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Sample records for relevant social determinants

  1. Using Confidence Interval-Based Estimation of Relevance to Select Social-Cognitive Determinants for Behavior Change Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rik Crutzen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available When developing an intervention aimed at behavior change, one of the crucial steps in the development process is to select the most relevant social-cognitive determinants. These determinants can be seen as the buttons one needs to push to establish behavior change. Insight into these determinants is needed to select behavior change methods (i.e., general behavior change techniques that are applied in an intervention in the development process. Therefore, a study on determinants is often conducted as formative research in the intervention development process. Ideally, all relevant determinants identified in such a study are addressed by an intervention. However, when developing a behavior change intervention, there are limits in terms of, for example, resources available for intervention development and the amount of content that participants of an intervention can be exposed to. Hence, it is important to select those determinants that are most relevant to the target behavior as these determinants should be addressed in an intervention. The aim of the current paper is to introduce a novel approach to select the most relevant social-cognitive determinants and use them in intervention development. This approach is based on visualization of confidence intervals for the means and correlation coefficients for all determinants simultaneously. This visualization facilitates comparison, which is necessary when making selections. By means of a case study on the determinants of using a high dose of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (commonly known as ecstasy, we illustrate this approach. We provide a freely available tool to facilitate the analyses needed in this approach.

  2. Using Confidence Interval-Based Estimation of Relevance to Select Social-Cognitive Determinants for Behavior Change Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutzen, Rik; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Ygram; Noijen, Judith

    2017-01-01

    When developing an intervention aimed at behavior change, one of the crucial steps in the development process is to select the most relevant social-cognitive determinants. These determinants can be seen as the buttons one needs to push to establish behavior change. Insight into these determinants is needed to select behavior change methods (i.e., general behavior change techniques that are applied in an intervention) in the development process. Therefore, a study on determinants is often conducted as formative research in the intervention development process. Ideally, all relevant determinants identified in such a study are addressed by an intervention. However, when developing a behavior change intervention, there are limits in terms of, for example, resources available for intervention development and the amount of content that participants of an intervention can be exposed to. Hence, it is important to select those determinants that are most relevant to the target behavior as these determinants should be addressed in an intervention. The aim of the current paper is to introduce a novel approach to select the most relevant social-cognitive determinants and use them in intervention development. This approach is based on visualization of confidence intervals for the means and correlation coefficients for all determinants simultaneously. This visualization facilitates comparison, which is necessary when making selections. By means of a case study on the determinants of using a high dose of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (commonly known as ecstasy), we illustrate this approach. We provide a freely available tool to facilitate the analyses needed in this approach.

  3. Assessing the relevance of indicators in tracking social determinants and progress toward equitable population health in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Rasella

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The importance of the social determinants of health (SDH and barriers to the access and utilization of healthcare have been widely recognized but not previously studied in the context of universal healthcare coverage (UHC in Brazil and other developing countries. Objective: To evaluate a set of proposed indicators of SDH and barriers to the access and utilization of healthcare – proposed by the SDH unit of the World Health Organization – with respect to their relevance in tracking progress in moving toward equitable population health and UHC in Brazil. Design: This study had a mixed methodology, combining a quantitative analysis of secondary data from governmental sources with a qualitative study comprising two focus group discussions and six key informant interviews. The set of indicators tested covered a broad range of dimensions classified by three different domains: environment quality; accountability and inclusion; and livelihood and skills. Indicators were stratified according to income quintiles, urbanization, race, and geographical region. Results: Overall, the indicators were adequate for tracking progress in terms of the SDH, equity, gender, and human rights in Brazil. Stratifications showed inequalities. The qualitative analysis revealed that many of the indicators were well known and already used by policymakers and health sector managers, whereas others were considered less useful in the Brazilian context. Conclusions: Monitoring and evaluation practices have been developed in Brazil, and the set of indicators assessed in this study could further improve these practices, especially from a health equity perspective. Socioeconomic inequalities have been reduced in Brazil in the last decade, but there is still much work to be done in relation to addressing the SDH.

  4. The Relevance of Causal Social Construction

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    Marques Teresa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Social constructionist claims are surprising and interesting when they entail that presumably natural kinds are in fact socially constructed. The claims are interesting because of their theoretical and political importance. Authors like Díaz-León argue that constitutive social construction is more relevant for achieving social justice than causal social construction. This paper challenges this claim. Assuming there are socially salient groups that are discriminated against, the paper presents a dilemma: if there were no constitutively constructed social kinds, the causes of the discrimination of existing social groups would have to be addressed, and understanding causal social construction would be relevant to achieve social justice. On the other hand, not all possible constitutively socially constructed kinds are actual social kinds. If an existing social group is constitutively constructed as a social kind K, the fact that it actually exists as a K has social causes. Again, causal social construction is relevant. The paper argues that (i for any actual social kind X, if X is constitutively socially constructed as K, then it is also causally socially constructed; and (ii causal social construction is at least as relevant as constitutive social construction for concerns of social justice. For illustration, I draw upon two phenomena that are presumed to contribute towards the discrimination of women: (i the poor performance effects of stereotype threat, and (ii the silencing effects of gendered language use.

  5. The Personal Relevance of the Social Studies.

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    VanSickle, Ronald L.

    1990-01-01

    Conceptualizes a personal-relevance framework derived from Ronald L. VanSickle's five areas of life integrated with four general motivating goals from Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Richard and Patricia Schmuck's social motivation theory. Illustrates ways to apply the personal relevance framework to make social studies more relevant to…

  6. Relevance of Financial Performance and Good Corporate Governance Determinant of Sustainaibility Corporate Social Responsibility Disclousure in Islamic Bank in Indonesia

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    Fitriyah Fitriyah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to investigate role of the financial performance, ownership structure and number of syari'a supervisory board of Islamic banks in Indonesia on the sustainability of corporate social responsibilities (CSR disclosure. Ownership structure and number of syari'a supervisory board of Islamic banks as proxy of implementation good corporate governance (GCG. There are seven (7 fully fledge Islamic banks in Indonesia. This study uses logic regression to test empirically whether the CSR is highly influenced by the factors identified earlier. Evidence was found that size, ROA and leverage do not have significant role in corporate social responsibilities (CSR disclosure. Specifically, the results infer the fact that the CSR disclosures are significant and positively associated to bank size and ownership structure only. The result of the study has confirms the hypothesis that bank size and ROA has positive associated with CSR disclosure. This suggested that large and profitable banks have more resources to devote to social activities. Leverage negatively influences the disclosure of CSR. Thus, lowly leveraged banks will tend to make larger donations than highly leveraged banks. Ownership structure and number of syari'a supervisory board of Islamic banks have positive associated to CSR disclosure. These results also confirm the predictions that good corporate governance mechanism lead to the greater monitoring and thereby greater CSR disclosure.

  7. The feasibility of measuring and monitoring social determinants of health and the relevance for policy and programme - a qualitative assessment of four countries.

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    Blas, Erik; Ataguba, John E; Huda, Tanvir M; Bao, Giang Kim; Rasella, Davide; Gerecke, Megan R

    2016-01-01

    Since the publication of the reports by the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH), many research papers have documented inequities, explaining causal pathways in order to inform policy and programmatic decision-making. At the international level, the sustainable development goals (SDGs) reflect an attempt to bring together these themes and the complexities involved in defining a comprehensive development framework. However, to date, much less has been done to address the monitoring challenges, that is, how data generation, analysis and use are to become routine tasks. To test proposed indicators of social determinants of health (SDH), gender, equity, and human rights with respect to their relevance in tracking progress in universal health coverage and population health (level and distribution). In an attempt to explore these monitoring challenges, indicators covering a wide range of social determinants were tested in four country case studies (Bangladesh, Brazil, South Africa, and Vietnam) for their technical feasibility, reliability, and validity, and their communicability and usefulness to policy-makers. Twelve thematic domains with 20 core indicators covering different aspects of equity, human rights, gender, and SDH were tested through a review of data sources, descriptive analyses, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions. To test the communicability and usefulness of the domains, domain narratives that explained the causal pathways were presented to policy-makers, managers, the media, and civil society leaders. For most countries, monitoring is possible, as some data were available for most of the core indicators. However, a qualitative assessment showed that technical feasibility, reliability, and validity varied across indicators and countries. Producing understandable and useful information proved challenging, and particularly so in translating indicator definitions and data into meaningful lay and managerial narratives, and

  8. The feasibility of measuring and monitoring social determinants of health and the relevance for policy and programme – a qualitative assessment of four countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Blas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since the publication of the reports by the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH, many research papers have documented inequities, explaining causal pathways in order to inform policy and programmatic decision-making. At the international level, the sustainable development goals (SDGs reflect an attempt to bring together these themes and the complexities involved in defining a comprehensive development framework. However, to date, much less has been done to address the monitoring challenges, that is, how data generation, analysis and use are to become routine tasks. Objective: To test proposed indicators of social determinants of health (SDH, gender, equity, and human rights with respect to their relevance in tracking progress in universal health coverage and population health (level and distribution. Design: In an attempt to explore these monitoring challenges, indicators covering a wide range of social determinants were tested in four country case studies (Bangladesh, Brazil, South Africa, and Vietnam for their technical feasibility, reliability, and validity, and their communicability and usefulness to policy-makers. Twelve thematic domains with 20 core indicators covering different aspects of equity, human rights, gender, and SDH were tested through a review of data sources, descriptive analyses, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions. To test the communicability and usefulness of the domains, domain narratives that explained the causal pathways were presented to policy-makers, managers, the media, and civil society leaders. Results: For most countries, monitoring is possible, as some data were available for most of the core indicators. However, a qualitative assessment showed that technical feasibility, reliability, and validity varied across indicators and countries. Producing understandable and useful information proved challenging, and particularly so in translating indicator definitions and data

  9. Is Enterprise Education Relevant to Social Enterprise?

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    Bridge, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Both enterprise education and social enterprise have become fashionable but what, if any, should be the connections between them? The purpose of this paper is to explore those connections and to reflect on what relevance the two concepts might have for each other. Design/methodology/approach: Both enterprise education and social…

  10. PREDICTING RELEVANT EMPTY SPOTS IN SOCIAL INTERACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshiharu MAENO; Yukio OHSAWA

    2008-01-01

    An empty spot refers to an empty hard-to-fill space which can be found in the records of the social interaction, and is the clue to the persons in the underlying social network who do not appear in the records. This contribution addresses a problem to predict relevant empty spots in social interaction. Homogeneous and inhomogeneous networks are studied as a model underlying the social interaction. A heuristic predictor function method is presented as a new method to address the problem. Simulation experiment is demonstrated over a homogeneous network. A test data set in the form of market baskets is generated from the simulated communication. Precision to predict the empty spots is calculated to demonstrate the performance of the presented method.

  11. EOG feature relevance determination for microsleep detection

    OpenAIRE

    Golz Martin; Wollner Sebastian; Sommer David; Schnieder Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Automatic relevance determination (ARD) was applied to two-channel EOG recordings for microsleep event (MSE) recognition. 10 s immediately before MSE and also before counterexamples of fatigued, but attentive driving were analysed. Two type of signal features were extracted: the maximum cross correlation (MaxCC) and logarithmic power spectral densities (PSD) averaged in spectral bands of 0.5 Hz width ranging between 0 and 8 Hz. Generalised learn-ing vector quantisation (GRLVQ) was used as ARD...

  12. EOG feature relevance determination for microsleep detection

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    Golz Martin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Automatic relevance determination (ARD was applied to two-channel EOG recordings for microsleep event (MSE recognition. 10 s immediately before MSE and also before counterexamples of fatigued, but attentive driving were analysed. Two type of signal features were extracted: the maximum cross correlation (MaxCC and logarithmic power spectral densities (PSD averaged in spectral bands of 0.5 Hz width ranging between 0 and 8 Hz. Generalised learn-ing vector quantisation (GRLVQ was used as ARD method to show the potential of feature reduction. This is compared to support-vector machines (SVM, in which the feature reduction plays a much smaller role. Cross validation yielded mean normalised relevancies of PSD features in the range of 1.6 – 4.9 % and 1.9 – 10.4 % for horizontal and vertical EOG, respectively. MaxCC relevancies were 0.002 – 0.006 % and 0.002 – 0.06 %, respectively. This shows that PSD features of vertical EOG are indispensable, whereas MaxCC can be neglected. Mean classification accuracies were estimated at 86.6±b 1.3 % and 92.3±b 0.2 % for GRLVQ and SVM, respectively. GRLVQ permits objective feature reduction by inclusion of all processing stages, but is not as accurate as SVM.

  13. EOG feature relevance determination for microsleep detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golz Martin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Automatic relevance determination (ARD was applied to two-channel EOG recordings for microsleep event (MSE recognition. 10 s immediately before MSE and also before counterexamples of fatigued, but attentive driving were analysed. Two type of signal features were extracted: the maximum cross correlation (MaxCC and logarithmic power spectral densities (PSD averaged in spectral bands of 0.5 Hz width ranging between 0 and 8 Hz. Generalised learn-ing vector quantisation (GRLVQ was used as ARD method to show the potential of feature reduction. This is compared to support-vector machines (SVM, in which the feature reduction plays a much smaller role. Cross validation yielded mean normalised relevancies of PSD features in the range of 1.6 - 4.9 % and 1.9 - 10.4 % for horizontal and vertical EOG, respectively. MaxCC relevancies were 0.002 - 0.006 % and 0.002 - 0.06 %, respectively. This shows that PSD features of vertical EOG are indispensable, whereas MaxCC can be neglected. Mean classification accuracies were estimated at 86.6±b 1.3 % and 92.3±b 0.2 % for GRLVQ and SVM, respec-tively. GRLVQ permits objective feature reduction by inclu-sion of all processing stages, but is not as accurate as SVM.

  14. [Monitoring social determinants of health].

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    Espelt, Albert; Continente, Xavier; Domingo-Salvany, Antonia; Domínguez-Berjón, M Felicitas; Fernández-Villa, Tania; Monge, Susana; Ruiz-Cantero, M Teresa; Perez, Glòria; Borrell, Carme

    2016-11-01

    Public health surveillance is the systematic and continuous collection, analysis, dissemination and interpretation of health-related data for planning, implementation and evaluation of public health initiatives. Apart from the health system, social determinants of health include the circumstances in which people are born, grow up, live, work and age, and they go a long way to explaining health inequalities. A surveillance system of the social determinants of health requires a comprehensive and social overview of health. This paper analyses the importance of monitoring social determinants of health and health inequalities, and describes some relevant aspects concerning the implementation of surveillance during the data collection, compilation and analysis phases, as well as dissemination of information and evaluation of the surveillance system. It is important to have indicators from sources designed for this purpose, such as continuous records or periodic surveys, explicitly describing its limitations and strengths. The results should be published periodically in a communicative format that both enhances the public's ability to understand the problems that affect them, whilst at the same time empowering the population, with the ultimate goal of guiding health-related initiatives at different levels of intervention. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Social and individual determinants of car use. Application of the model Determinants of environmentally-relevant consumer behavior; Maatschappelijke en individuele determinanten van autogebruik. Toepassing van het model Determinanten van milieurelevant consumentengedrag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steg, L.; Arnold, M.; Ras, M.; Van Velzen, E.

    1997-11-01

    It is increasingly recognised that environmental problems are largely due to the behaviour of individual consumers and that one way of tackling those problems therefore consists of a change in behaviour. A good diagnosis based on a clear model is indispensable for an effective change in behaviour. For this reason the SCP has developed a conceptual model entitled Determinants of environmentally-relevant consumer behaviour (Dutch abbreviation is DMCG). This is a diagnostic model for the systematic analysis of relevant factors determining environmental behaviour. The diagnosis relates not just to the current situation but also to the historical developments that have led up to that situation as well as expectations concerning future developments in behaviour. A detailed diagnosis of this kind provides insight into the way in which environmentally behaviour can be influenced: policy instruments will be more effective and efficient the more they are geared to significant determinants of behaviour. The DMCG model has been used in this survey to explain the use of cars. The purpose of the study is to investigate the possibilities and limitations of the DMCG model. A second objective is to identify the factors that influence (or have influenced) the increasing use of cars. 88 refs.

  16. Social Web Data Analytics : Relevance, Redundancy, Diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tao, K.

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, the Social Web has evolved into both an essential channel for people to exchange information and a new type of mass media. The immense amount of data produced presents new possibilities and challenges: algorithms and technologies need to be developed to extract and infer useful

  17. A content relevance model for social media health information.

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    Prybutok, Gayle Linda; Koh, Chang; Prybutok, Victor R

    2014-04-01

    Consumer health informatics includes the development and implementation of Internet-based systems to deliver health risk management information and health intervention applications to the public. The application of consumer health informatics to educational and interventional efforts such as smoking reduction and cessation has garnered attention from both consumers and health researchers in recent years. Scientists believe that smoking avoidance or cessation before the age of 30 years can prevent more than 90% of smoking-related cancers and that individuals who stop smoking fare as well in preventing cancer as those who never start. The goal of this study was to determine factors that were most highly correlated with content relevance for health information provided on the Internet for a study group of 18- to 30-year-old college students. Data analysis showed that the opportunity for convenient entertainment, social interaction, health information-seeking behavior, time spent surfing on the Internet, the importance of available activities on the Internet (particularly e-mail), and perceived site relevance for Internet-based sources of health information were significantly correlated with content relevance for 18- to 30-year-old college students, an educated subset of this population segment.

  18. Social determinants and sexually transmitted disease disparities.

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    Hogben, Matthew; Leichliter, Jami S

    2008-12-01

    Social determinants of health play an important role in sexually transmitted disease (STD) transmission and acquisition; consequently, racial and ethnic disparities among social determinants are influences upon disparities in STD rates. In this narrative review, we outline a general model showing the relationship between social determinants and STD outcomes, mediated by epidemiologic context. We then review 4 specific social determinants relevant to STD disparities: segregation, health care, socioeconomics and correctional experiences, followed by 2 facets of the resultant epidemiologic context: core areas and sexual networks. This review shows that disparities exist among the social determinants and that they are related to each other, as well as to core areas, sexual networks, and STD rates. Finally, we discuss the implications of our review for STD prevention and control with particular attention to STD program collaboration and service integration.

  19. Location Criteria Relevant for Sustainability of Social Housing Model

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    Petković-Grozdanović Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Social housing models, which had began to develop during the last century, for their only objective had a need to overcome the housing problems of socially vulnerable categories. However, numerous studies have shown that these social categories, because of their low social status, are highly susceptible to various psychological and sociological problems. On the other hand a low level of quality, which was common for social housing dwellings, has further aggravated these problems by initiating trouble behaviours among tenants, affecting social exclusion and segregation. Contemporary social housing models are therefore conceptualized in a way to provide a positive psycho-sociological impact on their tenants. Therefore the planning approach in social housing should be such to: support important functions in daily life routines; promote tolerance and cooperation; influence on a sense of social order and belonging; affect the socialization of the tenant and their integration into the wider community; and improve social cohesion. Analysis of the influential location parameters of immediate and wider social housing environment strive to define the ones relevant to the life quality of social housing tenants and therefore influence on the sustainability of social housing model.

  20. Conditioned Subjective Responses to Socially Relevant Stimuli in Social Anxiety Disorder and Subclinical Social Anxiety.

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    Tinoco-González, Daniella; Fullana, Miquel Angel; Torrents-Rodas, David; Bonillo, Albert; Vervliet, Bram; Pailhez, Guillem; Farré, Magí; Andión, Oscar; Perez, Víctor; Torrubia, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Although enhanced fear conditioning has been implicated in the origins of social anxiety disorder (SAD), laboratory evidence in support of this association is limited. Using a paradigm employing socially relevant unconditioned stimuli, we conducted two separate studies to asses fear conditioning in individuals with SAD and non-clinical individuals with high social anxiety (subclinical social anxiety [SSA]). They were compared with age-matched and gender-matched individuals with another anxiety disorder (panic disorder with agoraphobia) and healthy controls (Study 1) and with individuals with low social anxiety (Study 2). Contrary to our expectations, in both studies, self-report measures (ratings of anxiety, unpleasantness and arousal to the conditioned stimuli) of fear conditioning failed to discriminate between SAD or SSA and the other participant groups. Our results suggest that enhanced fear conditioning does not play a major role in pathological social anxiety. We used a social conditioning paradigm to study fear conditioning in clinical and subclinical social anxiety. We found no evidence of enhanced fear conditioning in social anxiety individuals. Enhanced fear conditioning may not be a hallmark of pathological social anxiety. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Learning tag relevance by neighbor voting for social image retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Snoek, C.G.M.; Worring, M.

    2008-01-01

    Social image retrieval is important for exploiting the increasing amounts of amateur-tagged multimedia such as Flickr images. Since amateur tagging is known to be uncontrolled, ambiguous, and personalized, a fundamental problem is how to reliably interpret the relevance of a tag with respect to the

  2. Relevant or determinant: Importance in certified sustainable food consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Perceived relevance and determinance are two distinct constructs, underlying the overall concept of attribute importance. The present study proposes a survey based measure of attribute determinance. Based on construal level theory it is argued and empirically shown that actual choices of certified

  3. Scaffolding scientific discussion using socially relevant representations in networked multimedia

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    Hoadley, Christopher M.

    1999-11-01

    How do students make use of social cues when learning on the computer? This work examines how students in a middle-school science course learned through on-line peer discussion. Cognitive accounts of collaboration stress interacting with ideas, while socially situated accounts stress the interpersonal context. The design of electronic environments allows investigation into the interrelation of cognitive and social dimensions. I use on-line peer discussion to investigate how socially relevant representations in interfaces can aid learning. First, I identify some of the variables that affect individual participation in on-line discussion, including interface features. Individual participation is predicted by student attitudes towards learning from peers. Second, I describe the range of group outcomes for these on-line discussions. There is a large effect of discussion group on learning outcomes which is not reducible to group composition or gross measures of group process. Third, I characterize how students (individually) construct understanding from these group discussions. Learning in the on-line discussions is shown to be a result of sustained interaction over time, not merely encountering or expressing ideas. Experimental manipulations in the types of social cues available to students suggest that many students do use socially relevant representations to support their understanding of multiple viewpoints and science reasoning. Personalizing scientific disputes can afford reflection on the nature of scientific discovery and advance. While there are many individual differences in how social representations are used by students in learning, overall learning benefits for certain social representations can be shown. This work has profound implications for design of collaborative instructional methods, equitable access to science learning, design of instructional technology, and understanding of learning and cognition in social settings.

  4. Social relevance enhances memory for impressions in older adults.

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    Cassidy, Brittany S; Gutchess, Angela H

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that older adults have difficulty retrieving contextual material over items alone. Recent research suggests this deficit can be reduced by adding emotional context, allowing for the possibility that memory for social impressions may show less age-related decline than memory for other types of contextual information. Two studies investigated how orienting to social or self-relevant aspects of information contributed to the learning and retrieval of impressions in young and older adults. Participants encoded impressions of others in conditions varying in the use of self-reference (Experiment 1) and interpersonal meaningfulness (Experiment 2), and completed memory tasks requiring the retrieval of specific traits. For both experiments, age groups remembered similar numbers of impressions. In Experiment 1 using more self-relevant encoding contexts increased memory for impressions over orienting to stimuli in a non-social way, regardless of age. In Experiment 2 older adults had enhanced memory for impressions presented in an interpersonally meaningful relative to a personally irrelevant way, whereas young adults were unaffected by this manipulation. The results provide evidence that increasing social relevance ameliorates age differences in memory for impressions, and enhances older adults' ability to successfully retrieve contextual information.

  5. Social validation of vocabulary selection: ensuring stakeholder relevance.

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    Bornman, Juan; Bryen, Diane Nelson

    2013-06-01

    The vocabulary needs of individuals who are unable to spell their messages continue to be of concern in the field of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). Social validation of vocabulary selection has been suggested as one way to improve the effectiveness and relevance of service delivery in AAC. Despite increased emphasis on stakeholder accountability, social validation is not frequently used in AAC research. This paper describes an investigation of the social validity of a vocabulary set identified in earlier research. A previous study used stakeholder focus groups to identify vocabulary that could be used by South African adults who use AAC to disclose their experiences as victims of crime or abuse. Another study used this vocabulary to create communication boards for use by adults with complex communication needs. In this current project, 12 South African adults with complex communication needs who use AAC systems used a 5-point Likert scale to score the importance of each of the previously identified 57 vocabulary items. This two-step process of first using stakeholder focus groups to identify vocabulary, and then having literate persons who use AAC provide information on social validity of the vocabulary on behalf of their peers who are illiterate, appears to hold promise as a culturally relevant vocabulary selection approach for sensitive topics such as crime and abuse.

  6. Experiencing Socially Relevant Applications in the High School Mathematics Curriculum: Students' Perspectives on Mathematics as a Tool for Social Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brelias, Anastasia

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the use of socially relevant mathematics applications in high school mathematics classrooms and students' views of mathematics in light of their experiences with these applications. Also, the study sought to determine whether inquiries afforded by these applications incorporated features that promoted…

  7. HIV in Harare: the role and relevance of social stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Stephen; Broom, Alex

    2014-01-01

    HIV is a significant social, political and economic problem in Zimbabwe. However, few researchers have explored peoples' experiences of living with HIV in that country. Drawing on 60 qualitative interviews conducted with Zimbabweans living in Harare in 2010, this paper focuses on how people from four different urban communities cope with HIV-related social stigma. To provide theoretical context to this issue, we utilised the ideas of Erving Goffman for exploring the individual experience of stigma and the concept of structural violence to understand stigma as a social phenomenon. This paper considers the relevance and role of stigma in the context of a country undergoing significant social, political and economic crisis. We investigated the strategies adopted by the Zimbabwean state and the influence of traditional and religious interpretations to appreciate the historical roots of HIV-related stigma. We took into account the ways in which the articulation of HIV with gender has caused women to experience stigma differently than men, and more intensely, and how grassroots activism and biomedical technologies have transformed the experience of stigma.

  8. A relevância do apoio social na velhice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Lopes Martins

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available O debate gerado em torno do envelhecimento e das respostas sociais de apoio aos cidadãos idosos, têm adquirido nos últimos anos e particularmente nas sociedades ocidentais, crescente actualidade e relevância. A notoriedade desta questão, encontra-se na centralidade que o tema tem tido no discurso político e social e na proliferação de iniciativas mais ou menos visíveis e mediáticas que têm como preocupação central questões ligadas a velhice e ao apoio social. Apesar de só a partir dos anos 70 o apoio social constituir um quadro teórico integrado e consistente, encontram-se já anteriormente inúmeros estudos ligados à psicologia (sobretudo a comunitária cujos contributos foram decisivos para o seu desenvolvimento. Marcos fundamentais no campo do apoio social foram também as investigações levadas a cabo por Caplan (1974, Cassel (1974 e 1979, Cobb (1976, Barrón (1996, Vaux (1988, Faria (1999, Vaz Serra (1999, e Matos e Ferreira (2000. O seu interesse deriva não só do facto de terem aberto caminho ao desenvolvimento e conceptualização deste constructo, mas porque a partir delas foi possível conhecer os efeitos sobre a saúde e bem-estar de diferentes tipos de relações, (relações intimas a integração social, passando pelo estudo das redes sociais nos seus aspectos estruturais e funcionais.

  9. Adolescents with anxiety and depression: is social recovery relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonds, Laura M; Pons, Rebecca A; Stone, Nicola J; Warren, Fiona; John, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Social recovery has become a prominent aspect of mental health service design and delivery in the past decade. Much of the literature on social recovery is derived from first-person accounts or primary research with adult service users experiencing severe mental illness. There is a lack of both theoretical and empirical work that could inform consideration of how the concept of social recovery might apply to adolescents experiencing common (non-psychotic) mental health problems such as anxiety and depression. The current study was conducted to understand the process of experiencing anxiety and depression in young people. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine adolescents with anxiety and depression (seven girls and two boys aged 14-16 years) and 12 mothers who were recruited from a specialist Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service in the South of England. Thematic analysis indicated that young people do experience a process of 'recovery'; the processes participants described have some congruence with the earlier stages of adult recovery models involving biographical disruption and the development of new meanings, in this case of anxiety or depression, and changes in sense of identity. The accounts diverge with regard to later stages of adult models involving the development of hope and responsibility. The findings suggest that services should attend to social isolation and emphasise support for positive aspirations for future selves whilst also attending to young people's and parents' expectations about change. Methodological challenges face enquiry about 'recovery' given its connotations with cure in everyday language. Theoretical and empirical work on social recovery in young people and families is lacking. Using interviews, this study sought to understand the relevance of social recovery for adolescents with anxiety and depression and their mothers. Findings suggest some congruence with the earlier stages of adult recovery models involving

  10. Modulation of the mirror system by social relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilner, James M; Marchant, Jennifer L; Frith, Chris D

    2006-09-01

    When we observe the actions of others, certain areas of the brain are activated in a similar manner as to when we perform the same actions ourselves. This 'mirror system' includes areas in the ventral premotor cortex and the inferior parietal lobule. Experimental studies suggest that action observation automatically elicits activity in the observer, which precisely mirrors the activity observed. In this case we would expect this activity to be independent of observer's viewpoint. Here we use whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) to record cortical activity of human subjects whilst they watched a series of videos of an actor making a movement recorded from different viewpoints. We show that one cortical response to action observation (oscillatory activity in the 7-12 Hz frequency range) is modulated by the relationship between the observer and the actor. We suggest that this modulation reflects a mechanism that filters information into the 'mirror system', allowing only socially relevant information to pass.

  11. Social aggravation: Understanding the complex role of social relationships on stress and health-relevant physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmingham, Wendy C; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne

    2018-04-05

    There is a rich literature on social support and physical health, but research has focused primarily on the protective effects of social relationship. The stress buffering model asserts that relationships may be protective by being a source of support when coping with stress, thereby blunting health relevant physiological responses. Research also indicates relationships can be a source of stress, also influencing health. In other words, the social buffering influence may have a counterpart, a social aggravating influence that has an opposite or opposing effect. Drawing upon existing conceptual models, we expand these to delineate how social relationships may influence stress processes and ultimately health. This review summarizes the existing literature that points to the potential deleterious physiological effects of our relationships when they are sources of stress or exacerbate stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Determinants of Social Entrepreneurial Intentions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hockerts, Kai

    2017-01-01

    This article tests the model proposed by Mair and Noboa (2006) who identify four antecedents which they suggest predict social entrepreneurial intentions. The study extends the model by including prior experience with social problems as an additional variable. Findings show that prior experience ...... social entrepreneurship electives students enroll in is predicted by social entrepreneurial intentions.......This article tests the model proposed by Mair and Noboa (2006) who identify four antecedents which they suggest predict social entrepreneurial intentions. The study extends the model by including prior experience with social problems as an additional variable. Findings show that prior experience...... predicts social entrepreneurial intentions. This effect is mediated by the antecedents suggested by Mair and Noboa. Social entrepreneurial self-efficacy has both the largest impact on intentions as well as being itself most responsive to prior experience. Lastly, the study shows that the amount of optional...

  13. The Social Construction of Transgenic Corn: Relevant Social Actors in Chihuahua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Fernández Nava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the socio-technical perspective, the meaning of a technological artefact does not lie within the artefact itself. Analyzing transgenic corn from a socio-technical perspective means taking one’s research beyond the artefact itself. To do this, it is necessary to overcome and avoid determinist positions, be they social or technological. This work takes as it point of departure the Social Construction of Technology Focus (SCOT. In this sense, transgenic corn is an unfinished object that is affected by an onslaught of struggles, opinions, agreements, disagreements, designs and redefinitions of the relevant social actors. These groups, the Democratic Campesino Front, El Barzón, National Agro-dynamic and Regional Agricultural Union of Yellow Corn Producers (UNIPRO, demonstrate how technological development is a social process. The deconstruction of transgenic corn according to the perspectives of these different social actors is key to the process of constructivist analysis: to take the artefacts just as each social actor views them. The objective of this study then is to describe how the different social groups, through their actions, construct and deconstruct the meaning of transgenic corn in Chihuahua, Mexico.

  14. Determinants of Social Entrepreneurial Intentions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hockerts, Kai

    This paper tests the model proposed by Mair and Noboa (2006) who identify four antecedents which they suggest predict social entrepreneurial intentions and behavior. This study tests the Mair and Noboa model and extends it by including prior experience with social problems as an additional variable...... entrepreneurial behavior of master students such as evidenced in the number of electives selected which have a social entrepreneurial profile....

  15. How relevant is social interaction in second language learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eVerga

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Verbal language is the most widespread mode of human communication, and an intrinsically social activity. This claim is strengthen by evidence emerging from different fields, which clearly indicate that social interaction influences human communication, and more specifically, language learning. Indeed, research conducted with infants and children shows that interaction with a caregiver is necessary to acquire language. Further evidence on the influence of sociality on language comes from social and linguistic pathologies, in which deficits in social and linguistic abilities are tightly intertwined, as it is the case for Autism, for example. However, studies on adult second language learning have been mostly focused on individualistic approaches, partly because of methodological constraints especially of imaging methods. The question as to whether social interaction should be considered as a critical factor impacting upon adult language learning still remains underspecified. Here, we review evidence in support of the view that sociality plays a significant role in communication and language learning, in an attempt to emphasize factors that could facilitate this process in adult language learning. We suggest that sociality should be considered as a potentially influential factor in adult language learning and that future studies in this domain should explicitly target this factor.

  16. How relevant is social interaction in second language learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verga, Laura; Kotz, Sonja A

    2013-09-03

    Verbal language is the most widespread mode of human communication, and an intrinsically social activity. This claim is strengthened by evidence emerging from different fields, which clearly indicates that social interaction influences human communication, and more specifically, language learning. Indeed, research conducted with infants and children shows that interaction with a caregiver is necessary to acquire language. Further evidence on the influence of sociality on language comes from social and linguistic pathologies, in which deficits in social and linguistic abilities are tightly intertwined, as is the case for Autism, for example. However, studies on adult second language (L2) learning have been mostly focused on individualistic approaches, partly because of methodological constraints, especially of imaging methods. The question as to whether social interaction should be considered as a critical factor impacting upon adult language learning still remains underspecified. Here, we review evidence in support of the view that sociality plays a significant role in communication and language learning, in an attempt to emphasize factors that could facilitate this process in adult language learning. We suggest that sociality should be considered as a potentially influential factor in adult language learning and that future studies in this domain should explicitly target this factor.

  17. Social Entrepreneurship in South Africa: Context, Relevance and Extent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Kobus

    2011-01-01

    In its broadest context, "social entrepreneurship" refers to individuals and organizations that engage in entrepreneurial activities with social objectives. Whereas this concept and its constituent elements are well-researched and acknowledged in industrialized countries (such as the USA and UK) (Thompson, Alvy and Lees, 2000, p 328) and…

  18. Social contact patterns relevant to the spread of respiratory infectious diseases in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Kathy; Jit, Mark; Lau, Eric H Y; Wu, Joseph T

    2017-08-11

    The spread of many respiratory infections is determined by contact patterns between infectious and susceptible individuals in the population. There are no published data for quantifying social contact patterns relevant to the spread of respiratory infectious diseases in Hong Kong which is a hotspot for emerging infectious diseases due to its high population density and connectivity in the air transportation network. We adopted a commonly used diary-based design to conduct a social contact survey in Hong Kong in 2015/16 using both paper and online questionnaires. Participants using paper questionnaires reported more contacts and longer contact duration than those using online questionnaires. Participants reported 13 person-hours of contact and 8 contacts per day on average, which decreased over age but increased with household size, years of education and income level. Prolonged and frequent contacts, and contacts at home, school and work were more likely to involve physical contacts. Strong age-assortativity was observed in all age groups. We evaluated the characteristics of social contact patterns relevant to the spread of respiratory infectious diseases in Hong Kong. Our findings could help to improve the design of future social contact surveys, parameterize transmission models of respiratory infectious diseases, and inform intervention strategies based on model outputs.

  19. Projecting female labor supply: The relevance of social norm change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romme, A.G.L.

    1990-01-01

    The relevance of labor supply research for long-term labor market policy is rather low. This article is an attempt to improve on this situation in the case of female labor force participation. It focuses on labor supply decisions under fundamental uncertainty, that is, imperfect ability to cope with

  20. Brief report: Inhibitory control of socially relevant stimuli in children with high functioning autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, H.M.; Begeer, S.; Stockman, L.

    2009-01-01

    The current study explored whether inhibitory control deficits in high functioning autism (HFA) emerged when socially relevant stimuli were used and whether arousal level affected the performance. A Go/NoGo paradigm, with socially relevant stimuli and varying presentation rates, was applied in 18

  1. Student learning for social relevance: the case of Melkhoutfontein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... tourism as a vehicle for multi-faceted learning in a community setting. The article contextualises the project, highlights its aims and goals, describes its research approach and analyses its outcomes and results. Findings suggest that student contextualisation of learning tasks and their increased levels of social awareness ...

  2. Skateboarding Alone? Making Social Capital Discourse Relevant to Teenagers' Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Susie

    2006-01-01

    Bound to the notion of teenage apathy is the concern that young people are increasingly disengaged from political and community issues and lacking in social capital. Voting is often regarded as the ultimate form of civic engagement, which implicitly excludes young teenagers from consideration through their status as non-voters. Teenagers'…

  3. Ecological Relevance Determines Task Priority in Older Adults' Multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumas, Michail; Krampe, Ralf Th

    2015-05-01

    Multitasking is a challenging aspect of human behavior, especially if the concurrently performed tasks are different in nature. Several studies demonstrated pronounced performance decrements (dual-task costs) in older adults for combinations of cognitive and motor tasks. However, patterns of costs among component tasks differed across studies and reasons for participants' resource allocation strategies remained elusive. We investigated young and older adults' multitasking of a working memory task and two sensorimotor tasks, one with low (finger force control) and one with high ecological relevance (postural control). The tasks were performed in single-, dual-, and triple-task contexts. Working memory accuracy was reduced in dual-task contexts with either sensorimotor task and deteriorated further under triple-task conditions. Postural and force performance deteriorated with age and task difficulty in dual-task contexts. However, in the triple-task context with its maximum resource demands, older adults prioritized postural control over both force control and memory. Our results identify ecological relevance as the key factor in older adults' multitasking. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Is the Appropriateness of Emotions Culture-Dependent? The Relevance of Social Meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welpinghus Anna

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the question to what extent the socio-cultural context is relevant for the appropriateness of emotions, while appropriateness of an emotion means that the emotion entails a correct, or adequate, evaluation of its object. In a first step, two adequacy conditions for theories of emotions are developed: the first condition ensures that the socio-cultural context is not neglected: theories must allow for the fact that appropriateness often depends on the social meaning of the emotion’s particular object. The second condition rules out implausible forms of cultural determinism. In a second step, an account that meets both conditions is presented: the Acceptance within Social Context account.

  5. Beyond arousal and valence: the importance of the biological versus social relevance of emotional stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Sakaki, Michiko; Niki, N.; Mather, M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study addressed the hypothesis that emotional stimuli relevant to survival or reproduction (biologically emotional stimuli) automatically affect cognitive processing (e.g., attention, memory), while those relevant to social life (socially emotional stimuli) require elaborative processing to modulate attention and memory. Results of our behavioral studies showed that (1) biologically emotional images hold attention more strongly than do socially emotional images, (2) memory for bio...

  6. Political relevance in the eye of the beholder: Determining the substantiveness of TV shows and political debates with Twitter data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boukes, M.; Trilling, D.

    Addressing the call to move beyond a simple genre classification of TV shows as either substantive (hard) news or non-substantive (soft) infotainment, we propose using social media reactions to determine a program’s political relevance. Such an approach provides information that goes beyond genre or

  7. Relevance of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) for Latin American Entrepreneurs

    OpenAIRE

    Polte, Winfried (Prof. Dr.)

    2017-01-01

    These times are very troubled ones. Not only do wars and political unrest seem to prevail in different regions of the world, but, corruption and fraud have reached an incredible dimension, too. It seems that societies have, to a large extent, lost values in which they had formerly believed in. These issues may be the background why at the moment Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as a voluntary commitment is discussed in public that intensively. However, one gets the impression that this r...

  8. Stigma: The relevance of social contact in mental disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frías, Víctor M; Fortuny, Joan R; Guzmán, Sergio; Santamaría, Pilar; Martínez, Montserrat; Pérez, Víctor

    The stigma associated with mental illness is a health problem, discriminating and limiting the opportunities for sufferers. Social contact with people suffering a mental disorder is a strategy used to produce changes in population stereotypes. The aim of the study was to examine differences in the level of stigma in samples with social contact and the general population. The study included two experiments. The first (n=42) included players in an open football league who played in a team with players with schizophrenia. In the second included, a sample without known contact (n=62) and a sample with contact (n=100) were compared. The evaluation tool used was AQ-27, Spanish version (AQ-27-E). The mean difference between the two samples of each of the 9 subscales was analyzed. In the first experiment, all the subscales had lower scores in post-contact than in pre-contact, except for responsibility. The two subscales that showed significant differences were duress (t=6.057, p=.000) and Pity (t=3.661, p=.001). In the second experiment, seven subscales showed a significance level (p=responsibility and did not. It is observed that the social contact made in daily situations can have a positive impact on the reduction of stigma. This can help to promote equality of opportunity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Immigration as a social determinant of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, Heide; Holmes, Seth M; Madrigal, Daniel S; Young, Maria-Elena DeTrinidad; Beyeler, Naomi; Quesada, James

    2015-03-18

    Although immigration and immigrant populations have become increasingly important foci in public health research and practice, a social determinants of health approach has seldom been applied in this area. Global patterns of morbidity and mortality follow inequities rooted in societal, political, and economic conditions produced and reproduced by social structures, policies, and institutions. The lack of dialogue between these two profoundly related phenomena-social determinants of health and immigration-has resulted in missed opportunities for public health research, practice, and policy work. In this article, we discuss primary frameworks used in recent public health literature on the health of immigrant populations, note gaps in this literature, and argue for a broader examination of immigration as both socially determined and a social determinant of health. We discuss priorities for future research and policy to understand more fully and respond appropriately to the health of the populations affected by this global phenomenon.

  10. Developmental and Social Determinants of Religious Social Categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Straten Waillet, Nastasya; Roskam, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess developmental and social determinants of the age at which children become aware that the social environment can be marked by categorization into religious groups and that those groups are associated with different religious beliefs. The results show that middle childhood is a critical period for this…

  11. The Relevance of Social Interactions on Housing Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Toscano, Esperanza; Ateca-Amestoy, Victoria

    2008-01-01

    For most individuals, housing is the largest consumption and investment item of their lifetime and, as a result, housing satisfaction is an important component of their quality of life. The purpose of this paper then is to investigate the determinants of individual housing satisfaction as a particular domain of satisfaction with life as a whole,…

  12. Social isolation induces behavioral and neuroendocrine disturbances relevant to depression in female and male prairie voles

    OpenAIRE

    Grippo, Angela J.; Gerena, Davida; Huang, Jonathan; Kumar, Narmda; Shah, Maulin; Ughreja, Raj; Carter, C. Sue

    2007-01-01

    Supportive social interactions may be protective against stressors and certain mental and physical illness, while social isolation may be a powerful stressor. Prairie voles are socially monogamous rodents that model some of the behavioral and physiological traits displayed by humans, including sensitivity to social isolation. Neuroendocrine and behavioral parameters, selected for their relevance to stress and depression, were measured in adult female and male prairie voles following 4 weeks o...

  13. Social and emotional relevance in face processing: Happy faces of future interaction partners enhance the LPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian eBublatzky

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Human face perception is modulated by both emotional valence and social relevance, but their interaction has rarely been examined. Event-related brain potentials (ERP to happy, neutral, and angry facial expressions with different degrees of social relevance were recorded. Social relevance was manipulated by presenting pictures of two specific face actors as future interaction partners (meet condition, whereas two other face actors remained non-relevant. As a further control condition all stimuli were presented without specific task instructions (passive viewing condition. A within-subject design (Facial Expression x Relevance x Task was implemented, where randomly ordered face stimuli of four actors (2 women, from the KDEF were presented for 1s to 26 participants (16 female. Results showed an augmented N170, early posterior negativity (EPN, and late positive potential (LPP for emotional in contrast to neutral facial expressions. Of particular interest, face processing varied as a function of instructed social relevance. Whereas the meet condition was accompanied with unspecific effects regardless of relevance (P1, EPN, viewing potential interaction partners was associated with increased LPP amplitudes. The LPP was specifically enhanced for happy facial expressions of the future interaction partners. This underscores that social relevance can impact face processing already at an early stage of visual processing. These findings are discussed within the framework of motivated attention and face processing theories.

  14. Relevance of Spiritual Principles for Resolving Social Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Natarajan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Society unknowingly follows the course of spiritual evolution. Spirituality is the quest for self-existent order and harmonious perfection. The evolution of society is driven by an irrepressible aspiration for the values that are the translation and embodiment of that order. The history of civilization is a record of its progressive emergence. Spirituality is the quest for a unifying reality that transcends all limitations, distinctions and differences; an inner oneness that unites rather than divides us; a faith in and quest for perfection in all its myriad forms; and a power accessible to human beings to overcome impossible obstacles and achieve the inconceivable. It is founded on the principles of absolute freedom, equality and unity. In the modern era, faith in spirit is embodied in the realization of the intrinsic value, extraordinary endowments and unmanifest potentials of the human being. We find expressions of it in the idealism and power released by revolutionary social change. We revere its power in great individuals. The aspiration for perfection in any form or field of endeavor is spiritual. So also we recognize expressions of spirit in the movements of the masses. Spirituality is not confined to pursuit of the otherworldly or unattainable. It is a living power for the transformation of human consciousness and the solution to the compelling challenges confronting humanity.

  15. Oral health: equity and social determinants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwan, Stella; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2010-01-01

    This book chapter discusses the social determinants of oral health, and identifies interventions that have been, or can be, used in addressing oral health inequities (e.g. oral health promotion, education programmes, improving access to oral health care)....

  16. Social position and health in old age. The relevance of different indicators of social position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Osler, Merete

    2002-01-01

    Social medicine, social position, chronic diseases, material wealth, income, tenure, oral health, functional ability, well-being, mobility......Social medicine, social position, chronic diseases, material wealth, income, tenure, oral health, functional ability, well-being, mobility...

  17. Fostering Scientific Literacy: Establishing Social Relevance via the Grand Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyford, M. E.; Myers, J. D.; Buss, A.

    2010-12-01

    Numerous studies and polls suggest the general public’s understanding of science and scientific literacy remain woefully inadequate despite repeated calls for improvement over the last 150 years. This inability to improve scientific literacy significantly is a complex problem likely driven by a number of factors. However, we argue that past calls and efforts for improving scientific literacy have failed to: 1) articulate a truly meaningful justification for society to foster a scientifically literate public; 2) provide a rationale that motivates individuals of diverse backgrounds to become scientifically literate; 3) consider the impact of personal perspective, e.g. values, beliefs, attitudes, etc., on learning; and 4) offer a relevant and manageable framework in which to define scientific literacy. For instance, past calls for improving scientific literacy, e.g. the U.S. is behind the Soviets in the space race, U.S students rank below country X in math and science, etc., have lacked justification, personal motivation and a comprehensive framework for defining scientific literacy. In these cases, the primary justification for improving science education and scientific literacy was to regain international dominance in the space race or to advance global standing according to test results. These types of calls also articulate short-term goals that are rendered moot once they have been achieved. At the same time, teaching practices have commonly failed to consider the perspectives students bring to the classroom. Many STEM faculty do not address issues of personal perspective through ignorance or the desire to avoid controversial subjects, e g. evolution, climate change. We propose that the ‘grand challenges’ (e.g., energy, climate change, antibacterial resistance, water, etc.) humankind currently faces provides a compelling framework for developing courses and curricula well-suited for improving scientific literacy. A grand challenge paradigm offers four

  18. Beyond Getting in and Fitting in: An Examination of Social Networks and Professionally Relevant Social Capital among Latina/o University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios-Aguilar, Cecilia; Deil-Amen, Regina

    2012-01-01

    Social network analyses, combined with qualitative analyses, are examined to understand key components of the college trajectories of 261 Latina/o students. Their social network ties reveal variation in extensity and the relevance. Most ties facilitate social capital relevant to getting into college, fewer engage social capital relevant to…

  19. Social [and health] relevance of psychotropic substances monitoring in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecinato, Angelo; Balducci, Catia; Mollica, Roberto; Serpelloni, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Drug abuse assessment methods based on measuring illicit substances in waste waters are consolidated. The approach of ambient air monitoring looks questionable, nonetheless it can be explored if the variables determining the drug burdens are accounted for, or suitable co-contaminants are adopted to normalize concentrations to environmental and human contours. The general approach linking the airborne drug concentrations to consumption is presented and the case of cocaine is discussed according to measurements conducted in Italy. The cocaine/nicotine concentration ratio, identified as the most suitable tool, fitted well with anti-drug Police operations and people noticed for drug-related crimes, and with the abuse prevalence estimated in the cities investigated. According to that, the conversion factors of drug concentrations into prevalence estimates seem assessable, provided sufficient databases over space and time are collected. Further investigations are necessary to understand if airborne drugs cause adverse sanitary effects. -- Highlights: •The drug contents in the air were discussed to draw information about abuse prevalence. •The time and site drug modulations were compared to those of the airborne toxicants. •Nicotine looks suitable to normalize the cocaine concentrations to human and environmental contours. •The health impact of illicit and licit drugs onto non-abusers is still insufficiently understood. -- The airborne cocaine/nicotine concentration ratio looks a promising tool to estimate the cocaine abuse prevalence

  20. Using Social Media as a Marketing Channel : how relevance, realness, and remarkableness influence interactivity and engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Boer, de

    2010-01-01

    This research explored a potential working framework for using social media as a marketing channel. Based on an extensive literature review and a multiple case study, important factors for using social media have been identified. Companies should provide relevant information, show signs of real

  1. What determines social capital in a social-ecological system? Insights from a network perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes-Mauthe, Michele; Gray, Steven Allen; Arita, Shawn; Lynham, John; Leung, PingSun

    2015-02-01

    Social capital is an important resource that can be mobilized for purposive action or competitive gain. The distribution of social capital in social-ecological systems can determine who is more productive at extracting ecological resources and who emerges as influential in guiding their management, thereby empowering some while disempowering others. Despite its importance, the factors that contribute to variation in social capital among individuals have not been widely studied. We adopt a network perspective to examine what determines social capital among individuals in social-ecological systems. We begin by identifying network measures of social capital relevant for individuals in this context, and review existing evidence concerning their determinants. Using a complete social network dataset from Hawaii's longline fishery, we employ social network analysis and other statistical methods to empirically estimate these measures and determine the extent to which individual stakeholder attributes explain variation within them. We find that ethnicity is the strongest predictor of social capital. Measures of human capital (i.e., education, experience), years living in the community, and information-sharing attitudes are also important. Surprisingly, we find that when controlling for other factors, industry leaders and formal fishery representatives are generally not well connected. Our results offer new quantitative insights on the relationship between stakeholder diversity, social networks, and social capital in a coupled social-ecological system, which can aid in identifying barriers and opportunities for action to overcome resource management problems. Our results also have implications for achieving resource governance that is not only ecologically and economically sustainable, but also equitable.

  2. What Determines Social Capital in a Social-Ecological System? Insights from a Network Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes-Mauthe, Michele; Gray, Steven Allen; Arita, Shawn; Lynham, John; Leung, PingSun

    2015-02-01

    Social capital is an important resource that can be mobilized for purposive action or competitive gain. The distribution of social capital in social-ecological systems can determine who is more productive at extracting ecological resources and who emerges as influential in guiding their management, thereby empowering some while disempowering others. Despite its importance, the factors that contribute to variation in social capital among individuals have not been widely studied. We adopt a network perspective to examine what determines social capital among individuals in social-ecological systems. We begin by identifying network measures of social capital relevant for individuals in this context, and review existing evidence concerning their determinants. Using a complete social network dataset from Hawaii's longline fishery, we employ social network analysis and other statistical methods to empirically estimate these measures and determine the extent to which individual stakeholder attributes explain variation within them. We find that ethnicity is the strongest predictor of social capital. Measures of human capital (i.e., education, experience), years living in the community, and information-sharing attitudes are also important. Surprisingly, we find that when controlling for other factors, industry leaders and formal fishery representatives are generally not well connected. Our results offer new quantitative insights on the relationship between stakeholder diversity, social networks, and social capital in a coupled social-ecological system, which can aid in identifying barriers and opportunities for action to overcome resource management problems. Our results also have implications for achieving resource governance that is not only ecologically and economically sustainable, but also equitable.

  3. Social Determinants of Health: Housing and Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forchuk, Cheryl; Dickins, Kevin; Corring, Deborah J

    2016-01-01

    Social determinants of health such as housing and income have a large impact on mental health. Community-based initiatives have worked to address access to housing, prevent homelessness and assist people who are homeless with mental health problems. There have been several large research projects to tease out multiple subgroups such as youth and veterans and other individuals experiencing long-term homelessness. The issue of poverty has been addressed by exploring issues related to employment. The use of social enterprises is a promising practice to address issues around poverty, social inclusion and employment. Similarly, the community has worked to move hospital-based employment programs to the community.

  4. Oxytocin mediates rodent social memory within the lateral septum and the medial amygdala depending on the relevance of the social stimulus: male juvenile versus female adult conspecifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Michael; Toth, Iulia; Veenema, Alexa H; Neumann, Inga D

    2013-06-01

    Brain oxytocin (OXT) plays an important role in short-term social memory in laboratory rodents. Here we monitored local release of OXT and its functional involvement in the maintenance and retrieval of social memory during the social discrimination test. We further assessed, if the local effects of OXT within the medial amygdala (MeA) and lateral septum (LS) on social discrimination abilities were dependent on the biological relevance of the social stimulus, thus comparing male juvenile versus adult female conspecifics. OXT release was increased in the LS of male rats during the retrieval, but not during the acquisition or maintenance, of social memory for male juvenile stimuli. Blockade of OXT activity by intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of a specific OXT receptor antagonist (OXTR-A, rats: 0.75 μg/5 μl, mice: 2 μg/2 μl) immediately after acquisition of social memory impaired the maintenance of social memory, and consequently discrimination abilities during retrieval of social memory. In contrast, ICV OXTR-A was without effect when administered 20 min prior to retrieval of social memory in both species. Non-social memory measured in the object discrimination test was not affected by ICV OXTR-A in male mice, indicating that brain OXT is mainly required for memory formation in a social context. The biological relevance of the social stimulus seems to importantly determine social memory abilities, as male rats recognized a previously encountered female adult stimulus for at least 2h (versus 60 min for male juveniles), with a region-dependent contribution of endogenous OXT; while bilateral administration of OXTR-A into the MeA (0.1 μg/1 μl) impaired social memory for adult females only, administration of OXTR-A into the LS via retrodialysis (10 μg/ml, 1.0 μl/min) impaired social memory for both male juveniles and female adults. Overall, these results indicate that brain OXT is a critical mediator of social memory in male rodents and that, depending

  5. Autism-relevant social abnormalities and cognitive deficits in engrailed-2 knockout mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Brielmaier

    Full Text Available ENGRAILED 2 (En2, a homeobox transcription factor, functions as a patterning gene in the early development and connectivity of rodent hindbrain and cerebellum, and regulates neurogenesis and development of monoaminergic pathways. To further understand the neurobiological functions of En2, we conducted neuroanatomical expression profiling of En2 wildtype mice. RTQPCR assays demonstrated that En2 is expressed in adult brain structures including the somatosensory cortex, hippocampus, striatum, thalamus, hypothalamus and brainstem. Human genetic studies indicate that EN2 is associated with autism. To determine the consequences of En2 mutations on mouse behaviors, including outcomes potentially relevant to autism, we conducted comprehensive phenotyping of social, communication, repetitive, and cognitive behaviors. En2 null mutants exhibited robust deficits in reciprocal social interactions as juveniles and adults, and absence of sociability in adults, replicated in two independent cohorts. Fear conditioning and water maze learning were impaired in En2 null mutants. High immobility in the forced swim test, reduced prepulse inhibition, mild motor coordination impairments and reduced grip strength were detected in En2 null mutants. No genotype differences were found on measures of ultrasonic vocalizations in social contexts, and no stereotyped or repetitive behaviors were observed. Developmental milestones, general health, olfactory abilities, exploratory locomotor activity, anxiety-like behaviors and pain responses did not differ across genotypes, indicating that the behavioral abnormalities detected in En2 null mutants were not attributable to physical or procedural confounds. Our findings provide new insight into the role of En2 in complex behaviors and suggest that disturbances in En2 signaling may contribute to neuropsychiatric disorders marked by social and cognitive deficits, including autism spectrum disorders.

  6. Social Determinants of Maternal Health in Afghanistan: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafizada, Said Ahmad Maisam; Bourgeault, Ivy Lynn; Labonté, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    Afghanistan has a high maternal mortality rate of 400 per 100,000 live births. Although direct causes of maternal morbidity and mortality in Afghanistan include hemorrhage, obstructed labor, infection, high blood pressure, and unsafe abortion, the high burden of diseases responsible for maternal mortality arises in large part due to social determinants of health. The focus of this literature review is to examine the impact of various social determinants of health on maternal health in Afghanistan, filling an important gap in the existing literature. This narrative review was conducted using Arksey and O'Malley's framework of (1) defining the question, (2) searching the literature, (3) assessing the studies, (4) synthesizing selected evidence in context, and (5) summarizing potential programmatic implication of the context. We searched Medline, CABI global health database, and Google Scholar for relevant publications. A total of 38 articles/reports were included in this review. We found that social determinants such as maternal education, sociocultural practices, and social infrastructure have a significant impact on maternal health. Health care may be the immediate determinant, but it is influenced by other determinants that must be addressed in order to alleviate the burden on health care, as well as to achieve long-term reduction in maternal mortality. Because of the importance of social factors for maternal health outcomes, committed involvement of multiple government sectors (i.e. education, labor and social affairs, information and culture, transport and rural development among others, alongside health care) is the long-term solution to the maternal health problems in Afghanistan. National and international organizations' long-term commitment to social investment such as education, local economy, cultural change, and social infrastructure is recommended for Afghanstan and globally.

