Introduction: The term "information" in information science does not share the characteristics of those of a nomenclature: it does not bear a generally accepted definition and it does not serve as the bases and assumptions for research studies. As the data deluge has arrived, is the concept of information still relevant for information…
Wildemuth, Barbara M.
A user's interaction with a DL is often initiated as the result of the user experiencing an information need of some kind. Aspects of that experience and how it might affect the user's interactions with the DL are discussed in this module. In addition, users continuously make decisions about and evaluations of the materials retrieved from a DL, relative to their information needs. Relevance judgments, and their relationship to the user's information needs, are discussed in this module. Draft
Full Text Available The paper systematizes several theoretical view-points on scientific information processing skill. It decomposes the processing skills into sub-skills. Several methods such analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, document analysis were used to build up a theoretical framework. Interviews and survey to professional being trained and a case study was carried out to evaluate the results. All professional in the sample improved their performance in scientific information processing.
Bishop, Patricia L; Willett, Catherine E
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) currently relies on an initial screening battery (Tier 1) consisting of five in vitro and six in vivo assays to evaluate a chemical's potential to interact with the endocrine system. Chemical companies may request test waivers based on Other Scientifically Relevant Information (OSRI) that is functionally equivalent to data gathered in the screening battery or that provides information on a potential endocrine effect. Respondents for 47 of the first 67 chemicals evaluated in the EDSP submitted OSRI in lieu of some or all Tier 1 tests, seeking 412 waivers, of which EPA granted only 93. For 20 of the 47 chemicals, EPA denied all OSRI and required the entire Tier 1 battery. Often, the OSRI accepted was either identical to data generated by the Tier 1 assay or indicated a positive result. Although identified as potential sources of OSRI in EPA guidance, Part 158 guideline studies for pesticide registration were seldom accepted by EPA. The 93 waivers reduced animal use by at least 3325 animals. We estimate 27,731 animals were used in the actual Tier 1 tests, with additional animals being used in preparation for testing. Even with EPA's shift toward applying 21st-century toxicology tools to screening of endocrine disruptors in the future, acceptance of OSRI will remain a primary means for avoiding duplicative testing and reducing use of animals in the EDSP. Therefore, it is essential that EPA develop a consistent and transparent basis for accepting OSRI. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Dissemination of information is an essential part of CERN's mission. It brings people together from all around the world and trains the scientists of tomorrow. CERN scientific output is documented and made available for the scientific community and the general public through the CERN Document Server, INSPIRE-HEP and Wikipedia. This report presents the work done in the Scientific Information Service during the summer student program.
Philipp A. Bloching
Full Text Available Quantitatively assessing the scientific relevance of a research paper is challenging for two reasons. Firstly, scientific relevance may change over time, and secondly, it is unclear how to evaluate a recently published paper. The temporally averaged paper-specific impact factor is defined as the yearly average of citations to the paper until now including bonus citations equal to the journal impact factor in the publication year. This new measure subsequently allows relevance rankings and annual updates of all (i.e. both recent and older scientific papers of a department, or even a whole scientific field, on a more objective basis. It can also be used to assess both the average and overall time-dependent scientific relevance of researchers in a specific department or scientific field.
Graeber, Wolfgang; Blonder, Ron; Bolte, Claus
A consortium of researchers from 8 European nations has successfully applied to the EU commission for funding the PARSEL (Popularity and Relevance in Science Education for Scientific Literacy) project, which aims at raising the popularity and relevance of science teaching and enhancing students...... of a range of personal and social skills (including cognitive skills associated with investigatory scientific problem solving and socio-scientific decision making) and clarify the relevancy of science education for the 21st century. This symposium will introduce and discuss the project PARSEL ideas within...
Full Text Available Although relevance has represented a key concept in the field of information science for evaluating information retrieval effectiveness, the broader context established by interdisciplinary frameworks could provide greater depth and breadth to on-going research in the field. This work provides an overview of the nature of relevance in the field of information science with a cursory view of how cross-disciplinary approaches to relevance could represent avenues for further investigation into the evaluative characteristics of relevance as a means for enhanced understanding of human information behavior.
Full Text Available This article attempts to investigate the notion of relevance in information retrieval. It discusses various definitions for relevance from historical viewpoints and the characteristics of relevance judgments. Also, it introduces empirical results of important related researches.[Article content in Chinese
Gedeon, M.; De Soete, H.
Document available in extended abstract form only. In the framework of the geological disposal of radioactive waste, the characterization of the Boom Clay and its environment has been going on for more than 30 years. During this time, a great quantity of data was collected to support the research on the reference host rock. A geo-scientific information system was built to store the data acquired in this framework,. The aim was to create a central place where all types of data could be looked up for further analyses and interpretation. All data stored in the system are geographically referenced. The GSIS database was created using PostgreSQL database with PostGIS spatial extension. PostgreSQL is an open-source object-relational database management system (ORDBMS) based on POSTGRES, developed at the University of California at Berkeley Computer Science Department. POSTGRES pioneered many concepts that only became available in some commercial database systems much later. PostgreSQL is an open-source descendant of this original Berkeley code. It supports SQL92 and SQL99 and offers many modern features: complex queries, foreign keys, triggers, views, transactional integrity, multi-version concurrency control. PostGIS is an extension to the PostgreSQL object-relational database system which allows GIS (Geographic Information Systems) objects to be stored in the database. PostGIS includes support for GiST-based R-Tree spatial indexes, and functions for analysis and processing of GIS objects. The GSIS database consists of three principal database domains, the objects database domain (ObjectsDB) and the data domain (DataDB). ObjectsDB includes the definitions (including the geometry/ position) and relative hierarchy of the objects. The objects are defined as structures, enclosed areas or scientific instruments with definable geometry (2D or 3D) including samples used to acquire data (boreholes, piezometers, sampling locations, galleries, sensors, etc.). DataDB includes
Lyford, M. E.; Myers, J. D.; Buss, A.
Numerous studies and polls suggest the general public’s understanding of science and scientific literacy remain woefully inadequate despite repeated calls for improvement over the last 150 years. This inability to improve scientific literacy significantly is a complex problem likely driven by a number of factors. However, we argue that past calls and efforts for improving scientific literacy have failed to: 1) articulate a truly meaningful justification for society to foster a scientifically literate public; 2) provide a rationale that motivates individuals of diverse backgrounds to become scientifically literate; 3) consider the impact of personal perspective, e.g. values, beliefs, attitudes, etc., on learning; and 4) offer a relevant and manageable framework in which to define scientific literacy. For instance, past calls for improving scientific literacy, e.g. the U.S. is behind the Soviets in the space race, U.S students rank below country X in math and science, etc., have lacked justification, personal motivation and a comprehensive framework for defining scientific literacy. In these cases, the primary justification for improving science education and scientific literacy was to regain international dominance in the space race or to advance global standing according to test results. These types of calls also articulate short-term goals that are rendered moot once they have been achieved. At the same time, teaching practices have commonly failed to consider the perspectives students bring to the classroom. Many STEM faculty do not address issues of personal perspective through ignorance or the desire to avoid controversial subjects, e g. evolution, climate change. We propose that the ‘grand challenges’ (e.g., energy, climate change, antibacterial resistance, water, etc.) humankind currently faces provides a compelling framework for developing courses and curricula well-suited for improving scientific literacy. A grand challenge paradigm offers four
Roosendaal, Hans E.
The values in scientific information relevant for the individual researcher can be represented in the value chain for this process. IT is a strong engine for change, in particular as IT has the potential not only to innovate the research information system but also the educational information system
Innovative technologies are changing the way research is performed, preserved, and communicated. Managing Scientific Information and Research Data explores how these technologies are used and provides detailed analysis of the approaches and tools developed to manage scientific information and data. Following an introduction, the book is then divided into 15 chapters discussing the changes in scientific communication; new models of publishing and peer review; ethics in scientific communication; preservation of data; discovery tools; discipline-specific practices of researchers for gathering and using scientific information; academic social networks; bibliographic management tools; information literacy and the information needs of students and researchers; the involvement of academic libraries in eScience and the new opportunities it presents to librarians; and interviews with experts in scientific information and publishing.
Thinggaard, Frank; Damkier, Jesper
This paper presents insights into the question of whether accounting information based on the EU’s Accounting Directives has become less value-relevant to investors over time. The study is based on a research design first used by Francis and Schipper (1999), where value-relevance is measured......? The sample is based on non-financial companies listed on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange in the period 1984-2002. Our analyses show that all the applied accounting measures are value-relevant as investment strategies based on the information earn positive market-adjusted returns in our sample period....... The results provide some indication of a decline in the value-relevance of earnings information in the 1984-2001 period, and mixed, but not statistically reliable, evidence for accounting measures where book value information and asset values are also extracted from financial statements. The results seem...
Hoadley, Christopher M.
How do students make use of social cues when learning on the computer? This work examines how students in a middle-school science course learned through on-line peer discussion. Cognitive accounts of collaboration stress interacting with ideas, while socially situated accounts stress the interpersonal context. The design of electronic environments allows investigation into the interrelation of cognitive and social dimensions. I use on-line peer discussion to investigate how socially relevant representations in interfaces can aid learning. First, I identify some of the variables that affect individual participation in on-line discussion, including interface features. Individual participation is predicted by student attitudes towards learning from peers. Second, I describe the range of group outcomes for these on-line discussions. There is a large effect of discussion group on learning outcomes which is not reducible to group composition or gross measures of group process. Third, I characterize how students (individually) construct understanding from these group discussions. Learning in the on-line discussions is shown to be a result of sustained interaction over time, not merely encountering or expressing ideas. Experimental manipulations in the types of social cues available to students suggest that many students do use socially relevant representations to support their understanding of multiple viewpoints and science reasoning. Personalizing scientific disputes can afford reflection on the nature of scientific discovery and advance. While there are many individual differences in how social representations are used by students in learning, overall learning benefits for certain social representations can be shown. This work has profound implications for design of collaborative instructional methods, equitable access to science learning, design of instructional technology, and understanding of learning and cognition in social settings.
Jackson, Russell E; Calvillo, Dusti P
Visual search of the environment is a fundamental human behavior that perceptual load affects powerfully. Previously investigated means for overcoming the inhibitions of high perceptual load, however, generalize poorly to real-world human behavior. We hypothesized that humans would process evolutionarily relevant stimuli more efficiently than evolutionarily novel stimuli, and evolutionary relevance would mitigate the repercussions of high perceptual load during visual search. Animacy is a significant component to evolutionary relevance of visual stimuli because perceiving animate entities is time-sensitive in ways that pose significant evolutionary consequences. Participants completing a visual search task located evolutionarily relevant and animate objects fastest and with the least impact of high perceptual load. Evolutionarily novel and inanimate objects were located slowest and with the highest impact of perceptual load. Evolutionary relevance may importantly affect everyday visual information processing.
Russell E. Jackson
Full Text Available Visual search of the environment is a fundamental human behavior that perceptual load affects powerfully. Previously investigated means for overcoming the inhibitions of high perceptual load, however, generalize poorly to real-world human behavior. We hypothesized that humans would process evolutionarily relevant stimuli more efficiently than evolutionarily novel stimuli, and evolutionary relevance would mitigate the repercussions of high perceptual load during visual search. Animacy is a significant component to evolutionary relevance of visual stimuli because perceiving animate entities is time-sensitive in ways that pose significant evolutionary consequences. Participants completing a visual search task located evolutionarily relevant and animate objects fastest and with the least impact of high perceptual load. Evolutionarily novel and inanimate objects were located slowest and with the highest impact of perceptual load. Evolutionary relevance may importantly affect everyday visual information processing.
Wolbach, Kevin C.; Purzycki, Catherine B.; Bowman, Leslie A.; Agbada, Eva; Mostrom, Alison M.
The Association of College and Research Libraries recommends incorporating information literacy (IL) skills across university and college curricula, for the goal of developing information literate graduates. Congruent with this goal, the Departments of Biological Sciences and Information Science developed an integrated IL and scientific literacy (SL) exercise for use in a first-year biology course. Students were provided the opportunity to access, retrieve, analyze, and evaluate primary scientific literature. By the completion of this project, student responses improved concerning knowledge and relevance of IL and SL skills. This project exposes students to IL and SL early in their undergraduate experience, preparing them for future academic advancement. PMID:21123700
Lenferna, Georges Alexandre; Russotto, Rick D.; Tan, Amanda; Gardiner, Stephen M.; Ackerman, Thomas P.
In this paper, we focus on stratospheric sulfate injection as a geoengineering scheme, and provide a combined scientific and ethical analysis of climate response tests, which are a subset of outdoor tests that would seek to impose detectable and attributable changes to climate variables on global or regional scales. We assess the current state of scientific understanding on the plausibility and scalability of climate response tests. Then, we delineate a minimal baseline against which to consider whether certain climate response tests would be relevant for a deployment scenario. Our analysis shows that some climate response tests, such as those attempting to detect changes in regional climate impacts, may not be deployable in time periods relevant to realistic geoengineering scenarios. This might pose significant challenges for justifying stratospheric sulfate aerosol injection deployment overall. We then survey some of the major ethical challenges that proposed climate response tests face. We consider what levels of confidence would be required to ethically justify approving a proposed test; whether the consequences of tests are subject to similar questions of justice, compensation, and informed consent as full-scale deployment; and whether questions of intent and hubris are morally relevant for climate response tests. We suggest further research into laboratory-based work and modeling may help to narrow the scientific uncertainties related to climate response tests, and help inform future ethical debate. However, even if such work is pursued, the ethical issues raised by proposed climate response tests are significant and manifold.
Gigi Rolandi, sitting in the middle, chairing his last meeting of the Scientific Information Policy Board before his retirement. Rolandi was the chairman of the board from March 2006 until April 2017, a period that has seen lots of dynamics within the field of authoring, publishing and librarianship - both at CERN and beyond. In the first row from left to right: Eckhard Elsen (Director of Research), Jens Vigen (Head Librarian) Gigi Rolandi (SIPB Chair), Anita Hollier (Archivist) and Urs Wiedemann (Theory). In the second row from left to right: Nikos Kasioumis (Invited speaker), Alexander Kohls (Invited speaker), Stella Christodoulaki (Invited speaker), Nick Ellis (Chair CREB), Clara Troncon (ACCU), Annette Holtkamp (Scientific Information Service), Tim Smith (IT) Brigitte Bloch-Devaux (non-LHC experiments), Constantinos Loizides (ALICE), Thierry Stora (Engineering), John Jowett (Beams), Arjan Verweij (Technology), Anne Gentil-Beccot (Scientific Information Service), Fergus Wilson (LHCb), Ludmila Marian (Invit...
Bouter, Lex M
Universities are funded by public means to a large extend. It’s reasonable to expect that society benefits from the results. For scientific research this means that it should at least have a potential societal impact. Universities and individual investigators must explicitly consider the societal
Utilization of radiotracer methodology in industrial research provides substantial scientific rather than directly demonstrable economic benefits. These benefits include better understanding of industrial processes and subsequently the development of new ones. Examples are given of the use of radiotracers in technological studies and the significance of the obtained results is put down. Creative application of radiotracer methodology may contribute to the economic development and technological advancement of all countries including the developing ones. (orig.) [de
... Information Request on Medication Therapy Management AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION: Request for scientific information submissions. SUMMARY: The Agency for Healthcare... therapy management Scientific information is being solicited to inform our review of Medication Therapy...
... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public inspection of relevant information. 556.9... NONCOMPLIANCE § 556.9 Public inspection of relevant information. Information relevant to a petition under this... Administration, 400 Seventh Street, SW., Washington, DC 20590. Copies of available information may be obtained in...
Staehelin, Johannes; Viatte, Pierre; Stübi, Rene; Tummon, Fiona; Peter, Thomas
Climatic Observatory (LKO) in Arosa (Switzerland), marking the beginning of the world's longest series of total (or column) ozone measurements. They were driven by the recognition that atmospheric ozone is important for human health, as well as by scientific curiosity about what was, at the time, an ill characterised atmospheric trace gas. From around the mid-1950s to the beginning of the 1970s studies of high atmosphere circulation patterns that could improve weather forecasting was justification for studying stratospheric ozone. In the mid-1970s, a paradigm shift occurred when it became clear that the damaging effects of anthropogenic ozone-depleting substances (ODSs), such as long-lived chlorofluorocarbons, needed to be documented. This justified continuing the ground-based measurements of stratospheric ozone. Levels of ODSs peaked around the mid-1990s as a result of a global environmental policy to protect the ozone layer, implemented through the 1987 Montreal Protocol and its subsequent amendments and adjustments. Consequently, chemical destruction of stratospheric ozone started to slow around the mid-1990s. To some extent, this raises the question as to whether continued ozone observation is indeed necessary. In the last decade there has been a tendency to reduce the costs associated with making ozone measurements globally including at Arosa. However, the large natural variability in ozone on diurnal, seasonal, and interannual scales complicates the capacity for demonstrating the success of the Montreal Protocol. Chemistry-climate models also predict a super-recovery of the ozone layer at mid-latitudes in the second half of this century, i.e. an increase of ozone concentrations beyond pre-1970 levels, as a consequence of ongoing climate change. These factors, and identifying potentially unexpected stratospheric responses to climate change, support the continued need to document stratospheric ozone changes. This is particularly valuable at the Arosa site, due
Kubaszewski, Łukasz; Kaczmarczyk, Jacek; Nowakowski, Andrzej
The amount and diversity of scientific publications requires a modern management system. By "management" we mean the process of gathering interesting information for the purpose of reading and archiving for quick access in future clinical practice and research activity. In the past, such system required physical existence of a library, either institutional or private. Nowadays in an era dominated by electronic information, it is natural to migrate entire systems to a digital form. In the following paper we describe the structure and functions of an individual electronic library system (IELiS) for the management of scientific publications based on the Google Drive service. Architecture of the system. Architecture system consists of a central element and peripheral devices. Central element of the system is virtual Google Drive provided by Google Inc. Physical elements of the system include: tablet with Android operating system and a personal computer, both with internet access. Required software includes a program to view and edit files in PDF format for mobile devices and another to synchronize the files. Functioning of the system. The first step in creating a system is collection of scientific papers in PDF format and their analysis. This step is performed most frequently on a tablet. At this stage, after being read, the papers are cataloged in a system of folders and subfolders, according to individual demands. During this stage, but not exclusively, the PDF files are annotated by the reader. This allows the user to quickly track down interesting information in review or research process. Modification of the document title is performed at this stage, as well. Second element of the system is creation of a mirror database in the Google Drive virtual memory. Modified and cataloged papers are synchronized with Google Drive. At this stage, a fully functional scientific information electronic library becomes available online. The third element of the system is a
Some economic considerations for order acceptance decisions are discussed. The relevant economic considerations for order acceptance are widely discussed in the literature: only those costs are relevant which would be avoidable by not accepting the order incremental costs plus opportunity costs .
Bankole A. Falade
Full Text Available The Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa (2013–2016 claimed over 10 000 lives in less than 18 months. Low levels of familiarity with the disease, ease of transmission, scale of infection, gruesomeness of symptoms, lack of cure and high fatality rate created a global panic. From the perspective of the social psychology of communication and content analysis, this study examines media coverage of the crisis in Africa with a view to unpacking the scientific and non-scientific information that may have framed public understanding of the disease. Findings show that accepting scientific advice was not unproblematic, because of the similarity of early symptoms with known diseases such as Lassa, dengue and malaria fevers. Cultural and religious actors and beliefs posed a paradox for believers as the public assimilated disease prevention information into existing norms and practices. Rumours and conspiracy theories about Western governments and pharmaceuticals also contributed to the rejection of the scientific explanation of its origin. Fear of the devastating effects of the disease and the lack of a cure led to the stigmatisation of the infected and treatment centres and ultimately to public revolts. Findings show the importance of non-scientific information and actors in matters of health and illness in Africa. Significance: Scientific knowledge is not enough to change health behaviour. Non-scientific knowledge and actors, traditional and religious practices, rumours and conspiracy theories must all be factored into efforts to address behavioural change.
... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Receipt of relevant information. 560.5 Section 560.5... FOREIGN PORTS § 560.5 Receipt of relevant information. (a) In making its decision on matters arising under... submissions should be supported by affidavits of fact and memorandum of law. Relevant information may include...
Climate science regularly makes headlines in the media, usually after an extreme weather event or a disaster, or in the wake of campaigns by think tanks about the science of climate change. In this presentation, I discuss four specific challenges that are posed to climate scientist when communicating with the public: (i) The widening gap between the scientific literacy of the public and the communication literacy of the scientists; (ii), the multiplicity of scientific information conduits; (iii), information of, and under, uncertainty; and (iv), the requirement to be precise without using technical language. It turns out that these challenges are quite generic to science communication. Climate scientists have learned from the regular international assessments they perform under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and have accumulated a collective experience of more than 20 years. In this presentation I discuss the most important lessons learned from this experience and their relevant...
The objective of this Joint Research Interchange with NASA-Ames was to investigate how the Tsimmis technology could be used to represent and integrate scientific information. The main goal of the Tsimmis project is to allow a decision maker to find information of interest from such sources, fuse it, and process it (e.g., summarize it, visualize it, discover trends). Another important goal is the easy incorporation of new sources, as well the ability to deal with sources whose structure or services evolve. During the Interchange we had research meetings approximately every month or two. The funds provided by NASA supported work that lead to the following two papers: Fusion Queries over Internet Databases; Efficient Query Subscription Processing in a Multicast Environment.
Shamaev, V. G.; Gorshkov, A. B.
This paper reports on the creation of the open access Akustika portal (AKDATA.RU) designed to provide Russian-language easy-to-read and search information on acoustics and related topics. The absence of a Russian-language publication in foreign databases means that it is effectively lost for much of the scientific community. The portal has three interrelated sections: the Akustika information search system (ISS) (Acoustics), full-text archive of the Akusticheskii Zhurnal (Acoustic Journal), and 'Signal'naya informatsiya' ('Signaling information') on acoustics. The paper presents a description of the Akustika ISS, including its structure, content, interface, and information search capabilities for basic and applied research in diverse areas of science, engineering, biology, medicine, etc. The intended users of the portal are physicists, engineers, and engineering technologists interested in expanding their research activities and seeking to increase their knowledge base. Those studying current trends in the Russian-language contribution to international science may also find the portal useful.
Geiger, Bernhard C.; Kubin, Gernot
We introduce the notion of relevant information loss for the purpose of casting the signal enhancement problem in information-theoretic terms. We show that many algorithms from machine learning can be reformulated using relevant information loss, which allows their application to the aforementioned problem. As a particular example we analyze principle component analysis for dimensionality reduction, discuss its optimality, and show that the relevant information loss can indeed vanish if the r...
Wilson, B. D.; McGibbney, L. J.; Mattmann, C. A.; Ramirez, P.; Joyce, M.; Whitehall, K. D.
