three or more hours of Internet, web camera, text messages, posting personal information and harassing others online were associated with cyberbullying. Cybervictims and cyberbullies had more emotional and psychosomatic problems, social difficulties and did not feel safe and cared for in school. Cyberbullying was associated with moderate to severe depressive symptoms, substance use, ideation and suicide attempts. Health professionals should be aware of the violent nature of interactions occurring in the virtual environment and its harm to the mental health of adolescents.
Almeida, Lígia Moreira; Caldas, José; Ayres-de-Campos, Diogo; Salcedo-Barrientos, Dora; Dias, Sónia
Pregnancy is a period of increased vulnerability for migrant women, and access to healthcare, use and quality of care provided during this period are important aspects to characterize the support provided to this population. A systematic review of the scientific literature contained in the MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases was carried out, searching for population based studies published between 1990 and 2012 and reporting on maternal healthcare in immigrant populations. A total of 854 articles were retrieved and 30 publications met the inclusion criteria, being included in the final evaluation. The majority of studies point to a higher health risk profile in immigrants, with an increased incidence of co-morbidity in some populations, reduced access to health facilities particularly in illegal immigrants, poor communication between women and caregivers, a lower rate of obstetrical interventions, a higher incidence of stillbirth and early neonatal death, an increased risk of maternal death, and a higher incidence of postpartum depression. Incidences vary widely among different population groups. Some migrant populations are at a higher risk of serious complications during pregnancy, for reasons that include reduced access and use of healthcare facilities, as well as less optimal care, resulting in a higher incidence of adverse outcomes. Tackling these problems and achieving equality of care for all is a challenging aim for public healthcare services.
Bour, Agathe; Mouchet, Florence; Silvestre, Jérôme; Gauthier, Laury [Université de Toulouse (France); UPS, INP (France); EcoLab (Laboratoire d’écologie fonctionnelle et environnement) (France); ENSAT, Avenue de l’Agrobiopôle, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); CNRS (France); EcoLab (Laboratoire d’écologie fonctionnelle et environnement), F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); Pinelli, Eric, E-mail: email@example.com [Université de Toulouse (France); UPS, INP (France); EcoLab (Laboratoire d’écologie fonctionnelle et environnement) (France); ENSAT, Avenue de l’Agrobiopôle, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); CNRS (France); EcoLab (Laboratoire d’écologie fonctionnelle et environnement), F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France)
Highlights: • Integrated ecotoxicity of NPs from organism to community level is reviewed. • Trophic chains allow determining the implication of trophic route in NP toxicity. • The use of microcosms and mesocosms allows studies at larger scale. • Data concerning NP fate and effects in environmental conditions are lacking. - Abstract: Despite the increasing production and use of nanoparticles (NPs), there is a lack of knowledge about their environmental fate and ecotoxicity. Studies in environmentally relevant conditions are necessary to better assess these parameters, but such studies are rather rare. The present work represents first time that studies on engineered NPs using environmentally relevant exposure methods have been reviewed. These exposure methods differ from standardized protocols and can be classified into three groups: experimental trophic chains that allow study of the trophic route, multi-species exposures under laboratory conditions that allow for complex but controlled exposure and outdoor exposures that are more similar to environmentally realistic conditions. The majority of studies of micro- or mesocosms have focused on NP partitioning and bioaccumulation. The other major parameter that has been studied is NP ecotoxicity, which has been assessed in single species, in single species via the trophic route, and at the community level. The induction of biochemical defense systems, immunomodulation, effects on growth and reproduction, behavioral alterations and mortality have been used as indicators of major toxicity, depending on the species studied. The major effects of NPs on both microbial and algal communities include modifications of community compositions and diversities, decreased biomass and changes in community activities.
Wasiak, Jason; Tyack, Zephanie; Ware, Robert; Goodwin, Nicholas; Faggion, Clovis M
The methodological and reporting quality of burn-specific systematic reviews has not been established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the methodological quality of systematic reviews in burn care management. Computerised searches were performed in Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE and The Cochrane Library through to February 2016 for systematic reviews relevant to burn care using medical subject and free-text terms such as 'burn', 'systematic review' or 'meta-analysis'. Additional studies were identified by hand-searching five discipline-specific journals. Two authors independently screened papers, extracted and evaluated methodological quality using the 11-item A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) tool and reporting quality using the 27-item Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist. Characteristics of systematic reviews associated with methodological and reporting quality were identified. Descriptive statistics and linear regression identified features associated with improved methodological quality. A total of 60 systematic reviews met the inclusion criteria. Six of the 11 AMSTAR items reporting on 'a priori' design, duplicate study selection, grey literature, included/excluded studies, publication bias and conflict of interest were reported in less than 50% of the systematic reviews. Of the 27 items listed for PRISMA, 13 items reporting on introduction, methods, results and the discussion were addressed in less than 50% of systematic reviews. Multivariable analyses showed that systematic reviews associated with higher methodological or reporting quality incorporated a meta-analysis (AMSTAR regression coefficient 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1, 3.1; PRISMA regression coefficient 6·3; 95% CI: 3·8, 8·7) were published in the Cochrane library (AMSTAR regression coefficient 2·9; 95% CI: 1·6, 4·2; PRISMA regression coefficient 6·1; 95% CI: 3·1, 9·2) and included a randomised control trial (AMSTAR regression
Welsh, Emma J; Evans, David J; Fowler, Stephen J; Spencer, Sally
Bronchiectasis is a chronic respiratory disease characterised by abnormal dilatation of the bronchi, and presents typically with a chronic productive cough (or chronic wet cough in children) and recurrent infective exacerbations. It significantly impacts daily activities and quality of life, and can lead to recurrent hospitalisations, severe lung function impairment, respiratory failure and even death. To provide an overview of the efficacy and safety of interventions for adults and children with bronchiectasis from Cochrane reviews.To identify gaps in the evidence base that will inform recommendations for new research and reviews, and to summarise information on reported outcomes and make recommendations for the reporting of standard outcomes in future trials and reviews. We included Cochrane reviews of non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis. We searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. The search is current to 11 February 2015. We also identified trials that were potentially eligible for, but not currently included in, published reviews to make recommendations for new Cochrane reviews. We assessed the quality of included reviews using the AMSTAR criteria. We presented an evidence synthesis of data from reviews alongside an evidence map of clinical trials and guideline data. The primary outcomes were exacerbations, lung function and quality of life. We included 21 reviews but extracted data from, and rated the quality of, only nine reviews that reported results for people with bronchiectasis alone. Of the reviews with no usable data, two reviews included studies with mixed clinical populations where data were not reported separately for people with bronchiectasis and 10 reviews did not contain any trials. Of the 40 studies included across the nine reviews, three (number of participants nine to 34) included children. The studies ranged from single session to year-long studies. Each review included from one to 11 trials and 28 (70%) trials in the
Full Text Available Background. YouTube is an increasingly important medium for consumer health information – with content provided by healthcare professionals, government and non-government organizations, industry, and consumers themselves. It is a rapidly developing area of study for healthcare researchers. We examine the methods used in reviews of YouTube consumer health videos to identify trends and best practices.Methods and Materials. Published reviews of consumer-oriented health-related YouTube videos were identified through PubMed. Data extracted from these studies included type of journal, topic, characteristics of the search, methods of review including number of reviewers and method to achieve consensus between reviewers, inclusion and exclusion criteria, characteristics of the videos reported, ethical oversight, and follow-up.Results. Thirty-three studies were identified. Most were recent and published in specialty journals. Typically, these included more than 100 videos, and were examined by multiple reviewers. Most studies described characteristics of the videos, number of views, and sometime characteristics of the viewers. Accuracy of portrayal of the health issue under consideration was a common focus.Conclusion. Optimal transparency and reproducibility of studies of YouTube health-related videos can be achieved by following guidance designed for systematic review reporting, with attention to several elements specific to the video medium. Particularly when seeking to replicate consumer viewing behavior, investigators should consider the method used to select search terms, and use a snowballing rather than a sequential screening approach. Discontinuation protocols for online screening of relevance ranked search results is an area identified for further development.
Sampson, Margaret; Cumber, Jordi; Li, Claudia; Pound, Catherine M; Fuller, Ann; Harrison, Denise
Background. YouTube is an increasingly important medium for consumer health information - with content provided by healthcare professionals, government and non-government organizations, industry, and consumers themselves. It is a rapidly developing area of study for healthcare researchers. We examine the methods used in reviews of YouTube consumer health videos to identify trends and best practices. Methods and Materials. Published reviews of consumer-oriented health-related YouTube videos were identified through PubMed. Data extracted from these studies included type of journal, topic, characteristics of the search, methods of review including number of reviewers and method to achieve consensus between reviewers, inclusion and exclusion criteria, characteristics of the videos reported, ethical oversight, and follow-up. Results. Thirty-three studies were identified. Most were recent and published in specialty journals. Typically, these included more than 100 videos, and were examined by multiple reviewers. Most studies described characteristics of the videos, number of views, and sometime characteristics of the viewers. Accuracy of portrayal of the health issue under consideration was a common focus. Conclusion. Optimal transparency and reproducibility of studies of YouTube health-related videos can be achieved by following guidance designed for systematic review reporting, with attention to several elements specific to the video medium. Particularly when seeking to replicate consumer viewing behavior, investigators should consider the method used to select search terms, and use a snowballing rather than a sequential screening approach. Discontinuation protocols for online screening of relevance ranked search results is an area identified for further development.
Kelly, M; McCarthy, S; O'Sullivan, R; Shiely, F; Larkin, P; Brenner, M; Sahm, L J
Background Fever is one of the most common childhood symptoms and accounts for numerous consultations with healthcare practitioners. It causes much anxiety amongst parents as many struggle with managing a feverish child and find it difficult to assess fever severity. Over- and under-dosing of antipyretics has been reported. Aim of the review The aim of this review was to synthesise qualitative and quantitative evidence on the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of parents regarding fever and febrile illness in children. Method A systematic search was conducted in ten bibliographic databases from database inception to June 2014. Citation lists of studies and consultation with experts were used as secondary sources to identify further relevant studies. Titles and abstracts were screened for inclusion according to pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Quantitative studies using a questionnaire were analysed using narrative synthesis. Qualitative studies with a semi-structured interview or focus group methodology were analysed thematically. Results Of the 1565 studies which were screened for inclusion in the review, the final review comprised of 14 studies (three qualitative and 11 quantitative). Three categories emerged from the narrative synthesis of quantitative studies: (i) parental practices; (ii) knowledge; (iii) expectations and information seeking. A further three analytical themes emerged from the qualitative studies: (i) control; (ii) impact on family; (iii) experiences. Conclusion Our review identifies the multifaceted nature of the factors which impact on how parents manage fever and febrile illness in children. A coherent approach to the management of fever and febrile illness needs to be implemented so a consistent message is communicated to parents. Healthcare professionals including pharmacists regularly advise parents on fever management. Information given to parents needs to be timely, consistent and accurate so that inappropriate fever
Woods John A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular diseases contribute substantially to the poor health and reduced life expectancy of Indigenous Australians. Heart failure is a common, disabling, progressive and costly complication of these disorders. The epidemiology of heart failure and the adequacy of relevant health service provision in Indigenous Australians are not well delineated. Methods A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cinahl Plus, Informit and Google Scholar was undertaken in April 2012 for peer-reviewed journal articles relevant to the topic of heart failure in Indigenous Australians. Additionally, a website search was done to identify other pertinent publications, particularly government reports. Results There was a paucity of relevant peer-reviewed research, and government reports dominated the results. Ten journal articles, 1 published conference abstract and 10 reports were eligible for inclusion. Indigenous Australians reportedly have higher morbidity and mortality from heart failure than their non-Indigenous counterparts (age-standardised prevalence ratio 1.7; age-standardised hospital separation ratio ≥3; crude per capita hospital expenditure ratio 1.58; age-adjusted mortality ratio >2. Despite the evident disproportionate burden of heart failure in Indigenous Australians, the accuracy of estimation from administrative data is limited by poor indigenous identification, inadequate case ascertainment and exclusion of younger subjects from mortality statistics. A recent journal article specifically documented a high prevalence of heart failure in Central Australian Aboriginal adults (5.3%, noting frequent undiagnosed disease. One study examined barriers to health service provision for Indigenous Australians in the context of heart failure. Conclusions Despite the shortcomings of available published data, it is clear that Indigenous Australians have an excess burden of heart failure. Emerging data
Antonia S Stang
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the literature regarding the prevalence, preventability, severity and types of adverse events (AE in the Emergency Department (ED. METHODS: We systematically searched major bibliographic databases, relevant journals and conference proceedings, and completed reference reviews of primary articles. Observational studies (cohort and case-control, quasi-experimental (e.g. before/after studies and randomized controlled trials, were considered for inclusion if they examined a broad demographic group reflecting a significant proportion of ED patients and described the proportion of AE. Studies conducted outside of the ED setting, those examining only a subpopulation of patients (e.g. a specific entrance complaint or receiving a specific intervention, or examining only adverse drug events, were excluded. Two independent reviewers assessed study eligibility, completed data extraction, and assessed study quality with the Newcastle Ottawa Scale. RESULTS: Our search identified 11,624 citations. Ten articles, representing eight observational studies, were included. Methodological quality was low to moderate with weaknesses in study group comparability, follow-up, and outcome ascertainment and reporting. There was substantial variation in the proportion of patients with AE related to ED care, ranging from 0.16% (n = 9308 to 6.0% (n = 399. Similarly, the reported preventability of AE ranged from 36% (n = 250 to 71% (n = 24. The most common types of events were related to management (3 studies, diagnosis (2 studies and medication (2 studies. CONCLUSIONS: The variability in findings and lack of high quality studies on AE in the high risk ED setting highlights the need for research in this area. Further studies with rigorous, standardized outcome assessment and reporting are required.