  7. Social Determinants of Maternal Health in Afghanistan: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Ahmad Maisam Najafizada

    2017-03-01

    Methods: This narrative review was conducted using Arksey and O’Malley’s framework of (1 defining the question, (2 searching the literature, (3 assessing the studies, (4 synthesizing selected evidence in context, and (5 summarizing potential programmatic implication of the context. We searched Medline, CABI global health database, and Google Scholar for relevant publications. Results: A total of 38 articles/reports were included in this review. We found that social determinants such as maternal education, sociocultural practices, and social infrastructure have a significant impact on maternal health. Health care may be the immediate determinant, but it is influenced by other determinants that must be addressed in order to alleviate the burden on health care, as well as to achieve long-term reduction in maternal mortality. Conclusion: Because of the importance of social factors for maternal health outcomes, committed involvement of multiple government sectors (i.e. education, labor and social affairs, information and culture, transport and rural development among others, alongside health care is the long-term solution to the maternal health problems in Afghanistan. National and international organizations’ long-term commitment to social investment such as education, local economy, cultural change, and social infrastructure is recommended for Afghanstan and globally.

  8. An Enhanced Text-Mining Framework for Extracting Disaster Relevant Data through Social Media and Remote Sensing Data Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheele, C. J.; Huang, Q.

    2016-12-01

    In the past decade, the rise in social media has led to the development of a vast number of social media services and applications. Disaster management represents one of such applications leveraging massive data generated for event detection, response, and recovery. In order to find disaster relevant social media data, current approaches utilize natural language processing (NLP) methods based on keywords, or machine learning algorithms relying on text only. However, these approaches cannot be perfectly accurate due to the variability and uncertainty in language used on social media. To improve current methods, the enhanced text-mining framework is proposed to incorporate location information from social media and authoritative remote sensing datasets for detecting disaster relevant social media posts, which are determined by assessing the textual content using common text mining methods and how the post relates spatiotemporally to the disaster event. To assess the framework, geo-tagged Tweets were collected for three different spatial and temporal disaster events: hurricane, flood, and tornado. Remote sensing data and products for each event were then collected using RealEarthTM. Both Naive Bayes and Logistic Regression classifiers were used to compare the accuracy within the enhanced text-mining framework. Finally, the accuracies from the enhanced text-mining framework were compared to the current text-only methods for each of the case study disaster events. The results from this study address the need for more authoritative data when using social media in disaster management applications.

  9. Taijin kyofusho and social anxiety and their clinical relevance in indonesia and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriends, N; Pfaltz, M C; Novianti, P; Hadiyono, J

    2013-01-01

    Taijin Kyofusho Scale (TKS) is an interpersonal fear to offend others and is defined by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) as a culturally bound syndrome that occurs in Japan and Korea. Recently, cases with TKS have also been recognized in other cultures. The present questionnaire study investigated self-report TKS symptoms and social anxiety symptoms, and their clinical relevance in an Indonesian and Swiss sample. It also investigated whether self-construal is associated with TKS and social anxiety, and if self-construal is a mediator of the expected association between cultural background and social anxiety and TKS symptoms. 311 Indonesian and 349 Swiss university students filled out the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, the Taijin Kyofusho Scale, the Self-Construal Scale, self-report social phobia DSM-IV criteria, and rated their wish for professional help to deal with social fears. TKS and social anxiety symptoms were higher in the Indonesian than the Swiss sample. TKS symptoms were associated with clinical relevance in Indonesia, whereas in Switzerland only social anxiety symptoms were associated with clinical relevance. Independent self-construal was negatively associated and interdependent self-construal was positively associated with TKS and social anxiety symptoms. Interdependent self-construal mediated the association between cultural background and these symptoms. TKS might be a clinically relevant syndrome in all individuals or cultures with an interdependent self-construal or less independent self-construal. The proposal to include the fear of offending others in the DSM-V criteria of social phobia is supported by the present findings.

  10. Taijin Kyofusho and Social Anxiety and their clinical relevance in Indonesia and Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noortje eVriends

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Taijin Kyofusho (TKS is an interpersonal fear to offend others and is defined by DSM-IV as a culturally bound syndrome that occurs in Japan and Korea. Recently, cases with TKS have also been recognized in other cultures. The present questionnaire study investigated self-report TKS symptoms and social anxiety symptoms, and their clinical relevance in an Indonesian and Swiss sample. It also investigated if self-construal is associated with TKS and social anxiety, and if self-construal is a mediator of the expected association between cultural background and social anxiety and TKS symptoms. Method: 311 Indonesian and 349 Swiss university students filled out the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, the Taijin Kyofusho Scale, the Self-Construal Scale, self-report social phobia DSM-IV criteria, and rated their wish for professional help to deal with social fears.Results: TKS and social anxiety symptoms were higher in the Indonesian than the Swiss sample. TKS symptoms were associated with clinical relevance in Indonesia, whereas in Switzerland only social anxiety symptoms were associated with clinical relevance. Independent self-construal was negatively associated and interdependent self-construal was positively associated with TKS and social anxiety symptoms. Interdependent self-construal mediated the association between cultural background and these symptoms.Discussion: TKS might be a clinically relevant syndrome in all individuals or cultures with an interdependent self-construal or less independent self-construal. The proposal to include the fear of offending others in the DSM-V criteria of social phobia is supported by the present findings.

  11. Health literacy and the social determinants of health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rowlands, Gillian; Shaw, Adrienne; Jaswal, Sabrena

    2017-01-01

    Health literacy, 'the personal characteristics and social resources needed for individuals and communities to access, understand, appraise and use information and services to make decisions about health', is key to improving peoples' control over modifiable social determinants of health (SDH...... and culture. Basic (functional) health literacy skills were needed to gather and understand information. More complex interactive health literacy skills were needed to evaluate the importance and relevance of information in context, and make health decisions. Critical health literacy skills could be used......). This study listened to adult learners to understand their perspectives on gathering, understanding and using information for health. This qualitative project recruited participants from community skills courses to identify relevant 'health information' factors. Subsequently different learners put...

  12. Tag-Based Social Image Search: Toward Relevant and Diverse Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kuiyuan; Wang, Meng; Hua, Xian-Sheng; Zhang, Hong-Jiang

    Recent years have witnessed a great success of social media websites. Tag-based image search is an important approach to access the image content of interest on these websites. However, the existing ranking methods for tag-based image search frequently return results that are irrelevant or lack of diversity. This chapter presents a diverse relevance ranking scheme which simultaneously takes relevance and diversity into account by exploring the content of images and their associated tags. First, it estimates the relevance scores of images with respect to the query term based on both visual information of images and semantic information of associated tags. Then semantic similarities of social images are estimated based on their tags. Based on the relevance scores and the similarities, the ranking list is generated by a greedy ordering algorithm which optimizes Average Diverse Precision (ADP), a novel measure that is extended from the conventional Average Precision (AP). Comprehensive experiments and user studies demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  13. Social Determinants of LGBT Cancer Health Inequities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Alicia K; Breen, Elizabeth; Kittiteerasack, Priyoth

    2018-02-01

    To describe the extant literature on social determinants of health as they relate to the cancer disparities and to highlight the research findings relating to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations. Published scientific literature and clinical literature, and published reports from the World Health Organization and US Department of Health and Human Services. The larger literature on health inequities is moving beyond individual-level predictors of risk to evaluate the influence of social determinants of health on the persistent health inequalities in a population. As it has for other groups, additional research into social determinants of health for LGBT persons of color may play an important role in identifying and reducing cancer inequities for this group. Increased awareness of the factors that contribute to health inequities for the LGBT population may provide insight into improving patient-provider relationships with LGBT patients. A large body of experiential and clinical knowledge positions nurses to conduct meaningful research to expand the current understanding of the social determinants of LGBT cancer health inequities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Self-referential and anxiety-relevant information processing in subclinical social anxiety: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Anna; Kaufmann, Carolin; Redlich, Ronny; Hermann, Andrea; Stark, Rudolf; Stevens, Stephan; Hermann, Christiane

    2013-03-01

    The fear of negative evaluation is one of the hallmark features of social anxiety. Behavioral evidence thus far largely supports cognitive models which postulate that information processing biases in the face of socially relevant information are a key factor underlying this widespread phobia. So far only one neuroimaging study has explicitly focused on the fear of negative evaluation in social anxiety where the brain responses of social phobics were compared to healthy participants during the processing of self-referential relative to other-referential criticism, praise or neutral information. Only self-referential criticism led to stronger activations in emotion-relevant regions of the brain, such as the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortices (mPFC), in the social phobics. The objective of the current study was to determine whether these findings could be extended to subclinical social anxiety. In doing so, the specificity of this self-referential bias was also examined by including both social and non-social (physical illness-related) threat information as well as a highly health anxious control group in the experimental paradigm. The fMRI findings indicated that the processing of emotional stimuli was accompanied by activations in the amygdala and the ventral mPFC, while self-referential processing was associated with activity in regions such as the mPFC, posterior cingulate and temporal poles. Despite the validation of the paradigm, the results revealed that the previously reported behavioral and brain biases associated with social phobia could not be unequivocally extended to subclinical social anxiety. The divergence between the findings is explored in detail with reference to paradigm differences and conceptual issues.

  15. Taijin Kyofusho and Social Anxiety and their clinical relevance in Indonesia and Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Vriends, Noortje; Pfaltz, Monique C.; Novianti, Peppy; Hadiyono, Johana

    2013-01-01

    Background: Taijin Kyofusho (TKS) is an interpersonal fear to offend others and is defined by DSM-IV as a culturally bound syndrome that occurs in Japan and Korea. Recently, cases with TKS have also been recognized in other cultures. The present questionnaire study investigated self-report TKS symptoms and social anxiety symptoms, and their clinical relevance in an Indonesian and Swiss sample. It also investigated if self-construal is associated with TKS and social anxiety, and if self-constr...

  16. Taijin Kyofusho and Social Anxiety and their clinical relevance in Indonesia and Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Noortje eVriends; Noortje eVriends; Monique C Pfaltz; Peppy eNovianti; Johana eHadiyono

    2013-01-01

    Background: Taijin Kyofusho (TKS) is an interpersonal fear to offend others and is defined by DSM-IV as a culturally bound syndrome that occurs in Japan and Korea. Recently, cases with TKS have also been recognized in other cultures. The present questionnaire study investigated self-report TKS symptoms and social anxiety symptoms, and their clinical relevance in an Indonesian and Swiss sample. It also investigated if self-construal is associated with TKS and social anxiety, and if self-const...

  17. Playable stories: Making programming and 3D role-playing game design personally and socially relevant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram-Goble, Adam

    This is an exploratory design study of a novel system for learning programming and 3D role-playing game design as tools for social change. This study was conducted at two sites. Participants in the study were ages 9-14 and worked for up to 15 hours with the platform to learn how to program and design video games with personally or socially relevant narratives. This first study was successful in that students learned to program a narrative game, and they viewed the social problem framing for the practices as an interesting aspect of the experience. The second study provided illustrative examples of how providing less general structure up-front, afforded players the opportunity to produce the necessary structures as needed for their particular design, and therefore had a richer understanding of what those structures represented. This study demonstrates that not only were participants able to use computational thinking skills such as Boolean and conditional logic, planning, modeling, abstraction, and encapsulation, they were able to bridge these skills to social domains they cared about. In particular, participants created stories about socially relevant topics without to explicit pushes by the instructors. The findings also suggest that the rapid uptake, and successful creation of personally and socially relevant narratives may have been facilitated by close alignment between the conceptual tools represented in the platform, and the domain of 3D role-playing games.

  18. Job Search and Social Cognitive Theory: The Role of Career-Relevant Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikic, Jelena; Saks, Alan M.

    2009-01-01

    Social cognitive theory was used to explain the relationships between career-relevant activities (environmental and self career exploration, career resources, and training), self-regulatory variables (job search self-efficacy and job search clarity), variables from the Theory of Planned Behavior (job search attitude, subjective norm, job search…

  19. Is social cohesion relevant to a city in the global South?

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This article investigates the relevance of international framings of social cohesion and collective efficacy, which have largely ... an ethnographic study conducted in Khayelitsha township in the Western Cape, where a major internationally funded and conceptualised ... the global South? A case study of Khayelitsha township ...

  20. HIV in Harare: The role and relevance of social stigma | O'Brien ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To provide theoretical context to this issue, we utilised the ideas of Erving Goffman for exploring the individual experience of stigma and the concept of structural violence to understand stigma as a social phenomenon. This paper considers the relevance and role of stigma in the context of a country undergoing significant ...

  1. Beyond arousal and valence: the importance of the biological versus social relevance of emotional stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaki, Michiko; Niki, Kazuhisa; Mather, Mara

    2012-03-01

    The present study addressed the hypothesis that emotional stimuli relevant to survival or reproduction (biologically emotional stimuli) automatically affect cognitive processing (e.g., attention, memory), while those relevant to social life (socially emotional stimuli) require elaborative processing to modulate attention and memory. Results of our behavioral studies showed that (1) biologically emotional images hold attention more strongly than do socially emotional images, (2) memory for biologically emotional images was enhanced even with limited cognitive resources, but (3) memory for socially emotional images was enhanced only when people had sufficient cognitive resources at encoding. Neither images' subjective arousal nor their valence modulated these patterns. A subsequent functional magnetic resonance imaging study revealed that biologically emotional images induced stronger activity in the visual cortex and greater functional connectivity between the amygdala and visual cortex than did socially emotional images. These results suggest that the interconnection between the amygdala and visual cortex supports enhanced attention allocation to biological stimuli. In contrast, socially emotional images evoked greater activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and yielded stronger functional connectivity between the amygdala and MPFC than did biological images. Thus, it appears that emotional processing of social stimuli involves elaborative processing requiring frontal lobe activity.

  2. Relevance and feasibility of Social Life Cycle Assessment from a Company Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Andreas; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2009-01-01

    Methodology development should reflect demands from the intended users: what are the needs of the user group and what is feasible in terms of requirements involving data and work? Mapping these questions of relevance and feasibility is thus a way to facilitate a higher degree of relevance...... of the developed methodology. For the emerging area of social life cycle assessment (SLCA), several different potential user groups may be identified. This article addresses the issues of relevance and feasibility of SLCA from a company perspective through a series of interviews among potential company users....... The empirical basis for the survey is a series of eight semi-structured interviews with larger Danish companies, all of which potentially have the capacity and will to use comprehensive social assessment methodologies. SLCA is not yet a well-defined methodology, but still it is possible to outline several...

  3. [Social and cultural determinants of juvenile deliquency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roché, Sébastian

    2004-01-01

    Our knowledge of juvenile delinquency has progressed considerably since the early 1980s, thanks to self-reported delinquency surveys. They teach us that the determinants of delinquent behaviors among teenagers are dependent on the facility with which the offense is committed, the internal motivation (frustration in the family and school, observational learning of the use of violence in the media) and the weakness of social reactions.

  4. Social networks, social support and psychiatric symptoms: social determinants and associations within a multicultural community population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Natasha; Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Hotopf, Matthew; Hatch, Stephani L

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about how social networks and social support are distributed within diverse communities and how different types of each are associated with a range of psychiatric symptoms. This study aims to address such shortcomings by: (1) describing the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of social networks and social support in a multicultural population and (2) examining how each is associated with multiple mental health outcomes. Data is drawn from the South East London Community Health Study; a cross-sectional study of 1,698 adults conducted between 2008 and 2010. The findings demonstrate variation in social networks and social support by socio-demographic factors. Ethnic minority groups reported larger family networks but less perceived instrumental support. Older individuals and migrant groups reported lower levels of particular network and support types. Individuals from lower socioeconomic groups tended to report less social networks and support across the indicators measured. Perceived emotional and instrumental support, family and friend network size emerged as protective factors for common mental disorder, personality dysfunction and psychotic experiences. In contrast, both social networks and social support appear less relevant for hazardous alcohol use. The findings both confirm established knowledge that social networks and social support exert differential effects on mental health and furthermore suggest that the particular type of social support may be important. In contrast, different types of social network appear to impact upon poor mental health in a more uniform way. Future psychosocial strategies promoting mental health should consider which social groups are vulnerable to reduced social networks and poor social support and which diagnostic groups may benefit most.

  5. Social Determinants of Health: Perspective of the ALAMES Social Determinants Working Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Escudero

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The recent discussion of the social determinants of health, which has been promoted by the WHO as a way to approach global health conditions is neither a new nor a foreign subject for Latin American social medicine or collective health. Indeed, this approach to health derives from the principles of 19th century European social medicine which accepted that the health of the population is a matter of social concern, that social and economic conditions have an important bearing on health and disease, and that these relationships should be subjected to scientific enquiry. (Rosen, 1985:81 The specific socio-historical conditions of Latin America in the 1970’s fostered the development of an innovative, critical, and socially-based based health analysis, which was seen in an evolving theoretical approach with deep social roots. (Cohn, 2003 This analysis calls for scientific work which is committed to changing living and working conditions and to improving the health of the popular classes. (Waitzkin y col. 2001; Iriart y col. 2002. From its beginning, this school of socio-medical thought recognized that collective health has two main areas of research: 1 the distribution and determinants of health and disease and 2 the interpretation, technical knowledge, and specialized practices concerning health, disease, and death. The goal is to understand health and disease as differentiated moments in the human lifecycle, subject to permanent change, and expressing the biological nature of the human body under specific forms of social organization, all this in such a way as to allow discussion of causality and determination. (Breilh y Granda,1982; Laurell, 1982. Latin American social medicine criticized biomedical and conventional epidemiological approaches for isolating health and disease from social context, misinterpreting social processes as biological, conceptualizing health phenomena in individualistic terms, and adopting the methodological

  6. Modulations of mirroring activity by desire for social connection and relevance of movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón, Oriana R; Sharer, Elizabeth A; Bargh, John A; Pineda, Jaime A

    2014-11-01

    Mirroring neurons fire both when an individual moves and observes another move in kind. This simulation of others' movements is thought to effortlessly and ubiquitously support empathetic connection and social understanding. However, at times this could be maladaptive. How could a boxer mirror a losing opponent's expressions of fatigue, feeling his weariness, precisely when strength is required? Clearly, the boxer must emotionally disconnect from his opponent and those expressions of fatigue must become irrelevant and not mirrored. But, movements that inform of his opponent's intentions to deliver an incoming blow are quite relevant and still should require mirroring. We tested these dimensions of emotional connectedness and relevance of movement in an electroencephalography experiment, where participants' desires to socially connect with a confederate were manipulated. Before manipulation, all participants mirrored the confederate's purely kinematic (a hand opening and closing) and goal-directed (a hand opening and closing around a token that the participant desired) hand movements. After manipulation, unfairly treated subjects ceased to mirror the purely kinematic movements but continued to mirror goal-relevant movements. Those treated fairly continued to mirror all movements. The results suggest that social mirroring can be adaptive in order to meet the demands of a varied social environment. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Lexical Studies of Filipino Person Descriptors: Adding Personality-Relevant Social and Physical Attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperio, Shellah Myra; Church, A Timothy; Katigbak, Marcia S; Reyes, Jose Alberto S

    2008-06-01

    Lexical studies have focused on traits. In the Filipino language, we investigated whether additional dimensions can be identified when personality-relevant terms for social roles, statuses, and effects, plus physical attributes, are included. Filipino students (N = 496) rated themselves on 268 such terms, plus 253 markers of trait and evaluative dimensions. We identified 10 dimensions of social and physical attributes-Prominence, Uselessness, Attractiveness, Respectability, Uniqueness, Destructiveness, Presentableness, Strength, Dangerousness, and Charisma. Most of these dimensions did not correspond in a one-to-one manner to Filipino or alternative trait models (Big Five, HEXACO, ML7). However, considerable redundancy was observed between the social and physical attribute dimensions and trait and evaluative dimensions. Thus, social and physical attributes communicate information about personality traits, and vice-versa.

  8. Lexical Studies of Filipino Person Descriptors: Adding Personality-Relevant Social and Physical Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperio, Shellah Myra; Church, A. Timothy; Katigbak, Marcia S.; Reyes, Jose Alberto S.

    2009-01-01

    Lexical studies have focused on traits. In the Filipino language, we investigated whether additional dimensions can be identified when personality-relevant terms for social roles, statuses, and effects, plus physical attributes, are included. Filipino students (N = 496) rated themselves on 268 such terms, plus 253 markers of trait and evaluative dimensions. We identified 10 dimensions of social and physical attributes—Prominence, Uselessness, Attractiveness, Respectability, Uniqueness, Destructiveness, Presentableness, Strength, Dangerousness, and Charisma. Most of these dimensions did not correspond in a one-to-one manner to Filipino or alternative trait models (Big Five, HEXACO, ML7). However, considerable redundancy was observed between the social and physical attribute dimensions and trait and evaluative dimensions. Thus, social and physical attributes communicate information about personality traits, and vice-versa. PMID:19779603

  9. Social Contacts and Mixing Patterns Relevant to the Spread of Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossong, Joël; Hens, Niel; Jit, Mark; Beutels, Philippe; Auranen, Kari; Mikolajczyk, Rafael; Massari, Marco; Salmaso, Stefania; Tomba, Gianpaolo Scalia; Wallinga, Jacco; Heijne, Janneke; Sadkowska-Todys, Malgorzata; Rosinska, Magdalena; Edmunds, W. John

    2008-01-01

    Background Mathematical modelling of infectious diseases transmitted by the respiratory or close-contact route (e.g., pandemic influenza) is increasingly being used to determine the impact of possible interventions. Although mixing patterns are known to be crucial determinants for model outcome, researchers often rely on a priori contact assumptions with little or no empirical basis. We conducted a population-based prospective survey of mixing patterns in eight European countries using a common paper-diary methodology. Methods and Findings 7,290 participants recorded characteristics of 97,904 contacts with different individuals during one day, including age, sex, location, duration, frequency, and occurrence of physical contact. We found that mixing patterns and contact characteristics were remarkably similar across different European countries. Contact patterns were highly assortative with age: schoolchildren and young adults in particular tended to mix with people of the same age. Contacts lasting at least one hour or occurring on a daily basis mostly involved physical contact, while short duration and infrequent contacts tended to be nonphysical. Contacts at home, school, or leisure were more likely to be physical than contacts at the workplace or while travelling. Preliminary modelling indicates that 5- to 19-year-olds are expected to suffer the highest incidence during the initial epidemic phase of an emerging infection transmitted through social contacts measured here when the population is completely susceptible. Conclusions To our knowledge, our study provides the first large-scale quantitative approach to contact patterns relevant for infections transmitted by the respiratory or close-contact route, and the results should lead to improved parameterisation of mathematical models used to design control strategies. PMID:18366252

  10. Organizational and social-psychological issues relevant to fallout-shelter evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernette, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a preliminary review of the literature on organizational and social-psychological issues relevant to fallout-shelter evaluation. Fallout-shelter options are evaluated along two dimensions: shelter size, and extent of shelteree participation in the shelter construction. Four functional criteria are used in the evaluation: decision-making, member coordination, social control, and maintaining morale. Smaller shelters requiring shelteree participation in construction appear preferable as measured in most of these criteria. Additional factors mentioned include demographic characteristics of the shelter population, degree and type of ventilation system, and availability of medical equipment and personnel. 10 references.

  11. Social support and social network as intermediary social determinants of dental caries in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanini, Humberto; Marshman, Zoe; Vettore, Mario

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between intermediary social determinants, namely social support and social network with dental caries in adolescents. An adapted version of the WHO social determinants of health conceptual framework was used to organize structural and intermediary social determinants of dental caries into six blocks including perceived social support and number of social networks. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative sample of 542 students between 12 and 14 years of age in public schools located in the city of Dourados, Brazil in 2012. The outcome variables were caries experience (DMFT ≥ 1) and current dental caries (component D of DMFT ≥ 1) recorded by a calibrated dentist. Individual interviews were performed to collect data on perceived social support and numbers of social networks from family and friends and covariates. Multivariate Poisson regressions using hierarchical models were conducted. The prevalence of adolescents with caries experience and current dental caries was 55.2% and 32.1%, respectively. Adolescents with low numbers of social networks and low levels of social support from family (PR 1.47; 95% CI = 1.01-2.14) were more likely to have DMFT ≥ 1. Current dental caries was associated with low numbers of social networks and low levels of social support from family (PR 2.26; 95% CI = 1.15-4.44). Social support and social network were influential psychosocial factors to dental caries in adolescents. This finding requires confirmation in other countries but potentially has implications for programmes to promote oral health. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Social position and health in old age: the relevance of different indicators of social position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Holstein, Bjørn E; Osler, Merete

    2003-01-01

    for men and women. In men the odds ratios of housing tenure on four health variables were strong and unaffected by education and occupation while in women the odds ratios of income on three health variables were strong and unaffected by education and occupation. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates strong......AIMS: An analysis was undertaken to investigate social inequalities in health among old men and women in relation to five indicators of social position. METHODS: The study is based on a population-based cross-sectional survey among 748 75-year-old men and women, which was performed as clinical......, consistent associations between variables of material wealth indicators and various measures of health among 75-year-old men and women....

  13. Taijin Kyofusho and Social Anxiety and Their Clinical Relevance in Indonesia and Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Vriends, N.; Pfaltz, M. C.; Novianti, P.; Hadiyono, J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Taijin Kyofusho Scale (TKS) is an interpersonal fear to offend others and is defined by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) as a culturally bound syndrome that occurs in Japan and Korea. Recently, cases with TKS have also been recognized in other cultures. The present questionnaire study investigated self-report TKS symptoms and social anxiety symptoms, and their clinical relevance in an Indonesian and Swiss sample. It also investigated whether self-cons...

  14. The Value Relevance of Environmental, Social, and Governance Performance: The Brazilian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Mar Miralles-Quirós

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available There is extensive literature on the value relevance of social responsibility for companies that operate in developed countries. However, little is known about the influence of these practices on the price of assets listed on emerging economies, such as Brazil. In this context, the aim of this study is to analyse whether social responsibility activities carried out by companies listed on the São Paulo Stock Exchange during the 2010–2015 period play a significant role in enhancing firm value. Unlike previous studies, we distinguish between the three modern pillars of sustainability: environmental, social, and corporate governance (ESG. Our overall results support the value enhancing theory rather than the shareholder expense theory. However, it is important to note that the results also show that the market does not significantly value the three ESG pillars. Specifically, the market positively and significantly values the environmental practices carried out by companies not related to environmentally sensitive industries. In contrast, the market positively and significantly values the social and corporate governance practices carried out by the companies belonging to these sensitive industries. These findings are relevant for both investors and the managers of these companies, policy makers, customers, and citizens concerned about ESG issues.

  15. Fostering Personal Meaning and Self-Relevance: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective on Internalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Aelterman, Nathalie; De Muynck, Gert-Jan; Haerens, Leen; Patall, Erika; Reeve, Johnmarshall

    2018-01-01

    Central to self-determination theory (SDT) is the notion that autonomously motivated learning relates to greater learning benefits. While learners' intrinsic motivation has received substantial attention, learners also display volitional learning when they come to endorse the personal meaning or self-relevance of the learning task. In Part I of…

  16. Social determinants of self-care subsequent to major medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the findings of the study it was concluded that education, residential status, marital status, and availability and ability to convert social network into social capital constitute major social determinants of self-care. It was recommended among others that the social determinants of self-care identified above should ...

  17. Social isolation induces behavioral and neuroendocrine disturbances relevant to depression in female and male prairie voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grippo, Angela J; Gerena, Davida; Huang, Jonathan; Kumar, Narmda; Shah, Maulin; Ughreja, Raj; Carter, C Sue

    2007-01-01

    Supportive social interactions may be protective against stressors and certain mental and physical illness, while social isolation may be a powerful stressor. Prairie voles are socially monogamous rodents that model some of the behavioral and physiological traits displayed by humans, including sensitivity to social isolation. Neuroendocrine and behavioral parameters, selected for their relevance to stress and depression, were measured in adult female and male prairie voles following 4 weeks of social isolation versus paired housing. In Experiment 1, oxytocin-immunoreactive cell density was higher in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and plasma oxytocin was elevated in isolated females, but not in males. In Experiment 2, sucrose intake, used as an operational definition of hedonia, was reduced in both sexes following 4 weeks of isolation. Animals then received a resident-intruder test, and were sacrificed either 10 min later for the analysis of circulating hormones and peptides, or 2h later to examine neural activation, indexed by c-Fos expression in PVN cells immunoreactive for oxytocin or corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). Compared to paired animals, plasma oxytocin, ACTH and corticosterone were elevated in isolated females and plasma oxytocin was elevated in isolated males, following the resident-intruder test. The proportion of cells double-labeled for c-Fos and oxytocin or c-Fos and CRF was elevated in isolated females, and the proportion of cells double-labeled for c-Fos and oxytocin was elevated in isolated males following this test. These findings suggest that social isolation induces behavioral and neuroendocrine responses relevant to depression in male and female prairie voles, although neuroendocrine responses in females may be especially sensitive to isolation.

  18. Social determinants approaches to public health: from concept to practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blas, Erik; Sommerfeld, Johannes; Sivasankara Kurup, A

    2011-01-01

    ... social determinants and health equity issues in 13 public health programmes, and identified possible entry points for interventions to address those social determinants and inequities at the levels of socioeconomic context, exposure, vulnerability, health outcomes and health consequences.-- Publisher's description.

  19. Malnutrition in elderly: social and economic determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donini, L M; Scardella, P; Piombo, L; Neri, B; Asprino, R; Proietti, A R; Carcaterra, S; Cava, E; Cataldi, S; Cucinotta, D; Di Bella, G; Barbagallo, M; Morrone, A

    2013-01-01

    Malnutrition occurs frequently in the frailest groups of the population, especially in people who are on a low income and elderly subjects, overall if they are institutionalized. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of malnutrition in a sample of elderly people living in different settings and to identify the determinants of malnutrition. A total of 718 subjects, 472 females (F) and 246 males (M), were recruited from nursing homes or were free living in three different regions in Italy. Nutritional status, depression, social, functional and cognitive status, were evaluated. According to the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), a high prevalence of malnutrition was found out in both genders: 26% of F and 16.3% of M were classified as being malnourished (MNAshop, prepare and cook meals because of a low income, distance from markets or supermarkets as well as impossibility to drive the car or to use public transportation. This study confirms the necessity to routinely perform nutritional status evaluation in elderly subjects, to carry out training courses for health workers (doctors, nurses, psychologists, dietitians), to implement nutritional education of the geriatric population, to develop tools and guidelines for health workers and caregivers, to identify and reduce clinical, functional, social or economic risk factors for malnutrition.

  20. Self-Determination and Social Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Macioce

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this essay I will try to demonstrate that the principle of self‐determination is based on a formal and individualistic view of liberty rights. I also propose a different perspective that takes into account the relationships rather than the individual. I will show how this result can only be achieved through a different ascription of rights to individuals: in particular, I will try to demonstrate 1 that any social practices express specific values, 2 that these values are the result of historical and cultural circumstances, 3 that they are subject to an ongoing public debate, and finally 4 that only if the individual praxis is consistent with these values can it lead to recognition of rights.

  1. Determination of the relevant market as a criterion of assessment of concentration effects in the practice of antitrust authorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Kostecka-Jurczyk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Determining the relevant market is the first and the most important step in antimonopoly proceedings due to the fact that the market position of an enterprise is always determined from the relevant market perspective. In respect of mergers, establishing the relevant market is essential in analysing whether the aim of the concentration is to distort and limit competition on the market. The author of the article focuses on describing methods for determining the relevant market applied by antimonopoly authorities.

  2. Social Class and the Motivational Relevance of Other Human Beings: Evidence From Visual Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, Pia; Knowles, Eric D

    2016-11-01

    We theorize that people's social class affects their appraisals of others' motivational relevance-the degree to which others are seen as potentially rewarding, threatening, or otherwise worth attending to. Supporting this account, three studies indicate that social classes differ in the amount of attention their members direct toward other human beings. In Study 1, wearable technology was used to film the visual fields of pedestrians on city streets; higher-class participants looked less at other people than did lower-class participants. In Studies 2a and 2b, participants' eye movements were tracked while they viewed street scenes; higher class was associated with reduced attention to people in the images. In Study 3, a change-detection procedure assessed the degree to which human faces spontaneously attract visual attention; faces proved less effective at drawing the attention of high-class than low-class participants, which implies that class affects spontaneous relevance appraisals. The measurement and conceptualization of social class are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Facial emotion processing in pediatric social anxiety disorder: Relevance of situational context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Daniela; Schienle, Anne

    2017-08-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) typically begins in childhood. Previous research has demonstrated that adult patients respond with elevated late positivity (LP) to negative facial expressions. In the present study on pediatric SAD, we investigated responses to negative facial expressions and the role of social context information. Fifteen children with SAD and 15 non-anxious controls were first presented with images of negative facial expressions with masked backgrounds. Following this, the complete images which included context information, were shown. The negative expressions were either a result of an emotion-relevant (e.g., social exclusion) or emotion-irrelevant elicitor (e.g., weight lifting). Relative to controls, the clinical group showed elevated parietal LP during face processing with and without context information. Both groups differed in their frontal LP depending on the type of context. In SAD patients, frontal LP was lower in emotion-relevant than emotion-irrelevant contexts. We conclude that SAD patients direct more automatic attention towards negative facial expressions (parietal effect) and are less capable in integrating affective context information (frontal effect). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Social Costs of Electricity Generation—Categorising Different Types of Costs and Evaluating Their Respective Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Samadi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Various electricity generation technologies using different primary energy sources are available. Many published studies compare the costs of these technologies. However, most of those studies only consider plant-level costs and do not fully take into account additional costs that societies may face in using these technologies. This article reviews the literature on the costs of electricity generation technologies, aiming to determine which types of costs are relevant from a societal point of view when comparing generation technologies. The paper categorises the relevant types of costs, differentiating between plant-level, system and external costs as the main categories. It discusses the relevance of each type of cost for each generation technology. The findings suggest that several low-carbon electricity generation technologies exhibit lower social costs per kWh than the currently dominant technologies using fossil fuels. More generally, the findings emphasise the importance of taking not only plant-level costs, but also system and external costs, into account when comparing electricity generation technologies from a societal point of view. The article intends to inform both policymakers and energy system modellers, the latter who may strive to include all relevant types of costs in their models.

  5. Globalization, human rights, and the social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Audrey R

    2009-02-01

    Globalization, a process characterized by the growing interdependence of the world's people, impacts health systems and the social determinants of health in ways that are detrimental to health equity. In a world in which there are few countervailing normative and policy approaches to the dominant neoliberal regime underpinning globalization, the human rights paradigm constitutes a widely shared foundation for challenging globalization's effects. The substantive rights enumerated in human rights instruments include the right to the highest attainable level of physical and mental health and others that are relevant to the determinants of health. The rights stipulated in these documents impose extensive legal obligations on states that have ratified these documents and confer health entitlements on their residents. Human rights norms have also inspired civil society efforts to improve access to essential medicines and medical services, particularly for HIV/AIDS. Nevertheless, many factors reduce the potential counterweight human rights might exert, including and specifically the nature of the human rights approach, weak political commitments to promoting and protecting health rights on the part of some states and their lack of institutional and economic resources to do so. Global economic markets and the relative power of global economic institutions are also shrinking national policy space. This article reviews the potential contributions and limitations of human rights to achieving greater equity in shaping the social determinants of health.

  6. The Societal Impact of Extraterrestrial Life: The Relevance of History and the Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Steven J.

    This chapter reviews past studies on the societal impact of extraterrestrial life and offers four related ways in which history is relevant to the subject: the history of impact thus far, analogical reasoning, impact studies in other areas of science and technology, and studies on the nature of discovery and exploration. We focus particularly on the promise and peril of analogical arguments, since they are by necessity widespread in the field. This chapter also summarizes the relevance of the social sciences, particularly anthropology and sociology, and concludes by taking a closer look at the possible impact of the discovery of extraterrestrial life on theology and philosophy. In undertaking this study we emphasize three bedrock principles: (1) we cannot predict the future; (2) society is not monolithic, implying many impacts depending on religion, culture and worldview; (3) the impact of any discovery of extraterrestrial life is scenario-dependent.

  7. The Continued Relevance of Reception Analysis in the Age of Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathieu, David

    2015-01-01

    Far from being a remnant of the past, reception analysis must continue to set the question of meaning as a central issue in media studies, an issue that appears to be missing from current understandings of social media in which audiences are often reduced to a single reality or simply ignored...... as empirical reality. This paper argues for the continued relevance of reception analysis, inspite of the mismatch of the label, and develops this argument by applying one of its most fundamental insights, namely its investigation of the relationship between media and audience —or between text and context......—, to the study of social media audiences. In particular, the paper suggests three ways to look at the text-context relationship on Facebook with reference to its use during the “student crisis” in Quebec, Canada in 2012. It suggests three nexuses that represent as many sites of circulation of meaning in society...

  8. Residential Mobility and Turnout: The Relevance of Social Costs, Timing and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas Hedegaard

    2016-01-01

    Residential mobility has substantial negative effects on voter turnout. However, existing studies have been unable to disentangle whether this is due to social costs, informational costs or convenience costs that are related to re-registration. This article analyzes the relevance of the different...... moved from the old neighborhood and it does not matter if citizens change municipality. Thus, the disruption of social ties is the main explanation for the negative effect of moving on turnout. Furthermore, the timing of residential mobility is important as the effect on turnout declines quickly after...... settling down. This illustrates that large events in citizens’ everyday life close to Election Day can distract them from going to the polling station. Finally, residential mobility mostly affects the turnout of less educated citizens. Consequentially, residential mobility increases inequalities in voter...

  9. Social marketing: approach to cultural and contextual relevance in a community-based physical activity intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Colleen; Vega-López, Sonia; Ainsworth, Barbara; Nagle-Williams, Allison; Records, Kathie; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean

    2014-01-01

    We report the social marketing strategies used for the design, recruitment and retention of participants in a community-based physical activity (PA) intervention, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health). The study example used to illustrate the use of social marketing is a 48-week prescribed walking program, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health), which tests a social support intervention to explore the effectiveness of a culturally specific program using ‘bouts’ of PA to effect the changes in body fat, fat tissue inflammation and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary Hispanic women. Using the guidelines from the National Benchmark Criteria, we developed intervention, recruitment and retention strategies that reflect efforts to draw on community values, traditions and customs in intervention design, through partnership with community members. Most of the women enrolled in Madres para la Salud were born in Mexico, largely never or unemployed and resided among the highest crime neighborhoods with poor access to resources. We developed recruitment and retention strategies that characterized social marketing strategies that employed a culturally relevant, consumer driven and problem-specific design. Cost and benefit of program participation, consumer-derived motivation and segmentation strategies considered the development transition of the young Latinas as well as cultural and neighborhood barriers that impacted retention are described. PMID:23002252

  10. Social marketing: approach to cultural and contextual relevance in a community-based physical activity intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Colleen; Vega-López, Sonia; Ainsworth, Barbara; Nagle-Williams, Allison; Records, Kathie; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean

    2014-03-01

    We report the social marketing strategies used for the design, recruitment and retention of participants in a community-based physical activity (PA) intervention, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health). The study example used to illustrate the use of social marketing is a 48-week prescribed walking program, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health), which tests a social support intervention to explore the effectiveness of a culturally specific program using 'bouts' of PA to effect the changes in body fat, fat tissue inflammation and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary Hispanic women. Using the guidelines from the National Benchmark Criteria, we developed intervention, recruitment and retention strategies that reflect efforts to draw on community values, traditions and customs in intervention design, through partnership with community members. Most of the women enrolled in Madres para la Salud were born in Mexico, largely never or unemployed and resided among the highest crime neighborhoods with poor access to resources. We developed recruitment and retention strategies that characterized social marketing strategies that employed a culturally relevant, consumer driven and problem-specific design. Cost and benefit of program participation, consumer-derived motivation and segmentation strategies considered the development transition of the young Latinas as well as cultural and neighborhood barriers that impacted retention are described.

  11. Do Institutions or Culture Determine the Level of Social Trust?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nannestad, Peter; Svendsen, Gert Tinggard; Dinesen, Peter Thisted

    2014-01-01

    Do institutions or culture determine levels of social trust in society? If quality of institutions determines levels of social trust, migrants from countries with lower-quality institutions should enhance their level of social trust in countries with higher-quality institutions. If, on the other...... hand, the migrants' level of social trust is determined by their culture, it should not be affected by a different institutional setting. Furthermore, culturally diverse immigrant groups should have different levels of social trust in the same host country. Analysing migration from several non......-western countries to Denmark, this paper demonstrates that institutions rather than culture matter for social trust....

  12. Social determinants of mental disorders and the Sustainable Development Goals: a systematic review of reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Crick; Brooke-Sumner, Carrie; Baingana, Florence; Baron, Emily Claire; Breuer, Erica; Chandra, Prabha; Haushofer, Johannes; Herrman, Helen; Jordans, Mark; Kieling, Christian; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Morgan, Ellen; Omigbodun, Olayinka; Tol, Wietse; Patel, Vikram; Saxena, Shekhar

    2018-04-01

    Mental health has been included in the UN Sustainable Development Goals. However, uncertainty exists about the extent to which the major social determinants of mental disorders are addressed by these goals. The aim of this study was to develop a conceptual framework for the social determinants of mental disorders that is aligned with the Sustainable Development Goals, to use this framework to systematically review evidence regarding these social determinants, and to identify potential mechanisms and targets for interventions. We did a systematic review of reviews using a conceptual framework comprising demographic, economic, neighbourhood, environmental events, and social and culture domains. We included 289 articles in the final Review. This study sheds new light on how the Sustainable Development Goals are relevant for addressing the social determinants of mental disorders, and how these goals could be optimised to prevent mental disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Determinants of dermal exposure relevant for exposure modelling in regulatory risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquart, J; Brouwer, D H; Gijsbers, J H J; Links, I H M; Warren, N; van Hemmen, J J

    2003-11-01

    Risk assessment of chemicals requires assessment of the exposure levels of workers. In the absence of adequate specific measured data, models are often used to estimate exposure levels. For dermal exposure only a few models exist, which are not validated externally. In the scope of a large European research programme, an analysis of potential dermal exposure determinants was made based on the available studies and models and on the expert judgement of the authors of this publication. Only a few potential determinants appear to have been studied in depth. Several studies have included clusters of determinants into vaguely defined parameters, such as 'task' or 'cleaning and maintenance of clothing'. Other studies include several highly correlated parameters, such as 'amount of product handled', 'duration of task' and 'area treated', and separation of these parameters to study their individual influence is not possible. However, based on the available information, a number of determinants could clearly be defined as proven or highly plausible determinants of dermal exposure in one or more exposure situation. This information was combined with expert judgement on the scientific plausibility of the influence of parameters that have not been extensively studied and on the possibilities to gather relevant information during a risk assessment process. The result of this effort is a list of determinants relevant for dermal exposure models in the scope of regulatory risk assessment. The determinants have been divided into the major categories 'substance and product characteristics', 'task done by the worker', 'process technique and equipment', 'exposure control measures', 'worker characteristics and habits' and 'area and situation'. To account for the complex nature of the dermal exposure processes, a further subdivision was made into the three major processes 'direct contact', 'surface contact' and 'deposition'.

  14. Dog experts' brains distinguish socially relevant body postures similarly in dogs and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujala, Miiamaaria V; Kujala, Jan; Carlson, Synnöve; Hari, Riitta

    2012-01-01

    We read conspecifics' social cues effortlessly, but little is known about our abilities to understand social gestures of other species. To investigate the neural underpinnings of such skills, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the brain activity of experts and non-experts of dog behavior while they observed humans or dogs either interacting with, or facing away from a conspecific. The posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) of both subject groups dissociated humans facing toward each other from humans facing away, and in dog experts, a distinction also occurred for dogs facing toward vs. away in a bilateral area extending from the pSTS to the inferior temporo-occipital cortex: the dissociation of dog behavior was significantly stronger in expert than control group. Furthermore, the control group had stronger pSTS responses to humans than dogs facing toward a conspecific, whereas in dog experts, the responses were of similar magnitude. These findings suggest that dog experts' brains distinguish socially relevant body postures similarly in dogs and humans.

  15. Happiness and social determinants across age cohorts in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hui-Chuan; Chang, Wen-Chiung; Chong, Young-Sook; An, Jeong Shin

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine happiness and social determinants across age cohorts in Taiwan. The data were obtained from the 2011 Taiwan Social Change Survey (aged 18 +, n = 2,199). The social determinants of happiness included socioeconomic status and social connection. Happiness was not different across the age groups. Receiving less family support, less formal support, more social trust and more control over life were significant for the younger group. Being married and having more social participation were significant for the middle-aged. Receiving less family support and having a higher economic status were significant for the older group. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Aberrant neural networks for the recognition memory of socially relevant information in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jooyoung; Chun, Ji-Won; Kim, Eunseong; Park, Hae-Jeong; Lee, Boreom; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia exhibit several cognitive deficits, including memory impairment. Problems with recognition memory can hinder socially adaptive behavior. Previous investigations have suggested that altered activation of the frontotemporal area plays an important role in recognition memory impairment. However, the cerebral networks related to these deficits are not known. The aim of this study was to elucidate the brain networks required for recognizing socially relevant information in patients with schizophrenia performing an old-new recognition task. Sixteen patients with schizophrenia and 16 controls participated in this study. First, the subjects performed the theme-identification task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. In this task, pictures depicting social situations were presented with three words, and the subjects were asked to select the best theme word for each picture. The subjects then performed an old-new recognition task in which they were asked to discriminate whether the presented words were old or new. Task performance and neural responses in the old-new recognition task were compared between the subject groups. An independent component analysis of the functional connectivity was performed. The patients with schizophrenia exhibited decreased discriminability and increased activation of the right superior temporal gyrus compared with the controls during correct responses. Furthermore, aberrant network activities were found in the frontopolar and language comprehension networks in the patients. The functional connectivity analysis showed aberrant connectivity in the frontopolar and language comprehension networks in the patients with schizophrenia, and these aberrations possibly contribute to their low recognition performance and social dysfunction. These results suggest that the frontopolar and language comprehension networks are potential therapeutic targets in patients with schizophrenia.

  17. Social determinants of dietary habits in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Margit Velsing; Fagt, Sisse; Brøndsted, L.

    2001-01-01

    significantly associated with the intake of fruit and vegetables. Conclusions: Education seems to be the most important social variable to explain social differences in dietary habits. Additional variables are needed to explain dietary habits of women. Differences are seen for both foods and nutrients....... Sponsorship: The data analysis was financially supported by the Health Insurance Fund. Descriptors: socioeconomic status; education; dietary habits; diet surveys, E%; fat, fruit and vegetables....

  18. Determinants of Judgments of Explanatory Power: Credibility, Generality, and Statistical Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Matteo; Bucher, Leandra; Sprenger, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Explanation is a central concept in human psychology. Drawing upon philosophical theories of explanation, psychologists have recently begun to examine the relationship between explanation, probability and causality. Our study advances this growing literature at the intersection of psychology and philosophy of science by systematically investigating how judgments of explanatory power are affected by (i) the prior credibility of an explanatory hypothesis, (ii) the causal framing of the hypothesis, (iii) the perceived generalizability of the explanation, and (iv) the relation of statistical relevance between hypothesis and evidence. Collectively, the results of our five experiments support the hypothesis that the prior credibility of a causal explanation plays a central role in explanatory reasoning: first, because of the presence of strong main effects on judgments of explanatory power, and second, because of the gate-keeping role it has for other factors. Highly credible explanations are not susceptible to causal framing effects, but they are sensitive to the effects of normatively relevant factors: the generalizability of an explanation, and its statistical relevance for the evidence. These results advance current literature in the philosophy and psychology of explanation in three ways. First, they yield a more nuanced understanding of the determinants of judgments of explanatory power, and the interaction between these factors. Second, they show the close relationship between prior beliefs and explanatory power. Third, they elucidate the nature of abductive reasoning. PMID:28928679

  19. Solidarity with Animals: Assessing a Relevant Dimension of Social Identification with Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiot, Catherine E; Bastian, Brock

    2017-01-01

    Interactions with animals are pervasive in human life, a fact that is reflected in the burgeoning field of human-animal relations research. The goal of the current research was to examine the psychology of our social connection with other animals, by specifically developing a measure of solidarity with animals. In 8 studies using correlational, experimental, and longitudinal designs, solidarity with animals predicted more positive attitudes and behaviors toward animals, over and above existing scales of identification, and even when this implied a loss of resources and privileges for humans relative to animals. Solidarity with animals also displayed predicted relationships with relevant variables (anthropomorphism, empathy). Pet owners and vegetarians displayed higher levels of solidarity with animals. Correlational and experimental evidence confirmed that human-animal similarity heightens solidarity with animals. Our findings provide a useful measure that can facilitate important insights into the nature of our relationships with animals.

  20. Determinants of The Islamic Social Reporting Disclosure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uun Sunarsih

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of corporate responsibility was a warm up for discussion. This study aimed to analyze the influence of company issuing sukuk, size, and profitability on the disclosure of Islamic Social Reporting. This study uses secondary data obtained through the site www.bapepam.go.id and www.idx.co.id by using purposive sampling. The results showed that only size that affect the disclosure of ISR, so the larger the total assets of the greater disclosure of Islamic Social Reporting. Sukuk issuance has no effect because the ownership structure of companies in Asia, including Indonesia tends to family ownership concentration. Profitability has no effect because the company has a perspective that is different to the Islamic Social Reporting.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v9i1.3771

  1. Computations Underlying Social Hierarchy Learning: Distinct Neural Mechanisms for Updating and Representing Self-Relevant Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, Dharshan; Banino, Andrea; Blundell, Charles; Hassabis, Demis; Dayan, Peter

    2016-12-07

    Knowledge about social hierarchies organizes human behavior, yet we understand little about the underlying computations. Here we show that a Bayesian inference scheme, which tracks the power of individuals, better captures behavioral and neural data compared with a reinforcement learning model inspired by rating systems used in games such as chess. We provide evidence that the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) selectively mediates the updating of knowledge about one's own hierarchy, as opposed to that of another individual, a process that underpinned successful performance and involved functional interactions with the amygdala and hippocampus. In contrast, we observed domain-general coding of rank in the amygdala and hippocampus, even when the task did not require it. Our findings reveal the computations underlying a core aspect of social cognition and provide new evidence that self-relevant information may indeed be afforded a unique representational status in the brain. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Social modulation of cognition: Lessons from rhesus macaques relevant to education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfardini, Elisabetta; Reynaud, Amélie J; Prado, Jérôme; Meunier, Martine

    2017-11-01

    Any animal, human or non-human, lives in a world where there are others like itself. Individuals' behaviors are thus inevitably influenced by others, and cognition is no exception. Long acknowledged in psychology, social modulations of cognition have been neglected in cognitive neuroscience. Yet, infusing this classic topic in psychology with brain science methodologies could yield valuable educational insights. In recent studies, we used a non-human primate model, the rhesus macaque, to identify social influences representing ancient biases rooted in evolution, and neuroimaging to shed light on underlying mechanisms. The behavioral and neural data garnered in humans and macaques are summarized, with a focus on two findings relevant to human education. First, peers' mistakes stand out as exceptional professors and seem to have devoted areas and neurons in the primates' brain. Second, peers' mere presence suffices to enhance performance in well-learned tasks, possibly by boosting activity in the brain network involved in the task at hand. These findings could be translated into concrete pedagogical interventions in the classroom. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Societal determinants of corporate social disclosures : an international comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orij, René Pieter

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether corporate social disclosure levels are determined by society. A social accounting methodology is applied, consisting of a hypothetico-deductive approach. Social accounting research is a critical or interpretative branch of financial accounting

  4. Social determinants or social determination of health? Two paradigms in conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Támez González

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the recent Ebola epidemic, declared by the World Health Organization as “a Public Health Emergency of international concern”. From the unicausal explanation and biologicist point of view of the health-disease, epidemic would be explained by characteristics that determine the high pathogenicity of the virus; however, before this statement arises the question: why the epidemic originates in the poorest and/or most unequal and inequitable countries in Africa? For this reason, the main features of the theory of social determination of the health-disease process are shown, afterwards the last outbreak of Ebola is analysed and its appearance is explained as caused by the capitalist and neoliberal model that by means of private enterprise and its invasion of the territory of the poorest countries in the African continent, has displaced the native population to ecosystem uninhabited by humans where the transmitter vector has lived for years. A reection on the unfavourable conditions of the African population is performed (sanitary systems dismantled by structural reforms that do not allow priority assistance to those infected. It is concluded that both the current outbreak as previous ones, have as fundamental cause, the uncontrolled exploitation of natural resources of the region, which thoroughly accelerates poverty levels, the asymmetric distribution of property and power, giving rise to the occurrence of forms of oppression that deepen social inequality.

  5. Exploring the Social and Environmental Determinants of Child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploring the Social and Environmental Determinants of Child Health in Ilorin, Nigeria. ... A multiple regression analysis was used to determine the relative ... priority over and above the macro- scale solutions that may fall short of local realities.

  6. Measuring social risk and determining its acceptability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lathrop, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    The implementation of a nuclear waste management technology raises several issues concerning the regulation of social risk. This paper presents a decision analytic approach to resolving some of those issues. A methodology for developing a radiological risk measure is presented, and several approaches to defining acceptable levels of that risk measure are considered. The methodology presented is oriented toward the development of radiological performance objectives for use as guidance in the drafting of regulations

  7. Determinant of the Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure

    OpenAIRE

    Sunarsih, Uun; Nurhikmah, N

    2017-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has a very important role for the company and now become an obligation for every company. The purpose of this study examined the effect of institutional ownership, board of commissioners, profitability and size on CSR disclosure. This research conducted at mining manufacturing companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange period 2013-2014 and obtained 76 sample companies. The method used is multiple regression analysis. The result showed only institutional...

  8. Experimental Evidence that Social Relationships Determine Individual Foraging Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Josh A; Voelkl, Bernhard; Farine, Damien R; Sheldon, Ben C

    2015-12-07

    Social relationships are fundamental to animals living in complex societies. The extent to which individuals base their decisions around their key social relationships, and the consequences this has on their behavior and broader population level processes, remains unknown. Using a novel experiment that controlled where individual wild birds (great tits, Parus major) could access food, we restricted mated pairs from being allowed to forage at the same locations. This introduced a conflict for pair members between maintaining social relationships and accessing resources. We show that individuals reduce their own access to food in order to sustain their relationships and that individual foraging activity was strongly influenced by their key social counterparts. By affecting where individuals go, social relationships determined which conspecifics they encountered and consequently shaped their other social associations. Hence, while resource distribution can determine individuals' spatial and social environment, we illustrate how key social relationships themselves can govern broader social structure. Finally, social relationships also influenced the development of social foraging strategies. In response to forgoing access to resources, maintaining pair bonds led individuals to develop a flexible "scrounging" strategy, particularly by scrounging from their pair mate. This suggests that behavioral plasticity can develop to ameliorate conflicts between social relationships and other demands. Together, these results illustrate the importance of considering social relationships for explaining behavioral variation due to their significant impact on individual behavior and demonstrate the consequences of key relationships for wider processes. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Application of Multilayer Perceptron with Automatic Relevance Determination on Weed Mapping Using UAV Multispectral Imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamouridou, Afroditi A; Alexandridis, Thomas K; Pantazi, Xanthoula E; Lagopodi, Anastasia L; Kashefi, Javid; Kasampalis, Dimitris; Kontouris, Georgios; Moshou, Dimitrios

    2017-10-11

    Remote sensing techniques are routinely used in plant species discrimination and of weed mapping. In the presented work, successful Silybum marianum detection and mapping using multilayer neural networks is demonstrated. A multispectral camera (green-red-near infrared) attached on a fixed wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was utilized for the acquisition of high-resolution images (0.1 m resolution). The Multilayer Perceptron with Automatic Relevance Determination (MLP-ARD) was used to identify the S. marianum among other vegetation, mostly Avena sterilis L. The three spectral bands of Red, Green, Near Infrared (NIR) and the texture layer resulting from local variance were used as input. The S. marianum identification rates using MLP-ARD reached an accuracy of 99.54%. Τhe study had an one year duration, meaning that the results are specific, although the accuracy shows the interesting potential of S. marianum mapping with MLP-ARD on multispectral UAV imagery.

  10. Relevance of genetically determined host factors to the prognosis of meningococcal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, P; Muñiz-Diaz, E; Baraldès, M A; Arilla, M; Barquet, N; Pericas, R; Juárez, C; Madoz, P; Vázquez, G

    2004-08-01

    To assess the relevance of genetically determined host factors for the prognosis of meningococcal disease, Fc gamma receptor IIA (FcgammaRIIA), the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) gene promoter region, and plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene polymorphisms were studied in 145 patients with meningococcal disease and in 290 healthy controls matched by sex. Distribution of FcgammaRIIA, TNF-alpha, and PAI-1 alleles was not significantly different between patients and controls. Patients with the FcgammaRIIA-R/R 131 allotype scored > or =1 point in the Barcelona prognostic system more frequently than patients with other allotypes (odds ratio, 18.6; 95% confidence interval, 7.1-49.0, PFc gamma receptor IIA polymorphism was associated with markers of disease severity, but TNF-alpha and PAI-1 polymorphisms were not.