Quantifying scientific relevancy is of increasing importance to NASA and the research community. Scientific relevancy may be defined by mapping the impacts of a particular NASA mission, instrument, and/or retrieved variables to disciplines such as climate predictions, natural hazards detection and mitigation processes, education, and scientific discoveries. Related to relevancy, is the ability to expose data with similar attributes. This in turn depends upon the ability for us to extract latent, implicit document features from scientific data and resources and make them explicit, accessible and useable for search activities amongst others. This paper presents MemexGATE; a server side application, command line interface and computing environment for running large scale metadata extraction, general architecture text engineering, document classification and indexing tasks over document resources such as social media streams, scientific literature archives, legal documentation, etc. This work builds on existing experiences using MemexGATE (funded, developed and validated through the DARPA Memex Progrjam PI Mattmann) for extracting and leveraging latent content features from document resources within the Materials Research domain. We extend the software functionality capability to the domain of scientific literature with emphasis on the expansion of gazetteer lists, named entity rules, natural language construct labeling (e.g. synonym, antonym, hyponym, etc.) efforts to enable extraction of latent content features from data hosted by wide variety of scientific literature vendors (AGU Meeting Abstract Database, Springer, Wiley Online, Elsevier, etc.) hosting earth science literature. Such literature makes both implicit and explicit references to NASA datasets and relationships between such concepts stored across EOSDIS DAAC's hence we envisage that a significant part of this effort will also include development and understanding of relevancy signals which can ultimately
Rhodes, Rebecca E.; Rodriguez, Fernando; Shah, Priti
Previous studies have investigated the influence of neuroscience information or images on ratings of scientific evidence quality but have yielded mixed results. We examined the influence of neuroscience information on evaluations of flawed scientific studies after taking into account individual differences in scientific reasoning skills, thinking…
Ivanov, R; Raae, L
The status of high-energy physics (HEP) information systems has been jointly analyzed by the libraries of CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC. As a result, the four laboratories have started the INSPIRE project - a new platform built by moving the successful SPIRES features and content, curated at DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, into the open-source CDS Invenio digital library software that was developed at CERN. INSPIRE will integrate current acquisition workflows and databases to host the entire body of the HEP literature (about one million records), aiming to become the reference HEP scientific information platform worldwide. It will provide users with fast access to full text journal articles and preprints, but also material such as conference slides and multimedia. INSPIRE will empower scientists with new tools to discover and access the results most relevant to their research, enable novel text- and data-mining applications, and deploy new metrics to assess the impact of articles and authors. In addition, it will introduce the 'Web 2.0' paradigm of user-enriched content in the domain of sciences, with community-based approaches to scientific publishing. INSPIRE represents a natural evolution of scholarly communication built on successful community-based information systems, and it provides a vision for information management in other fields of science. Inspired by the needs of HEP, we hope that the INSPIRE project will be inspiring for other communities.
Mathe, Nathalie; Chen, James; Lu, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)
There is a growing need for rapid and effective access to information in large electronic documentation systems. Access can be facilitated if information relevant in the current problem solving context can be automatically supplied to the user. This includes information relevant to particular user profiles, tasks being performed, and problems being solved. However most of this knowledge on contextual relevance is not found within the contents of documents, and current hypermedia tools do not provide any easy mechanism to let users add this knowledge to their documents. We propose a compositional relevance network to automatically acquire the context in which previous information was found relevant. The model records information on the relevance of references based on user feedback for specific queries and contexts. It also generalizes such information to derive relevant references for similar queries and contexts. This model lets users filter information by context of relevance, build personalized views of documents over time, and share their views with other users. It also applies to any type of multimedia information. Compared to other approaches, it is less costly and doesn't require any a priori statistical computation, nor an extended training period. It is currently being implemented into the Computer Integrated Documentation system which enables integration of various technical documents in a hypertext framework.
Chang, Shu-Nu; Chiu, Mei-Hung
The purpose of this study is to explore how Lakatos' scientific research programmes might serve as a theoretical framework for representing and evaluating informal argumentation about socio-scientific issues. Seventy undergraduate science and non-science majors were asked to make written arguments about four socio-scientific issues. Our analysis…
Ocampo, Brenda; Kahan, Todd A
Our everyday decisions and memories are inadvertently influenced by self-relevant information. For example, we are faster and more accurate at making perceptual judgments about stimuli associated with ourselves, such as our own face or name, as compared with familiar non-self-relevant stimuli. Humphreys and Sui propose a "self-attention network" to account for these effects, wherein self-relevant stimuli automatically capture our attention and subsequently enhance the perceptual processing of self-relevant information. We propose that the masked priming paradigm and continuous flash suppression represent two ways to experimentally examine these controversial claims.
Jamal Barzegari Khanagha
Full Text Available This paper examines the value relevance of accounting information in per and post-periods of International Financial Reporting Standards implementation using the regression and portfolio approaches for sample of the UAE companies. The results obtained from a combination of regression and portfolio approaches, show accounting information is value relevant in UAE stock market. A comparison of the results for the periods before and after adoption, based on both regression and portfolio approaches, shows a decline in value relevance of accounting information after the reform in accounting standards. It could be interpreted to mean that following to IFRS in UAE didn’t improve value relevancy of accounting information. However, results based on and portfolio approach shows that cash flows’ incremental information content increased for the post-IFRS period.
Manza, Peter; Hau, Chui Luen Vera; Leung, Hoi-Chung
Human working memory (WM) is inherently limited, so we must filter out irrelevant information in our environment or our mind while retaining limited important relevant contents. Previous work suggests that neural oscillations in the alpha band (8-14 Hz) play an important role in inhibiting incoming distracting information during attention and selective encoding tasks. However, whether alpha power is involved in inhibiting no-longer-relevant content or in representing relevant WM content is still debated. To clarify this issue, we manipulated the amount of relevant/irrelevant information using a task requiring spatial WM updating while measuring neural oscillatory activity via EEG and localized current sources across the scalp using a surface Laplacian transform. An initial memory set of two, four, or six spatial locations was to be memorized over a delay until an updating cue was presented indicating that only one or three locations remained relevant for a subsequent recognition test. Alpha amplitude varied with memory maintenance and updating demands among a cluster of left frontocentral electrodes. Greater postcue alpha power was associated with the high relevant load conditions (six and four dots cued to reduce to three relevant) relative to the lower load conditions (four and two dots reduced to one). Across subjects, this difference in alpha power was correlated with condition differences in performance accuracy. In contrast, no significant effects of irrelevant load were observed. These findings demonstrate that, during WM updating, alpha power reflects maintenance of relevant memory contents rather than suppression of no-longer-relevant memory traces.
Drucker, Harris; Shahrary, Behzad; Gibbon, David C.
Compares support vector machines (SVMs) to Rocchio, Ide regular and Ide dec-hi algorithms in information retrieval (IR) of text documents using relevancy feedback. If the preliminary search is so poor that one has to search through many documents to find at least one relevant document, then SVM is preferred. Includes nine tables. (Contains 24…
T. O. Kolesnykova
Full Text Available Purpose. Problem of representation lack of scientists’ publications, including transport scientists, in the international scientometric databases is the urgent one for Ukrainian science. To solve the problem one should study the structure and quality of the information flow of scientific periodicals of railway universities in Ukraine and to determine the integration algorithm of scientific publications of Ukrainian scientists into the world scientific information space. Methodology. Applying the methods of scientific analysis, synthesis, analogy, comparison and prediction the author has investigated the problem of scientific knowledge distribution using formal communications. The readiness of Ukrainian railway periodicals to registration procedure in the international scientometric systems was analyzed. The level of representation of articles and authors of Ukrainian railway universities in scientometric database Scopus was studied. Findings. Monitoring of the portals of railway industry universities of Ukraine and the sites of their scientific periodicals and analysis of obtained data prove insufficient readiness of most scientific publications for submission to scientometric database. The ways providing sufficient "visibility" of industry periodicals of Ukrainian universities in the global scientific information space were proposed. Originality. The structure and quality of documentary flow of scientific periodicals in railway transport universities of Ukraine and its reflection in scientometric DB Scopus were first investigated. The basic directions of university activities to integrate the results of transport scientists research into the global scientific digital environment were outlined. It was determined the leading role of university libraries in the integration processes of scientific documentary resources of universities into the global scientific and information communicative space. Practical value. Implementation of the proposed
The document outlines the mission and organization of the Office of Aerospace Research (OAR), then describes how its principal product, scientific...effective technical information program, are documented by examples. The role of the Office of Scientific and Technical Information within OAR as performed
Roosendaal, Hans E.; Geurts, Petrus A.T.M.; Hilf, E.R.; Hauke, P.
In this article we will discuss some broader developments in the field of scientific information with the aim to determine and analyse some of the pertinent strategic issues that the stakeholders will face at present time. The stakeholders in the value chain of scientific information are: the user
ORENS, Raf; LYBAERT, Nadine
The decline in the relevance of financial statement information to value firms leads to calls from organizational stakeholders to convey non-financial information in order to be able to judge firms' financial performance and value. This literature review aims to report extant literature findings on the use of corporate non-financial information by sell-side financial analysts, the information intermediaries between corporate management and investors. Prior studies highlight that financial ana...
This report aims to stimulate scientists of all disciplines to consider the advantages of using a generalized data management system (GDMS) for storage, manipulation and retrieval of the data they collect and often need to share. It should also be of interest to managers and programmers who need to make decisions on the management of scientific (numeric or non-numeric) data. Another goal of this report is to expose the features that a GDMS should have which are specifically necessary to support scientific data, such as data types and special manipulation functions. A GDMS is a system that provides generalized tools for the purpose of defining a database structure, for loading the data, for modification of the data, and for organizing the database for efficient retrieval and formatted output. A data management system is 'generalized' when it provides a user-oriented language for the different functions, so that it is possible to define any new database, its internal organization, and to retrieve and modify the data without the need to develop special purpose software (program) for each new database
Mayara Cintya do Nascimento Vasconcelos; Gabriela Belmont de Farias
The research analyzes the articles published in national scientific journals of the area of Information Science, classified with Qualis A1, having as parameter the term "scientific and technological information". It presents concepts about scientific and technological information and the processes that involve its uses, as well as scientific communication, information flows and sources of information. The methodology used is a descriptive study with a quantitative-qualitative approach, using ...
Mathe, Natalie; Chen, James
The Adaptive Indexing and Retrieval Agent (ARNIE) is a code library, designed to be used by an application program, that assists human users in retrieving desired information in a hypertext setting. Using ARNIE, the program implements a computational model for interactively learning what information each human user considers relevant in context. The model, called a "relevance network," incrementally adapts retrieved information to users individual profiles on the basis of feedback from the users regarding specific queries. The model also generalizes such knowledge for subsequent derivation of relevant references for similar queries and profiles, thereby, assisting users in filtering information by relevance. ARNIE thus enables users to categorize and share information of interest in various contexts. ARNIE encodes the relevance and structure of information in a neural network dynamically configured with a genetic algorithm. ARNIE maintains an internal database, wherein it saves associations, and from which it returns associated items in response to a query. A C++ compiler for a platform on which ARNIE will be utilized is necessary for creating the ARNIE library but is not necessary for the execution of the software.
Petry, Frederick E.; And Others
Describes an approach that combines concepts from information retrieval, fuzzy set theory, and genetic programing to improve weighted Boolean query formulation via relevance feedback. Highlights include background on information retrieval systems; genetic algorithms; subproblem formulation; and preliminary results based on a testbed. (Contains 12…
During this presentation the topics that will touched upon include various ways in which wikis are being used in scientific research and publishing, currently, as well as some that are more speculative. Many of the examples are drawn from the biological sciences, and the talk is intended to stimulate debate as to how the physics community - and CERN in particular - can enhance its interaction with the Wikimedia community, or via Wikimedia with the public at large. For instance: PLOS Computational Biology Topic Pages Wodak SJ, Mietchen D, Collings AM, Russell RB, Bourne PE (2012) "Topic Pages: PLoS Computational Biology Meets Wikipedia". PLoS Comput Biol 8(3): e1002446 Open Access Media Importer A proposed Wiki Journal, a peer-review journal to encourage academics to contribute Wikipedia articles Encyclopedia of Original Research and JATS-to-MediaWiki The Gene Wiki Wikigenes Wikis in Scholarly Publishing The Journal of the Future His talk is being draft...
Ana M. B. Pavani
Full Text Available This article addresses the access to information from a point of view that relates the evolution of technology to the methods of treating information and to the desire for knowledge. The first part introduces some important events in ancient times, the end of the middle ages/beginning of the modern age and the XIX century. Then, it presents an overview of the current situation of traditional libraries and compares some characteristics with the corresponding ones for digital libraries. It ends by mentioning the international efforts towards open archives and open access to information; it shows examples of positive results.
Chen Yingxi; Huang Daifu; Yang Lifeng
With the development of internet and information technology, the work of scientific and technological information is faced with great challenge. This article expounds the new changes of scientific and technological information in enterprise under network environment by giving a minute description on the situation the work faced and characteristic of the work. Not only does it carry out enthusiastic discussion upon problems which are present in the work of scientific and technological information in the company, but puts forward proposals and specific measures as well. Service theory is also offered by adjusting and reforming the resources construction, service ways and the job of providing contents. We should take vigorous action to the research work of scientific and technological information, changing the information directional service into knowledge providing service. (authors)
Klein, Sheryl; Wynn, Kerry; Ray, Lynne; Demeriez, Lori; LaBerge, Patricia; Pei, Jacqueline; St Pierre, Cherie
ABSTRACT This descriptive qualitative study facilitates the application of family-centered care within a tertiary care interdisciplinary neurodevelopmental diagnostic assessment clinic by furthering an understanding of parent perceptions of the relevance of diagnostic information provision. An interdisciplinary assessment team completed an open-ended questionnaire to describe parent information provision. Parents from 9 families completed in-depth parent interviews following clinic attendance to discuss perceptions of information received. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and coded by related themes. Parents did not perceive the information in the way professionals expected. Parents acknowledged receipt of comprehensive information relevant to the diagnosis but indicated that not all their needs were met. During the interviews, parents described the assessment process, preassessment information, and "steps in their journey." They noted that a strength-based approach and a focus on parental competency would support their coping efforts. Results underscore the need for professionals to be attentive to parents' individualized needs.
Arwa 'Isa al-Yasiry
Full Text Available This research aims at evaluating the quality of scientific information culture that introduce it the Arabic mass media in the internet and how it covering the reality of Arabic scientific information by using analysis content method for these websites then we most be know how these websites treating with information culture considering information systems has input, output and mutual relations between the elements of this system that include the following three components: 1- External relations that connecting between the culture and the reality. 2- Internal elements for this system. 3- Infrastructures for this system that represented in the cultural policy, informational , information resources and human resources
Röthlisberger, Veronika; Bernet, Daniel; Keiler, Margreth
The databases of Swiss flood insurance companies build a valuable but to date rarely used source of information for flood risk research. Detailed insights into the Swiss flood insurance system are crucial to evaluate the potential of the different databases for scientific analysis. Even though the flood insurance system modalities are mainly regulated on cantonal level there are some common principles that apply throughout Switzerland. First of all coverage against floods (and other particular natural hazards) is an integral part of every fire insurance policy for buildings or contents in Switzerland. This coupling of insurance as well as the statutory obligation to insure buildings in most of the cantons and movables in some of the cantons lead to a very high penetration. Second, in case of damage, the reinstatement costs (value as new) are compensated and third there are no (or little) deductible and co-pay. Thus the different datasets of the flood insurance companies would allow a very comprehensive data analysis. Moreover, insurance companies not only store electronically data about losses (typically date, amount of claims payment, cause of damage, identity of the insured object or policyholder) but also about insured objects. For insured objects the (insured) value and the details on the policy and its holder are the main feature to record. On buildings the insurance companies usually computerize additional information such as location, volume, year of construction or purpose of use. For the 19 (of total 26) cantons with a cantonal monopoly insurer the data of these insurance establishments have the additional value to represent (almost) the entire building stock of the respective canton. However, scientists face a wide range of the opportunities and challenges when using insurance data for flood research. The origin of flood insurance data implies that they are not generated for research but for business management. The presentation will highlighted pro and
Ivanov, R; CERN. Geneva. IT Department
The status of high-energy physics (HEP) information systems has been jointly analyzed by the libraries of CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC. As a result, the four laboratories have started the INSPIRE project – a new platform built by moving the successful SPIRES features and content, curated at DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, into the open-source CDS Invenio digital library software that was developed at CERN. INSPIRE will integrate current acquisition workflows and databases to host the entire body of the HEP literature (about one million records), aiming to become the reference HEP scientific information platform worldwide. It will provide users with fast access to full text journal articles and preprints, but also material such as conference slides and multimedia. INSPIRE will empower scientists with new tools to discover and access the results most relevant to their research, enable novel text- and data-mining applications, and deploy new metrics to assess the impact of articles and authors. In addition, it will ...
The status of high-energy physics (HEP) information systems has been jointly analyzed by the libraries of CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC. As a result, the four laboratories have started the INSPIRE project – a new platform built by moving the successful SPIRES features and content, curated at DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, into the open-source CDS Invenio digital library software that was developed at CERN. INSPIRE will integrate present acquisition workflows and databases to host the entire body of the HEP literature (about one million records), aiming to become the reference HEP scientific information platform worldwide. It will provide users with fast access to full-text journal articles and preprints, but also material such as conference slides and multimedia. INSPIRE will empower scientists with new tools to discover and access the results most relevant to their research, enable novel text- and data-mining applications, and deploy new metrics to assess the impact of articles and authors. In addition, it will ...
Tetyana V. Kuznetsova
Full Text Available Relevance of the material stated in article is caused by urgent needs of society in creation of administrative information systems, in particular Information system of planning of scientific researches in National Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine on Internet basis (ІС "Planning". Information and technological support of processes of planning of scientific researches which are carried out in scientific institutions of NAPS of Ukraine is the purpose of creation of this system. The parameters of the functional maintenance of the informative system are pointed in the article, technology of treatment of documents on planning of scientific researches, scheme of routes of working of separate documents, and proper diagrams of their business-processes, on the basis of which using programmatic facilities of Microsoft Sharepoint the functions of programming are automatized, is examined.
Higuchi, Yoko; Ueda, Yoshiyuki; Ogawa, Hirokazu; Saiki, Jun
Implicit learning of visual contexts facilitates search performance-a phenomenon known as contextual cueing; however, little is known about contextual cueing under situations in which multidimensional regularities exist simultaneously. In everyday vision, different information, such as object identity and location, appears simultaneously and interacts with each other. We tested the hypothesis that, in contextual cueing, when multiple regularities are present, the regularities that are most relevant to our behavioral goals would be prioritized. Previous studies of contextual cueing have commonly used the visual search paradigm. However, this paradigm is not suitable for directing participants' attention to a particular regularity. Therefore, we developed a new paradigm, the "spatiotemporal contextual cueing paradigm," and manipulated task-relevant and task-irrelevant regularities. In four experiments, we demonstrated that task-relevant regularities were more responsible for search facilitation than task-irrelevant regularities. This finding suggests our visual behavior is focused on regularities that are relevant to our current goal.
The Relevance of Information and Communication Technologies in Libraries Services ... Technologies in Libraries Services and Librarianship Profession in the 21th Century ... This paper therefore, examines the importance of ICT in librarianship as a ... for Authors · for Policy Makers · about Open Access · Journal Quality.
Ingwersen, Peter; Lykke, Marianne; Bogers, Toine
genuine information tasks. Ease of assessment and search satisfaction are cross tabulated with retrieval performance measured by Normalized Discounted Cumulated Gain. Results show that when assessors find small numbers of relevant documents they tend to regard the search results with dissatisfaction and...
Skonieczny, Lukasz; Rybiński, Henryk; Niezgodka, Marek
This book is a selection of results obtained within one year of research performed under SYNAT - a nation-wide scientific project aiming to create an infrastructure for scientific content storage and sharing for academia, education and open knowledge society in Poland. The selection refers to the research in artificial intelligence, knowledge discovery and data mining, information retrieval and natural language processing, addressing the problems of implementing intelligent tools for building a scientific information platform. The idea of this book is based on the very successful SYNAT Project Conference and the SYNAT Workshop accompanying the 19th International Symposium on Methodologies for Intelligent Systems (ISMIS 2011). The papers included in this book present an overview and insight into such topics as architecture of scientific information platforms, semantic clustering, ontology-based systems, as well as, multimedia data processing.
Eugster, Manuel J. A.; Ruotsalo, Tuukka; Spapé, Michiel M.; Barral, Oswald; Ravaja, Niklas; Jacucci, Giulio; Kaski, Samuel
Finding relevant information from large document collections such as the World Wide Web is a common task in our daily lives. Estimation of a user’s interest or search intention is necessary to recommend and retrieve relevant information from these collections. We introduce a brain-information interface used for recommending information by relevance inferred directly from brain signals. In experiments, participants were asked to read Wikipedia documents about a selection of topics while their EEG was recorded. Based on the prediction of word relevance, the individual’s search intent was modeled and successfully used for retrieving new relevant documents from the whole English Wikipedia corpus. The results show that the users’ interests toward digital content can be modeled from the brain signals evoked by reading. The introduced brain-relevance paradigm enables the recommendation of information without any explicit user interaction and may be applied across diverse information-intensive applications. PMID:27929077
PATRUTA MIRCEA IOAN
Full Text Available The performance analysis is based on an informational system, which provides financial information in various formatsand with various applicabilities.We intend to formulate a set of important caracteristics of financial information along with identifying a set of relevant financial rates and indicatorsused to appreciate the performance level of a company. Economic performance can be interpreted in different ways at each level of analysis. Generally, it refers to economic growth, increased productivity and profitability. The growth of labor productivity or increased production per worker is a measure of efficient use of resources in value creation.
Hey, Tony [eScience Institute, University of Washington; Agarwal, Deborah [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Borgman, Christine [University of California, Los Angeles; Cartaro, Concetta [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory; Crivelli, Silvia [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Van Dam, Kerstin Kleese [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Luce, Richard [University of Oklahoma; Arjun, Shankar [CADES, Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Trefethen, Anne [University of Oxford; Wade, Alex [Microsoft Research, Microsoft Corporation; Williams, Dean [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
The Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee (ASCAC) was charged to form a standing subcommittee to review the Department of Energy’s Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and to begin by assessing the quality and effectiveness of OSTI’s recent and current products and services and to comment on its mission and future directions in the rapidly changing environment for scientific publication and data. The Committee met with OSTI staff and reviewed available products, services and other materials. This report summaries their initial findings and recommendations.
The publication attempts to describe the so far discussion concerning the feature of pricing relevance and to develop it further with the aid of new research approaches. First, a theoretical outline is presented of the elementary regulation problem of insider trading, its historical development, and the regulation goals of the WpHG. This is followed by an analysis of the concrete specifications of the law. In view of the exemplarity of US law, a country with long experience in regulation of the capital market, the materiality doctrine of US insider law is gone into in some detail. The goals and development of the doctrine are reviewed in the light of court rulings. The third part outlines the requirements of German law in order to forecast the pricing relevance of insider information, while the final part presents a critical review of the current regulations on pricing relevance. (orig./RHM)
Prybutok, Gayle Linda; Koh, Chang; Prybutok, Victor R
Consumer health informatics includes the development and implementation of Internet-based systems to deliver health risk management information and health intervention applications to the public. The application of consumer health informatics to educational and interventional efforts such as smoking reduction and cessation has garnered attention from both consumers and health researchers in recent years. Scientists believe that smoking avoidance or cessation before the age of 30 years can prevent more than 90% of smoking-related cancers and that individuals who stop smoking fare as well in preventing cancer as those who never start. The goal of this study was to determine factors that were most highly correlated with content relevance for health information provided on the Internet for a study group of 18- to 30-year-old college students. Data analysis showed that the opportunity for convenient entertainment, social interaction, health information-seeking behavior, time spent surfing on the Internet, the importance of available activities on the Internet (particularly e-mail), and perceived site relevance for Internet-based sources of health information were significantly correlated with content relevance for 18- to 30-year-old college students, an educated subset of this population segment.
Barnes, Erica M.; Oliveira, Alandeom W.
Elementary students are expected to use various features of informational texts to build knowledge in the content areas. In science informational texts, scientific metaphors are commonly used to make sense of complex and invisible processes. Although elementary students may be familiar with literary metaphors as used in narratives, they may be…
Kalina, Jan; Seidl, Libor; Zvára, Karel; Grünfeldová, Hana; Slovák, Dalibor; Zvárová, Jana
We implemented a prototype of a decision support system called SIR which has a form of a web-based classification service for diagnostic decision support. The system has the ability to select the most relevant variables and to learn a classification rule, which is guaranteed to be suitable also for high-dimensional measurements. The classification system can be useful for clinicians in primary care to support their decision-making tasks with relevant information extracted from any available clinical study. The implemented prototype was tested on a sample of patients in a cardiological study and performs an information extraction from a high-dimensional set containing both clinical and gene expression data.