Kern, Margaret L; Rickard, Nikki S
Background Social networking sites (SNSs) have become a pervasive part of modern culture, which may also affect mental health. Objective The aim of this systematic review was to identify and summarize research examining depression and anxiety in the context of SNSs. It also aimed to identify studies that complement the assessment of mental illness with measures of well-being and examine moderators and mediators that add to the complexity of this environment. Methods A multidatabase search was performed. Papers published between January 2005 and June 2016 relevant to mental illness (depression and anxiety only) were extracted and reviewed. Results Positive interactions, social support, and social connectedness on SNSs were consistently related to lower levels of depression and anxiety, whereas negative interaction and social comparisons on SNSs were related to higher levels of depression and anxiety. SNS use related to less loneliness and greater self-esteem and life satisfaction. Findings were mixed for frequency of SNS use and number of SNS friends. Different patterns in the way individuals with depression and individuals with social anxiety engage with SNSs are beginning to emerge. Conclusions The systematic review revealed many mixed findings between depression, anxiety, and SNS use. Methodology has predominantly focused on self-report cross-sectional approaches; future research will benefit from leveraging real-time SNS data over time. The evidence suggests that SNS use correlates with mental illness and well-being; however, whether this effect is beneficial or detrimental depends at least partly on the quality of social factors in the SNS environment. Understanding these relationships will lead to better utilization of SNSs in their potential to positively influence mental health. PMID:27881357
Stefani, Laura; Galanti, Giorgio; Padulo, Johnny; Bragazzi, Nicola L; Maffulli, Nicola
Sexual activity before competition has been considered as a possible cause for reduced performance since ancient Greece and Rome. Recently, the hypothesis that optimal sport performance could be influenced by a variety of factors including sexual activity before competition has been investigated. However, few scientific data are available, with the exception of anecdotal reports of individual experiences. The present systematic review focused on the current scientific evidence on the effects of sexual activity on sport performance regardless of sport type. Data were obtained following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, using PubMed/MEDLINE, ISI/Web of Science, the Cochrane Collaboration Database, Cochrane Library, Evidence Database (PEDro), Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) Search review, National Guidelines, ProQuest, and Scopus, all searched from inception further, to broaden the search, no time filter nor language restriction have been applied. Also, the gray literature was mined using Google Scholar. Only relevant scientific articles reporting outcomes of athletic performance after sexual activity were considered. The impact of sexual activity before a sport competition is still unclear, but most studies generally seem to exclude a direct impact of sexual activity on athletic aerobic and strength performance. The most important aspect seems to be the interval from the time of the sports competition that affects negatively the performance if it is shorter than 2 h. There are possible negative effects from some possible concurrent wrong behaviors such as smoking or alcohol abuse. There are no investigations about the effect of masturbation in this context. There is a need to clarify the effects of sexual activity on competition performance. The present evidence suggests that sexual activity the day before competition does not exert any negative impact on performance, even though high-quality, randomized
Werb, D; Kamarulzaman, A; Meacham, M C; Rafful, C; Fischer, B; Strathdee, S A; Wood, E
Despite widespread implementation of compulsory treatment modalities for drug dependence, there has been no systematic evaluation of the scientific evidence on the effectiveness of compulsory drug treatment. We conducted a systematic review of studies assessing the outcomes of compulsory treatment. We conducted a search in duplicate of all relevant peer-reviewed scientific literature evaluating compulsory treatment modalities. The following academic databases were searched: PubMed, PAIS International, Proquest, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Soc Abstracts, JSTOR, EBSCO/Academic Search Complete, REDALYC, SciELO Brazil. We also searched the Internet, and article reference lists, from database inception to July 15th, 2015. Eligibility criteria are as follows: peer-reviewed scientific studies presenting original data. Primary outcome of interest was post-treatment drug use. Secondary outcome of interest was post-treatment criminal recidivism. Of an initial 430 potential studies identified, nine quantitative studies met the inclusion criteria. Studies evaluated compulsory treatment options including drug detention facilities, short (i.e., 21-day) and long-term (i.e., 6 months) inpatient treatment, community-based treatment, group-based outpatient treatment, and prison-based treatment. Three studies (33%) reported no significant impacts of compulsory treatment compared with control interventions. Two studies (22%) found equivocal results but did not compare against a control condition. Two studies (22%) observed negative impacts of compulsory treatment on criminal recidivism. Two studies (22%) observed positive impacts of compulsory inpatient treatment on criminal recidivism and drug use. There is limited scientific literature evaluating compulsory drug treatment. Evidence does not, on the whole, suggest improved outcomes related to compulsory treatment approaches, with some studies suggesting potential harms. Given the potential for human rights abuses within compulsory
Poscia, Andrea; Moscato, Umberto; La Milia, Daniele Ignazio; Milovanovic, Sonja; Stojanovic, Jovana; Borghini, Alice; Collamati, Agnese; Ricciardi, Walter; Magnavita, Nicola
Aging of the workforce is a growing problem. As workers age, their physical, physiological and psychosocial capabilities change. Keeping older workers healthy and productive is a key goal of European labor policy and health promotion is a key to achieve this result. Previous studies about workplace health promotion (WHP) programs are usually focused on the entire workforce or to a specific topic. Within the framework of the EU-CHAFEA ProHealth65+ project, this paper aims to systematically review the literature on WHP interventions specifically targeted to older workers (OWs). This systematic review was conducted by making a comprehensive search of MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, SCOPUS, The Cochrane Library, CINAHL and PsychINFO databases. Search terms included ageing (and synonyms), worker (and synonyms), intervention (and synonyms), and health (and synonyms). The search was limited to papers in English or Italian published between January, 1(st) 2000 and May, 31(st) 2015. Relevant references in the selected articles were also analyzed. Of the 299 articles initially identified as relating to the topic, 18 articles met the inclusion criteria. The type, methods and outcome of interventions in the WHP programs retrieved were heterogenous, as was the definition of the age at which a worker is considered to be 'older'. Most of the available studies had been conducted on small samples for a limited period of time. Our review shows that, although this issue is of great importance, studies addressing WHP actions for OWs are few and generally of poor quality. Current evidence fails to show that WHP programs improve the work ability, productivity or job retention of older workers. In addition, there is limited evidence that WHP programs are effective in improving lifestyles and concur to maintain the health and well-being of older workers. There is a need for future WHP programs to be well-designed so that the effectiveness and cost-benefit of workplace interventions can be
Full Text Available Abstract Background Health and social services provided at home are becoming increasingly important. Hence, there is a need for information on home care in Europe. The objective of this literature review was to respond to this need by systematically describing what has been reported on home care in Europe in the scientific literature over the past decade. Methods A systematic literature search was performed for papers on home care published in English, using the following data bases: Cinahl, the Cochrane Library, Embase, Medline, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, and Social Care Online. Studies were only included if they complied with the definition of home care, were published between January 1998 and October 2009, and dealt with at least one of the 31 specified countries. Clinical interventions, instrument developments, local projects and reviews were excluded. The data extracted included: the characteristics of the study and aspects of home care 'policy & regulation', 'financing', 'organisation & service delivery', and 'clients & informal carers'. Results Seventy-four out of 5,133 potentially relevant studies met the inclusion criteria, providing information on 18 countries. Many focused on the characteristics of home care recipients and on the organisation of home care. Geographical inequalities, market forces, quality and integration of services were also among the issues frequently discussed. Conclusions Home care systems appeared to differ both between and within countries. The papers included, however, provided only a limited picture of home care. Many studies only focused on one aspect of the home care system and international comparative studies were rare. Furthermore, little information emerged on home care financing and on home care in general in Eastern Europe. This review clearly shows the need for more scientific publications on home care, especially studies comparing countries. A comprehensive and more
Di Matteo, Berardo; Loibl, Markus; Andriolo, Luca; Filardo, Giuseppe; Zellner, Johannes; Koch, Matthias; Angele, Peter
AIM To systematically review the currently available literature concerning the application of biologic agents such as platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and stem cells to promote anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) healing. METHODS A systematic review of the literature was performed on the use of biologic agents (i.e., PRP or stem cells) to favor ACL healing during reconstruction or repair. The following inclusion criteria for relevant articles were used: Clinical reports of any level of evidence, written in English language, on the use of PRP or stem cells during ACL reconstruction/repair. Exclusion criteria were articles written in other languages, reviews, or studies analyzing other applications of PRP/stem cells in knee surgery not related to promoting ACL healing. RESULTS The database search identified 394 records that were screened. A total of 23 studies were included in the final analysis: In one paper stem cells were applied for ACL healing, in one paper there was a concomitant application of PRP and stem cells, whereas in the remaining 21 papers PRP was used. Based on the ACL injury pattern, two papers investigated biologic agents in ACL partial tears whereas 21 papers in ACL reconstruction. Looking at the quality of the available literature, 17 out of 21 studies dealing with ACL reconstruction were randomized controlled trials. Both studies on ACL repair were case series. CONCLUSION There is a paucity of clinical trials investigating the role of stem cells in promoting ACL healing both in case of partial and complete tears. The role of PRP is still controversial and the only advantage emerging from the literature is related to a better graft maturation over time, without documenting beneficial effects in terms of clinical outcome, bone-graft integration and prevention of bony tunnel enlargement. PMID:27672573
Narahari, Saravu R; Aggithaya, Madhur Guruprasad; Suraj, Kumbla R
This protocol is intended primarily for Ayurveda doctors who wish to take up systematic reviews along with an expert who has experience in doing such reviews. We have structured this protocol by incorporating the principles of patient treatment in Ayurveda, within the Cochrane framework, using Vitiligo as a model. The treatment section provides a comprehensive list of classical medicines used in the treatment of the disease. This will help in increasing the search terms. Such a list also helps to determine the needs of individualized treatment principles used in the trial and to assess the confounding factors. The search strategy includes an extensive listing of eastern data bases and hand searching. In Ayurveda, the titles of articles are not in the Population, Intervention, Control, and Outcome (PICO) pattern and sometimes the title and methodology do not tally. Therefore, a search of all types of studies is necessary to pool all the relevant publications. A data extraction form is proposed for use in assessing the quality of Ayurvedic studies. The form provides a template for performing evidence reviews of Ayurvedic interventions.
Ravalier, J M; Wegrzynek, P; Lawton, S
A variety of workplace-based interventions exist to reduce stress and increase productivity. However, the efficacy of these interventions is sometimes unclear. To determine whether complementary therapies offered in the workplace improve employee well-being. We performed a systematic literature review which involved an electronic search of articles published between January 2000 and July 2015 from the databases Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, AMED, CINAHL Plus, EMBASE and PubMed. We also undertook a manual search of all applicable article reference lists to ensure that no relevant studies were missed. We only selected published, full-length, English-language, peer-reviewed journal articles. Articles had to address the research objective using valid and reliable measures. We excluded articles concerning return to work or whose populations had been adversely affected by work resulting in the development of health issues. We included 10 articles in the review from 131 identified. Mindfulness and meditation-based interventions were most effective in improving workplace health and work performance; the latter demonstrating some evidence of maintaining gains up to 3 months later. The evidence for relaxation interventions was inconclusive. Mindfulness and meditation interventions may be helpful in improving both psychosocial workplace health and work performance, but long-term efficacy has yet to be fully determined. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Older adults are at risk of rehospitalization if their care transitions from hospital-to-home are not properly managed. The objective of this review was to determine if older patient populations recruited for randomized controlled trials of transitional care interventions represented those at greatest risk of rehospitalization following discharge. Relevant risk factors examined were cognitive impairment, depression, polypharmacy, comorbidity, length of stay, advanced non-malignant diseases, and available social support.DESIGN: Systematic Review.SETTING: Hospital to home.PARTICIPANTS: Older hospitalized adults.MEASUREMENTS: For inclusion, articles were required to focus on hospital-to-home transitions with a self-care component, have components occurring both before and after discharge, and a randomized controlled trial design. Articles were excluded if participants had a mean age under 55 years, or if interventions focused on developmental disabilities, youth, addictions, or case management, or were solely primary-care based.RESULTS: Following title, abstract, and full review by two authors, 17 articles met inclusion criteria. Risk factors for rehospitalization were often listed either as exclusion criteria or were not reported at baseline by the studies. One study included patients with all identified risk factors for rehospitalization.CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that published studies of transitional care interventions do not often include older adults at highest risk of rehospitalization, raising concerns about the generalizability of their results. Studies are needed that evaluate interventions that explicitly address the needs and characteristics of these patients.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Older adults are at risk of rehospitalization if their care transitions from hospital-to-home are not properly managed. The objective of this review was to determine if older patient populations recruited for randomized controlled trials of transitional care interventions represented those at greatest risk of rehospitalization following discharge. Relevant risk factors examined were cognitive impairment, depression, polypharmacy, comorbidity, length of stay, advanced non-malignant diseases, and available social support. DESIGN: Systematic Review. SETTING: Hospital to home. PARTICIPANTS: Older hospitalized adults. MEASUREMENTS: For inclusion, articles were required to focus on hospital-to-home transitions with a self-care component, have components occurring both before and after discharge, and a randomized controlled trial design. Articles were excluded if participants had a mean age under 55 years, or if interventions focused on developmental disabilities, youth, addictions, or case management, or were solely primary-care based. RESULTS: Following title, abstract, and full review by two authors, 17 articles met inclusion criteria. Risk factors for rehospitalization were often listed either as exclusion criteria or were not reported at baseline by the studies. One study included patients with all identified risk factors for rehospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that published studies of transitional care interventions do not often include older adults at highest risk of rehospitalization, raising concerns about the generalizability of their results. Studies are needed that evaluate interventions that explicitly address the needs and characteristics of these patients.