  11. How pharmacist-patient communication determines pharmacy loyalty? Modeling relevant factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrícia Antunes, Liliana; Gomes, João José; Cavaco, Afonso Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Portuguese community pharmacies provide pharmaceutical services, such as therapeutic outcomes follow-up, supplemented by relevant point-of-care testing that require continuity of provision to be effective. To identify factors of technical and communication nature that during a patient interview contribute to patients' loyalty. A cross-sectional descriptive study, with a purposive sample of community pharmacies providing pharmaceutical care, was conducted. Patient interviews were taped and transcribed verbatim. Duration, segments and utterances were identified and time stamped, using a previously validated coding scheme. To identify predictors of loyalty, logistic regression analyses were performed. From 59 interviews, participants' average age was 65.7 years and 42 (71.2%) were female; 45 (76.3%) interviews were classified as outcomes measurements and 14 (23.7%) as pharmaceutical consultations, with 33.2% of the patients booking a following appointment. The significant items to explain loyalty were associated with lifestyle and psychosocial exchange, age of the patient, and the presence of all interview segments (i.e. a complete consultation). Contrary to common professional beliefs and practice orientation it would appear that pharmacists' technical skills are not the essential factors that promote patients' loyalty needed for continuity of care, at least in the same extent as the social and lifestyle-related content of the exchange. Pharmaceutical care education should focus on relational skills as much as on medication-related competencies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Social manipulation in nonhuman primates: Cognitive and motivational determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völter, C J; Rossano, F; Call, J

    2017-11-01

    Social interactions are the result of individuals' cooperative and competitive tendencies expressed over an extended period of time. Although social manipulation, i.e., using another individual to achieve one's own goals, is a crucial aspect of social interactions, there has been no comprehensive attempt to differentiate its various types and to map its cognitive and motivational determinants. For this purpose, we survey in this article the experimental literature on social interactions in nonhuman primates. We take social manipulation, illustrated by a case study with orangutans (Pongo abelii), as our starting point and move in two directions. First, we will focus on a flexibility/sociality axis that includes technical problem solving, social tool-use and communication. Second, we will focus on a motivational/prosociality axis that includes exploitation, cooperation, and helping. Combined, the two axes offer a way to capture a broad range of social interactions performed by human and nonhuman primates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Spaceflight-relevant stem education and outreach: Social goals and priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Barrett S.

    2015-07-01

    This paper is based on a presentation and conference proceedings paper given at the 65th International Astronautical Congress. The paper addresses concerns in education and public outreach (EPO) in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). The author serves as a Director of a US statewide NASA-funded Space Grant Consortium, with responsibilities to coordinate funding for undergraduate scholarships, graduate fellowships, and program awards. Space Grant is a national NASA network of STEM EPO programs including over 1000 higher education, outreach center, science museum, local government, and corporate partners. As a Space Grant Director, the author interacts with a variety of levels of STEM literacy and sophistication among members of the public. A number of interactions highlight the need for STEM EPO leaders to speak directly to a variety of social goals and priorities. Spaceflight is largely seen as an appealing and potentially desirable STEM application. However, members of the public are often unclear and ill-informed regarding relative expense, relative benefit, and relative breadth of domains of expertise that are relevant to the spaceflight enterprise. In response (and resulting in further disconnects between STEM specialists and the public), focused STEM professionals frequently over-emphasize their own technical specialty and its priority in general because of its importance to that professional. These potential divides in the attempt to share and connect STEM related goals and priorities are discussed as an elaboration of invitations to discuss spacefaring in "futures forum" contexts. Spaceflight can be seen as addressing a combination of "actualization" and "aspirational" goals at social and societal levels. Maslow's hierarchy of needs distinguishes between "basic needs" and "actualization" as a higher-order need. Another aspect of spaceflight is aspirational-it speaks to hopes and desires for levels of flexibility and capability at the

  14. Social Fitness and Resilience: A Review of Relevant Constructs, Measures, and Links to Well-Being

    OpenAIRE

    McGene, Juliana

    2014-01-01

    Examines social fitness, the combination of resources from social connections that influence how individuals respond to stressful circumstances, to identify methods of increasing social connectedness and support among U.S. Airmen and their families.

  15. Determinant of The Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uun Sunarsih

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR has a very important role for the company and now become an obligation for every company. The purpose of this study examined the effect of institutional ownership, board of commissioners, profitability and size on CSR disclosure. This research conducted at mining manufacturing companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange period 2013-2014 and obtained 76 sample companies. The method used is multiple regression analysis. The result showed only institutional ownership affecting CSR disclosure. This suggests institutional ownership structure can act in monitoring the company. Independent board has not effected on CSR, it failed to monitor the actions of top management. Profitability has not effected on the disclosure of CSR, it enabled the company to have two perspectives on CSR. The most companies view CSR as a deduction from earnings. CSR disclosure has not affect the size of the CSR disclosure area.DOI: 10.15408/etk.v16i2.5236

  16. Is personality profile a relevant determinant of fatigue in multiple sclerosis ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert eSchreiber

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The origin and pathophysiological background of MS-associated fatigue is poorly understood. There is no unifying concept of its nature and its determinants to date. This paper reviews possible influences of factors determining personality profile on mental fatigue in MS. Likewise, the role of psychological factors and their interaction with personality to promote fatigue is discussed. Current data suggests that fatigue, especially in early MS states, may be influenced by vulnerable personality traits and personality-associated features. Among them are depressive disease coping, avoidance behavior and inhibition, irritability, less extraversion, neuroticism, disturbed reward responsiveness and somatization behavior. However, among the validated personality factors no genuine influences that are independent of depression have been documented. From a psychological perspective, depressiveness, anxiety and perhaps somatization may be relevant mediators of fatigue. Interesting to note that in early MS a psychiatric diagnosis is significantly more likely than on a later stage of the disease and that fatigue and motivation might share neural circuits. It is hypothesized that psychological factors promote fatigue in MS by psychological distress and sustained neuro-endocrine and neurovegetative stress response. Despite there are limitations of data as discussed in the paper, personality research might help to disentangle specific promoting factors of fatigue in MS. Further research efforts are warranted since they might open ways to early psychological intervention of MS-associated fatigue. This is all the more important since medication is insufficient until now.

  17. Place-based social contact and mixing: a typology of generic meeting places of relevance for infectious disease transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strömgren, M; Holm, E; Dahlström, Ö; Ekberg, J; Eriksson, H; Spreco, A; Timpka, T

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to develop a typology of generic meeting places based on social contact and mixing of relevance for infectious disease transmission. Data were collected by means of a contact diary survey conducted on a representative sample of the Swedish population. The typology is derived from a cluster analysis accounting for four dimensions associated with transmission risk: visit propensity and its characteristics in terms of duration, number of other persons present and likelihood of physical contact. In the analysis, we also study demographic, socio-economic and geographical differences in the propensity of visiting meeting places. The typology identifies the family venue, the fixed activity site, the family vehicle, the trading plaza and the social network hub as generic meeting places. The meeting place typology represents a spatially explicit account of social contact and mixing relevant to infectious disease modelling, where the social context of the outbreak can be highlighted in light of the actual infectious disease.

  18. Climate system properties determining the social cost of carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, Alexander; Allen, Myles R; Todd, Benjamin J; Bowerman, Niel; Frame, David J

    2013-01-01

    The choice of an appropriate scientific target to guide global mitigation efforts is complicated by uncertainties in the temperature response to greenhouse gas emissions. Much climate policy discourse has been based on the equilibrium global mean temperature increase following a concentration stabilization scenario. This is determined by the equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) which, in many studies, shows persistent, fat-tailed uncertainty. However, for many purposes, the equilibrium response is less relevant than the transient response. Here, we show that one prominent policy variable, the social cost of carbon (SCC), is generally better constrained by the transient climate response (TCR) than by the ECS. Simple analytic expressions show the SCC to be directly proportional to the TCR under idealized assumptions when the rate at which we discount future damage equals 2.8%. Using ensemble simulations of a simple climate model we find that knowing the true value of the TCR can reduce the relative uncertainty in the SCC substantially more, up to a factor of 3, than knowing the ECS under typical discounting assumptions. We conclude that the TCR, which is better constrained by observations, less subject to fat-tailed uncertainty and more directly related to the SCC, is generally preferable to the ECS as a single proxy for the climate response in SCC calculations. (letter)

  19. Climate system properties determining the social cost of carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Alexander; Todd, Benjamin J.; Bowerman, Niel; Frame, David J.; Allen, Myles R.

    2013-06-01

    The choice of an appropriate scientific target to guide global mitigation efforts is complicated by uncertainties in the temperature response to greenhouse gas emissions. Much climate policy discourse has been based on the equilibrium global mean temperature increase following a concentration stabilization scenario. This is determined by the equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) which, in many studies, shows persistent, fat-tailed uncertainty. However, for many purposes, the equilibrium response is less relevant than the transient response. Here, we show that one prominent policy variable, the social cost of carbon (SCC), is generally better constrained by the transient climate response (TCR) than by the ECS. Simple analytic expressions show the SCC to be directly proportional to the TCR under idealized assumptions when the rate at which we discount future damage equals 2.8%. Using ensemble simulations of a simple climate model we find that knowing the true value of the TCR can reduce the relative uncertainty in the SCC substantially more, up to a factor of 3, than knowing the ECS under typical discounting assumptions. We conclude that the TCR, which is better constrained by observations, less subject to fat-tailed uncertainty and more directly related to the SCC, is generally preferable to the ECS as a single proxy for the climate response in SCC calculations.

  20. The relevance of the social networking media in Ebola virus disease prevention and control in Southwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebimpe, Wasiu Olalekan; Adeyemi, Damilare Hakeem; Faremi, Ayodeji; Ojo, John Olujide; Efuntoye, Adeola Ebun

    2015-01-01

    The Social Media (SM) is fast becoming a huge avenue to create and spread health awareness amongst youths. Meanwhile news surrounding the on-going Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa are frightening. This study assessed the relevance of the social networking media in spreading awareness about EVD prevention and control in Southwestern Nigeria. Descriptive cross sectional study among 400 youths selected using multistage sampling method. Research instruments used were semi structured self administered questionnaires that were analyzed using the SPSS software version 17.0. Three hundred and eighty (95.0%) of respondents were members of a social network. Several misconceptions trailed the spread of information about EVD. Though only 21(7.3%) bothered to ascertain the reliability of such information before use, 332 (83.0%) believed that SM can also be used to dispel rumours on health information, 337(84.3%) said they would like the use of SM regulated, while 206 (51.6%) still believed that SM is effective in disseminating health information among youths. Only 79.4% had good knowledge of EVD, and 30.7% of respondents had misinformation about EVD. Determinants of good level of knowledge about EVD through SM contacts include being a male, having SM as the first source of information on EVD and believing that SM could assist to disseminate and improve health information. Misconceptions spread through the SM fuelled the ongoing EVD outbreak in West Africa. There is a need for the concerned authority to create awareness through SM contacts as well as regulate its use.

  1. Mice genetically depleted of brain serotonin display social impairments, communication deficits and repetitive behaviors: possible relevance to autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Kane

    Full Text Available Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired reciprocal social interaction, communication deficits and repetitive behaviors. A very large number of genes have been linked to autism, many of which encode proteins involved in the development and function of synaptic circuitry. However, the manner in which these mutated genes might participate, either individually or together, to cause autism is not understood. One factor known to exert extremely broad influence on brain development and network formation, and which has been linked to autism, is the neurotransmitter serotonin. Unfortunately, very little is known about how alterations in serotonin neuronal function might contribute to autism. To test the hypothesis that serotonin dysfunction can contribute to the core symptoms of autism, we analyzed mice lacking brain serotonin (via a null mutation in the gene for tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2 for behaviors that are relevant to this disorder. Mice lacking brain serotonin (TPH2-/- showed substantial deficits in numerous validated tests of social interaction and communication. These mice also display highly repetitive and compulsive behaviors. Newborn TPH2-/- mutant mice show delays in the expression of key developmental milestones and their diminished preference for maternal scents over the scent of an unrelated female is a forerunner of more severe socialization deficits that emerge in weanlings and persist into adulthood. Taken together, these results indicate that a hypo-serotonin condition can lead to behavioral traits that are highly characteristic of autism. Our findings should stimulate new studies that focus on determining how brain hyposerotonemia during critical neurodevelopmental periods can alter the maturation of synaptic circuits known to be mis-wired in autism and how prevention of such deficits might prevent this disorder.

  2. DETERMINATION OF POTENTIAL CRIMINALS IN SOCIAL NETWORK

    OpenAIRE

    Ceyhan, Eyüp Burak; Sağıroğlu, Şeref; Cesur, Ramazan; Kermen, Ayten

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new approach to determine potential criminals by performing content analysis on Tweets. The analysis is done with the help of machine learning technologies and big data analysis. In this study, we have utilized from the MLP algorithm. A dataset consisting of 384 words are used to make the classification process. Dataset consist of two classes that are organized crime and cyber-crimes. In the analysis process, date, time, location values of sent twitter sharings are also ...

  3. Clinically Relevant Pharmacological Strategies That Reverse MDMA-Induced Brain Hyperthermia Potentiated by Social Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyatkin, Eugene A; Ren, Suelynn; Wakabayashi, Ken T; Baumann, Michael H; Shaham, Yavin

    2016-01-01

    MDMA-induced hyperthermia is highly variable, unpredictable, and greatly potentiated by the social and environmental conditions of recreational drug use. Current strategies to treat pathological MDMA-induced hyperthermia in humans are palliative and marginally effective, and there are no specific pharmacological treatments to counteract this potentially life-threatening condition. Here, we tested the efficacy of mixed adrenoceptor blockers carvedilol and labetalol, and the atypical antipsychotic clozapine, in reversing MDMA-induced brain and body hyperthermia. We injected rats with a moderate non-toxic dose of MDMA (9 mg/kg) during social interaction, and we administered potential treatment drugs after the development of robust hyperthermia (>2.5 °C), thus mimicking the clinical situation of acute MDMA intoxication. Brain temperature was our primary focus, but we also simultaneously recorded temperatures from the deep temporal muscle and skin, allowing us to determine the basic physiological mechanisms of the treatment drug action. Carvedilol was modestly effective in attenuating MDMA-induced hyperthermia by moderately inhibiting skin vasoconstriction, and labetalol was ineffective. In contrast, clozapine induced a marked and immediate reversal of MDMA-induced hyperthermia via inhibition of brain metabolic activation and blockade of skin vasoconstriction. Our findings suggest that clozapine, and related centrally acting drugs, might be highly effective for reversing MDMA-induced brain and body hyperthermia in emergency clinical situations, with possible life-saving results.

  4. What determines the fruit and vegetables intake of primary school children? - An analysis of personal and social determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haß, Julia; Hartmann, Monika

    2018-01-01

    The high prevalence of childhood obesity is a major concern in developed and developing countries. An increase in fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake is perceived as one of the numerous strategies to prevent and reduce the risk of adiposity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relevance of personal and social determinants in explaining children's F&V intake. Written questionnaire data were collected from 702 parent-child pairs that included 3rd and 4th graders (aged 7 to 10) and their parents. Children's F&V intake was recorded over three food records. Hierarchical linear regression models were applied to assess the impact of personal and social determinants on children's F&V intake. Regression models focusing on personal and social determinants revealed that the most promising personal determinants pertained to the knowledge of different types of F&V and preferences for F&V. Moreover, an exclusive focus on social determinants indicated that parental modeling and peer influence had significant and positive relationships with children's F&V intake, whereas verbal directives to eat F&V exhibited a significant and negative relationship. In combination, the following four personal and social determinants were demonstrated to be significant: knowledge of different types of F&V, preferences for F&V and parental modeling, all of which had positive relationships, and verbal directives to eat F&V, which had a negative impact. The results identify important associative determinants of children's F&V intake. These are in part personal and in part social and are shown by our analysis to be of equal and perhaps mutual importance. Therefore, we suggest that interventions aimed at improving children's F&V intake should address children's preferences for F&V, impart knowledge concerning the variety of F&V and encourage parents to act as role models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Social determinants of immunization services uptake in developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-six articles were reviewed. Results: seventeen Key Determinants were identified with frequencies in brackets: caregivers' social status (25); caregivers' knowledge on immunization (22); access to immunization services and information (20); health workers' knowledge attitude and practice (12); social influence and ...

  6. Determining the Effect (the Social Costs) of Exclusion under the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determining the Effect (the Social Costs) of Exclusion under the South African Exclusionary Rule: Should Factual Guilt Tilt the Scales in Favour of the Admission of Unconstitutionally Obtained Evidence?

  7. Determinants of social inequalities in child mortality in Mozambique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nancy Kamau

    Determinants of social inequalities in child mortality in Mozambique: What do we know? What could ... Health inequalities are no longer an issue only for developed countries. In recent years there is ... This review of evidence suggests that if ...

  8. Social determinants approaches to public health: from concept to practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blas, Erik; Sommerfeld, Johannes; Sivasankara Kurup, A

    2011-01-01

    The thirteen case studies presented in this publication describe experiences with implementing public health programs that intend to address social determinants and to have a great impact on health equity...

  9. A Hybrid Approach to Finding Relevant Social Media Content for Complex Domain Specific Information Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Delroy; Sheth, Amit P; Jaykumar, Nishita; Thirunarayan, Krishnaprasad; Anand, Gaurish; Smith, Gary A

    2014-12-01

    While contemporary semantic search systems offer to improve classical keyword-based search, they are not always adequate for complex domain specific information needs. The domain of prescription drug abuse, for example, requires knowledge of both ontological concepts and "intelligible constructs" not typically modeled in ontologies. These intelligible constructs convey essential information that include notions of intensity, frequency, interval, dosage and sentiments, which could be important to the holistic needs of the information seeker. In this paper, we present a hybrid approach to domain specific information retrieval that integrates ontology-driven query interpretation with synonym-based query expansion and domain specific rules, to facilitate search in social media on prescription drug abuse. Our framework is based on a context-free grammar (CFG) that defines the query language of constructs interpretable by the search system. The grammar provides two levels of semantic interpretation: 1) a top-level CFG that facilitates retrieval of diverse textual patterns, which belong to broad templates and 2) a low-level CFG that enables interpretation of specific expressions belonging to such textual patterns. These low-level expressions occur as concepts from four different categories of data: 1) ontological concepts, 2) concepts in lexicons (such as emotions and sentiments), 3) concepts in lexicons with only partial ontology representation, called lexico-ontology concepts (such as side effects and routes of administration (ROA)), and 4) domain specific expressions (such as date, time, interval, frequency and dosage) derived solely through rules. Our approach is embodied in a novel Semantic Web platform called PREDOSE, which provides search support for complex domain specific information needs in prescription drug abuse epidemiology. When applied to a corpus of over 1 million drug abuse-related web forum posts, our search framework proved effective in retrieving

  10. Moving electronic medical records upstream: incorporating social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Laura M; Tirozzi, Karen J; Manchanda, Rishi; Burns, Abby R; Sandel, Megan T

    2015-02-01

    Knowledge of the biological pathways and mechanisms connecting social factors with health has increased exponentially over the past 25 years, yet in most clinical settings, screening and intervention around social determinants of health are not part of standard clinical care. Electronic medical records provide new opportunities for assessing and managing social needs in clinical settings, particularly those serving vulnerable populations. To illustrate the feasibility of capturing information and promoting interventions related to social determinants of health in electronic medical records. Three case studies were examined in which electronic medical records have been used to collect data and address social determinants of health in clinical settings. From these case studies, we identified multiple functions that electronic medical records can perform to facilitate the integration of social determinants of health into clinical systems, including screening, triaging, referring, tracking, and data sharing. If barriers related to incentives, training, and privacy can be overcome, electronic medical record systems can improve the integration of social determinants of health into healthcare delivery systems. More evidence is needed to evaluate the impact of such integration on health care outcomes before widespread adoption can be recommended. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Determining criminal responsibility: How relevant are insight and personal attitudes to mock jurors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    High levels of insight are interpreted as indications of a treatment compliance and good outcome by clinical professionals. However, it is unclear whether a defendant's insight plays a role in the decision-making of jurors when determining criminal responsibility. It may be the case that personal biases and attitudes toward the mentally ill and the insanity defense are more relevant in such decisions. This study examines the influence of two core dimensions of insight and personal attitudes on juror decision-making. Participants read trial scenarios describing a defendant who is accused of a violent crime and is diagnosed with schizophrenia. Assigning a verdict of not criminally responsible to the defendant was not influenced by insight, but instead, by supportive attitudes of the insanity defense and higher attributions of blame to external factors and to psychological factors. These findings highlight the need for continued investigation in the area of extra-legal factors that guide legal decision-making when defendants have a mental disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of Intracellular Vitrification Temperatures for Unicellular Micro Organisms under Conditions Relevant for Cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Fernanda; Meneghel, Julie; Cenard, Stéphanie; Passot, Stéphanie; Morris, G John

    2016-01-01

    During cryopreservation ice nucleation and crystal growth may occur within cells or the intracellular compartment may vitrify. Whilst previous literature describes intracellular vitrification in a qualitative manner, here we measure the intracellular vitrification temperature of bacteria and yeasts under conditions relevant to cryopreservation, including the addition of high levels of permeating and nonpermeating additives and the application of rapid rates of cooling. The effects of growth conditions that are known to modify cellular freezing resistance on the intracellular vitrification temperature are also examined. For bacteria a plot of the activity on thawing against intracellular glass transition of the maximally freeze-concentrated matrix (Tg') shows that cells with the lowest value of intracellular Tg' survive the freezing process better than cells with a higher intracellular Tg'. This paper demonstrates the role of the physical state of the intracellular environment in determining the response of microbial cells to preservation and could be a powerful tool to be manipulated to allow the optimization of methods for the preservation of microorganisms.

  13. Social Studies Pedagogy for Latino/a Newcomer Youth: Toward a Theory of Culturally and Linguistically Relevant Citizenship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffee, Ashley Taylor

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how teachers in 4 urban newcomer high schools conceptualized and implemented social studies education for Latino/a newcomer youth through an emerging framework of culturally and linguistically relevant citizenship education. Through a multi-site, collective case study design, the perspectives and decision making of social…

  14. [Determination or determinants? A debate based on the Theory on the Social Production of Health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Patrícia Rodrigues da; David, Helena Maria Scherlowski Leal

    2015-02-01

    This article aims to discuss the concepts of Social Determination of Health and Social Determinants of Health, by establishing a comparison between each of their guiding perspectives and investigating their implications on the development of health policies and health actions. We propose a historical and conceptual reflection, highlighting the Theory on the Social Production of Health, followed by a debate on the concepts, with a comparative approach among them.

  15. Determination or determinants? A debate based on the Theory on the Social Production of Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Rodrigues da Rocha

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss the concepts of Social Determination of Health and Social Determinants of Health, by establishing a comparison between each of their guiding perspectives and investigating their implications on the development of health policies and health actions. We propose a historical and conceptual reflection, highlighting the Theory on the Social Production of Health, followed by a debate on the concepts, with a comparative approach among them.

  16. Social and Environmental Determinants of Risk and Uncertainties Reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Camelia Iuliana LUNGU; Chiraţa CARAIANI; Cornelia DASCĂLU; Gina Raluca GUŞE

    2009-01-01

    Recently, risk reporting has gained interest in financial reporting practice, regulation, and international research. Social and environmental reporting is seen to benefit shareholders more by reducing risk than by increasing return. The researchers showed that the annual report is the most favoured channel of disclosure, along with presentation to investors. The general message is that, as far as annual reports go, quantified, verifiable disclosures have the most credibility and relevance. O...

  17. Social Fitness and Resilience: A Review of Relevant Constructs, Measures, and Links to Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGene, Juliana

    2014-01-01

    This study is one of a series designed to support Air Force leadership in promoting resilience among Airmen, its civilian employees, and Air Force family members. One key component to resilience is social fitness, or the combined resources a person gets from his or her social world. This concept encompasses the availability and maintenance of social relationships, and the ability to utilize those ties to manage stressors and successfully perform tasks. Social fitness resources are the aspects of those relationships that strengthen a person's ability to withstand and rebound from challenges and even grow from them. U.S. Airmen and their families face several unique challenges that can strain the strength and accessibility of these resources, particularly geographic movement. This study identifies several scales and indexes used in social science research to measure three primary social fitness resources, emotional support, instrumental support, and informational support, and proposes that interventions aimed at increasing the quantity and quality of social support should focus on (1) sociodemographic characteristics and dispositional traits; (2) dynamics that strengthen social groups, support networks, and teams; (3) practices that improve social skills and promote more frequent and constructive interactions; and (4) activities that reduce conflict and group division. Particular attention is given to interventions that utilize cyber or virtual communities as an effective means of increasing social connectedness and social support among U.S. Airmen and their families.

  18. [An examination of the determinants of social withdrawal and affinity for social withdrawal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Asami; Matsui, Yutaka; Takatsuka, Yusuke

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the determinants of social withdrawal using data from a survey by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Office for Youth Affairs and Public Safety (2008). In addition, this study identified young people who showed an affinity for social withdrawal although they were not in a state of withdrawal, and examined the determinants of an affinity for social withdrawal. The results of stepwise discriminant analysis showed that factors such as social phobia, depression, violence, and emotional bonds with family differentiated between the general youth group and the social withdrawal group and the "affinity group". Social phobia, violence, and refusal to be interfered in self-decision making differentiated between the social withdrawal group and the "affinity group". This study shows that an "affinity group" should be cared as well as an actual withdrawal group.

  19. Social determinants of alcohol use among drivers in Calabar | Bello ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A semistructured questionnaire, which included the World Health Organization Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, was administered at interview. Binary and multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to identify social determinants of any and hazardous alcohol use. Results: Determinants of any alcohol use ...

  20. [Latin-American public policy regarding social determinants of health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramírez, Jorge A; Vélez-Álvarez, Consuelo

    2013-01-01

    The study was aimed at identifying Latin-American countries' public policy which has been related to the social determinants of health. A topic review was thus made of papers kept in the 22 Latin-American countries' databases and official documents issued by their multilateral organisations and ministries of health. The World Health Organization's concept of the social determinants of health has been summarised and a history given of the pertinent work developed worldwide in regions such as Europe and Latin-America. Public policy regarding the field of study in Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, México and Venezuela has been described. It was concluded that Latin-America provides a panorama of inequality regarding the application of policy concerning the social determinants of health and that there was segmented intervention, mainly regarding intermediate determinants of health, without taking an integrated approach from different entrance points into account, according to the stated conceptual framework.

  1. Contemporary social network sites: Relevance in anesthesiology teaching, training, and research

    OpenAIRE

    Rudrashish Haldar; Ashutosh Kaushal; Sukhen Samanta; Paurush Ambesh; Shashi Srivastava; Prabhat K Singh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The phenomenal popularity of social networking sites has been used globally by medical professionals to boost professional associations and scientific developments. They have tremendous potential to forge professional liaisons, generate employment,upgrading skills and publicizing scientific achievements. We highlight the role of social networking mediums in influencing teaching, training and research in anaesthesiology. Background: The growth of social networking sites have been pr...

  2. Aboriginal Australians' experience of social capital and its relevance to health and wellbeing in urban settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne-Yung, Kathryn; Ziersch, Anna; Baum, Fran; Gallaher, Gilbert

    2013-11-01

    Social capital has been linked to physical and mental health. While definitions of social capital vary, all include networks of social relationships and refer to the subsequent benefits and disadvantages accrued to members. Research on social capital for Aboriginal Australians has mainly focused on discrete rural and remote Aboriginal contexts with less known about the features and health and other benefits of social capital in urban settings. This paper presents findings from in-depth interviews with 153 Aboriginal people living in urban areas on their experiences of social capital. Of particular interest was how engagement in bonding and bridging networks influenced health and wellbeing. Employing Bourdieu's relational theory of capital where resources are unequally distributed and reproduced in society we found that patterns of social capital are strongly associated with economic, social and cultural position which in turn reflects the historical experiences of dispossession and disadvantage experienced by Aboriginal Australians. Social capital was also found to both reinforce and influence Aboriginal cultural identity, and had both positive and negative impacts on health and wellbeing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. ANALYSIS OF THE SOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF GENDER VIOLENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Caudillo-Ortega

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender violence is a public health, social and human right problem, which is present at the globally and is permeated in all social classes, all socioeconomic levels and ages. Although gender-based violence has serious consequences for the health of the victims, and may even lead to murder or suicide, it is still considered a problem of private spaces, however, policies must be generated to eradicate the problem. Gender violence has its roots in gender inequalities built over time by society and perpetuated by various structures of the same. It is necessary to analyze the social determinants that influence gender violence to identify the modifiable parts of this problem. Gender violence is described as public health and then each of the social determinants that influence the phenomenon of study and finally give some final considerations of the analysis.

  4. Corporate social responsibility determinants: the relation with CSR disclosure

    OpenAIRE

    A. Pistoni; L. Songini

    2013-01-01

    This chapter intends to contribute to the debate on the determinants of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and their impact on performance measurement and communication systems. It aims at analyzing the relationship between the reasons why firms adopt CSR and the importance given to voluntary CSR disclosure. Two main categories of CSR determinants have been identified: the external ones, coming from the environment outside the firm, and the internal determinants, which are linked to som...

  5. [Determinants of social participation and social inclusion of people with severe mental illness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schützwohl, Matthias

    2017-03-01

    Individuals with mental disorders are known to be socially excluded so that improving social inclusion has become a major goal of healthcare provision. However, empirical research on specific determinants of social inclusion is rather scarce. A cross-sectional survey of adults with a severe mental illness (n =70) was conducted using a measure of participation and social inclusion for individuals with a chronic mental disorder (F-INK). Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were conducted to identify determinants of social participation and social inclusion. Social participation increased with the number of friends and was, independently thereof, higher in adults living independently than in adults living in supported housing arrangements. The level of social inclusion was higher in those cohabitating and increased with duration of illness. Findings on social participation indicate the need for a re-organization of community-based supported housing arrangements, and, with respect to existing settings, an amendment of present conditions. To promote social inclusion, measures to prime a feeling of ongoing social affiliation should be taken during the first years of psychiatric illness.

  6. The Relevance of the Social Information Processing Model for Understanding Relational Aggression in Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Marcelle M.; Finch, Cambra L.; Foster, Sharon L.

    2005-01-01

    Two studies examined whether social information-processing variables predict relational aggression in girls. In Study 1, fourth- through sixth-grade girls reported their intent attributions, social goals, outcome expectancies for relational aggression, and the likelihood that they would choose a relationally aggressive response in response to…

  7. Reconsidering the relevance of social license pressure and government regulation for environmental performance of European SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, Johan; Smid, Hugo

    Whereas social license pressure is held as a strong motive for the corporate social performance (CSP) of large enterprises, it is argued in literature that it will not sufficiently motivate small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). In this view, government regulation is the most effective way to

  8. Social Science Theories on Adolescent Risk-Taking: The Relevance of Behavioral Inhibition and Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeersch, Hans; T'Sjoen, Guy; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2013-01-01

    The major social science theories on adolescent risk-taking--strain, social control, and differential association theories--have received substantial empirical support. The relationships between variables central to these theories and individual differences in temperament related to risk-taking, however, have not been adequately studied. In a…

  9. Social Issues: Making Them Relevant and Appropriate to Undergraduate Student Designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofthouse, Vicky

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable design education is now considered a core issue for industrial/product design courses, however research has shown that the predominant focus tends to be on environmental issues, as social issues are much harder to tackle. Similarly, social issues are rarely considered in industrial practice. If student designers are to become…

  10. An Observation Tool for Monitoring Social Skill Implementation in Contextually Relevant Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Joseph John; Hsiao, Yun-Ju; Dobbins, Nicole; Brown, Nancy B.; Lyons, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Skills related to social-emotional learning (SEL) are essential for college and career readiness. Failure to use appropriate skills for SEL in school is often linked to several negative academic outcomes, including rejection by school community members, academic deficits, and higher rates of problematic behavior. Social skills interventions are…

  11. [Social capital as a determinant of public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo Vallejos, N D

    The concept of Social Capital (SC), originally described by Durkheim (1893), is composed of dimensions related to cohesion and trust between members of a social group, and considered by the Word Health Organization (WHO) as part of the social determinants of public health for the decrease of inequities and inequalities in health provision. To contribute to the dissemination of the concept of SC related to the social determinants of Public Health, in order to offer the reader in-depth content to observe the potential applications and practices in this field. Literature search (Google Academics™, PubMed, Science direct™, Ebsco Host™). A total of 294 full-text publications were obtained, and those selected were the most influential sources on the evolution and application of the concept of Social Capital, socioeconomic development and health in the last decade. Although the current evidence shows that Social Capital is a determinant related to health, standards are still needed for its measurement. This could allow the concept to be measured, and facilitate its integration into the form of actions that exert positive influence and contribute to the implementation of institutional interventions planned for development and public health. Copyright © 2017 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Contemporary social network sites: Relevance in anesthesiology teaching, training, and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Rudrashish; Kaushal, Ashutosh; Samanta, Sukhen; Ambesh, Paurush; Srivastava, Shashi; Singh, Prabhat K

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenal popularity of social networking sites has been used globally by medical professionals to boost professional associations and scientific developments. They have tremendous potential to forge professional liaisons, generate employment,upgrading skills and publicizing scientific achievements. We highlight the role of social networking mediums in influencing teaching, training and research in anaesthesiology. The growth of social networking sites have been prompted by the limitations of previous facilities in terms of ease of data and interface sharing and the amalgamation of audio visual aids on common platforms in the newer facilities. Contemporary social networking sites like Facebook, Twitter, Tumblr,Linkedn etc and their respective features based on anaesthesiology training or practice have been discussed. A host of advantages which these sites confer are also discussed. Likewise the potential pitfalls and drawbacks of these facilities have also been addressed. Social networking sites have immense potential for development of training and research in Anaesthesiology. However responsible and cautious utilization is advocated.

  13. When the Periphery Becomes the Center. Forensic Anthropology in Argentina, a Case of Socially Relevant Scientific Knowledge Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano G. Levin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Forensic anthropology has had extraordinary scientific success in Argentina. On the one hand, this discipline has developed very well in only 25 years generating scientifically relevant knowledge both locally and internationally. On the other hand, and unlike a large part of scientific knowledge generated in peripheral contexts, it has major social applications. This work describes the different dimensions of the origin and development of this discipline in Argentina, the cognitive condition of the field in 1983 and, briefly, its development until today, its institutional dimension, the existence of other research traditions and certain social dimensions which, we believe, are the basis for the success of this scientific discipline.

  14. Social determinants of cardiovascular disease outcomes in Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Reddy, K S

    2010-11-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of death and disability in both developed and developing countries. In developed countries socio-economic mortality differentials have been studied extensively showing that the low socio-economic group suffers the highest mortality. As the epidemiological transition is taking place against a background of economic globalization, CVD risk factors among the urban poor and middle class are rapidly increasing in India. Recent evidences from India also suggest reversal of social gradient with excess burden of CVD morbidity in the low socio-economic group. Understanding the social determinants of environmental and behavioural exposures, in determining the risk factors for cardiovascular disease is an important challenge for public health professionals as well as communities. Socio-economic disadvantage is not simply a proxy for poor cardiovascular risk factor status, but also an indication of the likely trajectory that an individual or a community may follow in the course of their life. The paucity of intervention research seeking to address the role of social determinants in shaping lifestyle practices among individuals in culturally and socially diverse population groups within India is definitely a measure of inadequacy in public health research. This review article provides an overview of the role of social determinants of CVD and its possible conceptual pathways with special focus on acute coronary syndrome (ACS) outcomes among Indians.

  15. Global Social Challenges: insights from the physical sciences and their relevance to the evolution of social science

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The complex challenges confronting humanity today point to the need for new thinking and new theory in the social sciences which overcomes the limitations of compartmentalized, sectoral concepts, strategies and policies and mechanistic approaches to living social systems. The World Academy of Art & Science is convening a consortium of leading institutions and thinkers from different sectors to contribute ideas for formulation of a cohesive framework capable of addressing global social challenges in their totality and complex interrelationships. The objective of my presentation will be to explore the potential for collaboration between the physical and social sciences to arrive at a more cohesive and effective framework by exploring a series of questions, including - - Is an integrated science of society possible that transcends disciplinary boundaries based on common underlying principles as we find in the natural sciences? - To what extent can principles of natural science serve as valid models and a...

  16. Relevant factors for the impact of social media marketing strategies: Empirical study of the internet travel agency sector

    OpenAIRE

    Lebherz, Philipp Robert

    2011-01-01

    Projecte final de carrera fet en col.laboració amb Karlsruher Institut für Technologie English: Final proyect with the topic "relevant factors for the impact of social media marketing strategies - an empirical study of the internet travel agency sector" at Faculty of Informatics and the chair of management. Supervised by Ferran Sabaté and Antonio Cañabate. Student Philipp Lebherz.

  17. Legal Origin and Social Solidarity: The Continued Relevance of Durkheim to Comparative Institutional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Phil; Brookes, Michael; Wood, Geoffrey; Brewster, Chris

    2017-06-01

    By using the classic works of Durkheim as a theoretical platform, this research explores the relationship between legal systems and social solidarity. We found that certain types of civil law system, most notably those of Scandinavia, are associated with higher levels of social capital and better welfare state provision. However, we found the relationship between legal system and societal outcomes is considerably more complex than suggested by currently fashionable economistic legal origin approaches, and more in line with the later writings of Durkheim, and, indeed, the literature on comparative capitalisms. Relative communitarianism was strongly affected by relative development, reflecting the complex relationship between institutions, state capabilities and informal social ties and networks.

  18. Social biases determine spatiotemporal sparseness of ciliate mating heuristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kevin B

    2012-01-01

    Ciliates become highly social, even displaying animal-like qualities, in the joint presence of aroused conspecifics and nonself mating pheromones. Pheromone detection putatively helps trigger instinctual and learned courtship and dominance displays from which social judgments are made about the availability, compatibility, and fitness representativeness or likelihood of prospective mates and rivals. In earlier studies, I demonstrated the heterotrich Spirostomum ambiguum improves mating competence by effecting preconjugal strategies and inferences in mock social trials via behavioral heuristics built from Hebbian-like associative learning. Heuristics embody serial patterns of socially relevant action that evolve into ordered, topologically invariant computational networks supporting intra- and intermate selection. S. ambiguum employs heuristics to acquire, store, plan, compare, modify, select, and execute sets of mating propaganda. One major adaptive constraint over formation and use of heuristics involves a ciliate's initial subjective bias, responsiveness, or preparedness, as defined by Stevens' Law of subjective stimulus intensity, for perceiving the meaningfulness of mechanical pressures accompanying cell-cell contacts and additional perimating events. This bias controls durations and valences of nonassociative learning, search rates for appropriate mating strategies, potential net reproductive payoffs, levels of social honesty and deception, successful error diagnosis and correction of mating signals, use of insight or analysis to solve mating dilemmas, bioenergetics expenditures, and governance of mating decisions by classical or quantum statistical mechanics. I now report this same social bias also differentially affects the spatiotemporal sparseness, as measured with metric entropy, of ciliate heuristics. Sparseness plays an important role in neural systems through optimizing the specificity, efficiency, and capacity of memory representations. The present

  19. Social biases determine spatiotemporal sparseness of ciliate mating heuristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Ciliates become highly social, even displaying animal-like qualities, in the joint presence of aroused conspecifics and nonself mating pheromones. Pheromone detection putatively helps trigger instinctual and learned courtship and dominance displays from which social judgments are made about the availability, compatibility, and fitness representativeness or likelihood of prospective mates and rivals. In earlier studies, I demonstrated the heterotrich Spirostomum ambiguum improves mating competence by effecting preconjugal strategies and inferences in mock social trials via behavioral heuristics built from Hebbian-like associative learning. Heuristics embody serial patterns of socially relevant action that evolve into ordered, topologically invariant computational networks supporting intra- and intermate selection. S. ambiguum employs heuristics to acquire, store, plan, compare, modify, select, and execute sets of mating propaganda. One major adaptive constraint over formation and use of heuristics involves a ciliate’s initial subjective bias, responsiveness, or preparedness, as defined by Stevens’ Law of subjective stimulus intensity, for perceiving the meaningfulness of mechanical pressures accompanying cell-cell contacts and additional perimating events. This bias controls durations and valences of nonassociative learning, search rates for appropriate mating strategies, potential net reproductive payoffs, levels of social honesty and deception, successful error diagnosis and correction of mating signals, use of insight or analysis to solve mating dilemmas, bioenergetics expenditures, and governance of mating decisions by classical or quantum statistical mechanics. I now report this same social bias also differentially affects the spatiotemporal sparseness, as measured with metric entropy, of ciliate heuristics. Sparseness plays an important role in neural systems through optimizing the specificity, efficiency, and capacity of memory representations. The

  20. Agency in Professional Self-Determination of Adolescentswith Special Social Situations of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aron I.S.,

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explains the importance of agency in professional identity formation as a conscious, independent, active, responsible, professional choice relevant in modern society. Psychological readiness for agency is considered its integral indicator which includes cognitive, activity, motivational, and personality components. The paper presents outcomes of a research on the specifics of psychological readiness to professional self-determination in adolescents with special social situations of development. This research involved 211 adolescents including orphans, teenagers with deviant behavior, and gifted teenagers. A set of techniques used in the research consisted of five standard techniques and a questionnaire developed by the author. The obtained results revealed that there is a lack of readiness for professional self-determination in all adolescent groups: orphans and teenagers with deviant behaviors showed insufficient rates for all four components of readiness, while gifted adolescents showed low rates for activity and personal components. The results of this research may help develop differentiated, person-centered technologies for promoting agency in professional self-determination of adolescents with special social situations of development. The author links the prospects of further investigations with the study of positive characteristics of psychological readiness of young people with special social situations of development to professional self-determination; these characteristics can serve as a compensatory and developmental potential of agency in professional self-determination in the context of specific social contexts and limited agency-based resources of professional self-determination.

  1. Role Enactment as a Socially Relevant Explanation of Self-Persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodaken, Edward M.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Reports on four tests of Charles R. Berger's role enactment model of persuasion, which is addressed to generalizing counterattitudinal communication to social situations when persons find themselves encoding belief-discrepant messages. (JMF)

  2. Ethnicity, Migration and the 'Social Determinants of Health' Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ingleby

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most promising recent developments in health policy has been the emergence of a global 'health equity' movement concerned with the social determinants of health. In European research and policy-making, however, there is an strong tendency to reduce 'social determinants' to 'socioeconomic determinants' and to ignore the role of ethnicity, migration and other factors in the creation of inequities. This threatens to hold up the development of work on ethnicity and migration and thus to perpetuate inequities linked to these factors. The present article sets out to illustrate this tendency and to investigate the reasons which may underlie it. The justifications often put forward for neglecting ethnicity and migration are shown to be erroneous. An integrated approach, simultaneously taking account of socioeconomic status, migration and ethnicity as well as other determinants of inequity, is essential if work on the social determinants of health is to make progress. Equity is indivisible; researchers investigating different aspects of social stratification should not treat each other as rivals, but as indispensible allies. An integrated, intersectional, multivariate and multilevel approach will improve our understanding of health inequities and make available more resources for tackling them.

  3. The relevance of the social context for media coverage of victims

    OpenAIRE

    Pavićević Olivera; Bulatović Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Media coverage of human suffering caused by trauma, illness, poverty and disasters worldwide takes up a significant part of media coverage and affects the identity of all actors, both active and passive. Media presentation shapes our thinking and reasoning at the group level, and has far reached impact. The social context of media reporting on victims is shaped by the capacity of the social system to recognize, acknowledge, strengthen and protect the victim...

  4. Social relevance drives viewing behavior independent of low-level salience in rhesus macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Andrew Solyst

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying attention to social stimuli during the viewing of complex social scenes with eye tracking has proven to be a sensitive method in the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders years before average clinical diagnosis. Rhesus macaques provide an ideal model for understanding the mechanisms underlying social viewing behavior, but to date no comparable behavioral task has been developed for use in monkeys. Using a novel scene-viewing task, we monitored the gaze of three rhesus macaques while they freely viewed well-controlled composed social scenes and analyzed the time spent viewing objects and monkeys. In each of six behavioral sessions, monkeys viewed a set of 90 images (540 unique scenes with each image presented twice. In two-thirds of the repeated scenes, either a monkey or an object was replaced with a novel item (manipulated scenes. When viewing a repeated scene, monkeys made longer fixations and shorter saccades, shifting from a rapid orienting to global scene contents to a more local analysis of fewer items. In addition to this repetition effect, in manipulated scenes, monkeys demonstrated robust memory by spending more time viewing the replaced items. By analyzing attention to specific scene content, we found that monkeys strongly preferred to view conspecifics and that this was not related to their salience in terms of low-level image features. A model-free analysis of viewing statistics found that monkeys that were viewed earlier and longer had direct gaze and redder sex skin around their face and rump, two important visual social cues. These data provide a quantification of viewing strategy, memory and social preferences in rhesus macaques viewing complex social scenes, and they provide an important baseline with which to compare to the effects of therapeutics aimed at enhancing social cognition.

  5. Dog Experts' Brains Distinguish Socially Relevant Body Postures Similarly in Dogs and Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Kujala, Miiamaaria; Kujala, Jan; Carlson, Synnove; Hari, Riitta

    2012-01-01

    We read conspecifics' social cues effortlessly, but little is known about our abilities to understand social gestures of other species. To investigate the neural underpinnings of such skills, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the brain activity of experts and non-experts of dog behavior while they observed humans or dogs either interacting with, or facing away from a conspecific. The posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) of both subject groups dissociated humans facin...

  6. Adolescent Narcissism, Aggression, and Prosocial Behavior: The Relevance of Socially Desirable Responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Christopher T; Lui, Joyce H L; Anderson, Alexandra C

    2017-01-01

    An important threat to validity in personality research pertains to an individual's motivation to respond in a socially desirable manner on self-report inventories. This issue was examined in this study in the context of narcissism, aggression, and prosocial behavior in a sample of at-risk adolescents. Participants were 161 adolescents (128 males, 29 females, 4 not reported) ranging in age from 16 to 19 years who were attending a residential program for youth who have dropped out of school. Overall, socially desirable response tendencies were negatively correlated with vulnerable narcissism and self-reported aggression. Moreover, low socially desirable responses strengthened the relation between narcissism and self-reported aggression. Socially desirable responding was not associated with self- or peer-reported prosocial behavior and did not moderate the relation between narcissism and prosocial behavior. These findings indicate that the relation between narcissism and aggression is attenuated by concerns with social desirability. However, further work is needed in broader samples of adolescents to more closely examine whether social desirability concerns actually mitigate aggression among some youth or signify underreporting of one's problem behaviors.

  7. Colonialism as a Broader Social Determinant of Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Czyzewski

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A proposed broader or Indigenized social determinants of health framework includes "colonialism" along with other global processes. What does it mean to understand Canadian colonialism as a distal determinant of Indigenous health? This paper reviews pertinent discourses surrounding Indigenous mental health in Canada.With an emphasis on the notion of intergenerational trauma, there are real health effects of social, political, and economic marginalization embodied within individuals, which can collectively affect entire communities. Colonialism can also be enacted and reinforced within Indigenous mental health discourse, thus influencing scholarly and popular perceptions. Addressing this distal determinant through policy work necessitates that improving Indigenous health is inherently related to improving these relationships, i.e. eliminating colonial relations, and increasing self-determination.

  8. Hierarchical Bayesian nonparametric mixture models for clustering with variable relevance determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Christopher; Holmes, Chris

    2011-07-01

    We propose a hierarchical Bayesian nonparametric mixture model for clustering when some of the covariates are assumed to be of varying relevance to the clustering problem. This can be thought of as an issue in variable selection for unsupervised learning. We demonstrate that by defining a hierarchical population based nonparametric prior on the cluster locations scaled by the inverse covariance matrices of the likelihood we arrive at a 'sparsity prior' representation which admits a conditionally conjugate prior. This allows us to perform full Gibbs sampling to obtain posterior distributions over parameters of interest including an explicit measure of each covariate's relevance and a distribution over the number of potential clusters present in the data. This also allows for individual cluster specific variable selection. We demonstrate improved inference on a number of canonical problems.

  9. Luck Egalitarianism, Social Determinants and Public Health Initiatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    People’s health is hugely affected by where they live, their occupational status and their socio-economic position. It has been widely argued that the presence of such social determinants in health provides good reasons to reject luck egalitarianism as a theory of distributive justice in health....... The literature provides different reasons why this responsibility-sensitive theory of distributive justice should not be applied to health. The critiques submit that (i) the social circumstances undermine or remove people’s responsibility for their health; (ii) responsibility sensitive health policies would...... egalitarianism provides suitable answers. The literature on social determinants is no detriment to the project of applying luck egalitarianism to health....

  10. Stress-relevant social behaviors of middle-class male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ding; Zhou, Yuan

    2015-11-18

    Stress from dominance ranks in human societies, or that of other social animals, especially nonhuman primates, can have negative influences on health. Individuals holding different social status may be burdened with various stress levels. The middle class experiences a special stress situation within the dominance hierarchy due to its position between the higher and lower classes. Behaviorally, questions about where middle-class stress comes from and how individuals adapt to middle-class stress remain poorly understood in nonhuman primates. In the present study, social interactions, including aggression, avoidance, grooming and mounting behaviors, between beta males, as well as among group members holding higher or lower social status, were analyzed in captive male-only cynomolgus monkey groups. We found that aggressive tension from the higher hierarchy members was the main origin of stress for middle-class individuals. However, behaviors such as attacking lower hierarchy members immediately after being the recipient of aggression, as well as increased avoidance, grooming and mounting toward both higher and lower hierarchy members helped alleviate middle-class stress and were particular adaptations to middle-class social status.

  11. Social Determinants of Self-Care Subsequent to Major Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-10-02

    Oct 2, 2016 ... determinants, therefore, have a big role in self-care after hospital ... whose profile met the study's objectives purposively chosen to provide the data for the ..... The study also explored how social network features in self-care .... made to run effectively it would ease the pressure on the heavy traffic of people to.

  12. Determinants of social inequalities in stroke incidence across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrario, Marco M.; Veronesi, Giovanni; Kee, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Background: Knowledge on the origins of the social gradient in stroke incidence in different populations is limited. This study aims to estimate the burden of educational class inequalities in stroke incidence and to assess the contribution of risk factors in determining these inequalities across...

  13. Investigating Students' Perceived Discipline Relevance Subsequent to Playing Educational Computer Games: A Personal Interest and Self-Determination Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorebo, Oystein; Haehre, Reidar

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explain students' perceived relevance of playing an educational game as a means for development of discipline competence. Based on self-determination theory and the concept of personal interest, we propose that: Satisfying students' basic needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness when playing educational games…

  14. Social determinants of health, inequality and social inclusion among people with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorati, Regina Celia; Elui, Valeria Meirelles Carril

    2015-01-01

    to analyze the socio-familial and community inclusion and social participation of people with disabilities, as well as their inclusion in occupations in daily life. qualitative study with data collected through open interviews concerning the participants' life histories and systematic observation. The sample was composed of ten individuals with acquired or congenital disabilities living in the region covered by a Family Health Center. The social conception of disability was the theoretical framework used. Data were analyzed according to an interpretative reconstructive approach based on Habermas' Theory of Communicative Action. the results show that the socio-familial and community inclusion of the study participants is conditioned to the social determinants of health and present high levels of social inequality expressed by difficult access to PHC and rehabilitation services, work and income, education, culture, transportation and social participation. there is a need to develop community-centered care programs in cooperation with PHC services aiming to cope with poverty and improve social inclusion.

  15. Systems change for the social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Gemma; Crammond, Brad

    2015-07-14

    Inequalities in the distribution of the social determinants of health are now a widely recognised problem, seen as requiring immediate and significant action (CSDH. Closing the Gap in a Generation. Geneva: WHO; 2008; Marmot M. Fair Society, Healthy Lives: The Marmot Review. Strategic Review of Health Inequalitites in England Post-2010. London; 2010). Despite recommendations for action on the social determinants of health dating back to the 1980s, inequalities in many countries continue to grow. In this paper we provide an analysis of recommendations from major social determinants of health reports using the concept of 'system leverage points'. Increasingly, powerful and effective action on the social determinants of health is conceptualised as that which targets government action on the non-health issues which drive health outcomes. Recommendations for action from 6 major national reports on the social determinants of health were sourced. Recommendations from each report were coded against two frameworks: Johnston et al's recently developed Intervention Level Framework (ILF) and Meadow's seminal '12 places to intervene in a system' (Johnston LM, Matteson CL, Finegood DT. Systems Science and Obesity Policy: A Novel Framework for Analyzing and Rethinking Population-Level Planning. American journal of public health. 2014;(0):e1-e9; Meadows D. Thinking in Systems. USA: Sustainability Institute; 1999) (N = 166). Our analysis found several major changes over time to the types of recommendations being made, including a shift towards paradigmatic change and away from individual interventions. Results from Meadow's framework revealed a number of potentially powerful system intervention points that are currently underutilised in public health thinking regarding action on the social determinants of health. When viewed through a systems lens, it is evident that the power of an intervention comes not from where it is targeted, but rather how it works to create change within the

  16. Legal Origin and Social Solidarity: The Continued Relevance of Durkheim to Comparative Institutional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Phil; Brookes, Michael; Wood, Geoffrey; Brewster, Chris

    2017-01-01

    By using the classic works of Durkheim as a theoretical platform, this research explores the relationship between legal systems and social solidarity. We found that certain types of civil law system, most notably those of Scandinavia, are associated with higher levels of social capital and better welfare state provision. However, we found the relationship between legal system and societal outcomes is considerably more complex than suggested by currently fashionable economistic legal origin approaches, and more in line with the later writings of Durkheim, and, indeed, the literature on comparative capitalisms. Relative communitarianism was strongly affected by relative development, reflecting the complex relationship between institutions, state capabilities and informal social ties and networks. PMID:28502999

  17. Relevance of Piagetian cross-cultural psychology to the humanities and social sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesterdiekhoff, Georg W

    2013-01-01

    Jean Piaget held views according to which there are parallels between ontogeny and the historical development of culture, sciences, and reason. His books are full of remarks and considerations about these parallels, with reference to many logical, physical, social, and moral phenomena.This article explains that Piagetian cross-cultural psychology has delivered the decisive data needed to extend the research interests of Piaget. These data provide a basis for reconstructing not only the history of sciences but also the history of religion, politics, morals, culture, philosophy, and social change and the emergence of industrial society. Thus, it is possible to develop Piagetian theory as a historical anthropology in order to provide a basis for the humanities and social sciences.

  18. Inhibited attachment behaviour and disinhibited social engagement behaviour as relevant concepts in referred home reared children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheper, F Y; Abrahamse, M E; Jonkman, C S; Schuengel, C; Lindauer, R J L; de Vries, A L C; Doreleijers, T A H; Jansen, L M C

    2016-07-01

    Disorders of attachment and social engagement have mainly been studied in children, reared in institutions and foster care. There are few studies amongst home reared children living with biological parents. The aim of this study was to test the clinical significance of inhibited attachment behaviour and disinhibited social engagement behaviour in young home reared children, referred for treatment of emotional and behavioural problems, compared with young children in treatment foster care. The Disturbances of Attachment Interview, Maltreatment Classification System, the Child Behaviour Checklist and Parenting Stress Index were used in 141 referred home reared children and 59 referred foster children, aged 2.0-7.9 years (M = 4.7, SE = 1.3), 71% boys. Inhibited attachment behaviour was less prevalent in the referred home reared group (9%) than in the foster care group (27%). Disinhibited social engagement behaviour was found in 42% of the home reared group, similar to the foster care group. Inhibited attachment behaviour and disinhibited social engagement behaviour were not associated with child maltreatment. More inhibited attachment behaviour was associated with clinical levels of child internalizing and externalizing behaviour in the home reared group, not in the foster care group. In both groups, more disinhibited social engagement behaviour was associated with clinical levels of externalizing behaviour and with more parenting stress. Even without evident links to maltreatment, results of this study suggest clinical significance of inhibited attachment behaviour and disinhibited social engagement behaviour in young home reared children referred for treatment of emotional and behavioural problems. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Determining sociability, social space, and social presence in (a)synchronous collaborative groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreijns, Karel; Kirschner, Paul A; Jochems, Wim; Van Buuren, Hans

    2004-04-01

    The effectiveness of group learning in asynchronous distributed learning groups depends on the social interaction that takes place. This social interaction affects both cognitive and socioemotional processes that take place during learning, group forming, establishment of group structures, and group dynamics. Though now known to be important, this aspect is often ignored, denied or forgotten by educators and researchers who tend to concentrate on cognitive processes and on-task contexts. This "one-sided" educational focus largely determines the set of requirements in the design of computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environments resulting in functional CSCL environments. In contrast, our research is aimed at the design and implementation of sociable CSCL environments which may increase the likelihood that a sound social space will emerge. We use a theoretical framework that is based upon an ecological approach to social interaction, centering on the concept of social affordances, the concept of the sociability of CSCL environments, and social presence theory. The hypothesis is that the higher the sociability, the more likely that social interaction will take place or will increase, and the more likely that this will result in an emerging sound social space. In the present research, the variables of interest are sociability, social space, and social presence. This study deals with the construction and validation of three instruments to determine sociability, social space, and social presence in (a)synchronous collaborating groups. The findings suggest that the instruments have potential to be useful as measures for the respective variables. However, it must be realized that these measures are "first steps."

  20. Increasing Brand Awareness Trough Utilization Of Social Media And Expansion Of Relevant Market Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Nummelin, Aura

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to suggest ways to increase and develop the brand image of A. Ahlström Real Estate Ltd. The plan involves more effort put on B2B events, adding new service concepts, highlighting social media as a marketing tool and creating a new sales strategy for foreign customers. The goal is not to create a brand, but rather enhance and develop the already existing one. By implementing a variety of social media channels into their marketing strategy A. Ahlström Real...