Karsh, Noam; Eitam, Baruch; Mark, Ilya; Higgins, E Tory
How does information about one's control over the environment (e.g., having an own-action effect) influence motivation? The control-based response selection framework was proposed to predict and explain such findings. Its key tenant is that control relevant information modulates both the frequency and speed of responses by determining whether a perceptual event is an outcome of one's actions or not. To test this framework empirically, the current study examines whether and how temporal and spatial contiguity/predictability-previously established as being important for one's sense of agency-modulate motivation from control. In 5 experiments, participants responded to a cue, potentially triggering a perceptual effect. Temporal (Experiments 1a-c) and spatial (Experiments 2a and b) contiguity/predictability between actions and their potential effects were experimentally manipulated. The influence of these control-relevant factors was measured, both indirectly (through their effect on explicit judgments of agency) and directly on response time and response frequency. The pattern of results was highly consistent with the control-based response selection framework in suggesting that control relevant information reliably modulates the impact of "having an effect" on different levels of action selection. We discuss the implications of this study for the notion of motivation from control and for the empirical work on the sense of agency. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available This research study is analyzing the relevance of accounting information reflected through the elaboration of firm performance variables and administration because of the necessity of performance to be administrated. The subject of the theme is enclosed in current development of accounting norms at national , european, (Directives and international levels (IAS/IFRS. The analyised topic is based upon the capabilty of accounting to generate information , throug synthesis calculus being settled the nature , the characteristics and the informational valences of financial performance of an organization. The accounting infromation is base for performing the decison process. The rol of accounting in insurring the relevance and comparability of information increased significantly, being already indispensable. A real solution for communication misunderstanig elimination emerged, as result of diputes in perception and interpretation of economic information, as results for the national speciffic norms.The economic communication is demanding for firm not only in its expression but in thinking and in the process of method conceptualization of organization and administration. A detailed financial situation analysis, which are employing annual financial analysis procedures, underling the performance and risks influencing factors, are considering one starting point for addressing the issue. The introduced variables are insuring a whole vision of firm activity and an appropriate strategy for results significance.
Shapiro, C. D.
Data democracy is a concept that has great relevance to the use and value of geospatial data and scientific information. Data democracy describes a world in which data and information are widely and broadly accessible, understandable, and useable. The concept operationalizes the public good nature of scientific information and provides a framework for increasing benefits from its use. Data democracy encompasses efforts to increase accessibility to geospatial data and to expand participation in its collection, analysis, and application. These two pillars are analogous to demand and supply relationships. Improved accessibility, or demand, includes increased knowledge about geospatial data and low barriers to retrieval and use. Expanded participation, or supply, encompasses a broader community involved in developing geospatial data and scientific information. This pillar of data democracy is characterized by methods such as citizen science or crowd sourcing.A framework is developed for advancing the use of data democracy. This includes efforts to assess the societal benefits (economic and social) of scientific information. This knowledge is critical to continued monitoring of the effectiveness of data democracy implementation and of potential impact on the use and value of scientific information. The framework also includes an assessment of opportunities for advancing data democracy both on the supply and demand sides. These opportunities include relatively inexpensive efforts to reduce barriers to use as well as the identification of situations in which participation can be expanded in scientific efforts to enhance the breadth of involvement as well as expanding participation to non-traditional communities. This framework provides an initial perspective on ways to expand the "scientific community" of data users and providers. It also describes a way forward for enhancing the societal benefits from geospatial data and scientific information. As a result, data
Scientific journals are the most credible and updated information resources for valid information in the various fields of science and technology. The present study investigates the status of Iranian scientific journals in disseminating medical information to the world of science. Total 163 Iranian medical journals accredited by national medical journals commission of Iranian ministry of health and medical education were evaluated through a cross-sectional study. The results were represented in descriptive statistics in the form of table and chart. The study showed that 89.6% of Iranian medical journals were covered by regional information databases. Web of Science database indexed 22 (13.5%) Iranian journals in the field of medical science. Only six (6.7%) journals were indexed by Medline. Fifty-eight (35.6%) journals were in English, 102 (62.6%) in Persian, and three (1.8%) were bilingual which published their articles both in Persian and English languages. The highest Impact factor belonged to Iranian Journal of Allergy Asthma and Immunology. Improving scientific credibility of Iranian scholarly journals and their influence in disseminating medical information calls for a precise scientific and executive administration in publishing standards and also in the quality of content.
Luciano G. Levin
Full Text Available Forensic anthropology has had extraordinary scientific success in Argentina. On the one hand, this discipline has developed very well in only 25 years generating scientifically relevant knowledge both locally and internationally. On the other hand, and unlike a large part of scientific knowledge generated in peripheral contexts, it has major social applications. This work describes the different dimensions of the origin and development of this discipline in Argentina, the cognitive condition of the field in 1983 and, briefly, its development until today, its institutional dimension, the existence of other research traditions and certain social dimensions which, we believe, are the basis for the success of this scientific discipline.
Full Text Available Efforts have been underway for years to find more effective ways to retrieve information from large knowledge domains. This effort is now being driven particularly by the Internet and the vast amount of information that is available to unsophisticated users. In the early days of the Internet, some effort involved allowing users to enter Boolean equations of search terms into search engines, for example, rather than just a list of keywords. More recently, effort has focused on understanding a user's desires from past search histories in order to narrow searches. Also there has been much effort to improve the ranking of results based on some measure of relevancy. This paper discusses using iterative filtering of retrieved information to focus in on useful information. This work was done for finding source code correlation and the author extends his findings to Internet searching and e-commerce. The paper presents specific information about a particular filtering application and then generalizes it to other forms of information retrieval.
Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to analyse and systematize scientific approaches to the interpretation of the essence of the information economy. The research object: scientific approaches to the interpretation of the essence of the concept of “information economy”. The theoretical and methodological base of the research consists of works by D. Bell, Z. Brzezinski, J. Baudrillard, M. Castells, Yoneji Masuda, F. Machlup, M. Porat, A. Toffler, which are devoted to issues of development of information society. Analysis of recent research and publications allows noting an increasing scientific interest in issues of formation of the economy of information type. The essence and features of information economy are considered in scientific papers of scholars such as Hrynkevych S., Iliash A., Krystynevych S., Malyk I., Nikolaiev Ye., Bazhal Yu., Tolstiakov R., Shkarlet S., Fedulova L., Chukhno A., and others. Research methods: analysis, content analysis, synthesis, system method. Increasing scientific interest in the formation of the information economy leads to an increase in the number of publications on this topic; pluralism of scientific approaches to the consideration of the essence of the information economy actualizes the need for their systematization. The theory of information economy logically follows and is a component of the theory of the development of information society. Along with it, there is an approach in the scientific literature, according to which scholars identify the concept of information society and information economy. In our opinion, this approach is not well-balanced, since the term “information society” is inherently wider than “information economy”. The latter can be considered as an inherent component of the information society, which development is determined by a number of specific factors. In other words, these terms are closely interrelated and they should be investigated in the context of links between them
The paper examines the importance of knowledge as a prerequisite for sustainable development which is contingent on information, its value and ability to be produced, used, reused, and shared. The paper explains the opportunities of Open Access Initiatives (OA) as a tool for infusing and diffusing African scientific ...
A. I. Afonin
Full Text Available In accordance with the new version of the “Information Security Doctrine of the Russian Federation (adopted in December 2016, in information security agenda its information-psychological component was selected for further study. Attention is drawn to the need to ensure the information-psychological security of certain categories of citizens, social groups and society in general, taking into account a differentiated approach to assessing threats that arise in the course of their life. The article briefly considers the science rank among the forms of the human activities and notes that when involving in science-based and science-applied activities the near-scientific activity, which is often briefly referred to as pseudoscience, shows up as one of the threats.The article presents main forms to show of the near-scientific (pseudoscientific activity, namely parascience, quasi-science, pseudoscience, and monetary scientism.Drawing on the example of one of the near-scientific activity products, called "psychotronic weapon", the article clearly shows the emergence and evolution of this pseudoscientific product, the attempts of its implementation in practice, and the subsequent negative consequences of these attempts for society.Taking into account the survivability of the near-scientific activity, it is proposed to include lectures in the curricula of technical universities to introduce threats from pseudoscience to graduates of higher educational institutions who may face them both in their employment activity and in everyday life.
Scientific and technical information that the Langley Research Center produced during the calendar year 1983 is compiled. Included are citations for Formal Reports, Quick-Release Technical Memorandums, Contractor Reports, Journal Articles and other Publications, Meeting Presentations, Technical Talks, Computer Programs, Tech Briefs, and Patents.
Schot, P.; El Gebaly, A.; Tarvainen, M.
The increasing awareness of activities of transnational procurement networks to covertly acquire sensitive nuclear related dual use equipment prompted an evolution of safeguards methodologies. One of the responses to this challenge by the Department of Safeguards in the IAEA was to establish the Trade and Technology Unit (TTA) in November 2004 to analyse and report on these covert nuclear related trade activities. To obtain information relevant to this analysis, TTA is engaging States that might be willing to provide this information to the Secretariat on a voluntary basis. This paper will give an overview of current activities, sum up the results achieved and discuss suggestions to further improve this programme made by Member States. (author)
Valeriy Yu. Bykov
Full Text Available In the article theoretical and methodological principles of digital humanistic pedagogy – the science about the laws of creating a positive integrated educational reality as a result of the convergence of physical and virtual (created using ICT training spaces (environments are determined. Based on the use of modern ICT learning activity (formal, nonformal and informal is at the intersection of two worlds: the real and the virtual. Methodology and research methods of classical pedagogy require review and improvement in the context of current realities of the educational process, needs and interests of all its subjects. The development of digital humanities in the international educational space is analyzed; the content of the new field of pedagogical knowledge as part of digital humanistic is outlined; research methods and directions of current scientific research are defined.
Pilegaard, Kirsten; Eriksen, Folmer Damsted; Sørensen, Marten
Information Resource (EuroFIR)-NETTOX Plant List (2007) presents scientific and vernacular names in 15 European languages for around 325 major European plant/mushroom foods and also for different parts of these foods. This list and its predecessor, the NETTOX List of Food Plants, have been used by national...... food authorities and within the European Union for consideration of plants and mushrooms that have been used to a significant degree up to 1997 and are therefore not covered by the novel food regulation (European Parliament and Council of the European Union, 1997). The species and the plant part...... studied are insufficiently characterised in many scientific papers. This paper informs about the naming of plants and mushrooms as an aid for scientists who are not botanists or mycologists themselves. Knowledge on scientific names used, including synonyms, may also be important for finding all relevant...
Bettencourt, L. M. A. (LANL); Castillo-Chavez, C. (Arizona State University); Kaiser, D. (MIT); Wojick, D. E. (IIA)
The accelerated development of digital libraries and archives, in tandem with efficient search engines and the computational ability to retrieve and parse massive amounts of information, are making it possible to quantify the time evolution of scientific literatures. These data are but one piece of the tangible recorded evidence of the processes whereby scientists create and exchange information in their journeys towards the generation of knowledge. As such, these tools provide a proxy with which to study our ability to innovate. Innovation has often been linked with prosperity and growth and, consequently, trying to understand what drives scientific innovation is of extreme interest. Identifying sets of population characteristics, factors, and mechanisms that enable scientific communities to remain at the cutting edge, accelerate their growth, or increase their ability to re-organize around new themes or research topics is therefore of special significance. Yet generating a quantitative understanding of the factors that make scientific fields arise and/or become more or less productive is still in its infancy. This is precisely the type of knowledge most needed for promoting and sustaining innovation. Ideally, the efficient and strategic allocation of resources on the part of funding agencies and corporations would be driven primarily by knowledge of this type. Early steps have been taken toward such a quantitative understanding of scientific innovation. Some have focused on characterizing the broad properties of relevant time series, such as numbers of publications and authors in a given field. Others have focused on the structure and evolution of networks of coauthorship and citation. Together these types of studies provide much needed statistical analyses of the structure and evolution of scientific communities. Despite these efforts, however, crucial elements of prediction have remained elusive. Building on many of these earlier insights, we provide here a
Full Text Available This report aims to present the researcher in Psychology techniques for search and retrieval of information for academic and science research. Is based on my experiences as university librarian and as a doctoral student in Psychology, in a project on scientometry of the Social Skills field. This goal is to obtain information reliable and with quality to develop research, from sources of online information. Are recommended and described steps to the process of searching for scientific information, with examples from the Social Skills field: defining research topic; applying appropriate search tactics; selecting reliable sources of information and experts on the topic; translating research into the language of the information source; developing an effective search strategy; evaluating the quality and reliability of the obtained items. It is expected that by following these steps, the researcher obtain a coherent corpus with the subject, time saving and quality bibliographic.
Arattano, Massimo; Gatti, Albertina; Eusebio, Elisa
The commitment to communicate and divulge the knowledge acquired during his/her professional activity is certainly one of the ethical duties of the geologist. However nowadays, in the Internet era, the spreading of knowledge involves potential risks that the geologist should be aware of. These risks require a careful analysis aimed to mitigate their effects. The Internet may in fact contribute to spread (e.g. through websites like Wikipedia) information badly or even incorrectly presented. The final result could be an impediment to the diffusion of knowledge and a reduction of its effectiveness, which is precisely the opposite of the goal that a geologist should pursue. Specific criteria aimed to recognize incorrect or inadequate information would be, therefore, extremely useful. Their development and application might avoid, or at least reduce, the above mentioned risk. Ideally, such criteria could be also used to develop specific algorithms to automatically verify the quality of information available all over the Internet. A possible criterion will be here presented for the quality control of knowledge and scientific information. An example of its application in the field of geology will be provided, to verify and correct a piece of information available on the Internet. The proposed criterion could be also used for the simplification of the scientific information and the increase of its informative efficacy.
Del Rosso, James Q; Zeichner, Joshua
This article is the first in a periodic series of therapeutic topics with short reviews gleaned from major dermatology meetings, especially Scientific Poster Sessions, and is designed to provide information that may assist the readers in adapting information from the literature to their clinical practice. The topics covered in this issue are discussions of the clinical relevance of newer information about acne pathophysiology, acne in adult women, and topical corticosteroid spray formulations for chronic plaque psoriasis.
Building of the System of biomedical scientific information of Yugoslavia (SBMSI YU) began, by the end of 1980, and the system became operative officially in 1986. After the political disintegration of former Yugoslavia SBMSI of Serbia was formed. SBMSI is developed according to the policy of developing of the System of scientific technologic information of Serbia (SSTI S), and with technical support of SSTI S. Reconstruction of the System is done by using former SBMSI YU as a model. Unlike the former SBMSI YU, SBMSI S owns besides the database Biomedicina Serbica, three important databases: database of doctoral dissertations promoted at University Medical School in Belgrade in the period from 1955-1993, database of Master's theses promoted at the University School of Medicine in Belgrade from 1965-1993; A database of foreign biomedical periodicals in libraries of Serbia.
Thomas, Valerie L.; Wakim, Nagi T.
The evolution of computer networking technology has lead to the establishment of a massive networking infrastructure which interconnects various types of computing resources at many government, academic, and corporate institutions. A large segment of this infrastructure has been developed to facilitate information exchange and resource sharing within the scientific community. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) supports both the development and the application of computer networks which provide its community with access to many valuable multi-disciplinary scientific information systems and on-line databases. Recognizing the need to extend the benefits of this advanced networking technology to the under-represented community, the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) in the Space Data and Computing Division at the Goddard Space Flight Center has developed the Minority University-Space Interdisciplinary Network (MU-SPIN) Program: a major networking and education initiative for Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) and Minority Universities (MUs). In this paper, we will briefly explain the various components of the MU-SPIN Program while highlighting how, by providing access to scientific information systems and on-line data, it promotes a higher level of collaboration among faculty and students and NASA scientists.
Turk, David J; Brady-van den Bos, Mirjam; Collard, Philip; Gillespie-Smith, Karri; Conway, Martin A; Cunningham, Sheila J
Information that is relevant to oneself tends to be remembered more than information that relates to other people, but the role of attention in eliciting this "self-reference effect" is unclear. In the present study, we assessed the importance of attention in self-referential encoding using an ownership paradigm, which required participants to encode items under conditions of imagined ownership by themselves or by another person. Previous work has established that this paradigm elicits a robust self-reference effect, with more "self-owned" items being remembered than "other-owned" items. Access to attentional resources was manipulated using divided-attention tasks at encoding. A significant self-reference effect emerged under full-attention conditions and was related to an increase in episodic recollection for self-owned items, but dividing attention eliminated this memory advantage. These findings are discussed in relation to the nature of self-referential cognition and the importance of attentional resources at encoding in the manifestation of the self-reference effect in memory.
Parrish, J. K.
Citizen science promises fine grain, broad extent data collected over decadal time scales, with co-benefits including increased scientific literacy and civic engagement. But does it only deliver non-standardized, unverifiable data collected episodically by individuals with little-to-no training? How do you know which projects to trust? What are the attributes of a scientifically sound citizen science project? The Coastal Observation and Seabird Survey Team (COASST) is a 15 year old citizen science project currently involving ~800 participants from northern California north to Kotzebue, Alaska and west to the Commander Islands, Russia. After a single 5-hour training delivered in-community by an expert, volunteers have the knowledge and skill sets to accurately survey a coastal site for beached bird carcasses, which they will be able to identify to species correctly ~85% of the time. Data are collected monthly, and some volunteers remain with the program for years, contributing hundreds, even thousands, of survey hours. COASST trainings, data collection materials, and data entry web portal all reinforce 'evidence first, deduction second,' a maxim that allows volunteers to learn, and gives on-staff experts the ability to independently verify all birds found. COASST data go directly into science, as part of studies as diverse as fishery entanglement, historic native uses of seabirds as food sources, and the impacts of sudden shifts in upwelling; as well as into resource management, as part of decisions on fishing regulations, waterfowl hunting limits, and ESA-listed species management. Like professional science, COASST features a specific sampling design linked to questions of interest, verifiable data, statistical analysis, and peer-reviewed publication. In addition, COASST features before-and-after testing of volunteer knowledge, independent verification of all deductive data, and recruitment and retention strategies linked to geographic community norms. As a result
Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI) Service, which is an important component of intelligence, is the intelligence researcher to select key subjects and major issues and key technology or innovation goals under the actual needs of scientific research personnel issues, using network communication technology and database technology and information retrieval technologies, sustained and in a timely manner to track all kinds of literature for the front-line services, until the completion of research topics or key problem-solving. Library of China Institute of Atomic Energy is struggling to meet the diverse needs of customers, targeted to provide a lot of useful information for scientific researchers to use less time as possible to obtain as much intelligence information, and to research workers and leading to the successful completion of research tasks, and various decisions. The implementation of SDI services to identify clients and scope, to format SDI service team, to determine the SDI service principles and service mode. SDI services Selective demand intelligence researchers have been asked to improve their quality, to improve their interpersonal communication skills. (author)
Full Text Available : Concept maps of chemistry can be obtained from thesaurus of chemistry. Analysis of information in the field of chemistry is done at graduate level, based on comparing and analyzing chemistry dissertations by using these maps. Therefore, the use of thesaurus for analyzing scientific information is recommended. Major advantage of using this method, is that it is possible to obtain a detailed map of all academic researches across all branches of science. The researches analysis results in chemical science can play a key role in developing strategic research policies, educational programming, linking universities to industries and postgraduate educational programming. This paper will first introduce the concept maps of chemistry. Then, emerging patterns from the concept maps of chemistry will be used to analyze the trend in the academic dissertations in chemistry, using the data collected and stored in our database at Iranian Research Institute for Information Science and Technology (IranDoc over the past 10 years (1998-2009.
Lohr, Kathleen N
To summarize an extensive review of systems for grading the quality of research articles and rating the strength of bodies of evidence, and to highlight for health professionals and decision-makers concerned with quality measurement and improvement the available "best practices" tools by which these steps can be accomplished. Drawing on an extensive review of checklists, questionnaires, and other tools in the field of evidence-based practice, this paper discusses clinical, management, and policy rationales for rating strength of evidence in a quality improvement context, and documents best practices methods for these tasks. After review of 121 systems for grading the quality of articles, 19 systems, mostly specific, met a priori scientific standards for grading systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, observational studies, and diagnostic tests; eight systems (of 40 reviewed) met similar standards for rating the overall strength of evidence. All can be used as is or adapted for particular types of evidence reports or systematic reviews. Formally grading study quality and rating overall strength of evidence, using sound instruments and procedures, can produce reasonable levels of confidence about the science base for parts of quality improvement programs. With such information, health care professionals and administrators concerned with quality improvement can understand better the level of science (versus only clinical consensus or opinion) that supports practice guidelines, review criteria, and assessments that feed into quality assurance and improvement programs. New systems are appearing and research is needed to confirm the conceptual and practical underpinnings of these grading and rating systems, but the need for those developing systematic reviews, practice guidelines, and quality or audit criteria to understand and undertake these steps is becoming increasingly clear.
Full Text Available The paper presents empirical evidence about the impact of firm’s shareholders number as non accounting information on the value relevance of its earnings and book value of equity as accounting information for Jordanian industrial firms for the period from 1993 to 2002. Employing the return regression analysis and using shareholders number in two proxies namely local and foreign shareholders number, the findings of the study are fourfold. First, Individual earnings are value relevant while book value is irrelevant. Second, combining earnings with book value leads both of them to be irrelevant. Third, extending local shareholders number has significant impact on the value relevance of individual and combined earnings. Forth, extending foreign shareholders number has significant impact on the value relevance of individual book value and combined earnings. Since studies on the value relevance of these variables have neglected Jordan (and the Middle Eastern region, the study is the first especially in Jordan that tries to fill this gap by examiningthe impact of shareholders numbers on the value relevance of earnings and book valueto indicate firm value.
Techniques de l'Ingénieur has been part of the selection of databases offered by the Scientific Information Service for the last five years. Unfortunately, as a consequence of budget reductions, and after careful consideration of all available options, we have to end this subscription. It will be still possible to purchase access to individual chapters via the Library services. Furthermore, we are considering ending our subscriptions to Web of Science and Springer Materials (the Landolt-Börnstein database) during the course of 2015. We thank you for your understanding and welcome your feedback to email@example.com
Allen, Lauren Brooks
Informal learning is an important venue for educating the general public about complex socio-scientific issues: intersections of scientific understanding and society. My dissertation is a multi-tiered analysis of how informal education, and particularly informal educators, can leverage learning to respond to one particular socio-scientific issue: climate change. Life-long, life-wide, and life-deep learning not only about the science of climate change, but how communities and society as a whole can respond to it in ways that are commensurate with its scale are necessary. In my three-article dissertation, I investigated the changes in practice and learning that informal educators from a natural history museum underwent in the process of implementing a new type of field trip about climate change. This study focused on inquiry-based learning principles taken on by the museum educators, albeit in different ways: learner autonomy, conversation, and deep investigation. My second article, a short literature review, makes the argument that climate change education must have goals beyond simply increasing learners' knowledge of climate science, and proposes three research-based principles for such learning: participation, relevance, and interconnectedness. These principles are argued to promote learning to respond to climate change as well as increased collective efficacy, necessary for responding. Finally, my third article is an in-depth examination of a heterogeneous network of informal educators and environmental professionals who worked together to design and implement a city-wide platform for informal climate change learning. By conceptualizing climate change learning at the level of the learning ecology, educators and learners are able to see how it can be responded to at the community level, and understand how climate change is interconnected with other scientific, natural, and social systems. I briefly discuss a different socio-scientific issue to which these
Demir, I.; Krajewski, W. F.
As geoscientists are confronted with increasingly massive datasets from environmental observations to simulations, one of the biggest challenges is having the right tools to gain scientific insight from the data and communicate the understanding to stakeholders. Recent developments in web technologies make it easy to manage, visualize and share large data sets with general public. Novel visualization techniques and dynamic user interfaces allow users to interact with data, and modify the parameters to create custom views of the data to gain insight from simulations and environmental observations. This requires developing new data models and intelligent knowledge discovery techniques to explore and extract information from complex computational simulations or large data repositories. Scientific visualization will be an increasingly important component to build comprehensive environmental information platforms. This presentation provides an overview of the trends and challenges in the field of scientific visualization, and demonstrates information visualization and communication tools in the Iowa Flood Information System (IFIS), developed within the light of these challenges. The IFIS is a web-based platform developed by the Iowa Flood Center (IFC) to provide access to and visualization of flood inundation maps, real-time flood conditions, flood forecasts both short-term and seasonal, and other flood-related data for communities in Iowa. The key element of the system's architecture is the notion of community. Locations of the communities, those near streams and rivers, define basin boundaries. The IFIS provides community-centric watershed and river characteristics, weather (rainfall) conditions, and streamflow data and visualization tools. Interactive interfaces allow access to inundation maps for different stage and return period values, and flooding scenarios with contributions from multiple rivers. Real-time and historical data of water levels, gauge heights, and
Full Text Available In some situations, you need information in order to solve a problem that has occurred. In information science, user needs are often described through very specific examples rather than through a classification of situation types in which information needs occur. Furthermore, information science often describes general human needs, typically with a reference to Maslow's classification of needs (1954, instead of actual information needs. Lexicography has also focused on information needs, but has developed a more abstract classification of types of information needs, though (until more recent research into lexicographical functions with a particular interest in linguistic uncertainties and the lack of knowledge and skills in relation to one or several languages. In this article, we suggest a classification of information needs in which a tripartition has been made according to the different types of situations: communicative needs, cognitive needs, and operative needs. This is a classification that is relevant and useful in general in our modern information society and therefore also relevant for information science, including lexicography.