Oostrom, Kim J.; Lafeber, Harrie N.; Jansma, Elise P.; Oosterlaan, Jaap
Background Neurodevelopmental sequelae in preterm born children are generally considered to result from cerebral white matter damage and noxious effects of environmental factors in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Cerebral white matter damage is associated with sensory processing problems in terms of registration, integration and modulation. However, research into sensory processing problems and, in particular, sensory modulation problems, is scarce in preterm children. Aim This review aims to integrate available evidence on sensory modulation problems in preterm infants and children (<37 weeks of gestation) and their association with neurocognitive and behavioral problems. Method Relevant studies were extracted from PubMed, EMBASE.com and PsycINFO following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Selection criteria included assessment of sensory modulation in preterm born children (<37 weeks of gestation) or with prematurity as a risk factor. Results Eighteen studies were included. Results of this review support the presence of sensory modulation problems in preterm children. Although prematurity may distort various aspects of sensory modulation, the nature and severity of sensory modulation problems differ widely between studies. Conclusions Sensory modulation problems may play a key role in understanding neurocognitive and behavioral sequelae in preterm children. Some support is found for a dose-response relationship between both white matter brain injury and length of NICU stay and sensory modulation problems. PMID:28182680
Martuscello, Jason M; Nuzzo, James L; Ashley, Candi D; Campbell, Bill I; Orriola, John J; Mayer, John M
A consensus has not been reached among strength and conditioning specialists regarding what physical fitness exercises are most effective to stimulate activity of the core muscles. Thus, the purpose of this article was to systematically review the literature on the electromyographic (EMG) activity of 3 core muscles (lumbar multifidus, transverse abdominis, quadratus lumborum) during physical fitness exercises in healthy adults. CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, PubMed, SPORTdiscus, and Web of Science databases were searched for relevant articles using a search strategy designed by the investigators. Seventeen studies enrolling 252 participants met the review's inclusion/exclusion criteria. Physical fitness exercises were partitioned into 5 major types: traditional core, core stability, ball/device, free weight, and noncore free weight. Strength of evidence was assessed and summarized for comparisons among exercise types. The major findings of this review with moderate levels of evidence indicate that lumbar multifidus EMG activity is greater during free weight exercises compared with ball/device exercises and is similar during core stability and ball/device exercises. Transverse abdominis EMG activity is similar during core stability and ball/device exercises. No studies were uncovered for quadratus lumborum EMG activity during physical fitness exercises. The available evidence suggests that strength and conditioning specialists should focus on implementing multijoint free weight exercises, rather than core-specific exercises, to adequately train the core muscles in their athletes and clients.
Hussain, Azham; Mkpojiogu, Emmanuel O. C.
Obviously, there are a number of literatures concerning the usability of mobile commerce (m-commerce) applications and related areas, but they do not adequately provide knowledge about usability techniques used in most of the empirical usability evaluation for m-commerce application. Therefore, this paper is aimed at producing the usability techniques frequently used in the aspect of usability evaluation for m-commerce applications. To achieve the stated objective, systematic literature review was employed. Sixty seven papers were downloaded in usability evaluation for m-commerce and related areas; twenty one most relevant studies were selected for review in order to extract the appropriate information. The results from the review shows that heuristic evaluation, formal test and think aloud methods are the most commonly used methods in m-commerce application in comparison to cognitive walkthrough and the informal test methods. Moreover, most of the studies applied control experiment (33.3% of the total studies); other studies that applied case study for usability evaluation are 14.28%. The results from this paper provide additional knowledge to the usability practitioners and research community for the current state and use of usability techniques in m-commerce application.
Luo, Gang; Nkoy, Flory L; Gesteland, Per H; Glasgow, Tiffany S; Stone, Bryan L
Bronchiolitis is the most common cause of illness leading to hospitalization in young children. At present, many bronchiolitis management decisions are made subjectively, leading to significant practice variation among hospitals and physicians caring for children with bronchiolitis. To standardize care for bronchiolitis, researchers have proposed various models to predict the disease course to help determine a proper management plan. This paper reviews the existing state of the art of predictive modeling for bronchiolitis. Predictive modeling for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is covered whenever appropriate, as RSV accounts for about 70% of bronchiolitis cases. A systematic review was conducted through a PubMed search up to April 25, 2014. The literature on predictive modeling for bronchiolitis was retrieved using a comprehensive search query, which was developed through an iterative process. Search results were limited to human subjects, the English language, and children (birth to 18 years). The literature search returned 2312 references in total. After manual review, 168 of these references were determined to be relevant and are discussed in this paper. We identify several limitations and open problems in predictive modeling for bronchiolitis, and provide some preliminary thoughts on how to address them, with the hope to stimulate future research in this domain. Many problems remain open in predictive modeling for bronchiolitis. Future studies will need to address them to achieve optimal predictive models. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Alcohol withdrawal is commonly encountered in general hospital settings. It forms a major part of referrals received by a consultation-liaison psychiatrist. This article aims to review the evidence base for appropriate clinical management of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. We searched Pubmed for articles published in English on pharmacological management of alcohol withdrawal in humans with no limit on the date of publication. Articles not relevant to clinical management were excluded based on the titles and abstract available. Full-text articles were obtained from this list and the cross-references. There were four meta-analyses, 9 systematic reviews, 26 review articles and other type of publications like textbooks. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is a clinical diagnosis. It may vary in severity. Complicated alcohol withdrawal presents with hallucinations, seizures or delirium tremens. Benzodiazepines have the best evidence base in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal, followed by anticonvulsants. Clinical institutes withdrawal assessment-alcohol revised is useful with pitfalls in patients with medical comorbidities. Evidence favors an approach of symptom-monitored loading for severe withdrawals where an initial dose is guided by risk factors for complicated withdrawals and further dosing may be guided by withdrawal severity. Supportive care and use of vitamins is also discussed.
Full Text Available Lonicerae japonicae flos, a widely used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, has been used for several thousand years in China. Chinese Pharmacopeia once included Lonicerae japonicae flos of Caprifoliaceae family and plants of the same species named Lonicerae flos in general in the same group. Chinese Pharmacopeia (2005 Edition lists Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos under different categories, although they have the similar history of efficacy. In this study, we research ancient books of TCM, 4 main databases of Chinese academic journals, and MEDLINE/PubMed to verify the origins and effects of Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos in traditional medicine and systematically summarized the research data in light of modern pharmacology and toxicology. Our results show that Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos are similar pharmacologically, but they also differ significantly in certain aspects. A comprehensive systematic review and a standard comparative pharmacological study of Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos as well as other species of Lonicerae flos support their clinical safety and application. Our study provides evidence supporting separate listing of Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos in Chinese Pharmacopeia as well as references for revision of relevant pharmacopeial records dealing with traditional efficacy of Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos.
Mosher, Catherine E; Winger, Joseph G; Given, Barbara A; Shahda, Safi; Helft, Paul R
A significant minority of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients experience clinically meaningful distress that may warrant intervention. The goal of this systematic review was to assess the impact of psychosocial interventions on quality-of-life and psychosocial outcomes for CRC patients. A systematic search of CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and PsycARTICLES was undertaken to obtain relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published through October 2016. Fourteen RCTs of psychosocial interventions for CRC patients were identified. Only three of these RCTs showed significant intervention effects on multiple mental health outcomes. These interventions included written and verbal emotional expression, progressive muscle relaxation training, and a self-efficacy enhancing intervention. Eight of the 14 trials, testing a range of psychoeducational and supportive care interventions, produced little to no effects on study outcomes. An evaluation of RCT quality highlighted the need for greater rigor in study methods and reporting. A limited evidence base supports the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for CRC patients. Large-scale trials are needed before drawing definitive conclusions regarding intervention impact.
Drummond, David; Monnier, Delphine; Tesnière, Antoine; Hadchouel, Alice
Serious games may be useful tools for asthma education. The objectives of this systematic review were to identify the available articles on serious games designed to educate patients and the general public about asthma and to assess their impact on patient's knowledge, behavior, and clinical outcomes related to asthma. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, PsychInfo, and Web of Science were systematically searched from January 1980 to December 2015 for studies investigating serious games in asthma education. Two investigators independently assessed studies against inclusion criteria and rated those included on indicators of quality. Investigators extracted data on serious games' content and learning objectives, and on outcomes following Kirkpatrick classification. A total of 12 articles were found to be relevant, describing a total of 10 serious games. All serious games were directed toward children, with eight games for children with asthma and two for school-based intervention. The average Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument score was 13.9 of 18, which is high. Most of the serious games were associated with high rates of satisfaction and improvement in children's knowledge. Seven studies evaluated the impact of serious games on clinical outcomes and found no significant difference relative to control groups. Although serious games designed for asthma education have evolved with advances in technology, results of their evaluation remained similar across studies, with clear improvements in knowledge but little or no change in behaviors and clinical outcomes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hansen, Sabine C; Stolter, Caroline; Imholt, Christian; Jacob, Jens
The vast number of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) produced by higher plants has generated many efforts to exploit their potential for pest control. We performed a systematic literature search to retrieve relevant publications, and we evaluated these according to PSM groups to derive information about the potential for developing plant-derived rodent repellents. We screened a total of 54 publications where different compounds or plants were tested regarding rodent behavior/metabolism. In the search for widely applicable products, we recommend multi-species systematic screening of PSMs, especially from the essential oil and terpenoid group, as laboratory experiments have uniformly shown the strongest effects across species. Other groups of compounds might be more suitable for the management of species-specific or sex-specific issues, as the effects of some compounds on particular rodent target species or sex might not be present in non-target species or in both sexes. Although plant metabolites have potential as a tool for ecologically-based rodent management, this review demonstrates inconsistent success across laboratory, enclosure, and field studies, which ultimately has lead to a small number of currently registered PSM-based rodent repellents.
Andrade, S; Bartels, D B; Lange, R; Sandford, L; Gurwitz, J
Metamizole was withdrawn from the market in the United States and several European countries following reports of fatal agranulocytosis among users, but is still available in many countries in Europe, South America and Asia. Over the past several decades, a number of epidemiologic studies have been conducted to quantify the risk of agranulocytosis and other adverse effects associated with metamizole and other non-narcotic analgesics. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review of the safety of metamizole. Epidemiologic studies published between 1 January 1980 and 15 December 2014 were identified through systematic searches of PubMed and Google Scholar; the reference sections of selected articles were also reviewed to identify potentially relevant studies. Studies included in this review focused on the safety of metamizole, that is on outcomes such as haematologic abnormalities, gastrointestinal bleeding, anaphylaxis and hepatotoxicity. Two study investigators independently reviewed the abstracts and articles to determine relevant studies according to prespecified criteria. A total of 22 articles met the criteria for evaluation. The majority of studies that evaluated agranulocytosis indicated an increased risk associated with metamizole, with relative risk (RR) estimates ranging from 1·5 (95% CI, 0·8-2·7) to 40·2 (95% CI, 14·7-113·3). Findings of three case-control studies do not suggest an association between metamizole and aplastic anaemia. Of the five case-control studies that evaluated the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, four found a statistically significant increased risk associated with metamizole (RR estimates ranging from 1·4 to 2·7). There is insufficient evidence to determine whether metamizole increases the risk of other outcomes (e.g. hepatic effects, anaphylaxis, congenital anomalies). Few studies evaluated the effects of dose, route of administration or duration of therapy. Published studies reported differences in
Anli Yue Zhou Zhou; Paul Baker
Purpose: Upward feedback is becoming more widely used in medical training as a means of quality control. Multiple biases exist, thus the accuracy of upward feedback is debatable. This study aims to identify factors that could influence upward feedback, especially in medical training. Methods: A systematic review using a structured search strategy was performed. Thirty-five databases were searched. Results were reviewed and relevant abstracts were shortlisted. All studies in English, both medi...