  1. Gender/Sex as a Social Determinant of Cardiovascular Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Adrienne; Scovelle, Anna J; Milner, Allison J; Kavanagh, Anne

    2018-02-20

    The social gradient for cardiovascular disease (CVD) onset and outcomes is well established. The American Heart Association's Social Determinants of Risk and Outcomes of Cardiovascular Disease Scientific Statement advocates looking beyond breakthroughs in biological science toward a social determinants approach that focuses on socioeconomic position, race and ethnicity, social support, culture and access to medical care, and residential environments to curb the burden of CVD going forward. Indeed, the benefits of this approach are likely to be far reaching, enhancing the positive effects of advances in CVD related to prevention and treatment while reducing health inequities that contribute to CVD onset and outcomes. It is disappointing that the role of gender has been largely neglected despite being a critical determinant of cardiovascular health. It is clear that trajectories and outcomes of CVD differ by biological sex, yet the tendency for sex and gender to be conflated has contributed to the idea that both are constant or fixed with little room for intervention. Rather, as distinct from biological sex, gender is socially produced. Overlaid on biological sex, gender is a broad term that shapes and interacts with one's cognition to guide norms, roles, behaviors, and social relations. It is a fluid construct that varies across time, place, and life stage. Gender can interact with biological sex and, indeed, other social determinants, such as ethnicity and socioeconomic position, to shape cardiovascular health from conception, through early life when health behaviors and risk factors are shaped, into adolescence and adulthood. This article will illustrate how gender shapes the early adoption of health behaviors in childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood by focusing on physical activity, drinking, and smoking behaviors (including the influence of role modeling). We will also discuss the role of gender in psychosocial stress with a focus on trauma from life

  2. Social determinants and lifestyles: integrating environmental and public health perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, H; White, P C L

    2016-12-01

    Industrialization and urbanization have been associated with an epidemiological transition, from communicable to non-communicable disease, and a geological transition that is moving the planet beyond the stable Holocene epoch in which human societies have prospered. The lifestyles of high-income countries are major drivers of these twin processes. Our objective is to highlight the common causes of chronic disease and environmental change and, thereby, contribute to shared perspectives across public health and the environment. Integrative reviews focused on social determinants and lifestyles as two 'bridging' concepts between the fields of public health and environmental sustainability. We drew on established frameworks to consider the position of the natural environment within social determinants of health (SDH) frameworks and the position of social determinants within environmental frameworks. We drew on evidence on lifestyle factors central to both public health and environmental change (mobility- and diet-related factors). We investigated how public health's focus on individual behaviour can be enriched by environmental perspectives that give attention to household consumption practices. While SDH frameworks can incorporate the biophysical environment, their causal structure positions it as a determinant and one largely separate from the social factors that shape it. Environmental frameworks are more likely to represent the environment and its ecosystems as socially determined. A few frameworks also include human health as an outcome, providing the basis for a combined public health/environmental sustainability framework. Environmental analyses of household impacts broaden public health's concern with individual risk behaviours, pointing to the more damaging lifestyles of high-income households. The conditions for health are being undermined by rapid environmental change. There is scope for frameworks reaching across public health and environmental

  3. Social determinants of disability-based disadvantage in Solomon islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartrell, Alexandra; Jennaway, Megan; Manderson, Lenore; Fangalasuu, Judy; Dolaiano, Simon

    2018-04-01

    Development discourse widely recognises that disability is the result of economic and social processes and structures that fail to accommodate persons with disabilities. Empirical work on the relationship between disability and poverty however, conceptualize poverty through an economic resource lens in high-income countries. To address this conceptual gap this article uses a social determinants of health perspective to examine how socio-cultural, economic and political contexts shape disability-based disadvantage. This article draws upon ethnographic research and supplementary data collected using rapid assessment techniques in Solomon Islands. Findings suggest that the disability-poverty nexus and inequalities in health, wellbeing and quality of life must be understood within broader patterns of social vulnerability that are institutionalised in landownership and patterns of descent, gendered power relations and disability specific stigmas that preclude social and productive engagement . This article demonstrates how a social determinant of health perspective that closely examines lived experiences of disability provides critical analytical insights into the structural mechanisms that constitute disability-based disadvantage. This article provides foundation knowledge on which policies and further research to promote disability-inclusion and equity can be based.

  4. interrogating the relevance of the extended family as a social safety

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mugumbate

    by Central Statistics Office (CSO), Government of. Zimbabwe ... In a study of 570 households in Manicaland by Foster,. Shakespeare ... fields including management, politics, social work and .... In some cases, biological parents would ..... Concerns about the rising orphan crisis in southern and ... Lund, Sweden: University.

  5. Innovations in meta-analysis and social impact analysis relevant for tech mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, Henk A.; Sanders, Karin

    2006-01-01

    In the social sciences, non-utilization of knowledge is a major problem. Many publications stored in libraries or available on the Internet should be used more than they are now. Conventional approaches like providing abstracts and lists of keywords have proven to be insufficient. For more than

  6. From friendfunding to crowdfunding: Relevance of relationships, social media, and platform activities to crowdfunding performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, W.A.M.; Moser, C.; Ferguson, J.E.

    2018-01-01

    Crowdfunding involves raising small amounts of money from a large number of people, typically via the Internet and social networks, to fund a project. Crowdfunding projects are mainly funded by the project creator’s relatively small network of family and friends. We argue that mobilizing funders

  7. Brain response during the M170 time interval is sensitive to socially relevant information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arviv, Oshrit; Goldstein, Abraham; Weeting, Janine C; Becker, Eni S; Lange, Wolf-Gero; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva

    2015-11-01

    Deciphering the social meaning of facial displays is a highly complex neurological process. The M170, an event related field component of MEG recording, like its EEG counterpart N170, was repeatedly shown to be associated with structural encoding of faces. However, the scope of information encoded during the M170 time window is still being debated. We investigated the neuronal origin of facial processing of integrated social rank cues (SRCs) and emotional facial expressions (EFEs) during the M170 time interval. Participants viewed integrated facial displays of emotion (happy, angry, neutral) and SRCs (indicated by upward, downward, or straight head tilts). We found that the activity during the M170 time window is sensitive to both EFEs and SRCs. Specifically, highly prominent activation was observed in response to SRC connoting dominance as compared to submissive or egalitarian head cues. Interestingly, the processing of EFEs and SRCs appeared to rely on different circuitry. Our findings suggest that vertical head tilts are processed not only for their sheer structural variance, but as social information. Exploring the temporal unfolding and brain localization of non-verbal cues processing may assist in understanding the functioning of the social rank biobehavioral system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Millennials, Technology and Perceived Relevance of Community Service Organizations: Is Social Media Replacing Community Service Activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, August John

    2017-01-01

    This mixed-methods qualitative study examined the relationship between perceptions of the importance of social media (i.e., Facebook, Twitter) with community service projects and volunteerism. Participants (n = 80) were interviewed and surveyed regarding their experiences in participating in a variety of community service work (CSW) projects…

  9. Social and psychological consequences of not crying : Possible associations with psychopathology and therapeutic relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesdorffer, D.C.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.; Trimble, M.R.

    2017-01-01

    Emotional crying is hypothesized to serve intra- and interpersonal functions. Intrapersonal functions are assumed to facilitate the capacity to recover from emotional distress, thus promoting well-being. Interpersonal functions are postulated to have a major impact on social functioning. We

  10. Parental Values and Practices Relevant to Young Children's Social Development in Taiwan and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Paul E.; Huntsinger, Carol S.; Huntsinger, Phillip R.; Liaw, Fong-Ruey

    2000-01-01

    Compared self-reported parental values and child-rearing practices and teacher-reported and observed children's social skills among families of young children who were first-generation Chinese Americans, European Americans, or Taiwanese Chinese. All Chinese parents more strongly endorsed traditional Chinese values and exerted more parental control…

  11. Economic and Social Satisfaction : Measurement and Relevance to Marketing Channel Relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geyskens, I.; Steenkamp, J.E.B.M.

    2000-01-01

    We demonstrate the critical need to recognize the presence of two different types of satisfaction for effective channel governance—economic satisfaction, that is, a channel member’s evaluation of the economic outcomes that flow from the relationship with its partner, and social satisfaction, a

  12. The Construction of Neighbourhoods and its Relevance for the Measurement of Social and Ethnic Segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil; Schultz-Nielsen, Marie Louise

    . To illustrate the importance of detailed neighbourhood information we compare social and ethnic segregation measured by Isolation and Dissimilation indices on the levels of municipalities and of small neighbourhoods. Our findings demonstrate substantial variation in the residential mix in neighbourhoods within...... a given municipality, and thus show the importance of having information on a more detailed geographical level than that of the municipality....

  13. The Construction of Neighbourhoods and its Relevance for the Measurement of Social and Ethnic Segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil; Schultz-Nielsen, Marie Louise

    . To illustrate the importance of detailed neighbourhood information we compare social and ethnic segregation measured by Isolation and Dissimilation indices on the levels of municipalities and of small neighbourhoods. Our findings demonstrate substantial variation in the residential mix in neighbourhoods within...

  14. We Feel, Therefore We Learn: The Relevance of Affective and Social Neuroscience to Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Damasio, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroscience are highlighting connections between emotion, social functioning, and decision making that have the potential to revolutionize our understanding of the role of affect in education. In particular, the neurobiological evidence suggests that the aspects of cognition that we recruit most heavily in schools, namely…

  15. The ambiguous utility of psychometrics for the interpretative foundation of socially relevant avatars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vautier, S.; Veldhuis, M.; Lacot, E.; Matton, N.

    2012-01-01

    The persisting debates that measurement in psychology elicits can be explained by the conflict between two aspiration types. One, the epistemologic aspiration, resting on the search for scientific truth, and two, the social aspiration, resting on the demonstration of a capacity to contribute to

  16. interrogating the relevance of the extended family as a social safety ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mugumbate

    in supporting the extended family to augment formal social welfare services as these are not always readily available or ... in the number of orphans and subsequently vulnerable children in need of care and this has been closely linked ... The education and health sectors, amongst the worst affected, have seen a decline in.

  17. Rapid and collaborative development of socially relevant computing solutions for developing communities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mtsweni, J

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available stakeholders, including communities to work on common social challenges over a short period of time are emerging to address the technological gaps in ICT4D projects. This research expands on the extensive work that has been done over the years in ICT4D projects...

  18. Relevance of behavioral and social models to the study of consumer energy decision making and behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, B.A.

    1980-11-01

    This report reviews social and behavioral science models and techniques for their possible use in understanding and predicting consumer energy decision making and behaviors. A number of models and techniques have been developed that address different aspects of the decision process, use different theoretical bases and approaches, and have been aimed at different audiences. Three major areas of discussion were selected: (1) models of adaptation to social change, (2) decision making and choice, and (3) diffusion of innovation. Within these three areas, the contributions of psychologists, sociologists, economists, marketing researchers, and others were reviewed. Five primary components of the models were identified and compared. The components are: (1) situational characteristics, (2) product characteristics, (3) individual characteristics, (4) social influences, and (5) the interaction or decision rules. The explicit use of behavioral and social science models in energy decision-making and behavior studies has been limited. Examples are given of a small number of energy studies which applied and tested existing models in studying the adoption of energy conservation behaviors and technologies, and solar technology.

  19. From friendfunding to crowdfunding: Relevance of relationships, social media, and platform activities to crowdfunding performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, W.A.M.; Moser, C.; Ferguson, J.E.

    2017-01-01

    Crowdfunding involves raising small amounts of money from a large number of people, typically via the Internet and social networks, to fund a project. Crowdfunding projects are mainly funded by the project creator’s relatively small network of family and friends. We argue that mobilizing funders

  20. Not so special after all? Daniels and the social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J

    2009-01-01

    Just health: meeting health needs fairly is an ambitious book, in which Norman Daniels attempts to bring together in a single framework all his work on health and justice from the past 25 years. One major aim is to reconcile his earlier work on the special moral importance of healthcare with his later work on the social determinants of health. In his earlier work, Daniels argued that healthcare is of special moral importance because it protects opportunity. In this later work, Daniels argues that the social determinants of health (which in fact tend to have a larger effect on health outcomes than healthcare does) should also be considered special. This paper argues that it is a mistake to base a theory of justice for health on the claim that health (or the social determinants of health) are "special", for three reasons. First, once we realise that health is to a large part socially determined by features such as distribution of income, which are also of independent importance for justice, we cannot talk about a theory of justice for health in isolation from an overall theory of justice. Second, when we are trying to work out the place of health in a general theory of justice, being told that health (or the social determinants of health) is special is unhelpful. The relevant starting point should rather be whether health matters in a fundamental way for justice, or whether it matters merely for the effects it has on those goods which are of fundamental importance for justice. Third, treating the social determinants of health as special would in fact be counterproductive in terms of the broad approach to justice Daniels favours.

  1. Political determinants of social expenditures in Greece: an empirical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Canikalp

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A view prominently expounded is that the interaction between the composition and the volume of public expenditures is directly affected by political, institutional, psephological and ideological indicators. A crucial component of public expenditures, social expenditures play an important role in the economy as they directly and indirectly affect the distribution of income and wealth. Social expenditures aim at reallocating income and wealth unequal distribution. These expenditures comprise cash benefits, direct in-kind provision of goods and services, and tax breaks with social purposes.The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between political structure, i.e. government fragmentation, ideological composition, elections and so on, and the social expenditures in Greece. Employing data from the Comparative Political Dataset (CPDS and the OECD Social Expenditure Database (SOCX, a time series analysis was conducted for Greece for the 1980-2014 period. The findings of the study indicate that voter turnout, spending on the elderly population and the number of government changes have positive and statistically significant effects on social expenditures in Greece while debt stock and cabinet composition have negative effects.

  2. Exploring the relevance of social justice within a relational nursing ethic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Martin

    2012-01-01

    In the last few decades, a growing number of commentators have questioned the appropriateness of the 'justice view' of ethics as a suitable approach in health care ethics, and most certainly in nursing. Essentially, in their ethical deliberations, it is argued that nurses do not readily adopt the high degree of impartiality and objectivity that is associated with a justice view; instead their moral practices are more accurately reflected through the use of alternative approaches such as relational or care-based ethics. Yet, it has also been argued that this viewpoint does not necessarily 'do justice' to the broader moral responsibilities of nurses towards humanity in general, i.e. to the wider socio-cultural and socio-political issues in society, and to the concept of social justice in particular. This criticism has triggered a much closer examination of relational and care-based ethics in nursing at levels beyond individual responsiveness within relationships and brought into the spotlight the need for a more ethically refined nursing response to an increasingly complex set of socio-cultural inequalities. This article explores a relational ethic within nursing practices with contemporary ideas regarding social justice. In particular, it is argued that the synergy between the two actually produces an ethic that is capable of not only challenging the continuing predominance of justice-based ethics within health care, but of replacing it. Subsequently, in the discussion that follows, it is suggested that a combined social justice and relational care-based approach, as a social ethic, should guide the moral deliberations and actions of nurses. It is maintained that such an approach is not only possible, but crucial if nurses are to realize their full potential as ethical agents for individual and social good. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Social determinants of workers' health in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón, Aurora; Partanen, Timo; Felknor, Sarah; Corriols, Marianela

    2011-01-01

    This communication summarizes the available data on work-related determinants of health in Central America. The Central American working population is young and moving from agriculture toward industry and services. Ethnicity, gender, migration, subemployment and precarious work, informality, rural conditions, low-level educational, poverty, ubiquitous worksite health hazards, insufficient occupational health services, low labor inspection density, and weak unions define the constellation of social determinants of workers' health in Central America. Data are, however, scanty both for hazards and work-related illnesses and injuries. Governments and industries have the responsibility of opening decent work opportunities, especially for those facing multiple inequalities in social determinants of health. A first step would be the ratification and implementation of the ILO Convention (187) on occupational safety and health by the seven national governments of the region.

  4. Essentialism goes social: belief in social determinism as a component of psychological essentialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Ulrike; Keller, Johannes

    2011-06-01

    Individuals tend to explain the characteristics of others with reference to an underlying essence, a tendency that has been termed psychological essentialism. Drawing on current conceptualizations of essentialism as a fundamental mode of social thinking, and on prior studies investigating belief in genetic determinism (BGD) as a component of essentialism, we argue that BGD cannot constitute the sole basis of individuals' essentialist reasoning. Accordingly, we propose belief in social determinism (BSD) as a complementary component of essentialism, which relies on the belief that a person's essential character is shaped by social factors (e.g., upbringing, social background). We developed a scale to measure this social component of essentialism. Results of five correlational studies indicate that (a) BGD and BSD are largely independent, (b) BGD and BSD are related to important correlates of essentialist thinking (e.g., dispositionism, perceived group homogeneity), (c) BGD and BSD are associated with indicators of fundamental epistemic and ideological motives, and (d) the endorsement of each lay theory is associated with vital social-cognitive consequences (particularly stereotyping and prejudice). Two experimental studies examined the idea that the relationship between BSD and prejudice is bidirectional in nature. Study 6 reveals that rendering social-deterministic explanations salient results in increased levels of ingroup favoritism in individuals who chronically endorse BSD. Results of Study 7 show that priming of prejudice enhances endorsement of social-deterministic explanations particularly in persons habitually endorsing prejudiced attitudes. 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  5. [Social determinants of health and disability: updating the model for determination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo, Mauro; Besoaín, Álvaro; Rebolledo, Jaime

    Social determinants of health (SDH) are conditions in which people live. These conditions impact their lives, health status and social inclusion level. In line with the conceptual and comprehensive progression of disability, it is important to update SDH due to their broad implications in implementing health interventions in society. This proposal supports incorporating disability in the model as a structural determinant, as it would lead to the same social inclusion/exclusion of people described in other structural SDH. This proposal encourages giving importance to designing and implementing public policies to improve societal conditions and contribute to social equity. This will be an act of reparation, justice and fulfilment with the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Relevant Factors in the Process of Socialization, Involvement and Belonging of Descendants in Family Businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melquicedec Lozano-Posso

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research works toward the identification of the factors that comprise the process of socialization, involvement and initial belonging of descendants in family businesses and the key relationships between them. By means of a qualitative detailed study of four cases, complemented by a quantitative survey of 274 Colombian family businesses, the authors generate a new model that takes into account both factors explored in previous research as well as others identified in this study. Findings confirm the specific dependency of each stage on the subsequent ones; socialization influences involvement, which in turn influences the belonging of the descendants to the family business, with a strong presence of factors such as knowledge, leadership, mode, timing, and motivation. Those responsible for the orientation of potential successors may examine these findings in order to optimize their preparation efforts and support of family human resources for the continuity of the business.

  7. Social relevance: toward understanding the impact of the individual in an information cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Robert T.; White, Joshua S.; Fields, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    Information Cascades (IC) through a social network occur due to the decision of users to disseminate content. We define this decision process as User Diffusion (UD). IC models typically describe an information cascade by treating a user as a node within a social graph, where a node's reception of an idea is represented by some activation state. The probability of activation then becomes a function of a node's connectedness to other activated nodes as well as, potentially, the history of activation attempts. We enrich this Coarse-Grained User Diffusion (CGUD) model by applying actor type logics to the nodes of the graph. The resulting Fine-Grained User Diffusion (FGUD) model utilizes prior research in actor typing to generate a predictive model regarding the future influence a user will have on an Information Cascade. Furthermore, we introduce a measure of Information Resonance that is used to aid in predictions regarding user behavior.

  8. Playable Stories: Making Programming and 3D Role-Playing Game Design Personally and Socially Relevant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram-Goble, Adam

    2013-01-01

    This is an exploratory design study of a novel system for learning programming and 3D role-playing game design as tools for social change. This study was conducted at two sites. Participants in the study were ages 9-14 and worked for up to 15 hours with the platform to learn how to program and design video games with personally or socially…

  9. The Role of Relevancy and Social Suffering in "Generativity" Among Older Post-Soviet Women Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Medeiros, Kate; Rubinstein, Robert; Ermoshkina, Polina

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines generativity, social suffering, and culture change in a sample of 16 women aged 65 years or older who emigrated from the former Soviet Union. Key concerns with generativity are identity, which can be strongly rooted in one's original cultural formation, and a stable life course, which is what ideally enables generative impulses to be cultivated in later life. To better understand how early social suffering may affect later life generativity, we conducted two 90-min interviews with each of our participants on their past experiences and current views of generativity. The trauma of World War II, poor quality of life in the Soviet Union, scarcity of shelter and supplies, and fear of arrest emerged as common components in social suffering, which affected their identity. Overall, the theme of broken links to the future--the sense that their current lives were irrelevant to future generations--was strong among informants in their interviews, pointing to the importance of life course stability in relation to certain forms of generativity. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. A teacher-centered exploration of the relevance of social factors to theory of mind development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Barlow C; Mahfoud, Janina

    2014-02-01

    Many accounts of children's Theory of Mind (ToM) development favor a cognitive explanation, for example, in terms of mental representational improvements at or before 4 years. Here, we investigated whether social factors as rated by a child's teacher, are related to ToM development. We tested 82 children of 3-6 years on each of four ToM tasks, and their class teacher completed a social questionnaire about each child's playing behavior, sharing, talkativeness, confidence, aggressiveness and outgoingness. A measure of task memory and the child's gender were also recorded. Here, children generally passed ToM tasks after 5 years-old, but no one gender performed reliably better than the other. Teacher-rated confidence and playing behavior were correlated to ToM. But in a regression analysis, these were replaced by teacher-rated talkativeness; with age and memory given primacy in both sets of analyses. It is concluded that maturation and cognitive factors may well have primacy but social factors, facilitated during early primary education, must also be given a role in ToM development. © 2013 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The relevance of the ISO26000 social responsibility issues to the Hong Kong construction industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Robyn Barnes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available CorporateSocial Responsibility (CSR, the responsibility of a corporation for theimpacts of its decisions on society and the environment, originated as a termin the 1950’s (Carroll 1999. However, ISO 26000 (ISO 2010“Guidance on Social Responsibility” published in November 2010, redefines “SocialResponsibility” (“SR” broadly, by reference to SR principles, core subjectsand issues. The Hong Kong Construction Industry (“HKCI” sector is critical to Hong Kong’s economy, accounting for5.6% of the GDP and 9.2% of employment in 1999 (Tang 2001. In 2011, the gross value of constructionwork by main contractors amounted to HK$128.53 billion and contributed HK$65.4 billion (HKGov 2013to the total GDP of HK$1,823.2 billion (3.6% (HKTDC 2013.The aim of this research is toinvestigate which ISO 26000 CSR issues are relevantto HKCI firms. Theprinciple findings are that: the reported level of HKCI CSR activity relativeto the 7 core subject of ISO 26000 is a function of company size; many SME’sconsider that many of the ISO 26000 SR issues are irrelevant to them; but forthe large construction contractors, reputation, legislation and or regulation andcorporate culture are drivers of improvements in CSR in the HKCI.

  12. Relevance of workplace social mixing during influenza pandemics: an experimental modelling study of workplace cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpka, T; Eriksson, H; Holm, E; Strömgren, M; Ekberg, J; Spreco, A; Dahlström, Ö

    2016-07-01

    Workplaces are one of the most important regular meeting places in society. The aim of this study was to use simulation experiments to examine the impact of different workplace cultures on influenza dissemination during pandemics. The impact is investigated by experiments with defined social-mixing patterns at workplaces using semi-virtual models based on authentic sociodemographic and geographical data from a North European community (population 136 000). A simulated pandemic outbreak was found to affect 33% of the total population in the community with the reference academic-creative workplace culture; virus transmission at the workplace accounted for 10·6% of the cases. A model with a prevailing industrial-administrative workplace culture generated 11% lower incidence than the reference model, while the model with a self-employed workplace culture (also corresponding to a hypothetical scenario with all workplaces closed) produced 20% fewer cases. The model representing an academic-creative workplace culture with restricted workplace interaction generated 12% lower cumulative incidence compared to the reference model. The results display important theoretical associations between workplace social-mixing cultures and community-level incidence rates during influenza pandemics. Social interaction patterns at workplaces should be taken into consideration when analysing virus transmission patterns during influenza pandemics.

  13. Regulatory relevant and reliable methods and data for determining the environmental fate of manufactured nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baun, Anders; Sayre, Phil; Steinhäuser, Klaus Günter

    2017-01-01

    The widespread use of manufactured nanomaterials (MN) increases the need for describing and predicting their environmental fate and behaviour. A number of recent reviews have addressed the scientific challenges in disclosing the governing processes for the environmental fate and behaviour of MNs,...... data. Gaps do however exist in test methods for environmental fate, such as methods to estimate heteroagglomeration and the tendency for MNs to transform in the environment.......The widespread use of manufactured nanomaterials (MN) increases the need for describing and predicting their environmental fate and behaviour. A number of recent reviews have addressed the scientific challenges in disclosing the governing processes for the environmental fate and behaviour of MNs......, however there has been less focus on the regulatory adequacy of the data available for MN. The aim of this paper is therefore to review data, testing protocols and guidance papers which describe the environmental fate and behaviour of MN with a focus on their regulatory reliability and relevance. Given...

  14. COMPLEMENTARY APPROACHES TO THE DETERMINATION OF ARSENIC SPECIES RELEVANT TO CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion-exchange chromatography is the most often used analytical approach for arsenicspeciation, due to the weak-acid nature of several of its species. However, no singletechnique can determine all potentially occurring arsenic species, especially in complexe...

  15. Making the invisible visible: are health social workers addressing the social determinants of health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Shelley L; Bejan, Raluca; Muskat, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the ways in which health social workers (HSW) address the social determinants of health (SDH) within their social work practice. Social workers (n = 54) employed at major hospitals across Toronto had many years of practice in health care (M = 11 years; SD = 10.32) and indicated that SDH were a top priority in their daily work; with 98% intentionally intervening with at least one and 91% attending to three or more. Health care services were most often addressed (92%), followed by housing (72%), disability (79%), income (72%), and employment security (70%). Few HSW were tackling racism, Aboriginal status, gender, or social exclusion in their daily practice.

  16. Social determinants and the classification of disease: descriptive epidemiology of selected socially mediated disease constellations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S Levine

    Full Text Available Most major diseases have important social determinants. In this context, classification of disease based on etiologic or anatomic criteria may be neither mutually exclusive nor optimal.Units of analysis comprised large metropolitan central and fringe metropolitan counties with reliable mortality rates--(n = 416. Participants included infants and adults ages 25 to 64 years with selected causes of death (1999 to 2006. Exposures included that residential segregation and race-specific social deprivation variables. Main outcome measures were obtained via principal components analyses with an orthogonal rotation to identify a common factor. To discern whether the common factor was socially mediated, negative binomial multiple regression models were developed for which the dependent variable was the common factor. Results showed that infant deaths, mortality from assault, and malignant neoplasm of the trachea, bronchus and lung formed a common factor for race-gender groups (black/white and men/women. Regression analyses showed statistically significant, positive associations between low socio-economic status for all race-gender groups and this common factor.Between 1999 and 2006, deaths classified as "assault" and "lung cancer", as well as "infant mortality" formed a socially mediated factor detectable in population but not individual data. Despite limitations related to death certificate data, the results contribute important information to the formulation of several hypotheses: (a disease classifications based on anatomic or etiologic criteria fail to account for social determinants; (b social forces produce demographically and possibly geographically distinct population-based disease constellations; and (c the individual components of population-based disease constellations (e.g., lung cancer are phenotypically comparable from one population to another but genotypically different, in part, because of socially mediated epigenetic variations

  17. Sex-specific determinants of fitness in a social mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardy, Sophie; Allainé, Dominique; Bonenfant, Christophe; Cohas, Aurélie

    2015-11-01

    Sociality should evolve when the fitness benefits of group living outweigh the costs. Theoretical models predict an optimal group size maximizing individual fitness. However, beyond the number of individuals present in a group, the characteristics of these individuals, like their sex, are likely to affect the fitness payoffs of group living. Using 20 years of individually based data on a social mammal, the Alpine marmot (Marmota marmota), we tested for the occurrence of an optimal group size and composition, and for sex-specific effects of group characteristics on fitness. Based on lifetime data of 52 males and 39 females, our findings support the existence of an optimal group size maximizing male fitness and an optimal group composition maximizing fitness of males and females. Additionally, although group characteristics (i.e., size, composition and instability) affecting male and female fitness differed, fitness depended strongly on the number of same-sex subordinates within the social group in the two sexes. By comparing multiple measures of social group characteristics and of fitness in both sexes, we highlighted the sex-specific determinants of fitness in the two sexes and revealed the crucial role of intrasexual competition in shaping social group composition.

  18. Interventions to improve social determinants of health among elderly ethnic minority groups: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, Michelle S.; Agyemang, Charles O.; Smalbrugge, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Like the European general population, ethnic minorities are aging. In this group, important social determinants of health (social participation, social isolation and loneliness) that lead to negative health outcomes frequently occur. Interventions targeting these determinants may decrease negative

  19. Precision electron-capture energy in {sup 202}Pb and its relevance for neutrino mass determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welker, A. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Filianin, P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Althubiti, N.A.S. [The University of Manchester, School of Physics and Astronomy, Manchester (United Kingdom); Atanasov, D.; Blaum, K.; Eliseev, S.; Kreim, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Cocolios, T.E. [The University of Manchester, School of Physics and Astronomy, Manchester (United Kingdom); KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Leuven (Belgium); Herfurth, F.; Neidherr, D. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Lunney, D. [CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS, Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Manea, V. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Novikov, Yu. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Physics Faculty, St. Petersburg State University (Russian Federation); Rosenbusch, M.; Schweikhard, L.; Wienholtz, F. [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet, Institut fuer Physik, Greifswald (Germany); Wolf, R.N. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); The University of Sydney, ARC Centre of Excellence for Engineered Quantum Systems, Sydney (Australia); Zuber, K. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dresden (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    Within the framework of an extensive programme devoted to the search for alternative candidates for the neutrino mass determination, the atomic mass difference between {sup 202}Pb and {sup 202}Tl has been measured with the Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at the ISOLDE facility at CERN. The obtained value Q{sub EC} = 38.8(43) keV is three times more precise than the AME2012 value. While it will probably not lead to a replacement of {sup 163}Ho in modern experiments on the determination of the electron-neutrino mass, the electron capture in {sup 202}Pb would however allow a determination of the electron-neutrino mass on the few-eV level using a cryogenic micro-calorimeter. (orig.)

  20. Toward identifying a broader range of social cognitive determinants of dietary intentions and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankonen, Nelli; Absetz, Pilvikki; Kinnunen, Marja; Haukkala, Ari; Jallinoja, Piia

    2013-03-01

    Measurement of social cognitive variables is often restricted to long-term and health-related outcomes. A more comprehensive measurement of cognitive determinants would enable evidence-based design of health behavior interventions with a focus on the most relevant targets. The purpose of this study was to examine the relative impact of different social cognitive determinants on fruit and vegetable (FV) and fast food consumption. Finnish male conscripts (N = 855, age M = 20) filled in questionnaires on social cognitive factors when entering the military service, and on food consumption frequency after two months. The data were analysed using structural equation modeling. Physical well-being expectation and bad taste expectation were most strongly related to both FV and fat avoidance intentions. Perceived weight gain risk predicted fat avoidance intention, whereas perceived risk for other health problems predicted FV intention. Social self-efficacy was associated with FV intention only. Consumption of both FV and fast food was predicted by action planning and intention. A more careful evaluation of subtypes of social cognitions sheds light on the specific content behind motivation. Such understanding might help in designing more effective intervention messages. © 2012 The Authors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being © 2012 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  1. The relevance of the social context for media coverage of victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavićević Olivera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Media coverage of human suffering caused by trauma, illness, poverty and disasters worldwide takes up a significant part of media coverage and affects the identity of all actors, both active and passive. Media presentation shapes our thinking and reasoning at the group level, and has far reached impact. The social context of media reporting on victims is shaped by the capacity of the social system to recognize, acknowledge, strengthen and protect the victim. As an aspect of this capacity, media coverage of victims is indicator of victimization visibility. This paper discusses nature of media reporting as a phenomenon appearing in various forms as per given sources of victimization, and the ethical aspects of media presentation of victims. The aim of the paper is to contribute to the critical analysis of the media coverage of victims, by reconsidering an increased visibility of victims and their suffering, which is generated by media reporting, and whose dominant characteristic is presenting victims in the interpretative and performing manner.

  2. The Relevance of Social Theory in the Practice of Environmental Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Richard

    2016-10-01

    In this paper I argue that the dominance of certain paradigms and theories on policies can have an influence on the value added by impact assessments. A link exists between paradigms and theories and policies and consequently the practices humans develop to tackle real world problems. I also argue that different types of thinking (contained in paradigms and theories) need to be integrated, at least at the scientific level, to enhance our understanding of social phenomena. This in turn can have a positive influence on policy processes that follow impact assessment recommendations. I am not arguing for the adoption of theoretical positions by practitioners, Instead, I contend that if impact assessments are informed by a variety of paradigms and theories, the policy practitioner might have a better understanding of the issue and the moral choices he or she needs to make. I will highlight the connection between theory and policies with practical examples from the social impact assessment of the De Hoop Dam, which was constructed on the Steelpoort River. I also argue for an integration of different theories to give a deeper understanding of real world problems.

  3. Survivorship and Inheritance Rights for Same-Gender Couples: Relevance to Social Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Cordero

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Californians voted in November 2008 to ban the right to same-gender marriage in California. This paper summarizes data on changes in societal attitudes relative to homosexuals, same-gender couples, and their civil rights as reflected in Gallup and Princeton Survey Research Associates International poll data over the years through 2011. These findings report deeply entrenched and enduring divisions in American attitudes toward the rights and status of same-gender couples. Although historically a majority of Americans has consistently opposed same-gender marriage, Americans increasingly recognize the need to extend equality to same-gender couples in the form of employment rights, inheritance rights, Social Security, and health insurance benefits. This article explores existing and proposed policies regarding the rights of same-gender couples. In addition, it examines the implications and opportunities for advocacy by social workers who face the challenge of navigating the legal and personal obstacles that arise when their client’s same-gender relationships are not sanctioned by law.

  4. The relevance of social contexts and social action in reducing substance use and victimization among women participating in an HIV prevention intervention in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed E

    2013-06-01

    community on issues relevant to substance use prevention or other health topics promoted within the program, as well as outside social influences within women's life contexts (eg, support from non-substance using family or male partners, leaving male partners or other peer relationships characterized by drug use, or finding employment were key factors reported by women in terms of facilitating their substance use abstinence and in reducing women's exposures to victimization. Conclusion: Findings highlight the potential for group-delivered interventions that include mobilizing women to take social action in the larger community to be effective approaches for facilitating substance use abstinence, reductions in victimization, and ultimately, to address the intersection between substance use, violence, and HIV risk among women in this high HIV prevalence setting. Keywords: HIV prevention, substance use, social context, women

  5. [Relevance of personal contextual factors of the ICF for use in practical social medicine and rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotkamp, S; Cibis, W; Bahemann, A; Baldus, A; Behrens, J; Nyffeler, I D; Echterhoff, W; Fialka-Moser, V; Fries, W; Fuchs, H; Gmünder, H P; Gutenbrunner, C; Keller, K; Nüchtern, E; Pöthig, D; Queri, S; Rentsch, H P; Rink, M; Schian, H-M; Schian, M; Schmitt, K; Schwarze, M; Ulrich, P; von Mittelstaedt, G; Seger, W

    2014-03-01

    Personal contextual factors play an essential part in the model of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The WHO has not yet classified personal factors for global use although they impact on the functioning of persons positively or negatively. In 2010, the ICF working group of the German Society of Social Medicine and Prevention (DGSMP) presented a proposal for the classification of personal factors into 72 categories previously arranged in 6 chapters. Now a positioning paper has been added in order to stimulate a discussion about the fourth component of the ICF, to contribute towards a broader and common understanding about the nature of personal factors and to incite a dialogue among all those involved in health care as well as those people with or with-out health problems in order to gain a comprehensive perspective about a person's condition. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. More reasons to be straightforward: findings and norms for two scales relevant to social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Heimberg, Richard G; Brown, Patrick J; Fernandez, Katya C; Blanco, Carlos; Schneier, Franklin R; Liebowitz, Michael R

    2011-06-01

    The validity of both the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation scale has been well-supported, yet the scales have a small number of reverse-scored items that may detract from the validity of their total scores. The current study investigates two characteristics of participants that may be associated with compromised validity of these items: higher age and lower levels of education. In community and clinical samples, the validity of each scale's reverse-scored items was moderated by age, years of education, or both. The straightforward items did not show this pattern. To encourage the use of the straightforward items of these scales, we provide normative data from the same samples as well as two large student samples. We contend that although response bias can be a substantial problem, the reverse-scored questions of these scales do not solve that problem and instead decrease overall validity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Determinants of Thailand household healthcare expenditure: the relevance of permanent resources and other correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okunade, Albert A; Suraratdecha, Chutima; Benson, David A

    2010-03-01

    Several papers in the leading health economics journals modeled the determinants of healthcare expenditure using household survey or family budgets data of developed countries. Past work largely used self-reported current income as the core determinant, whereas the theoretically correct concept of household resource constraint is permanent or long-run income (á lá Milton Friedman). This paper strives to rectify the theoretical oversight of using current income by augmenting the model with household asset. Using longitudinal data, we constructed 'wealth index' as a distinct covariate to capture the households' tendency to liquidate assets when defraying necessary healthcare liabilities after exhausting cash incomes. (Current income and assets together capture the household expanded resource base). Using 98 632 household observations from Thailand Socio-Economic Surveys (1994-2000 biennial data cycles) we found, using a double-hurdle model with dependent errors, that out-of-pocket healthcare spending behaves as a technical necessity across income quintiles and household sizes. Pre-1997 economic shock income elasticities are smaller than the post-shock estimates across income quintiles for large and small households. Proximity to death, median age, and assets are also among other significant determinants. Our novel findings extend the theoretical consistency of a multi-level decision model in household healthcare expenditure in the developing Asian country context. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Cultural, behavioral, social, and psychological perceptions of saliva: relevance to clinical diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Sean; Wong, David T

    2006-04-01

    The search for a resource that can be used to detect a broad range of diseases easily and reliably is akin to a search for the diagnostic Holy Grail. Yet, each of us may have inside our mouths, a key to the pathological and disease biomarker library hidden inside our bodies. Saliva--the source of all this information--is the secretory product of glands located in or around the oral cavity. If one could read the stories of diagnostic information present within saliva, then the abundance of information waiting to be found could be comparable to a vast vault of information, such as the Internet. Upon dissection of this data, it would be seen that the source of this information is from saliva's origin as a filtrate of blood, and that the validity of both mediums should be equal. Although one day this may be the view, most people's hold of saliva, current and past cultures, have fared much more diverse meanings to the secretion. Ivan Pavlov's experiments has shown how closely tied salivation is with the thought of food, one of life's primary indulgences. The relationship between salivation and behaviors within our daily lives is undeniable. Yet most people never appreciate the uniqueness of saliva. Throughout the world, saliva carries definite positive and negative connotations, based upon its social, psychological, behavioral, and cultural settings. The thought of saliva may be viewed as grotesque in one population, yet may be the vehicle of blessing in other cultures. Saliva's double nature brings up some interesting cultural, social, behavioral, and psychological points about how saliva is perceived in the world, some of which are subsequently stated in order to present saliva as the spirited fluid it is.

  9. Quality of life in people with Parkinson's disease: the relevance of social relationships and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kayoko; Kamide, Naoto; Suzuki, Makoto; Fukuda, Michinari

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Maintaining high quality of life is crucial for the rehabilitation of patients with Parkinson's disease. The quality of life scales currently in use do not assess all quality of life domains or their importance for each individual. Therefore, a new quality of life measure, the Schedule for the Evaluation of Individual Quality of Life-Direct Weighting, was used to investigate quality of life in people with Parkinson's disease. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen people with idiopathic Parkinson's disaese (average age = 80.0 years, standard deviation = 10.3 years, Hoehn & Yahr stages 1-4) were interviewed using the Schedule for the Evaluation of Individual Quality of Life-Direct Weighting. Its quality of life constructs were tested by comparing them against disease-specific quality of life (39-items Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire), motor functioning (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III), and activities of daily living (Barthel Index). [Results] Social connections such as "family" and "friends" were revealed as important constructs of life satisfaction. The Schedule for the Evaluation of Individual Quality of Life-Direct Weighting was not significantly correlated with the 39-items Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III, or Barthel Index but was significantly correlated with the "communication" dimension of the 39-items Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire. [Conclusion] The Schedule for the Evaluation of Individual Quality of Life-Direct Weighting detected various domains of quality of life, especially social relationships with family and friends. "Being heard" was also revealed as an essential component of life satisfaction, as it provides patients with a feeling of acceptance and assurance, possibly resulting in better quality of life.

  10. Reflections on Theories of Social Optimization and Their Relevance for Future City Management in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiro Higano

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The paradigm of laissez-faire economy presumes that economic agents know efficient loci for input-output combinations and rationally act in the market by following their subjective values. Economy is efficiently organized and given dynamic forces to grow at its own risk. As a result, the greatest happiness for a great number is attained. It is difficult to correctly answer the question, why should we consider city management? Of course, the paradigm will not work in a city due to congestion and agglomeration as well as specificity of location. However, it is not sufficient to consider only subsidiary taxes and subsidy systems like Pigouvian prescriptions that lead the market equilibrium to a Pareto Optimum.In a mature economy such as the Japanese economy that faces a long depression under pressure of aging and decreasing population, there are few investable targets as long as it is taken for granted that the paradigm should be maintained. Moreover, in a globalized economy, cities must compete against their rivals. This means not only efficiency of activities in the Pareto sense in the city but a higher absolute level of activity must be realized.In this study, we focused on external costs and benefits that accrue through the activities of economic agents in a city. We argue that activities should be managed and controlled so external benefits are generated to a maximum extent and the activity level of the city is also maximized. KEYWORDS: Theories of social benefits, socially optimum optimorum, city management, urban future Japan

  11. Social inequalities in blindness and visual impairment: A review of social determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rius

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Health inequities are related to social determinants based on gender, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, race, living in a specific geographic region, or having a specific health condition. Such inequities were reviewed for blindness and visual impairment by searching for studies on the subject in PubMed from 2000 to 2011 in the English and Spanish languages. The goal of this article is to provide a current review in understanding how inequities based specifically on the aforementioned social determinants on health influence the prevalence of visual impairment and blindness. With regards to gender inequality, women have a higher prevalence of visual impairment and blindness, which cannot be only reasoned based on age or access to service. Socioeconomic status measured as higher income, higher educational status, or non-manual occupational social class was inversely associated with prevalence of blindness or visual impairment. Ethnicity and race were associated with visual impairment and blindness, although there is general confusion over this socioeconomic position determinant. Geographic inequalities and visual impairment were related to income (of the region, nation or continent, living in a rural area, and an association with socioeconomic and political context was suggested. While inequalities related to blindness and visual impairment have rarely been specifically addressed in research, there is still evidence of the association of social determinants and prevalence of blindness and visual impairment. Additional research should be done on the associations with intermediary determinants and socioeconomic and political context.

  12. Social inequalities in blindness and visual impairment: A review of social determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulldemolins, Anna Rius; Lansingh, Van C; Valencia, Laura Guisasola; Carter, Marissa J; Eckert, Kristen A

    2012-01-01

    Health inequities are related to social determinants based on gender, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, race, living in a specific geographic region, or having a specific health condition. Such inequities were reviewed for blindness and visual impairment by searching for studies on the subject in PubMed from 2000 to 2011 in the English and Spanish languages. The goal of this article is to provide a current review in understanding how inequities based specifically on the aforementioned social determinants on health influence the prevalence of visual impairment and blindness. With regards to gender inequality, women have a higher prevalence of visual impairment and blindness, which cannot be only reasoned based on age or access to service. Socioeconomic status measured as higher income, higher educational status, or non-manual occupational social class was inversely associated with prevalence of blindness or visual impairment. Ethnicity and race were associated with visual impairment and blindness, although there is general confusion over this socioeconomic position determinant. Geographic inequalities and visual impairment were related to income (of the region, nation or continent), living in a rural area, and an association with socioeconomic and political context was suggested. While inequalities related to blindness and visual impairment have rarely been specifically addressed in research, there is still evidence of the association of social determinants and prevalence of blindness and visual impairment. Additional research should be done on the associations with intermediary determinants and socioeconomic and political context. PMID:22944744

  13. The relevance of social media as it applies in South Africa to crime prediction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Featherstone, Coral

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available of data gathering, prediction and spotting broader patterns. An assessment is done to determine if South African people are already using Twitter to report crime and to find out what information they are sharing, with the goal of estabishing whether...

  14. The social and behavioural determinants of health in Europe: findings from the European Social Survey (2014) special module on the social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijts, Tim; Stornes, Per; Eikemo, Terje A; Bambra, Clare

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies comparing the social and behavioural determinants of health in Europe have largely focused on individual countries or combined data from various national surveys. In this article, we present the findings from the new rotating module on social determinants of health in the European Social Survey (ESS) (2014) to obtain the first comprehensive comparison of estimates on the prevalence of the following social and behavioural determinants of health: working conditions, access to healthcare, housing quality, unpaid care, childhood conditions and health behaviours. We used the 7th round of the ESS. We present separate results for men and women. All estimates were age-standardized in each separate country using a consistent metric. We show country-specific results as well as pooled estimates for the combined cross-national sample. We found that social and behavioural factors that have a clear impact on physical and mental health, such as lack of healthcare access, risk behaviour and poor working conditions, are reported by substantial numbers of people in most European countries. Furthermore, our results highlight considerable cross-national variation in social and behavioural determinants of health across European countries. Substantial numbers of Europeans are exposed to social and behavioural determinants of health problems. Moreover, the extent to which people experience these social and behavioural factors varies cross-nationally. Future research should examine in more detail how these factors are associated with physical and mental health outcomes, and how these associations vary across countries. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  15. Egalitarian policies and social determinants of health in Bolivarian Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Caries; Benach, Joan; Páez Victor, María; Ng, Edwin; Chung, Haejoo

    2013-01-01

    In 1999, newly-elected Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez initiated a far-reaching social movement as part of a political project known as the Bolivarian Revolution. Inspired by the democratic ideologies of Simón Bolívar, this movement was committed to reducing intractable inequalities that defined Venezuela's Fourth Republic (1958-1998). Given the ambitious scope of these reforms, Venezuela serves as an instructive example to understand the political context of social inequalities and population health. In this article, we provide a brief overview of the impact of egalitarian policies in Venezuela, stressing: (a) the socialist reforms and social class changes initiated by the Bolivarian Movement; (b) the impact of these reforms and changes on poverty and social determinants of health; (c) the sustainability of economic growth to continue pro-poor policies; and (d) the implications of egalitarian policies for other Latin American countries. The significance and implications of Chávez's achievements are now further underscored given his recent passing, leading one to ask whether political support for Bolivarianism will continue without its revolutionary leader.

  16. Status of reliability in determining SDDR for manual maintenance activities in ITER: Quality assessment of relevant activation cross sections involved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, R.; Garcia, M.; Pampin, R.; Sanz, J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Feasibility of manual maintenance activities in ITER port cell and port interspace. • Activation of relevant materials and components placed in the current ITER model. • Dominant radionuclides and pathways for shutdown dose rate in ITER. • Quality analysis of typically used EAF and TENDL activation libraries is performed. • EAF performance found as trustworthy with slight recommended improvements. - Abstract: This paper assesses the quality of the EAF-2007 and 2010 activation cross sections for relevant reactions in the determination of the Shutdown Dose Rate (SDDR) in the Port Cell (PC) and Port Interspace (PI) areas of ITER. For each of relevant ITER materials, dominant radionuclides responsible of SDDR and their production pathways are listed. This information comes from a review of the recent reports/papers about SDDR in ITER and own calculations. A total of 26 relevant pathways are found. The quality of these cross sections pathways is assessed following EAF validation procedure, and for those found as not validated last TENDL library versions have been investigated in order to check possible improvements when compared to EAF. The use of EAF libraries is found as trustworthy and it is recommended for the prediction of SDDR in the ITER PC and PI. However, 3 cross section reactions are considered for further improvement: Co59(n,2n)Co58, Cu63(n,g)Cu64 and Cr50(n,g)Cr51.

  17. Status of reliability in determining SDDR for manual maintenance activities in ITER: Quality assessment of relevant activation cross sections involved

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, R., E-mail: rgarciam@ind.uned.es [UNED, Power Engineering Department, C/Juan del Rosal 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Garcia, M. [UNED, Power Engineering Department, C/Juan del Rosal 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Pampin, R. [F4E, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Barcelona (Spain); Sanz, J. [UNED, Power Engineering Department, C/Juan del Rosal 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Feasibility of manual maintenance activities in ITER port cell and port interspace. • Activation of relevant materials and components placed in the current ITER model. • Dominant radionuclides and pathways for shutdown dose rate in ITER. • Quality analysis of typically used EAF and TENDL activation libraries is performed. • EAF performance found as trustworthy with slight recommended improvements. - Abstract: This paper assesses the quality of the EAF-2007 and 2010 activation cross sections for relevant reactions in the determination of the Shutdown Dose Rate (SDDR) in the Port Cell (PC) and Port Interspace (PI) areas of ITER. For each of relevant ITER materials, dominant radionuclides responsible of SDDR and their production pathways are listed. This information comes from a review of the recent reports/papers about SDDR in ITER and own calculations. A total of 26 relevant pathways are found. The quality of these cross sections pathways is assessed following EAF validation procedure, and for those found as not validated last TENDL library versions have been investigated in order to check possible improvements when compared to EAF. The use of EAF libraries is found as trustworthy and it is recommended for the prediction of SDDR in the ITER PC and PI. However, 3 cross section reactions are considered for further improvement: Co59(n,2n)Co58, Cu63(n,g)Cu64 and Cr50(n,g)Cr51.

  18. Latin American Social Medicine and the Report of the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAFAEL GONZALEZ GUZMAN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In October 2008 the Latin American Social Medicine Association (ALAMES organized an international workshop entitled “The Social Determinants of Health.” Representatives of ALAMES’ seven regions participated in discussions of the various consultative papers prepared by the working groups of the WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health as well as the Commission’s final report. The workshop considered how ALAMES should respond to the work of the Commission. In this paper we summarize the main points outlined in the position paper prepared by the Organizing Committee1 as well as a synopsis of the main contributions made by each of the workshop’s study sections.

  19. Relevant teaching in higher education: an exercise from complexity theory in the social work profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Molina Correa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The requirements of our globalized world and the advancement of the teaching science show didactics as a fundamental category defined as the scientific discipline with principles, laws, theoretical and methodological frameworks, creatively modeling the pedagogical intervention in the academic environment.The implementation of the research "Teaching focused on the development of superior thinking and meaningful learning in students of first semester of Social Work Program", set the goal: Qualify the personal life and student projects from the acknowledgement of potentials of the subjects, for the development of competences meaningful to life. This is a research experience that has been developed since 2009 at Simon Bolivar University in the District of Barranquilla.The didactics was based on the development of superior thinking cognitive-process-centered, for the processing of information, creativity, readings of the reality of contexts, expounded/voiced subjectivities of life projects of students, the incorporation of TIC, in order to approach a humanizing and contextualized pedagogical practice. The critical theory was used in this research as a part of its epistemological basis for understanding and building a new academic scenario.The methodology used is the action with techniques such as mind mapping, dialogues, and stories of life, field works, and contents analysis, among others. The data analysis was guided by the hermeneutics as a possibility for the understanding and interpretation of the events that occurred in the classroom.

  20. Spectrometric determination of clinically relevant fatty acids in the blood serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinin, A. V.; Krasheninnikov, V. N.; Sviridov, A. P.; Titov, V. N.

    2017-01-01

    The content of fatty acid (FA) triglycerides in food and biological media is predicting traditionally using gas and liquid chromatographic methods. Named techniques aren't available for clinical labs due to their complexity. So, our objective was to develop the method and apparatus for rapid assay of a few clinically important FA as the saturated palmitic, mono unsaturated oleic and others in serum using near infrared spectrometer. As a result, the applicability of the FT spectrometer in the wavelength range of 0.9 -1.8 μ to analyze these FA in serum without sample preparation was confirmed. Besides, measurement specifications were determined and a correlations of the absorption spectra and contents of total triglycerides and cholesterol, palmitic, oleic, linoleic and arachidonic FA in serum were established

  1. Social Determinants of Education in the Postmodern Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Mühlpachr

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The main problem of postmodern society is how to deal with plurality, heterogeneity, and different lifestyles, values, experiences, specialization of sciences, and worldwide social developments, so that it would contribute to human dignity in a society. It is necessary to innovate teacher training and teacher readiness to help the young generation to deal with the choices and current social problems. The following social changes must be considered as determinants of all educational activities. 1. Freedom of speech, great possibilities to travel, enormous flow of information (sometimes antagonistic, mass advertising of all kinds of goods creates unrealistic vision of reality. 2. Economic growth is seen as the main priority of present society, justifying all means of reaching prosperity. 3. Parental care is reduced to ensuring satisfaction of material needs of their children, due to overwork and exhaustion. 4. Atrophy of emotionality and repression of emotions in favor of desired performance. That is why only very strong events break into ones mind and we need constantly stronger, more shocking experiences and stimuli. 5. Pressure on the family budget rises, and the number of free time activities provided by schools and educational institutions free of charge decreases. This represents a great barrier for many children in participating in free time activities. 6. New concepts of family coexistence, where parental roles constantly change lead to distorted socialization. 7. Recent school systems concentrate on efficiency of educational processes, performance, and reaching the required level of knowledge, but do not effectively manage social deviations of an individual. The difficulty of the situation of a young individual is obvious and should be considered in all educational contexts.

  2. Wet flue gas desulphurisation procedures and relevant solvents thermophysical properties determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Nikola V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to mitigate climate change, the priority task is to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, including sulfur oxides, from stationary power plants. The legal framework of the European Union has limited the allowable emissions of gases with harmful effects and fulfillment of this obligation is also ahead of the Republic of Serbia in the following years. In this paper categorization of wet procedures for sulfur oxides removal is given. Wet procedure with the most widespread industrial application, lime/limestone process, has been described in detail. In addition, the procedures with chemical and physical absorption and solvent thermal regeneration, which recently gained more importance, have been presented. Experimentally determined thermophysical and transport properties of commercially used and alternative solvents, necessary for the equipment design and process optimization, are also given in the paper. The obtained values of densities and viscosities of pure chemicals - solvents, polyethylene glycol 200 (PEG 200, polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400, tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDMA, N-methyl-2-pyrolidon (NMP and dimethylaniline (DMA, measured at the atmospheric pressure, are presented as a function of temperature. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172063

  3. Of 'disgrace' and 'pain'--corticolimbic interaction patterns for disorder-relevant and emotional words in social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laeger, Inga; Dobel, Christian; Radenz, Britta; Kugel, Harald; Keuper, Kati; Eden, Annuschka; Arolt, Volker; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Dannlowski, Udo; Zwanzger, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Limbic hyperactivation and an impaired functional interplay between the amygdala and the prefrontal cortex are discussed to go along with, or even cause, pathological anxiety. Within the multi-faceted group of anxiety disorders, the highly prevalent social phobia (SP) is characterized by excessive fear of being negatively evaluated. Although there is widespread evidence for amygdala hypersensitivity to emotional faces in SP, verbal material has rarely been used in imaging studies, in particular with an eye on disorder-specificity. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a block design consisting of (1) overall negative, (2) social-phobia related, (3) positive, and (4) neutral words, we studied 25 female patients with social phobia and 25 healthy female control subjects (HC). Results demonstrated amygdala hyperactivation to disorder-relevant but not to generally negative words in SP patients, with a positive correlation to symptom severity. A functional connectivity analysis revealed a weaker coupling between the amygdala and the left middle frontal gyrus in patients. Symptom severity was negatively related to connectivity strength between the amygdala and the ventromedial prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann Area 10 and 11). The findings clearly support the view of a hypersensitive threat-detection system, combined with disorder-related alterations in amygdala-prefrontal cortex connectivity in pathological anxiety.

  4. The relationship between passibility, agency and social interaction and its relevance for research and pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirch, Susan A.; Ma, Jasmine Y.