Slama, Rémy; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre; Demeneix, Barbara; Ivell, Richard; Panzica, Giancarlo; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Zoeller, R Thomas
Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as exogenous compounds or mixtures that alter function(s) of the endocrine system and consequently cause adverse effects in an intact organism, or its progeny, or (sub)populations. European regulations on pesticides, biocides, cosmetics, and industrial chemicals require the European Commission to establish scientific criteria to define EDs. We address the scientific relevance of four options for the identification of EDs proposed by the European Commission. Option 1, which does not define EDs and leads to using interim criteria unrelated to the WHO definition of EDs, is not relevant. Options 2 and 3 rely on the WHO definition of EDs, which is widely accepted by the scientific community, with option 3 introducing additional categories based on the strength of evidence (suspected EDs and endocrine-active substances). Option 4 adds potency to the WHO definition, as a decision criterion. We argue that potency is dependent on the adverse effect considered and is scientifically ambiguous, and note that potency is not used as a criterion to define other particularly hazardous substances such as carcinogens and reproductive toxicants. The use of potency requires a context that goes beyond hazard identification and corresponds to risk characterization, in which potency (or, more relevantly, the dose-response function) is combined with exposure levels. There is scientific agreement regarding the adequacy of the WHO definition of EDs. The potency concept is not relevant to the identification of particularly serious hazards such as EDs. As is common practice for carcinogens, mutagens, and reproductive toxicants, a multi-level classification of ED based on the WHO definition, and not considering potency, would be relevant (corresponding to option 3 proposed by the European Commission). Slama R, Bourguignon JP, Demeneix B, Ivell R, Panzica G, Kortenkamp A, Zoeller RT. 2016. Scientific issues relevant
Barletta, M.; Feldman, Y.; Ferguson, M. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)
The IAEA Department of Safeguards is continually working to refine its methodologies and procedures for the analysis of information relevant to the evaluation of the nuclear fuel cycle in States that have safeguards agreements with the IAEA. This analysis is required to achieve an understanding of States' nuclear-related activities against which a State's declarations are evaluated for correctness as well as completeness, and to provide credible assurances on the peaceful uses of nuclear material in the State. To achieve this end, diversification of sources and comparison for consistency among available information is essential to ensure an accurate assessment of a State's nuclear activities. Open sources of information on scientific and technical (S&T) developments and research provide the Department of Safeguards with an enhanced basis to evaluate the technical capabilities of States. These information sources are regularly and systematically assessed to provide information about industrial capabilities, patenting activities and research and development activities in States as reflected through published scientific and technical literature. Using such sources, in addition to other, long-established safeguards information sources, helps the IAEA to draw soundly-based safeguards conclusions. The utility of this category of information in terms of the State evaluation process lies primarily in the comparison with other sources of information, especially State-declared information, and in the assessment of consistency of all safeguards-relevant information regarding nuclear fuel cycle technologies and activities in a State. The current paper aims to describe the use of S&T literature, how information from different sources is consolidated, how it is analysed and how it contributes in the overall process of State evaluation in the IAEA Department of Safeguards. (author)
Belenki, Liudmila; Sterzik, Vera; Bohnert, Michael; Zimmermann, Klaus; Liehr, Andreas W
Reflectance spectrometry is a fast and reliable method for the characterization of human skin if the spectra are analyzed with respect to a physical model describing the optical properties of human skin. For a field study performed at the Institute of Legal Medicine and the Freiburg Materials Research Center of the University of Freiburg, a scientific information repository has been developed, which is a variant of an electronic laboratory notebook and assists in the acquisition, management, and high-throughput analysis of reflectance spectra in heterogeneous research environments. At the core of the repository is a database management system hosting the master data. It is filled with primary data via a graphical user interface (GUI) programmed in Java, which also enables the user to browse the database and access the results of data analysis. The latter is carried out via Matlab, Python, and C programs, which retrieve the primary data from the scientific information repository, perform the analysis, and store the results in the database for further usage.
Craievich, Aldo F; Fischer, Hannes
We present and discuss here numerical information derived from a systematic searching of scientific papers related to SAXS and SANS published in indexed journals - from 1945 until nowadays - recorded by the Web of Science Data Bank (WoS). We have detected interesting features regarding the time dependence of the number of papers/year, N(t), indicating the existence of three well-defined periods of historical evolution with rather well-defined boundaries. All three periods exhibit a positive and approximately linear variation of N(t) but, at the two transitions between periods, the rate of growth exhibits clear and strong increases. Differences of the historical evolutions in the numbers of papers/year related to SAXS and to SANS were established. The different behaviours regarding the numbers of papers/year related to SAXS and to SANS and the existence of three different and well defined periods for N(t) can be qualitatively understood as a consequence of the progressive and increasing availability along the last three decades of very brilliant synchrotrons, last generation commercial X-ray sources, new neutron facilities, powerful computers and novel theoretical approaches for SAS data analysis. The rates of growth in the number of papers/year published by authors from a set of different countries are approximately constant along the last two decades. For other countries we have detected a slowing down effect in the number of papers/year while a clear acceleration could be noticed for the production of SAS papers by authors from several emerging countries. These opposite trends compensate in such a way that the number of SAS (SAXS+SAXS) articles published per year all around the world maintained a vigorous linear growth - during more than 20 years - at a constant rate of 60 papers/year, without any indication of eventual saturation. The observed distribution of articles among different journals indicates that a very high fraction of the volume of SAS research is
Steven, G [Commission of the European Communities, Luxembourg (Luxembourg)
Scientific and technical information (STI) is an increasingly important resource for R and D and industrial development. The rapid development of the market for electronic information and the increasing potential offered through new information technologies require new approaches for the collection and dissemination of STI. Activities of the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) in this area are reviewed. More recent CEC initiatives in the areas of biotechnology information and factual materials data banks have proved the need for international collaboration and for the implementation of infrastructural measures as a basis for such collaboration. The implementation of the EC Demonstrator Programme on materials property data systems has evaluated the potential of eleven European materials data banks against the market requirements and has helped to launch wide international collaboration. The concluding European workshop on materials data systems has developed a set of recommendations for future initiatives. These are shortly reviewed together with initial findings of a study aimed at developing a business plan for the establishment of a biotechnology information infrastructure for the bio-industries and research base in Europe. (author). 3 refs.
Scientific and technical information (STI) is an increasingly important resource for R and D and industrial development. The rapid development of the market for electronic information and the increasing potential offered through new information technologies require new approaches for the collection and dissemination of STI. Activities of the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) in this area are reviewed. More recent CEC initiatives in the areas of biotechnology information and factual materials data banks have proved the need for international collaboration and for the implementation of infrastructural measures as a basis for such collaboration. The implementation of the EC Demonstrator Programme on materials property data systems has evaluated the potential of eleven European materials data banks against the market requirements and has helped to launch wide international collaboration. The concluding European workshop on materials data systems has developed a set of recommendations for future initiatives. These are shortly reviewed together with initial findings of a study aimed at developing a business plan for the establishment of a biotechnology information infrastructure for the bio-industries and research base in Europe. (author). 3 refs
Chen, Jun; Dowman, Ian; Li, Songnian; Li, Zhilin; Madden, Marguerite; Mills, Jon; Paparoditis, Nicolas; Rottensteiner, Franz; Sester, Monika; Toth, Charles; Trinder, John; Heipke, Christian
With the increased availability of very high-resolution satellite imagery, terrain based imaging and participatory sensing, inexpensive platforms, and advanced information and communication technologies, the application of imagery is now ubiquitous, playing an important role in many aspects of life and work today. As a leading organisation in this field, the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) has been devoted to effectively and efficiently obtaining and utilising information from imagery since its foundation in the year 1910. This paper examines the significant challenges currently facing ISPRS and its communities, such as providing high-quality information, enabling advanced geospatial computing, and supporting collaborative problem solving. The state-of-the-art in ISPRS related research and development is reviewed and the trends and topics for future work are identified. By providing an overarching scientific vision and research agenda, we hope to call on and mobilise all ISPRS scientists, practitioners and other stakeholders to continue improving our understanding and capacity on information from imagery and to deliver advanced geospatial knowledge that enables humankind to better deal with the challenges ahead, posed for example by global change, ubiquitous sensing, and a demand for real-time information generation.
Borrelli, G; Marchetti, A [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Belli, M [WWF, Fondo Mondiale per la Natura, Rome (Italy)
Among ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy, and the Environment) activities, one deals with analysis and strategies of environmental and scientific information. A questionnaire, created in collaboration with AIGA (Italian Environmental Journalist Association) and UGIS (Italian Scientific Journalist Association) and WWF has been realized. Purpose of the work was to check the level of sensitivity of the Italian journalists on environmental and scientific issues and to investigate the main obstacle facing to their professional activity.Environmental and scientific problems are usually not correctly perceived by the public. These problems, in fact, undergo a `closeness/distance` perception syndrome despite the fact that they are often presented and discussed in the media. The dichotomy may be explained according to the following phenomenology: 1. the existence of the problem is well known but the scientific and technological contest results to be of hard comprehension; 2. better and prolonged debating about the problem increments the attendance echo but simultaneously decrements the real understanding of it. The public opinion response to the diffusion of news related to environmental and scientific themes of no immediate understanding is of great concern; 3. media organizations are not always suited for dealing with the advanced matter of environmental and scientific information.
... Relevant Information From Public or Private Entities With an Interest in Biovigilance; Extension AGENCY... and obtain relevant information regarding the possible development of a public-private partnership... Identify and Obtain Relevant Information from Public or Private Entities with an Interest in Biovigilance...
Danielly Oliveira Inomata
Full Text Available Objective. This paper presents and discuss the concepts, contexts and applications involving information flows in organizations. Method. Systematic review, followed by a bibliometric analysis and system analysis. The systematic review aimed to search for, evaluate and review evidence about the research topic. The systematic review process comprised the following steps: 1 definition of keywords, 2 systematic review, 3 exploration and analysis of articles and 4 comparison and consolidation of results. Results. A bibliometric analysis aimed to provide a statement of the relevance of articles where the authors, dates of publications, citation index, and periodic keywords with higher occurrence. Conclusions. As survey results confirms the emphasis on information featured in the knowledge management process, and advancing years, it seems that the emphasis is on networks, ie, studies are turning to the operationalization and analysis of flows information networks. The literature produced demonstrates the relationship of information flow with its management, applied to different organizational contexts, including showing new trends in information science as the study and analysis of information flow in networks.
Bourner, Tom; Rospigliosi, Asher
There has been much interest in happiness over the last decade fueled by developments in neuroscience and the measurement of happiness. Positive psychology has emerged as a recognised discipline within academia to provide a home for the findings of the new scientific study of happiness. In 2011, positive psychology was the most popular course at…
Contandriopoulos, Damien; Benoît, François; Bryant-Lukosius, Denise; Carrier, Annie; Carter, Nancy; Deber, Raisa; Duhoux, Arnaud; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Larouche, Catherine; Leclerc, Bernard-Simon; Levy, Adrian; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Maximova, Katerina; McGrail, Kimberlyn; Nykiforuk, Candace; Roos, Noralou; Schwartz, Robert; Valente, Thomas W; Wong, Sabrina; Lindquist, Evert; Pullen, Carolyn; Lardeux, Anne; Perroux, Melanie
Health systems worldwide struggle to identify, adopt, and implement in a timely and system-wide manner the best-evidence-informed-policy-level practices. Yet, there is still only limited evidence about individual and institutional best practices for fostering the use of scientific evidence in policy-making processes The present project is the first national-level attempt to (1) map and structurally analyze-quantitatively-health-relevant policy-making networks that connect evidence production, synthesis, interpretation, and use; (2) qualitatively investigate the interaction patterns of a subsample of actors with high centrality metrics within these networks to develop an in-depth understanding of evidence circulation processes; and (3) combine these findings in order to assess a policy network's "absorptive capacity" regarding scientific evidence and integrate them into a conceptually sound and empirically grounded framework. The project is divided into two research components. The first component is based on quantitative analysis of ties (relationships) that link nodes (participants) in a network. Network data will be collected through a multi-step snowball sampling strategy. Data will be analyzed structurally using social network mapping and analysis methods. The second component is based on qualitative interviews with a subsample of the Web survey participants having central, bridging, or atypical positions in the network. Interviews will focus on the process through which evidence circulates and enters practice. Results from both components will then be integrated through an assessment of the network's and subnetwork's effectiveness in identifying, capturing, interpreting, sharing, reframing, and recodifying scientific evidence in policy-making processes. Knowledge developed from this project has the potential both to strengthen the scientific understanding of how policy-level knowledge transfer and exchange functions and to provide significantly improved advice
Soyyılmaz, Demet; Griffin, Laura M; Martín, Miguel H; Kucharský, Šimon; Peycheva, Ekaterina D; Vaupotič, Nina; Edelsbrunner, Peter A
Scientific thinking is a predicate for scientific inquiry, and thus important to develop early in psychology students as potential future researchers. The present research is aimed at fathoming the contributions of formal and informal learning experiences to psychology students' development of scientific thinking during their 1st-year of study. We hypothesize that informal experiences are relevant beyond formal experiences. First-year psychology student cohorts from various European countries will be assessed at the beginning and again at the end of the second semester. Assessments of scientific thinking will include scientific reasoning skills, the understanding of basic statistics concepts, and epistemic cognition. Formal learning experiences will include engagement in academic activities which are guided by university authorities. Informal learning experiences will include non-compulsory, self-guided learning experiences. Formal and informal experiences will be assessed with a newly developed survey. As dispositional predictors, students' need for cognition and self-efficacy in psychological science will be assessed. In a structural equation model, students' learning experiences and personal dispositions will be examined as predictors of their development of scientific thinking. Commonalities and differences in predictive weights across universities will be tested. The project is aimed at contributing information for designing university environments to optimize the development of students' scientific thinking.
Soyyılmaz, Demet; Griffin, Laura M.; Martín, Miguel H.; Kucharský, Šimon; Peycheva, Ekaterina D.; Vaupotič, Nina; Edelsbrunner, Peter A.
Scientific thinking is a predicate for scientific inquiry, and thus important to develop early in psychology students as potential future researchers. The present research is aimed at fathoming the contributions of formal and informal learning experiences to psychology students’ development of scientific thinking during their 1st-year of study. We hypothesize that informal experiences are relevant beyond formal experiences. First-year psychology student cohorts from various European countries will be assessed at the beginning and again at the end of the second semester. Assessments of scientific thinking will include scientific reasoning skills, the understanding of basic statistics concepts, and epistemic cognition. Formal learning experiences will include engagement in academic activities which are guided by university authorities. Informal learning experiences will include non-compulsory, self-guided learning experiences. Formal and informal experiences will be assessed with a newly developed survey. As dispositional predictors, students’ need for cognition and self-efficacy in psychological science will be assessed. In a structural equation model, students’ learning experiences and personal dispositions will be examined as predictors of their development of scientific thinking. Commonalities and differences in predictive weights across universities will be tested. The project is aimed at contributing information for designing university environments to optimize the development of students’ scientific thinking. PMID:28239363
Goodman, Ruth L; Webb, Thomas L; Stewart, Andrew J
Factual information is more frequently read and discussed than fictional information. However, research on the role of communication in shaping stereotypes has focused almost exclusively on fictional narratives. In Experiments 1 and 2 a newspaper article containing information about heroin users was communicated along chains of 4 people. No stereotype-consistency bias was observed. Instead, a greater proportion of stereotype-inconsistent information was communicated than was stereotype-consistent or -neutral information. Three further experiments investigated explanations for the difference between the communication of fictional and factual information. Experiment 3 ruled out the possibility that participants' beliefs about the validity of the information could influence the way that it is communicated. Experiments 4 and 5 divided information into concrete (a specific event or fact) or abstract (opinion). A stereotype-consistency bias emerged only for abstract information. In summary, linguistic abstraction moderates whether stereotype-consistency biases emerge in the communication of stereotype-relevant factual information.
The 2008 MS 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake is one of the deadliest in recent human history. This earthquake has not just united the whole world to help local people to lead their life through the difficult time, it has also fostered significant global cooperation to study this event from various aspects: including pre-seismic events (such as the seismicity, gravity, electro-magnetic fields, well water level, radon level in water etc), co-seismic events (fault slipping, landslides, man-made structure damages etc) and post-seismic events (such as aftershocks, well water level changing etc) as well as the disaster relief efforts. In the last four years, more than 300 scientific articles have been published on peer-reviewed journals, among them about 50% are published in Chinese, 30% in English, and about 20% in both languages. These researches have advanced our understanding of earthquake science in general. It has also sparked open debates in many aspects. Notably, the role of the Zipingpu reservoir (built not long ago before the earthquake) in the triggering of this monstrous earthquake is still one of many continuing debates. Given that all these articles are ssporadically spread out on different journals and numerous issues and in different languages, it can be very inefficient, sometimes impossible, to dig out the information that are in need. The Earthquake Research Group in the Chengdu University of Technology (ERGCDUT) has initiated an effort to develop an information platform to collect and analyze scientific research on or related to this earthquake, the hosting faults and the surrounding tectonic regions. A preliminary website has been setup for this purpose: http://www.wenchuaneqresearch.org. Up to this point (July 2012), articles published in 6 Chinese journals and 7 international journals have been collected. Articles are listed journal by journal, and also grouped by contents into four major categories, including pre-seismic events, co-seismic events, post
Ranney, Michael Andrew; Clark, Dav
Of this article's seven experiments, the first five demonstrate that virtually no Americans know the basic global warming mechanism. Fortunately, Experiments 2-5 found that 2-45 min of physical-chemical climate instruction durably increased such understandings. This mechanistic learning, or merely receiving seven highly germane statistical facts (Experiment 6), also increased climate-change acceptance-across the liberal-conservative spectrum. However, Experiment 7's misleading statistics decreased such acceptance (and dramatically, knowledge-confidence). These readily available attitudinal and conceptual changes through scientific information disconfirm what we term "stasis theory"--which some researchers and many laypeople varyingly maintain. Stasis theory subsumes the claim that informing people (particularly Americans) about climate science may be largely futile or even counterproductive--a view that appears historically naïve, suffers from range restrictions (e.g., near-zero mechanistic knowledge), and/or misinterprets some polarization and (noncausal) correlational data. Our studies evidenced no polarizations. Finally, we introduce HowGlobalWarmingWorks.org--a website designed to directly enhance public "climate-change cognition." Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Kaptein, R.; Kamps, J.; Hopfgartner, F.
One of the main bottle-necks in providing more effective information access is the poverty of the query end. With an average query length of about two terms, users provide only a highly ambiguous statement of the, often complex, underlying information need. Implicit and explicit feedback can provide
Information and Communications Technology (ICT) could be used to improve .... accountable, efficient and effective interaction between the public, business and ... agencies, research institutions and private organizations, such as print and ...
Bischoff, Kerstin; Herder, Eelco; Nejdl, Wolfgang
At the workplace, learning is often a by-product of working on complex projects, requiring self-steered, need-driven and goal-oriented retrieval of information just in time from documents or peers. The personal desktop provides one rich source for learning material and for adaptation of learning resources. Data within that personal information space enables learning from previous experience, sharing tacit and explicit knowledge, and allows for establishing context and context-aware delivery o...
В. В. Степко
Full Text Available The article highlights information resources of the scientific library of the Kiev National University of Culture and Arts and characterizes its use in the system of providing librarian and informational services for users. It is proved that the important information resource of the library is website, which provides additional opportunities for users, forming a positive image of the library in the virtual space. The site contains information on various directions of the library’s activities, librarian services, projects and media products. One of the main tasks of the library is formation and presentation on the website of the electronic catalog as a multifunctional bibliographic resource, which is the basis for informational services and the basic information product of the library. The creation of an electronic library continues as the essential element of providing qualitative and effective services to users. The article discusses the functioning of the “Virtual Help” service as an effective form of working with remote users. The authors also consider such an actual direction of the library’s activity as the presentation of the scientific and creative heritage of the university with help of “12 + books of the year” project. The aim of the project is to inform about new editions of university’s teachers published this year and presented in the library fund. The implementation of the patriotic innovation and educational project “Treasures of the Nation”, whose purpose is to study and popularize the elements of the intangible cultural heritage ofUkraine, is analyzed. The booktrails and flash presentations are considered as a means of presenting books prepared by the library staff. The preparation of longreed, a new format for submitting information on the Internet, is also considered. Thanks to the use of Tilda Publishing and ThingLink services, innovative products were created: a complex multimedia story that combined photos
Full Text Available Co-word analysis is based on a sociological theory developed by the CSI and the SERPIA (Callon, Courtial, Turner, 1991 in the mid eighties. This method, originally dedicated to scientific fields, measures the association strength between terms in documents to reveal and visualise the evolution of scientific fields through the construction of clusters and strategic diagram. This method has since been successfully applied to investigate the structure of many scientific areas. Nowadays it occurs in many software systems which are used by companies to improve their business, and define their strategy but its relevance to this kind of application has not been proved yet. Using the example of economic and marketing information on DSL technologies from Reuters Business Briefing, this presentation gives an interpretation of co-word analysis for this kind of information. After an overview of the software we used (Sampler and after an outline of the experimental protocol, we investigate and explain each step of the co-word analysis process: terminological extraction, computation of clusters and the strategic diagram. In particular, we explain the meaning of each parameter of the method: the choice of variables and similarity measures is discussed. Finally we try to give a global interpretation of the method in an economic context. Further studies will be added to this work in order to allow a generalisation of these results.
Van Berkel, R.; Van Roekel, A.
The objective of this pilot survey was to arrive at a preliminary understanding of the initial technology and technology information needs in non-Annex II countries in order to support international efforts to facilitate the transfer of technologies and know-how conducive to mitigating and adapting to climate change. The study encompassed two main components, i.e. the development of a survey instrument and the execution of a pilot survey among selected non-Annex II countries. The survey instrument addresses the present status of enabling activities; technology and technology information needs; and issues related to information supply and accessibility. The survey was distributed to national focal points in 20 non-Annex II countries and to at least 35 other stakeholders in five of these non-Annex II countries. A total of 27 completed questionnaires were received, covering 10 non-Annex II countries. 3 refs
Van Berkel, R.; Van Roekel, A.
The objective of this pilot survey was to arrive at a preliminary understanding of the initial technology and technology information needs in non-Annex II countries in order to support international efforts to facilitate the transfer of technologies and know-how conducive to mitigating and adapting to climate change. The study encompassed two main components, i.e. the development of a survey instrument and the execution of a pilot survey among selected non-Annex II countries. The survey instrument addresses the present status of enabling activities; technology and technology information needs; and issues related to information supply and accessibility. The survey was distributed to national focal points in 20 non-Annex II countries and to at least 35 other stakeholders in five of these non-Annex II countries. A total of 27 completed questionnaires were received, covering 10 non-Annex II countries. 3 refs.
Dranseika, Vilius; Piasecki, Jan; Waligora, Marcin
In this article, we seek to contribute to the debate on the requirement of disclosure in the context of informed consent for research. We defend the subjective standard of disclosure and describe ways to implement this standard in research practice. We claim that the researcher should make an effort to find out what kinds of information are likely to be relevant for those consenting to research. This invites researchers to take empirical survey information seriously, attempt to understand the cultural context, talk to patients to be better able to understand what can be potentially different concerns and interests prevalent in the target population. The subjective standard of disclosure should be seen as a moral ideal that perhaps can never be perfectly implemented but still can and should be used as a normative ideal guiding research practice. In the light of these discussions, we call for more empirical research on what considerations are likely to be perceived as relevant by potential research participants recruited from different socio-economic and cultural groups.