Leonard Euler Andrade Gomes do Nascimento; Margareth Maria Gomes de Souza; Angela Rita Pontes Azevedo; Lucianne Cople Maia
OBJECTIVE: To verify, by means of a systematic review, whether the design of brackets (conventional or self-ligating) influences adhesion and formation of Streptococcus mutans colonies. METHODS: Search strategy: four databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Ovid ALL EMB Reviews, PubMed and BIREME) were selected to search relevant articles covering the period from January 1965 to December 2012. Selection Criteria: in first consensus by reading the title and abstract. The...
Nguyen, D; De Leeuw, S; Dullaert, W
This paper provides a systematic review of consumer behaviour and order fulfilment in online retailing. The objective of this review is threefold: first, to identify elements of order fulfilment operations that are relevant to online consumer behaviour (purchase, repurchase, product return); second, to understand the relationship between order fulfilment performance and consumer behaviour; and third, to inspire future research on developing consumer service strategies that takes account of th...
Willeboordse, F.; Hugtenburg, J.G.; Schellevis, F.G.; Elders, P.J.M.
Aim: The aim of this systematic literature review is to investigate which types of patient participation in medication reviews have been practiced and what is known about the effects of patient participation within the medication review process. Methods: A systematic literature review was performed
Willeboordse, F.; Hugtenburg, J.G.; Schellevis, F.G.; Elders, P.J.M.
Aim: The aim of this systematic literature review is to investigate which types of patient participation in medication reviews have been practiced and what is known about the effects of patient participation within the medication review process. Methods: A systematic literature review was performed
Full Text Available Abstract Background Any cartilage damage to the glenohumeral joint should be avoided, as these damages may result in osteoarthritis of the shoulder. To understand the pathomechanism leading to shoulder cartilage damage, we conducted a systematic review on the subject of articular cartilage lesions caused by traumas where non impression fracture of the subchondral bone is present. Methods PubMed (MEDLINE, ScienceDirect (EMBASE, BIOBASE, BIOSIS Previews and the COCHRANE database of systematic reviews were systematically scanned using a defined search strategy to identify relevant articles in this field of research. First selection was done based on abstracts according to specific criteria, where the methodological quality in selected full text articles was assessed by two reviewers. Agreement between raters was investigated using percentage agreement and Cohen's Kappa statistic. The traumatic events were divided into two categories: 1 acute trauma which refers to any single impact situation which directly damages the articular cartilage, and 2 chronic trauma which means cartilage lesions due to overuse or disuse of the shoulder joint. Results The agreement on data quality between the two reviewers was 93% with a Kappa value of 0.79 indicating an agreement considered to be 'substantial'. It was found that acute trauma on the shoulder causes humeral articular cartilage to disrupt from the underlying bone. The pathomechanism is said to be due to compression or shearing, which can be caused by a sudden subluxation or dislocation. However, such impact lesions are rarely reported. In the case of chronic trauma glenohumeral cartilage degeneration is a result of overuse and is associated to other shoulder joint pathologies. In these latter cases it is the rotator cuff which is injured first. This can result in instability and consequent impingement which may progress to glenohumeral cartilage damage. Conclusion The great majority of glenohumeral cartilage
Latthe, Pallavi; Mignini, Luciano; Gray, Richard; Hills, Robert; Khan, Khalid
Objective To evaluate factors predisposing women to chronic and recurrent pelvic pain. Design, data sources, and methods Systematic review of relevant studies without language restrictions identified through Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library. SCISEARCH, conference papers, and bibliographies of retrieved primary and review articles. Two reviewers independently extracted data on study characteristics, quality, and results. Exposure to risk factors was compared between women with and without pelvic pain. Results were pooled within subgroups defined by type of pain and risk factors. Results There were 122 studies (in 111 articles) of which 63 (in 64 286 women) evaluated 54 risk factors for dysmenorrhoea, 19 (in 18 601 women) evaluated 14 risk factors for dyspareunia, and 40 (in 12 040 women) evaluated 48 factors for non-cyclical pelvic pain. Age < 30 years, low body mass index, smoking, earlier menarche (< 12 years), longer cycles, heavy menstrual flow, nulliparity, premenstrual syndrome, sterilisation, clinically suspected pelvic inflammatory disease, sexual abuse, and psychological symptoms were associated with dysmenorrhoea. Younger age at first childbirth, exercise, and oral contraceptives were negatively associated with dysmenorrhoea. Menopause, pelvic inflammatory disease, sexual abuse, anxiety, and depression were associated with dyspareunia. Drug or alcohol abuse, miscarriage, heavy menstrual flow, pelvic inflammatory disease, previous caesarean section, pelvic pathology, abuse, and psychological comorbidity were associated with an increased risk of non-cyclical pelvic pain. Conclusion Several gynaecological and psychosocial factors are strongly associated with chronic pelvic pain. Randomised controlled trials of interventions targeting these potentially modifiable factors are needed to assess their clinical relevance in chronic pelvic pain. PMID:16484239
Full Text Available Abstract Background The economic benefits of healthcare research require study so that appropriate resources can be allocated to this research, particularly in developing countries. As a first step, we performed a systematic review to identify the methods used to assess the economic impact of healthcare research, and the outcomes. Method An electronic search was conducted in relevant databases using a combination of specific keywords. In addition, 21 relevant Web sites were identified. Results The initial search yielded 8,416 articles. After studying titles, abstracts, and full texts, 18 articles were included in the analysis. Eleven other reports were found on Web sites. We found that the outcomes assessed as healthcare research payback included direct cost-savings, cost reductions in healthcare delivery systems, benefits from commercial advancement, and outcomes associated with improved health status. Two methods were used to study healthcare research payback: macro-economic studies, which examine the relationship between research studies and economic outcome at the aggregated level, and case studies, which examine specific research projects to assess economic impact. Conclusions Our study shows that different methods and outcomes can be used to assess the economic impacts of healthcare research. There is no unique methodological approach for the economic evaluation of such research. In our systematic search we found no research that had evaluated the economic return of research in low and middle income countries. We therefore recommend a consensus on practical guidelines at international level on the basis of more comprehensive methodologies (such as Canadian Academic of Health Science and payback frameworks in order to build capacity, arrange for necessary informative infrastructures and promote necessary skills for economic evaluation studies.
Rafael Miranda Tassitano
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to systematically review the Brazilian literature on the prevalence of obesity and associated factors in adolescents. The literature search was carried out in the electronic databases Pubmed and Bireme, using the keywords: obesity, overweight, BMI, adolescents and Brazil. The following inclusion criteria were considered: Brazilian adolescents, BMI-based obesity estimates, publication until 2007, and adequate methodology. After the examination of titles, abstracts and full texts, 27 papers fulfilled our inclusion criteria. For describing the studies, the following variables were used: type of survey, design, age range, sample size, place of data collection. For evaluating the evidence, the following indicators were used: methods used, independent variables studied, statistical analyses employed, and cut-off used for defining obesity. Most studies used cross-sectional designs (77.7% and were carried out through home interviews (51.7%. Only one study used a nationally-based sample and three used regional-based samples (Northeast and Southeast. Regardless the design, place, type of survey, age range and cut-off used, the prevalence of obesity tended to be higher in the following groups: adolescents living in the Southeast region, living in urban areas, from high socioeconomic level and from private schools. In terms of behavioral determinants of obesity, the paucity of prospective studies and the difficulties of adequately measuring physical activity and food consumption, make the results less clear. Although the number of studies has increased, it is still necessary to stimulate surveys in the North, Southeast and Mideast regions. Prospective studies are also necessary, in order to evaluate the association between obesity and behavioral exposures.
Sayegh, Eli T; Strauch, Robert J
The optimal management of olecranon bursitis is ill-defined. The purposes of this review were to systematically evaluate clinical outcomes for aseptic versus septic bursitis, compare surgical versus nonsurgical management, and examine the roles of corticosteroid injection and aspiration in aseptic bursitis. The English-language literature was searched using PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, Allied and Complementary Medicine, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Analyses were performed for clinical resolution and complications after treatment of aseptic and/or septic olecranon bursitis. Twenty-nine studies containing 1278 patients were included. Compared with septic bursitis, aseptic bursitis was associated with a significantly higher overall complication rate (p = 0.0108). Surgical management was less likely to clinically resolve septic or aseptic bursitis (p = 0.0476), and demonstrated higher rates of overall complications (p = 0.0117), persistent drainage (p = 0.0194), and bursal infection (p = 0.0060) than nonsurgical management. Corticosteroid injection for aseptic bursitis was associated with increased overall complications (p = 0.0458) and skin atrophy (p = 0.0261). Aspiration did not increase the risk of bursal infection for aseptic bursitis. Based primarily on level IV evidence, nonsurgical management of olecranon bursitis is significantly more effective and safer than surgical management. The clinical course of aseptic bursitis appears to be more complicated than that of septic bursitis. Corticosteroid injection is associated with significant risks without improving the outcome of aseptic bursitis. Therapeutic IV.
Rozenberg, Dmitry; Wickerson, Lisa; Singer, Lianne G; Mathur, Sunita
Lung transplant candidates and recipients have significant impairments in skeletal muscle mass, strength and function--individual measures of sarcopenia. Skeletal muscle dysfunction has been observed in the pre-transplant and post-transplant period and could have an important effect on transplant outcomes. A systematic review was performed to characterize the techniques used to study sarcopenia and assess the level of impairment throughout the transplant process. Electronic databases were searched (inception to July 2013) for prospective studies measuring at least 1 element of sarcopenia (muscle mass, strength, or function) in lung transplant patients. Eighteen studies were included, and study quality was assessed using the Downs and Black scale. A variety of measurements were used to evaluate sarcopenia in 694 lung transplant patients. Muscle mass in 7 studies was assessed using bioelectrical impedance (n = 4), computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (n = 2), or skin folds (n = 1), and was significantly reduced. Quadriceps strength was examined in 14 studies with computerized dynamometer (n = 10) and hand-held dynamometer (n = 4). Quadriceps strength was reduced in the pre-transplant period (mean range, 49%-86% predicted; n = 455 patients), further reduced immediately after transplant (51%-72%, n = 126), and improved beyond 3 months after transplant (58%-101%, n = 164). Only 2 studies measured lower extremity function (sit-to-stand test). A multitude of measurement techniques have been used to assess individual measures of sarcopenia, with reduced muscle mass and quadriceps strength observed in the pre-transplant and post-transplant period. Further standardization of measurement techniques is needed to assess the clinical effect of sarcopenia in lung transplantation.
Full Text Available Background: Jellyfishes belong to the phylum Cnidarians with a wide range of size, from 22 centimeters to 2.5 meters. Jellyfishes have a worldwide distribution comprising over nine thousands species that approximately, 100 species are dangerous for humans. The venoms of these organisms contain biomolecules with extensive activities which could be used as a source of novel drugs in the future. Materials and Methods: The PubMed data bank was searched for the term “Jellyfish”. A total of 1677 papers were found. These papers were divided into three categories: medical, biomedical and biotechnological fields. The medical category was further divided into three subcategories comprising systemic manifestations, cutaneous manifestations and treatments for the stings of jellyfishes. The biomedical category was further subdivided into genomics, proteomics, and biology of venoms, mechanisms of actions and products of biomedical significance. In this part of systematic review, the biomedical and biotechnological and biotechnological fields were evaluated. Results: The genomics and proteomics of 24 species of jellyfishes had been studied in details. The mechanisms of actions of the venoms of 23 species were under investigations. The hematologic (hemolytic effects, cardiotoxic, neurotoxic, dermonecrotic, immunologic and cytotoxic presentations for the venoms were reported. Similar clinical presentations could be produced by different species of jellyfishes with a vast of molecular action mechanisms. Bioactive molecules with cytotoxic, anticancer, antibacterial and antioxidant effects were isolated from the venoms. Conclusion: The venoms of jellyfishes have bioactive molecules that produce a variety of complex intracellular interactions. Hence, the studies on the venomics of jellyfishes and the mechanisms of actions of their venoms could progress the therapeutic interventions and promise novel marine drugs.