    2016-12-01

    The interaction analysis presented by Kim and Roth examines nine students, their teachers, the learning task and materials in a mixed second and third grade science classroom during the school day. In the research narrative readers are introduced to two resourceful and creative groups of students as they work on a task assigned by their teacher—to cantilever a pizza box over the edge of a student desk. Readers are given glimpses (through images and transcripts) of the inventive ways each group solved the cantilever problem. Sometimes the children disregarded the design constraints, but even after compliance they managed to successfully solve the problem. The point of the learning task was not clearly stated, but readers are told the unit focused on investigating forces, forces in equilibrium, and structures as well as different forces (push, pull, etc.), properties of materials, and the relations between weight and balance while building structures. Kim and Roth were specifically interested in using this session to investigate and resolve the problem of learning as described by socio-cultural theorists as, how does a learner orient toward a learning outcome when they cannot do that until they have learned it? To answer this question Kim and Roth argued that learners (in engineering design) learn when and because: (1) they are open to be affected by the responses of materials to student action (i.e. student and material agency and physical touch) (2) their bodies are endowed with the capacity to be affected (i.e. passibility), and (3) knowledge and understanding emerge as and in social relations first. In their analysis, Kim and Roth argued that knowledge and knowing-how depend on these three universal processes. The authors further theorized the concept of passibility. Included in their theory of passibility was the claim that passibility is necessary for agency. After reading this paper we found we had many questions about Kim and Roth's analysis, context, and

  5. A systematic approach to analyze the social determinants of cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Mireya; Salinas-Ortega, Magaly; Estrada-Arriaga, Iván; Hernández-Lemus, Enrique; García-Herrera, Rodrigo

    2018-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of human mortality worldwide. Among the many factors associated with the etiology, incidence, and evolution of such diseases; social and environmental issues constitute an important and often overlooked component. Understanding to a greater extent the scope to which such social determinants of cardiovascular diseases (SDCVD) occur as well as the connections among them would be useful for public health policy making. Here, we will explore the historical trends and associations among the main SDCVD in the published literature. Our aim will be finding meaningful relations among those that will help us to have an integrated view on this complex phenomenon by providing historical context and a relational framework. To uncover such relations, we used a data mining approach to the current literature, followed by network analysis of the interrelationships discovered. To this end, we systematically mined the PubMed/MEDLINE database for references of published studies on the subject, as outlined by the World Health Organization’s framework on social determinants of health. The analyzed structured corpus consisted in circa 1190 articles categorized by means of the Medical Subheadings (MeSH) content-descriptor. The use of data analytics techniques allowed us to find a number of non-trivial connections among SDCVDs. Such relations may be relevant to get a deeper understanding of the social and environmental issues associated with cardiovascular disease and are often overlooked by traditional literature survey approaches, such as systematic reviews and meta-analyses. PMID:29370200

  6. A systematic approach to analyze the social determinants of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Mireya; Salinas-Ortega, Magaly; Estrada-Arriaga, Iván; Hernández-Lemus, Enrique; García-Herrera, Rodrigo; Vallejo, Maite

    2018-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of human mortality worldwide. Among the many factors associated with the etiology, incidence, and evolution of such diseases; social and environmental issues constitute an important and often overlooked component. Understanding to a greater extent the scope to which such social determinants of cardiovascular diseases (SDCVD) occur as well as the connections among them would be useful for public health policy making. Here, we will explore the historical trends and associations among the main SDCVD in the published literature. Our aim will be finding meaningful relations among those that will help us to have an integrated view on this complex phenomenon by providing historical context and a relational framework. To uncover such relations, we used a data mining approach to the current literature, followed by network analysis of the interrelationships discovered. To this end, we systematically mined the PubMed/MEDLINE database for references of published studies on the subject, as outlined by the World Health Organization's framework on social determinants of health. The analyzed structured corpus consisted in circa 1190 articles categorized by means of the Medical Subheadings (MeSH) content-descriptor. The use of data analytics techniques allowed us to find a number of non-trivial connections among SDCVDs. Such relations may be relevant to get a deeper understanding of the social and environmental issues associated with cardiovascular disease and are often overlooked by traditional literature survey approaches, such as systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

  7. Men's Mental Health: Social Determinants and Implications for Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affleck, William; Carmichael, Victoria; Whitley, Rob

    2018-01-01

    Numerous scholars have stated that there is a silent crisis in men's mental health. In this article, we aim to provide an overview of core issues in the field of men's mental health, including a discussion of key social determinants as well as implications for mental health services. Firstly, we review the basic epidemiology of mental disorders with a high incidence and prevalence in men, including suicide and substance use disorder. Secondly, we examine controversies around the low reported rates of depression in men, discussing possible measurement and reporting biases. Thirdly, we explore common risk factors and social determinants that may explain higher rates of certain mental health outcomes in men. This includes a discussion of 1) occupational and employment issues; 2) family issues and divorce; 3) adverse childhood experience; and 4) other life transitions, notably parenthood. Fourthly, we document and analyze low rates of mental health service utilization in men. This includes a consideration of the role of dominant notions of masculinity (such as stubbornness and self-reliance) in deterring service utilization. Fifthly, we note that some discourse on the role of masculinity contains much "victim blaming," often adopting a reproachful deficit-based model. We argue that this can deflect attention away from social determinants as well as issues within the mental health system, such as claims that it is "feminized" and unresponsive to men's needs. We conclude by calling for a multipronged public health-inspired approach to improve men's mental health, involving concerted action at the individual, health services, and societal levels.

  8. Chaos as a Social Determinant of Child Health: Reciprocal Associations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeer, Kammi K.; Taylor, Miles

    2013-01-01

    This study informs the social determinants of child health by exploring an understudied aspect of children’s social contexts: chaos. Chaos has been conceptualized as crowded, noisy, disorganized, unpredictable settings for child development (Evans et al., 2010). We measure chaos at two levels of children’s ecological environment - the microsystem (household) and the mesosystem (work-family-child care nexus) – and at two points in early childhood (ages 3 and 5). Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N=3288), a study of predominantly low-income women and their partners in large US cities, we develop structural equation models that assess how maternal-rated child health (also assessed at ages 3 and 5) is associated with latent constructs of chaos, and whether there are important reciprocal effects. Autoregressive crosslagged path analysis suggest that increasing chaos (at both the household and maternal work levels) is associated with worse child health, controlling for key confounders like household economic status, family structure, and maternal health status. Child health has little effect on chaos, providing further support for the hypothesis that chaos is an important social determinant of child health in this sample of relatively disadvantaged children. This suggests child health may be improved by supporting families in ways that reduce chaos in their home and work/family environments, and that as researchers move beyond SES, race, and family structure to explore other sources of health inequalities, chaos and its proximate determinants may be a promising avenue for future research. PMID:23541250

  9. Social determinants of health, inequality and social inclusion among people with disabilities1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorati, Regina Celia; Elui, Valeria Meirelles Carril

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to analyze the socio-familial and community inclusion and social participation of people with disabilities, as well as their inclusion in occupations in daily life. METHOD: qualitative study with data collected through open interviews concerning the participants' life histories and systematic observation. The sample was composed of ten individuals with acquired or congenital disabilities living in the region covered by a Family Health Center. The social conception of disability was the theoretical framework used. Data were analyzed according to an interpretative reconstructive approach based on Habermas' Theory of Communicative Action. RESULTS: the results show that the socio-familial and community inclusion of the study participants is conditioned to the social determinants of health and present high levels of social inequality expressed by difficult access to PHC and rehabilitation services, work and income, education, culture, transportation and social participation. CONCLUSION: there is a need to develop community-centered care programs in cooperation with PHC services aiming to cope with poverty and improve social inclusion. PMID:26039305

  10. Biological psychological and social determinants of old age: Bio-psycho-social aspects of human aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Dziechciaż

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Biological psychological and social determinants of old age: Bio-psycho-social aspects of human aging. The aging of humans is a physiological and dynamic process ongoing with time. In accordance with most gerontologists’ assertions it starts in the fourth decade of life and leads to death. The process of human aging is complex and individualized, occurs in the biological, psychological and social sphere. Biological aging is characterized by progressive age-changes in metabolism and physicochemical properties of cells, leading to impaired self-regulation, regeneration, and to structural changes and functional tissues and organs. It is a natural and irreversible process which can run as successful aging, typical or pathological. Biological changes that occur with age in the human body affect mood, attitude to the environment, physical condition and social activity, and designate the place of seniors in the family and society. Psychical ageing refers to human awareness and his adaptability to the ageing process. Among adaptation attitudes we can differentiate: constructive, dependence, hostile towards others and towards self attitudes. With progressed age, difficulties with adjustment to the new situation are increasing, adverse changes in the cognitive and intellectual sphere take place, perception process involutes, perceived sensations and information received is lowered, and thinking processes change. Social ageing is limited to the role of an old person is culturally conditioned and may change as customs change. Social ageing refers to how a human being perceives the ageing process and how society sees it.

  11. Social class, gender, and time use: implications for the social determinants of body weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Lindsay; Godley, Jenny; MacNairn, Ian A S

    2009-12-01

    The social gradient in body weight (for example, obesity) departs from the social gradient in other health outcomes. Innovative approaches are needed to understand the observed patterns. This study examines time-use patterns by indicators of socio-economic position, and considers the implications of variations in time use for the social gradient in weight reported in other studies. The data are from respondents aged 25 to 64 to Canada's 1986 and 2005 General Social Surveys, which focused on time use. Participation in various activities was examined by sex, and by personal income and education, stratified by sex, in both years. Higher-income men and women were more likely than those of lower income to spend time in paid work, commuting and eating out, and less likely to spend time sleeping. Men and women with higher education were more likely than those with lower education to spend time in physical activity (2005 only) and reading. These time-use patterns plausibly contribute to the social gradient in obesity reported in other Canadian studies. The findings suggest that there is value in looking beyond a narrow range of health behaviours toward broader measures of daily routines to gain insight into the social determinants of weight and health.

  12. Social support and marginalization as determinants of prenatal care in women with social security in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Cisneros, Maritza; Medina-Gómez, Oswaldo Sinoe

    2018-01-01

    Prenatal care ensures favorable results for maternal-fetal health and, to that end, it must be provided early, periodically, comprehensively and with high coverage. To find out the social determinants of prenatal care in women affiliated to the Mexican Institute of Social Security during 2014. Cross-sectional study where the association of social conditions, social support and family functioning with inadequate prenatal care was analyzed. A descriptive analysis was performed; hypothesis tests were used with chi-square (95% level of confidence). The prevalence ratio and Mann-Whitney's U-test were estimated to compare medians and logistic regression. Of the interviewed women, 58.1% had inadequate prenatal care, mainly associated with unplanned pregnancy, poor social support, low level of education and higher marginalization. Not having leaves of absence granted by employers was the main barrier in those women who did not attend health services. There is a need for strategies to be designed and implemented to enable understanding the interaction between different biological and social dimensions of the health-disease process and reduce health inequities that affect pregnant women, in order to achieve good prenatal care and to implement alternative models guaranteeing its efficiency. Copyright: © 2018 SecretarÍa de Salud.

  13. DNA repair pathways involved in determining the level of cytotoxicity of environmentally relevant UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, L.

    2000-01-01

    The sensitivity of cell lines with defects in various DNA repair processes to different wavelengths of UV has been assessed in order to determine the importance of these repair pathways to the cytotoxicity of UV light. The cell lines used in this work were xrs-6 (a Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell line) mutant for XRCC5/Ku80, EM9 a CHO cell line mutant for XRCC1, UV61 a CHO cell line mutant for ERCC6/CSB, and E3p53-/-, a mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line null for p53. Xrs-6 (defective in Non Homologous End-Joining) was found to be sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of broadband UVA, but not narrowband UVA or narrowband UVB. EM9 (defective in Base Excision Repair/Single-Strand Break Repair) was not sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of both broadband and narrowband UVA, narrowband UVB or narrowband UVC. UV61 (defective in the Transcription Coupled Repair branch of Nucleotide Excision Repair) was sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of narrowband UVA, UVB and UVC. E3p53-/- was sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of narrowband UVA and UVB. Broadband UVA was found to induce high levels of chromosomal damage in xrs-6, as quantified by the micronucleus assay, most likely as a result of this cell lines inability to repair DNA double strand breaks. EM9 was found to be defective in the repair of broadband UVA-induced single strand breaks, as measured by the alkaline gel electrophoresis ('comet') assay. UV61 was unable to repair broadband UVB-induced DNA damage as measured by the alkaline gel electrophoresis ('comet') assay. These results provide evidence that: 1. DNA double-strand breaks contribute to the cytotoxicity of UVA to a greater extent than single-strand breaks. 2. Repair mechanisms that operate in response to UVA may be coupled to transcription. 3. UVB may directly induce SSBs. 4. P53 is involved in the response of the cell to both UVA and UVB radiation. (author)

  14. Social determinants of prescribed and non-prescribed medicine use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Altés Anna

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to describe the use of prescribed and non prescribed medicines in a non-institutionalised population older than 15 years of an urban area during the year 2000, in terms of age and gender, social class, employment status and type of Primary Health Care. Methods Cross-sectional study. Information came from the 2000 Barcelona Health Interview Survey. The indicators used were the prevalence of use of prescribed and non-prescribed medicines in the two weeks prior to the interview. Descriptive analyses, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out. Results More women than men took medicines (75.8% vs. 60% respectively. The prevalence of use of prescribed medicines increased with age while the prevalence of non-prescribed use decreased. These age differences are smaller among those with poor perceived health. In terms of social class, a higher percentage of men with good health in the more advantaged classes took non-prescribed medicines compared with disadvantaged classes (38.7% vs 31.8%. In contrast, among the group with poor health, more people from the more advantaged classes took prescribed medicines, compared with disadvantaged classes (51.4% vs 33.3%. A higher proportion of people who were either retired, unemployed or students, with good health, used prescribed medicines. Conclusion This study shows that beside health needs, there are social determinants affecting medicine consumption in the city of Barcelona.

  15. Relevant Organizational Factors for Social Efficiency in the Road Transport Sector; Procesos Organizativos Clave para la Eficiencia Social en el Transporte por Carretera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silla, I; Gamero, N

    2011-12-27

    Previous research has emphasized the need to consider the social dimension featuring organizations in order to maximize organizational efficiency (Rasmussen, 1997). In the road transport sector, previous research has focused on the relationship between human factor, stress, fatigue, and other relevant issues, and professional drivers health and safety (p.e., De Croon et al, 2004). However, research on relevant organizational factors is scarce. This study aims to examine the association between leadership and supportive climate, and employees health and safety. Moreover, the impact of stress (time pressure) was also examined because previous research has stressed its importance. This study used a sample of 486 employees from 35 different Spanish companies pertaining to the road transport sector. Findings showed time pressure to be negatively associated to employees health, job satisfaction and satisfaction with safety. Additionally, leadership was positively associated employees health, job satisfaction and satisfaction with safety. Finally, co-workers and supervisors supportive climate was positively associated with job satisfaction and negatively associated to illness. These findings have relevant practical implications for the competitiveness of road transport companies. (Author) 21 refs.

  16. Social determinants of tuberculosis in sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismaila Adamu Saidu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring an efficient and equitable delivery of quality assured diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis (TB is the major drive of the TB control programme and the alternatives for incorporating preventative efforts have not yet been fully considered. The aim of the study was to examine the social determinants of TB transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. Four electronic databases (Medline, CINAHL, PubMed, and Web of Science were systematically searched to obtained relevant articles and critical appraisal skill programme tools were used to analyze data. Out 515 articles obtained from the electronic database search only 18 met the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the systematic review. The study shows that male sex, young age (25-34 years, low education, unemployment, low income, poverty, tobacco smoking, and alcohol abuse are the identified social determinants of tuberculosis in sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, focus on social determinates of TB, adjunct to early diagnosis and successful treatment completion, can play a pivotal role in reducing the soaring levels to TB transmission in sub-Saharan Africa.

  17. Social determinants of tuberculosis in sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismaila Adamu Saidu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring an efficient and equitable delivery of quality assured diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis (TB is the major drive of the TB control programme and the alternatives for incorporating preventative efforts have not yet been fully considered. The aim of the study was to examine the social determinants of TB transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. Four electronic databases (Medline, CINAHL, PubMed, and Web of Science were systematically searched to obtained relevant articles and critical appraisal skill programme tools were used to analyze data. Out 515 articles obtained from the electronic database search only 18 met the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the systematic review. The study shows that male sex, young age (25-34 years, low education, unemployment, low income, poverty, tobacco smoking, and alcohol abuse are the identified social determinants of tuberculosis in sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, focus on social determinates of TB, adjunct to early diagnosis and successful treatment completion, can play a pivotal role in reducing the soaring levels to TB transmission in sub-Saharan Africa.

  18. Social determinants of self-perceived discrimination in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-González, D; Vives-Cases, C; Borrell, C; Agudelo-Suárez, A A; Álvarez-Dardet, C

    2013-03-01

    To analyse the association between self-perceived discrimination and social determinants (social class, gender, country of origin) in Spain, and further to describe contextual factors which contribute to self-perceived discrimination. Cross-sectional design using data from the Spanish National Health Survey (2006). The dependent variable was self-perceived discrimination, and independent and stratifying variables were sociodemographic characteristics (e.g. sex, social class, country of origin, educational level). Logistic regression was used. The prevalence of self-perceived discrimination was 4.2% for men and 6.3% for women. The likelihood of self-perceived discrimination was higher in people who originated from low-income countries: men, odds ratio (OR) 5.59 [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.55-6.87]; women, OR 4.06 (95% CI 3.42-4.83). Women were more likely to report self-perceived discrimination by their partner at home than men [OR 8.35 (95% CI 4.70-14.84)]. The likelihood of self-perceived discrimination when seeking work was higher among people who originated from low-income countries than their Spanish counterparts: men, OR 13.65 (95% CI 9.62-19.35); women, OR 10.64 (95% CI 8.31-13.62). In comparison with Spaniards, male white-collar workers who originated from low-income countries [OR 11.93 (95% CI 8.26-17.23)] and female blue-collar workers who originated from low-income countries (OR 1.6 (95% CI 1.08-2.39)] reported higher levels of self-perceived discrimination. Self-perceived discrimination is distributed unevenly in Spain and interacts with social inequalities. This particularly affects women and immigrants. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Health and social determinants and outcomes of home cooking: A systematic review of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Susanna; White, Martin; Brown, Heather; Wrieden, Wendy; Kwasnicka, Dominika; Halligan, Joel; Robalino, Shannon; Adams, Jean

    2017-04-01

    Many dietary interventions assume a positive influence of home cooking on diet, health and social outcomes, but evidence remains inconsistent. We aimed to systematically review health and social determinants and outcomes of home cooking. Given the absence of a widely accepted, established definition, we defined home cooking as the actions required for preparing hot or cold foods at home, including combining, mixing and often heating ingredients. Nineteen electronic databases were searched for relevant literature. Peer-reviewed studies in English were included if they focussed mainly on home cooking, and presented post 19 th century observational or qualitative data on participants from high/very high human development index countries. Interventional study designs, which have previously been reviewed, were excluded. Themes were summarised using narrative synthesis. From 13,341 unique records, 38 studies - primarily cross-sectional in design - met the inclusion criteria. A conceptual model was developed, mapping determinants of home cooking to layers of influence including non-modifiable, individual, community and cultural factors. Key determinants included female gender, greater time availability and employment, close personal relationships, and culture and ethnic background. Putative outcomes were mostly at an individual level and focused on potential dietary benefits. Findings show that determinants of home cooking are more complex than simply possessing cooking skills, and that potential positive associations between cooking, diet and health require further confirmation. Current evidence is limited by reliance on cross-sectional studies and authors' conceptualisation of determinants and outcomes. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Social determinants of health and health inequities in Nakuru (Kenya).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchukuri, Esther; Grenier, Francis R

    2009-05-14

    Dramatic inequalities dominate global health today. The rapid urban growth sustained by Kenya in the last decades has created many difficulties that also led to worsening inequalities in health care. The continuous decline in its Human Development Index since the 1990s highlights the hardship that continues to worsen in the country, against the general trend of Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper examines the health status of residents in a major urban centre in Kenya and reviews the effects of selected social determinants on local health. Through field surveys, focus group discussions and a literature review, this study canvasses past and current initiatives and recommends priority actions. Areas identified which unevenly affect the health of the most vulnerable segments of the population were: water supply, sanitation, solid waste management, food environments, housing, the organization of health care services and transportation. The use of a participatory method proved to be a useful approach that could benefit other urban centres in their analysis of social determinants of health.

  1. Social determinants of health and health inequities in Nakuru (Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grenier Francis R

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dramatic inequalities dominate global health today. The rapid urban growth sustained by Kenya in the last decades has created many difficulties that also led to worsening inequalities in health care. The continuous decline in its Human Development Index since the 1990s highlights the hardship that continues to worsen in the country, against the general trend of Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper examines the health status of residents in a major urban centre in Kenya and reviews the effects of selected social determinants on local health. Methods Through field surveys, focus group discussions and a literature review, this study canvasses past and current initiatives and recommends priority actions. Results Areas identified which unevenly affect the health of the most vulnerable segments of the population were: water supply, sanitation, solid waste management, food environments, housing, the organization of health care services and transportation. Conclusion The use of a participatory method proved to be a useful approach that could benefit other urban centres in their analysis of social determinants of health.

  2. Social determinants in the sexual health of adolescent Aboriginal Australians: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhail, Catherine; McKay, Kathy

    2018-03-01

    While research indicates that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescents may be at increased risk of some sexually transmitted infections, there is limited information about factors that may place these young people at more risk of adverse sexual health than their non-Indigenous counterparts. Current research has tended to focus on surveillance-type data, but there is an increasing need to understand social determinants of sexual health risk. This systematic review assessed the evidence of social determinants impacting on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescents' sexual health in Australia. Published, English-language literature was searched across key databases from 2003 to 2015. Fourteen studies were included in the qualitative synthesis. Findings suggest that social determinants such as access to healthcare, poverty, substance use, educational disadvantage, sociocultural context, gender inequalities, status and identity, and social disadvantage impacted on Indigenous adolescents' sexual behaviours and sexual health risk. Evidence from the literature included in the review suggests that peer education may be an acceptable and appropriate approach for addressing such issues. There remains a need for programmes and services to be community-developed and community-led, thus ensuring cultural appropriateness and relevance. However, there is also a significant need for such programmes to be effectively and rigorously evaluated with data that goes beyond surveillance, and seeks to unpack how sexual norms are experienced by Indigenous adolescents, particularly outside of remote Australia - and how these experiences act as either risk or protective factors to good sexual health and positive social and emotional well-being. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Flipping social determinants on its head: Medical student perspectives on the flipped classroom and simulated patients to teach social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostelow, N; Barber, J; Gishen, F; Berlin, A

    2018-02-19

    Inequalities in healthcare are increasing. Engaging medical students to tackle this urgent challenge alongside clinical sciences can be demanding. This study examines medical student perceptions of a flipped approach to health inequalities co-designed by faculty and sixth-year students. A flipped learning session was piloted for year 4 medical students combining an online lesson followed by a tutorial with a simulated patient. A mixed-methods approach collected questionnaire data using 4-point Likert scales and free text answers. A semi-structured group interview was conducted with six voluntary participants. Two hundred and eighty-nine students completed questionnaires. 85% (n = 246) completed the online lesson. Students agreed the session helped their understanding of key concepts (mean 3.2), was improved by having an actor (mean = 3.6), and was enjoyable (mean = 3.2). Thematic analysis of qualitative questionnaire and interview data revealed three themes: engagement; structure; and attitudes towards social determinants of health. The simulation increased clinical relevance and students gained understanding of the impact of health inequalities upon individuals. This paper indicates flipped learning can increase clinical relevance and engagement in population health and person-centered care. Further work could assess changes in practice and attitudes of future doctors in tackling such global health challenges.

  4. Social Determinants of Health in Environmental Justice Communities: Examining Cumulative Risk in Terms of Environmental Exposures and Social Determinants of Health

    OpenAIRE

    Prochaska, John D.; Nolen, Alexandra B.; Kelley, Hilton; Sexton, Ken; Linder, Stephen H.; Sullivan, John

    2014-01-01

    Residents of environmental justice (EJ) communities may bear a disproportionate burden of environmental health risk, and often face additional burdens from social determinants of health. Accounting for cumulative risk should include measures of risk from both environmental sources and social determinants. This study sought to better understand cumulative health risk from both social and environmental sources in a disadvantaged community in Texas. Key outcomes were determining what data are cu...

  5. Determinants of Corporate Social Responsibility in Japanese Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Krukowska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the factors that determine the Japanese approach to corporate social responsibility (CSR to facilitate future empirical research in the Polish conditions. Methodology: To conduct the research, the available literature concerning CSR, managerial behaviour and stakeholder relations in Japan was studied. The research was conducted onsite in Japan after consultation with local experts, both Japanese and foreigners, specialized in Japanese management and the economy. Findings: The Japanese approach to CSR is strongly determined by their religious, philosophical, cultural, historical, economic and legal factors. It is proof of the concept of CSR contextuality, which provokes questions about the nature of the business relations of Japanese companies with their foreign counterparts and their style of management while investing abroad. Research limitations: The methodology was only supposed to gain a general view of the factors infl uencing CSR in Japan. Studying more detailed issues with the use of empirical data was complicated because of the short time available for the research (6 weeks and the relatively low level of transparency of the Japanese companies. Value: The study helped in understanding managerial decisions and Japanese business behaviour in the context of corporate responsibility and the ethics of its everyday operations. It was the fi rst research thoroughly analyzing many of the determinants of CSR in Japan, which may be valuable for any counterparts cooperating with the Japanese companies and foreign researchers analyzing Japanese management systems.

  6. Microcredit and the social determinants of health: a conceptual approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salt, Rebekah

    2011-01-01

    Social determinants of health, such as human behavior, environment, and socioeconomics, contribute to health disparities at the individual and population levels. The association between socioeconomics and health is established, and it is acknowledged that people with a lower socioeconomic status experience poorer health. The impetus of microcredit programs is to provide financial alternatives for low-income populations, the majority of whom are women with limited or no access to traditional lending, to start small businesses, generate income, and progress toward self-sufficiency. The income-health link within the context of microcredit has been internationally acknowledged; however, there is scarce research in this area in the United States. This article presents a review of the conceptual approach used to explore the microcredit and health link from a public health nursing perspective. Establishing conceptual foundations can enhance research focused on targeted interventions aimed at lasting change in social and health status. Exploring the link between microcredit and health can enrich research efforts and may offer innovative strategies and interventions to improve health-promoting capacity in impoverished groups. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Relative importance of social status and physiological need in determining leadership in a social forager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öst, Markus; Jaatinen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Group decisions on the timing of mutually exclusive activities pose a dilemma: monopolized decision-making by a single leader compromises the optimal timing of activities by the others, while independent decision-making by all group members undermines group coherence. Theory suggests that initiation of foraging should be determined by physiological demand in social foragers, thereby resolving the dilemma of group coordination. However, empirical support is scant, perhaps because intrinsic qualities predisposing individuals to leadership (social status, experience or personality), or their interactions with satiation level, have seldom been simultaneously considered. Here, we examine which females initiated foraging in eider (Somateria mollissima) brood-rearing coalitions, characterized by female dominance hierarchies and potentially large individual differences in energy requirements due to strenuous breeding effort. Several physiological and social factors, except for female breeding experience and boldness towards predators, explained foraging initiation. Initiators spent a larger proportion of time submerged during foraging bouts, had poorer body condition and smaller structural size, but they were also aggressive and occupied central positions. Initiation probability also declined with female group size as expected given random assignment of initiators. However, the relative importance of physiological predictors of leadership propensity (active foraging time, body condition, structural size) exceeded those of social predictors (aggressiveness, spatial position) by an order of magnitude. These results confirm recent theoretical work suggesting that 'leading according to need' is an evolutionary viable strategy regardless of group heterogeneity or underlying dominance structure.

  8. Relative importance of social status and physiological need in determining leadership in a social forager.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Öst

    Full Text Available Group decisions on the timing of mutually exclusive activities pose a dilemma: monopolized decision-making by a single leader compromises the optimal timing of activities by the others, while independent decision-making by all group members undermines group coherence. Theory suggests that initiation of foraging should be determined by physiological demand in social foragers, thereby resolving the dilemma of group coordination. However, empirical support is scant, perhaps because intrinsic qualities predisposing individuals to leadership (social status, experience or personality, or their interactions with satiation level, have seldom been simultaneously considered. Here, we examine which females initiated foraging in eider (Somateria mollissima brood-rearing coalitions, characterized by female dominance hierarchies and potentially large individual differences in energy requirements due to strenuous breeding effort. Several physiological and social factors, except for female breeding experience and boldness towards predators, explained foraging initiation. Initiators spent a larger proportion of time submerged during foraging bouts, had poorer body condition and smaller structural size, but they were also aggressive and occupied central positions. Initiation probability also declined with female group size as expected given random assignment of initiators. However, the relative importance of physiological predictors of leadership propensity (active foraging time, body condition, structural size exceeded those of social predictors (aggressiveness, spatial position by an order of magnitude. These results confirm recent theoretical work suggesting that 'leading according to need' is an evolutionary viable strategy regardless of group heterogeneity or underlying dominance structure.

  9. Health literacy and the social determinants of health: a qualitative model from adult learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Gillian; Shaw, Adrienne; Jaswal, Sabrena; Smith, Sian; Harpham, Trudy

    2017-02-01

    Health literacy, ‘the personal characteristics and social resources needed for individuals and communities to access, understand, appraise and use information and services to make decisions about health’, is key to improving peoples’ control over modifiable social determinants of health (SDH). This study listened to adult learners to understand their perspectives on gathering, understanding and using information for health. This qualitative project recruited participants from community skills courses to identify relevant ‘health information’ factors. Subsequently different learners put these together to develop a model of their ‘Journey to health’. Twenty-seven participants were recruited; twenty from community health literacy courses and seven from an adult basic literacy and numeracy course. Participants described health as a ‘journey’ starting from an individual's family, ethnicity and culture. Basic (functional) health literacy skills were needed to gather and understand information. More complex interactive health literacy skills were needed to evaluate the importance and relevance of information in context, and make health decisions. Critical health literacy skills could be used to adapt negative external factors that might inhibit health-promotion. Our model is an iterative linear one moving from ethnicity, community and culture, through lifestyle, to health, with learning revisited in the context of different sources of support. It builds on existing models by highlighting the importance of SDH in the translation of new health knowledge into healthy behaviours, and the importance of health literacy in enabling people to overcome barriers to health.

  10. Social relations as determinant of onset of disability in aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Holstein, Bjørn E; Due, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze whether social relations are related to onset of disability among old people at 1.5 year follow-up and whether these relations vary by age and gender. The study is based on baseline and 1.5 year follow-up data on 1396 older non-disabled adults. Social...... relations were measured by questions about diversity in social relations, social participation, satisfaction with social relations and instrumental social support. Onset of disability was described as developing need of help in at least one of six mobility activities. The results showed that a large...

  11. Social relations as determinant of onset of disability in aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Lund, Rikke; Holstein, Bjørn E

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze whether social relations are related to onset of disability among old people at 1.5 year follow-up and whether these relations vary by age and gender. The study is based on baseline and 1.5 year follow-up data on 1396 older non-disabled adults. Social...... relations were measured by questions about diversity in social relations, social participation, satisfaction with social relations and instrumental social support. Onset of disability was described as developing need of help in at least one of six mobility activities. The results showed that a large...

  12. Complex problems require complex solutions: the utility of social quality theory for addressing the Social Determinants of Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Paul R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to improve the health of the most vulnerable groups in society, the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH called for multi-sectoral action, which requires research and policy on the multiple and inter-linking factors shaping health outcomes. Most conceptual tools available to researchers tend to focus on singular and specific social determinants of health (SDH (e.g. social capital, empowerment, social inclusion. However, a new and innovative conceptual framework, known as social quality theory, facilitates a more complex and complete understanding of the SDH, with its focus on four domains: social cohesion, social inclusion, social empowerment and socioeconomic security, all within the same conceptual framework. This paper provides both an overview of social quality theory in addition to findings from a national survey of social quality in Australia, as a means of demonstrating the operationalisation of the theory. Methods Data were collected using a national random postal survey of 1044 respondents in September, 2009. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results Statistical analysis revealed that people on lower incomes (less than $45000 experience worse social quality across all of the four domains: lower socio-economic security, lower levels of membership of organisations (lower social cohesion, higher levels of discrimination and less political action (lower social inclusion and lower social empowerment. The findings were mixed in terms of age, with people over 65 years experiencing lower socio-economic security, but having higher levels of social cohesion, experiencing lower levels of discrimination (higher social inclusion and engaging in more political action (higher social empowerment. In terms of gender, women had higher social cohesion than men, although also experienced more discrimination (lower social inclusion. Conclusions Applying social quality theory allows

  13. Heads for learning, tails for memory: Reward, reinforcement and a role of dopamine in determining behavioural relevance across multiple timescales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu eBaudonnat

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine has long been tightly associated with aspects of reinforcement learning and motivation in simple situations where there are a limited number of stimuli to guide behaviour and constrained range of outcomes. In naturalistic situations, however, there are many potential cues and foraging strategies that could be adopted, and it is critical that animals determine what might be behaviourally relevant in such complex environments. This requires not only detecting discrepancies with what they have recently experienced, but also identifying similarities with past experiences stored in memory. Here, we review what role dopamine might play in determining how and when to learn about the world, and how to develop choice policies appropriate to the situation faced. We discuss evidence that dopamine is shaped by motivation and memory and in turn shapes reward-based memory formation. In particular, we suggest that hippocampal-striatal-dopamine networks may interact to determine how surprising the world is and to either inhibit or promote actions at time of behavioural uncertainty.

  14. Social acceleration and the network effect: a defence of social 'science fiction' and network determinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Robert

    2010-06-01

    This essay is a response to Judy Wajcman's essay 'Life in the fast lane? Towards a sociology of technology and time' (2008: 59-77). In that article Wajcman argued that recent developments in the sociology of temporal change had been marked by a tendency in social theory towards a form of 'science fiction'--a sociological theorizing, she maintains, that bears no real relation to actual, empirically provable developments in the field and should therefore be viewed as not contributing to 'a richer analysis of the relationship between technology and time' (2008: 61). This reply argues that as Wajcman suggests in her essay, there is indeed an 'urgent need for increased dialogue to connect social theory with detailed empirical studies' (2008: 59) but that the most fruitful way to proceed would not be through a constraining of 'science fiction' social theorizing but, rather, through its expansion--and more, that 'science fiction' should take the lead in the process. This essay suggests that the connection between social theory and empirical studies would be strengthened by a wider understanding of the function of knowledge and research in the context of what is termed 'true originality' and 'routine originality'. The former is the domain of social theory and the latter resides within traditional sociological disciplines. It is argued that both need each other to advance our understanding of society, especially in the context of the fast-changing processes of technological development. The example of 'technological determinism' is discussed as illustrative of how 'routine originality' can harden into dogma without the application of 'true originality' to continually question (sometimes through ideas that may appear to border on 'science fiction') comfortable assumptions that may have become 'routine' and shorn of their initial 'originality'.

  15. Incorporating Social Determinants into a Groundwater Risk Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, M.; Allen, D. M.; Journeay, M.; Korteling, B.

    2009-12-01

    The remediation of polluted groundwater is often very costly, therefore water managers utilize various proactive measures, such as wellhead protection planning, to prevent contamination events. With limited available resources, it is essential to prioritize where these measures are introduced; systematic and integrated methodologies of assessing risk to groundwater can be utilized for this prioritization. To quantify the resistance of the physical system to pollution, Aquifer Vulnerability is commonly mapped for the area of interest. This information is useful for focusing monitoring efforts and identifying data gaps, but is a relative measure of contaminant risk. To more accurately assess the probability of contamination, an inventory of hazards can be integrated with intrinsic vulnerability of the physical system. This Threat indicator links land-use with chemicals and quantifies the risk based on the toxicity and environmental fate of these substances. Local knowledge of the quantity stored and likelihood of release can be utilized to further assess these threats. Both of these steps form part of an existing frameworks for assessing risk to groundwater. In this study, a groundwater risk framework is developed and tested in two study areas; Pender Island and the Lower Fraser Valley in British Columbia, Canada. Enhancements of a basic groundwater risk framework include not only incorporating points sources such as septic systems, landfills and fuel storage, but also various social determinants of risk. These social determinants include the Resistance of a community, which represents the planning and protection initiatives designed to safeguard the resource. These include items such as land-use planning that consider groundwater vulnerability and best management practices enforced by local governments. The ability to recover following an event is the Capacity of a community; indicators include the presence or absence of spill response plans, treatment systems or an

  16. Determinants of social contagion during new product adoption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langley, D.J.; Bijmolt, T.H.A.; Ortt, J.R.; Pals, N.

    2012-01-01

    Social contagion has been shown to play an important role during new product adoption by consumers. Social contagion is the process by which consumers influence each other to adopt and use a product in a specific way. Current literature makes a basic assumption that social contagion is caused by the

  17. Elements determination of clinical relevance in biological tissues Dmdmdx/J dystrophic mice strains investigated by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metairon, Sabrina

    2012-01-01

    In this work the determination of chemistry elements in biological tissues (whole blood, bones and organs) of dystrophic mice, used as animal model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), was performed using analytical nuclear technique. The aim of this work was to determine reference values of elements of clinical (Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Na) and nutritional (Br and S) relevance in whole blood, tibia, quadriceps and hearts from Dmdmdx/J (10 males and 10 females) dystrophic mice and C57BL/6J (10 males) control group mice, using Neutron Activation Analysis technique (NAA). To show in more details the alterations that this disease may cause in these biological tissues, correlations matrixes of the DMD mdx /J mouse strain were generated and compared with C57BL/6J control group. For this study 119 samples of biological tissue were irradiated in the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN (Sao Paulo, Brazil). The concentrations of these elements in biological tissues of Dmd mdx /J and C57B/6J mice are the first indicative interval for reference values. Moreover, the alteration in some correlation coefficients data among the elements in the health status and in the diseased status indicates a connection between these elements in whole blood, tibia, quadriceps and heart. These results may help the researchers to evaluate the efficiency of new treatments and to compare the advantages of different treatment approaches before performing tests in patients with muscular dystrophy. (author)

  18. Trends in the investigation of social determinants of health: selected themes and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Keller Celeste

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze bibliometric trends of topics relevant to the epidemiologic research of social determinants of health. A search of the PubMed database, covering the period 1985-2007, was performed for the topics: socioeconomic factors, sex, race/ethnicity, discrimination/prejudice, social capital/support, lifecourse, income inequality, stress, behavioral research, contextual effects, residential segregation, multilevel modeling, regression based indices to measure inequalities, and structural equation modeling/causal diagrams/path analysis. The absolute, but not the relative, frequency of publications increased for all themes. Total publications in PubMed increased 2.3 times, while the subsets of epidemiology/public health and social epidemiologic themes/methods increased by factors of 5.3 and 5.2, respectively. Only multilevel and contextual analyses had a growth over and above that observed for epidemiology/public health. We conclude that there is clearly room for wider use of established techniques, and for new methods to emerge when they satisfy theoretical needs.

  19. Contributions to the determination of the noble metals gold, iridium, palladium, platinum, rhodium and application to environmentally relevant samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zischka, M.

    1998-11-01

    The concentrations of noble metals in the environment are still very low (low ng/g and sub ng/g range), although they are emitted to an increasing extent as components of catalytic exhaust emission converters into the environment. The determination of these elements can be error prone even when the determinations are carried out by use of highly sensitive methods in combination with high performance sample preparation techniques. Accurate data with smallest possible measurement uncertainties are a prerequisite for the interpretation of the distribution of noble metals in the environment and their possible toxicological effects. Difficulties related to the determination of the noble metals could be the incomplete recovery after sample preparation, sample digestion and interferences arising in subsequent instrumental determination methods. For this reason two different sample decomposition methods in combination with powerful instrumental techniques are checked for suitability for the determination of the noble metals in environmentally relevant samples. Digestion methods under evaluation are the NiS fire assay and the leaching with aqua regia in closed vessels under high pressure and high temperature. The NiS fire assay provides pre-concentration of the noble-metals and matrix separation of most of the remaining matrix elements. Disadvantages of this method are the need for experienced analysts, the awkward handling and the time-consuming procedure. On the other hand leaching with aqua regia under high pressure at high temperatures is easy to handle and not time-consuming with the crucial disadvantage that neither a pre-concentration of the noble metals nor a matrix separation can be achieved. Investigated instrumental techniques are the ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry) with an axially arranged plasma either with a cross-flow or with an ultrasonic nebulizer, the quadrupole ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) and the

  20. Determinant Factors of Corporate Social Disclosures in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juniati Gunawan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia as one of the big developing countries has been responding rapidly to the issue of Corporate Social Disclosure (CSD. This can be seen from the CSD section in the listed companies’ annual reports which keep increasing throughout the years. However, there are still inconclusive findings in factors that determine the extent of CSD. Based on a comprehensive research, therefore, this paper examines some selected factors in their relations to the extent of CSD, both quantitatively and qualitatively. Corporate annual reports for the year 2003 to 2006 were examined to verify the CSD practices by applying a content analysis method and multiple regression analysis. Then, firm’s characteristics (category, size, financial performances, age, and group influential (creditors, auditors, owners were analysed to seek their significant relationships to the extent of CSD. The findings show that (1 there was no significant influence of ‘company type’ to the extent of CSD; but ‘company status’ was significantl y influence CSD (2 ‘company size’, ‘financial performances’, ‘age’, and ‘auditors’ influences’ were found to have significant positi ve influences to the extent of CSD; (3 ‘Owners’ influence’ correlated positivel y rather than negati vely to CSD; and (4 Mixed results were provided by the ‘creditors’ influence’ throughout the years. The overall correlations between predictor and criterion variables are considered to be low to moderate, varied from 0.463 to 0.607 for correlation coefficients (R and 0.215 to 0.368 for determinant coefficients (R2 in the regression model.

  1. Acceptance of Prostitution and Its Social Determinants in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liqun; Lu, Ruibin; Mei, Xiaohan

    2017-08-01

    The nature of collective perception of prostitution is understudied in Canada. Except some rudimentary reports on the percentages of the key legal options, multivariate analysis has never been used to analyze the details of public opinion on prostitution. The current study explores the trend of public attitude toward prostitution acceptability in Canada over a 25-year span and examines the social determinants of the acceptability of prostitution, using structural equation modeling (SEM), which allows researchers to elaborate both direct and indirect effects (through mediating variables) on the outcome variable. Results show that the public has become more acceptant of prostitution over time. In addition, the less religious, less authoritarian, and more educated are more acceptant of prostitution than the more religious, more authoritarian, and less well educated. The effects of religiosity and authoritarianism mediate out the direct effects of age, gender, gender equality, marriage, marriage as an outdated institution, Quebec, race, and tolerance. The findings may serve as a reference point for the law reform regarding the regulation of prostitution in Canada.

  2. Clinical contributions to addressing the social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kiran C R; Spilsbury, Peter; Shukla, Rashmi

    2010-04-01

    The drive to address social determinants of health is gaining momentum. Appreciating that health outcomes are only partly affected by healthcare, clinicians and clinical communities can play a significant role in this crusade by action at local, regional, national and global levels. A concerted and systematic focus on integrating and industrialising upstream interventions at every healthcare encounter is essential to prevent future illness, thus enabling a paradigm shift in the healthcare service from being one of illness management to health preservation. The evidence base demonstrates the cost efficacy of upstream interventions. The challenge is how this evidence is utilised to implement these interventions in everyday healthcare. Today, with a global economic crisis and challenged public sector funding, the need to address prevention has never been more pressing. Clinical engagement at all levels, from the front line to the boardroom is vital. Clinicians must address access, communication, strategy and commissioning to fulfil a professional responsibility to become and remain the corporate memory of a health service focused on preventing illness while simultaneously delivering cost-effective healthcare.

  3. Globalization and social determinants of health: The role of the global marketplace (part 2 of 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schrecker Ted

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Globalization is a key context for the study of social determinants of health (SDH: broadly stated, SDH are the conditions in which people live and work, and that affect their opportunities to lead healthy lives. In the first article in this three part series, we described the origins of the series in work conducted for the Globalization Knowledge Network of the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health and in the Commission's specific concern with health equity. We identified and defended a definition of globalization that gives primacy to the drivers and effects of transnational economic integration, and addressed a number of important conceptual and methodological issues in studying globalization's effects on SDH and their distribution, emphasizing the need for transdisciplinary approaches that reflect the complexity of the topic. In this second article, we identify and describe several, often interacting clusters of pathways leading from globalization to changes in SDH that are relevant to health equity. These involve: trade liberalization; the global reorganization of production and labour markets; debt crises and economic restructuring; financial liberalization; urban settings; influences that operate by way of the physical environment; and health systems changed by the global marketplace.

  4. Bacterial cooperation in the wild and in the clinic: are pathogen social behaviours relevant outside the laboratory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Freya

    2013-02-01

    Individual bacterial cells can communicate via quorum sensing, cooperate to harvest nutrients from their environment, form multicellular biofilms, compete over resources and even kill one another. When the environment that bacteria inhabit is an animal host, these social behaviours mediate virulence. Over the last decade, much attention has focussed on the ecology, evolution and pathology of bacterial cooperation, and the possibility that it could be exploited or destabilised to treat infections. But how far can we really extrapolate from theoretical predictions and laboratory experiments to make inferences about 'cooperative' behaviours in hosts and reservoirs? To determine the likely importance and evolution of cooperation 'in the wild', several questions must be addressed. A recent paper that reports the dynamics of bacterial cooperation and virulence in a field experiment provides an excellent nucleus for bringing together key empirical and theoretical results which help us to frame - if not completely to answer - these questions. Copyright © 2013 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  5. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 26 - Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Disadvantage E Appendix E to Part 26 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PARTICIPATION BY... Appendix E to Part 26—Individual Determinations of Social and Economic Disadvantage The following guidance... disadvantage determinations (see 13 CFR 124.103(c) and 124.104). Social Disadvantage I. Socially disadvantaged...

  6. Social Determinants of Health in Managed Care Payment Formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Arlene S; Mick, Eric O; Ellis, Randall P; Kiefe, Catarina I; Allison, Jeroan J; Clark, Melissa A

    2017-10-01

    Managed care payment formulas commonly allocate more money for medically complex populations, but ignore most social determinants of health (SDH). To add SDH variables to a diagnosis-based payment formula that allocates funds to managed care plans and accountable care organizations. Using data from MassHealth, the Massachusetts Medicaid and Children's Health Insurance Program, we estimated regression models predicting Medicaid spending using a diagnosis-based and SDH-expanded model, and compared the accuracy of their cost predictions overall and for vulnerable populations. MassHealth members enrolled for at least 6 months in 2013 in fee-for-service (FFS) programs (n = 357 660) or managed care organizations (MCOs) (n = 524 607). We built cost prediction models from a fee-for-service program. Predictors in the diagnosis-based model are age, sex, and diagnoses from claims. The SDH model adds predictors describing housing instability, behavioral health issues, disability, and neighborhood-level stressors. Overall model explanatory power and overpayments and underpayments for subgroups of interest for all Medicaid-reimbursable expenditures excepting long-term support services (mean annual cost = $5590 per member). We studied 357 660 people who were FFS participants and 524 607 enrolled in MCOs with a combined 806 889 person-years of experience. The FFS program experience included more men (49.6% vs 43.6%), older patients (mean age of 26.1 years vs 21.6 years), and sicker patients (mean morbidity score of 1.16 vs 0.89) than MCOs. Overall, the SDH model performed well, but only slightly better than the diagnosis-based model, explaining most of the spending variation in the managed care population (validated R2 = 62.4) and reducing underpayments for several vulnerable populations. For example, raw costs for the quintile of people living in the most stressed neighborhoods were 9.6% ($537 per member per year) higher than average. Since greater

  7. Collaborative Learning Indicators as Determinants of Social Well ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    AN INTERNATIONAL MULTI-DISCIPLINARY JOURNAL, ... This study investigated collaborative learning indicators as predictors of social well- ... acceptance was the strongest predictor of female students' social well-being, followed ... absence of negative conditions and feelings, the result of adjustment and adaptation to.

  8. Determination of redox potentials for the Watson-Crick base pairs, DNA nucleosides, and relevant nucleoside analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Hernandez, Carlos E; Close, David M; Gorb, Leonid; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2007-05-17

    Redox potentials for the DNA nucleobases and nucleosides, various relevant nucleoside analogues, Watson-Crick base pairs, and seven organic dyes are presented based on DFT/B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) and B3YLP/6-311+G(2df,p)//B3LYP/6-31+G* levels of calculations. The values are determined from an experimentally calibrated set of equations that correlate the vertical ionization (electron affinity) energy of 20 organic molecules with their experimental reversible oxidation (reduction) potential. Our results are in good agreement with those estimated experimentally for the DNA nucleosides in acetonitrile solutions (Seidel et al. J. Phys. Chem. 1996, 100, 5541). We have found that nucleosides with anti conformation exhibit lower oxidation potentials than the corresponding syn conformers. The lowering in the oxidation potential is due to the formation of an intramolecular hydrogen bonding interaction between the 5'-OH group of the sugar and the N3 of the purine bases or C2=O of the pyrimidine bases in the syn conformation. Pairing of adenine or guanine with its complementary pyrimidine base decreases its oxidation potential by 0.15 or 0.28 V, respectively. The calculated energy difference between the oxidation potential for the G.C base pair and that of the guanine base is in good agreement with the experimental value estimated recently (0.34 V: Caruso, T.; et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 15040). The complete and consistent set of reversible redox values determined in this work for the DNA constituents is expected to be of considerable value to those studying charge and electronic energy transfer in DNA.

  9. Reduction of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants in plant foodstuff: elucidation of clinical relevance and implications for allergy diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Kaulfürst-Soboll

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A longstanding debate in allergy is whether or not specific immunoglobulin-E antibodies (sIgE, recognizing cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCD, are able to elicit clinical symptoms. In pollen and food allergy, ≥20% of patients display in-vitro CCD reactivity based on presence of α1,3-fucose and/or β1,2-xylose residues on N-glycans of plant (xylose/fucose and insect (fucose glycoproteins. Because the allergenicity of tomato glycoallergen Lyc e 2 was ascribed to N-glycan chains alone, this study aimed at evaluating clinical relevance of CCD-reduced foodstuff in patients with carbohydrate-specific IgE (CCD-sIgE. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tomato and/or potato plants with stable reduction of Lyc e 2 (tomato or CCD formation in general were obtained via RNA interference, and gene-silencing was confirmed by immunoblot analyses. Two different CCD-positive patient groups were compared: one with tomato and/or potato food allergy and another with hymenoptera-venom allergy (the latter to distinguish between CCD- and peptide-specific reactions in the food-allergic group. Non-allergic and CCD-negative food-allergic patients served as controls for immunoblot, basophil activation, and ImmunoCAP analyses. Basophil activation tests (BAT revealed that Lyc e 2 is no key player among other tomato (glycoallergens. CCD-positive patients showed decreased (reactivity with CCD-reduced foodstuff, most obvious in the hymenoptera venom-allergic but less in the food-allergic group, suggesting that in-vivo reactivity is primarily based on peptide- and not CCD-sIgE. Peptide epitopes remained unaffected in CCD-reduced plants, because CCD-negative patient sera showed reactivity similar to wild-type. In-house-made ImmunoCAPs, applied to investigate feasibility in routine diagnosis, confirmed BAT results at the sIgE level. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: CCD-positive hymenoptera venom-allergic patients (control group showed basophil activation despite no

  10. Taking stock of the social determinants of health: A scoping review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Lucyk

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the social determinants of health (SDOH has gained increasing prominence as a foundational concept for population and public health in academic literature and policy documents, internationally. However, alongside its widespread dissemination, and in light of multiple conceptual models, lists, and frameworks, some dilution and confusion is apparent. This scoping review represents an attempt to take stock of SDOH literature in the context of contemporary population and public health.We conducted a scoping review to synthesize and map SDOH literature, informed by the methods of Arksey and O'Malley (2005. We searched 5 academic and 3 grey literature databases for "social determinants of health" and "population health" or "public health" or "health promotion," published 2004-2014. We also conducted a search on "inequity" or "inequality" or "disparity" or "social gradient" and "Canad*" to ensure that we captured articles where this language was used to discuss the SDOH. We included articles that discussed SDOH in depth, either explicitly or in implicit but nuanced ways. We hand-searched reference lists to further identify relevant articles.Our synthesis of 108 articles showed wide variation by study setting, target audience, and geographic scope, with most articles published in an academic setting, by Canadian authors, for policy-maker audiences. SDOH were communicated by authors as a list, model, or story; each with strengths and weaknesses. Thematic analysis identified one theme: health equity as an overarching and binding concept to the SDOH. Health equity was understood in different ways with implications for action on the SDOH.Among the vast SDOH literature, there is a need to identify and clearly articulate the essence and implications of the SDOH concept. We recommend that authors be intentional in their efforts to present and discuss SDOH to ensure that they speak to its foundational concept of health equity.

  11. DETERMINATION OF SOCIAL ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUCCESS OF PRODUCTS:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ESEN GÜRBÜZ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An Empirical Investigation on the Turkish Food Industry Altough there are studies which evaulate and explain the importance of environmental, social and economic success of a product, it is important to evaluate the considerable success of these three variables together. This paper aims to evaluate economic, social and environmental success of a product all together (but not seperatly by conducting a research.  In this paper for some sample firms operating in the Turkish Food Industry, the variables, which effect the products’ economic, social and enviromental successes, are defined theoretically and the research results are explained investigating if there is a relationship between enviromental, social, economic success criteria and firm size, export, import use of intermediary.

  12. Political determinants of social expenditures in Greece: an empirical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Canikalp, Ebru; Unlukaplan, Ilter

    2017-01-01

    A view prominently expounded is that the interaction between the composition and the volume of public expenditures is directly affected by political, institutional, psephological and ideological indicators. A crucial component of public expenditures, social expenditures play an important role in the economy as they directly and indirectly affect the distribution of income and wealth. Social expenditures aim at reallocating income and wealth unequal distribution. These expenditures comprise ca...

  13. Experimental Evidence that Social Relationships Determine Individual Foraging Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Firth, Josh A.; Voelkl, Bernhard; Farine, Damien R.; Sheldon, Ben C.

    2015-01-01

    Social relationships are fundamental to animals living in complex societies [1-3]. The extent to which individuals base their decisions around their key social relationships, and the consequences this has on their behavior and broader population level processes, remains unknown. Using a novel experiment that controlled where individual wild birds (great tits, Parus major) could access food, we restricted mated pairs from being allowed to forage at the same locations. This introduced a conflic...

  14. Social, Demographic and Labour Market Related Determinants of Health in the Adult European Population

    OpenAIRE

    Agnes Rozsa Santha

    2017-01-01

    This paper identifies the social, demographic and labour market related determinants of the state of health and assesses the magnitude of their impact within the European adult population. The research is based on a statistical analysis on the data of the European Social Survey (ESS), round 7, 2014/2015. Subjective socioeconomic situation and partnership status are being identified as the most influential social determinants of health. Results also illuminate how work-life-balance determines ...

  15. Determinants of MSK health and disability--social determinants of inequities in MSK health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemin, Francis; Carruthers, Erin; Li, Linda C

    2014-06-01

    Even in most egalitarian societies, disparities in care exist to the disadvantage of some people with chronic musculoskeletal (MSK) disorders and related disability. These situations translate into inequality in health and health outcomes. The goal of this chapter is to review concepts and determinants associated with health inequity, and the effect of interventions to minimize their impact. Health inequities are avoidable, unnecessary, unfair and unjust. Inequities can occur across the health care continuum, from primary and secondary prevention to diagnosis and treatment. There are many ways to define and identify inequities, according for instance to ethical, philosophical, epidemiological, sociological, economic, or public health points of view. These complementary views can be applied to set a framework of analysis, identify determinants and suggest targets of action against inequity. Most determinants of inequity in MSK disorders are similar to those in the general population and other chronic diseases. People may be exposed to inequity as a result of policies and rules set by the health care system, individuals' demographic characteristics (e.g., education level), or some behavior of health professionals and of patients. Osteoarthritis (OA) represents a typical chronic MSK condition. The PROGRESS-Plus framework is useful for identifying the important role that place of residence, race and ethnicity, occupation, gender, education, socioeconomic status, social capital and networks, age, disability and sexual orientation may have in creating or maintaining inequities in this disease. In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a consideration of international data led to the conclusion that not all RA patients who needed biologic therapy had access to it. The disparity in care was due partly to policies of a country and a health care system, or economic conditions. We conclude this chapter by discussing examples of interventions designed for reducing health inequity

  16. Autism-relevant traits interact with temporoparietal junction stimulation effects on social cognition: a high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation and electroencephalography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Peter H; Kirkovski, Melissa; Rinehart, Nicole J; Enticott, Peter G

    2018-03-01

    The temporoparietal junction (TPJ) is implicated in mental and emotional state attribution, processes associated with autism-relevant traits. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the TPJ can influence social-cognitive performance. However, associations with electrophysiology and autism-relevant traits remain relatively unexamined. This study had two aims: first, exploring links between Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) scores and social-cognitive performance; second, examining interactions between AQ scores and high-definition-tDCS (HD-tDCS) applied to the right TPJ in terms of mental/emotional state attribution and neurophysiological outcomes. Fifty-three participants completed mental/emotional state attribution tasks before and after HD-tDCS. Pre-stimulation mental state attribution accuracy was reduced in participants with higher AQ Switching scores. Cathodal stimulation was associated with reduced emotion attribution performance in participants with higher AQ Switching and AQ Social scores (the latter at trend-level). Anodal stimulation more frequently interacted with AQ Social scores in terms of neurophysiology, in particular regarding reduced delta power in the left compared to right TPJ, and trend-level positive interactions with P100 and P300 latencies during the emotion recognition task. Elements of attention/switching (AQ Switching) may subserve or underpin elements of social cognition (AQ Social), and cathodal and anodal stimulation may have differing effects depending on trait levels in these domains. This study makes an important and original contribution in terms of increasing understanding of how such trait-level variation might interact with the effects of tDCS and also extending previous studies with regard to understanding potential roles of the rTPJ in both attention and social cognition and how autism-relevant traits might influence TPJ function. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Determining sociability, social space, and social presence in (A)synchronous collaborative groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreijns, K.; Kirschner, P.A.; Jochems, W.; Buuren, H. van

    2004-01-01

    The effectiveness of group learning in asynchronous distributed learning groups depends on the social interaction that takes place. This social interaction affects both cognitive and socioemotional processes that take place during learning, group forming, establishment of group structures, and group

  18. Determining sociability, social space, and social presence in (a)synchronous collaborating groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreijns, C.J.; Kirschner, P.A.; Jochems, W.M.G.; Buuren, van H.

    2004-01-01

    The effectiveness of group learning in asynchronous distributed learning groups depends on the social interaction that takes place. This social interaction affects both cognitive and socioemotional processes that take place during learning, group forming, establishment of group structures, and group

  19. Micro-XANES Determination Fe Speciation in Natural Basalts at Mantle-Relevant fO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, R.; Cottrell, E.; Lanzirotti, A.; Kelley, K. A.