Critical infrastructure models, strategies and policies should take information ... gain an advantage over a competitor or adversary through the use of one's own .... digital communications system, where the vehicles are analogous to bits or packets, ..... performance degraded, causing an increase in traffic finding a new route.
ter Schure, S.M.M.
Newborn infants are sensitive to combinations of visual and auditory speech. Does this ability to match sounds and sights affect how infants learn the sounds of their native language? And are visual articulations the only type of visual information that can influence sound learning? This
Bischoff, Kerstin; Herder, Eelco; Nejdl, Wolfgang
At the workplace, learning is often a by-product of working on complex projects, requiring self-steered, need-driven and goal-oriented retrieval of information just in time from documents or peers. The personal desktop provides one rich source for learning material and for adaptation of learning
Kalina, Jan; Seidl, L.; Zvára, K.; Grünfeldová, H.; Slovák, Dalibor; Zvárová, Jana
Roč. 1, č. 1 (2013), s. 46-46 ISSN 1805-8698. [EFMI 2013 Special Topic Conference. 17.04.2013-19.04.2013, Prague] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : decision support system * web-service * information extraction * high-dimension * gene expressions Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sources of information and relevant data... Sources of information and relevant data. When considering any revision of the lists, the Secretary shall..., administrative reports, maps or other graphic materials, information received from experts on the subject, and...
Knuth, Kevin H.; Golera, Anthony; Curry, Charles T.; Huyser, Karen A.; Kevin R. Wheeler; Rossow, William B.
The primary objective of the NASA Earth-Sun Exploration Technology Office is to understand the observed Earth climate variability, thus enabling the determination and prediction of the climate's response to both natural and human-induced forcing. We are currently developing a suite of computational tools that will allow researchers to calculate, from data, a variety of information-theoretic quantities such as mutual information, which can be used to identify relationships among climate variables, and transfer entropy, which indicates the possibility of causal interactions. Our tools estimate these quantities along with their associated error bars, the latter of which is critical for describing the degree of uncertainty in the estimates. This work is based upon optimal binning techniques that we have developed for piecewise-constant, histogram-style models of the underlying density functions. Two useful side benefits have already been discovered. The first allows a researcher to determine whether there exist sufficient data to estimate the underlying probability density. The second permits one to determine an acceptable degree of round-off when compressing data for efficient transfer and storage. We also demonstrate how mutual information and transfer entropy can be applied so as to allow researchers not only to identify relations among climate variables, but also to characterize and quantify their possible causal interactions.
A Planetary Defense Gateway for Smart Discovery of relevant Information for Decision Support presentation discussing background, framework architecture, current results, ongoing research, conclusions.
... contracting officers' access to relevant information about contractor business ethics in the Federal Awardee... ability to evaluate the business ethics of prospective contractors and protect the Government from...
Patel, Seema; Rauf, Abdur; Khan, Haroon
Galls, the abnormal growths in plants, induced by virus, bacteria, fungi, nematodes, arthropods, or even other plants, are akin to cancers in fauna. The galls which occur in a myriad of forms are phytochemically-distinct from the normal plant tissues, for these are the sites of tug-of-war, just like the granuloma in animals. To counter the stressors, in the form of the effector proteins of the invaders, the host plants elaborate a large repertoire of metabolites, which they normally will not produce. Perturbation of the jasmonic acid pathway, and the overexpression of auxin, and cytokinin, promote the tissue proliferation and the resultant galls. Though the plant family characteristics and the attackers determine the gall biochemistry, most of the galls are rich in bioactive phytochemicals such as phenolic acids, anthocyanins, purpurogallin, flavonoids, tannins, steroids, triterpenes, alkaloids, lipophilic components (tanshinone) etc. Throughout the long trajectory of evolution, humans have learned to use the galls as therapeutics, much like other plant parts. In diverse cultures, the evidence of folkloric usage of galls abound. Among others, galls from the plant genus like Rhus, Pistacia, Quercus, Terminalia etc. are popular as ethnomedicine. This review mines the literature on galling agents, and the medicinal relevance of galls. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
veterinary medicine , plant health, national security, biodefense, law enforcement, scientific publishing, and related fields. The NSABB also includes...leading edge of science. The three presidents of the National Academies [of Science, Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine ] opposed such controls...information to clone, counterfeit , or circumvent a process or system.209 CRS-49 210 Section 306(a) of P.L. 107-296 provides that “to the greatest extent
Moghissi, A Alan; Gerraa, Vikrham Kumar; McBride, Dennis K; Swetnam, Michael
This paper starts by describing the historical evolution of assessment of biologic effects of ionizing radiation leading to the linear non-threshold (LNT) system currently used to regulate exposure to ionizing radiation. The paper describes briefly the concept of Best Available Science (BAS) and Metrics for Evaluation of Scientific Claims (MESC) derived for BAS. It identifies three phases of regulatory science consisting of the initial phase, when the regulators had to develop regulations without having the needed scientific information; the exploratory phase, when relevant tools were developed; and the standard operating phase, when the tools were applied to regulations. Subsequently, an attempt is made to apply the BAS/MESC system to various stages of LNT. This paper then compares the exposure limits imposed by regulatory agencies and also compares them with naturally occurring radiation at several cities. Controversies about LNT are addressed, including judgments of the U.S. National Academies and their French counterpart. The paper concludes that, based on the BAS/MESC system, there is no disagreement between the two academies on the scientific foundation of LNT; instead, the disagreement is based on their judgment or speculation.
Full Text Available The phenomenon of pseudo-scientific information, the reasons of its spread and premises of its vitality are discussed in the paper. Pseudo-scientific information is understandable as an attempt to suit a demand, which exists in society, while providing a simple answer to a question, which an individual or society is concerned about, and that answer is not sustained by scientific research. It is showed that the rise and spread of pseudo-scientific information in society are conditioned by objective reasons. Firstly, the lack of information concerning a subject which is significant for society. Secondly, the lack of information for a particular individual (social group concerning a substantial subject. Thirdly, fast spread of scientific and technical inventions and penetration of technological innovations into various spheres of life the understanding of which demands an appropriate informal “processing”, i e it demands provision in an appropriate form, which is partly provided by pseudo-scientific knowledge.The existence of pseudo-scientific information is determined by the fact that it performs important social functions in society. The existence of pseudo-scientific information by official certified scientific information and the fact, that all social groups are affected to a larger or lesser extent, show its ambivalent power and vitality. On the one part, the roots of its vitality lie in the duality of this phenomenon, where opposite things coexist in a strange way – the truth (scientifically verified propositions and speculations which are based on intuition rather than on scientifically verified facts. On the other part, it is maintained by our permanent wish to get an additional and fresher information, though not totally reliable, while seeking to know universally and better the world around us and its phenomena. While meeting this requirement, a pseudo-scientific information stimulates researchers both to enhance their attempts to
Marina Alves de Mendonça
Full Text Available Accents the national electronic journals of library and information science with purpose of identifying the questions most debated in information science through the analysis of articles published from 2003 to 2013, in addition to detecting the subjects of the articles analyzed in order to detect thematic similarities and differences in the scope of interdisciplinarity, including the identification of "empty", i.e. important issues not contemplated. Include the library science journals for the reason of the relevant titles currently be originated of publications before dedicated to the library science and then concentrated on studies in information science. To achieve this quali-quantitative research, nature descriptive and case study, resort to documentary analysis and thematic content analysis as collection techniques and data analysis, respectively. Verifies that the increase in research in this field follows with the expansion of the Graduate Program in Information Science and expands as found in electronic journals, the means to intensify scientific communication and ratify interdisciplinary relations. Registers 48 themes, among which Management has the highest incidence (191 articles as opposed to the classes; Administration and Environment and Sustainability, both with only seven studies each. Library Science has the highest number of interdisciplinary relations. It is recommended that researchers in the field turn their attention to topics on the rise not yet explored in the context of information science, like Cognitive and Behavioral Studies; and Information Architecture, in view of the prospects for growth and contribution to the field.
Discusses the design and organization of the Automated Information Centre, a centralized automated scientific and technical information service established within the main organ of Bulgaria's National System for Scientific and Technical Information, with UNESCO and United Nations Development Program assistance. Problems and perspectives for…
Stein, Timo; Siebold, Alisha; van Zoest, Wieske
Self-relevant information is prioritized in processing. Some have suggested the mechanism driving this advantage is akin to the automatic prioritization of physically salient stimuli in information processing (Humphreys & Sui, 2015). Here we investigate whether self-relevant information is prioritized for awareness under continuous flash suppression (CFS), as has been found for physical salience. Gabor patches with different orientations were first associated with the labels You or Other. Participants were more accurate in matching the self-relevant association, replicating previous findings of self-prioritization. However, breakthrough into awareness from CFS did not differ between self- and other-associated Gabors. These findings demonstrate that self-relevant information has no privileged access to awareness. Rather than modulating the initial visual processes that precede and lead to awareness, the advantage of self-relevant information may better be characterized as prioritization at later processing stages. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
The most common means of remote scientific collaboration today includes the trio of e-mail for electronic communication, FTP for file sharing, and personalized Web sites for dissemination of papers and research results. With the growth of broadband Internet, there has been a desire to share large files (movies, files, scientific data files) over the Internet. Email has limits on the size of files that can be attached and transmitted. FTP is often used to share large files, but this requires the user to set up an FTP site for which it is hard to set group privileges, it is not straightforward for everyone, and the content is not searchable. Peer-to-peer technology (P2P), which has been overwhelmingly successful in popular content distribution, is the basis for development of a scientific collaboratory called Scientific Peer Network (SciPerNet). This technology combines social networking with P2P file sharing. SciPerNet will be a standalone application, written in Java and Swing, thus insuring portability to a number of different platforms. Some of the features include user authentication, search capability, seamless integration with a data center, the ability to create groups and social networks, and on-line chat. In contrast to P2P networks such as Gnutella, Bit Torrent, and others, SciPerNet incorporates three design elements that are critical to application of P2P for scientific purposes: User authentication, Data integrity validation, Reliable searching SciPerNet also provides a complementary solution to virtual observatories by enabling distributed collaboration and sharing of downloaded and/or processed data among scientists. This will, in turn, increase scientific returns from NASA missions. As such, SciPerNet can serve a two-fold purpose for NASA: a cost-savings software as well as a productivity tool for scientists working with data from NASA missions.
Vorauer, A.; Cotesta, L.
Ontario Power Generation's Deep Geologic Repository Technology Program has undertaken applied research into the application of scientific visualization technologies to: i) improve the interpretation and synthesis of complex geoscientific field data; ii) facilitate the development of defensible conceptual site descriptive models; and iii) enhance communication between multi-disciplinary site investigation teams and other stakeholders. Two scientific visualization projects are summarized that benefited from the use of the Gocad earth modelling software and were supported by an immersive virtual reality laboratory: i) the Moderately Fractured Rock experiment at the 125,000 m 3 block scale; and ii) the Sub-regional Flow System Modelling Project at the 100 km 2 scale. (author)
Mathe, Nathalie; Chen, James
Rapid and effective to information in large electronic documentation systems can be facilitated if information relevant in an individual user's content can be automatically supplied to this user. However most of this knowledge on contextual relevance is not found within the contents of documents, it is rather established incrementally by users during information access. We propose a new model for interactively learning contextual relevance during information retrieval, and incrementally adapting retrieved information to individual user profiles. The model, called a relevance network, records the relevance of references based on user feedback for specific queries and user profiles. It also generalizes such knowledge to later derive relevant references for similar queries and profiles. The relevance network lets users filter information by context of relevance. Compared to other approaches, it does not require any prior knowledge nor training. More importantly, our approach to adaptivity is user-centered. It facilitates acceptance and understanding by users by giving them shared control over the adaptation without disturbing their primary task. Users easily control when to adapt and when to use the adapted system. Lastly, the model is independent of the particular application used to access information, and supports sharing of adaptations among users.
Full Text Available This paper proposes new methodological approaches in the study of development problems of scientific and technical activities in the information society. The essence and economic nature of development scientific and technical activities' from the standpoint of methodological collectivism are disclosed, a new phenomenon intensification of development scientific and technical activities by forming the global networks of scientific and technical knowledge users that provides sharing of the burden of transformation and transaction costs as generation as well as economic implementation of research and technical knowledge across the globe are showed. This study outlines the complementary effects in intensify development of scientific and technological activities components: research and development (RD, training of scientific personnel, provision of scientific and technical services, which generates of world market's complementary goods, being world market of educational services of scientific and technical information, industrial properties, high technology products, venture capital investments and stock market.
Prado Cuba, A; Gayoso Caballero, C; Robles Nique, A; Olivera Lescano, P [eds.
This annual scientific-technological report provides an overview of research and development activities at Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN) during the period from 1 january to 31 december, 2003. This report includes 54 papers divided in 9 subject matters: physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear engineering, materials science, radiochemistry, industrial applications, medical applications, environmental applications, protection and radiological safety, and management aspects.
The project will deliver an expanded resource pool of climate scientists, negotiators, and ... dialogues, six national adaptation documents, and two scientific papers. ... Adaptation strategies for two Colombian cities were discussed at ADAPTO's ... International Water Resources Association, in close collaboration with IDRC, ...
Prado Cuba, Antonio; Robles Nique, Anita; Solis Veliz, Jose; Rodriguez R, Juan [eds.
This annual scientific and technological report provides an overview of research and development activities at Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN) during the period from 1 january to 31 december, 2004. This report includes 48 papers divided in 6 subject matters, such as: materials science, nuclear engineering, industrial and environmental applications, medical and biological applications, radiation protection and nuclear safety, and management aspects.
Iding, Marie; Klemm, E. Barbara
The present study addresses the need for teachers to critically evaluate the credibility, validity, and cognitive load associated with scientific information on Web sites, in order to effectively teach students to evaluate scientific information on the World Wide Web. A line of prior research investigating high school and university students'…
Nuclear geological scientific and technical information has played an important role in the national economic construction and energy development, as well as exploration of uranium geology. With the increasing difficulty of prospecting, both scientific research or geological prospecting work are increasingly dependent on scientific and technical information, so, nuclear geological research and services in the scientific and technical information have become an increasing concern. From effect of the information and information resources in scientific research, the article discusses the synthesis research and services in the nuclear geological scientific and technical information, and play the role of uranium geological prospecting in the period of 'Tenth Five-Year'. In the period of the 'Eleventh Five-Year' and the coming period, the authors proposes a conception that how to strengthen the digital construction of nuclear geology scientific literature, integrative information resources and development and utilization in the network environment; and outlooks a developing prospects, that is, how to more effectively apply modern information technology, so that provides a guarantee of information resources for the scientific research and production in the new round of exploration of uranium resources. (author)
Prado Cuba, Antonio; Robles Nique, Anita; Rodriguez R, Juan; Solis Veliz, Jose [eds.
This annual scientific and technological report provides an overview of research and development activities at Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN) during the period from 1 january to 31 december, 2005. This report includes 38 papers divided in 7 subject matters, such as: physics and chemistry, materials science, nuclear engineering, industrial and environmental applications, medical and biological applications, radiation protection and nuclear safety, and management aspects.
Gayoso C, C; Cuya G, T; Robles N, A; Prado C, A [eds.
This annual scientific-technological report provides an overview of research and development activities at Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN) during the period from 1 january to 31 december, 2002. This report includes 58 papers divided in 10 subject matters: physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear engineering, materials, industrial applications, biological applications, medical applications, environmental applications, protection and radiological safety, nuclear safety, and management aspects.
Prado Cuba, Antonio; Santiago Contreras, Julio; Lopez Milla, Alcides; Ramos Trujillo, Bertha (ed.), E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima (Peru)
This annual scientific and technological report provides an overview of research and development activities at Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN) during the period from 1 january to 31 december, 2009. This report includes 46 papers divided in 7 subject matters, such as: physics and chemistry, materials science, nuclear engineering, mining industrial and environmental applications, medical and biological applications, radiation protection and nuclear safety, and management aspects. It also includes annexes. (APC)
Holliday, Gary M.; Lederman, Norman G.
Publications such as "Surrounded by science: Learning science in informal environments" [Fenichel, M., & Schweingruber, H. A. (2010). Washington, DC: The National Academies Press] and "Learning science in informal environments: People, places, and pursuits" [National Research Council. (2009). Washington, DC: National…
Vlčková Kateřina; Lojdová Kateřina; Mareš Jan
The main goal of this workshop was to provide academics and doctoral students the knowledge and skills necessary to efficiently organize and retrieve information using Mendeley© software. During the research process, the next step after finding information, is organize it. In this digital era, our skills to efficiently find information need to be different from those of the print era (Tuominen, 2007). The same applies to the subsequent process of organization of that information. Furthermore,...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Correction--Scientific Information Request on Medication Therapy Management The original date of publication for this....AHRQ.gov/index.cfm/submit-scientific-information-packets/ Dated: September 27, 2013. Richard Kronick...
Clark, Sheri L.
People want to be viewed by others as they view themselves. Being confronted with self-relevant information that is either congruent or incongruent with one's self-view has been shown to differentially affect subsequent behavior, memory for the information, and evaluation of the source of the information. However, no research has examined…
Goto, Y.; Namekawa, M.; Kumekawa, H.; Usui, A.; Sano, K.
The provision of the safeguards relevant reports and information in accordance with the comprehensive safeguards agreement (CSA) and the additional protocol (AP) is the basis for the IAEA safeguards. The government of Japan (Japan Safeguards Office, JSGO) has believed that the correct reports contribute to effective and efficient safeguards therefore the domestic quality assurance system for the reporting to the IAEA was already established at the time of the accession of the CSA in 1977. It consists of Code 10 interpretation (including the seminars for operators in Japan), SSAC's checks for syntax error, code and internal consistency (computer based consistency check between facilities) and the discussion with the IAEA on the facilities' measurement system for bulk-handling facilities, which contributes to the more accurate reports from operators. This spirit has been maintained for the entry into force of the AP. For example, questions and amplification from the IAEA will be taken into account the review of the AP declaration before sending to the IAEA and the open source information such as news article and scientific literature in Japanese is collected and translated into English, and the translated information is provided to the IAEA as the supplementary information, which may contribute to broadening the IAEA information source and to their comprehensive evaluation. The other safeguards relevant information, such as the mail-box information for SNRI at LEU fuel fabrication plants, is also checked by the JSGO's QC software before posting. The software was developed by JSGO and it checks data format, batch IDs, birth/death date, shipper/receiver information and material description code. This paper explains the history of the development of the Japanese quality assurance system regarding the reports and the safeguards relevant information to the IAEA. (author)
Lopera Broto, A. J.; Balbas Gomez, S.
This weekly publication intended to make it to all the people who work at the sites of Asco and Vandellos relevant information for security since we are all responsible for the safe and reliable operation of our plants.
Full Text Available Feature selection is an important preprocessing step in pattern classification and machine learning, and mutual information is widely used to measure relevance between features and decision. However, it is difficult to directly calculate relevance between continuous or fuzzy features using mutual information. In this paper we introduce the fuzzy information entropy and fuzzy mutual information for computing relevance between numerical or fuzzy features and decision. The relationship between fuzzy information entropy and differential entropy is also discussed. Moreover, we combine fuzzy mutual information with qmin-Redundancy-Max-Relevanceq, qMax-Dependencyq and min-Redundancy-Max-Dependencyq algorithms. The performance and stability of the proposed algorithms are tested on benchmark data sets. Experimental results show the proposed algorithms are effective and stable.
Flinn, Edward A.
The purpose of this note is to suggest a quantitative approach to deciding how much time to give a speaker at a scientific meeting. The elementary procedure is to use the preacher's rule of thumb that no souls are saved after the first 20 minutes. This is in qualitative agreement with the proverb that one cannot listen to a single voice for more than an hour without going to sleep. A refinement of this crude approach can be made by considering the situation from the point of view of a linear physical system with an input, a transfer function, and an output. We attempt here to derive an optimum speaking time through these considerations.
Full Text Available During monitoring of the discourse, the detection of the relevance of incoming lexical information could be critical for its incorporation to update mental representations in memory. Because, in these situations, the relevance for lexical information is defined by abstract rules that are maintained in memory, results critical to understand how an abstract level of knowledge maintained in mind mediates the detection of the lower-level semantic information. In the present study, we propose that neuronal oscillations participate in the detection of relevant lexical information, based on ‘kept in mind’ rules deriving from more abstract semantic information. We tested our hypothesis using an experimental paradigm that restricted the detection of relevance to inferences based on explicit information, thus controlling for ambiguities derived from implicit aspects. We used a categorization task, in which the semantic relevance was previously defined based on the congruency between a kept in mind category (abstract knowledge, and the lexical-semantic information presented. Our results show that during the detection of the relevant lexical information, phase synchronization of neuronal oscillations selectively increases in delta and theta frequency bands during the interval of semantic analysis. These increments were independent of the semantic category maintained in memory, had a temporal profile specific for each subject, and were mainly induced, as they had no effect on the evoked mean global field power. Also, recruitment of an increased number of pairs of electrodes was a robust observation during the detection of semantic contingent words. These results are consistent with the notion that the detection of relevant lexical information based on a particular semantic rule, could be mediated by increasing the global phase synchronization of neuronal oscillations, which may contribute to the recruitment of an extended number of cortical regions.
Brunetti, Enzo; Maldonado, Pedro E; Aboitiz, Francisco
During monitoring of the discourse, the detection of the relevance of incoming lexical information could be critical for its incorporation to update mental representations in memory. Because, in these situations, the relevance for lexical information is defined by abstract rules that are maintained in memory, a central aspect to elucidate is how an abstract level of knowledge maintained in mind mediates the detection of the lower-level semantic information. In the present study, we propose that neuronal oscillations participate in the detection of relevant lexical information, based on "kept in mind" rules deriving from more abstract semantic information. We tested our hypothesis using an experimental paradigm that restricted the detection of relevance to inferences based on explicit information, thus controlling for ambiguities derived from implicit aspects. We used a categorization task, in which the semantic relevance was previously defined based on the congruency between a kept in mind category (abstract knowledge), and the lexical semantic information presented. Our results show that during the detection of the relevant lexical information, phase synchronization of neuronal oscillations selectively increases in delta and theta frequency bands during the interval of semantic analysis. These increments occurred irrespective of the semantic category maintained in memory, had a temporal profile specific for each subject, and were mainly induced, as they had no effect on the evoked mean global field power. Also, recruitment of an increased number of pairs of electrodes was a robust observation during the detection of semantic contingent words. These results are consistent with the notion that the detection of relevant lexical information based on a particular semantic rule, could be mediated by increasing the global phase synchronization of neuronal oscillations, which may contribute to the recruitment of an extended number of cortical regions.