Background Information and communication technology (ICT) has transformed the health care field worldwide. One of the main drivers of this change is the electronic health record (EHR). However, there are still open issues and challenges because the EHR usually reflects the partial view of a health care provider without the ability for patients to control or interact with their data. Furthermore, with the growth of mobile and ubiquitous computing, the number of records regarding personal health is increasing exponentially. This movement has been characterized as the Internet of Things (IoT), including the widespread development of wearable computing technology and assorted types of health-related sensors. This leads to the need for an integrated method of storing health-related data, defined as the personal health record (PHR), which could be used by health care providers and patients. This approach could combine EHRs with data gathered from sensors or other wearable computing devices. This unified view of patients’ health could be shared with providers, who may not only use previous health-related records but also expand them with data resulting from their interactions. Another PHR advantage is that patients can interact with their health data, making decisions that may positively affect their health. Objective This work aimed to explore the recent literature related to PHRs by defining the taxonomy and identifying challenges and open questions. In addition, this study specifically sought to identify data types, standards, profiles, goals, methods, functions, and architecture with regard to PHRs. Methods The method to achieve these objectives consists of using the systematic literature review approach, which is guided by research questions using the population, intervention, comparison, outcome, and context (PICOC) criteria. Results As a result, we reviewed more than 5000 scientific studies published in the last 10 years, selected the most significant approaches
Southern Africa continue to report cases of late stage syphilis, including tabes dorsalis and neurosyphilis, in association with ocular disease.This is the first systematic review of the literature on neurosyphilis in Africa since the beginning of the HIV epidemic. Neurosyphilis continues to be reported as a manifestation of both early and late syphilis, but the methodological quality of the majority of the included studies was poor. Future well-designed prospective studies are needed to better delineate the incidence and clinical spectrum of neurosyphilis in Africa and to better define interactions with HIV in this setting.
Serafini, Gianluca; Calcagno, Pietro; Lester, David; Girardi, Paolo; Amore, Mario; Pompili, Maurizio
Suicidal behavior is a common cause of death in the elderly and is often accompanied in this population by disabilities and psychosocial impairment. Alzheimer's-related neuropathological changes are commonly found in the brains of older people. Although Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been reported to be a potential predictor for suicidal behavior, the relationship between suicidal behavior and AD has not been systematically explored. The aim of this paper is to review the current literature regarding the association between suicide risk and AD in an effort to identify the most relevant risk and protective factors for suicide. A detailed strategy was used to search for relevant articles in Pubmed, Scopus, PsycINFO, and Science Direct on suicidal behavior and AD for the period of January 1980 to August 2015. The search yielded 164 articles, of which 21 met our inclusion criteria. Eight crosssectional, two longitudinal, 3 retrospective, and eight case reports (of 11 patients) examined the association between suicide risk and AD. Suicide occurs in AD even many years after the diagnosis of dementia, and patients who have attempted suicide once are at a higher risk of dying from suicide. AD is associated with a moderate risk of suicide, and clinicians working with AD patients should undertake an appropriate assessment of their suicidal risk. However, more prospective studies are needed to clarify the association between AD and suicide risk.
Percy, Ray; Creswell, Cathy; Garner, Matt; O'Brien, Doireann; Murray, Lynne
Parents' verbal communication to their child, particularly the expression of fear-relevant information (e.g., attributions of threat to the environment), is considered to play a key role in children's fears and anxiety. This review considers the extent to which parental verbal communication is associated with child anxiety by examining research that has employed objective observational methods. Using a systematic search strategy, we identified 15 studies that addressed this question. These studies provided some evidence that particular fear-relevant features of parental verbal communication are associated with child anxiety under certain conditions. However, the scope for drawing reliable, general conclusions was limited by extensive methodological variation between studies, particularly in terms of the features of parental verbal communication examined and the context in which communication took place, how child anxiety was measured, and inconsistent consideration of factors that may moderate the verbal communication-child anxiety relationship. We discuss ways in which future research can contribute to this developing evidence base and reduce further methodological inconsistency so as to inform interventions for children with anxiety problems.
Danielle Faust Cruz
Full Text Available It is growing the importance of services sector in the global economy. Facing a global and dynamic market, characterized by fierce competition, Competitive Intelligence - CI can help services organizations in decision making process and in the conception of competitive advantages against competitors. This paper aims to outline the state of art concerning the use of competitive intelligence in the services sector organizations, through research and analysis of articles found in major databases. This is a theoretical study consisting of a systematic literature review including bibliometric and content analysis. Relevant publications were retrieved in the following data bases related to the subject: Web of Knowledge, Scopus, Ebsco, ScienceDirect, and Engineering Village. The results allow considering the importance of competitive intelligence for survival and competitiveness of services organizations. Finally, it was verified the existence of a gap related to prescriptive studies, focusing on investigations about the subject, being this type of study relevant to the area to reach maturity
Andrews Jane M
Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of studies have suggested a link between the patient's psyche and the course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Although pharmacotherapy with antidepressants has not been widely explored, some investigators have proposed that treating psychological co-morbidities with antidepressants may help to control disease activity. To date a systematic analysis of the available studies assessing the efficacy of antidepressants for the control of somatic symptoms in IBD patients has not been performed. Methods We searched electronic databases, without any language restriction. All relevant papers issued after 1990 were examined. Results 12 relevant publications were identified. All of them referred to non-randomised studies. Antidepressants reported in these publications included paroxetine, bupropion, amitriptyline, phenelzine, and mirtazapine. In 10 articles, paroxetine, bupropion, and phenelzine were suggested to be effective for treating both psychological and somatic symptoms in patients suffering from IBD. Amitriptyline was found ineffective for treating somatic symptoms of IBD. Mirtazapine was not recommended for IBD patients. Conclusion Although most of reviewed papers suggest a beneficial effect of treatment with antidepressants in patients with IBD, due to the lack of reliable data, it is impossible to judge the efficacy of antidepressants in IBD. Properly designed trials are justified and needed based upon the available uncontrolled data.
Hammana, Imane; Lepanto, Luigi; Poder, Thomas; Bellemare, Christian; Ly, My-Sandra
To conduct a systematic review of the literature describing the impact of speech recognition systems on report error rates and productivity in radiology departments. The search was conducted for relevant papers published from January 1992 to October 2013. Comparative studies reporting any of the following outcomes were selected: error rates, departmental productivity, and radiologist productivity. The retrieved studies were assessed for quality and risk of bias. The literature search identified 85 potentially relevant publications, but, based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, only 20 were included. Most studies were before and after assessments with no control group. There was a large amount of heterogeneity due to differences in the imaging modalities assessed and the outcomes measured. The percentage of reports containing at least one error varied from 4.8% to 89% for speech recognition, and from 2.1% to 22% for transcription. Departmental productivity was improved with decreases in report turnaround times varying from 35% to 99%. Most studies found a lengthening of radiologist dictation time. Overall gains in departmental productivity were high, but radiologist productivity, as measured by the time to produce a report, was diminished.
Salbach, Nancy M; O'Brien, Kelly; Brooks, Dina; Irvin, Emma; Martino, Rosemary; Takhar, Pam; Chan, Sylvia; Howe, Jo-Anne
To provide an overview of the research literature on distance and speed requirements for adults to walk outside the home. We conducted a systematic review and searched PubMed, MEDLINE (Ovid), EMBASE, CINAHL, Scopus, PEDro, and The Cochrane Library from 1948 to May 2012, and other sources. Search terms included communities, walk, ambulation, and neighborhood. Full-text peer-reviewed articles written in English, French, or Spanish reporting distance and/or speed requirements for individuals walking outside the home were considered eligible. Two authors independently screened titles and abstracts. One author reviewed full-text articles to determine inclusion. Of the 3191 titles and abstracts screened, 15 studies (.47%) were selected for detailed review. One author appraised methodological quality. Inadequate description of the reliability of the measurement methods and the population of the town/city assessed was noted. One author extracted data from included studies. A second reviewer independently verified extracted data for accuracy. Seven studies examining 24 community sites and crosswalks in the United States, Australia, and Singapore were included. Three sites with the largest mean distance requirements for adults to walk were club warehouses (677m), superstores (183-607m), and hardware stores (566m). Three sites with the lowest mean distance requirements were walking at the front (16m) and back (19m) of the house, and at cemeteries (18m). The average speed required to cross the street in the time of a walk signal varied from .44 to 1.32m/s. Distance and speed requirements for adults to walk in the community environment vary widely. Findings are relevant to judging capacity for community ambulation to carry out essential activities of daily living, educating patients, and setting rehabilitation goals. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Peter J Gill
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As a first step in developing a framework to evaluate and improve the quality of care of children in primary care there is a need to identify the evidence base underpinning interventions relevant to child health. Our objective was to identify all Cochrane systematic reviews relevant to the management of childhood conditions in primary care and to assess the extent to which Cochrane reviews reflect the burden of childhood illness presenting in primary care. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used the Cochrane Child Health Field register of child-relevant systematic reviews to complete an overview of Cochrane reviews related to the management of children in primary care. We compared the proportion of systematic reviews with the proportion of consultations in Australia, US, Dutch and UK general practice in children. We identified 396 relevant systematic reviews; 358 included primary studies on children while 251 undertook a meta-analysis. Most reviews (n = 218, 55% focused on chronic conditions and over half (n = 216, 57% evaluated drug interventions. Since 2000, the percentage of pediatric primary care relevant reviews only increased by 2% (7% to 9% compared to 18% (10% to 28% in all child relevant reviews. Almost a quarter of reviews (n = 78, 23% were published on asthma treatments which only account for 3-5% of consultations. Conversely, 15-23% of consultations are due to skin conditions yet they represent only 7% (n = 23 of reviews. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although Cochrane systematic reviews focus on clinical trials and do not provide a comprehensive picture of the evidence base underpinning the management of children in primary care, the mismatch between the focus of the published research and the focus of clinical activity is striking. Clinical trials are an important component of the evidence base and the lack of trial evidence to demonstrate intervention effectiveness in substantial areas of primary care for children should
Qualitative systematic reviews or qualitative evidence syntheses (QES) are increasingly recognised as a way to enhance the value of systematic reviews (SRs) of clinical trials. They can explain the mechanisms by which interventions, evaluated within trials, might achieve their effect. They can investigate differences in effects between different population groups. They can identify which outcomes are most important to patients, carers, health professionals and other stakeholders. QES can explore the impact of acceptance, feasibility, meaningfulness and implementation-related factors within a real world setting and thus contribute to the design and further refinement of future interventions. To produce valid, reliable and meaningful QES requires systematic identification of relevant qualitative evidence. Although the methodologies of QES, including methods for information retrieval, are well-documented, little empirical evidence exists to inform their conduct and reporting. This structured methodological overview examines papers on searching for qualitative research identified from the Cochrane Qualitative and Implementation Methods Group Methodology Register and from citation searches of 15 key papers. A single reviewer reviewed 1299 references. Papers reporting methodological guidance, use of innovative methodologies or empirical studies of retrieval methods were categorised under eight topical headings: overviews and methodological guidance, sampling, sources, structured questions, search procedures, search strategies and filters, supplementary strategies and standards. This structured overview presents a contemporaneous view of information retrieval for qualitative research and identifies a future research agenda. This review concludes that poor empirical evidence underpins current information practice in information retrieval of qualitative research. A trend towards improved transparency of search methods and further evaluation of key search procedures offers
Leibovici, Leonard; Paul, Mical; Garner, Paul
Antibiotics are among the most important interventions in healthcare. Resistance of bacteria to antibiotics threatens the effectiveness of treatment. Systematic reviews of antibiotic treatments often do not address resistance to antibiotics even when data are available in the original studies....... This omission creates a skewed view, which emphasizes short-term efficacy and ignores the long-term consequences to the patient and other people. We offer a framework for addressing antibiotic resistance in systematic reviews. We suggest that the data on background resistance in the original trials should...... controlled trials or systematic reviews....
Sargeant, J M; O'Connor, A M
This article is the first in a series of six articles related to systematic reviews in animal agriculture and veterinary medicine. In this article, we overview the methodology of systematic reviews and provide a discussion of their use. Systematic reviews differ qualitatively from traditional reviews by explicitly defining a specific review question, employing methods to reduce bias in the selection and inclusion of studies that address the review question (including a systematic and specified search strategy, and selection of studies based on explicit eligibility criteria), an assessment of the risk of bias for included studies and objectively summarizing the results qualitatively or quantitatively (i.e. via meta-analysis). Systematic reviews have been widely used to address human healthcare questions and are increasingly being used in veterinary medicine. Systematic reviews can provide veterinarians and other decision-makers with a scientifically defensible summary of the current state of knowledge on a topic without the need for the end-user to read the vast amount of primary research related to that topic.
Hessel, Eugene A
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTCM) is a form of stress cardiomyopathy that may occur in the perioperative period and among the critically ill. Therefore, anesthesiologists should be aware of its diagnosis and treatment. The aim of this narrative review is describe the features of TTCM and its relevance to the practice of anesthesiology. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy occurs in about 2-9/100,000 persons in the general population annually and may occur in up to one in 6,700 cases in the perioperative period. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy often presents like an acute coronary syndrome and is likely caused by excessive catecholamine stimulation. Although its early course may be complicated, more than 90% of patients survive the acute episode. A review of the literature revealed 131 cases encountered in many different types of surgical procedures, with 37% occurring during anesthesia or surgery and 58% occurring postoperatively. Compared with non-perioperative cases, this population involved more males, was younger, less likely to have an obvious precipitating factor, less likely to present with chest pain, and less likely to exclusively exhibit the apical ballooning pattern. In addition, perioperative TTCM had a lower ejection fraction and was prone to higher mortality. Detection is facilitated by early echocardiography. Anesthesiologists may encounter TTCM in other situations including patients undergoing other non-surgical procedures (e.g., electroconvulsive therapy), those with acute central nervous system conditions, those with pheochromocytoma, in other critical illnesses, and during allergic reactions. Perioperative TTCM is more common than appreciated and should be considered in any hospitalized patient presenting with acute coronary syndrome and/or hemodynamic instability, acute respiratory distress, as well as cardiac arrhythmias and arrest.