    2007-12-01

    We demonstrate that the oxidation state of iron (Fe3+/ΣFe) can be determined with a precision of ±0.02 (10% relative) on natural basalt glasses at mantle-relevant fO2 using Fe K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. This is equivalent to ±0.25 log unit resolution relative to the QFM buffer. Precise determination of the oxidation state over this narrow range (Fe3+/ΣFe=0.06-0.30) and at low fO2 (down to QFM-2) relies on appropriate standards, high spectral resolution, and highly reproducible methods for extracting the pre-edge centroid position. We equilibrated natural tholeiite powder in a CO/CO2 gas mixing furnace at 1350°C from QFM-3 to QFM+2 to create six glasses of known Fe3+/ΣFe, independently determined by Mössbauer spectroscopy. XANES spectra were collected at station X26A at NSLS, Brookhaven Natl. Lab, in fluorescence mode (9 element Ge array detector) using both Si(111) and Si(311) monochromators. Generally, the energy position of the 1s→3d (pre-edge) transition centroid is the most sensitive monitor of Fe oxidation state using XANES. For the mixture of Fe oxidation states in these glasses and the resulting coordination geometries, the pre-edge spectra are best defined by two multiple 3d crystal field transitions. The Si(311) monochromator, with higher energy resolution, substantially improved spectral resolution for the 1s→3d transition. Dwell times of 5s at 0.1eV intervals across the pre-edge region yielded spectra with the 1s→3d transition peaks clearly resolved. The pre-edge centroid position is highly sensitive to the background subtraction and peak fitting procedures. Differences in fitting models result in small but significant differences in the calculated peak area of each pre-edge multiplet, and the relative contribution of each peak to the calculated centroid. We assessed several schemes and obtained robust centroid positions by simultaneously fitting the background with a damped harmonic oscillator (DHO

  20. Determining Open Education Related Social Media Usage Trends in Turkey Using a Holistic Social Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firat, Mehmet; Altinpulluk, Hakan; Kilinç, Hakan; Büyük, Köksal

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal Open Education related social media usage in Turkey through social network analyses. To this end, the most widely used social media network in Turkey, Facebook, was chosen. All the pages and groups created on Facebook related to Open Education were found. A total of 207 groups and 521 pages were accessed and…

  1. A Framework for Educating Health Professionals to Address the Social Determinants of Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academies Press, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization defines the social determinants of health as "the conditions in which people are born, grow, work, live, and age, and the wider set of forces and systems shaping the conditions of daily life." These forces and systems include economic policies, development agendas, cultural and social norms, social policies,…

  2. 73 Exploring the Social and Environmental Determinants of Child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management Vol.2 No.3 2009. 1Department of .... biological, social and cultural “any or all of which can influence health ..... Doctoral Thesis in Demography, University de. Paris I. Galea, S and ...

  3. Leprosy Sufferers' Perception Of Social Stigma As A Determinant Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at relating leprosy sufferers perception of social stigma to their lifestyles. Eighty leprosy affected persons comprising males and females drawn from Delta State Government Tuberculosis and Leprosy Referral Center participated in this study. A focus group discussion schedule containing information about ...

  4. Social Attributions from Faces : Determinants, Consequences, Accuracy, and Functional Significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todorov, Alexander; Olivola, Christopher Y; Dotsch, Ron|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328554197; Mende-Siedlecki, Peter

    Since the early twentieth century, psychologists have known that there is consensus in attributing social and personality characteristics from facial appearance. Recent studies have shown that surprisingly little time and effort are needed to arrive at this consensus. Here we review recent research

  5. Fiscal constraints determine South Africa's social agenda | Rossouw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New Agenda: South African Journal of Social and Economic Policy. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 62 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. Social capital determinants of preferential resource allocation in regional clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulles, Niels Jaring; Schiele, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Regional clusters are known to facilitate firms in achieving higher levels of competitive advantage. This observation suggests that cluster firms manage to obtain better com- petitive resources than firms outside the cluster. The strong social ties in regional clus- ters are considered to be a

  7. Determinants of use of social media tools in retailing sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorenzo Romero, Carlota; Alarcon-del-Amo, Maria-del-Carmen; Constantinides, Efthymios

    2014-01-01

    The adoption of Social Media as part of organizational processes has been explosive during the last years. While decisions related to the adoptions of such technologies seem to be taken under competitive pressure there is little known as to the management attitudes and perceptions in the use of

  8. Collaborative Learning Indicators as Determinants of Social Well ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated collaborative learning indicators as predictors of social well-being among female undergraduates in the University of Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria. The study employed correlational research design. A sample of 250 female students was randomly selected within Faculty of Education. Three reliable ...

  9. Clinical relevancy and determinants of potential drug–drug interactions in chronic kidney disease patients: results from a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem A

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ahsan Saleem,1,2 Imran Masood,1 Tahir Mehmood Khan3 1Department of Pharmacy, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Pakistan; 2Pharmacy Services Department, Integrated Medical Center, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan; 3School of Pharmacy, Monash University, Sunway Campus, Selangor, Malaysia Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD alters the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic responses of various renally excreted drugs and increases the risk of drug-related problems, such as drug–drug interactions.Objectives: To assess the pattern, determinants, and clinical relevancy of potential drug–drug interactions (pDDIs in CKD patients.Materials and methods: This study retrospectively reviewed medical charts of all CKD patients admitted in the nephrology unit of a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan from January 2013 to December 2014. The Micromedex Drug-Reax® system was used to screen patient profiles for pDDIs, and IBM SPSS version 20 was used to carry out statistical analysis.Results: We evaluated 209 medical charts and found pDDIs in nearly 78.5% CKD patients. Overall, 541 pDDIs were observed, of which, nearly 60.8% patients had moderate, 41.1% had minor, 27.8% had major, and 13.4% had contraindicated interactions. Among those interactions, 49.4% had good evidence, 44.0% had fair, 6.3% had excellent evidence, and 35.5% interactions had delayed onset of action. The potential adverse outcomes of pDDIs included postural hypotension, QT prolongation, ceftriaxone–calcium precipitation, cardiac arrhythmias, and reduction in therapeutic effectiveness. The occurrence of pDDIs was found strongly associated with the age of <60 years, number of prescribed medicines ≥5, hypertension, and the lengthy hospitalization of patients.Conclusion: The occurrence of pDDIs was high in CKD patients. It was observed that CKD patients with an older age, higher number of prescribed medicines, lengthy hospitalization, and hypertension were at

  10. Social behavior in deer mice as a novel interactive paradigm of relevance for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolmarans, De Wet; Stein, Dan J; Harvey, Brian H

    2017-04-01

    Greater obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptom severity may be associated with poor social adjustment. Rather than possessing deficits in social skill per se, OCD patients may be more socially isolative in the presence of normal controls. We aimed to apply a novel social interaction challenge (SIC) to an established animal model of OCD, viz., the deer mouse, to assess complex social behavior in animals by investigating group sociability and its response to chronic escitalopram treatment (50 mg/kg/day × 28 days), both within and between non (N)- (viz., normal) and high (H)- (viz., OCD-like) stereotypical cohorts. Using automated screening, we scored approach behavior, episodes of proximity, duration of proximity, and relative net weighted movement. H animals socialized more with one another within cohort in all of the above parameters compared to the within-cohort behavior of N animals. Furthermore, the social behavior of H animals toward one another, both within and between cohort demonstrated significant improvements following chronic escitalopram treatment. However, the study also demonstrates that the social interaction between H and N animals remain poor even after chronic escitalopram treatment. To conclude, findings from the current investigation support clinical data demonstrating altered sociability in patients with OCD.

  11. The renaissance of a local wine industry: The relevance of social capital for business innovation in DOQ El Priorat, Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Fernández Aldecua

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a case study that aims to investigate whether the presence of both bridging and bonding social capital, acting together, can stimulate entrepreneurial innovation within the wine industry at a regional level. The study also investigates the manner in which both types of social capital interact to motivate such innovation. This is done through the analysis of the Catalan region of Priorat, and more specifically the entrepreneurial innovations that the region’s wine sector experienced over a twenty year period at the turn of the current millennium. The results indicate that both forms of social capital do not act in isolation, but on the contrary are jointly responsible for stimulating innovation within the wine-producing network. Keywords: Social capital, Social networks, Regional innovation, Entrepreneurs, Catalonia

  12. The Role of Multimedia Content in Determining the Virality of Social Media Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Giacomazzi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides empirical evidence supporting the assumption that content plays a critical role in determining the virality, i.e., the influence, of social media information. The analysis focuses on multimedia content on Twitter and explores the idea that links to multimedia information increase the virality of posts. In particular, we put forward the following three main hypotheses: (1 posts with a link to multimedia content (photo or video are more retweeted than posts without a link; (2 posts linking a photo are more retweeted than posts linking a video, and (3 posts linking a video raise more sentiment than posts linking a photo. Hypotheses are tested on a sample of roughly two million tweets posted in July 2011 including comments on Berlin, London, Madrid, and Milan relevant from a tourism perspective. Findings support our hypotheses and indicate that multimedia content plays an important role in determining not only the volumes of retweeting, but also the dynamics of the virality of posts measured as speed of retweeting.

  13. Closing the Gap: A Human Rights Approach towards Social Determinants of Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit; Stronks, Karien

    2016-01-01

    Social determinants of health are major contributors to population health as well as health inequalities. The public perception that health inequalities that arise from these social determinants are unjust seems to be widespread across societies. Nevertheless, there is also scepticism about the

  14. Social Determinants of Racial/Ethnic Health Disparities in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, James H.; McKinney, Molly A.; Braun, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Too many racial/ethnic minorities do not reach their full potential for a healthy and rewarding life. This paper addresses the social determinants that impact, either directly or indirectly, child and adolescent health disparities. Understanding the role social determinants play in the life course of health status can help guide educational…

  15. Closing the Gap : a Human Rights Approach to the Social Determinants of Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit; Stronks, Karien

    2016-01-01

    Social determinants of health are major contributors to population health as well as health inequalities. The public perception that health inequalities that arise from these social determinants are unjust seems to be widespread across societies. Nevertheless, there is also scepticism about the

  16. [Nutritional state associated with social determinants in Arhuaco children aged less than 5 years-old].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Mónica; Tarazona, María C; Lamus, Francisco; Granados, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Misinformation concerning indigenous communities is an obstacle to ascertaining their healthcare status; however, the role of malnutrition concerning their morbidity and mortality is unquestionable. The aim of this study was to ascertain food security levels and identify social determinants and their association with the nutritional status of children aged less than five years-old. This was a cross-sectional, analytical study of an Arhuaco population which used non-probability sampling for convenience. Anthropometry included analyzing weight, length and head circumference based on WHO 2006 references for nutritional diagnosis. Social determinants were obtained using an instrument adapted from the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). Relevant ethical considerations were taken into account. 169 children were evaluated and 132 surveys conducted. Growth delay regarding size was less frequent in children aged less than 6 months (p=0.03)and acute malnutrition was higher in those who went to see a traditional doctor first (p=0.01) and whose mothers had no formal schooling (p=0.05); the latter association was also found regarding obesity (p=0.00) and in those having risk factors concerning neurodevelopment too (p=0.00). Nutritional transition was higher in males (p=0.03), in children lacking complete vaccination (p=0.03) and in those whose mothers had 4 or fewer children (p=0.00). Strategies aimed at taking action regarding acute malnutrition and being overweight must be formulated, plans for monitoring growth in this population must be promoted and communication between traditional and Western medicine must be optimized, involving mothers as the main actors.

  17. Influence determination of social responsibility to the productivity enterprise activity level

    OpenAIRE

    Kavun, Sergii; Zhosan, Ganna

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a scientific and methodical approach for determination of the comprehensive social responsibility indicator in this paper based on estimation of influence degree for the economical, ecological, social and labour, standard and legal components. There is allowance for determining of some level of enterprise social responsibility. In addition, there is a basis for development some ways of their increasing. The essence of the used approach is clotting of th...

  18. Tackling Health Disparities for People Who Are Homeless? Start with Social Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Stafford; Lisa Wood

    2017-01-01

    Background: Homelessness is associated with enormous health inequalities, including shorter life expectancy, higher morbidity and greater usage of acute hospital services. Viewed through the lens of social determinants, homelessness is a key driver of poor health, but homelessness itself results from accumulated adverse social and economic conditions. Indeed, in people who are homeless, the social determinants of homelessness and health inequities are often intertwined, and long term homeless...

  19. Public housing renewal and social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthurson, Kathy; Levin, Iris; Ziersch, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on the concept of residential context of housing and its relationship to health. It considers a bundle of changes through implementation of a housing renewal initiative as part of the Carlton Housing Estate Upgrading Project in Melbourne, Australia. Beyond the quality and appropriateness of the housing, pertinent factors explored include social networks, safety and security, and green open space. Data collection for the research project included in-depth interviews with public housing tenants, private residents, and service providers who live on and service the estate, as well as neighborhood observations and participation in on-site events. A key finding was that the relational processes of how tenants were related to by others-specifically, the way housing was reallocated during the processes of renewal-affected social housing tenants' self-perceived health and well-being.

  20. Social-Psychological Determinants of Electoral Voting Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K A Ivanenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the current models of the voter behavior and proves the need in creating a new overarching conceptual framework, finding the integral social-psychological factor of the voter decision making. The public opinion is regarded as such a factor. The article presents the findings of the latest psychological research, devoted to the analysis of the connection between the different components of public opinion and electoral behavior.

  1. Social Determinants of Economic Behavior of Older Adults in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Youssim, Iaroslav

    2015-01-01

    This PhD thesis contributes to the growing economic literature which studies effects of social and cultural variables on economic behavior of older adults in Europe. Landes, cited in Guiso et al. (2006), states that "if we learn anything from the history of economic development, it is that culture makes all the difference” (p. 29). Indeed, in the recent years economists put an effort to apply their analytical frameworks and empirical tools to study the role of culture on economic outcomes (Gu...

  2. Who Hires Social Workers? Structural and Contextual Determinants of Social Service Staffing in Nursing Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Amy Restorick; Bowblis, John R

    2017-02-01

    Although nurse staffing has been extensively studied within nursing homes (NHs), social services has received less attention. The study describes how social service departments are organized in NHs and examines the structural characteristics of NHs and other macro-focused contextual factors that explain differences in social service staffing patterns using longitudinal national data (Certification and Survey Provider Enhanced Reports, 2009-2012). NHs have three patterns of staffing for social services, using qualified social workers (QSWs); paraprofessional social service staff; and interprofessional teams, consisting of both QSWs and paraprofessionals. Although most NHs employ a QSW (89 percent), nearly half provide social services through interprofessional teams, and 11 percent rely exclusively on paraprofessionals. Along with state and federal regulations that depend on facility size, other contextual and structural factors within NHs also influence staffing. NHs most likely to hire QSWs are large facilities in urban areas within a health care complex, owned by nonprofit organizations, with more payer mixes associated with more profitable reimbursement. QSWs are least likely to be hired in small facilities in rural areas. The influence of policy in supporting the professionalization of social service staff and the need for QSWs with expertise in gerontology, especially in rural NHs, are discussed. © 2016 National Association of Social Workers.

  3. Social Determinants of Traumatic Brain Injury in the North American Indigenous Population: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiler, Kaitlin J; Zeiler, Frederick A

    2017-09-01

    Given the difficult to navigate literature on social determinants in Indigenous traumatic brain injury (TBI) we wished to identify all available literature on the social determinants of health linked to TBI in the North American Indigenous populations. We performed a systematically conducted review. We searched MEDLINE, BIOSIS, EMBASE, Global Health, SCOPUS, and Cochrane Library from inception to January 2016. A two-step review process of the search results was performed, applying defined inclusion/exclusion criteria. The final group of articles had the data extracted and summarized. Ten manuscripts were identified to discuss some social determinant linked to TBI in the North American Indigenous populations. Two studies were focused on Canadian populations, with the remaining 8 studies focused on populations within the United States. Six social health determinants were identified within the studies, including: Rural location (Physical Environment) in seven studies, Male gender in five studies and Female gender in one study (in the setting of interpersonal violence) (Gender), Substance use in four studies and failure to utilize personal protective equipment in one study (Personal Health Practices and Coping Skills), Interpersonal Violence in one study (Social Environment), availability of rehabilitation services in one study (Health Services), and lack of family and friend presence during meetings with healthcare professionals in one study (Social Support Network). To date, little literature is available on the social determinants that impact TBI in the North American Indigenous population. Further research is warranted to better determine the incidence and social determinants associated.

  4. Stress coping style does not determine social status, but influences the consequences of social subordination stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, Gretha; Schmeltzer, Michael; Scott, Karen; Scheurink, Antonius; Tamashiro, Kelli; Sakai, Randall

    2017-01-01

    Chronic stress exposure may have negative consequences for health. One of the most common sources of chronic stress is stress associated with social interaction. In rodents, the effects of social stress can be studied in a naturalistic way using the visual burrow system (VBS). The way an individual

  5. Social Factors Determine the Emergency Medical Admission Workload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seán Cournane

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We related social factors with the annual rate of emergency medical admissions using census small area statistics. All emergency medical admissions (70,543 episodes in 33,343 patients within the catchment area of St. James’s Hospital, Dublin, were examined between 2002 and 2016. Deprivation Index, Single-Parent status, Educational level and Unemployment rates were regressed against admission rates. High deprivation areas had an approximately fourfold (Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR 4.0 (3.96, 4.12 increase in annual admission rate incidence/1000 population from Quintile 1(Q1, from 9.2/1000 (95% Confidence Interval (CI: 9.0, 9.4 to Q5 37.3 (37.0, 37.5. Single-Parent families comprised 40.6% of households (95% CI: 32.4, 49.7; small areas with more Single Parents had a higher admission rate-IRR (Q1 vs. for Q5 of 2.92 (95% CI: 2.83, 3.01. The admission incidence rate was higher for Single-Parent status (IRR 1.50 (95% CI: 1.46, 1.52 where the educational completion level was limited to primary level (Incidence Rate Ratio 1.45 (95% CI: 1.43, 1.47. Small areas with higher educational quintiles predicted lower Admission Rates (IRR 0.85 (95% CI: 0.84, 0.86. Social factors strongly predict the annual incidence rate of emergency medical admissions.

  6. The Social Determinants of Health in Military Forces of Iran: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadkarim Bahadori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Providing effective health interventions and achieving equity in health need to apply the community-based approaches such as social determinants of health. In the military organizations, these determinants have received less attention from the military health researchers and policymakers. Therefore, this study aimed to identify and explain the social determinants affecting the health of military forces in Iran. This was a qualitative study which was conducted in 2014. The required data were collected through semistructured interviews and analyzed through Conventional Content Analysis. The studied sample consisted of 22 military health experts, policymakers, and senior managers selected using purposeful sampling method with maximum variation sampling. MAXQDA.2007 was used to analyze the collected data. After analyzing the collected data, two main contents, that is, “general social determinants of health” and “military social determinants of health,” with 22 themes and 90 subthemes were identified as the social determinants of military forces’ health. Main themes were religious rule, spirituality promotion policies, international military factors, military command, and so forth. Given the role and importance of social factors determining the military forces’ health, it can be recommended that the military organizations should pay more attention to these determinants in making policies and creating social, economic, and cultural structures for their forces.

  7. The Social Determinants of Health in Military Forces of Iran: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanaeinasab, Hormoz; Ghanei, Mostafa; Mehrabi Tavana, Ali; Ravangard, Ramin; Karamali, Mazyar

    2015-01-01

    Providing effective health interventions and achieving equity in health need to apply the community-based approaches such as social determinants of health. In the military organizations, these determinants have received less attention from the military health researchers and policymakers. Therefore, this study aimed to identify and explain the social determinants affecting the health of military forces in Iran. This was a qualitative study which was conducted in 2014. The required data were collected through semistructured interviews and analyzed through Conventional Content Analysis. The studied sample consisted of 22 military health experts, policymakers, and senior managers selected using purposeful sampling method with maximum variation sampling. MAXQDA.2007 was used to analyze the collected data. After analyzing the collected data, two main contents, that is, “general social determinants of health” and “military social determinants of health,” with 22 themes and 90 subthemes were identified as the social determinants of military forces' health. Main themes were religious rule, spirituality promotion policies, international military factors, military command, and so forth. Given the role and importance of social factors determining the military forces' health, it can be recommended that the military organizations should pay more attention to these determinants in making policies and creating social, economic, and cultural structures for their forces. PMID:26379716

  8. Stress coping style does not determine social status, but influences the consequences of social subordination stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, Gretha J; Smeltzer, Michael D; Scott, Karen A; Scheurink, Anton J; Tamashiro, Kellie L; Sakai, Randall R

    2017-09-01

    Chronic stress exposure may have negative consequences for health. One of the most common sources of chronic stress is stress associated with social interaction. In rodents, the effects of social stress can be studied in a naturalistic way using the visual burrow system (VBS). The way an individual copes with stress, their "stress coping style", may influence the consequences of social stress. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that stress coping style may modulate social status and influence the consequences of having a lower social status. We formed 7 VBS colonies, with 1 proactive coping male, 1 passive coping male, and 4 female rats per colony to assess whether a rat's coping style prior to colony formation could predict whether that individual is more likely to become socially dominant. The rats remained in their respective colonies for 14days and the physiological and behavioral consequences of social stress were assessed. Our study shows that stress coping style does not predict social status. However, stress coping style may influence the consequences of having a lower social status. Subordinate passive and proactive rats had distinctly different wound patterns; proactive rats had more wounds on the front of their bodies. Behavioral analysis confirmed that proactive subordinate rats engaged in more offensive interactions. Furthermore, subordinate rats with a proactive stress coping style had larger adrenals, and increased stress responsivity to a novel acute stressor (restraint stress) compared to passive subordinate rats or dominant rats, suggesting that the allostatic load may have been larger in this group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Immunoglobulin E sensitization to cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants: epidemiological study of clinical relevance and role of alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan; Fenger, Runa Vavia; Husemoen, Lise-Lotte

    2010-01-01

    The determinants and biologic significance of IgE-mediated sensitization to cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) are not entirely known. An association between alcohol consumption and CCD sensitization has been reported in studies from Spain and Portugal.......The determinants and biologic significance of IgE-mediated sensitization to cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) are not entirely known. An association between alcohol consumption and CCD sensitization has been reported in studies from Spain and Portugal....

  10. The main but not the accessory olfactory system is involved in the processing of socially relevant chemosignals in ungulates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu eKELLER

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ungulates like sheep and goats have, like many other mammalian species, two complementary olfactory systems. The relative role played by these two systems has long been of interest regarding the sensory control of social behavior. The study of ungulate social behavior could represent a complimentary alternative to rodent studies because they live in a more natural environment and their social behaviors depend heavily on olfaction. In addition, the relative size of the main olfactory bulb (in comparison to the accessory olfactory bulb is more developped than in many other lissencephalic species like rodents. In this review, we present data showing a clear involvement of the main olfactory system in two well-characterized social situations under olfactory control in ungulates, namely maternal behavior and offspring recognition at birth and the reactivation of the gonadotropic axis of females exposed to males during the anestrous season. In conclusion, we discuss the apparent discrepancy between the absence of evidence for a role of the vomeronasal system in ungulate social behavior and the existence of a developed accessory olfactory system in these species.

  11. Language structure is partly determined by social structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Lupyan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Languages differ greatly both in their syntactic and morphological systems and in the social environments in which they exist. We challenge the view that language grammars are unrelated to social environments in which they are learned and used. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a statistical analysis of >2,000 languages using a combination of demographic sources and the World Atlas of Language Structures--a database of structural language properties. We found strong relationships between linguistic factors related to morphological complexity, and demographic/socio-historical factors such as the number of language users, geographic spread, and degree of language contact. The analyses suggest that languages spoken by large groups have simpler inflectional morphology than languages spoken by smaller groups as measured on a variety of factors such as case systems and complexity of conjugations. Additionally, languages spoken by large groups are much more likely to use lexical strategies in place of inflectional morphology to encode evidentiality, negation, aspect, and possession. Our findings indicate that just as biological organisms are shaped by ecological niches, language structures appear to adapt to the environment (niche in which they are being learned and used. As adults learn a language, features that are difficult for them to acquire, are less likely to be passed on to subsequent learners. Languages used for communication in large groups that include adult learners appear to have been subjected to such selection. Conversely, the morphological complexity common to languages used in small groups increases redundancy which may facilitate language learning by infants. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We hypothesize that language structures are subjected to different evolutionary pressures in different social environments. Just as biological organisms are shaped by ecological niches, language structures appear to adapt to the

  12. The Role of Social Norms in the Portion Size Effect: Reducing normative relevance reduces the effect of portion size on consumption decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris eVersluis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available People typically eat more from large portions of food than from small portions. An explanation that has often been given for this so-called portion size effect is that the portion size acts as a social norm and as such communicates how much is appropriate to eat. In this paper, we tested this explanation by examining whether manipulating the relevance of the portion size as a social norm changes the portion size effect, as assessed by prospective consumption decisions. We conducted one pilot experiment and one full experiment in which participants respectively indicated how much they would eat or serve themselves from a given amount of different foods. In the pilot (N = 63, we manipulated normative relevance by allegedly basing the portion size on the behavior of either students of the own university (in-group or of another university (out-group. In the main experiment (N = 321, we told participants that either a minority or majority of people similar to them approved of the portion size. Results show that in both experiments, participants expected to serve themselves and to eat more from larger than from smaller portions. As expected, however, the portion size effect was less pronounced when the reference portions were allegedly based on the behavior of an out-group (pilot or approved only by a minority (main experiment. These findings suggest that the portion size indeed provides normative information, because participants were less influenced by it if it communicated the behaviors or values of a less relevant social group. In addition, in the main experiment, the relation between portion size and the expected amount served was partially mediated by the amount that was considered appropriate, suggesting that concerns about eating an appropriate amount indeed play a role in the portion size effect. However, since the portion size effect was weakened but not eliminated by the normative relevance manipulations and since mediation was only partial

  13. Empowering Yoruba Women in Nigeria to Prevent HIV/AIDS: The Relative Significance of Behavioural and Social Determinant Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwatosin Ige Alo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article uncovers the relevance to practice of behavioural and social determinant models of HIV prevention among Yoruba women in Nigeria. Exploring what factors influence health behaviour in heterosexual relationships, the key question raised was whether the women’s experiences support the assumptions and prescriptions for action of these two dominant public health models. Eight focus group discussions and 39 in-depth interviews were conducted, which involved 121 women and men who were chosen purposefully and through self-nomination technique. This study revealed that the women were very much constrained by social environments in negotiating safe sex, despite having at least a basic knowledge of HIV prevention. Limiting factors included the fear of relationship breakup, economic dependence, violence, and the difficulties in justifying why they feel the need to insist on condom use, especially since initiating condom use is antithetical to trust. Furthermore, evidence suggested that improved access to income and education might be vital but it does not automatically constitute a direct means of empowering women to prevent HIV infection. The limitations of both behavioural and social determinants perspectives thus suggests the need for a combination prevention model, which focuses on how social, behavioural and biomedical factors overlap in shaping health outcomes.

  14. Determining sociability, social space, and social presence in (A)synchronous collaborative groups

    OpenAIRE

    Kreijns, K.; Kirschner, P.A.; Jochems, W.; Buuren, H. van

    2004-01-01

    The effectiveness of group learning in asynchronous distributed learning groups depends on the social interaction that takes place. This social interaction affects both cognitive and socioemotional processes that take place during learning, group forming, establishment of group structures, and group dynamics. Though now known to be important, this aspect is often ignored, denied or forgotten by educators and researchers who tend to concentrate on cognitive processes and on-task contexts. This...

  15. Addressing the social determinants of neglected tropical diseases to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... work brings to focus the determinants, which have been found to be particularly important for the perpetuation of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) in endemic communities: water and sanitation, housing and clustering, environment, migration, disasters and conflicts, socio-cultural factors and gender, and finally poverty.

  16. Distance and E-Learning, Social Justice, and Development: The Relevance of Capability Approaches to the Mission of Open Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the discourse of mission in large distance teaching and open universities, in order to analyse the theories of development and social justice that are claimed or may be inherent in them. It is suggested that in a number of cases the claims are unsupported or naive. The article goes on to set out the nature of Amartya…

  17. Social, Demographic and Labour Market Related Determinants of Health in the Adult European Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Rozsa Santha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies the social, demographic and labour market related determinants of the state of health and assesses the magnitude of their impact within the European adult population. The research is based on a statistical analysis on the data of the European Social Survey (ESS, round 7, 2014/2015. Subjective socioeconomic situation and partnership status are being identified as the most influential social determinants of health. Results also illuminate how work-life-balance determines health. People suffering from work-life-imbalance are more likely to become ill than those with more free time and flexible working hours.

  18. Social defeat protocol and relevant biomarkers, implications for stress response physiology, drug abuse, mood disorders and individual stress vulnerability: a systematic review of the last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Mailton; Stein, Dirson João; de Almeida, Rosa Maria M

    2015-01-01

    Social defeat (SD) in rats, which results from male intraspecific confrontations, is ethologically relevant and useful to understand stress effects on physiology and behavior. A systematic review of studies about biomarkers induced by the SD protocol and published from 2002 to 2013 was carried out in the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Knowledge and ScienceDirect. The search terms were: social defeat, rat, neurotrophins, neuroinflammatory markers, and transcriptional factors. Classical and recently discovered biomarkers were found to be relevant in stress-induced states. Findings were summarized in accordance to the length of exposure to stress: single, repeated, intermittent and continuous SD. This review found that the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a distinct marker of stress adaptation. Along with glucocorticoids and catecholamines, BDNF seems to be important in understanding stress physiology. The SD model provides a relevant tool to study stress response features, development of addictive behaviors, clinic depression and anxiety, as well as individual differences in vulnerability and resilience to stress.

  19. Social defeat protocol and relevant biomarkers, implications for stress response physiology, drug abuse, mood disorders and individual stress vulnerability: a systematic review of the last decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mailton Vasconcelos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Social defeat (SD in rats, which results from male intraspecific confrontations, is ethologically relevant and useful to understand stress effects on physiology and behavior.Methods: A systematic review of studies about biomarkers induced by the SD protocol and published from 2002 to 2013 was carried out in the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Knowledge and ScienceDirect. The search terms were: social defeat, rat, neurotrophins, neuroinflammatory markers, and transcriptional factors.Results: Classical and recently discovered biomarkers were found to be relevant in stress-induced states. Findings were summarized in accordance to the length of exposure to stress: single, repeated, intermittent and continuous SD. This review found that the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is a distinct marker of stress adaptation. Along with glucocorticoids and catecholamines, BDNF seems to be important in understanding stress physiology.Conclusion: The SD model provides a relevant tool to study stress response features, development of addictive behaviors, clinic depression and anxiety, as well as individual differences in vulnerability and resilience to stress.

  20. Social determinants of tuberculosis in Europe: a prospective ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploubidis, George B; Palmer, Melissa J; Blackmore, Charlotte; Lim, Tek-Ang; Manissero, Davide; Sandgren, Andreas; Semenza, Jan C

    2012-10-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is considered to be a disease of poverty, since its incidence is exacerbated by socioeconomic factors, inconsistent or partial treatment practices, and immigration from endemic countries. A prospective country level study, using a comprehensive dataset of TB incidence and prevalence taken from countries within the World Health Organization (WHO) European region, was conducted. We employed quintile regression to investigate the prospective association between baseline (measured in 2000) and a nation's wealth, level of egalitarianism, migration rate, health-related lifestyle and social capital with TB incidence and prevalence over a 10-yr period (2000-2009). We found that ∼50% of TB variation is accounted for by a nation's wealth and level of egalitarianism. We observed a negative prospective association between logged gross domestic product and TB rates, and a positive prospective association between income inequality and TB. National income levels per capita and income inequality are important predictors for TB incidence and prevalence in the WHO European region. They account for 50% of country-level variation, indicating the importance of a combined absolute and relative socioeconomic disadvantage in the development of TB. These findings also provide a tool for forecasting potential fluctuations in the level of TB epidemics in the WHO European region, with respect to socioeconomic changes.

  1. Social determinants of tobacco use: towards an equity lens approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexios-Fotios A. Mentis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco is the only commercial product that eventually kills nearly half of all long-term users. The prevalence of tobacco use is disproportionately high in lower socioeconomic strata and vulnerable groups (such as adolescents within and across countries. Given its highly addictive nature, tobacco use perpetuates poverty and loss of opportunities, thus undermining the UN Sustainable Development Goals. Moreover, by shaping the national and international context, globalization and governance impact on the tobacco epidemic and underlying disparities. Therefore, socio-economic gradients, which influence predisposition to tobacco uptake and cessation, must be confronted. Here I argue that tobacco prevention and control must be addressed through a lifelong, equity lens approach. This approach describes the essential need for every individual to have equal access to informative prevention and cessation services independent of income, occupational status, social stratum, or residence. I also contend that rather than being occupied with “research on research”, the focus should shift to how to practically implement the existing accumulated, cogent body of scientific evidence in a societally equitable manner. Finally, in line with the core dilemma of “who really governs the policies that shape our health?” raised by the WHO’s Director General, it is time for civil society either on its own or in partnership with local authorities to formulate policies that implement the “health for all” imperative rather than the currently dominant “wealth for some”.

  2. Learning to account for the social determinants of health affecting homeless persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Ryan; Guirguis-Younger, Manal; Dilley, Laura B; Turnbull, Jeffrey; Hwang, Stephen W

    2013-05-01

    Intersecting social determinants of health constrain access to care and treatment adherence among homeless populations. Because clinicians seldom receive training in the social determinants of health, they may be unprepared to account for or address these factors when developing treatment strategies for homeless individuals. This study explored: (i) clinicians' preparedness to provide care responsive to the social determinants of health in homeless populations, and (ii) the steps taken by clinicians to overcome shortcomings in their clinical training in regard to the social determinants of health. Qualitative interviews were conducted with doctors (n = 6) and nurses (n = 18) in six Canadian cities. Participants had at least 2 years of experience in providing care to homeless populations. Interview transcripts were analysed using methods of constant comparison. Participants highlighted how, when first providing care to this population, they were unprepared to account for or address social determinants shaping the health of homeless persons. However, participants recognised the necessity of addressing these factors to situate care within the social and structural contexts of homelessness. Participants' accounts illustrated that experiential learning was critical to increasing capacity to provide care responsive to the social determinants of health. Experiential learning was a continuous process that involved: (i) engaging with homeless persons in multiple settings and contexts to inform treatment strategies; (ii) evaluating the efficacy of treatment strategies through continued observation and critical reflection, and (iii) adjusting clinical practice to reflect observations and new knowledge. This study underscores the need for greater emphasis on the social determinants of health in medical education in the context of homelessness. These insights may help to inform the development and design of service-learning initiatives that integrate understandings of the

  3. Aligning method with theory: a comparison of two approaches to modeling the social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Campo, Patricia; Urquia, Marcelo

    2012-12-01

    There is increasing interest in the study of the social determinants of maternal and child health. While there has been growth in the theory and empirical evidence about social determinants, less attention has been paid to the kind of modeling that should be used to understand the impact of social exposures on well-being. We analyzed data from the nationwide 2006 Canadian Maternity Experiences Survey to compare the pervasive disease-specific model to a model that captures the generalized health impact (GHI) of social exposures, namely low socioeconomic position. The GHI model uses a composite of adverse conditions that stem from low socioeconomic position: adverse birth outcomes, postpartum depression, severe abuse, stressful life events, and hospitalization during pregnancy. Adjusted prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals from disease-specific models for low income (social determinants of health.

  4. Social Determinants of Health in Environmental Justice Communities: Examining Cumulative Risk in Terms of Environmental Exposures and Social Determinants of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, John D; Nolen, Alexandra B; Kelley, Hilton; Sexton, Ken; Linder, Stephen H; Sullivan, John

    2014-01-01

    Residents of environmental justice (EJ) communities may bear a disproportionate burden of environmental health risk, and often face additional burdens from social determinants of health. Accounting for cumulative risk should include measures of risk from both environmental sources and social determinants. This study sought to better understand cumulative health risk from both social and environmental sources in a disadvantaged community in Texas. Key outcomes were determining what data are currently available for this assessment, clarifying data needs, identifying data gaps, and considering how those gaps could be filled. Analyses suggested that the traditionally defined EJ community in Port Arthur may have a lower environmental risk from air toxics than the rest of the City of Port Arthur (although the entire city has a higher risk than the average for the state), but may have a larger burden from social determinants of health. However, the results should be interpreted in light of the availability of data, the definitions of community boundaries, and the areal unit utilized. Continued focus on environmental justice communities and the cumulative risks faced by their residents is critical to protecting these residents and, ultimately, moving towards a more equitable distribution and acceptable level of risk throughout society.

  5. Camphor burns of the palm and non-suicidal self-injury: An uncommonly reported, but socially relevant issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar Chittoria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Camphor is a waxy white sublimating chemical derived from natural as well as synthetic sources and widely used in various communities worldwide for a number of medicinal, culinary, and religious reasons. Camphor is burnt as an offering to God in many religious communities. We report three incidences of self inflicted injury from burning camphor on the palm resulting in full thickness burns. Non-suicidal self-injury is socially unacceptable destruction or alteration of body tissue when there is no suicidal intent or pervasive developmental disorder and we have explored an association between this and burn injury. This report also highlights the unique social and cultural pattern of this burn injury and the importance of psycho-therapeautic help for these victims.

  6. Bacterial determinants of the social behavior of Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Diego

    2013-09-01

    Bacteria utilize sophisticated cellular machinery to sense environmental changes and coordinate the most appropriate response. Fine sensors located on cell surfaces recognize a myriad of triggers and initiate genetic cascades leading to activation or repression of certain groups of genes. Structural elements such as pilli, exopolysaccharides and flagella are also exposed at the cell surface and contribute to modulating the intimate interaction with surfaces and host cells. This review will cover the latest advances in our understanding of the biology and functionality of these bacterial determinants within the context of biofilm formation of Bacillus subtilis. Copyright © 2013 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Animal Ownership and Touching Enrich the Context of Social Contacts Relevant to the Spread of Human Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kifle, Yimer Wasihun; Goeyvaerts, Nele; Van Kerckhove, Kim; Willem, Lander; Kucharski, Adam; Faes, Christel; Leirs, Herwig; Hens, Niel; Beutels, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Many human infectious diseases originate from animals or are transmitted through animal vectors. We aimed to identify factors that are predictive of ownership and touching of animals, assess whether animal ownership influences social contact behavior, and estimate the probability of a major zoonotic outbreak should a transmissible influenza-like pathogen be present in animals, all in the setting of a densely populated European country. A diary-based social contact survey (n = 1768) was conducted in Flanders, Belgium, from September 2010 until February 2011. Many participants touched pets (46%), poultry (2%) or livestock (2%) on a randomly assigned day, and a large proportion of participants owned such animals (51%, 15% and 5%, respectively). Logistic regression models indicated that larger households are more likely to own an animal and, unsurprisingly, that animal owners are more likely to touch animals. We observed a significant effect of age on animal ownership and touching. The total number of social contacts during a randomly assigned day was modeled using weighted-negative binomial regression. Apart from age, household size and day type (weekend versus weekday and regular versus holiday period), animal ownership was positively associated with the total number of social contacts during the weekend. Assuming that animal ownership and/or touching are at-risk events, we demonstrate a method to estimate the outbreak potential of zoonoses. We show that in Belgium animal-human interactions involving young children (0-9 years) and adults (25-54 years) have the highest potential to cause a major zoonotic outbreak.

  8. The Role of Relevancy and Social Suffering in “Generativity” Among Older Post-Soviet Women Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Medeiros, Kate; Rubinstein, Robert; Ermoshkina, Polina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This paper examines generativity, social suffering, and culture change in a sample of 16 women aged 65 years or older who emigrated from the former Soviet Union. Key concerns with generativity are identity, which can be strongly rooted in one’s original cultural formation, and a stable life course, which is what ideally enables generative impulses to be cultivated in later life. Design and Methods: To better understand how early social suffering may affect later life generativity, we conducted two 90-min interviews with each of our participants on their past experiences and current views of generativity. Results: The trauma of World War II, poor quality of life in the Soviet Union, scarcity of shelter and supplies, and fear of arrest emerged as common components in social suffering, which affected their identity. Implications: Overall, the theme of broken links to the future—the sense that their current lives were irrelevant to future generations—was strong among informants in their interviews, pointing to the importance of life course stability in relation to certain forms of generativity. PMID:24184859

  9. Advancing sustainability through urban green space: cultural ecosystem services, equity, and social determinants of health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viniece Jennings; Lincoln Larson; Jessica Yun

    2016-01-01

    Urban green spaces provide an array of benefits, or ecosystem services, that support our physical, psychological, and social health. In many cases, however, these benefits are not equitably distributed across diverse urban populations. In this paper, we explore relationships between cultural ecosystem services provided by urban green space and the social determinants...

  10. Perceptual Incongruity and Social Interaction as Determinants of Infants' Reaction to Novel Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, David J.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    A study on the effects of birth order on infants' reactions to novel persons was conducted to test the differing predictions of incongruity theory and social interaction theory. Findings indicated that infants' reactions to novel persons are determined by infants' social interaction within the family during the first year rather than by the number…

  11. Policy Change for the Social Determinants of Health: The Strange Irrelevance of Social Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crammond, Bradley R.; Carey, Gemma

    2017-01-01

    The considerable evidence base linking social conditions to population health has spurred many in public health to call for political action. Most of these conditions fall outside the purview of health departments, meaning that advocates are increasingly calling on other government sectors to improve health. Whether levelled at the…

  12. Media created violence: a social determinant of mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Shamshad; Khowaja, Shaneela Sadruddin; Ali, Gulnar

    2012-12-01

    In today's high technological world, scientific discoveries contribute remarkable development to human life, but it could also have an adverse impact on mankind. Among all these advancements, media is one of the inventions which aims at capturing a countless group of viewers and transmit information via various mediums. Media violence is considered one of the hampering determinants which harms an individual psychologically. The primary goal of a health professional is to work for the maintenance of mental health. Therefore, it is imperative to create an understanding about the impact of media violence on mental health, particularly in the Pakistani context. Violence has become a major public health problem in Pakistan. The main cause of violence seems to be anger and frustration due to poverty, political conflicts, lack of education, and the overall governance approach in the country. Therefore, there is a prime need to think and work on this neglected area like conducting research and increasing public awareness, and to curb media violence.

  13. Social Cognitive Determinants of Patient Education Intention among Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mirzaei-Alavijeh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Patient education is an important nursing duty. This practice is considered as one of the standards of nursing care quality, which plays an important role in the health promotion of the patients. Regarding this, the present study aimed to determine the predictors of behavioral intention of patient education among the nurses based on the theory of planned behavior. Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 300 nurses working at teaching hospitals affiliated to Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran. The study population was selected through cluster sampling with a probability proportional to size. The data were collected using self-report questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of two parts, including items related to demographic data and theory of planned behavior regarding the intention of patient education. The data were analyzed using linear regression, Chi-square test, t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson correlation in SPSS version 16. P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control accounted for 35% of the variance in patient education behavioral intention among the nurses (R2=0.35, out of which attitude was the strongest predictor (ß=0.287. Furthermore, behavioral intention was significantly correlated with subjective norms (r=0.470, P<0.001, perceived behavioral control (r=0.384, P<0.001, and attitude (r=0.508, P<0.001. Conclusion: As the findings indicated, attitude had a higher impact on the nurses’ behavioral intention of patient education. Therefore, it is suggested to pay more attention to this determinant.

  14. Explaining the role of the social determinants of health on health inequality in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ele-Ojo Ataguba

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Action on the social determinants of health (SDH is relevant for reducing health inequalities. This is particularly the case for South Africa (SA with its very high level of income inequality and inequalities in health and health outcomes. This paper provides evidence on the key SDH for reducing health inequalities in the country using a framework initially developed by the World Health Organization. Objective: This paper assesses health inequalities in SA and explains the factors (i.e. SDH and other individual level factors that account for large disparities in health. The relative contribution of different SDH to health inequality is also assessed. Design: A cross-sectional design is used. Data come from the third wave of the nationally representative National Income Dynamics Study. A subsample of adults (18 years and older is used. The main variable of interest is dichotomised good versus bad self-assessed health (SAH. Income-related health inequality is assessed using the standard concentration index (CI. A positive CI means that the rich report better health than the poor. A negative value signifies the opposite. The paper also decomposes the CI to assess its contributing factors. Results: Good SAH is significantly concentrated among the rich rather than the poor (CI=0.008; p<0.01. Decomposition of this result shows that social protection and employment (contribution=0.012; p<0.01, knowledge and education (0.005; p<0.01, and housing and infrastructure (−0.003; p<0.01 contribute significantly to the disparities in good SAH in SA. After accounting for these other variables, the contribution of income and poverty is negligible. Conclusions: Addressing health inequalities inter alia requires an increased government commitment in terms of budgetary allocations to key sectors (i.e. employment, social protection, education, housing, and other appropriate infrastructure. Attention should also be paid to equity in benefits from

  15. Tracing the social gradient in the health of Canadians: primary and secondary determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosteniuk, Julie G; Dickinson, Harley D

    2003-07-01

    The social gradient in heath refers to the fact that inequalities in population health status are related to inequalities in social status. This study advances and tests a model of the relationships between what we term primary and secondary determinants of the social gradient in health. The primary determinants of health include socioeconomic and demographic indicators. Secondary determinants include stressors, control, self-esteem, social support, and social involvement. Health status is indicated by measures of physical health, self-reported health status, and mental distress. Data are taken from the Canadian National Population Health (NPH) Survey (1994-1995). The study sample consists of 7720 men and 9269 women 15 to over 80 years of age. Using path analysis, we found that higher household income, being retired and growing older are significantly associated with lower stressor levels. Higher stressor levels are associated with lower levels of control, self-esteem, and social support. Higher income Canadians experience greater levels of control and social support, while older Canadians experience lower rates of social support but higher rates of social involvement. Being employed and caring for one's family are positively associated with better physical and self-reported health status. Higher household income, being retired, and aging are associated with better physical health and lower mental distress when accounting for their role in lowering stressor levels and bolstering control, self-esteem, social support, and social involvement. Replicating this study with future samples of the NPH Survey should be of benefit in ascertaining whether the social gradient in Canadians' health status shows signs of declining.

  16. Integrating Social Determinants of Health into Dental Curricula: An Interprofessional Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabato, Emily; Owens, Jessica; Mauro, Ann Marie; Findley, Patricia; Lamba, Sangeeta; Fenesy, Kim

    2018-03-01

    Approaching patient care from a holistic perspective, incorporating not only the patient's medical and dental history but also psychosocial history, improves patient outcomes. Practitioners should be trained to provide this style of care through inclusive education, including training working on interprofessional teams. A component of this education must incorporate social determinants of health into the treatment plan. Social determinants of health include income, race/ethnicity, education level, work opportunities, living conditions, and access to health care. Education regarding social determinants of health should be woven throughout dental curricula, including hands-on application opportunities. This education must extend to patient care situations rather than be limited to didactic settings. This article explains the need to incorporate social determinants of health into dental education and illustrates how social determinants education is being addressed in two U.S. dental schools' curricula, including how to weave social determinants of health into interprofessional education. These descriptions may serve as a model for curricular innovation and faculty development across the dental education community.

  17. Administrative-legal regulation of causes and conditions determining corruption in social sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr V. Polukarov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to show the capabilities of administrativelegal regulation for combating the causes and conditions determining corrupt behavior in the social sphere. Methods dialectic approach to cognition of social phenomena enabling to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the totality of objective and subjective factors that determined the choice of the following research methods analysis synthesis comparison systematic formallegal comparativelegal methods. Results the reasons and conditions determining the corruption in the social sphere were disclosed this leads to the conclusion that corruption counteraction should be based on 1 recognition of the social sphere as the key object of protection against corruption 2 elaboration of special administrativelegal means of corruption counteraction in the social sphere. It is necessary to take into account the features of social relations in such sectors as education healthcare culture physical culture and sports etc. A number of foreign countries took the path of developing legislation on corruption counteraction taking into account the specifics of various social sphere segments functioning. This experience is quite interesting from the viewpoint of developing means of combating the causes and conditions that determine corruption in the social sphere. A number of the Russian Federation subjects also elaborate regional programs of combating corruption in education healthcare and culture. In our opinion this experience should be transferred to the federal level of legal regulation. This will help to create a fullfledged system of corruption counteraction in the social sphere taking into account different levels of its functioning. Scientific novelty for the first time in administrativelegal science the ldquolaw of torts aspect of corruption in the social sphererdquo issue is considered the work reveals the causes and conditions that determine corruption in the social

  18. A Critical Investigation of the Relevance and Potential of IDPS as a Local Governance Instrument for Pursuing Social Justice in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Njuh Fuo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Unlike the situation in the past, when local government’s role was limited to service delivery, local government is now constitutionally mandated to play an expanded developmental role. As a “co-responsible” sphere of government, local government is obliged to contribute towards realising the transformative constitutional mandate aimed at social justice. South African scholars and jurists share the view that social justice is primarily concerned with the eradication of poverty and extreme inequalities in access to basic services, and aims to ensure that poor people command sufficient material resources to facilitate their equal participation in socio-political life. In order to enable municipalities to fulfil their broad constitutional mandate, the system of integrated development planning (IDPs came into effect in South Africa in 2000. Each municipality is obliged to design, adopt and implement an integrated development plan in order to achieve its expanded constitutional mandate. The IDP is considered to be the chief legally prescribed governance instrument for South African municipalities. The purpose of this article is to explore and critically investigate the relevance and potential of IDPs in contributing towards the achievement of social justice in South Africa. This article argues inter alia that the multitude of sectors that converge in an IDP makes it directly relevant and gives it enormous potential to contribute towards social justice because, depending on the context, municipalities could include and implement strategies that specifically respond to diverse areas of human need. In this regard, the legal and policy frameworks for IDPs provide a structured scheme that could be used by municipalities to prioritise and meet the basic needs of especially the poor. Despite its potential, it is argued that the ability of IDPs to respond to the basic needs of the poor is largely constrained by a series of implementation challenges

  19. Perceived Social Support as a Determinant of Quality of Life Among Medical Students: 6-Month Follow-up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In Cheol; Park, Kwi Hwa; Kim, Jin Joo; Yim, Jun; Ko, Kwang Pil; Bae, Seung Min; Kyung, Sun Young

    2017-04-01

    This longitudinal study aimed to identify the relevant factors related to quality of life (QoL) changes in medical students. For this 6-month follow-up study, we enrolled 109 students from a Korean medical school. To assess students' QoL, we used the World Health Organization QoL scale. Possible determinants of student QoL included demographics, fatigue, and social support. A stepwise multivariate analysis identified factors associated with changes of student QoL. Among sources of support, the "friends" category was the main position affecting their overall QoL, and "significant other" had the strongest influence on psychological and social domains. The impact of support from friends on QoL was confirmed in the longitudinal analysis. Final regression models revealed that providing students with more social support and promoting fatigue reduction best improved medical student sense of well-being. Creating stronger student support programs to prevent social detachment and implementing strategies to reduce fatigue can improve QoL in medical students.

  20. Clinically relevant determinants of body composition, function and nutritional status as mortality predictors in lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovarik, Miroslav; Hronek, Miloslav; Zadak, Zdenek

    2014-04-01

    Lung cancer belongs to the type of tumors with a relatively high frequency of malnutrition, sarcopenia and cachexia, severe metabolic syndromes related to impairment of physical function and quality of life, resistance to therapy and short survival. Inexpensive and accessible methods of evaluating changes in body composition, physical function and nutrition status are for this reason of great importance for clinical practice to enable the early identification, monitoring, preventing and treatment of these nutritional deficiencies. This could lead to improved outcomes in the quality of life, physical performance and survival of patients with lung cancer. The aim of this article is to summarize the recent knowledge for the use of such methods, their predictability for patient outcomes and an association with other clinically relevant parameters, specifically with lung cancer patients, because such an article collectively describing their practical application in clinical practice is lacking. The interest of this article is in the use of anthropometry, handgrip dynamometry, bioelectrical impedance analysis derived phase angle and nutritional screening questionnaires in lung cancer patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Organisational learning capabilities as determinants of social innovation: An empirical study in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Urban

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: A critical reading of the human resource management (HRM literature finds limited contributions to understanding the organisational determinants of social enterprises and how these may contribute to higher levels of social innovativeness. Although innovation is a key theme in organisational research it has been acknowledged that the field needs more theory-based examinations of different types of innovativeness. Research purpose: To determine how different organisational capabilities are related to social innovation. Motivation for the study: Many social enterprises in developing countries do not have the requisite capabilities to efficiently manage all their programmes, which presents a major threat to organisational sustainability. Research design, approach and method: The empirical analysis is a cross-sectional study based on primary survey data. Hypotheses are tested using correlational and regression analysis. Main findings: The results show that the organisational learning capabilities of knowledge conversion, risk management, organisational dialogue and participative decision-making all have a significant and positive relationship with social innovation. Practical/managerial implications: Managers and practitioners can leverage the different organisational learning capabilities to improve social innovations in their social enterprises. Contribution/value-add: The study is one of the first in an African market context to empirically investigate social enterprises in terms of social innovation and organisational learning perspectives.

  2. Social exclusion, caste & health: a review based on the social determinants framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, K R

    2007-10-01

    Poverty and social exclusion are important socio-economic variables which are often taken for granted while considering ill-health effects. Social exclusion mainly refers to the inability of our society to keep all groups and individuals within reach of what we expect as society to realize their full potential. Marginalization of certain groups or classes occurs in most societies including developed countries and perhaps it is more pronounced in underdeveloped countries. In the Indian context, caste may be considered broadly as a proxy for socio-economic status and poverty. In the identification of the poor, scheduled caste and scheduled tribes and in some cases the other backward castes are considered as socially disadvantaged groups and such groups have a higher probability of living under adverse conditions and poverty. The health status and utilization patterns of such groups give an indication of their social exclusion as well as an idea of the linkages between poverty and health. In this review, we examined broad linkages between caste and some select health/health utilization indicators. We examined data on prevalence of anaemia, treatment of diarrhoea, infant mortality rate, utilization of maternal health care and childhood vaccinations among different caste groups in India. The data based on the National Family Health Survey II (NFHS II) highlight considerable caste differentials in health. The linkages between caste and some health indicators show that poverty is a complex issue which needs to be addressed with a multi-dimensional paradigm. Minimizing the suffering from poverty and ill-health necessitates recognizing the complexity and adopting a perspective such as holistic epidemiology which can challenge pure technocentric approaches to achieve health status.

  3. Social capital of Turkish and Moroccan immigrants in Belgium: determinants of informal social networks

    OpenAIRE

    VAN CRAEN, Maarten; VANCLUYSEN, Kris; ACKAERT, Johan

    2008-01-01

    In the integration discourse it is often said that native Belgians and members of immigrant communities do not know one another, and that immigrant communities withdraw into their own community. Furthermore non-native Belgians with a Turkish and Moroccan background are often considered as one group. But are their respective integration processes similar? In this article we focus on one aspect of the integration process to answer this question: the acquisition of social capital. Using the theo...

  4. What does Williams Syndrome Reveal about the Determinants of Social Behavior?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maaria Järvinen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence on autonomic nervous system (ANS function in individuals with Williams syndrome (WS has begun to highlight aberrancies that may have important implications for the social profile characterized by enhanced social motivation and approach. In parallel, neurobiological investigations have identified alterations in the structure, function, and connectivity of the amygdala, as well as prosocial neuropeptide dysregulation, as some of the key neurogenetic features of WS. A recent social approach/withdrawal hypothesis (Kemp and Guastella, 2011 suggests that autonomic cardiac control may play a key role in regulating the relationship between oxytocin and social behavior. This article discusses evidence from these critical, new strands of research into social behavior in WS, to consider the extent to which data on WS may provide novel insight into the determinants of social behavior. Future research directions are suggested.

  5. Interventions to improve social determinants of health among elderly ethnic minority groups: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, Michelle S; Agyemang, Charles O; Smalbrugge, Martin

    2017-12-01

    Like the European general population, ethnic minorities are aging. In this group, important social determinants of health (social participation, social isolation and loneliness) that lead to negative health outcomes frequently occur. Interventions targeting these determinants may decrease negative health outcomes. The goal of this article was to identify effective interventions that improve social participation, and minimise social isolation and loneliness in community dwelling elderly ethnic minorities. An electronic database (PubMed) was systematically searched using an extensive search strategy, for intervention studies in English, French, Dutch of German, without time limit. Additional articles were found using references. Articles were included if they studied an intervention aimed to improve social participation or minimise social isolation or loneliness and were focusing on community dwelling elderly ethnic minorities. Data regarding studies characteristics and results were extracted. Six studies (three randomized controlled trials, three non-controlled intervention studies) were included in the review. All studies were group-based interventions and had a theoretical basis. Five out of six studies showed improvement on a social participation, -isolation or loneliness outcome. Type of intervention included volunteering-, educational- and physical activities. In three studies active participation of the participant was required, these interventions were not more effective than other interventions. Some interventions improved the included social determinants of health in community dwelling elderly ethnic minorities. Investment in further development and implementation of these interventions may help to improve social determinants of health in these populations. It is necessary to evaluate these interventions in the European setting. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  6. Exploring the Influence of Social Determinants, Social Capital, and Health Expertise on Health and the Rural Church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plunkett, Robyn; Leipert, Beverly; Olson, Joanne

    2016-09-01

    In rural communities, religious places can significantly shape health for individuals, families, and communities. Rural churches are prominent community centers in rural communities and are deeply woven into rural culture. Thus, health influences arising from the rural church likely have health implications for the greater community. This article explores health influences emerging from rural churches using social determinants of health, social capital, and health expertise. Although nurses are important health resources for all populations, their value in rural areas may be exceedingly significant. The contribution of nurses to church-based health capital in rural communities may be quite significant and underestimated, although it remains poorly understood. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Social determinants of health and local government: understanding and uptake of ideas in two Australian states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, Angela; Lane, Anna; Lewis, Felicity-Ann; Baum, Fran; Harris, Patrick

    2016-10-23

    To examine the awareness and perceptions of local government staff about the social determinants of health (SDoH) and health inequity and use of these ideas to shape policy and practice. 96 staff at 17 councils in South Australia or New South Wales responded to questions in a pilot online survey concerning: sources of knowledge about, familiarity with the evidence on, attitudes towards, and uses of ideas about the social determinants of health. Eight of 68 SA councils and 16 of 152 NSW councils were randomly selected stratified by state and metropolitan status. Differences between states and metropolitan/non-metropolitan status were explored. The majority of respondents (88.4%) reported some familiarity with ideas about the broad determinants of health and 90% agreed that the impact of policy action on health determinants should be considered in all major government policy and planning initiatives. Research articles, government/professional reports, and professional contacts were rated as important sources of knowledge about the social determinants of health. Resources need to be dedicated to systematic research on practical implementation of interventions on social determinants of health inequities and towards providing staff with more practical information about interventions and tools to evaluate those interventions. The findings suggest there is support for action addressing the social determinants of health in local government. The findings extend similar research regarding SDoH and government in NZ and Canada to Australian local government. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  8. Evaluation of some procedures relevant to the determination of trace elemental components in biological materials by destructive neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    The development of a simplified procedure for the analysis of biological materials by destructive neutron activation analysis (DNAA) is described. The sample manipulations preceding gamma ray assay were investigated as five specific stages of processing: (1) pre-irradiation treatment; (2) sample irradiation; (3) removal of the organic matrix; (4) removal of interfering radioactivities; and (5) concentration and separation of analyte activities. Each stage was evaluated with respect to susceptibility to sample contamination, loss of trace elemental components, and compatibility with other operations in the overall DNAA procedures. A complete DNAA procedure was proposed and evaluated for the analysis of standard bovine liver and blood samples. The DNAA system was effective for the determination of As, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mo, Rb, Sb, Se, and Zn without yield determinations and with a minimum turn-around time of approximately 3 days

  9. Evaluation of some procedures relevant to the determination of trace elemental components in biological materials by destructive neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    The development of a simplified procedure for the analysis of biological materials by destructive neutron activation analysis (DNAA) is described. The sample manipulations preceding gamma ray assay were investigated as five specific stages of processing: (1) pre-irradiation treatment; (2) sample irradiation; (3) removal of the organic matrix; (4) removal of interfering radioactivities; and (5) concentration and separation of analyte activities. Each stage was evaluated with respect to susceptibility to sample contamination, loss of trace elemental components, and compatibility with other operations in the overall DNAA procedures. A complete DNAA procedure was proposed and evaluated for the analysis of standard bovine liver and blood samples. The DNAA system was effective for the determination of As, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mo, Rb, Sb, Se, and Zn without yield determinations and with a minimum turn-around time of approximately 3 days.