Silva, Cristina; Fresco, Paula; Monteiro, Joaquim; Rama, Ana Cristina Ribeiro
Evidence-Based Practice requires health care decisions to be based on the best available evidence. The model "Information Mastery" proposes that clinicians should use sources of information that have previously evaluated relevance and validity, provided at the point of care. Drug databases (DB) allow easy and fast access to information and have the benefit of more frequent content updates. Relevant information, in the context of drug therapy, is that which supports safe and effective use of medicines. Accordingly, the European Guideline on the Summary of Product Characteristics (EG-SmPC) was used as a standard to evaluate the inclusion of relevant information contents in DB. To develop and test a method to evaluate relevancy of DB contents, by assessing the inclusion of information items deemed relevant for effective and safe drug use. Hierarchical organisation and selection of the principles defined in the EGSmPC; definition of criteria to assess inclusion of selected information items; creation of a categorisation and quantification system that allows score calculation; calculation of relative differences (RD) of scores for comparison with an "ideal" database, defined as the one that achieves the best quantification possible for each of the information items; pilot test on a sample of 9 drug databases, using 10 drugs frequently associated in literature with morbidity-mortality and also being widely consumed in Portugal. Main outcome measure Calculate individual and global scores for clinically relevant information items of drug monographs in databases, using the categorisation and quantification system created. A--Method development: selection of sections, subsections, relevant information items and corresponding requisites; system to categorise and quantify their inclusion; score and RD calculation procedure. B--Pilot test: calculated scores for the 9 databases; globally, all databases evaluated significantly differed from the "ideal" database; some DB performed
Wang Zhong; Liu Wenbin
In the eleventh five-year, our company scientific research have a long way to go and preparatory work of commercial reprocessing has startup under digital information society. Fundamental change of existing content, model of nuclear science and technology information occurred to fit for new situation and new environment, and in order to service for our company scientific research. In this paper, we discuss the development of new services that fits for our company science and technology information. (authors)
Sales, Luana Farias; Sayao, Luis Fernando
In the context of the data-oriented science (eScience), a considerable part of the results of research activities has been created in digital formats. This means that the memory of the scientific institutions involved in this new scientific paradigm may be at risk of being lost by rapid technological obsolescence, the known fragility of digital media and also by the fragmentation of information and knowledge scattered across multiples repositories. Thus, management of research data in a digital networked and distributed environment becomes an increasing challenge for the research world and the whole area of information: information science, librarianship, knowledge management, archival science and information technology; moreover, in the dynamic environment featuring eScience, there is a need for novel concepts of documents establishing a linkage between traditional documents - printed or digital - stored in repositories, with the data sets stored in data repositories. In this new research environment, an important issue is how to preserve these new complex documents so that they maintain their structure, meaning and authenticity and also its ability to be retrieved, accessed and reused through time and space. In this sense, this paper proposes an information model focused on the curation of scientific memory of the Institute of Nuclear Engineering of the Brazilian Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN/IEN). The model considers the traditional scientific documents (theses, articles, books, etc.) in digital formats and all other relevant data and information related to them, such as: scientific data, software, simulations, photos, videos, historical facts, news, etc., compounding an enhanced publication type oriented to the nuclear area. (author)
Sales, Luana Farias, E-mail: email@example.com [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Sayao, Luis Fernando, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Centro de Informacoes Nucleares (CIN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
In the context of the data-oriented science (eScience), a considerable part of the results of research activities has been created in digital formats. This means that the memory of the scientific institutions involved in this new scientific paradigm may be at risk of being lost by rapid technological obsolescence, the known fragility of digital media and also by the fragmentation of information and knowledge scattered across multiples repositories. Thus, management of research data in a digital networked and distributed environment becomes an increasing challenge for the research world and the whole area of information: information science, librarianship, knowledge management, archival science and information technology; moreover, in the dynamic environment featuring eScience, there is a need for novel concepts of documents establishing a linkage between traditional documents - printed or digital - stored in repositories, with the data sets stored in data repositories. In this new research environment, an important issue is how to preserve these new complex documents so that they maintain their structure, meaning and authenticity and also its ability to be retrieved, accessed and reused through time and space. In this sense, this paper proposes an information model focused on the curation of scientific memory of the Institute of Nuclear Engineering of the Brazilian Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN/IEN). The model considers the traditional scientific documents (theses, articles, books, etc.) in digital formats and all other relevant data and information related to them, such as: scientific data, software, simulations, photos, videos, historical facts, news, etc., compounding an enhanced publication type oriented to the nuclear area. (author)
In the 12 years since the Kyoto Protocol was signed setting forth targets for greenhouse gas emissions from several nations, the number of policies, voluntary programs and commercial enterprises that have developed to manage carbon has grown exponentially. Many of these programs have occurred in a voluntary context, such as carbon trading, carbon offset programs, and climate registries . To date, no single, common system for accrediting, verifying and recording carbon credits has developed. Moreover, as the international community continues to negotiate the dimensions of an international agreement for the post-Kyoto time period, discussions still center on targets for fossil fuel emissions, biospheric carbon protection, and appropriate distribution of the burden of compliance globally. If carbon still remains the currency for discussion in a climate agreement, some type of effective measurement and verification system will be needed to ensure that commitments are being met. While entire volumes over the past decade have been written on what it is possible to observe about the carbon cycle and how to do so-- these tend to describe observations from the perspective of studying the carbon cycle to discover fundamental new knowledge. I will argue, however, that for the application under consideration in this session, i.e. a global greenhouse gas information system, it is essential to bring in the perspective of the policy and regulatory community. The needs of the scientific community for measuring the uncertainties in the global carbon cycle are not necessarily the same as those for the policy community. To ensure that such a system can serve a policy-relevant function, the scientific community must engage with policy makers, entrepreneurs, those who must comply, and others involved in constructing the policy framework. This paper will examine some of the key fundamentals that the policy community may be considering in designing a greenhouse gas monitoring system. I
Klimaatportaal is the digital entry of Dutch ‘climate' knowledge centres, which are collaborated in the Platform Communication on Climate Change (PCCC). This collaborative venture was established in 2003 by the Dutch climate research community to improve the quality, efficiency and effectiveness of the communication of Dutch climate research. By now, eight Dutch knowledge centres are participating and still more want to join. The Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM) supports the PCCC and the project is implemented in collaboration with the BSIK ‘Climate Changes Spatial Planning' programme. The website provides actual and background climate change information for a wide audience on the national scale from policy makers, media to general public. By supplying integral climate information, such as observations of climate change, causes and consequences of climate system, adaptation, mitigation and energy issues, a wide spectrum of target groups will be served. The information is offered in different forms, because of the needs of different target groups. Klimaatportaal contains therefore news on climate issues, frequently asked questions and popular science reports, like the annually brochure De Staat van het Klimaat (‘The State of the Climate'). Recently, also a portal for students is added, where they can find information for their assignments. Beside the website, PCCC is organising activities as symposia and workshops and is supplying information on international issues, for example the content of the Kyoto protocol and the IPCC fourth assessment report (2007). Finally, informing the public through contacts with the media is also an important part of the PCCC. The presentation will address the strengths and weaknesses of this approach which may serve as an example for combining knowledge in outreach activities in other countries.
Bergenholtz, Henning; Agerbo, Heidi
In some situations, you need information in order to solve a problem that has occurred. In information science, user needs are often described through very specific examples rather than through a classification of situation types in which information needs occur. Furthermore, information science often describes general human needs, typically with a reference to Maslow's classification of needs (1954), instead of actual information needs. Lexicography has also focused on information needs, but...
Arkhangel'skij, I.A.; Sokolov, D.D.; Kalinin, V.F.; Nikiforov, V.S.
The main tasks are considered in the scope of the Central Scientific-Research Institute for Information and Technological and Economic Studies on Nuclear Science and Technology. (TsNIIAtominform). The institute coordinates scientific research and information activity of information agencies of all the USSR organizations engaged in nuclear science and technology, excercises a centralized completion of their libraries, develops and puts into practice the most progressive methods for the information servicing. The institute is a national INIS center of the USSR. Here a system for the automatic information dissemination has been successfully elaborated and employed. Much of the institute activity is given to the estimation and analysis of information and to the determination of tendencies in the nuclear science and technology development. A conclusion is drawn to the effect that TsNIIAtominform, within 15 years of its existence, has formed as a center ensuring functioning of the system of scientific and technical information on nuclear science and technology
Winman, Thomas; Rystedt, Hans
The implementation of generic models for organizing information in complex institutions like those in healthcare creates a gap between standardization and the need for locally relevant knowledge. The present study addresses how this gap can be bridged by focusing on the practical work of healthcare staff in transforming information in EPRs into knowledge that is useful for everyday work. Video recording of shift handovers on a rehabilitation ward serves as the empirical case. The results show how extensive selections and reorganizations of information in EPRs are carried out in order to transform information into professionally relevant accounts. We argue that knowledge about the institutional obligations and professional ways of construing information are fundamental for these transitions. The findings point to the need to consider the role of professional knowledge inherent in unpacking information in efforts to develop information systems intended to bridge between institutional and professional boundaries in healthcare. © The Author(s) 2011.
Wolff, Manfred E.
The subject of the content of medicinal chemical journals is briefly discussed as an aid for medicinal chemists who require information from clinical, health science, pharmaceutical science and chemical science areas to carry out their work. Some future changes in the present journal concept are considered. (Author/AB)
... Information Request on Treatment of Tinnitus AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS... Tinnitus, which is currently being conducted by the Evidence-based Practice Centers for the AHRQ Effective... effectiveness review of the evidence for evaluation and treatment of tinnitus. The EHC Program is dedicated to...
..., social, community, essential fish habitat, and ecological information pertinent to the success of..., fishing communities, and the fish processing industries. It summarizes, on a periodic basis, the best... update or expand previous environmental and regulatory impact documents, and ecosystem and habitat...
...The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) is seeking scientific information submissions from manufacturers of local, minimally invasive, medical devices for unresectable primary hepatocellular carcinoma (e.g., ablation, radiotherapy, or embolization devices). Scientific information is being solicited to inform our Comparative Effectiveness Review of Local Therapies for Unresectable Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma, which is currently being conducted by the Evidence-based Practice Centers for the AHRQ Effective Health Care Program. Access to published and unpublished pertinent scientific information on this device will improve the quality of this comparative effectiveness review. AHRQ is requesting this scientific information and conducting this comparative effectiveness review pursuant to Section 1013 of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003, Public Law 108-173.
Lundquist, Carol; Frieder, Ophir; Holmes, David O.; Grossman, David
Describes a scalable, parallel, relational database-drive information retrieval engine. To support portability across a wide range of execution environments, all algorithms adhere to the SQL-92 standard. By incorporating relevance feedback algorithms, accuracy is enhanced over prior database-driven information retrieval efforts. Presents…
reported similar findings at Yaba College of. Technology, Lagos. However, in a ... values. In other words, current information sources resulted in the use of the library. Jam (1992) identified lack of relevant information sources to be one of the problems facing library users and has ... Bachelor's degree holders. That those with.
Walton, Mark E; Chau, Bolton K H; Kennerley, Steven W
Our environment and internal states are frequently complex, ambiguous and dynamic, meaning we need to have selection mechanisms to ensure we are basing our decisions on currently relevant information. Here, we review evidence that orbitofrontal (OFC) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) play conserved, critical but distinct roles in this process. While OFC may use specific sensory associations to enhance task-relevant information, particularly in the context of learning, VMPFC plays a role in ensuring irrelevant information does not impinge on the decision in hand.
Samimi, Parnia; Ravana, Sri Devi
Test collection is used to evaluate the information retrieval systems in laboratory-based evaluation experimentation. In a classic setting, generating relevance judgments involves human assessors and is a costly and time consuming task. Researchers and practitioners are still being challenged in performing reliable and low-cost evaluation of retrieval systems. Crowdsourcing as a novel method of data acquisition is broadly used in many research fields. It has been proven that crowdsourcing is an inexpensive and quick solution as well as a reliable alternative for creating relevance judgments. One of the crowdsourcing applications in IR is to judge relevancy of query document pair. In order to have a successful crowdsourcing experiment, the relevance judgment tasks should be designed precisely to emphasize quality control. This paper is intended to explore different factors that have an influence on the accuracy of relevance judgments accomplished by workers and how to intensify the reliability of judgments in crowdsourcing experiment.
Gayet, Surya; Brascamp, Jan W; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Paffen, Chris L E
Only part of the visual information that impinges on our retinae reaches visual awareness. In a series of three experiments, we investigated how the task relevance of incoming visual information affects its access to visual awareness. On each trial, participants were instructed to memorize one of two presented hues, drawn from different color categories (e.g., red and green), for later recall. During the retention interval, participants were presented with a differently colored grating in each eye such as to elicit binocular rivalry. A grating matched either the task-relevant (memorized) color category or the task-irrelevant (nonmemorized) color category. We found that the rivalrous stimulus that matched the task-relevant color category tended to dominate awareness over the rivalrous stimulus that matched the task-irrelevant color category. This effect of task relevance persisted when participants reported the orientation of the rivalrous stimuli, even though in this case color information was completely irrelevant for the task of reporting perceptual dominance during rivalry. When participants memorized the shape of a colored stimulus, however, its color category did not affect predominance of rivalrous stimuli during retention. Taken together, these results indicate that the selection of task-relevant information is under volitional control but that visual input that matches this information is boosted into awareness irrespective of whether this is useful for the observer.
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Application and Reports for Scientific Research and Enhancement Permits Under the Endangered Species Act AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce...
Skonieczny, Lukasz; Rybinski, Henryk; Kryszkiewicz, Marzena; Niezgodka, Marek
This book is a selection of results obtained within two years of research per- formed under SYNAT - a nation-wide scientific project aiming at creating an infrastructure for scientific content storage and sharing for academia, education and open knowledge society in Poland. The selection refers to the research in artificial intelligence, knowledge discovery and data mining, information retrieval and natural language processing, addressing the problems of implementing intelligent tools for building a scientific information platform.This book is a continuation and extension of the ideas presented in “Intelligent Tools for Building a Scientific Information Platform” published as volume 390 in the same series in 2012. It is based on the SYNAT 2012 Workshop held in Warsaw. The papers included in this volume present an overview and insight into information retrieval, repository systems, text processing, ontology-based systems, text mining, multimedia data processing and advanced software engineering.
Bergenholtz, Henning; Pedersen, Heidi Agerbo
often describes general human needs, typically with a reference to Maslow’s classification of needs (1954), instead of actual information needs. Lexicography has also focused on information needs, but has developed a more abstract classification of types of information needs, though (until more recent...
Sasaki, Akira; Ueshima, Yutaka; Yamagiwa, Mitsuru; Murata, Masaki; Kanamaru, Toshiyuki; Shirado, Tamotsu; Isahara, Hitoshi
We propose a new application of information technology to recognize and extract expressions of atomic and molecular states from electrical forms of scientific abstracts. Present results will help scientists to understand atomic states as well as the physics discussed in the articles. Combining with the internet search engines, it will make one possible to collect not only atomic and molecular data but broader scientific information over a wide range of research fields. (author)
Cook, N.G.W.; Tsang, C.F.
This paper discusses the development and safety evaluation of a nuclear waste geologic repository. Scientific understanding dependent upon information from a number of geoscience disciplines is described. A discussion is given on the dynamic use of the information through the different stages. The authors point out the need for abstracting, deriving and updating a quantitative spatial and process model (QSPM) to develop a scientific understanding of site responses as a crucial element in the dynamic procedure
Camila Monteiro de Barros
Full Text Available The general goal of this research was to verify which metadata elements of music information representation are relevant for its retrieval from the perspective of expert music users. Based on a bibliographical research, a comprehensive metadata set of music information representation was developed and transformed into a questionnaire for data collection, which was applied to students and professors of the Graduate Program in Music at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul. The results show that the most relevant information for expert music users is related to identification and authorship responsibilities. The respondents from Composition and Interpretative Practice areas agree with these results, while the respondents from Musicology/Ethnomusicology and Music Education areas also consider the metadata related to the historical context of composition relevant.
include Security Classification) Instrumentation for scientific computing in neural networks, information science, artificial intelligence, and...instrumentation grant to purchase equipment for support of research in neural networks, information science, artificail intellignece , and applied mathematics...in Neural Networks, Information Science, Artificial Intelligence, and Applied Mathematics Contract AFOSR 86-0282 Principal Investigator: Stephen
Wolf, Christian; Schütz, Alexander C
Saccades bring objects of interest onto the fovea for high-acuity processing. Saccades to rewarded targets show shorter latencies that correlate negatively with expected motivational value. Shorter latencies are also observed when the saccade target is relevant for a perceptual discrimination task. Here we tested whether saccade preparation is equally influenced by informational value as it is by motivational value. We defined informational value as the probability that information is task-relevant times the ratio between postsaccadic foveal and presaccadic peripheral discriminability. Using a gaze-contingent display, we independently manipulated peripheral and foveal discriminability of the saccade target. Latencies of saccades with perceptual task were reduced by 36 ms in general, but they were not modulated by the information saccades provide (Experiments 1 and 2). However, latencies showed a clear negative linear correlation with the probability that the target is task-relevant (Experiment 3). We replicated that the facilitation by a perceptual task is spatially specific and not due to generally heightened arousal (Experiment 4). Finally, the facilitation only emerged when the perceptual task is in the visual but not in the auditory modality (Experiment 5). Taken together, these results suggest that saccade latencies are not equally modulated by informational value as by motivational value. The facilitation by a perceptual task only arises when task-relevant visual information is foveated, irrespective of whether the foveation is useful or not.
Ráisa Mendes Fernandes de Souza
Full Text Available The obstacles faced by the scientific community in the dissemination and access to their own productions, contextualized in need of open access to scientific information, boosted the creation of Institutional Repositories. These are technologies adopted by educational institutions and research that aim to manage and provide scientific production site. Objective: to characterize Federal University of Minas Gerais’ information systems, analyzing the perception of the actors responsible for their existence / maintenance within the context of open access to scientific information. Methodology: This is a descriptive and qualitative research, which is engaged in the information systems developed within the university to support the teaching, research and extension, which contain the records of productions or productions, scientific or not, the local academic community. Results: we found some awareness of the actors interviewed in relation to the existence of other systems, although such awareness is not ideal. Generally, UFMG has Managers and depositors competent enough to manage a repository greater, as is the case of an RI. Conclusion: It is necessary an information policy that is born of consolidated scientific sectors hierarchically superior and inferior sectors to be transferred to, well, be possible to articulate the entire university community in support of a common cause. The study emphasizes the community of UFMG and optimization of open access to publications of the University as the scope for possible future studies.
Full Text Available The article deals with information – based marketing of scientific research institutes, which has been named SAVE (Solution – Access – Value – Education. A proper use of marketing instruments requires information assets which are defined in terms of the essence, the scope and the form of the defined information needs. The essence, the form and the pattern of information needs in reference to SAVE has been defined and described in the case of scientific research institute. The specification of needs for each instrument and for various market participants has been included into the description.
Kenneth J. Knapp
Full Text Available This study proposes using an established common body of knowledge (CBK as one means of organizing information security literature.Â Consistent with calls for more relevant information systems (IS research, this industry-developed framework can motivate future research towards topics that are important to the security practitioner.Â In this review, forty-eight articles from ten IS journals from 1995 to 2004 are selected and cross-referenced to the ten domains of the information security CBK.Â Further, we distinguish articles as empirical research, frameworks, or tutorials.Â Generally, this study identified a need for additional empirical research in every CBK domain including topics related to legal aspects of information security.Â Specifically, this study identified a need for additional IS security research relating to applications development, physical security, operations security, and business continuity.Â The CBK framework is inherently practitioner oriented and using it will promote relevancy by steering IS research towards topics important to practitioners.Â This is important considering the frequent calls by prominent information systems scholars for more relevant research.Â Few research frameworks have emerged from the literature that specifically classify the diversity of security threats and range of problems that businesses today face.Â With the recent surge of interest in security, the need for a comprehensive framework that also promotes relevant research can be of great value.
Skonieczny, Łukasz; Rybiński, Henryk; Kryszkiewicz, Marzena; Niezgódka, Marek
This book is a selection of results obtained within three years of research performed under SYNAT—a nation-wide scientific project aiming at creating an infrastructure for scientific content storage and sharing for academia, education and open knowledge society in Poland. The book is intended to be the last of the series related to the SYNAT project. The previous books, titled “Intelligent Tools for Building a Scientific Information Platform” and “Intelligent Tools for Building a Scientific Information Platform: Advanced Architectures and Solutions”, were published as volumes 390 and 467 in Springer's Studies in Computational Intelligence. Its contents is based on the SYNAT 2013 Workshop held in Warsaw. The papers included in this volume present an overview and insight into information retrieval, repository systems, text processing, ontology-based systems, text mining, multimedia data processing and advanced software engineering, addressing the problems of implementing intelligent tools for building...
Icek Ajzen; Thomas C. Brown; Lori H. Rosenthal
A laboratory experiment examined the potential for information bias in contingent valuation (CV). Consistent with the view that information about a public or private good can function as a persuasive communication, willingness to pay (WTP) was found to increase with the quality of arguments used to describe the good, especially under conditions of high personal...
Full Text Available The study is designed to examine students’ perceptions of the introductory Information Systems (IS course. It was an exploratory study in which 67 students participated. A quantitative approach was followed making use of questionnaires for the collection of data. Using the theory of reasoned action as a framework, the study explores the factors that influence non-IS major students’ perceived relevance of the IS introductory course. The analysis of collected data included descriptive and inferential statistics. Using multiple regression analysis, the results suggest that overall, the independent variables, relevance of the content, previous IT knowledge, relevance for professional practice, IT preference in courses and peers’ influence may account for 72% of the explanatory power for the dependent variable, perceived relevance of the IS course. In addition, the results have shown some strong predictors (IT preference and peers’ influence that influence students’ perceived relevance of the IS course. Practical work was found to be a strong mediating variable toward positive perceptions of IS. The results of this study suggest that students do indeed perceive the introductory IS course to be relevant and match their professional needs, but more practical work would enhance their learning. Implications for theory and practice are discussed as a result of the behavioural intention to perceive the IS course to be relevant and eventually to recruit more IS students.
Mateus Alexandre Costa dos Santos
Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the effect of adopting the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS in Brazil on the information relevance of accounting profits of publicly traded companies. International studies have shown that the adoption of IFRS improves the quality of accounting information compared with domestic accounting standards. Concurrent evidence is sparse in Brazil. Information relevance is understood herein as a multidimensional attribute that is closely related to the quality and usefulness of the information conveyed by accounting profits. The associative capacity and information timeliness of accounting profits in relation to share prices were examined. Furthermore, the level of conditional conservatism present in accounting profits was also analyzed because according to Basu (1997, this aspect is related to timeliness. The study used pooled regressions and panel data models to analyze the quarterly accounting profits of 246 companies between the first quarter of 1999 and the first quarter of 2013, resulting in 9,558 quarter-company observations. The results indicated that the adoption of IFRS in Brazil (1 increased the associative capacity of accounting profits; (2 reduced information timeliness to non-significant levels; and (3 had no effect on conditional conservatism. The joint analysis of the empirical evidence from the present study conclusively precludes stating that the adoption of IFRS in Brazil contributed to an increase the information relevance of accounting profits of publicly traded companies.
Full Text Available Purpose: The paper aims to explore whether intangible items that recognised in financial statements are value-relevant to investors in the French context, and whether these items affect the value relevance of accounting information. Design/methodology/approach: Empirical data were collected from a sample of French listed companies, over the nine-year period of 2005 to 2013. Starting of Ohlson’s (1995 model, the correlation analysis and the linear multiple regressions have been applied. Findings: We find that intangibles and traditional accounting measures as a whole are value relevant. However, the amortization and impairment charges of intangibles and cash flows do not affect the market values of French companies, unlike other variables, which affect positively and substantially the market values. Also goodwill and book values are more associated with market values than intangible assets and earnings respectively. Finally, we find that intangibles have improved the value relevance of accounting information. Practical implications: French legislators must give more interest for intangibles, in order to enrich the financial statements content and increasing the pertinence of accounting information. Auditors must give more attention for intangibles’ examination process, in order to certify the amounts related to intangibles in financial statements, and hence enrich their reliability, what provides adequacy guarantees for investors to use them in decision making. Originality/value: The paper used recently available financial data, and proposed an improvement concerning the measure of incremental value relevance of intangibles items.
Lewandowsky, S.; Brown, G. D.; Cook, J.
Improved communication of scientific findings requires knowledge not only of how people process information, but also how such information spreads through society and how people's opinions are shaped by those of others. Recent advances in cognitive science have yielded mathematical modeling techniques that permit the detailed analysis of individuals' cognition as well as the behavior of communities in the aggregate. We present two case studies that highlight the insights that can be derived from mathematical models of cognition: We show how rational processing of information (i.e., Bayesian hypothesis revision) can nonetheless give rise to seemingly 'irrational' belief updating, as for example when acceptance of human-caused global warming decreases among conservatives in response to evidence for human-caused global warming. We also show in an agent-based simulation how social norms can lead to polarization of societies. The model assumes that agents located within a social network observe the behavior of neighbours and infer from their behavior the social distribution of particular attitudes (e.g. towards climate change). Agents are assumed to dislike behaviours that are extreme within their neighbourhood (social extremeness aversion), and hence have a tendency to conform. However, agents are also assumed to prefer choices that are consistent with their own true beliefs (authenticity preference). Expression of attitudes reflects a compromise between these opposing principles. The model sheds light on the role of perceived rather than actual social consensus on attitudes to climate change. This is particularly relevant given the widespread perception among those who reject climate science that the percentage of the public that is sharing their beliefs is much higher than it actually is.