Stansfield, Claire; Dickson, Kelly; Bangpan, Mukdarut
Websites and online resources outside academic bibliographic databases can be significant sources for identifying literature, though there are challenges in searching and managing the results. These are pertinent to systematic reviews that are underpinned by principles of transparency, accountability and reproducibility. We consider how the conduct of searching these resources can be compatible with the principles of a systematic search. We present an approach to address some of the challenges. This is particularly relevant when websites are relied upon to identify important literature for a review. We recommend considering the process as three stages and having a considered rationale and sufficient recordkeeping at each stage that balances transparency with practicality of purpose. Advances in technology and recommendations for website providers are briefly discussed.
Jones, Chloe; Reilly, Colin
The aim was to systematically review studies that have focused on symptoms of anxiety reported by parents of children (0-18 years) with epilepsy. PubMed was used to identify relevant studies. Selected studies were reviewed with respect to prevalence of above threshold scores and comparisons with controls on standardized measures of anxiety. Studies are also reported with respect to factors associated with parental anxiety, impact on child outcomes, and comparisons with studies that have included equivalent measures of symptoms of depression. Fifteen studies that met inclusion criteria were identified. None of the studies were population based. The percentage of parents scoring above cutoffs on standardized measures of anxiety was 9-58%. In comparison with parents of healthy controls, parents of children with epilepsy had higher mean scores in two of three studies where this was measured. Possible correlates of parental anxiety in childhood epilepsy that were considered varied widely across studies. Factors such as seizure frequency and use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have been associated with parental anxiety in some but not all studies. With respect to child outcome, increased parental anxiety has been associated with lower quality of life and lower scores on adaptive behavior domains. Symptoms of anxiety are common among parents of children with epilepsy. There is a need for more systematic, representative studies to identify the prevalence of clinically significant anxiety and track the course of symptoms. Such studies will help to identify more clearly factors associated with parental anxiety and impact of symptoms on child and parent outcomes. Intervention studies are needed to evaluate approaches that target a reduction in symptoms and the potential impact on parental and child functioning. Furthermore, there is a need to evaluate the impact of antiepileptic therapies and interventions that focus on child neurobehavioral comorbidities on parental anxiety.
Suijkerbuijk, Mathijs A M; Reijman, Max; Lodewijks, Susanne J M; Punt, Jorien; Meuffels, Duncan E
Hamstring tendons are often used as autografts for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. However, no systematic review has been performed describing consequences such as hamstring tendon regeneration rate and determinants of hamstring tendon regeneration. To summarize the current literature regarding hamstring tendon rate regeneration, the time course of regeneration, and determinants of hamstring regeneration. Systematic review. A search was performed in the Embase, Medline (OvidSP), Web of Science, Cochrane, PubMed, and Google Scholar databases up to June 2014 to identify relevant articles. A study was eligible if it met the following inclusion criteria: tendons were harvested, regeneration at harvest site was assessed, population size was at least 10 human subjects, full-text article was available, and the study design was either a randomized controlled trial, prospective cohort study, retrospective cohort study, or case control study. A risk of bias assessment of the eligible articles was determined. Data describing hamstring tendon regeneration rates were pooled per time period. A total of 18 publications met the inclusion criteria. The mean regeneration rate for the semitendinosus and gracilis tendons was, in all cases, 70% or higher. More than 1 year after harvesting, 79% (median [IQR], 80 [75.5-90]) of the semitendinosus tendons and 72% (median [IQR], 80 [61-88.5]) of the gracilis tendons were regenerated. No significant differences in regeneration rate could be found considering patient sex, age, height, weight, or duration of immobilization. Results did not clearly show whether absence of regeneration disadvantages the subsequent hamstring function. Five studies measured the regeneration rate at different moments in time. Hamstring tendons regenerated in the majority of patients after ACL reconstruction. The majority of the hamstring tendon regeneration was found to occur between 1 month and 1 year after harvest. No significant determinants for
Lip, Philomena Z Y; Lip, Gregory Y H
Migraine headache and the presence of a patent foramen ovale have been associated with each other, although the precise pathophysiological mechanism(s) are uncertain. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify the extent of patent foramen ovale prevalence in migraineurs and to determine whether closure of a patent foramen ovale would improve migraine headache. An electronic literature search was performed to select studies between January 1980 and February 2013 that were relevant to the prevalence of patent foramen ovale and migraine, and the effects of intervention(s) on migraine attacks. Of the initial 368 articles presented by the initial search, 20 satisfied the inclusion criteria assessing patent foramen ovale prevalence in migraineurs and 21 presented data on patent foramen ovale closure. In case series and cohort studies, patent foramen ovale prevalence in migraineurs ranged from 14.6% to 66.5%. Case-control studies reported a prevalence ranging from 16.0% to 25.7% in controls, compared with 26.8% to 96.0% for migraine with aura. The extent of improvement or resolution of migraine headache attack symptoms was variable. In case series, intervention ameliorated migraine headache attack in 13.6% to 92.3% of cases. One single randomized trial did not show any benefit from patent foramen ovale closure. The data overall do not exclude the possibility of a placebo effect for resolving migraine following patent foramen ovale closure. This systematic review demonstrates firstly that migraine headache attack is associated with a higher prevalence of patent foramen ovale than among the general population. Observational data suggest that some improvement of migraine would be observed if the patent foramen ovale were to be closed. A proper assessment of any interventions for patent foramen ovale closure would require further large randomized trials to be conducted given uncertainties from existing trial data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jördis M Zill
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Effective communication with health care providers has been found as relevant for physical and psychological health outcomes as well as the patients' adherence. However, the validity of the findings depends on the quality of the applied measures. This study aimed to provide an overview of measures of physician-patient communication and to evaluate the methodological quality of psychometric studies and the quality of psychometric properties of the identified measures. METHODS: A systematic review was performed to identify psychometrically tested instruments which measure physician-patient communication. The search strategy included three databases (EMBASE, PsycINFO, PubMed, reference and citation tracking and personal knowledge. Studies that report the psychometric properties of physician-patient communication measures were included. Two independent raters assessed the methodological quality of the selected studies with the COSMIN (COnsensus based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INtruments checklist. The quality of psychometric properties was evaluated with the quality criteria of Terwee and colleagues. RESULTS: Data of 25 studies on 20 measures of physician-patient communication were extracted, mainly from primary care samples in Europe and the USA. Included studies reported a median of 3 out of the nine COSMIN criteria. Scores for internal consistency and content validity were mainly fair or poor. Reliability and structural validity were rated mainly of fair quality. Hypothesis testing scored mostly poor. The quality of psychometric properties of measures evaluated with Terwee et al.'s criteria was rated mainly intermediate or positive. DISCUSSION: This systematic review identified a number of measures of physician-patient communication. However, further psychometric evaluation of the measures is strongly recommended. The application of quality criteria like the COSMIN checklist could improve the
Zill, Jördis M.; Christalle, Eva; Müller, Evamaria; Härter, Martin; Dirmaier, Jörg; Scholl, Isabelle
Background Effective communication with health care providers has been found as relevant for physical and psychological health outcomes as well as the patients' adherence. However, the validity of the findings depends on the quality of the applied measures. This study aimed to provide an overview of measures of physician-patient communication and to evaluate the methodological quality of psychometric studies and the quality of psychometric properties of the identified measures. Methods A systematic review was performed to identify psychometrically tested instruments which measure physician-patient communication. The search strategy included three databases (EMBASE, PsycINFO, PubMed), reference and citation tracking and personal knowledge. Studies that report the psychometric properties of physician-patient communication measures were included. Two independent raters assessed the methodological quality of the selected studies with the COSMIN (COnsensus based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INtruments) checklist. The quality of psychometric properties was evaluated with the quality criteria of Terwee and colleagues. Results Data of 25 studies on 20 measures of physician-patient communication were extracted, mainly from primary care samples in Europe and the USA. Included studies reported a median of 3 out of the nine COSMIN criteria. Scores for internal consistency and content validity were mainly fair or poor. Reliability and structural validity were rated mainly of fair quality. Hypothesis testing scored mostly poor. The quality of psychometric properties of measures evaluated with Terwee et al.'s criteria was rated mainly intermediate or positive. Discussion This systematic review identified a number of measures of physician-patient communication. However, further psychometric evaluation of the measures is strongly recommended. The application of quality criteria like the COSMIN checklist could improve the methodological quality of
Full Text Available Background : Uncontrolled anger while being most commonly associated with personality disorders could also be part of many other conditions such as chronic low back ache and post-traumatic stress disorder. The intensity of anger as an emotional state at a particular time is known as "State Anger," whereas how often angry feelings are experienced over time is known as "Trait Anger." Anger could also manifest as expression of anger toward other persons or objects in the environment (Anger-Out, holding in or suppressing angry feelings (Anger-In and controlling angry feelings by preventing the expression of anger toward other persons or objects in the environment or controlling suppressed angry feelings by calming down or cooling off (Anger Control. Objective : To prove the effectiveness of topiramate in the control of anger as compared to placebo and to disprove that its use leads to psychiatric adverse events by systematically reviewing the available randomized controlled trials. Materials and Methods : The basic search was performed in MEDLINE (1966 through November 2008 combined with the optimal search strategy for randomized controlled trials described in the Cochrane Reviewers′ Handbook. To update this search, we regularly screened citations from PubMed till November 2008 for eligible studies or reviews that might include eligible studies. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL was searched using the terms "topiramate" and "anger or aggression." In addition, we screened bibliographies of reviews and identified articles. Randomized clinical trials wherein study participants were aggressive adults were included. Results : We could arrive at a weighted mean difference of -3.16 (-3.64 to -2.68 in State Anger. The reduction in the score was highest in borderline personality disorder (BPD patients as compared to those with low back ache. Trait Anger dropped by -2.93 (-3.49 to -2.37, especially in female BPD patients. Anger In
Hohl, Corinne M; Wickham, Maeve E; Sobolev, Boris; Perry, Jeff J; Sivilotti, Marco L A; Garrison, Scott; Lang, Eddy; Brasher, Penny; Doyle-Waters, Mary M; Brar, Baljeet; Rowe, Brian H; Lexchin, Joel; Holland, Richard
Aims Adverse drug events are an important cause of emergency department visits, unplanned admissions and prolonged hospital stays. Our objective was to synthesize the evidence on the effect of early in-hospital pharmacist-led medication review on patient-oriented outcomes based on observed data. Methods We systematically searched eight bibliographic reference databases, electronic grey literature, medical journals, conference proceedings, trial registries and bibliographies of relevant papers. We included studies that employed random or quasi-random methods to allocate subjects to pharmacist-led medication review or control. Medication review had to include, at a minimum, obtaining a best possible medication history and reviewing medications for appropriateness and adverse drug events. The intervention had to be initiated within 24 h of emergency department presentation or 72 h of admission. We extracted data in duplicate and pooled outcomes from clinically homogeneous studies of the same design using random effects meta-analysis. Results We retrieved 4549 titles of which seven were included, reporting the outcomes of 3292 patients. We pooled data from studies of the same design, and found no significant differences in length of hospital admission (weighted mean difference [WMD] –0.04 days, 95% confidence interval [CI] –1.63, 1.55), mortality (odds ratio [OR] 1.09, 95% CI 0.69, 1.72), readmissions (OR 1.15, 95% CI 0.81, 1.63) or emergency department revisits at 3 months (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.27, 1.32). Two large studies reporting reductions in readmissions could not be included in our pooled estimates due to differences in study design. Conclusions Wide confidence intervals suggest that additional research is likely to influence the effect size estimates and clarify the effect of medication review on patient-oriented outcomes. This systematic review failed to identify an effect of pharmacist-led medication review on health outcomes. PMID:25581134
Hansen, L.H.; Lundsager, P.
The report presents the results of a review of studies relating to integration of wind energy in isolated power supply systems, based on a systematic literature survey. The purpose of the study is to develop a methodology consisting of a set of guidelines for wind energy projects in isolated energy systems and a set of tools and models that are operational on an engineering level. The review is based on a literature search in the ETDE Energy Database with a main search covering the period 7/88 to 6/97 and supplemented by partial update periods. A few newer references have been included in the review, most notably the IEC/PAS 62111 specification. The amount of wind energy literature related to the subject is excessively large, and a complete review in which every relevant abstract is identified and examined is not feasible within the framework of this (or probably any other) study. The review results have been organised according to the following keywords: methods & guides, economics, concept of application, system solutions, case studies, financial programmes, dedicated software tools. None of the found references presents methods or tools that contradict the philosophy of Risoe's methodology as it is described in the report. It is therefore concluded that Risoe's methodology makes a good platform for further development. (au)
Fox, Daniel M
Systematic reviews have, increasingly, informed policy for almost 3 decades. In many countries, systematic reviews have informed policy for public and population health, paying for health care, increasing the quality and efficiency of interventions, and improving the effectiveness of health sector professionals and the organizations in which they work. Systematic reviews also inform other policy areas: criminal justice, education, social welfare, and the regulation of toxins in the environment. Although the production and use of systematic reviews has steadily increased, many clinicians, public health officials, representatives of commercial organizations, and, consequently, policymakers who are responsive to them, have been reluctant to use these reviews to inform policy; others have actively opposed using them. Systematic reviews could inform policy more effectively with changes to current practices and the assumptions that sustain these practices-assumptions made by researchers and the organizations that employ them, by public and private funders of systematic reviews, and by organizations that finance, set priorities and standards for, and publish them.