  10. [Contextual indicators to assess social determinants of health and the Spanish economic recession].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-León, Andrés; Daponte Codina, Antonio; Mateo, Inmaculada; Arroyo-Borrell, Elena; Bartoll, Xavier; Bravo, María José; Domínguez-Berjón, María Felicitas; Renart, Gemma; Álvarez-Dardet, Carlos; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Bolívar Muñoz, Julia; Saez, Marc; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Palència, Laia; López, María José; Saurina, Carme; Puig, Vanessa; Martín, Unai; Gotsens, Mercè; Borrell, Carme; Serra Saurina, Laura; Sordo, Luis; Bacigalupe, Amaia; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Pérez, Glòria; Espelt, Albert; Ruiz, Miguel; Bernal, Mariola

    To provide indicators to assess the impact on health, its social determinants and health inequalities from a social context and the recent economic recession in Spain and its autonomous regions. Based on the Spanish conceptual framework for determinants of social inequalities in health, we identified indicators sequentially from key documents, Web of Science, and organisations with official statistics. The information collected resulted in a large directory of indicators which was reviewed by an expert panel. We then selected a set of these indicators according to geographical (availability of data according to autonomous regions) and temporal (from at least 2006 to 2012) criteria. We identified 203 contextual indicators related to social determinants of health and selected 96 (47%) based on the above criteria; 16% of the identified indicators did not satisfy the geographical criteria and 35% did not satisfy the temporal criteria. At least 80% of the indicators related to dependence and healthcare services were excluded. The final selection of indicators covered all areas for social determinants of health, and 62% of these were not available on the Internet. Around 40% of the indicators were extracted from sources related to the Spanish Statistics Institute. We have provided an extensive directory of contextual indicators on social determinants of health and a database to facilitate assessment of the impact of the economic recession on health and health inequalities in Spain and its autonomous regions. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Urban liveability: emerging lessons from Australia for exploring the potential for indicators to measure the social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badland, Hannah; Whitzman, Carolyn; Lowe, Melanie; Davern, Melanie; Aye, Lu; Butterworth, Iain; Hes, Dominique; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2014-06-01

    It has long been recognised that urban form impacts on health outcomes and their determinants. There is growing interest in creating indicators of liveability to measure progress towards achieving a wide range of policy outcomes, including enhanced health and wellbeing, and reduced inequalities. This review aimed to: 1) bring together the concepts of urban 'liveability' and social determinants of health; 2) synthesise the various liveability indicators developed to date; and 3) assess their quality using a health and wellbeing lens. Between 2011 and 2013, the research team reviewed 114 international academic and policy documents, as well as reports related to urban liveability. Overall, 233 indicators were found. Of these, 61 indicators were regarded as promising, 57 indicators needed further development, and 115 indicators were not useful for our purposes. Eleven domains of liveability were identified that likely contribute to health and wellbeing through the social determinants of health. These were: crime and safety; education; employment and income; health and social services; housing; leisure and culture; local food and other goods; natural environment; public open space; transport; and social cohesion and local democracy. Many of the indicators came from Australian sources; however most remain relevant from a 'global north' perspective. Although many indicators were identified, there was inconsistency in how these domains were measured. Few have been validated to assess their association with health and wellbeing outcomes, and little information was provided for how they should be applied to guide urban policy and practice. There is a substantial opportunity to further develop these measures to create a series of robust and evidence-based liveability indices, which could be linked with existing health and wellbeing data to better inform urban planning policies within Australia and beyond. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Geotechnical site assessment methodologies relevant to potential deep underground disposal facilities: with particular reference to the determination of in situ rock stress by the hydraulic fracturing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monaghan, B.G.; Richards, L.R.

    1986-10-01

    A final report summarizing the research conducted on geotechnical site assessment methodologies relevant to Land 3/4 sites. Two areas of research have been investigated; in situ stress determination by the hydraulic fracturing method in basic volcanics and sediments and the laboratory determination of hydraulic fracture tensile strength. The analysis and interpretation of the hydraulic fracturing test data from a programme of testing in the Vale of Belvoir is discussed in detail particularly in respect of the effects of pore water pressure and fluid diffusion in the rocks being tested. The regional stress regime of the Vale of Belvoir is discussed with respect to the results of the in situ stress determination. A method for determining the hydraulic fracture tensile strength in the laboratory is described. The results of a series of laboratory tests on rock core are reported. (author)

  13. Development of the health literacy on social determinants of health questionnaire in Japanese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayoshi Matsumoto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health inequities are increasing worldwide, with mounting evidence showing that the greatest cause of which are social determinants of health. To reduce inequities, a lot of citizens need to be able to access, understand, appraise, and apply information on the social determinants; that is, they need to improve health literacy on social determinants of health. However, only a limited number of scales focus on these considerations; hence, we developed the Health Literacy on Social Determinants of Health Questionnaire (HL-SDHQ and examined its psychometric properties. Methods We extracted domains of the social determinants of health from “the solid facts” and related articles, operationalizing the following ten domains: “the social gradient,” “early life,” “social exclusion,” “work,” “unemployment,” “social support,” “social capital,” “addiction,” “food,” and “transport,” Next, we developed the scale items in the ten extracted domains based on the literature and included four aspects of health literacy (ability to access, understand, appraise, and apply social determinants of health-related information in the items. We also evaluated the ease of response and content validity. The self-administered questionnaire consisted of 33 items. The reliability and construct validity were verified among 831 Japanese adults in an internet survey. Results The scale items had high reliability with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.92, and also adequate results were obtained for the internal consistency of the information-processing dimensions (Cronbach’s alpha values were 0.82, 0.91, 0.84, and 0.92 for accessing, understanding, appraising, and applying, respectively. The goodness of fit by confirmatory factor analysis based on the four dimensions was an acceptable value (comparative fit index = 0.901; root mean square error of approximation = 0.058. Furthermore, the bivariate relationship between

  14. Exploring Relationships Among Belief in Genetic Determinism, Genetics Knowledge, and Social Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gericke, Niklas; Carver, Rebecca; Castéra, Jérémy; Evangelista, Neima Alice Menezes; Marre, Claire Coiffard; El-Hani, Charbel N.

    2017-12-01

    Genetic determinism can be described as the attribution of the formation of traits to genes, where genes are ascribed more causal power than what scientific consensus suggests. Belief in genetic determinism is an educational problem because it contradicts scientific knowledge, and is a societal problem because it has the potential to foster intolerant attitudes such as racism and prejudice against sexual orientation. In this article, we begin by investigating the very nature of belief in genetic determinism. Then, we investigate whether knowledge of genetics and genomics is associated with beliefs in genetic determinism. Finally, we explore the extent to which social factors such as gender, education, and religiosity are associated with genetic determinism. Methodologically, we gathered and analyzed data on beliefs in genetic determinism, knowledge of genetics and genomics, and social variables using the "Public Understanding and Attitudes towards Genetics and Genomics" (PUGGS) instrument. Our analyses of PUGGS responses from a sample of Brazilian university freshmen undergraduates indicated that (1) belief in genetic determinism was best characterized as a construct built up by two dimensions or belief systems: beliefs concerning social traits and beliefs concerning biological traits; (2) levels of belief in genetic determination of social traits were low, which contradicts prior work; (3) associations between knowledge of genetics and genomics and levels of belief in genetic determinism were low; and (4) social factors such as age and religiosity had stronger associations with beliefs in genetic determinism than knowledge. Although our study design precludes causal inferences, our results raise questions about whether enhancing genetic literacy will decrease or prevent beliefs in genetic determinism.

  15. Perceived parenting dimensions and identity styles: exploring the socialization of adolescents' processing of identity-relevant information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Ilse; Soenens, Bart; Luyckx, Koen; Duriez, Bart; Berzonsky, Michael; Goossens, Luc

    2008-04-01

    This study examined the relationships between crucial dimensions of perceived parenting (support, behavioral control, and psychological control) and the three identity styles defined by Berzonsky [Berzonsky, M. D. (1990). Self-construction over the life span: A process perspective on identity formation. Advances in Personal Construct Psychology, 1, 155-186.]. Each identity style was hypothesized to relate to a specific pattern of perceived parenting dimensions. Hypotheses were examined in a sample of middle and late adolescents (n=674). An information-oriented style was positively predicted by parental support. Contrary to expectations, however, an information-oriented style was also positively predicted by psychological control. A normative identity style was positively predicted by support and behavioral control. In line with expectations, a diffuse-avoidant identity style was positively predicted by psychological control and negatively by maternal (but not paternal) behavioral control. Findings are discussed in light of the literature on the socialization of identity formation and directions for future research are outlined.

  16. Social Determinants of Overweight and Obesity Rates by Elementary School in a Predominantly Hispanic School District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Richard; Huerta, Gabriel; Karki, Menuka; Cantarero, Andrea

    This study analyzes the social determinants associated with the overweight or obesity prevalence of 85 elementary schools during the 2010-11 academic year in a predominantly Hispanic school district. A binomial logistic regression is used to analyze the aggregate overweight or obesity rate of a school by the percent of Hispanic students in each school, selected school and neighborhood characteristics, and its geographical location. The proportion of Hispanic enrollment more readily explains a school's aggregate overweight or obesity rate than social determinants or spatial location. Number of fast food establishments and the academic ranking of a school appear to slightly impact the aggregate prevalence rate. Spatial location of school is not a significant factor, controlling for other determinants. An elementary school's overall overweight or obesity rate provides a valuable health indicator to study the social determinants of obesity among Hispanics and other students within a local neighborhood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Social determinants of health, universal health coverage, and sustainable development: case studies from Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro; Pellegrini Filho, Alberto; Solar, Orielle; Rígoli, Félix; de Salazar, Lígia Malagon; Serrate, Pastor Castell-Florit; Ribeiro, Kelen Gomes; Koller, Theadora Swift; Cruz, Fernanda Natasha Bravo; Atun, Rifat

    2015-04-04

    Many intrinsically related determinants of health and disease exist, including social and economic status, education, employment, housing, and physical and environmental exposures. These factors interact to cumulatively affect health and disease burden of individuals and populations, and to establish health inequities and disparities across and within countries. Biomedical models of health care decrease adverse consequences of disease, but are not enough to effectively improve individual and population health and advance health equity. Social determinants of health are especially important in Latin American countries, which are characterised by adverse colonial legacies, tremendous social injustice, huge socioeconomic disparities, and wide health inequities. Poverty and inequality worsened substantially in the 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s in these countries. Many Latin American countries have introduced public policies that integrate health, social, and economic actions, and have sought to develop health systems that incorporate multisectoral interventions when introducing universal health coverage to improve health and its upstream determinants. We present case studies from four Latin American countries to show the design and implementation of health programmes underpinned by intersectoral action and social participation that have reached national scale to effectively address social determinants of health, improve health outcomes, and reduce health inequities. Investment in managerial and political capacity, strong political and managerial commitment, and state programmes, not just time-limited government actions, have been crucial in underpinning the success of these policies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Tackling Health Disparities for People Who Are Homeless? Start with Social Determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    Background: Homelessness is associated with enormous health inequalities, including shorter life expectancy, higher morbidity and greater usage of acute hospital services. Viewed through the lens of social determinants, homelessness is a key driver of poor health, but homelessness itself results from accumulated adverse social and economic conditions. Indeed, in people who are homeless, the social determinants of homelessness and health inequities are often intertwined, and long term homelessness further exacerbates poor health. Aggregated health service data can mask this, and case histories thus provide important insights. Methods: This paper presents three case histories of homeless patients seen at an inner city public hospital in Perth, Western Australia. The case histories draw on several data sources: hospital data, information collected from rough sleepers and clinical observations. Estimates of the cost to the health system of the observed hospital usage by the three patients are included. Findings: The case histories illustrate the interplay of social determinants of health in homelessness that help explain the high level of hospital usage by rough sleepers. The cumulative healthcare costs for the three individuals over a 33 months period were substantial. Hospital attendance plummeted even in the short term when housing needs were addressed. Conclusions: Treating homelessness as a combined health and social issue is critical to improving the abysmal health outcomes of people experiencing homelessness. In addition, the enormous economic costs of hospital care for people who are homeless can be reduced when housing and other social determinants are taken into account. PMID:29292758

  19. Tackling Health Disparities for People Who Are Homeless? Start with Social Determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Stafford

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Homelessness is associated with enormous health inequalities, including shorter life expectancy, higher morbidity and greater usage of acute hospital services. Viewed through the lens of social determinants, homelessness is a key driver of poor health, but homelessness itself results from accumulated adverse social and economic conditions. Indeed, in people who are homeless, the social determinants of homelessness and health inequities are often intertwined, and long term homelessness further exacerbates poor health. Aggregated health service data can mask this, and case histories thus provide important insights. Methods: This paper presents three case histories of homeless patients seen at an inner city public hospital in Perth, Western Australia. The case histories draw on several data sources: hospital data, information collected from rough sleepers and clinical observations. Estimates of the cost to the health system of the observed hospital usage by the three patients are included. Findings: The case histories illustrate the interplay of social determinants of health in homelessness that help explain the high level of hospital usage by rough sleepers. The cumulative healthcare costs for the three individuals over a 33 months period were substantial. Hospital attendance plummeted even in the short term when housing needs were addressed. Conclusions: Treating homelessness as a combined health and social issue is critical to improving the abysmal health outcomes of people experiencing homelessness. In addition, the enormous economic costs of hospital care for people who are homeless can be reduced when housing and other social determinants are taken into account.

  20. The clinical significance of determination of adrenal medulla in patients with chronic cor pulmonale and analysis of its relevant factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Yingchun; Zha Jinshun

    2002-01-01

    In order to find the function of adrenal medulla in the development of chronic cor pulmonale and the effect of smoking, anoxia and lung's work on adrenal medulla, the authors determined adrenal medulla in 63 patients with acute cor pulmonale (Group A) and 60 controls (Group B). The authors tried to find out the effect of the patients' age, course of disease, history of smoking, malfunction of lung on adrenal medulla by multiple regressive analysis. Adrenal medulla is significantly higher in Group A than that of in Group B (P 2 both contribute to the conclusion that smoking is an independent factor to affect the adrenal medulla. The study shows that the adrenal medulla in patients with cor pulmonale is higher than that of normal people, and that the level of adrenal medulla is dependent on the degree of seriousness of the disease, obstructive ventilatory disturbance and anoxia

  1. Social position, gender role, and treatment adherence among Colombian women living with HIV/AIDS: social determinants of health approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrivillaga, Marcela; Ross, Michael; Useche, Bernardo; Alzate, Martha Lucia; Correa, Diego

    2009-12-01

    To assess and analyze the associations between adherence to treatment and social position in women living with HIV/AIDS. A cross-sectional, descriptive, correlational study among 269 Colombian women was conducted. Participants completed three questionnaires: a socio-demographic and clinical characteristics survey, a treatment adherence scale, and a social position survey. Women of low social position had a significantly higher probability of low treatment adherence (OR = 5.651, P effect on adherence. A general model considering the variables 'type of national health care plan' ('contributive,' 'subsidized,' or, in the case of vinculadas or the uninsured, 'none'); 'having HIV-positive children'; and 'level of viral load' was statistically reliable in predicting study participants' treatment adherence. Membership in the subsidized plan or being uninsured had a greater effect on the probability of low adherence than membership in the contributive plan (OR = 3.478, P 400 copies/ml were more likely to have low adherence than women without those characteristics (OR = 2.395, P = 0.0274 and OR = 2.178, P = 0.0050, respectively). Improving women's adherence to HIV/AIDS treatment in Colombia would require eliminating barriers to national health care system and comprehensive health care services and implementing programs that take into account women's role as maternal caregivers The findings underscore the need to integrate variables related to gender inequality and social position in treatment adherence analysis, as advocated in the social determinants of health approach.

  2. Resurrecting social infrastructure as a determinant of urban tuberculosis control in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Shivani; Sharma, Nandini; Joshi, Kulanand; Aggarwal, Nishi; Kannan, Anjur Tupil

    2014-01-17

    The key to universal coverage in tuberculosis (TB) management lies in community participation and empowerment of the population. Social infrastructure development generates social capital and addresses the crucial social determinants of TB, thereby improving program performance. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the concept of social infrastructure development for TB control in developing countries. This study aims to revive this concept and highlight the fact that documentation on ways to operationalize urban TB control is required from a holistic development perspective. Further, it explains how development of social infrastructure impacts health and development outcomes, especially with respect to TB in urban settings. A wide range of published Government records pertaining to social development parameters and TB program surveillance, between 2001 and 2011 in Delhi, were studied. Social infrastructure development parameters like human development index along with other indicators reflecting patient profile and habitation in urban settings were selected as social determinants of TB. These include adult literacy rates, per capita income, net migration rates, percentage growth in slum population, and percentage of urban population living in one-room dwelling units. The impact of the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program on TB incidence was assessed as an annual decline in new TB cases notified under the program. Univariate linear regression was employed to examine the interrelationship between social development parameters and TB program outcomes. The decade saw a significant growth in most of the social development parameters in the State. TB program performance showed 46% increment in lives saved among all types of TB cases per 100,000 population. The 7% reduction in new TB case notifications from the year 2001 to 2011, translates to a logarithmic decline of 5.4 new TB cases per 100,000 population. Except per capita income, literacy, and net

  3. Influence of Race, Ethnicity and Social Determinants of Health on Diabetes Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rebekah J; Strom Williams, Joni; Egede, Leonard E

    2016-04-01

    There is strong evidence that race, ethnicity and social determinants of health significantly influence outcomes for patients with diabetes. A better understanding of the mechanisms of these relationships or associations would improve development of cost-effective, culturally tailored programs for patients with diabetes. This article reviews the current state of the literature on the influence of race and ethnicity and social determinants of health on process of care, quality of care and outcomes for diabetes, with particular emphasis on the rural South to give an overview of the state of the literature. The literature review shows that racial or ethnic differences in the clinical outcomes for diabetes, including glycemic, blood pressure (BP) and lipid control, continue to persist. In addition, the literature review shows that the role of social determinants of health on outcomes, and the possible role these determinants play in disparities have largely been ignored. Psychosocial factors, such as self-efficacy, depression, social support and perceived stress, show consistent associations with self-care, quality of life and glycemic control. Neighborhood factors, such as food insecurity, social cohesion and neighborhood esthetics have been associated with glycemic control. Perceived discrimination has also been associated with self-care and the psychological component of quality of life. Healthcare professionals need to be skilled in assessing social determinants of health and taking them into consideration in clinical care. In addition, more research is needed to identify the separate and combined influence of race and ethnicity and social determinants of health on process of care, quality of care and outcomes in diabetes, especially in the South, where the burden of disease is particularly high. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. All rights reserved.

  4. Proceedings of the relevance of mass spectrometry to DNA sequence determination: Research needs for the Human Genome Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmonds, C.G.; Smith, R.D. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Smith, L.M. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (USA))

    1990-11-01

    A workshop was sponsored for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Health and Environmental Research by Pacific Northwest Laboratory, April 4--5, 1990, in Seattle, Washington, to examine the potential role of mass spectrometry in the joint DOE/National Institutes of Health (NIH) Human Genome Program. The workshop was occasioned by recent developments in mass spectrometry that are providing new levels for selectivity, sensitivity, and, in particular, new methods of ionization appropriate for large biopolymers such as DNA. During discussions, three general mass spectrometric approaches to the determination of DNA sequence were considered: (1) the mass spectrometric detection of isotopic labels from DNA sequencing mixtures separated using gel electrophoresis, (2) the direct mass spectrometric analysis from direct ionization of unfractionated sequencing mixtures where the measured mass of the constituents functions to identify and order the base sequence (replacing separation by gel electrophoresis), and (3) an approach in which a single highly charged molecular ion of a large DNA segment produced is rapidly sequenced in an ion cyclotron resonance ion trap. The consensus of the workshop was that, on the basis of the new developments, mass spectrometry has the potential to provide the substantial increases in sequencing speed required for the Human Genome Program. 66 refs., 3 tabs.

  5. Human cerebrospinal fluid contains CD4+ memory T cells expressing gut- or skin-specific trafficking determinants: relevance for immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell James J

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Circulating memory T cells can be divided into tissue-specific subsets, which traffic through distinct tissue compartments during physiologic immune surveillance, based on their expression of adhesion molecules and chemokine receptors. We reasoned that a bias (either enrichment or depletion of CSF T cell expression of known organ-specific trafficking determinants might suggest that homing of T cells to the subarachnoid space could be governed by a CNS-specific adhesion molecule or chemokine receptor. Results The expression of cutaneous leukocyte antigen (CLA and CC-chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4; associated with skin-homing as well as the expression of integrin α4β7 and CCR9 (associated with gut-homing was analyzed on CD4+ memory T cells in CSF from individuals with non-inflammatory neurological diseases using flow cytometry. CSF contained similar proportions of CD4+ memory T cells expressing CLA, CCR4, integrin α4β7 and CCR9 as paired blood samples. Conclusion The results extend our previous findings that antigen-experienced CD4+ memory T cells traffic through the CSF in proportion to their abundance in the peripheral circulation. Furthermore, the ready access of skin- and gut-homing CD4+ memory T cells to the CNS compartment via CSF has implications for the mechanisms of action of immunotherapeutic strategies, such as oral tolerance or therapeutic immunization, where immunogens are administered using an oral or subcutaneous route.

  6. Advancing Sustainability through Urban Green Space: Cultural Ecosystem Services, Equity, and Social Determinants of Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Viniece; Larson, Lincoln; Yun, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Urban green spaces provide an array of benefits, or ecosystem services, that support our physical, psychological, and social health. In many cases, however, these benefits are not equitably distributed across diverse urban populations. In this paper, we explore relationships between cultural ecosystem services provided by urban green space and the social determinants of health outlined in the United States Healthy People 2020 initiative. Specifically, we: (1) explore connections between cultural ecosystem services and social determinants of health; (2) examine cultural ecosystem services as nature-based health amenities to promote social equity; and (3) recommend areas for future research examining links between urban green space and public health within the context of environmental justice. PMID:26861365

  7. Equity, social determinants and public health programmes - the case of oral health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Kwan, Stella

    2011-01-01

    is that means are available for breaking poverty and reduce if not eliminate social inequalities in oral health. Whether public health actions are initiated simply depends on the political will. The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion (1986) and subsequent charters have emphasized the importance of policy......', with the aim of translating knowledge into concrete, workable actions. Poor oral health was flagged as a severe public health problem. Oral disease and illness remain global problems and widening inequities in oral health status exist among different social groupings between and within countries. The good news......The WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health issued the 2008 report 'Closing the gap within a generation - health equity through action on the social determinants of health' in response to the widening gaps, within and between countries, in income levels, opportunities, life expectancy...

  8. [A quantitative approach to sports training-adapted social determinants concerning sport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvis-Gómez, Martina K; Neira-Tolosa, Nury A

    2013-01-01

    Identifying and quantitatively analysing social determinants affecting disabled teenagers' inclusion/exclusion in high-performance sports. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study involving 19 12- to 19-year-old athletes suffering physical and sensory disability and 17 staff from the District Institute of Recreation and Sport. Likert-type rating scales were used, based on four analysis categories, i.e. social structure, socio-economic, educational and living condition determinants. Social inequity pervades the national paralympic sports' system. This is because 74 % of individuals only become recognised as sportspeople when they have obtained meritorious results in set competition without appropriate conditions having been previously provided by such paralympic sports institution to enable them to overcome structural and intermediate barriers. The social structure imposed on district-based paralympic sport stigmatises individuals regarding their individual abilities, affects their empowerment and freedom due to the discrimination experienced by disabled teenagers regarding their competitive achievements.

  9. Early life environment and social determinants of cardiac health in children with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Peter; Denburg, Avram; Dave, Malini; Levin, Leo; Morinis, Julia Orkin; Suleman, Shazeen; Wong, Jonathan; Ford-Jones, Elizabeth; Moore, Aideen M

    2018-04-01

    Congenital heart disease is a significant cause of infant mortality. Epidemiology and social context play a crucial role in conditioning disease burden and modulating outcomes, while diagnosis and treatment remain resource intensive. This review will address the role of social demographics, environmental exposure, epigenetics and nutrition in the aetiology of congenital heart disease. We then discuss the determinant effect of social factors on the provision and outcomes of care for congenital heart disease and implications for practice. It is our hope that enhanced knowledge of the intersection of social determinants of health and congenital heart disease will facilitate effective preventative strategies at the individual and population levels to optimize heart health outcomes across the life course.

  10. DETERMINATION OF RELEVANT FEATURES OF A SCALE MODEL FOR A 55 000 DWT BULK CARRIER NECESSARY TO STUDY THE SHIP MANEUVERABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALECU TOMA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study method of a ship behavior based on practical tests on scale models is widely used both leading scientists and engineers, architects and researchers in the naval field. In this paper we propose to determine the parameters of a ship handling characteristics relevant to study the 55,000 dwt bulk carrier using a scale model. Scientific background for practical experimentation of this techniques necessary to built a scale model ship consists in applying the principles of similarity or "similitude". The scale model achieved by applying the laws of similarity must allow, through approximations available in certain circumstances, finding relevant parameters needed to simplify and solve the Navier-Stokes equations. These parameters are necessary for modeling the interaction between hull of the real ship and the fluid motion.

  11. Modeling the determinants of the social impacts of agricultural development projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadvand, Mostafa; Karami, Ezatollah; Iman, Mohammad Taghi

    2011-01-01

    In an attempt to help policy-makers improve the social sustainability of development projects, this study identifies the key determinants of farmers' attitudes relating to the social impacts of the floodwater spreading project (FWSP) on the Gareh-Bygone plain in Iran. In order to analyze the links between the various factors that affect the experience of social impact, a theoretical framework was developed. Stratified random sampling was used to survey 138 farm households from the four villages in the region. One male and one female from each house were interviewed face-to-face using a questionnaire, resulting in a total of 276 interviews. Structural factors were found to be the largest contribution to stakeholders' attitudes relating to the social impacts of the project. Results from a cluster analysis suggested that the level of floodwater information, level of participation, water access, ownership change, and environmental worldview were the most important factors explaining attitude towards social impact of the FWSP.

  12. Social relationships as a major determinant in the valuation of health states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Ulrich; Irving, Hyacinth; Rehm, Jürgen

    2012-03-01

    To empirically determine the impact of the capacity to sustain social relationships on valuing health states. 68 clinical experts conducted a health state valuation exercise in five sites using pairwise comparison, ranking, and person trade-off as elicitation methods. 23,840 pairwise comparisons of a total of 379 health states were analyzed by conditional logistic regression. Social relationships had a clear monotonic association with perceived disability: the more limited the capacity to sustain social relationships, the more disabling the resulting health state valuations. The highest level of limitations with respect to social relationships was associated with slightly lower impact on health state valuations compared to the highest level of limitations in physical functioning. Social relationships showed an independent contribution to health state valuations and should be included in health state measures.

  13. Social Determinants of Health from the Perspective of Women with Thalassemia: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboo Torab Talebi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: In recent years, social determinants of health have received much attention from researchers in the social sciences. One of the major problems of the health sector in developing countries is the unequal distribution of health which leads to inequalities in social status and living conditions of people. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the social determinants of health from the perspective of women with the Thalassemia disease.Materials and Methods: This study is a qualitative and thematic analysis. Participants in the study were 24 women with Thalassemia disease. The sampling method was purposeful. To collect qualitative data observation and participation, semi-structured interviews and study of the documents were used. For data analysis, thematic analysis and Wolcott method were used.Results: Social determinants of health from the perspective of women with thalassemia included economic factors (lack of interest-free banking facilities, health expenditure, social factors (inequality in employment, cultural factors (lack of awareness in society and health factors (inefficient health services.Conclusion: If the needs of disadvantaged people, women, and patients in the design and management of the health system be considered, health system performance would be desirable.

  14. The relationship between social determinants of health, and rehabilitation of neurological conditions: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frier, Amanda; Barnett, Fiona; Devine, Sue

    2017-05-01

    This systematic literature review aims to explore the relationship between social determinants of health (SDH), and the rehabilitation of neurological conditions. In particular, the review will consider relationships between social determinants and peoples' attendance and sustained adherence to rehabilitation programs, and motivation regarding neurological rehabilitation. A systematic search of peer-reviewed literature from electronic databases; MEDLINE, Scopus, CINAHL and Informit health, was conducted. Papers published between 2004 and 2014 were considered. Eleven quantitative studies met the inclusion criteria. There was a lack of research addressing SDH and neurological rehabilitation simultaneously. Cardiac and cancer rehabilitation studies reported employment and income, social support, transport, housing and food security as the most frequent SDH factors influencing attendance, sustained adherence and motivation. Given this association, a similar relationship between neurological rehabilitation and SDH is plausible. Rehabilitation of neurological conditions can be a long and difficult process. To pursue optimal outcomes, an individual's social circumstances should be considered. Understanding how SDH interact with neurological rehabilitation may enhance service delivery, thus maximizing the possible rehabilitation outcomes for individuals. Future research that considers SDH and rehabilitation of neurological conditions jointly may benefit service providers and those requiring neurological rehabilitation. Implications for Rehabilitation Social determinants of health are important to consider in the rehabilitation of neurological conditions. Understanding the interplay between the social determinants of health and neurological rehabilitation may enhance the possible outcomes for those requiring rehabilitation. Increased awareness and capacity of health care professionals involved in neurological rehabilitation may hasten momentum towards decreased health

  15. The Relation Between Social Determinant of Health with Access to Health Services in Gonbad kavoos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoome Gholami

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Today health perpectives has been changing widly. Now social determinants of health are more influence in disease rather than biological causes. If these determinants being ignored, achievement to health Golas would be impossible. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between Social determinants of health and access to health care in GonbadKavoos.Materials and Methods: This study was a correlation and cross-sectional. The populations were urban residents of GonbadKavoos, and the sample size was four hundred households, and the data collection tool was a questionnaire. For statistical analyze between variables these tests were used: independent sample test, Pearson correlation and ANOVA.Results: Among determinants of health, the variables like: socio-economic status of household (P<0.0001, educational level of household breadwinner (P<0.0001, family dimension (P<0.018, employment (P<0.003, residential area (P<0.001, access to internet (P<0.0001, doing exercise (P<0.0001, and having insurance (P<0.0001, had significant relationship with access to health care, spatially dental services and periodical checkup.Conclusion: Social determinants of health have very important relationship with access to health care. Then to decline these inequities in access to health care, development of social and economic equality for all people is so crucial.

  16. [Learning about social determinants of health through chronicles, using a virtual learning environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo-Palacio, Sonia; Amaya-Guio, Jairo

    2016-01-01

    To describe the contributions of a pedagogical strategy based on the construction of chronicles, using a Virtual Learning Environment for training medical students from Universidad de La Sabana on social determinants of health. Descriptive study with a qualitative approach. Design and implementation of a Virtual Learning Environment based on the ADDIE instructional model. A Virtual Learning Environment was implemented with an instructional design based on the five phases of the ADDIE model, on the grounds of meaningful learning and social constructivism, and through the narration of chronicles or life stories as a pedagogical strategy. During the course, the structural determinants and intermediaries were addressed, and nine chronicles were produced by working groups made up of four or five students, who demonstrated meaningful learning from real life stories, presented a coherent sequence, and kept a thread; 82% of these students incorporated in their contents most of the social determinants of health, emphasizing on the concepts of equity or inequity, equality or inequality, justice or injustice and social cohesion. A Virtual Learning Environment, based on an appropriate instructional design, allows to facilitate learning of social determinants of health through a constructivist pedagogical approach by analyzing chronicles or life stories created by ninth-semester students of medicine from Universidad de La Sabana.

  17. Not all hours are equal: could time be a social determinant of health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strazdins, Lyndall; Welsh, Jennifer; Korda, Rosemary; Broom, Dorothy; Paolucci, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Time can be thought of as a resource that people need for good health. Healthy behaviour, accessing health services, working, resting and caring all require time. Like other resources, time is socially shaped, but its relevance to health and health inequality is yet to be established. Drawing from sociology and political economy, we set out the theoretical basis for two measures of time relevant to contemporary, market-based societies. We measure amount of time spent on care and work (paid and unpaid) and the intensity of time, which refers to rushing, effort and speed. Using data from wave 9 (N = 9177) of the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics of Australia Survey we found that time poverty (> 80 h per week on care and work) and often or always rushing are barriers to physical activity and rushing is associated with poorer self-rated and mental health. Exploring their social patterning, we find that time-poor people have higher incomes and more time control. In contrast, rushing is linked to being a woman, lone parenthood, disability, lack of control and work-family conflicts. We supply a methodology to support quantitative investigations of time, and our findings underline time's dimensionality, social distribution and potential to influence health. © 2015 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation for SHIL.

  18. Ética, equidad y determinantes sociales de la salud Ethics, equity and social determinants of health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Puyol

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Las evidencias aportadas por los estudios sobre los determinantes sociales de la salud modifican la relación entre la ética y la medicina, entre lo normativo y lo descriptivo en el estudio de la salud pública. También modifican la concepción tradicional de la equidad, las políticas sanitarias necesarias y el futuro de la bioética. Más concretamente: 1 la frontera entre la medicina y la ética se vuelve mucho más difusa, sobre todo en el campo de la epidemiología, cuyos objetivos son ahora inseparables de consideraciones éticas; 2 la concepción de la equidad en salud definida tradicionalmente a partir del acceso al sistema sanitario debe corregirse o ampliarse para incorporar las desigualdades injustas de salud que se producen antes de que los enfermos lleguen al sistema sanitario; y 3 el tradicional sesgo autonomista de la bioética debe sustituirse por una preocupación prioritaria por la justicia social y su relación con la salud.The evidence shown by studies on the social determinants of health has changed the relationship between ethics and medicine. The evidence shown by studies on the social determinants of health has changed the relationship between ethics and medicine, and between a normative and a descriptive approach. Studies on the social determinants of health have also modified the traditional concept of equity, necessary health policies and the future of bioethics. More specifically: 1 the boundary between medicine and ethics has become much fuzzier, especially in the field of epidemiology, whose objectives are now inseparable from ethical considerations; 2 the concept of health equity traditionally defined as access to healthcare should be corrected or expanded to incorporate unfair health inequalities that occur before patients reach the healthcare system; and 3 the traditional autonomy bias of bioethics should be replaced by a primary concern for social justice and its relationship with health.

  19. Validity of a scale of neighbourhood informal social control relevant to pre-schoolers’ physical activity: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Cerin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Childhood physical activity (PA is important for health across the lifespan. Time pre-schoolers spend outdoors, which has been associated with more PA, is likely influenced by parents’ perception of neighbourhood informal social control relevant to pre-schoolers' PA, defined as the willingness of neighbours to intervene to ensure social order and a safe community environment for young children's active play. To advance measurement of this construct, we assessed factorial and construct validities of the PA-related neighbourhood informal social control scale for parents of pre-schoolers (PANISC-PP. In 2013–2014, Hong Kong primary caregivers (n=394 of 3–5 year-old children completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, the preliminary version of the PANISC-PP, and self-report measures of theoretical neighbourhood correlates of PA-related neighbourhood informal social control (perceived signs of physical and social disorder, community cohesion, perceived stranger danger, risk of unintentional injury and traffic safety. The fit of the data to an a priori measurement model of the PANISC-PP was examined using confirmatory factor analyses. As the a priori model showed inadequate fit to the data, the factor structure was re-specified based on theoretical considerations. The final measurement models of the PANISC-PP showed acceptable fit to the data and consisted of three correlated latent factors: “General informal supervision”, “Civic engagement for the creation of a better neighbourhood environment” and “Educating and assisting neighbourhood children”. The internal reliability of the subscales was good (Cronbach's α values 0.82–0.89. Generalised additive mixed models indicated that all subscales were positively associated with community cohesion and scores on the subscale “Educating and assisting neighbourhood children” were related in the expected direction to all indicators of traffic and personal safety, supporting construct

  20. Social Determinants of Physical Self-Rated Health among Asian Americans; Comparison of Six Ethnic Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: A growing literature has revealed ethnic group differences in determinants and meanings of their self-rated health (SRH. Aim: To explore ethnic variations in the effects of socioeconomic determinants on poor physical SRH of Asians in the United States. Methods: Data came from the National Asian American Survey (NAAS, 2008, with 4977 non-U.S. born Asian Americans, including Asian Indian (n = 1150, Chinese (n = 1350, Filipino (n = 603, Japanese (n = 541, Korean (n = 614, and Vietnamese (n = 719 Americans. Demographic factors (age and gender, socioeconomic status (SES; education, employment, income, and marital status, and physical SRH were measured. Ethnic-specific logistic regressions were applied for data analysis where physical SRH was the outcome and demographic and social determinants were predictors. Results: According to logistic regressions, no social determinant was consistently associated with physical SRH across all ethnic groups. Being married was associated with better physical SRH in Asian Indians and worse SRH in the Filipino group. Education was associated with better SRH in Asian Indian, Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese Americans. High income was associated with better SRH in Chinese, Filipino, and Vietnamese Americans. Employment was associated with better SRH in Filipino Americans. Conclusion: Social determinants of physical SRH vary across ethnic groups of Asian Americans. Different ethnic groups are differently vulnerable to various social determinants of health. Application of single item SRH measures may be a source of bias in studies of health with ethnically diverse populations. Policy makers should be aware that the same change in social determinants may not result in similar change in the health of ethnic groups.

  1. Influence Determination of Social Responsibility to the Productivity Enterprise Activity Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergii Kavun

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop a scientific and methodical approach for determination of the comprehensive social responsibility indicator in this paper based on estimation of influence degree for the economical, ecological, social and labour, standard and legal components. There is allowance for determining of some level of enterprise social responsibility. In addition, there is a basis for development some ways of their increasing. The essence of the used approach is clotting of the individual indicators set to four intermediate indicators of the economic, ecological, social and labor, standard and legal components, which can be boiled down to the generalizing activity productivity indicator based on the matrix and range approach. An economical and mathematical model of the social responsibility influence level to the enterprise activity productivity level, which is based on enterprise propose harmonization with the participants’ interests, was being built. The paper proposes the mathematical model, which allows detecting a necessary time period for enterprise activity productivity ensuring due to social responsibility implementation.

  2. [A global view of population health in Colombia: role of social macro-determinants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrovo, Alvaro J; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Myriam

    2007-09-01

    The social environment is an important determinant of population and individual health. However, its impact is often not considered in national health policies and generally its attributes are considered as constants. For this reason, contemporary health policies place greater emphasis on individual risk factors. Colombias position in the world ranking is described with respect to several social macro-determinants of health, previously characterized as components of class/welfare regime model. The exploratory study included all countries with comparable data including the following: (1) economic development [gross domestic product per capita adjusted for purchasing power parity], (2) income inequality [Gini coefficient], (3) social capital corruption perceptions index and generalized trust, and (4) political regime index of freedom. First, correlations between these macro-determinants were estimated, and second, the relationship between them and life expectancy at birth was explored. Finally, the position of Colombia in global context was determined. Important correlations occurred among the macro-determinants. Colombia tended to have intermediate to low positions in the global context in all macro-determinants, with the exception of gross domestic product per capita adjusted for purchasing power parity. The macro-determinant of population health with the highest potential of effecting improvement in health conditions is to modify income inequality.

  3. [HPV vaccine implementation in Chile: an appraisal from the social determinants of health model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández González, Loreto

    2017-12-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth most common neoplasm in women worldwide and its incidence is associated with profound social inequities. In Chile, it is the second cause of death in women of reproductive age. The Chilean clinical guideline identifies the vaccine against Human Papillomavirus (HPV) as the main preventive measure. Since 2014, the Ministry of Health has implemented free immunization against HPV for girls and female adolescents. This article critically analyzes this public policy from the viewpoint of health equity, using as framework the Social Determinants of Health Model. Specifically, we address the structural determinants of income and gender, which act as material and social barriers for achieving immunization, affecting protection against cervical cancer. These barriers correspond to the high cost of the vaccine, and social attitudes/cultural beliefs towards sexual behavior in Latin America and Chile that affect the acceptability of vaccination. The Social Determinants of Health Model constitutes a useful tool for identifying health inequities and understanding public policy from an equity viewpoint that complements the biomedical and epidemiological understanding of disease. In this topic, the initiative aims to strengthen the idea of health as a human right and health promotion as an essential function of public health policy.

  4. Equity, social determinants and public health programmes--the case of oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Kwan, Stella

    2011-12-01

    The WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health issued the 2008 report 'Closing the gap within a generation - health equity through action on the social determinants of health' in response to the widening gaps, within and between countries, in income levels, opportunities, life expectancy, health status, and access to health care. Most individuals and societies, irrespective of their philosophical and ideological stance, have limits as to how much unfairness is acceptable. In 2010, WHO published another important report on 'Equity, Social Determinants and Public Health Programmes', with the aim of translating knowledge into concrete, workable actions. Poor oral health was flagged as a severe public health problem. Oral disease and illness remain global problems and widening inequities in oral health status exist among different social groupings between and within countries. The good news is that means are available for breaking poverty and reduce if not eliminate social inequalities in oral health. Whether public health actions are initiated simply depends on the political will. The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion (1986) and subsequent charters have emphasized the importance of policy for health, healthy environments, healthy lifestyles, and the need for orientation of health services towards health promotion and disease prevention. This report advocates that oral health for all can be promoted effectively by applying this philosophy and some major public health actions are outlined. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Social and individual determinants of adolescents' acceptance of novel healthy and cool snack products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørgaard, Maria Kümpel; Sørensen, Bjarne Taulo; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-12-01

    Four new, healthy snack products, consisting of fruit, vegetables, bread, dip and topping, were tested with 600 Danish adolescents aged 9-16. Participants could view, handle, and test the products in a school setting. Acceptance was measured by overall buying intention, as well as buying intention contingent on specific substitutes and on the social situation. Price consciousness, health consciousness, snack neophobia, peer influence, social activities and word-of-mouth were measured as potential determinants of acceptance of the novel products. An exploratory analysis in TETRAD suggested that the measured constructs form three layers, with overall buying intention as the terminal causal effect, health consciousness, word of mouth, snack neophobia and peer influence as endogenous determinants, and social activities and the contingent buying intentions as mediators. Estimation of the causal relationships was conducted in LISREL. Findings show a predominance of social factors as determinants of novel snack acceptance, whereas health consciousness had only a weak and indirect effect on buying intentions and the effect of snack neophobia was partly mediated by social factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Esprit de corps. On the relevance of Peirce's notion of 'person' in the study of the notion of 'Identity' in social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Fadda

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This contribution is the first survey on the relevance and the possible fertility of the notion of "person(ality" as emerging from Peirce's cosmologic and metaphysical essays published on The Monist in the 1890s (see CP 6.268 ff. and set in the frame of some semiotic and socio-psychologic questions connected to the New Media. The article is preceded by a short reflection on the peculiar way some Peircean terms can be set in the semiotic debate. My proposal consists in the application to the study of identity management in today's social networks (in particularly Facebook. Both the pars destruens (radical devaluation of individuality and the pars construens (the idea of person as "coordination and connection of ideas", together with their intersections, help us draw a perspective (based on the notion of continuity that may support us in focusing on the most recent trends of the social networks as, for instance, the progressive shrinking of the "private" dimension, and in particular the irruption - up to sheer invasion - of corporeality in the digital universe, though the body seemed, at the outset, to be banned or at least concealed. The Peircean devaluation of individuality implies, indeed, that the body is not more individual than the mind (as Rossella Fabbrichesi has recently and brilliantly shown, becoming at any time potentially available to public existence and fruition.

  7. Social determinants of depression and suicidal behaviour in the Caribbean: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine R Brown

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depressive disorder is the largest contributor to years lived with disability in the Caribbean, adding 948 per 100,000 in 2013. Depression is also a major risk factor for suicidal behaviour. Social inequalities influence the occurrence of depression, yet little is known about the social inequalities of this condition in the Caribbean. In support of the 2011 Rio Political Declaration on addressing health inequities, this article presents a systematic review of the role of social determinants on depression and its suicidal behaviours in the Caribbean. Methods Eight databases were searched for observational studies reporting associations between social determinants and depression frequency, severity, or outcomes. Based on the PROGRESS-plus checklist, we considered 9 social determinant groups (of 15 endpoints for 6 depression endpoints, totalling 90 possible ways (‘relationship groups’ to explore the role of social determinants on depression. Studies with ≥50 participants conducted in Caribbean territories between 2004 and 2014 were eligible. The review was conducted according to STROBE and PRISMA guidelines. Results were planned as a narrative synthesis, with meta-analysis if possible. Results From 3951 citations, 55 articles from 45 studies were included. Most were classified as serious risk of bias. Fifty-seven relationship groups were reported by the 55 included articles, leaving 33 relationship groups (37% without an evidence base. Most associations were reported for gender, age, residence, marital status, and education. Depression, its severity, and its outcomes were more common among females (except suicide which was more common among males, early and middle adolescents (among youth, and those with lower levels of education. Marriage emerged as both a risk and protective factor for depression score and prevalence, while several inequality relationships in Haiti were in contrast to typical trends. Conclusion The risk

  8. Neutron flux determinations in the reactors G2 and G3 during operation; Releves du flux neutronique dans les reacteurs G2 et G3 en puissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulinier, C; Faurot, P; Sagot, M; Teste du Bailler, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    After demonstrating the sensitivity of the distribution of power in a production reactor to a deformation caused by dissymmetries of reactivity in the reactor, the authors describe the method of neutron flux determination devised for the reactors G2 and G3 under working conditions; the detector used is a tungsten or nickel wire, the {gamma} activity of which is measured with an ionisation chamber. Several flux determinations are given as examples to illustrate the sensitivity of the method. (author) [French] Apres avoir mis en evidence la sensibilite de la repartition de la puissance dans un reacteur de production a une deformation provoquee par de faibles dissymetries de reactivite dans le reacteur, les auteurs decrivent la methode de releve du flux neutronique mise au point pour les reacteurs G2 et G3 en puissance; le detecteur utilise est un fil de tungstene ou de nickel dont l'activite {gamma} est mesuree a l'aide d'une chambre d'ionisation. Quelques releves de flux illustrant la sensibilite de la methode sont donnes a titre d'exemple. (auteur)

  9. Determinants of Social Accountability in Iranian Nursing and Midwifery Schools: A Delphi Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Reza Salehmoghaddam

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Revising the medical education programs to meet the needs of society has become both a necessity and an important priority due to the considerable increase of population, changing patterns of diseases, and new health priorities. While this necessity has been highlighted in Iran’s Fifth Development Plan as well as its National 2025 Vision Plan, the determinants of social accountability have not been explained yet. This study aimed to develop determinants of social accountability in the Iranian Nursing and Midwifery Schools. Methods: This classic Delphi study included thirty experts in Nursing and Midwifery Education, Research and Services selected based on purposive sampling and three rounds of Delphi technique and conducted in Nursing and Midwifery School of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. The primary data were collected using an initial structured questionnaire prepared through extensive review of literature. SPSS 11.5 software was used to analyze the data. The interquartile deviation and percentage of agreement were also used to study the consensus of opinion by experts. Results: Finding obtained from the rounds of Delphi resulted in selecting 69 determinants out of the initial pool of 128 primary determinants of social accountability. The items were selected based on experts’ consensus and categorized under three main activities of Nursing and Midwifery School, namely education, research, and service. Conclusion: Social accountability determinants were explained by 69 items for Schools of Nursing and Midwifery in Iran. The proposed determinants can be used by managers and authorities of Nursing and Midwifery School, policy makers, and evaluating institutions associated with them to ensure realizing social accountability goals.

  10. Exploring the social determinants of racial/ethnic disparities in prenatal care utilization and maternal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadson, Alexis; Akpovi, Eloho; Mehta, Pooja K

    2017-08-01

    Rates of maternal morbidity and mortality are rising in the United States. Non-Hispanic Black women are at highest risk for these outcomes compared to those of other race/ethnicities. Black women are also more likely to be late to prenatal care or be inadequate users of prenatal care. Prenatal care can engage those at risk and potentially influence perinatal outcomes but further research on the link between prenatal care and maternal outcomes is needed. The objective of this article is to review literature illuminating the relationship between prenatal care utilization, social determinants of health, and racial disparities in maternal outcome. We present a theoretical framework connecting the complex factors that may link race, social context, prenatal care utilization, and maternal morbidity/mortality. Prenatal care innovations showing potential to engage with the social determinants of maternal health and address disparities and priorities for future research are reviewed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. "Nature is there; its free": Urban greenspace and the social determinants of health of immigrant families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hordyk, Shawn Renee; Hanley, Jill; Richard, Éric

    2015-07-01

    In this article, we draw on a 2012 Montreal-based study that examined the embodied, every day practices of immigrant children and families in the context of urban greenspaces such as parks, fields, backyards, streetscapes, gardens, forests and rivers. Results suggest that activities in the natural environment serve as a protective factor in the health and well-being of this population, providing emotional and physical nourishment in the face of adversity. Using the Social Determinants of Health model adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO, 1998), we analyze how participants accessed urban nature to minimize the effects of inadequate housing, to strengthen social cohesion and reduce emotional stress. We conclude with a discussion supporting the inclusion of the natural environment in the Social Determinants of Health Model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Social and individual determinants of adolescents' acceptance of novel healthy and cool snack products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Maria Kümpel; Sørensen, Bjarne Taulo; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    Four new, healthy snack products, consisting of fruit, vegetables, bread, dip and topping, were tested with 600 Danish adolescents aged 9–16. Participants could view, handle, and test the products in a school setting. Acceptance was measured by overall buying intention, as well as buying intention...... contingent on specific substitutes and on the social situation. Price consciousness, health consciousness, snack neophobia, peer influence, social activities and word-of-mouth were measured as potential determinants of acceptance of the novel products. An exploratory analysis in TETRAD suggested...... that the measured constructs form three layers, with overall buying intention as the terminal causal effect, health consciousness, word of mouth, snack neophobia and peer influence as endogenous determinants, and social activities and the contingent buying intentions as mediators. Estimation of the causal...

  13. Social media, knowledge translation, and action on the social determinants of health and health equity: A survey of public health practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndumbe-Eyoh, Sume; Mazzucco, Agnes

    2016-11-01

    The growth of social media presents opportunities for public health to increase its influence and impact on the social determinants of health and health equity. The National Collaborating Centre for Determinants of Health at St. Francis Xavier University conducted a survey during the first half of 2016 to assess how public health used social media for knowledge translation, relationship building, and specific public health roles to advance health equity. Respondents reported that social media had an important role in public health. Uptake of social media, while relatively high for personal use, was less present in professional settings and varied for different platforms. Over 20 per cent of those surveyed used Twitter or Facebook at least weekly for knowledge exchange. A lesser number used social media for specific health equity action. Opportunities to enhance the use of social media in public health persist. Capacity building and organizational policies that support social media use may help achieve this.

  14. Social Physique Anxiety and Intention to Be Physically Active: A Self-Determination Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicilia, Álvaro; Sáenz-Alvarez, Piedad; González-Cutre, David; Ferriz, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Based on self-determination theory, the purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between social physique anxiety and intention to be physically active, while taking into account the mediating effects of the basic psychological needs and behavioral regulations in exercise. Method: Having obtained parents' prior consent, 390…

  15. Exploring persistence in gaming: the role of self-determination and social identity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neys, J.L.D.; Jansz, J.; Tan, E.S.H.

    2014-01-01

    The question of why players of video games persist gaming in the face of what seems to be insufficient reward has not yet been properly answered. This paper approaches the issue by combining two general psychological theories: Self-determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) and Social Identity Theory

  16. Poverty and inequality – but of what - as social determinants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poverty and inequality – but of what - as social determinants of health in Africa? ... inequality hypothesis of Wilkinson and Pickett1 applies to population health outcomes in ... (child) mortality rates; maternal mortality ratios; and life expectancy at birth. ... World Health Organization the three broad dimensions to consider when ...

  17. Social psychological determinants of the use of performance-enhancing drugs by gym users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiefferink, C.H.; Detmar, S.B.; Coumans, B.; Vogels, T.; Paulussen, T.G.W.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the social psychological determinants of the use of performance-enhancing drugs by gym users who practice bodybuilding, fitness, powerlifting or combat sports. In this questionnaire-based study, 144 respondents answered questions on their actual use and intention

  18. Social determinants and their interference in homicide rates in a city in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geziel dos Santos de Sousa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to analyze the possible relationship between social determinants and homicide mortality in Fortaleza (CE, Brazil. METHOD: To investigate whether the rate of mortality by homicides is related to social determinants, an ecological study with emphasis on spatial analysis was conducted in the city of Fortaleza. Social, economic, demographic and sanitation data, as well as information regarding years of potential life lost, and Human Development Index were collected. The dependent variable was the rate of homicides in the period 2004 to 2006. In order to verify the relationship between the outcome variable and the predictor variables, we performed a multivariate linear regression model. RESULTS: We found associations between social determinants and the rate of mortality by homicides. Variables related to income and education were proven determinants for mortality. The multiple regression model showed that 51% of homicides in Fortaleza neighborhoods are explained by years of potential life lost, proportion of households with poor housing, average years of schooling, per capita income and percentage of household heads with 15 or more years of study. The coefficients for years of potential life lost and households with poor housing were positive. CONCLUSION: The findings indicate that the mortality by homicide is associated with high levels of poverty and uncontrolled urbanization, which migrates to the peripheries of urban centers.

  19. 49 CFR 26.67 - What rules determine social and economic disadvantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... disadvantage? 26.67 Section 26.67 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PARTICIPATION BY... Standards § 26.67 What rules determine social and economic disadvantage? (a) Presumption of disadvantage. (1... presumption of disadvantage. (1) If the statement of personal net worth that an individual submits under...

  20. [Social determinants of health at distinct levels by gender: education and household in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumà, Jordi; Arpino, Bruno; Solé-Auró, Aïda

    2018-02-18

    To explore from a gender perspective the association with subjective health of the interaction between education and household arrangements within the framework of social determinants of health placed at the micro and mezzo levels. The data comes from the Spanish sample of the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions for 2014. Independent logistic regression models for men and women were run to analyze the association with subjective health of the interaction between education and household arrangements. An additive model was run to assess possible advantages over the interaction approach. The interaction models show a lower or even no significant effect on health of household arrangements usually negatively associated with health among individuals with high education, displaying specific patterns according to sex. Health profiles of women and men are more precisely drawn if both social determinants of health are combined. Among the women, the important role was confirmed of both social determinants of health in understanding their health inequalities. Among the men, mainly those with low educational achievement, the interaction revealed that the household was a more meaningful social determinant of health. This could enable the definition of more efficient public policies to reduce health and gender inequalities. Copyright © 2018 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Psycho-Social Determinants of Gender Prejudice in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnachi, N. O.; Okpube, M. N.

    2015-01-01

    This work focused on the "Psycho-social Determinants of Gender Prejudice in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM)". The females were found to be underrepresented in STEM fields. The under-representation results from gender stereotype, differences in spatial skills, hierarchical and territorial segregations and…

  2. Cultural, Human, and Social Capital as Determinants of Corporal Punishment: Toward an Integrated Theoretical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohe; Tung, Yuk-Ying; Dunaway, R. Gregory

    2000-01-01

    This article constructs a model to predict the likelihood of parental use of corporal punishment on children in two-parent families. Reports that corporal punishment is primarily determined by cultural, human, and social capital that are available to, or already acquired by parents. Discusses an integrated, resource-based theory for predicting use…

  3. Social network as a determinant of pathway to mental health service ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The main objectives of the study were to determine the relationship between social network and pathway to service utilization among psychotic patients. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was carried out in a psychiatric unit in a general hospital in South West Nigeria. Using structured questionnaires ...