Rurik, Clas; Zowalla, Richard; Wiesner, Martin; Pfeifer, Daniel
Many people use the Internet as one of the primary sources of health information. This is due to the high volume and easy access of freely available information regarding diseases, diagnoses and treatments. However, users may find it difficult to retrieve information which is easily understandable and does not require a deep medical background. In this paper, we present a new kind of Web browser add-on, in order to proactively support users when searching for relevant health information. Our add-on not only visualizes the understandability of displayed medical text but also provides further recommendations of Web pages which hold similar content but are potentially easier to comprehend.
Kreps, Gary L.
Objective: This paper examines the influence of the digital divide on disparities in health outcomes for vulnerable populations, identifying implications for medical and public libraries. Method: The paper describes the results of the Digital Divide Pilot Projects demonstration research programs funded by the National Cancer Institute to test new strategies for disseminating relevant health information to underserved and at-risk audiences. Results: The Digital Divide Pilot Projects field-tested innovative systemic strategies for helping underserved populations access and utilize relevant health information to make informed health-related decisions about seeking appropriate health care and support, resisting avoidable and significant health risks, and promoting their own health. Implications: The paper builds on the Digital Divide Pilot Projects by identifying implications for developing health communication strategies that libraries can adopt to provide digital health information to vulnerable populations. PMID:16239960
Kreps, Gary L
This paper examines the influence of the digital divide on disparities in health outcomes for vulnerable populations, identifying implications for medical and public libraries. The paper describes the results of the Digital Divide Pilot Projects demonstration research programs funded by the National Cancer Institute to test new strategies for disseminating relevant health information to underserved and at-risk audiences. The Digital Divide Pilot Projects field-tested innovative systemic strategies for helping underserved populations access and utilize relevant health information to make informed health-related decisions about seeking appropriate health care and support, resisting avoidable and significant health risks, and promoting their own health. The paper builds on the Digital Divide Pilot Projects by identifying implications for developing health communication strategies that libraries can adopt to provide digital health information to vulnerable populations.
Barbera, Giovanni; Liang, Bo; Zhang, Lifeng; Gerfen, Charles R; Culurciello, Eugenio; Chen, Rong; Li, Yun; Lin, Da-Ting
An influential striatal model postulates that neural activities in the striatal direct and indirect pathways promote and inhibit movement, respectively. Normal behavior requires coordinated activity in the direct pathway to facilitate intended locomotion and indirect pathway to inhibit unwanted locomotion. In this striatal model, neuronal population activity is assumed to encode locomotion relevant information. Here, we propose a novel encoding mechanism for the dorsal striatum. We identified spatially compact neural clusters in both the direct and indirect pathways. Detailed characterization revealed similar cluster organization between the direct and indirect pathways, and cluster activities from both pathways were correlated with mouse locomotion velocities. Using machine-learning algorithms, cluster activities could be used to decode locomotion relevant behavioral states and locomotion velocity. We propose that neural clusters in the dorsal striatum encode locomotion relevant information and that coordinated activities of direct and indirect pathway neural clusters are required for normal striatal controlled behavior. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Published by Elsevier Inc.
The present invention relates to a video encoding device (10, 10', 10") and method for encoding video data and to a corresponding video decoding device (60, 60') and method. To preserve PPG relevant information after encoding without requiring a large amount of additional data for the video encoder
The present invention relates to a video encoding device (10) for encoding video data and a corresponding video decoding device, wherein during decoding PPG relevant information shall be preserved. For this purpose the video coding device (10) comprises a first encoder (20) for encoding input video
The present invention relates to a video encoding device (10, 10', 10'') and method for encoding video data and to a corresponding video decoding device (60, 60') and method. To preserve PPG relevant information after encoding without requiring a large amount of additional data for the video encoder
... NIOSH-244] Comments and Information Relevant to Mid Decade Review of NORA AGENCY: Department of Health...) is conducting a review of the processes of the National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA). In 2006, NORA entered its second decade with an industry sector-based structure. In 2011, as NORA reaches the...
Wiersema, D.V.; van der Pligt, J.; van Harreveld, F.
In this article we offer a new perspective on the contradictory findings in the literature on memory for attitude-relevant information. We propose that biases in memory are most likely to occur when the attitude involved is connected to personally important values and the self; i.e., if the attitude
Xing, Cai; Isaacowitz, Derek
Previous studies suggested that older adults are more likely to engage in heuristic decision-making than young adults. This study used eye tracking technique to examine young adults' and highly educated older adults' attention toward two types of decision-relevant information: heuristic cue vs. factual cues. Surprisingly, highly educated older…
Poch, Claudia; Valdivia, María; Capilla, Almudena; Hinojosa, José Antonio; Campo, Pablo
Selective attention can enhance Working Memory (WM) performance by selecting relevant information, while preventing distracting items from encoding or from further maintenance. Alpha oscillatory modulations are a correlate of visuospatial attention. Specifically, an enhancement of alpha power is observed in the ipsilateral posterior cortex to the locus of attention, along with a suppression in the contralateral hemisphere. An influential model proposes that the alpha enhancement is functionally related to the suppression of information. However, whether ipsilateral alpha power represents a mechanism through which no longer relevant WM representations are inhibited has yet not been explored. Here we examined whether the amount of distractors to be suppressed during WM maintenance is functionally related to alpha power lateralized activity. We measure EEG activity while participants (N = 36) performed a retro-cue task in which the WM load was varied across the relevant/irrelevant post-cue hemifield. We found that alpha activity was lateralized respect to the locus of attention, but did not track post-cue irrelevant load. Additionally, non-lateralized alpha activity increased with post-cue relevant load. We propose that alpha lateralization associated to retro-cuing might be related to a general orienting mechanism toward relevant representation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... Information Request on Phototherapy for Treatment of Chronic Plaque Psoriasis AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare... manufacturers of Phototherapy medical devices for treatment of chronic plaque psoriasis. Scientific information... Systemic Agents and Phototherapy for Treatment of Chronic Plaque Psoriasis, which is currently being...
Poelmans, J.; Ignatov, D.I.; Viaene, S.; Dedene, G.; Kuznetsov, S.O.
Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) is an unsupervised clustering technique and many scientific papers are devoted to applying FCA in Information Retrieval (IR) research. We collected 103 papers published between 2003-2009 which mention FCA and information retrieval in the abstract, title or keywords.
Roosendaal, Hans E.; Huibers, Theo W.C.; Geurts, Petrus A.T.M.; van der Vet, P.E.
The economic impact of information and communication technology (ICT) on the academic library and on the academic institution are discussed in terms of changes in the value chain of scientific information induced by the use of ICT. Argues that ICT is a very strong engine for change as it has the
Jackson, Jade; Rich, Anina N; Williams, Mark A; Woolgar, Alexandra
Human cognition is characterized by astounding flexibility, enabling us to select appropriate information according to the objectives of our current task. A circuit of frontal and parietal brain regions, often referred to as the frontoparietal attention network or multiple-demand (MD) regions, are believed to play a fundamental role in this flexibility. There is evidence that these regions dynamically adjust their responses to selectively process information that is currently relevant for behavior, as proposed by the "adaptive coding hypothesis" [Duncan, J. An adaptive coding model of neural function in prefrontal cortex. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2, 820-829, 2001]. Could this provide a neural mechanism for feature-selective attention, the process by which we preferentially process one feature of a stimulus over another? We used multivariate pattern analysis of fMRI data during a perceptually challenging categorization task to investigate whether the representation of visual object features in the MD regions flexibly adjusts according to task relevance. Participants were trained to categorize visually similar novel objects along two orthogonal stimulus dimensions (length/orientation) and performed short alternating blocks in which only one of these dimensions was relevant. We found that multivoxel patterns of activation in the MD regions encoded the task-relevant distinctions more strongly than the task-irrelevant distinctions: The MD regions discriminated between stimuli of different lengths when length was relevant and between the same objects according to orientation when orientation was relevant. The data suggest a flexible neural system that adjusts its representation of visual objects to preferentially encode stimulus features that are currently relevant for behavior, providing a neural mechanism for feature-selective attention.
Sukkari, Sana R; Al Humaidan, Abdullah S; Sasich, Larry D
Inadequate access to useful scientifically accurate patient information is a major cause of the inappropriate use of drugs resulting in serious personal injury and related costs to the health care system. The definition of useful scientifically accurate patient information for prescription drugs was accepted by the US Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services in 1996 as that derived from or consistent with the US FDA approved professional product label for a drug. Previous quality content studies found that English language patient drug information leaflets distributed by US pharmacies failed to meet minimum criteria defining useful and scientifically accurate information. Evaluation forms containing the explicit elements that define useful scientifically accurate information for three drugs with known serious adverse drug reactions were created based on the current US FDA approved professional product labels. The Arabic language patient drug information leaflets for celecoxib, paroxetine, and lamotrigine were obtained locally and evaluated using a methodology similar to that used in previous quality content patient drug information studies in the US. The Arabic leaflets failed to meet the definition of useful scientifically accurate information. The celecoxib leaflet contained 30% of the required information and the paroxetine and lamotrigine leaflets contained 24% and 20%, respectively. There are several limitations to this study. The Arabic leaflets from only one commercial North American vendor were evaluated and the evaluation included a limited number of drugs. A larger study is necessary to be able to generalize these results. The study results are consistent with those of previous quality content studies of commercially available English patient drug information leaflets. The results have important implications for patients as access to a reliable source of drug information may prevent harm or limit the suffering from serious adverse drug
Analysis methods of scientific and technical information are presented to determine regularities in scientific and technical development. As a rule, the studies are carried out using data base of patent literature. Three methods of are considered. The first one - analysis of data flow, when trends in technique, degree of the technique monopolyzation and its urgency are evaluated. The second one - lexical analysis, consisting in recording new terms and deviations in the number of terms with time. The third one - analysis of quatation networks, which leads to the establisment of author and subject groups, characterizing scientific and technical activity of the object observed, of a firm or subject area for instance
Black, Heather L; Priolo, Chantel; Gonzalez, Rodalyn; Geer, Sabrina; Adam, Bariituu; Apter, Andrea J
To describe and categorize contextual information relevant to patients' medical care unexpectedly volunteered to research personnel as part of a patient advocate (PA) intervention to facilitate access health care, communication with medical personnel, and self-management of a chronic disease such as asthma. We adapted a patient navigator intervention, to overcome barriers to access and communication for adults with moderate or severe asthma. Informed by focus groups of patients and providers, our PAs facilitated preparation for a visit with an asthma provider, attended the visit, confirmed understanding, and assisted with post-visit activities. During meetings with researchers, either for PA activities or for data collection, participants frequently volunteered personal and medical information relevant for achieving successful self-management that was not routinely shared with medical personnel. For this project, researchers journaled information not captured by the structured questionnaires and protocol. Using a qualitative analysis, we describe (1) researchers' journals of these unique communications; (2) their relevance for accomplishing self-management; (3) PAs' formal activities including teach-back, advocacy, and facilitating appointment making; and (4) observations of patients' interactions with the clinical practices. In 83 journals, patients' social support (83%), health (68%), and deportment (69%) were described. PA assistance with navigating the medical system (59%), teach-back (46%), and observed interactions with patient and medical staff (76%) were also journaled. Implicit were ways patients and practices could overcome barriers to access and communication. These journals describe the importance of seeking contextual and medically relevant information from all patients and, especially, those with significant morbidities, prompting patients for barriers to access to health care, and confirming understanding of medical information.
Zhang, Rui; Pakhomov, Serguei V S; Arsoniadis, Elliot G; Lee, Janet T; Wang, Yan; Melton, Genevieve B
Automated methods for identifying clinically relevant new versus redundant information in electronic health record (EHR) clinical notes is useful for clinicians and researchers involved in patient care and clinical research, respectively. We evaluated methods to automatically identify clinically relevant new information in clinical notes, and compared the quantity of redundant information across specialties and clinical settings. Statistical language models augmented with semantic similarity measures were evaluated as a means to detect and quantify clinically relevant new and redundant information over longitudinal clinical notes for a given patient. A corpus of 591 progress notes over 40 inpatient admissions was annotated for new information longitudinally by physicians to generate a reference standard. Note redundancy between various specialties was evaluated on 71,021 outpatient notes and 64,695 inpatient notes from 500 solid organ transplant patients (April 2015 through August 2015). Our best method achieved at best performance of 0.87 recall, 0.62 precision, and 0.72 F-measure. Addition of semantic similarity metrics compared to baseline improved recall but otherwise resulted in similar performance. While outpatient and inpatient notes had relatively similar levels of high redundancy (61% and 68%, respectively), redundancy differed by author specialty with mean redundancy of 75%, 66%, 57%, and 55% observed in pediatric, internal medicine, psychiatry and surgical notes, respectively. Automated techniques with statistical language models for detecting redundant versus clinically relevant new information in clinical notes do not improve with the addition of semantic similarity measures. While levels of redundancy seem relatively similar in the inpatient and ambulatory settings in the Fairview Health Services, clinical note redundancy appears to vary significantly with different medical specialties.
On the development of standardization methods for measuring the degree of graphitization of industrial materials, correlation of scientific characterization with the industrially relevant secondary properties of graphitic material
Fitzer, E.; Koechling, K.H.
The completed research roject comprised the development of standardization methods for measuring the degree of graphitization of industrial materials, the testing of characterization methods with regard to significance, the correlation of scientific characterization with industrially relevant material properties and the resultant modification of industrial processes for the manufacture of coke raw materials and graphitic materials. Also targeted within the scope of this project were the grouping of comparable characterization methods and the drawing up of unequivocal terminology for scientific and industrial-commercial usage, with both aims based on intensified national and international teamwork. (orig./WL) [de
Kauppi, Jukka-Pekka; Kandemir, Melih; Saarinen, Veli-Matti; Hirvenkari, Lotta; Parkkonen, Lauri; Klami, Arto; Hari, Riitta; Kaski, Samuel
We hypothesize that brain activity can be used to control future information retrieval systems. To this end, we conducted a feasibility study on predicting the relevance of visual objects from brain activity. We analyze both magnetoencephalographic (MEG) and gaze signals from nine subjects who were viewing image collages, a subset of which was relevant to a predetermined task. We report three findings: i) the relevance of an image a subject looks at can be decoded from MEG signals with performance significantly better than chance, ii) fusion of gaze-based and MEG-based classifiers significantly improves the prediction performance compared to using either signal alone, and iii) non-linear classification of the MEG signals using Gaussian process classifiers outperforms linear classification. These findings break new ground for building brain-activity-based interactive image retrieval systems, as well as for systems utilizing feedback both from brain activity and eye movements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Olague de Ros, G; Menendez Navarro, A; Medina Domenech, R M; Astrain Gallart, M
As part of a continuing line of research on scientific documentation we propose in this article a novel approach to the study of the European information science movement at the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth centuries. We suggest that this movement took place within the context of increasing internationalism of scientific endeavours, a process which was paralleled by the standardization of units, weight and measures for the different sciences. We investigate problems arising from scientific communication in connection with other aspects apparently unrelated to Information Science. Specifically, we refer to conflicts between nationalism and colonialism; concordance and discord between science policy and the corporate interests of nonscientific associations; higher educational policy; the professionalization of sciences; and the economic interests at stake as a consequence of the use of different information models.
A scientific information system for MIPAS satellite experiment will be presented according to its main hardware and software configuration. It will be considered as a MIPAS data processing and archiving node of the ground segment of the planned satellite mission for the remote sensing of atmospheric parameters, as well as an information system supporting the researchers in their scientific environment. In this preliminary study, the methodology of a more detailed system design has also been specified. The system consists of two logical components, an operational database for the generation, storage and management of vast amounts of MIPAS data received from the satellite, and the research and development database, which must be interfaced to the operational one, providing a more abstract and user-friendly interface for the scientific community enabling experimentation and the extraction of the information needed. (orig.) [de
Cook, N.G.W.; Tsang, C.F.
The development and safety evaluation of a nuclear waste geologic repository require a proper scientific understanding of the site response. Such scientific understanding depends on information from a number of geoscience disciplines, including geology, geophysics, geochemistry, geomechanics and hydrogeology. The information comes in four stages: (1) general regional survey data base, (2) surface-based testing, (3) exploratory shaft testing, and (4) repository construction and evaluation. A discussion is given on the dynamic use of the information through the different stages. We point out the need for abstracting, deriving and updating a quantitative spatial and process model (QSPM) to develop a scientific understanding of site responses as a crucial element in the dynamic procedure. 2 figs
Francisco das Chagas de Souza
This article results of bibliographical, exploratory and qualitative research. Its argues that three approaches are gifts in the educational process of discipline of the Scientific Research Methodology in Information Science. They are the social facts of the Information Science, the types of the research and the social theory. It sees that the pedagogical possibilities of the education of Scientific Methodology in Information Science are related with the practical one of the writing which dep...
Dodd, Helen F; Vogt, Julia; Turkileri, Nilgun; Notebaert, Lies
Task relevance affects emotional attention in healthy individuals. Here, we investigate whether the association between anxiety and attention bias is affected by the task relevance of emotion during an attention task. Participants completed two visual search tasks. In the emotion-irrelevant task, participants were asked to indicate whether a discrepant face in a crowd of neutral, middle-aged faces was old or young. Irrelevant to the task, target faces displayed angry, happy, or neutral expressions. In the emotion-relevant task, participants were asked to indicate whether a discrepant face in a crowd of middle-aged neutral faces was happy or angry (target faces also varied in age). Trait anxiety was not associated with attention in the emotion-relevant task. However, in the emotion-irrelevant task, trait anxiety was associated with a bias for angry over happy faces. These findings demonstrate that the task relevance of emotional information affects conclusions about the presence of an anxiety-linked attention bias. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Varma, Rick; Chung, Charles; Townsend, Amanda; Power, Melissa
Background Patient information leaflets (PILs) are widely utilised within publically funded sexual health clinics to deliver sexual health-related information (SHRI); however, their continued value to clients in the era of social media is unclear. This study aimed to evaluate clients' opinions on three newly developed PILs and examine client views on other forms of SHRI delivery. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was completed by clients attending the Western Sydney Sexual Health Centre (WSSHC) in 2012. High-risk population (HRP) vs non-high-risk population (non-HRP) views on PILs vs alternative methods of SHRI delivery were analysed by using Mann-Whitney U, Wilcoxon, McNemar and χ(2) tests. Over half (210/315; (67%)) of the consecutive clients from a culturally diverse population completed the survey. Sex workers (SW) and young people (YP) were significantly likely to have a high school education than non-HRP (PInformation Link (SHIL), a state-wide website and telephone line, were ranked significantly higher as a means of SHRI delivery on a Likert scale than newer technologies including Facebook (P<0.001), email (P<0.001), mobile phone applications (P<0.001), TVs in waiting rooms (P<0.001) and business cards (P<0.001). There was no significant difference in opinion between HRP and non-HRP. This study provides evidence for the ongoing use of PILs to deliver SHRI to clinic attendees, in conjunction with other forms of SHRI delivery such as websites and SHIL. Novel methods may require additional consumer engagement and a greater understanding of specific population's needs.
Saavedra-Duarte, L. A.; Angarita-Jerardino, A.; Ruiz, P. A.; Dulce-Moreno, H. J.; Vera-Rivera, F. H.; V-Niño, E. D.
Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are essential in the transfer of knowledge, and the Web tools, as part of ICT, are important for institutions seeking greater visibility of the products developed by their researchers. For this reason, we implemented an application that allows the information management of the FORISTOM Foundation (Foundation of Researchers in Science and Technology of Materials). The application shows a detailed description, not only of all its members also of all the scientific production that they carry out, such as technological developments, research projects, articles, presentations, among others. This application can be implemented by other entities committed to the scientific dissemination and transfer of technology and knowledge.
Blados, Walter R.
In the last 50 years, technological advances have accelerated at a rate unprecedented in history. We are experiencing a tremendous expansion of scientific and technological effort in many directions, and the result is a fantastic increase in the accumulation of scientific and technical information (STI) and knowledge. An integral part of the research and development (R&D) process is the STI associated with it. STI is both a raw material (input) and a product (output) of this process. The topics addressed include the following: the value of STI, management of an STI program, program policy and guidance, organizational structure, data sources, training/orientation, and the current information environment.
Full Text Available Students who can meet the demands of academic discourse develop cognitive and metacognitive skills with which to understand the information they get from reading scientific texts, and thus establish their learning. In this work, a group of university students were evaluated concerning their competencies and deficiencies in the reading comprehension of a fragment of a scientific text used in one of their courses. The results allowed us to assess the most frequent difficulties in processing information and in understanding what they read. The group was made up of a few students skilled in reading comprehension skills, plus several inexpert readers with little capacity to monitor and assess their own understanding.
Xing, Cai; Isaacowitz, Derek
Previous studies suggested that older adults are more likely to engage in heuristic decision-making than young adults. This study used eye tracking technique to examine young adults' and highly educated older adults' attention toward two types of decision-relevant information: heuristic cue vs. factual cues. Surprisingly, highly educated older adults showed the reversed age pattern-they looked more toward factual cues than did young adults. This age difference disappeared after controlling for educational level. Additionally, education correlated with attentional pattern to decision-relevant information. We interpret this finding as an indication of the power of education: education may modify what are thought to be "typical" age differences in decision-making, and education may influence young and older people's decision-making via different paths.
Prior, Nora H; Smith, Edward; Lawson, Shelby; Ball, Gregory F; Dooling, Robert J
The ability to discriminate changes in the fine structure of complex sounds is well developed in birds. However, the precise limit of this discrimination ability and how it is used in the context of natural communication remains unclear. Here we describe natural variability in acoustic fine structure of male and female zebra finch calls. Results from psychoacoustic experiments demonstrate that zebra finches are able to discriminate extremely small differences in fine structure, which are on the order of the variation in acoustic fine structure that is present in their vocal signals. Results from signal analysis methods also suggest that acoustic fine structure may carry information that distinguishes between biologically relevant categories including sex, call type and individual identity. Combined, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that zebra finches can encode biologically relevant information within the fine structure of their calls. This study provides a foundation for our understanding of how acoustic fine structure may be involved in animal communication.
Eriksson, Johan; Stiernstedt, Mikael; Öhlund, Maria; Nyberg, Lars
In an ever-changing world there is constant pressure on revising long-term memory, such when people or countries change name. What happens to the old, pre-existing information? One possibility is that old associations gradually are weakened and eventually lost. Alternatively, old and no longer relevant information may still be an integral part of memory traces. To test the hypothesis that old mnemonic information still becomes activated when people correctly retrieve new, currently relevant information, brain activity was measured with fMRI while participants performed a cued-retrieval task. Paired associates (symbol-sound and symbol-face pairs) were first learned during two days. Half of the associations were then updated during the next two days, followed by fMRI scanning on day 5 and also 18 months later. As expected, retrieval reactivated sensory cortex related to the most recently learned association (visual cortex for symbol-face pairs, auditory cortex for symbol-sound pairs). Critically, retrieval also reactivated sensory cortex related to the no-longer relevant associate. Eighteen months later, only non-updated symbol-face associations were intact. Intriguingly, a subset of the updated associations was now treated as though the original association had taken over, in that memory performance was significantly worse than chance and that activity in sensory cortex for the original but not the updated associate correlated (negatively) with performance. Moreover, the degree of "residual" reactivation during day 5 inversely predicted memory performance 18 months later. Thus, updating of long-term memory involves adding new information to already existing networks, in which old information can stay resilient for a long time. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Calderon, Cristian B; Van Opstal, Filip; Peigneux, Philippe; Verguts, Tom; Gevers, Wim
Monkey neurophysiology research supports the affordance competition hypothesis (ACH) proposing that cognitive information useful for action selection is integrated in sensorimotor areas. In this view, action selection would emerge from the simultaneous representation of competing action plans, in parallel biased by relevant task factors. This biased competition would take place up to primary motor cortex (M1). Although ACH is plausible in environments affording choices between actions, its relevance for human decision making is less clear. To address this issue, we designed an functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment modeled after monkey neurophysiology studies in which human participants processed cues conveying predictive information about upcoming button presses. Our results demonstrate that, as predicted by the ACH, predictive information (i.e., the relevant task factor) biases activity of primary motor regions. Specifically, first, activity before movement onset in contralateral M1 increases as the competition is biased in favor of a specific button press relative to activity in ipsilateral M1. Second, motor regions were more tightly coupled with fronto-parietal regions when competition between potential actions was high, again suggesting that motor regions are also part of the biased competition network. Our findings support the idea that action planning dynamics as proposed in the ACH are valid both in human and non-human primates.