Pons, Ewoud; Braun, Loes M M; Hunink, M G Myriam; Kors, Jan A
Radiological reporting has generated large quantities of digital content within the electronic health record, which is potentially a valuable source of information for improving clinical care and supporting research. Although radiology reports are stored for communication and documentation of diagnostic imaging, harnessing their potential requires efficient and automated information extraction: they exist mainly as free-text clinical narrative, from which it is a major challenge to obtain structured data. Natural language processing (NLP) provides techniques that aid the conversion of text into a structured representation, and thus enables computers to derive meaning from human (ie, natural language) input. Used on radiology reports, NLP techniques enable automatic identification and extraction of information. By exploring the various purposes for their use, this review examines how radiology benefits from NLP. A systematic literature search identified 67 relevant publications describing NLP methods that support practical applications in radiology. This review takes a close look at the individual studies in terms of tasks (ie, the extracted information), the NLP methodology and tools used, and their application purpose and performance results. Additionally, limitations, future challenges, and requirements for advancing NLP in radiology will be discussed. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.
Pasternack, I.; Vehmas, T.; Malmivaara, A. [Finnish Inst. of Occupational Health, Helsinki (Finland); Tuovinen, E.M. [Medivire Occupational Health Services (Finland); Lohman, M. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Radiology
Purpose: To highlight the importance of meta-analysis in diagnostic imaging by presenting a systematic search of the literature on the accuracy of MR imaging in epicondylitis. Material and Methods: The literature was comprehensively reviewed to identify studies on MR findings in epicondylitis. Reviewers blind to the clinical diagnoses screened the data according to predetermined inclusion criteria. Data were collected and validity and relevance were assessed on structured forms. Results: Seven studies including 148 patients with epicondylitis were accepted for the analysis. Eleven asymptomatic contralateral elbows and 29 elbows of healthy volunteers served as controls. The volunteers were distinctly younger than the patients. The MR technique was divergent, and the observed pathological changes also varied. The most frequent alteration was a change in the common extensor tendon signal (90%, 95% confidence interval 84-94%); 14% of the healthy volunteers and 50% of the contralateral elbows displayed the similar alteration. Conclusion: Small sample size and methodological shortcomings in the original studies make the assessment of MR findings in epicondylitis questionable. There is a need for well-designed studies in which clinical features and occupational backgrounds as well as imaging parameters are carefully documented.
Olaussen, Alexander; Shepherd, Matthew; Nehme, Ziad; Smith, Karen; Bernard, Stephen; Mitra, Biswadev
Cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) may generate sufficient cerebral perfusion pressure to make the patient conscious. The incidence and management of this phenomenon are not well described. This systematic review aims to identifying cases where CPR-induced consciousness is mentioned in the literature and explore its management options. The databases Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, Cinahl and the Cochrane Library were searched from their commencement to the 8th July 2014. We also searched Google (scholar) for grey literature. We combined MeSH terms and text words for consciousness and CPR, and included studies of all types. The search yielded 1997 unique records, of which 50 abstracts were reviewed. Nine reports, describing 10 patients, were relevant. Six of the patients had CPR performed by mechanical devices, three of these patients were sedated. Four patients arrested in the out-of-hospital setting and six arrested in hospital. There were four survivors. Varying levels of consciousness were described in all reports, including purposeful arm movements, verbal communication, and resuscitation interference. Management strategies directed at consciousness were offered to six patients and included both physical and chemical restraints. CPR-induced consciousness was infrequently reported in the medical literature, and varied in management. Given the increasing use of mechanical CPR, guidelines to identify and manage consciousness during CPR are required. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Corallo, Ashley N; Croxford, Ruth; Goodman, David C; Bryan, Elisabeth L; Srivastava, Divya; Stukel, Therese A
Major variations in medical practice have been documented internationally. Variations raise questions about the quality, equity, and efficiency of resource allocation and use, and have important implications for health care and health policy. To perform a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature on medical practice variations in OECD countries. We searched MEDLINE to find publications on medical practice variations in OECD countries published between 2000 and 2011. We present an overview of the characteristics of published studies as well as the magnitude of variations for select high impact conditions. A total of 836 studies were included. Consistent with the gray literature, there were large variations across regions, hospitals and physician practices for almost every condition and procedure studied. Many studies focused on high-impact conditions, but very few looked at the causes or outcomes of medical practice variations. While there were an overwhelming number of publications on medical practice variations the coverage was broad and not often based on a theoretical construct. Future studies should focus on conditions and procedures that are clinically important, policy relevant, resource intensive, and have high levels of public awareness. Further study of the causes and consequences of variations is important. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chadha, N; Chadha, V; Ross, S; Sydora, B C
Every woman experiences the menopause transition period in a very individual way. Menopause symptoms and management are greatly influenced by socioeconomic status in addition to genetic background and medical history. Because of their very unique cultural heritage and often holistic view of health and well-being, menopause symptoms and management might differ greatly in aboriginals compared to non-aboriginals. Our aim was to investigate the extent and scope of the current literature in describing the menopause experience of aboriginal women. Our systematic literature review included nine health-related databases using the keywords 'menopause' and 'climacteric symptoms' in combination with various keywords describing aboriginal populations. Data were collected from selected articles and descriptive analysis was applied. Twenty-eight relevant articles were included in our analysis. These articles represent data from 12 countries and aboriginal groups from at least eight distinctive geographical regions. Knowledge of menopause and symptom experience vary greatly among study groups. The average age of menopause onset appears earlier in most aboriginal groups, often attributed to malnutrition and a harsher lifestyle. This literature review highlights a need for further research of the menopause transition period among aboriginal women to fully explore understanding and treatment of menopause symptoms and ultimately advance an important dialogue about women's health care.
Ribeiro, José Carlos; Cunha, Luís Miguel; Sousa-Pinto, Bernardo; Fonseca, João
The expected future demand for food and animal-derived protein will require environment-friendly novel food sources with high nutritional value. Insects may be one of such novel food sources. However, there needs to be an assessment of the risks associated with their consumption, including allergic risks. Therefore, we performed a systematic review aiming to analyse current data available regarding the allergic risks of consuming insects. We reviewed all reported cases of food allergy to insects, and studied the possibility of cross-reactivity and co-sensitisation between edible insects, crustaceans and house dust mites. We analysed a total of 25 articles - eight assessing the cross-reactivity/co-sensitisation between edible insects, crustaceans and house dust mites; three characterizing allergens in edible insects and 14 case reports, describing case series or prevalence studies of food allergy caused by insects. Cross-reactivity/co-sensitisation between edible insects and crustaceans seems to be clinically relevant, while it is still unknown if co-sensitisation between house dust mites and edible insects can lead to a food allergy. Additionally, more information is also needed about the molecular mechanisms underlying food allergy to insects, although current data suggest that an important role is played by arthropod pan-allergens such as tropomyosin or arginine kinase. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Trieste, Leopoldo; Palla, Ilaria; Fusco, Francesco; Tani, Chiara; Baldini, Chiara; Mosca, Marta; Turchetti, Giuseppe
This article performs a systematic literature review of the last decade studies assessing the economic impact of gout. The literature review confirms the fact that gout reduces productivity and increases annual total healthcare costs, since care of gout absorbs relevant amounts of healthcare resources. One important aspect to be considered is represented by prevention and monitoring of the disease after the diagnosis, as gout is sometimes underestimated by patients and this leads to a reduced adherence to follow up and to treatment with consequences on the disease course and outcome. In fact, the lack of prevention and the scarce adherence to monitoring increase the number and costs of hospitalisation. Prevention, monitoring the level of sUA and using a urate-lowering therapy appear to have a central role for controlling gout and reducing hospitalisation, with positive advantages in terms of healthcare costs and healthcare utilisation. One limitation on the analysis of gout related costs, however, resides in the fact that the majority of the retrieved studies are retrospective and the definition of the economic impact of the disease is made difficult by differences in inclusion criteria, costs assessment, use of gout-related healthcare resources.
Chebli, Jaymee-Lee; Blaszczynski, Alexander; Gainsbury, Sally M
Internet-based interventions have emerged as a new treatment and intervention modality for psychological disorders. Given their features of treatment flexibility, anonymity and confidentiality, this modality may be well suited in the management of addictive behaviours. A systematic literature review of the effectiveness and treatment outcomes of Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation, problematic alcohol use, substance abuse and gambling was performed. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: clients received a structured therapeutic Internet-based intervention for a problematic and addictive behaviour; included more than five clients; effectiveness was based on at least one outcome; outcome variables were measured before and immediately following the interventions; had a follow-up period; and involved at least minimal therapist contact over the course of the program. Sixteen relevant studies were found; nine addressed the effects of Internet-based interventions on smoking cessation, four on gambling, two on alcohol and one on opioid dependence. All studies demonstrated positive treatment outcomes for their respective addictive behaviours. The current review concluded that Internet-based interventions are effective in achieving positive behavioural change through reducing problematic behaviours. This mode of therapy has been found to have the capacity to provide effective and practical services for those who might have remained untreated, subsequently reducing the barriers for help-seekers. This in turn provides imperative information to treatment providers, policy makers, and academic researchers.
Oluka, Obiageli Crystal; Nie, Shaofa; Sun, Yi
Objective This review is aimed at assessing the quality of questionnaires and their development process based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) change model. Methods A systematic literature search for studies with the primary aim of TPB-based questionnaire development was conducted in relevant databases between 2002 and 2012 using selected search terms. Ten of 1,034 screened abstracts met the inclusion criteria and were assessed for methodological quality using two different appraisal tools: one for the overall methodological quality of each study and the other developed for the appraisal of the questionnaire content and development process. Both appraisal tools consisted of items regarding the likelihood of bias in each study and were eventually combined to give the overall quality score for each included study. Results 8 of the 10 included studies showed low risk of bias in the overall quality assessment of each study, while 9 of the studies were of high quality based on the quality appraisal of questionnaire content and development process. Conclusion Quality appraisal of the questionnaires in the 10 reviewed studies was successfully conducted, highlighting the top problem areas (including: sample size estimation; inclusion of direct and indirect measures; and inclusion of questions on demographics) in the development of TPB-based questionnaires and the need for researchers to provide a more detailed account of their development process. PMID:24722323
Domingo-Pueyo, Andrea; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina
Background: To review the available scientific literature about the effects on health by occupational exposure to noise. Materials and Methods: A systematic review of the retrieved scientific literature from the databases MEDLINE (via PubMed), ISI-Web of Knowledge (Institute for Scientific Information), Cochrane Library Plus, SCOPUS, and SciELO (collection of scientific journals) was conducted. The following terms were used as descriptors and were searched in free text: “Noise, Occupational,” “Occupational Exposure,” and “Occupational Disease.” The following limits were considered: “Humans,” “Adult (more than 18 years),” and “Comparative Studies.” Results: A total of 281 references were retrieved, and after applying inclusion/exclusion criteria, 25 articles were selected. Of these selected articles, 19 studies provided information about hearing disturbance, four on cardiovascular disorders, one regarding respiratory alteration, and one on other disorders. Conclusions: It can be interpreted that the exposure to noise causes alterations in humans with different relevant outcomes, and therefore appropriate security measures in the work environment must be employed to minimize such an exposure and thereby to reduce the number of associated disorders. PMID:27762251
Randazzo, Michael; Pisapia, Jared M.; Singh, Nickpreet; Thawani, Jayesh P.