  4. Determination and Interpretation of the Norm Values of Preschool Social Skills Rating Scale Teacher Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omeroglu, Esra; Buyukozturk, Sener; Aydogan, Yasemin; Cakan, Mehtap; Cakmak, Ebru Kilic; Ozyurek, Arzu; Akduman, Gulumser Gultekin; Gunindi, Yunus; Kutlu, Omer; Coban, Aysel; Yurt, Ozlem; Kogar, Hakan; Karayol, Seda

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine and interpret norms of the Preschool Social Skills Rating Scale (PSSRS) teacher form. The sample included 224 independent preschools and 169 primary schools. The schools are distributed among 48 provinces and 3324 children were included. Data were obtained from the PSSRS teacher form. The validity and reliability…

  5. Human Capital, Social Classes, and the Earnings Determination Process in Brazilian Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Jorge A.; Haller, Archibald O.; Fernandes, Danielle C.

    This paper examines the process of earnings determination in the agricultural sector of Brazil. Among the main causal factors analyzed are human capital (education and work experience), labor market segmentation, gender, social class position, level of development/modernization, and concentration of land ownership. Data on individuals employed in…

  6. Integrated approaches to address the social determinants of health for reducing health inequity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barten, F.J.M.H.; Mitlin, D.; Mulholland, C.; Hardoy, A.; Stern, R.

    2007-01-01

    The social and physical environments have long since been recognized as important determinants of health. People in urban settings are exposed to a variety of health hazards that are interconnected with their health effects. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have underlined the

  7. Addressing the Social Determinants of Health: A Call to Action for School Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Krista; Malone, Susan Kohl; McCabe, Ellen; Lipman, Terri

    2018-01-01

    Social determinants of health (SDOH), the conditions in which children are born, grow, live, work or attend school, and age, impact child health and contribute to health disparities. School nurses must consider these factors as part of their clinical practice because they significantly and directly influence child well-being. We provide clinical…

  8. Persons Living with HIV/AIDS: Employment as a Social Determinant of Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Zeglin, Robert J.; Conyers, Liza; Misrok, Mark; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: For persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy has increased their longevity and quality of life. As HIV progresses, many PLWHA present declined domains of functioning that impede their ability to work. The authors explore employment as a social determinant of health to identify issues…

  9. Enhancing John Rawls's Theory of Justice to Cover Health and Social Determinants of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmekci, Perihan Elif; Arda, Berna

    2015-11-01

    The vast improvements in medical technology reviled the crucial role of social determinants of health for the etiology, prevalence and prognosis of diseases. This changed the content of the right to health concept from a demand of health services, to a claim of having access to all social determinants of health. Thus, the just allocation of scarce resources of health and social determinants of health became an issue of ethical theories. John Rawls developed a theory of justice. His theory suggests that the principles of justice should be determined by individuals in a hypothetic initial position. In the initial position, individuals agree on principles of justice. Rawls puts forth that the institutions of the society should be structured in compliance with these principles to reach a fair social system. Although Rawls did not justify right to health in his theory, the efforts to enlarge the theory to cover right to health flourished quite fast. In this paper first the basic components of Rawls theory is explained. Then the most outstanding approaches to enlarge his theory to cover right to health is introduced and discussed within the discourse of Rawls theory of justice.

  10. Socially Relevant Knowledge Based Telemedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    in the field of education as well. Advantage (s) of training in virtual worlds The most important advantage of use of computer based...Shirmohammadi, S. (2007). Accessibility and scalability in collaborative eCommerce environments. Digital Information Management, 2007. ICDIM 󈧋. 2nd...methods on human effort has certain advantages and disadvantages. The main advantage is that human-intensive methods usually yield data that are of high

  11. Socially Relevant Knowledge Based Telemedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    As Second Life does not provide SDK, the authors use open source e-learning software SLOODLE that links Second Life with a course management tool...operating system. The software automatically time-stamps all observations entered into the system. In this manner, observations were gathered unobtrusively...education. Health Info Libr J 2007, 24 (4), 2007, 233-45. 7. Wayne, D.B., Butter, J., Siddall, V.J., Fudala, M.J., Wade, L.D., Feinglass, J., McGaghie

  12. Poverty and inequality - but of what - as social determinants of health in Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worku, Eshetu B; Woldesenbet, Selamawit A

    2015-12-01

    Many African economies have achieved substantial economic growth over the past recent years, yet several of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) including those concerned with health, remain considerably behind target. This paper examines whether progress towards these goals is being hampered by existing levels of poverty and income inequality. It also considers whether the inequality hypothesis of Wilkinson and Pickett1 applies to population health outcomes in African states. Correlation analysis and scatter plots were used to assess graphically the link between variations in health outcomes, level of poverty and income inequality in different countries. Health status outcomes were measured by using four indicators: infant and under-five (child) mortality rates; maternal mortality ratios; and life expectancy at birth. In each of the 52 African nations, the proportion of the population living below the poverty line is used as an indicator of the level of poverty and Gini coefficient as a measure of income inequality. The study used a comprehensive review of secondary and relevant literature that are pertinent in the subject area. The data datasets obtained online from UNICEF2 and UNDP3 (2009) used to test the research questions. World Health Organization the three broad dimensions to consider when moving towards better population health outcome through Universal Health Coverage and the Social Determinants of Health framework reviewed to establish the poverty and income inequality link in African countries population health outcomes. The study shows that poverty is strongly associated with all health outcome differences in Africa (IMR, cc = 0.63; U5MR, cc = 0.64; MMR, cc = 0.49; life expectancy at birth, cc = -0.67); income inequality with only one of the four indicators (IMR, cc = 0.14; U5MR, cc = 0.07; MMR, cc = 0.22; life expectancy at birth, cc = -0.49), whereas income inequality is associated with one of the four indicators. The study shows that tackling

  13. Addressing the Social Determinants of Health to Reduce Tobacco-Related Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Bridgette E; Dube, Shanta R; Babb, Stephen; McAfee, Tim

    2015-08-01

    Comprehensive tobacco prevention and control efforts that include implementing smoke-free air laws, increasing tobacco prices, conducting hard-hitting mass media campaigns, and making evidence-based cessation treatments available are effective in reducing tobacco use in the general population. However, if these interventions are not implemented in an equitable manner, certain population groups may be left out causing or exacerbating disparities in tobacco use. Disparities in tobacco use have, in part, stemmed from inequities in the way tobacco control policies and programs have been adopted and implemented to reach and impact the most vulnerable segments of the population that have the highest rates of smokings (e.g., those with lower education and incomes). Education and income are the 2 main social determinants of health that negatively impact health. However, there are other social determinants of health that must be considered for tobacco control policies to be effective in reducing tobacco-related disparities. This article will provide an overview of how tobacco control policies and programs can address key social determinants of health in order to achieve equity and eliminate disparities in tobacco prevention and control. Tobacco control policy interventions can be effective in addressing the social determinants of health in tobacco prevention and control to achieve equity and eliminate tobacco-related disparities when they are implemented consistently and equitably across all population groups. Taking a social determinants of health approach in tobacco prevention and control will be necessary to achieve equity and eliminate tobacco-related disparities. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Determinants of physical activity among people with spinal cord injury: a test of social cognitive theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginis, Kathleen A Martin; Latimer, Amy E; Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Kelly P; Bassett, Rebecca L; Wolfe, Dalton L; Hanna, Steven E

    2011-08-01

    Little theory-based research has focused on understanding and increasing physical activity among people with physical disabilities. Testing a social cognitive theory-based model of determinants is important for identifying variables to target in physical activity-enhancing interventions. The aim of this study is to examine Social Cognitive Theory variables as predictors of physical activity among people living with spinal cord injury. Structural equation modeling was used to test a model of Social Cognitive Theory predictors of physical activity (n=160). The model explained 39% of the variance in physical activity. Self-regulation was the only significant, direct predictor. Self-regulatory efficacy and outcome expectations had indirect effects, mediated by self-regulation. Social Cognitive Theory is useful for predicting physical activity in people with spinal cord injury. Self-regulation is the most potent Social Cognitive Theory predictor of physical activity in people with spinal cord injury. Self-regulation and its determinants should be targeted in physical activity-enhancing interventions.

  15. Determine small and medium enterprise social media activities: A community engagement project in the Tshwane community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise van Scheers

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine small and medium enterprise (SME social media activities and promote CE scholarship engagement. It is a community engagement project conducted in the Tshwane community. Community engagement (CE as a planned process with the specific purpose of working with identified groups of people in the community to address issues affecting their well-being. The CE project SME skills transfer workshops are aimed at expanding involvement with the community. The benefits of social media seem to be ignored by most SMEs however; challenges prevent SME owners from using the tool effectively. A survey study method of research design has been selected for the research. The sample for the study comprised 200 SME owners who currently manage small businesses in the Tshwane area. The conducted research recommends that social media can be cost effective if the SMEs make use of their social networks and use best practises that enable them to get their adverts or posts shared across social networks. The conducted research also recommends that SMEs with limited resources start with social media and YouTube as a marketing tool, as the learning curve is low and cost involved is almost nil.

  16. Personal and Social Responsibility among Athletes: the Role of Self-Determination, Achievement Goals and Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Paulo; Rosado, António; Ferreira, Vítor; Biscaia, Rui

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between motivation, engagement and personal and social responsibility among athletes. Based on the literature, a survey was conducted including measures of motivation, considering task orientation and ego orientation, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and amotivation. We also measured the components of engagement (dedication, confidence, vigor and enthusiasm) and the components of personal and social responsibility. A total of 517 athletes from different types of sports participated in the study. The results gathered through a structural equation model revealed that task orientation had the strongest relationship with personal responsibility and social responsibility, followed by engagement. Self-determination levels were not associated with personal and social responsibility. These results suggest that monitoring of task orientation and engagement levels should be performed by coaches as a strategy to develop personal and social responsibility among their athletes. Moreover, findings from this study provide scholars with a tool to aid them in managing athletes' levels of personal and social responsibility.

  17. Personal and Social Responsibility Among Athletes: the Role of Self-Determination, Achievement Goals and Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Paulo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between motivation, engagement and personal and social responsibility among athletes. Based on the literature, a survey was conducted including measures of motivation, considering task orientation and ego orientation, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and amotivation. We also measured the components of engagement (dedication, confidence, vigor and enthusiasm and the components of personal and social responsibility. A total of 517 athletes from different types of sports participated in the study. The results gathered through a structural equation model revealed that task orientation had the strongest relationship with personal responsibility and social responsibility, followed by engagement. Self-determination levels were not associated with personal and social responsibility. These results suggest that monitoring of task orientation and engagement levels should be performed by coaches as a strategy to develop personal and social responsibility among their athletes. Moreover, findings from this study provide scholars with a tool to aid them in managing athletes’ levels of personal and social responsibility.

  18. Personal and Social Responsibility among Athletes: the Role of Self-Determination, Achievement Goals and Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Paulo; Rosado, António; Ferreira, Vítor; Biscaia, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between motivation, engagement and personal and social responsibility among athletes. Based on the literature, a survey was conducted including measures of motivation, considering task orientation and ego orientation, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and amotivation. We also measured the components of engagement (dedication, confidence, vigor and enthusiasm) and the components of personal and social responsibility. A total of 517 athletes from different types of sports participated in the study. The results gathered through a structural equation model revealed that task orientation had the strongest relationship with personal responsibility and social responsibility, followed by engagement. Self-determination levels were not associated with personal and social responsibility. These results suggest that monitoring of task orientation and engagement levels should be performed by coaches as a strategy to develop personal and social responsibility among their athletes. Moreover, findings from this study provide scholars with a tool to aid them in managing athletes’ levels of personal and social responsibility. PMID:28713457

  19. Self-Reported Changes in Attractions and Social Determinants of Mental Health in Transgender Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Reisner, Sari L; White Hughto, Jaclyn M; Budge, Stephanie L

    2017-07-01

    This study examined associations between changes in self-reported attractions and mental health in a community-based sample of self-identified transgender adults. Participants were purposively recruited in 2013 using bimodal sampling methods and completed a one-time survey. Multivariable logistic regression models estimated adjusted risk ratios and 95 % confidence intervals to examine associations between changes in attractions and mental health outcomes (lifetime self-harm, suicide attempts, depression diagnosis; past-week clinically significant depressive distress assessed via CES-D 10) among the entire sample (N = 452; 285 female-to-male spectrum, 167 male-to-female spectrum) and after gender transition among those who had socially transitioned (n = 205; 156 female-to-male spectrum, 49 male-to-female spectrum). Models were adjusted for known population social determinants (age, race/ethnicity, gender identity, socioeconomic status, sexual orientation identity), transgender-specific determinants (age of transgender realization, social transition, medical transition, visual gender nonconformity, non-binary gender identification), and survey mode (online vs. in-person sampling). Lifetime changes in attractions were significantly associated with increased probability of all mental health outcomes; individuals reporting any change in attractions were more likely than individuals not reporting changes to indicate lifetime self-harm, suicide attempts, depression diagnosis, and current depressive distress (all ps social transition were not significantly associated with mental health outcomes. Many, but not all, population and transgender-specific social determinants were significantly associated with mental health in the full sample and among those who had socially transitioned. Clinical implications of findings about changes in attractions and mental health are discussed for transgender individuals.

  20. Position of social determinants of health in urban man-made lakes plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaei, Parisa; Karimloo, Masoud; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Malek Afzali, Hossein; Forouzan, Ameneh Setareh

    2013-09-04

    A social determinants approach proposes that enhancing living conditions in areas such as income, housing, transportation, employment, education, social support, and health services is central to improving the health of urban populations. Urban development projects can be costly but have health impacts. The benefit derived from the creation of man-made lakes in developing countries is usually associated with great risks; however, the evidence for physical and non-physical health benefits of urban man-made lake is unclear. The aim of this paper is to formulate a conceptual framework of associations between urban man-made lakes and social determinants of health. This study was a qualitative study carried out using one focus group discussion and 16 individual interviews. Data were analyzed based on deductive-inductive content analysis approach. Participants' points of view were analyzed within 261 codes. Data analysis matrix was the conceptual framework of social determinants of health commission and its sub-groups, thus, two structural and mediating determinants categories as well as their sub-sets were created accordingly. In addition, some extra sub-sets including environment, air quality, weather changes, noise pollution, pathogenesis, quality of life, shortage of available resources, region popularity, ethnicity, tourism, social and physical development of children, unintentional injuries, aesthetic, and spirituality were extracted beyond the matrix factors, which were placed in each of above categories based on their thematic content. This paper has illustrated that the quality and type of man-made lake provided within communities can have a significant and sustained impact on community's health and wellbeing. Therefore, in order to strengthen positive effects and reduce negative effects of any developmental projects within community, their impacts on public health should be taken into consideration.

  1. Position of Social Determinants of Health in Urban Man-Made Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaei, Parisa; Karimlou, Masoud; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Afzali, Hosein Malek; Forouzan, Ameneh Setareh

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective: A social determinants approach proposes that enhancing living conditions in areas such as income, housing, transportation, employment, education, social support, and health services is central to improving the health of urban populations. Urban development projects can be costly but have health impacts. The benefit derived from the creation of man-made lakes in developing countries is usually associated with great risks; however, the evidence for physical and non-physical health benefits of urban man-made lake is unclear. The aim of this paper is to formulate a conceptual framework of associations between urban man-made lakes and social determinants of health. Method: This study was a qualitative study carried out using one focus group discussion and 16 individual interviews. Data were analyzed based on deductive-inductive content analysis approach. Results: Participants’ points of view were analyzed within 261 codes. Data analysis matrix was the conceptual framework of social determinants of health commission and its sub-groups, thus, two structural and mediating determinants categories as well as their sub-sets were created accordingly. In addition, some extra sub-sets including environment, air quality, weather changes, noise pollution, pathogenesis, quality of life, shortage of available resources, region popularity, ethnicity, tourism, social and physical development of children, unintentional injuries, aesthetic, and spirituality were extracted beyond the matrix factors, which were placed in each of above categories based on their thematic content. Conclusion: This paper has illustrated that the quality and type of man-made lake provided within communities can have a significant and sustained impact on community’s health and wellbeing. Therefore, in order to strengthen positive effects and reduce negative effects of any developmental projects within community, their impacts on public health should be taken into consideration

  2. [Research on the social determinants of malnutrition among children under the age of 5 in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, S Lm; Guo, Y

    2016-06-18

    To understand the relationship between child malnutrition and social determinants among children under the age of 5 in China, and to provide evidence and useful information to help policy makers develop social policies to improve child nutritional status. Information of 2 434 children aged 0-5 was extracted from year 1991 to 2011 longitudinal survey data in the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) was extracted for analysis. Child underweight, child stunting, and child wasting were defined using World Health Organization Child Growth Standards for weight-for-age, height-for-age, and weight-for-height. Weight-for-age values, height-for-age values or weight-for-height values below 2 standard deviations were considered as underweight, stunting and wasting. World Health Organization igrowup software was used to calculate the prevalence of child underweight, child stunting, and child wasting. Multivariate Logistic regression model was used to analyze the relationship between child malnutrition and social determinants (household income, parents' educational level, living regions, and communities' urbanization level). The prevalence of child underweight and child stunting were decreased by 64.8% and 67.8%, respectively from 1991 to 2011, while the prevalence of child wasting had remained at a relatively low level (below 5%). The problem of child underweight and stunting had been significantly resolved in China. Female children had better outcomes than male children on improving nutritional status. Among all the non-socio-economic determinants of child malnutrition, children with low height mother and children had inadequate protein intake were both risk factors of malnutrition. The social determinants significantly associated to child malnutrition included: living in the western regions and central regions, living in low level urbanization communities, with low household incomes, and low maternal educational levels. In order to further decrease the prevalence of child

  3. Community health clinical education in Canada: part 2--developing competencies to address social justice, equity, and the social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Benita E; Gregory, David

    2009-01-01

    Recently, several Canadian professional nursing associations have highlighted the expectations that community health nurses (CHNs) should address the social determinants of health and promote social justice and equity. These developments have important implications for (pre-licensure) CHN clinical education. This article reports the findings of a qualitative descriptive study that explored how baccalaureate nursing programs in Canada address the development of competencies related to social justice, equity, and the social determinants of health in their community health clinical courses. Focus group interviews were held with community health clinical course leaders in selected Canadian baccalaureate nursing programs. The findings foster understanding of key enablers and challenges when providing students with clinical opportunities to develop the CHN role related to social injustice, inequity, and the social determinants of health. The findings may also have implications for nursing programs internationally that are addressing these concepts in their community health clinical courses.

  4. Going deeper on the tourist gaze: considerations about its social determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Silva Omena de Melo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to a better understanding of social processes which lead tourists to different kinds of behavior at the places they visit, having as a frame the way social classes are related in western modern society. Theoretical contribution  from important scientists as John Urry, Piérre Bourdieu and Jost Krippendorf are developed in search of new approaches to enhence processual knowledge in tourism instead of proposicional. It was found that tourist gaze is a construction crossed by dialectic and complex relations among some determinant factors, embedded in the different kind of roles played by subjects in the social arena, which have been consolidated during a long process beginning in XVII century and taking its present feature in the middle of the XXth.

  5. Determinants of self-esteem in early psychosis: The role of perceived social dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, Arlene G; Vandermeer, Matthew R J; Norman, Ross M G

    2017-12-01

    Self-esteem plays a role in the formation and maintenance of symptoms and in the recovery from psychotic illness. This study examines the relative contribution of perceived social dominance and other known predictors in determining self-esteem in 102 individuals in an early intervention program for psychosis. Regression analysis demonstrated that scores on the Perceived Relational Evaluation Scale (PRES), depressed mood, social dominance, gender and positive symptoms significantly contributed to the prediction of scores on the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES), whereas self-stigma and negative symptoms did not. Our study suggests that low self-esteem in early psychosis can be understood in part as a reflection of low levels of perceived social value and status. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Social determinants of self-reported health for Canada's indigenous peoples: a public health approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethune, R; Absher, N; Obiagwu, M; Qarmout, T; Steeves, M; Yaghoubi, M; Tikoo, R; Szafron, M; Dell, C; Farag, M

    2018-04-14

    In Canada, indigenous peoples suffer from a multitude of health disparities. To better understand these disparities, this study aims to examine the social determinants of self-reported health for indigenous peoples in Canada. This study uses data from Statistics Canada's Aboriginal Peoples Survey 2012. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine how selected social determinants of health are associated with self-reported health among off-reserve First Nations and Métis peoples in Canada. Our analysis shows that being older, female, and living in urban settings were significantly associated with negative ratings of self-reported health status among the indigenous respondents. Additionally, we found that higher income and levels of education were strongly and significantly associated with positive ratings of self-reported health status. Compared with indigenous peoples with an education level of grade 8 or lower, respondents with higher education were 10 times (5.35-22.48) more likely to report 'excellent' and 'very good' health. Respondents who earned more than $40,000 annually were three times (2.17-4.72) more likely to report 'excellent' and 'very good' health compared with those who earned less than $20,000 annually. When interacted with income, we also found that volunteering in the community is associated with better self-reported health. There are known protective determinants (income and education) and risk determinants (location of residence, gender, and age) which are associated with self-reported health status among off-reserve First Nations and Métis peoples. For indigenous-specific determinants, volunteering in the community appears to be associated with self-perceived health status. Thus, addressing these determinants will be necessary to achieve better health outcomes for indigenous peoples in Canada. Next steps include developing indigenous-specific social determinants of health indicators that adequately measure culture, connection

  7. 20 CFR 220.37 - When a child's disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Inclusion as a disabled child in the employee's annuity rate under the social security overall minimum. (2... governed by the regulations of the Social Security Administration. 220.37 Section 220.37 Employees... Disability Determinations Governed by the Regulations of the Social Security Administration § 220.37 When a...

  8. Social determinants of health in selected slum areas in Jordan: challenges and policy directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajlouni, Musa T

    2016-01-01

    The unplanned urbanization in Jordan has over time created many informal settlements "slums" around big cities as Amman, Zerka and Aqaba. The purpose of this study was to highlight the most common challenges related to social determinants of health in two selected slum areas in Amman and Aqaba and suggest policy directions and interventions to meet these challenges. In addition to a prestructured interview with all household heads living in the two slum sites, focus group meetings with a purposefully selected sample of 12 slum dwellers in each site were used to assess the structural and intermediary determinants of health as perceived by slum residents in the two study locations. The study found that slum residents in the two locations suffer from many challenges as severe poverty; unemployment; illiteracy and low education attainments; gender discrimination; insufficient and poor diet; social and official exclusion; unhealthy environment; lack of water supply, electricity and basic sanitation facilities; high prevalence of diseases; and insufficient and inappropriate health services. Specific policy directions to meet these challenges were recommended and grouped into three main clusters: social protection, social inclusion and empowerment. New plans and tools should be developed by local authorities in Jordan to understand, protect, include and empower those vulnerable people who are forced to live in these unhealthy and inhuman environments. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Social Welfare Control in Mobile Crowdsensing Using Zero-Determinant Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qin; Wang, Shengling; Bie, Rongfang; Cheng, Xiuzhen

    2017-05-03

    As a promising paradigm, mobile crowdsensing exerts the potential of widespread sensors embedded in mobile devices. The greedy nature of workers brings the problem of low-quality sensing data, which poses threats to the overall performance of a crowdsensing system. Existing works often tackle this problem with additional function components. In this paper, we systematically formulate the problem into a crowdsensing interaction process between a requestor and a worker, which can be modeled by two types of iterated games with different strategy spaces. Considering that the low-quality data submitted by the workers can reduce the requestor's payoff and further decrease the global income, we turn to controlling the social welfare in the games. To that aim, we take advantage of zero-determinant strategy, based on which we propose two social welfare control mechanisms under both game models. Specifically, we consider the requestor as the controller of the games and, with proper parameter settings for the to-be-adopted zero-determinant strategy, social welfare can be optimized to the desired level no matter what strategy the worker adopts. Simulation results demonstrate that the requestor can achieve the maximized social welfare and keep it stable by using our proposed mechanisms.

  10. Social capital as a determinant of the shadow economy in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasa Golubovic

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The design and implementation of the measures aimed at incorporating informal economic activities into the existing formal regulatory framework assume the knowledge of the causes and structure of the informal activity. The influence of the institutional factors that encourage the development of the shadow economy (the tax burden, the degree of the regulation of the economy, the capacity of the state administration were the subject of extensive theoretical and empirical research. In contrast, the impact of social capital, i.e. the characteristics of social ties and relations, on the shadow economy has been investigated to a much lesser extent. Starting from the fact that the informal sector of the Serbian economy is so widespread that it represents a serious obstacle to the business activities of Serbian enterprises, the aim of this study is to investigate whether the characteristics of social ties and relations, or social capital in the Republic of Serbia (RS, represent a fertile ground for the growth of the shadow economy. In this context, the characteristics and frequency of social contacts, particularized trust and institutional trust will be separately analyzed as the determinants of the shadow economy in RS.

  11. Teaching the Social Determinants of Health: A Path to Equity or a Road to Nowhere?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Malika; Pinto, Andrew D; Kumagai, Arno K

    2018-01-01

    Medical schools are increasingly called to include social responsibility in their mandates. As such, they are focusing their attention on the social determinants of health (SDOH) as key drivers in the health of the patients and communities they serve. However, underlying this emphasis on the SDOH is the assumption that teaching medical students about the SDOH will lead future physicians to take action to help achieve health equity. There is little evidence to support this belief. In many ways, the current approach to the SDOH within medical education positions them as "facts to be known" rather than as "conditions to be challenged and changed." Educators talk about poverty but not oppression, race but not racism, sex but not sexism, and homosexuality but not homophobia. The current approach to the SDOH may constrain or even incapacitate the ability of medical education to achieve the very goals it lauds, and in fact perpetuate inequity. In this article, the authors explore how "critical consciousness" and a recentering of the SDOH around justice and inequity can be used to deepen collective understanding of power, privilege, and the inequities embedded in social relationships in order to foster an active commitment to social justice among medical trainees. Rather than calling for minor curricular modifications, the authors argue that major structural and cultural transformations within medical education need to occur to make educational institutions truly socially responsible.

  12. Determinants of Arsenicosis Patients’ Perception and Social Implications of Arsenic Poisoning through Groundwater in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mizanur Rahman Sarker

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Adverse human health effects ranging from skin lesions to internal cancers as well as widespread social and psychological problems caused by arsenic contaminated drinking water in Bangladesh may be the biggest arsenic calamity in the world. From an arsenicosis patients survey, this paper empirically analyzes the determinants of arsenicosis patients’ perception about chronic arsenic poisoning and social and psychological implications of arsenicosis. In this study, cross-sectional data were collected from the Matlab and Hajiganj Upzillas of Chandpur district which are known to be highly contaminated with arsenic in their underground water. Respondents informed that arsenic poisoning causes a wide range of social and psychological problems. Female respondents were less vulnerable in the case of social problems (p < 0.01 and more vulnerable for the psychological problems (p < 0.001 of arsenicosis than male respondents. The results based on logit analysis showed that education (p < 0.01 and household income (p < 0.05 were significantly correlated to respondents’ perception about arsenicosis. The arsenicosis related special program (s needs a clear understanding of people’s perception about arsenic exposure for abating the health burden as well as social and psychological problems.

  13. [Towards a social determinants-oriented approach to public health: workshop report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Elena González; Álvarez-Dardet, Carlos; Fernández, Luis Andrés López

    2017-12-01

    This article is the result of a workshop with public health experts held in Granada (Spain) in October 2015 in order to reflect upon the components of the framework that should be part of a public health approach based on the social determinants of health. Advocacy and training professionals in health advocacy were identified as key elements where this was needed. During the workshop, it was agreed that the gender perspective, the salutogenic approach, interdisciplinary work and particular attention to disadvantaged groups are crucial. The importance of working from a human rights' framework and promoting legislative changes were also mentioned. Moreover, the group mentioned that even though much progress has been made identifying social determinants of health and creating conceptual frameworks, there is limited knowledge about how to intervene to reduce health inequality gaps in our societies. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Determine small and medium enterprise social media activities: A community engagement project in the Tshwane community

    OpenAIRE

    Louise van Scheers; Jacques van Scheers

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine small and medium enterprise (SME) social media activities and promote CE scholarship engagement. It is a community engagement project conducted in the Tshwane community. Community engagement (CE) as a planned process with the specific purpose of working with identified groups of people in the community to address issues affecting their well-being. The CE project SME skills transfer workshops are aimed at expanding involvement with the community. The benef...

  15. Social determinants of health in India: progress and inequities across states

    OpenAIRE

    Cowling, Krycia; Dandona, Rakhi; Dandona, Lalit

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Despite the recognized importance of social determinants of health (SDH) in India, no compilation of the status of and inequities in SDH across India has been published. To address this gap, we assessed the levels and trends in major SDH in India from 1990 onwards and explored inequities by state, gender, caste, and urbanicity. Methods Household- and individual-level SDH indicators were extracted from national household surveys conducted between 1990 and 2011 and means were compu...

  16. Impact of social determinants on well-being of urban construction workers of Hyderabad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Sudha; Valsangkar, Sameer; Lakshman Rao, Reshaboyina Lakshmi Narayana; Surya Prabha, Manem Lakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Hyderabad has witnessed one of the largest labor immigration in recent years and these construction workers are highly vulnerable in terms of health. Social determinants of health (SDH) arise from conditions in which they live and these factors interact with each other to produce direct impact on health. (1) To evaluate the sociodemographic and job characteristics of the construction workers. (2) To assess the impact of social determinants on well-being. A sample size of 135 construction workers working at three sites of HITEC city were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaire. Health perception and the impact on well-being was measured using the Healthy Days Module and Kessler's Psychological Distress Scale. SDH were measured on a 27-item questionnaire with responses on a Likert scale ranging from 0 to 4. Proportions, percentages, P values, and mean scores were obtained. The mean age of the sample was 35.4 ± 11.94 years. Seventeen (12.6%) of the workers reported a high risk score on the Kessler's Psychological Distress Scale. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify significant domains of social determinants independently associated with the well being of construction workers and significant among the nine domains of social determinants were addiction score domain with odds of 2.259 and a P value of 0.015 and the distress domain with odds of 1.108 and a P < 0.001. There is a significant impairment of physical and mental health due to various factors including SDH, such as addictive habits and psychological distress, which are amenable to prevention.

  17. Intrapersonal, social and physical environmental determinants of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in working-age women: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Stephanie A; Reed, Jennifer L; Nerenberg, Kara A; Kristjansson, Elizabeth A; Hiremath, Swapnil; Adamo, Kristi B; Tulloch, Heather E; Mullen, Kerri-Anne; Fodor, J George; Wright, Erica; Reid, Robert D

    2014-11-04

    The majority of North American adult females do not meet current physical activity recommendations (150 min of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) per week accrued in ≥10 min bouts) ultimately placing themselves at increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Working-age females face particular challenges in meeting physical activity recommendations as they have multiple demands, including occupational, family and social demands. To develop effective interventions to increase MVPA among working-age females, it is necessary to identify and understand the strongest modifiable determinants influencing these behaviours. Therefore, the objective of this systematic review is to examine the available evidence to identify intrapersonal, social and environmental determinants of MVPA among working-age females. Six electronic databases will be searched to identify all prospective cohort studies that report on intrapersonal, social and/or environmental determinants of MVPA in working-age females. Grey literature sources including theses, published conference abstracts and websites from relevant organizations will also be included. Articles that report on intrapersonal (e.g. health status, self-efficacy, socio-economic status (SES), stress, depression), social environmental (e.g. crime, safety, area SES, social support, climate and capital, policies), and environmental (e.g. weather, workplace, home, neighbourhood, recreation environment, active transportation) determinants of MVPA in a working-age (mean age 18-65 years) female population will be included. Risk of bias will be assessed within and across all included studies using the Tool to Assess Risk of Bias in Cohort Studies and the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Harvest plots will be used to synthesize results across all determinants, and meta-analyses will be conducted where possible among studies with sufficient homogeneity. This review will provide a

  18. Social determinants of health in Canada: Are healthy living initiatives there yet? A policy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gore Dana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Preventative strategies that focus on addressing the social determinants of health to improve healthy eating and physical activity have become an important strategy in British Columbia and Ontario for combating chronic diseases. What has not yet been examined is the extent to which healthy living initiatives implemented under these new policy frameworks successfully engage with and change the social determinants of health. Methods Initiatives active between January 1, 2006 and September 1, 2011 were found using provincial policy documents, web searches, health organization and government websites, and databases of initiatives that attempted to influence to nutrition and physical activity in order to prevent chronic diseases or improve overall health. Initiatives were reviewed, analyzed and grouped using the descriptive codes: lifestyle-based, environment-based or structure-based. Initiatives were also classified according to the mechanism by which they were administered: as direct programs (e.g. directly delivered, blueprints (or frameworks to tailor developed programs, and building blocks (resources to develop programs. Results 60 initiatives were identified in Ontario and 61 were identified in British Columbia. In British Columbia, 11.5% of initiatives were structure-based. In Ontario, of 60 provincial initiatives identified, 15% were structure-based. Ontario had a higher proportion of direct interventions than British Columbia for all intervention types. However, in both provinces, as the intervention became more upstream and attempted to target the social determinants of health more directly, the level of direct support for the intervention lessened. Conclusions The paucity of initiatives in British Columbia and Ontario that address healthy eating and active living through action on the social determinants of health is problematic. In the context of Canada's increasingly neoliberal political and economic policy, the

  19. Understanding Medicaid Managed Care Investments in Members' Social Determinants of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Laura; Ackerman, Sara; Wing, Holly; Manchanda, Rishi

    2017-08-01

    Despite widespread interest in addressing social determinants of health (SDH) as a means to improve health and to reduce health care spending, little information is available about how to develop, sustain, and scale nonmedical interventions in diverse payer environments, including Medicaid Managed Care. This study aimed to explore how Medicaid Managed Care Organization (MMCO) leaders interpret their roles and responsibilities around SDH, how they garner resources to develop and sustain interventions to address SDH, and how they perceive the influences of external organizations on related activities. Semistructured qualitative key informant interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 26 Medicaid Managed Care corporate executives. Data were analyzed with an iterative coding, thematic development and interpretation process. MMCO leaders' interests and activities around interventions to address SDH are described, as well as their perceptions of existing and potential incentives and barriers to expanding these interventions. Despite significant experimentation and programmatic diversity of interventions addressing social determinants, MMCO leaders struggle with clinical integration, financing, and evaluation efforts that could promote sustainability. Though their efforts are nascent, MMCO leaders are investing in tackling social determinants to improve health and to decrease health care spending in managed care settings that serve low-income populations. Results highlight both opportunities and concerns about sustaining and scaling clinical interventions addressing SDH.

  20. An analysis of local government health policy against state priorities and a social determinants framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Geoffrey R; Davern, Melanie T; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2016-04-01

    Victorian local governments are required to develop Municipal Public Health and Wellbeing Plans that incorporate state-level health planning priorities and address the social determinants of health. This paper describes a novel method for evaluating councils' performance against these requirements. Deductive content analysis was used to categorise all actions in 14 local government MPHWPs against Victorian state priorities as well as against social determinants of health policy areas. More than 1,000 actions were identified. However, fewer than half directly addressed a state priority, with many actions addressing policy areas known to be broader determinants of health. In particular, there was a marked focus on leisure and culture, and on building social cohesion through changes to living and working conditions. Councils are working beyond state priorities and there was a clear emphasis on addressing the diverse upstream 'causes of the causes' of health, rather than health promotion behaviour change programs. The approach for data analysis and presentation provides a useful method for rapid appraisal of health and wellbeing actions relative to councils', and the State's, responsibility and efficacy in public health. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  1. Health Extension in New Mexico: An Academic Health Center and the Social Determinants of Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Arthur; Powell, Wayne; Alfero, Charles; Pacheco, Mario; Silverblatt, Helene; Anastasoff, Juliana; Ronquillo, Francisco; Lucero, Ken; Corriveau, Erin; Vanleit, Betsy; Alverson, Dale; Scott, Amy

    2010-01-01

    The Agricultural Cooperative Extension Service model offers academic health centers methodologies for community engagement that can address the social determinants of disease. The University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center developed Health Extension Rural Offices (HEROs) as a vehicle for its model of health extension. Health extension agents are located in rural communities across the state and are supported by regional coordinators and the Office of the Vice President for Community Health at the Health Sciences Center. The role of agents is to work with different sectors of the community in identifying high-priority health needs and linking those needs with university resources in education, clinical service and research. Community needs, interventions, and outcomes are monitored by county health report cards. The Health Sciences Center is a large and varied resource, the breadth and accessibility of which are mostly unknown to communities. Community health needs vary, and agents are able to tap into an array of existing health center resources to address those needs. Agents serve a broader purpose beyond immediate, strictly medical needs by addressing underlying social determinants of disease, such as school retention, food insecurity, and local economic development. Developing local capacity to address local needs has become an overriding concern. Community-based health extension agents can effectively bridge those needs with academic health center resources and extend those resources to address the underlying social determinants of disease. PMID:20065282

  2. Analyzing the determinants of the UK consumer's engagement in Viral Marketing on Social Networking Sites : A university Student's perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Alkhateeb, Ali; Alli, Zahir; Moussa, Wissam

    2012-01-01

    Social media, especially the social networking sites (SNS) like Facebook.com, has experienced exponential growth all across the globe in the last decade. It is rapidly attracting the consumers and replacing the traditional media. Electronic word of mouth (eWOM) through social media has acquired substantial position in the marketing mix as well as integrated marketing communication of the business organizations. This research aimed at analyzing different social relationship factors or determin...

  3. Social determinants of good hand-washing practice (GHP) among adolescents in a rural Indian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobe, Madhumita; Mandal, Ram Narayan; Jha, Ayan

    2013-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in 5 randomly selected villages to assess prevalence of good hand-washing practice (GHP) among adolescents, and describe the social determinants. The prevalence of adolescent GHP was 32.1% (95% CI = 27.1, 37.1). Logistic regression established 5 significant positive predictors-maternal GHP, presence of sanitary latrine, availability of soap at hand-washing locations, in-house water supply, and higher per capita income. Our research provides a scope for better understanding of the socioeconomic determinants of GHP in a rural Indian setting, and may find implications in the Total Sanitation Campaign launched by Government of India.

  4. Addressing Social Determinants to Improve Patient Care and Promote Health Equity: An American College of Physicians Position Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Hilary; Bornstein, Sue S; Kane, Gregory C

    2018-04-17

    Social determinants of health are nonmedical factors that can affect a person's overall health and health outcomes. Where a person is born and the social conditions they are born into can affect their risk factors for premature death and their life expectancy. In this position paper, the American College of Physicians acknowledges the role of social determinants in health, examines the complexities associated with them, and offers recommendations on better integration of social determinants into the health care system while highlighting the need to address systemic issues hindering health equity.

  5. Private landowners and environmental conservation: a case study of social-psychological determinants of conservation program participation in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Drescher

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Preservation of biodiversity and continued provision of ecosystem services increasingly relies on environmental conservation on private lands. Despite a multitude of past studies, our knowledge of the motives, opportunities, and challenges of private land conservation, especially on nonworking lands, where financial incentives are less relevant, remains incomplete. A key reason is that a variety of theoretical approaches, resulting in diverging study results, have been used to investigate private land conservation. To help remedy this problem, the current study rigorously examined several established social-psychological determinants of proenvironmental behaviors and developed a comprehensive model, which merged elements from previous studies, to investigate landowner participation in a government-sponsored private land conservation program for nonworking lands. The results are based on analysis of a mailed survey of 800 program-eligible landowners. Contrasting program participants with nonparticipants, we elicited information such as about values, worldviews, socio-demographic characteristics, and property attributes that led landowners to participate in this conservation program. The results of our study illustrate the complex relationships among values, worldviews, norms, attitudes, and behaviors emphasizing the importance of proenvironmental worldviews and of formal education for increasing the likelihood of enrollment in this government-sponsored private land conservation program. Against expectation, neither personal norms, household income, political leaning, nor the size of the eligible property area were found to be important in directly determining the decision to enroll in this conservation program. However, an association of political leaning with stated personal obligation for private land conservation was found. Our results highlight the relationship between formal education and achievement of private land conservation goals

  6. What Enables and Constrains the Inclusion of the Social Determinants of Health Inequities in Government Policy Agendas? A Narrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Phillip; Friel, Sharon; Kay, Adrian; Baum, Fran; Strazdins, Lyndall; Mackean, Tamara

    2018-01-01

    Background: Despite decades of evidence gathering and calls for action, few countries have systematically attenuated health inequities (HI) through action on the social determinants of health (SDH). This is at least partly because doing so presents a significant political and policy challenge. This paper explores this challenge through a review of the empirical literature, asking: what factors have enabled and constrained the inclusion of the social determinants of health inequities (SDHI) in government policy agendas? Methods: A narrative review method was adopted involving three steps: first, drawing upon political science theories on agenda-setting, an integrated theoretical framework was developed to guide the review; second, a systematic search of scholarly databases for relevant literature; and third, qualitative analysis of the data and thematic synthesis of the results. Studies were included if they were empirical, met specified quality criteria, and identified factors that enabled or constrained the inclusion of the SDHI in government policy agendas. Results: A total of 48 studies were included in the final synthesis, with studies spanning a number of country-contexts and jurisdictional settings, and employing a diversity of theoretical frameworks. Influential factors included the ways in which the SDHI were framed in public, media and political discourse; emerging data and evidence describing health inequalities; limited supporting evidence and misalignment of proposed solutions with existing policy and institutional arrangements; institutionalised norms and ideologies (ie, belief systems) that are antithetical to a SDH approach including neoliberalism, the medicalisation of health and racism; civil society mobilization; leadership; and changes in government. Conclusion: A complex set of interrelated, context-dependent and dynamic factors influence the inclusion or neglect of the SDHI in government policy agendas. It is better to think about these factors

  7. Social determinants of male health: a case study of Leeds, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Alan; Seims, Amanda; Cameron, Ian; Taylor, Tim

    2018-01-19

    The social determinants of health have a disproportionate impact on mortality in men. A study into the state of health of the male population in Leeds was undertaken to guide public health commissioning decisions. This paper reports on the data relating to the social lives of men. A cross-sectional study was undertaken, comprising descriptive analysis of data relating to educational attainment, housing, employment (including benefit claimants), marital status and relationships. Data was considered for the whole city and localised at the Middle Super Output Area (MSOA) level and mapped against the Index of Deprivation. Boys' educational attainment was found to be lagging behind girls' from their earliest assessments (Early Years Foundation Stage Profile, 46% vs. 60%, P = 0.00) to GCSEs (53% vs. 63%, P = 0.00), leaving many men with no qualifications. There were 68% more men than women identified as being unemployed, with more men claiming benefits. Men living in social housing are more likely to be housed in high-rise flats. Almost 50% of men aged 16-64 are single, with 2254 lone fathers. There appears to be a lack of sex/gender analysis of current cross city data. In areas of deprivation a complex picture of multiple social problems emerges, with marked gender differences in the social determinants of health, with males seeming to be more negatively affected. There is a need for more focused planning for reaching out and targeting boys and men in the most deprived inner city areas, so that greater efficiency in service delivery can be obtained.

  8. Priorities for action on the social determinants of health: Empirical evidence on the strongest associations with life expectancy in 54 low-income countries, 1990-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, K; Martin, S; Smith, P C

    2016-10-01

    The WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health set out an impressive collection of policy proposals on the social determinants of health. However, a serious weakness for securing implementation is the difficulty for policymakers in identifying priorities for action. The objective of this study is to determine a small set of the most influential determinants using existing data and an empirical approach. 45 Indicators from the World Bank's World Development Indicators are selected to measure attainment for the determinants proposed by the Commission. Panel data models of life expectancy at birth for 54 low-income countries over the years 1990-2012 (1188 country-years) are estimated. Each determinant is subjected to a robustness test using Extreme Bound Analysis, to determine the stability of its estimated impact on life expectancy. For 20 robust and significant determinants the magnitude of association with life expectancy is determined. The largest average increases in life expectancy at 14.5 months per capita is associated with a one standard deviation reduction in HIV prevalence among children, followed by advances in gender equality at 9.4 months. Improvements in life expectancy between 6 and 9 months are associated with agricultural production, political stability, access to clean water and sanitation, good governance, and primary school enrolment. Improvements below 6 months are associated with increases in private health expenditure and overseas development assistance, and control of armed conflict and HIV prevalence among men. There is no evidence that national income, public spending on healthcare and education, secondary schooling, terms of international trade, employment, debt service and relief, out-of-pocket expenditures, agricultural ex- or imports, lifestock production, foreign investment, urbanization or environmental degradation are robustly associated with population health. Results provide support for the relevance of some proposed

  9. Social Physique Anxiety and Intention to Be Physically Active: A Self-Determination Theory Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicilia, Álvaro; Sáenz-Alvarez, Piedad; González-Cutre, David; Ferriz, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    Based on self-determination theory, the purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between social physique anxiety and intention to be physically active, while taking into account the mediating effects of the basic psychological needs and behavioral regulations in exercise. Having obtained parents' prior consent, 390 students in secondary school (218 boys, 172 girls; M age  = 15.10 years, SD = 1.94 years) completed a self-administered questionnaire during physical education class that assessed the target variables. Preliminary analyses included means, standard deviations, and bivariate correlations among the target variables. Next, a path analysis was performed using the maximum likelihood estimation method with the bootstrapping procedure in the statistical package AMOS 19. Analysis revealed that social physique anxiety negatively predicted intention to be physically active through mediation of the basic psychological needs and the 3 autonomous forms of motivation (i.e., intrinsic motivation, integrated regulation, and identified regulation). The results suggest that social physique anxiety is an internal source of controlling influence that hinders basic psychological need satisfaction and autonomous motivation in exercise, and interventions aimed at reducing social physique anxiety could promote future exercise.

  10. An Interprofessional Approach to Exploring the Social Determinants of Health with Dental Hygiene Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapidos, Adrienne; Gwozdek, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The University of Michigan (U-M) Dental Hygiene Program collaborated with the U-M School of Social Work in developing a course entitled "Skills for Patient- and Family-Centered Care with Diverse Populations." Drawing upon disciplines including dentistry, social work, psychology, and sociology, this course transformed mandatory outreach rotations in safety-net dental settings from a freestanding senior-year experience to an integrated part of the dental hygiene curriculum. The course provided a space in which to discuss the interpersonal aspects of patient care, particularly those related to the social determinants of health. Among the students, a broad range of emotions, frustrations, and hopes were evident, suggesting that there is a need for forums through which students can connect their affective experiences to their practice of patient-centered care. While the course was designed for bachelor's level dental hygiene students, the content and process presented in this paper may be of interest to faculty housed within any allied health professional program, because core themes such as social justice, service-learning, and self-reflection transcend all health professions.

  11. Students’ Professional Self-Determination in the Context of the Socially Conditioned Conflicting Realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Zeyer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the peculiarities of students’ professional identity in the context of socially conditioned conflicting realities. The individual social position is of a particular importance for the professional identity formation, so the authors carried out the research into the students professional self-determination with the reference to their socio-metric status in the academic group; the interpersonal relations were considered as conflict- generating – provoking the conflicting realities of students’ professional self- determination. The theoretical basis of the study involves the concept of personal professional growth with the emphasis on the students’ self-determination in the conflict situations. The research methodology combines the diagnostics of professional self-determination and socio-metric methods. The analysis and synthesis of the acquired empirical data reveal the differences in the expressed levels of components of the students’ professional identity according to their socio-metric status in the group. The research findings include the conformity of conflicting realities arising in interpersonal relationships in the academic process and reflected in the professional identity transformation. The above results can be used for psychological facilitation of students’ successful professional growth. 

  12. Migrant women's perceptions of healthcare during pregnancy and early motherhood: addressing the social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Lígia Moreira; Casanova, Catarina; Caldas, José; Ayres-de-Campos, Diogo; Dias, Sónia

    2014-08-01

    Recent guidelines from the World Health Organization emphasize the need to monitor the social determinants of health, with particular focus on the most vulnerable groups. With this in mind, we evaluated the access, use and perceived quality of care received by migrant women during pregnancy and early motherhood, in a large urban area in northern Portugal. We performed semi-structured interviews in 25 recent mothers, contacted through welfare institutions, who had immigrated from Eastern European countries, Brazil, or Portuguese-speaking African countries. Six native-Portuguese women of equal economic status were also interviewed for comparison. Misinformation about legal rights and inadequate clarification during medical appointments frequently interacted with social determinants, such as low social-economic status, unemployment, and poor living conditions, to result in lower perceived quality of healthcare. Special attention needs to be given to the most vulnerable populations in order to improve healthcare. Challenges reside not only in assuring access, but also in promoting equity in the quality of care.

  13. The Mexican experience in monitoring and evaluation of public policies addressing social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Adolfo Martinez

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) have gradually become important and regular components of the policy-making process in Mexico since, and even before, the World Health Organization (WHO) Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) called for interventions and policies aimed at tackling the social determinants of health (SDH). This paper presents two case studies to show how public policies addressing the SDH have been monitored and evaluated in Mexico using reliable, valid, and complete information, which is not regularly available. Prospera, for example, evaluated programs seeking to improve the living conditions of families in extreme poverty in terms of direct effects on health, nutrition, education and income. Monitoring of Prospera's implementation has also helped policy-makers identify windows of opportunity to improve the design and operation of the program. Seguro Popular has monitored the reduction of health inequalities and inequities evaluated the positive effects of providing financial protection to its target population. Useful and sound evidence of the impact of programs such as Progresa and Seguro Popular plus legal mandates, and a regulatory evaluation agency, the National Council for Social Development Policy Evaluation, have been fundamental to institutionalizing M&E in Mexico. The Mexican experience may provide useful lessons for other countries facing the challenge of institutionalizing the M&E of public policy processes to assess the effects of SDH as recommended by the WHO CSDH.

  14. The Mexican experience in monitoring and evaluation of public policies addressing social determinants of health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Martinez Valle

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring and evaluation (M&E have gradually become important and regular components of the policy-making process in Mexico since, and even before, the World Health Organization (WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH called for interventions and policies aimed at tackling the social determinants of health (SDH. This paper presents two case studies to show how public policies addressing the SDH have been monitored and evaluated in Mexico using reliable, valid, and complete information, which is not regularly available. Prospera, for example, evaluated programs seeking to improve the living conditions of families in extreme poverty in terms of direct effects on health, nutrition, education and income. Monitoring of Prospera's implementation has also helped policy-makers identify windows of opportunity to improve the design and operation of the program. Seguro Popular has monitored the reduction of health inequalities and inequities evaluated the positive effects of providing financial protection to its target population. Useful and sound evidence of the impact of programs such as Progresa and Seguro Popular plus legal mandates, and a regulatory evaluation agency, the National Council for Social Development Policy Evaluation, have been fundamental to institutionalizing M&E in Mexico. The Mexican experience may provide useful lessons for other countries facing the challenge of institutionalizing the M&E of public policy processes to assess the effects of SDH as recommended by the WHO CSDH.

  15. [Social determinants of odontalgia in epidemiological studies: theoretical review and proposed conceptual model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, João Luiz Dornelles; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Peres, Karen Glazer; Nedel, Fúlvio Borges

    2007-01-01

    The epidemiological literature has been limited by the absence of a theoretical framework reflecting the complexity of causal mechanisms for the occurrence of health phenomena / disease conditions. In the field of oral epidemiology, such lack of theory also prevails, since dental caries the leading topic in oral research has been often studied through a biological and reductionist viewpoint. One of the most important consequences of dental caries is dental pain (odontalgia), which has received little attention in studies with sophisticated theoretical models and powerful designs to establish causal relationships. The purpose of this study is to review the scientific literature on the determinants of odontalgia and to discuss theories proposed for the explanation of the phenomenon. Conceptual models and emerging theories on the social determinants of oral health are revised, in an attempt to build up links with the bio-psychosocial pain model, proposing a more elaborate causal model for odontalgia. The framework suggests causal pathways between social structure and oral health through material, psychosocial and behavioral pathways. Aspects of the social structure are highlighted in order to relate them to odontalgia, stressing their importance in discussions of causal relationships in oral health research.

  16. A research agenda for helminth diseases of humans: social ecology, environmental determinants, and health systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gazzinelli

    Full Text Available In this paper, the Disease Reference Group on Helminth Infections (DRG4, established in 2009 by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR, with the mandate to review helminthiases research and identify research priorities and gaps, focuses on the environmental, social, behavioural, and political determinants of human helminth infections and outlines a research and development agenda for the socioeconomic and health systems research required for the development of sustainable control programmes. Using Stockols' social-ecological approach, we describe the role of various social (poverty, policy, stigma, culture, and migration and environmental determinants (the home environment, water resources development, and climate change in the perpetuation of helminthic diseases, as well as their impact as contextual factors on health promotion interventions through both the regular and community-based health systems. We examine these interactions in regard to community participation, intersectoral collaboration, gender, and possibilities for upscaling helminthic disease control and elimination programmes within the context of integrated and interdisciplinary approaches. The research agenda summarises major gaps that need to be addressed.

  17. Difference in Health Inequity between Two Population Groups due to a Social Determinant of Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonesinghe, Ramal; Bouye, Karen; Penman-Aguilar, Ana

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization defines social determinants of health as “complex, integrated, and overlapping social structures and economic systems” that are responsible for most health inequities. Similar to the individual-level risk factors such as behavioral and biological risk factors that influence disease, we consider social determinants of health such as the distribution of income, wealth, influence and power as risk factors for risk of disease. We operationally define health inequity in a disease within a population due to a risk factor that is unfair and avoidable as the difference between the disease outcome with and without the risk factor in the population. We derive expressions for difference in health inequity between two populations due to a risk factor that is unfair and avoidable for a given disease. The difference in heath inequity between two population groups due to a risk factor increases with increasing difference in relative risks and the difference in prevalence of the risk factor in the two populations. The difference in health inequity could be larger than the difference in health outcomes between the two populations in some situations. Compared to health disparities which are typically measured and monitored using absolute or relative disparities of health outcomes, the methods presented in this manuscript provide a different, yet complementary, picture because they parse out the contributions of unfair and avoidable risk factors. PMID:25522048

  18. The Mexican experience in monitoring and evaluation of public policies addressing social determinants of health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Adolfo Martinez

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) have gradually become important and regular components of the policy-making process in Mexico since, and even before, the World Health Organization (WHO) Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) called for interventions and policies aimed at tackling the social determinants of health (SDH). This paper presents two case studies to show how public policies addressing the SDH have been monitored and evaluated in Mexico using reliable, valid, and complete information, which is not regularly available. Prospera, for example, evaluated programs seeking to improve the living conditions of families in extreme poverty in terms of direct effects on health, nutrition, education and income. Monitoring of Prospera's implementation has also helped policy-makers identify windows of opportunity to improve the design and operation of the program. Seguro Popular has monitored the reduction of health inequalities and inequities evaluated the positive effects of providing financial protection to its target population. Useful and sound evidence of the impact of programs such as Progresa and Seguro Popular plus legal mandates, and a regulatory evaluation agency, the National Council for Social Development Policy Evaluation, have been fundamental to institutionalizing M&E in Mexico. The Mexican experience may provide useful lessons for other countries facing the challenge of institutionalizing the M&E of public policy processes to assess the effects of SDH as recommended by the WHO CSDH. PMID:26928215

  19. Social and clinical determinants of quality of life in Parkinson's disease in a Russian cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Yaroslav; von Campenhausen, Sonja; Popov, Georgy; Reese, Jens P; Balzer-Geldsetzer, Monika; Kukshina, Anastasia; Zhukova, Tatyana V; Bertschi, Natalia; Bötzel, Kai; Gusev, Eugene; Oertel, Wolfgang H; Dodel, Richard; Guekht, Alla

    2010-05-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder that has a major impact on health and longevity in Eastern countries. Studies investigating health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Eastern European and Asian countries are scarce. The objective of this cross-sectional survey was to assess HRQoL in Russian patients with PD and identify its social and clinical determinants. The study included 100 outpatients with idiopathic PD and 100 controls. Patients were consecutively recruited from the neurological department of the Russian Medical State University in Moscow between October 2004 and December 2005. Regional healthy controls were matched for age and sex. The evaluation of HRQoL was performed using the EuroQol instrument (EQ-5D and EQ VAS). Disease severity was assessed using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Multivariate regression analyses were used to identify independent determinants of HRQoL. HRQoL was more notably decreased in PD patients than in controls (98% versus 74% of individuals with moderate or severe problems in at least one dimension of the EQ-5D (p Western countries is predominately affected by clinical parameters, social factors play an important role in Eastern countries. Our data should be considered in the development of national healthcare programs that seek to provide better social services support for patients with PD. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Message design strategies to raise public awareness of social determinants of health and population health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Bu, Q Lisa; Borah, Porismita; Kindig, David A; Robert, Stephanie A

    2008-09-01

    Raising public awareness of the importance of social determinants of health (SDH) and health disparities presents formidable communication challenges. This article reviews three message strategies that could be used to raise awareness of SDH and health disparities: message framing, narratives, and visual imagery. Although few studies have directly tested message strategies for raising awareness of SDH and health disparities, the accumulated evidence from other domains suggests that population health advocates should frame messages to acknowledge a role for individual decisions about behavior but emphasize SDH. These messages might use narratives to provide examples of individuals facing structural barriers (unsafe working conditions, neighborhood safety concerns, lack of civic opportunities) in efforts to avoid poverty, unemployment, racial discrimination, and other social determinants. Evocative visual images that invite generalizations, suggest causal interpretations, highlight contrasts, and create analogies could accompany these narratives. These narratives and images should not distract attention from SDH and population health disparities, activate negative stereotypes, or provoke counterproductive emotional responses directed at the source of the message. The field of communication science offers valuable insights into ways that population health advocates and researchers might develop better messages to shape public opinion and debate about the social conditions that shape the health and well-being of populations. The time has arrived to begin thinking systematically about issues in communicating about SDH and health disparities. This article offers a broad framework for these efforts and concludes with an agenda for future research to refine message strategies to raise awareness of SDH and health disparities.