Background: The recent expansion of three-dimensional (3D) printing technology into the field of neurosurgery has prompted a widespread investigation of its utility. In this article, we review the current body of literature describing rapid prototyping techniques with applications to the practice of neurosurgery. Methods: An extensive and systematic search of the Compendex, Scopus, and PubMed medical databases was conducted using keywords relating to 3D printing and neurosurgery. Results were manually screened for relevance to applications within the field. Results: Of the search results, 36 articles were identified and included in this review. The articles spanned the various subspecialties of the field including cerebrovascular, neuro-oncologic, spinal, functional, and endoscopic neurosurgery. Conclusions: We conclude that 3D printing techniques are practical and anatomically accurate methods of producing patient-specific models for surgical planning, simulation and training, tissue-engineered implants, and secondary devices. Expansion of this technology may, therefore, contribute to advancing the neurosurgical field from several standpoints. PMID:27920940
Mauri-Obradors, E; Estrugo-Devesa, A; Jané-Salas, E; Viñas, M; López-López, J
Diabetes Mellitus has become a global epidemic and presents many complications, usually proportional to the degree and duration of hyperglycemia. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the different oral manifestations associated with Diabetes Mellitus. A MEDLINE search for "Diabetes Mellitus and oral manifestations" was performed. A further search was conducted for "diabetes" and its individual oral manifestation. Inclusion criteria were as follows: human clinical studies with a minimum of 30 patients; studies published in relevant scientific journals between January 1998 and January 2016. Nineteen studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were analyzed, assessing the strength of scientific evidence according to recommendations made by the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, Oxford (OCEBM), which permits adequate assessment of prevalence studies. A total 3,712 patients (2,084 diabetics) were included in the studies reviewed. Of the 19 studies analyzed, 4 were longitudinal studies and 15 cross-sectional studies. Periodontal disease, periapical lesions, xerostomia and taste disturbance were more prevalent among diabetic patients. An association between diabetes and caries and mucosal lesions proved positive in 5 out of 10 studies. Despite multiple oral manifestations associated with DM, awareness of the associations between diabetes, oral health, and general health is inadequate. It is necessary for doctors and dentists to be aware of the various oral manifestations of diabetes in order to make an early diagnosis.
Full Text Available Background: To review the available scientific literature about the effects on health by occupational exposure to noise. Materials and Methods: A systematic review of the retrieved scientific literature from the databases MEDLINE (via PubMed, ISI-Web of Knowledge (Institute for Scientific Information, Cochrane Library Plus, SCOPUS, and SciELO (collection of scientific journals was conducted. The following terms were used as descriptors and were searched in free text: “Noise, Occupational,” “Occupational Exposure,” and “Occupational Disease.” The following limits were considered: “Humans,” “Adult (more than 18 years,” and “Comparative Studies.” Results: A total of 281 references were retrieved, and after applying inclusion/exclusion criteria, 25 articles were selected. Of these selected articles, 19 studies provided information about hearing disturbance, four on cardiovascular disorders, one regarding respiratory alteration, and one on other disorders. Conclusions: It can be interpreted that the exposure to noise causes alterations in humans with different relevant outcomes, and therefore appropriate security measures in the work environment must be employed to minimize such an exposure and thereby to reduce the number of associated disorders.
Corvillo, Iluminada; Varela, Enrique; Armijo, Francisco; Alvarez-Badillo, Antonio; Armijo, Onica; Maraver, Francisco
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory, progressive, disabling autoimmune disease affecting the central nervous system. Symptoms and signs of MS vary widely and patients may lose their ability to walk. To date the benefits of aquatic therapy often used for rehabilitation in MS patients have not been reviewed. To systematically review the current state of aquatic treatment for persons with MS (hydrotherapy, aquatic therapy, aquatic exercises, spa therapy) and to evaluate the scientific evidence supporting the benefits of this therapeutic option. The databases PubMed, Scopus, WoS and PEDro were searched to identify relevant reports published from January 1, 2011 to April 30, 2016. Of 306 articles identified, only 10 fulfilled the inclusion criteria: 5 randomized controlled, 2 simple randomized quasi-experimental, 1 semi-experimental, 1 blind controlled pilot and 1 pilot. Evidence that aquatic treatment improves quality of life in affected patients was very good in two studies, good in four, fair in two and weak in two.
McGinn, Tony; Taylor, Brian; McColgan, Mary; Lagdon, Susan
More effective work with perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV) can be built upon a better understanding of how and why they change their behavior. This article presents a systematic narrative review of female IPV survivor perspectives on the changes brought about by IPV perpetrator programs. Fourteen databases and web search engines were searched and 16 articles reporting relevant qualitative findings were identified. Survivors often reported some level of positive change through their partner's engagement with a program, but the sustainability of this change is unclear and there was also some negative feedback. From the survivors' perspective, key barriers to perpetrator change include alcohol dependency, mental health challenges, relationship dynamics, and their family of origin. Mechanisms by which perpetrators are held to account, namely, survivor validation and judicial measures, were seen as central to the change process. Survivors perceived changes in perpetrator behavior (the use of conflict interruption techniques and new communication skills) and changes in perpetrators' belief systems (adopting new perspectives). Changes in belief systems were associated with more complete desistence from violence and would appear more difficult to effect. The review highlights the complexity in this field, which is discussed by the authors with reference to practice, policy, and research.
Taylor C. Wallace
Full Text Available Anthocyanins are dietary flavonoids commonly consumed in the diet, which have been suggested to have a preventative effect on cardiovascular disease (CVD development among epidemiological studies. We systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs testing the effects of purified anthocyanins and anthocyanin-rich extracts on markers of CVD (triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol, and blood pressure in both healthy and diseased populations. Eligible studies included RCTs of adults published in English. We searched PubMed, Web of Science Core Collection, and BIOSIS Previews for relevant articles from inception until 1 July 2014. Twelve RCTs representing 10 studies were included in this review. Supplementation with anthocyanins significantly improved LDL cholesterol among diseased individuals or those with elevated biomarkers. Supplementation did not significantly affect other markers of CVD in either healthy individuals or those with elevated markers. No adverse effects of anthocyanins were reported across studies at levels up to 640 mg/day. Limitations of trials in the qualitative analyses include short trial duration and large variability in the dose administered within the trials. Longer-duration trials assessing dose response are needed to adequately determine whether an effect of supplementation exists.
Wolff, J; McCrone, P; Koeser, L; Normann, C; Patel, A
Aims. New reimbursement schemes for inpatient mental health care are imminent in the UK and Germany. The shared intention is to reflect cost differences between patients in reimbursement rates. This requires understanding of patient characteristics that influence hospital resource use. The aim of this review was to show which associations between mental health care per diem hospital costs and patient characteristics are supported by current evidence. Methods. A systematic review of the literature published between 1980 and 2012 was carried out. The search strategy included electronic databases and hand-searching. Furthermore, reference lists, citing articles and related publications were screened and experts were contacted. Results. The search found eight studies. Dispersion in per diem costs was moderate, as was the ability to explain it with patient characteristics. Six patient characteristics were identified as the most relevant variables. These were (1) age, (2) major diagnostic group, (3) risk, (4) legal problems, (5) the ability to perform activities of daily living and (6) presence of psychotic or affective symptoms. Two non-patient-related factors were identified. These were (1) day of stay and (2) treatment site. Conclusions. Idiosyncrasies of mental health care complicated the prediction of per diem hospital costs. More research is required in European settings since transferability of results is unlikely.
Full Text Available This is a systematic review and meta-analysis, which aimed to assess the current evidence on the effects and safety of acupuncture for treating sciatica. In this review, a total of 11 randomized controlled trials were included. As a result, we found that the use of acupuncture may be more effective than drugs and may enhance the effect of drugs for patients with sciatica, but because of the insufficient number of relevant and rigorous studies, the evidence is limited. Future trials using rigorous methodology, appropriate comparisons, and clinically relevant outcomes should be conducted.
Langlois, Jean; Bellemare, Christian; Toulouse, Josée; Wells, George A.
Anatomy knowledge has been found to include both spatial and non-spatial components. However, no systematic evaluation of studies relating spatial abilities and anatomy knowledge has been undertaken. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the relationship between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment. A…
Brunschot, S. van; Schut, A.J.; Bouwense, S.A.W.; Besselink, M.G.; Bakker, O.J.; Goor, H. van; Hofker, S.; Gooszen, H.G.; Boermeester, M.A.; Santvoort, H.C. van
Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is a lethal complication of acute pancreatitis. We performed a systematic review to assess the treatment and outcome of these patients.A systematic literature search for cohorts of patients with acute pancreatitis and ACS was performed. The main outcomes were num
van Brunschot, Sandra; Schut, Anne Julia; Bouwense, Stefan A.; Besselink, Marc G.; Bakker, Olaf J.; van Goor, Harry; Hofker, Hendrik; Gooszen, Hein G.; Boermeester, Marja A.; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C.
Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is a lethal complication of acute pancreatitis. We performed a systematic review to assess the treatment and outcome of these patients. A systematic literature search for cohorts of patients with acute pancreatitis and ACS was performed. The main outcomes were nu
Spaans, Anne J.; Van Minnen, L. Paul; Kon, Moshe; Schuurman, Arnold H.; Schreuders, A. R.; Vermeulen, Guus M.
Purpose To provide a systematic review of randomized controlled trials regarding the conservative treatment of thumb base osteoarthritis (OA). Methods A systematic literature search was conducted in the electronic bibliographic databases Medline (Pubmed) and Embase (both starting year to May 2014) u
Printz, Trine; Rosenberg, Tine; Godballe, Christian
literature on test-retest accuracy of the automated voice range profile assessment. Study design: Systematic review. Data sources: PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, ComDisDome, Embase, and CINAHL (EBSCO). Methods: We conducted a systematic literature search of six databases from 1983 to 2016. The following...
Telleman, Gerdien; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Vissink, Arjan; den Hartog, Laurens; Huddleston Slater, James; Meijer, Henny J. A.
P>Aim This study evaluated, through a systematic review of the literature, the estimated implant survival rate of short (<10 mm) dental implants installed in partially edentulous patients. Materials and methods A systematic search was conducted in the electronic databases of MEDLINE (1980-October 20
N.E. Lankhorst (Nienke); S.M. Bierma-Zeinstra (Sita); M. van Middelkoop (Marienke)
markdownabstractABSTRACT This review systematically summarises factors associated with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). A systematic literature search was conducted. Studies including ≥20 patients with PFPS that examined ≥1 possible factor associated with PFPS were included. A meta-analysis wa
Povel, C.M.; Boer, J.M.; Feskens, E.J.M.
Several candidate gene studies on the metabolic syndrome (MetS) have been conducted. However, for most single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) no systematic review on their association with MetS exists. A systematic electronic literature search was conducted until the 2nd of June 2010, using HuGE Nav
van Brunschot, Sandra; Schut, Anne Julia; Bouwense, Stefan A.; Besselink, Marc G.; Bakker, Olaf J.; Goor ,van Harry; Hofker, Hendrik; Gooszen, Hein G.; Boermeester, Marja A.; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C.
Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is a lethal complication of acute pancreatitis. We performed a systematic review to assess the treatment and outcome of these patients. A systematic literature search for cohorts of patients with acute pancreatitis and ACS was performed. The main outcomes were
Brunschot, S. van; Schut, A.J.; Bouwense, S.A.W.; Besselink, M.G.; Bakker, O.J.; Goor, H. van; Hofker, S.; Gooszen, H.G.; Boermeester, M.A.; Santvoort, H.C. van
Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is a lethal complication of acute pancreatitis. We performed a systematic review to assess the treatment and outcome of these patients.A systematic literature search for cohorts of patients with acute pancreatitis and ACS was performed. The main outcomes were
Povel, C.M.; Boer, J.M.; Feskens, E.J.M.
Several candidate gene studies on the metabolic syndrome (MetS) have been conducted. However, for most single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) no systematic review on their association with MetS exists. A systematic electronic literature search was conducted until the 2nd of June 2010, using HuGE
Manesh B. Kokare
Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the technical achievements in the research area of relevance feedback (RF in content-based image retrieval (CBIR. Relevance feedback is a powerful technique in CBIR systems, in order to improve the performance of CBIR effectively. It is an open research area to the researcher to reduce the semantic gap between low-level features and high level concepts. The paper covers the current state of art of the research in relevance feedback in CBIR, various relevance feedback techniques and issues in relevance feedback are discussed in detail.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Researchers have become increasingly aware that ambulance personnel may be at risk of developing work-related health problems. This article systematically explores the literature on health problems and work-related and individual health predictors in the ambulance services. Methods We identified the relevant empirical literature by searching several electronic databases including Medline, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL, and ISI Web of Science. Other relevant sources were identified through reference lists and other relevant studies known by the research group. Results Forty-nine studies are included in this review. Our analysis shows that ambulance workers have a higher standardized mortality rate, higher level of fatal accidents, higher level of accident injuries and a higher standardized early retirement on medical grounds than the general working population and workers in other health occupations. Ambulance workers also seem to have more musculoskeletal problems than the general population. These conclusions are preliminary at present because each is based on a single study. More studies have addressed mental health problems. The prevalence of post-traumatic stress symptom caseness was > 20% in five of seven studies, and similarly high prevalence rates were reported for anxiety and general psychopathology in four of five studies. However, it is unclear whether ambulance personnel suffer from more mental health problems than the general working population. Conclusion Several indicators suggest that workers in the ambulance services experience more health problems than the general working population and workers in other health occupations. Several methodological challenges, such as small sample sizes, non-representative samples, and lack of comparisons with normative data limit the interpretation of many studies. More coordinated research and replication are needed to compare data across studies. We discuss some strategies for
Cooper, Claudia; Selwood, Amber; Livingston, Gill
to perform a systematic review of studies measuring the prevalence of elder abuse or neglect, either reported by older people themselves, or family and professional caregivers or investigated using objective measures...