Doudoux, Hannah; Skaare, Kristina; Geay, Thomas; Kahane, Philippe; Bosson, Jean L; Sabourdy, Cécile; Vercueil, Laurent
The optimal duration of routine EEG (rEEG) has not been determined on a clinical basis. This study aims to determine the time required to obtain relevant information during rEEG with respect to the clinical request. All rEEGs performed over 3 months in unselected patients older than 14 years in an academic hospital were analyzed retrospectively. The latency required to obtain relevant information was determined for each rEEG by 2 independent readers blinded to the clinical data. EEG final diagnoses and latencies were analyzed with respect to the main clinical requests: subacute cognitive impairment, spells, transient focal neurologic manifestation or patients referred by epileptologists. From 430 rEEGs performed in the targeted period, 364 were analyzed: 92% of the pathological rEEGs were provided within the first 10 minutes of recording. Slowing background activity was diagnosed from the beginning, whereas interictal epileptiform discharges were recorded over time. Moreover, the time elapsed to demonstrate a pattern differed significantly in the clinical groups: in patients with subacute cognitive impairment, EEG abnormalities appeared within the first 10 minutes, whereas in the other groups, data could be provided over time. Patients with subacute cognitive impairment differed from those in the other groups significantly in the elapsed time required to obtain relevant information during rEEG, suggesting that 10-minute EEG recordings could be sufficient, arguing in favor of individualized rEEG. However, this conclusion does not apply to intensive care unit patients.
Ferri Anglada, S.; Cornejo Alvarez, J. M.
The report presents an exploratory study on the impact of scientific dissemination, particularly a comparative analysis of two discourses on fusion energy as an alternative energy future. The report introduces a comparative analysis of the institutional discourse, as portrayed by the scientific jargon used in a European travelling exhibition on nuclear fusion Fusion Expo, and the social discourse, as illustrated by a citizen deliberation on this very same exhibition. Through textual analysis, the scientific discourse as deployed in the informative panels at the Fusion Expo is compared with the citizen discourse as developed in the discussions within the citizen groups. The ConText software was applied for such analysis. The purpose is to analyze how visitors assimilate, capture and understand highly technical information. Results suggest that, in despite of convergence points, the two discourses present certain differences, showing diverse levels of communication. The scientific discourse shows a great profusion of formalisms and technicalities of scientific jargon. The citizen discourse shows abundance of words associated with daily life and the more practical aspects (economy, efficiency), concerning institutional and evaluative references. In sum, the study shows that although there are a few common communicative spaces, there are still very few turning points. These data indicate that although exhibitions can be a good tool to disseminate advances in fusion energy in informal learning contexts, public feedback is a powerful tool for improving the quality of social dialogue. (Author)
National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.
This document reports on two projects jointly sponsored by the National Academy of Science (NAS) (USA) and the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (ARGENTINA). The first is the creation of a telex network for scientific libraries and documentation centers in Argentina, designed to improve access to, and delivery…
Antonio Paños Álvarez
Full Text Available Information Technologies are resources able to create competitive advantages for companies. In this analysis, the Resource-based perspective have taken special relevance, because it is argued that this advantages should be identified, reached and maintained. This work is positioned in the analysis of several contingent factors in the process of pointing the possible assesment of these advantages. It is aproaching a portfolio for helping to select what Information Technologies are valuable for what companies and in what activity areas and the study of in what way the sector, the technological innovation profile, the size and the financial capacity of the companies affects this process
... of information relevant to compliance with fleet average NOX standards. 86.1862-04 Section 86.1862-04...-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1862-04 Maintenance of records and submittal of information relevant to..., maintain, and retain the following information in adequately organized and indexed records for each model...
Baik, Seung Yeon; Jeong, Minkyung; Kim, Hyang Sook; Lee, Seung-Hwan
Previous studies suggest the presence of attentional bias towards suicide-relevant information in suicidal individuals. However, the findings are limited by their reliance on behavioral measures. This study investigates the role of difficulty in disengaging attention from suicide-relevant stimuli using the P300 component of event-related potentials (ERPs). Forty-four adults with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) were administered the spatial cueing task using suicide-relevant and negatively-valenced words as cue stimuli. Disengagement difficulty was measured using reaction time and P300 during invalid trials. P300 amplitudes at Pz were higher in suicide-relevant compared to negatively-valenced word condition on invalid trials for participants with low rates of suicidal behavior. However, no such difference was found among participants with high rates of suicidal behavior. P300 amplitudes for suicide-relevant word condition were negatively correlated with "lifetime suicide ideation and attempt" at Pz. No significant results were found for the reaction time data, indicating that the ERP may be more sensitive in capturing the attentional disengagement effect. The groups were divided according to Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R) total score. Neutral stimulus was not included as cue stimuli. Most participants were under medication during the experiment. Our results indicate that patients with MDD and low rates of suicidal behavior show difficulty in disengaging attention from suicide-relevant stimuli. We suggest that suicide-specific disengagement difficulties may be related to recentness of suicide attempt and that acquired capability for suicide may contribute to reduced disengagement difficulties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
José Osvaldo De Sordi
Full Text Available This research studies the declaration of input sources for research in scientific communications, more specifically, whether this practice of the academy may be considered a good example to be followed by organizations. Seven hypotheses address two dimensions of input sources: origin (primary or secondary and nature (data or information. It appears that the declaration of research inputs in the academy is problematic, mostly incomplete or inaccurate. This does not reduce the importance of this practice; it simply indicates that the academy should not be considered a privileged space, with wide dominance and practice excellence. Nevertheless, the information environment of organizations can learn and benefit from the experience of the scientific academy. From the analyses of the research sample, a set of procedures has been developed, which allowed organizational analysts and researchers to elaborate a complete and accurate analysis of the input sources to be declared in organizational or scientific communication.
Pal, Jayanta Kumar; Ray, Shubhra Sankar; Pal, Sankar K
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) act as a major biomarker of cancer. All miRNAs in human body are not equally important for cancer identification. We propose a methodology, called FMIMS, which automatically selects the most relevant miRNAs for a particular type of cancer. In FMIMS, miRNAs are initially grouped by using a SVM-based algorithm; then the group with highest relevance is determined and the miRNAs in that group are finally ranked for selection according to their redundancy. Fuzzy mutual information is used in computing the relevance of a group and the redundancy of miRNAs within it. Superiority of the most relevant group to all others, in deciding normal or cancer, is demonstrated on breast, renal, colorectal, lung, melanoma and prostate data. The merit of FMIMS as compared to several existing methods is established. While 12 out of 15 selected miRNAs by FMIMS corroborate with those of biological investigations, three of them viz., "hsa-miR-519," "hsa-miR-431" and "hsa-miR-320c" are possible novel predictions for renal cancer, lung cancer and melanoma, respectively. The selected miRNAs are found to be involved in disease-specific pathways by targeting various genes. The method is also able to detect the responsible miRNAs even at the primary stage of cancer. The related code is available at http://www.jayanta.droppages.com/FMIMS.html .
Petersen, L E; Stahlberg, D; Dauenheimer, D
The basic assumption of the integrative self-schema model (ISSM; L.-E. Petersen, 1994; L.-E. Petersen, D. Stahlberg, & D. Dauenheimer, 1996; D. Stahlberg, L.-E. Petersen, & D. Dauenheimer, 1994, 1999) is that self-schema elaboration (schematic vs. aschematic) affects reactions to self-relevant information. This assumption is based on the idea that schematic dimensions occupy a more central position in the cognitive system than aschematic dimensions. In the first study, this basic prediction could be clearly confirmed: The results showed that schematic dimensions possessed stronger cognitive associations with other self-relevant cognitions as well as a higher resistance to change than aschematic dimensions did. In the second study, the main assumptions of the ISSM concerning the affective and cognitive reactions to self-relevant feedback were tested: The ISSM proposes that, on schematic dimensions, reactions to self-relevant feedback will most likely follow principles of self-consistency theory, whereas on aschematic dimensions positive feedback should elicit the most positive reactions that self-enhancement theory would predict. The experimental results clearly confirmed the hypotheses derived from the ISSM for affective reactions. Cognitive reactions, however, were in line with self-consistency principles and were not modified by the elaboration of the self-schema dimension involved.
Smirnov, Eugeny; Bogun, Vitali
New methodologies in science (or mathematics) learning process and scientific thinking in the classroom activity of engineer students with ICT (information and communication technology), including graphic calculator are presented: visual modelling with ICT, action research with graphic calculator, insight in classroom and communications and…
This document is a compilation of the scientific and technical information that the Langley Research Center has produced during the calendar year 1980. Approximately 1400 citations are given. Formal reports, quick-release technical memorandums, contractor reports, journal articles, meeting/conference papers, computer programs, tech briefs, patents, and unpublished research are included.
... Collection; Comment Request; Application and Reports for Scientific Research and Enhancement Permits Under... allows permits authorizing the taking of endangered species for research/enhancement purposes. The... sets of information collections: (1) Applications for research/enhancement permits, and (2) reporting...
The scientific and technical information that the Langley Research Center produced during the calendar year 1984 is compiled. Approximately 1650 citations are included comprising formal reports, quick-release technical memorandums, contractor reports, journal articles and other publications, meeting presentations, technical talks, computer programs, tech briefs, and patents.
A compilation of the scientific and technical information that the Langley Research Center has produced during the calendar year 1985 is presented. Included are citations for Formal Reports, Quick-Release Technical Memorandums, Contractor Reports, Journal Articles and Other Publications, Meeting Presentations, Technical Talks, Computer Programs, Tech Briefs, and Patents.
This document is a compilation of the scientific and technical information that the Langley Research Center has produced during the calendar year 1986. Included are citations for Formal Reports, Quick-Release Technical Memorandums, Contractor Reports, Journal Articles and Other Publications, Meeting Presentations, Techncial Talks, Computer Programs, Tech Briefs, and Patents.
Freeman, James E.; Rubenstein, Albert H.
At a 1973 workshop held in Denver, Colorado, 21 participants familiar with the uses of Scientific and Technical Information (STI) services gathered to identify the system's major research needs. Initially, 50 research projects were suggested in the areas of design, management, operations, marketing, and global considerations. Using a priority…
Full Text Available Essential typological features of scientific schools are investigated, paying special attention to informational and communicational aspects of the problem. Peculiarities of scientific research organization in printing and publishing branches are revealed. A specific character of branch science consisting in the fact of close connection between scientific school formation and the activities of specialized higher education institutions is noted. The process of the establishment and development of the Lviv-Kyiv school of printing industry technologies, particularly regarding activities on development and application of photopolymer printing forms in printing production is analysed. On the example of the formation and the activity of the Lviv-Kyiv school of printing and publishing technologies the features of scientific school are listed. It is shown that scientific schools are formed under the influence of society demands, by the logic of science and practice development providing long-term fundamental and applied research and having essential achievements of public recognition in the homeland and abroad. Given this the functions of scientific schools are defined.
Full Text Available The Internet transforms the scholarly communication world-wide. Electronic preprint archives, electronic journals, discussion groups are some of the new ways to get acccss to information. This paper discusses some of these new developments from the perspective of scholarly communication. Among the topics covered are quality control of scientif ic publications in the electronic world, information overload, the impact of electronic publishing on librai'ies and publishers, and the economics of electronic publishing.
Dillen, van S.M.E.; Hiddink, G.J.; Koelen, M.A.; Graaf, de C.; Woerkum, van C.M.J.
Objective: For more effective nutrition communication, it is crucial to identify sources from which consumers seek information. Our purpose was to assess perceived relevance and information needs regarding food topics, and preferred information sources by means of quantitative consumer research.
Horban', A Ie; Zakrut'ko, L I; Uvarenko, S V; Prysiazhniuk, L V
The article made a retrospective analysis of the scientific medical forums (congresses, symposia and scientific conferences) in the healthcare sector of Ukraine in 2008-2012, planned by higher medical schools and post-graduate medical education schools, scientific institutions of Ministry of Healthcare of Ukraine, National Academy of Medical Science of Ukraine, medical associations and scientific and medical societies. Quantitative and qualitative assessment was carried out of the effectiveness of their implementation, provided suggestions for improving the planning and conducting of medical research forums.
Costa, Tchaikowisky M. [Faculdade de Tecnologia e Ciencias (FTC), Itabuna, BA (Brazil); Bresci, Claudio T.; Franca, Carlos M.M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
For every mobilization of a new enterprise it is necessary to quickly obtain the greatest amount of relative information in regards to location and availability of infra-structure, logistics, and work site amenities. Among this information are reports elaborated for management of the enterprise, (organizational chart, work schedule, objectives, contacts, etc.) as well as geographic anomalies, social-economic and culture of the area to be developed such as territorial extension, land aspects, local population, roads and amenities (fuel stations ,restaurants and hotels), infra-structure of the cities (health, education, entertainment, housing, transport, etc.) and logistically the distance between cities the estimated travel time, ROW access maps and notable points, among other relevant information. With the idea of making this information available for everyone involved in the enterprise, it was elaborated for GASCAC Spread 2A a rapid guide containing all the information mentioned above and made it available for all the vehicles used to transport employees and visitors to the spread. With this, everyone quickly received the majority of information necessary in one place, in a practical, quick, and precise manner, since the information is always used and controlled by the same person. This study includes the model used in the gas pipeline GASCAC Spread 2A project and the methodology used to draft and update the information. Besides the above, a file in the GIS format was prepared containing all necessary planning, execution and tracking information for enterprise activities, from social communication to the execution of the works previously mentioned. Part of the GIS file information was uploaded to Google Earth so as to disclose the information to a greater group of people, bearing in mind that this program is free of charge and easy to use. (author)
Jenkins-Smith, Hank C.; Silva, Carol L.
This article examines how members of the lay public factor risk perceptions, trust and technical information from differing scientific sources into policy judgements about potentially hazardous facilities. Focusing on radwaste storage repositories, we examine how members of the public filter new information about potential hazards through risk perceptions, and adjust their own beliefs about risks in light of that information. Scientists play a large (and increasing) role in public policy debates concerning nuclear waste issues, in which public perceptions of human health and environmental risks often differ substantially from scientific consensus about those risks. Public concerns and uncertainties are compounded when scientists from competing groups (government agencies, scientific institutions, industries, and interest groups) make different claims about the likely health and environmental consequences of different policy options. We show the processes by which the public receive and process scientific information about nuclear waste management risks using data taken from interviews with 1800 randomly selected individuals (1200 in New Mexico, and 600 nationwide). Among the more important findings are: (1) members of the public are able to make quite reasonable estimates about what kinds of positions on the risks of nuclear waste disposal will be taken by scientists from differing organizations (e.g. scientists from environmental groups, government agencies, or the nuclear industry); (2) in assessing the credibility of scientific claims, members of the public place great emphasis on the independence of the scientists from those who fund the research; and (3) prior expectations about the positions (or expected biases) of scientists from different organizations substantially affects the ways in which members of the public weigh (and utilize) information that comes from these scientists
Marcel Ginotti Pires
Full Text Available This article discusses the factors present in post-merger integration of Systems and Information Technology (SIT that lead to positive and negative results in mergers and acquisitions (M & A. The research comprised three of the largest acquiring banks in Brazil. We adopted two methods of research, qualitative, to operationalize the theoretical concepts and quantitative, to test the hypotheses. We interviewed six executives of banks that held relevant experience in M & A processes. Subsequently, we applied questionnaires to IT professionals who were involved in the SIT integration processes. The results showed that the quality and expertise of the integration teams and managing the integration were the most relevant factors in the processes, with positive results for increased efficiency and the increased capacity of SIT. Negative results were due to failures in exploiting learning opportunities, the loss of employees and the inexpressive record of integration procedures.
Bernhardt, U.; Jungjohann, K.
This final report of an empirical research about the expenditures and sales for Secondary Information (SI) as a share of Scientific and Technical Information (STI) in 1974 is furthermore concerned with: the quantity of SI and STI; the share of information free of charge; a specification for information products, individual information services and magnetic tape services; a differentiation for several areas in the market (institutions for information and documentation, libraries, publishers and privat users); the evaluation of the development for expenditures and sales till 1980. The methods of raising the relevant data comprised questionnaires and verbal interviews, case studies and the analysis of statistical literature. In the second phase of research questionnaires were sent to experts for a final evaluation of results. The important results are: The expenditures in the institutional sector and in libraries for SI in 1974 amount to 80 million DM and in the privat sector to about 117 million DM. The share of SI in STI amounts 8 percent. The sales for SI in the institutions for information and documentation reached 38 million DM. (orig.) [de
Tan, J K; Modrow, R E
In this article, we discuss the traditional systems analysis perspective on end-user information requirements analysis and extend it to merge with the new accountability expectations perspective to guide the future planning and design of health organization information systems. Underlying the strategic relevance of health care information technology (HCIT) are three critical questions: (1) What is the ideal HCIT model for the health organization in terms of achieving strategic expertise and competitive advantage? Specifically, how does this model link industry performance standards with organizational performance and accountability expectations? (2) How should the limitations of past HCIT models be reconciled to the benefits presented by the superior arrangement of the ideal model in the context of changing accountability expectations? (3) How should alternative HCIT solutions be evaluated in light of evidence-based accountability and organizational performance benchmarking? Insights into these questions will ensure that health care managers, HCIT practitioners and researchers can continue to focus on the most critical issues in harnessing today's fast-paced changing technologies for evolving strategically relevant, performance-based health organization systems.
Myneni, Sahiti; Patel, Vimla L
Biomedical researchers often work with massive, detailed and heterogeneous datasets. These datasets raise new challenges of information organization and management for scientific interpretation, as they demand much of the researchers' time and attention. The current study investigated the nature of the problems that researchers face when dealing with such data. Four major problems identified with existing biomedical scientific information management methods were related to data organization, data sharing, collaboration, and publications. Therefore, there is a compelling need to develop an efficient and user-friendly information management system to handle the biomedical research data. This study evaluated the implementation of an information management system, which was introduced as part of the collaborative research to increase scientific productivity in a research laboratory. Laboratory members seemed to exhibit frustration during the implementation process. However, empirical findings revealed that they gained new knowledge and completed specified tasks while working together with the new system. Hence, researchers are urged to persist and persevere when dealing with any new technology, including an information management system in a research laboratory environment.
Zhang, Rui; Pakhomov, Serguei V; Lee, Janet T; Melton, Genevieve B
Redundant information in clinical notes within electronic health record (EHR) systems is ubiquitous and may negatively impact the use of these notes by clinicians, and, potentially, the efficiency of patient care delivery. Automated methods to identify redundant versus relevant new information may provide a valuable tool for clinicians to better synthesize patient information and navigate to clinically important details. In this study, we investigated the use of language models for identification of new information in inpatient notes, and evaluated our methods using expert-derived reference standards. The best method achieved precision of 0.743, recall of 0.832 and F1-measure of 0.784. The average proportion of redundant information was similar between inpatient and outpatient progress notes (76.6% (SD=17.3%) and 76.7% (SD=14.0%), respectively). Advanced practice providers tended to have higher rates of redundancy in their notes compared to physicians. Future investigation includes the addition of semantic components and visualization of new information.
Kubicek, Katrina; Beyer, William J.; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen; Kipke, Michele D.
A growing body of research has investigated the effectiveness of abstinence-only sexual education. There remains a dearth of research on the relevant sexual health information available to young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Drawing on a mixed-methods study with 526 YMSM, this study explores how and where YMSM receive relevant information on…
Methodological individualism as opposed to methodological holism. History, relevancy and the implications of the (insoluble? debate on the explanatory capacity and scientific status of sociocultural anthropology
Full Text Available The paper is part of wider research into the status of explanation in the debate on the scientific status of anthropology – wherein one of the key assumptions is that there is a strong correlation between theoretical and methodological structures which would make them inseparable, and that explanation or explanatory potential, is the point of convergence which can be used to test for the possibility of separating theoretical and methodological structures in the first place. To test this idea, a line of debate between methodological holism and methodological individualism – one of the longest running and most complex debates in the social sciences and humanities – was considered. The historical background of the debate has been highlighted, and its relevancy and implications in the controversy about the explanatory capacity and scientific status of sociocultural anthropology.
Grady, Cheryl L; Grigg, Omer; Ng, Charisa
We recently found activity in default mode and reward-related regions during self-relevant tasks in young adults. Here we examine the effect of aging on engagement of the default network (DN) and reward network (RN) during these tasks. Previous studies have shown reduced engagement of the DN and reward areas in older adults, but the influence of age on these circuits during self-relevant tasks has not been examined. The tasks involved judging personality traits about one's self or a well known other person. There were no age differences in reaction time on the tasks but older adults had more positive Self and Other judgments, whereas younger adults had more negative judgments. Both groups had increased DN and RN activity during the self-relevant tasks, relative to non-self tasks, but this increase was reduced in older compared to young adults. Functional connectivity of both networks during the tasks was weaker in the older relative to younger adults. Intrinsic functional connectivity, measured at rest, also was weaker in the older adults in the DN, but not in the RN. These results suggest that, in younger adults, the processing of personally relevant information involves robust activation of and functional connectivity within these two networks, in line with current models that emphasize strong links between the self and reward. The finding that older adults had more positive judgments, but weaker engagement and less consistent functional connectivity in these networks, suggests potential brain mechanisms for the "positivity bias" with aging. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Flood protection is one of several disciplines where geospatial data is very important and is a crucial component. Its management, processing and sharing form the foundation for their efficient use; therefore, special attention is required in the development of effective, precise, standardized, and interoperable models for the discovery and publishing of data on the Web. This paper describes the design of a methodology to discover Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC services on the Web and collect descriptive information, i.e., metadata in a geocatalogue. A pilot implementation of the proposed methodology - Geocatalogue of geospatial information provided by OGC services discovered on Google (hereinafter “Geocatalogue” - was used to search for available resources relevant to the area of flood protection. The result is an analysis of the availability of resources discovered through their metadata collected from the OGC services (WMS, WFS, etc. and the resources they provide (WMS layers, WFS objects, etc. within the domain of flood protection.
Allen-Meares, Paula; MacDonald, Megan; McGee, Kristin
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by deficits in social communication skills as well as repetitive, restricted or stereotyped behaviors (1). Early interventionists are often found at the forefront of assessment, evaluation, and early intervention services for children with ASD. The role of an early intervention specialist may include assessing developmental history, providing group and individual counseling, working in partnership with families on home, school, and community environments, mobilizing school and community resources, and assisting in the development of positive early intervention strategies (2, 3). The commonality among these roles resides in the importance of providing up-to-date, relevant information to families and children. The purpose of this review is to provide pertinent up-to-date knowledge for early interventionists to help inform practice in working with individuals with ASD, including common behavioral models of intervention. PMID:27840812
Allen-Meares, Paula; MacDonald, Megan; McGee, Kristin
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by deficits in social communication skills as well as repetitive, restricted or stereotyped behaviors (1). Early interventionists are often found at the forefront of assessment, evaluation, and early intervention services for children with ASD. The role of an early intervention specialist may include assessing developmental history, providing group and individual counseling, working in partnership with families on home, school, and community environments, mobilizing school and community resources, and assisting in the development of positive early intervention strategies (2, 3). The commonality among these roles resides in the importance of providing up-to-date, relevant information to families and children. The purpose of this review is to provide pertinent up-to-date knowledge for early interventionists to help inform practice in working with individuals with ASD, including common behavioral models of intervention.
Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by deficits in social communication skills as well as repetitive, restricted or stereotyped behaviors (1. Early interventionists are often found at the forefront of assessment, evaluation and early intervention services for children with ASD. The role of an early intervention specialist may include, assessing developmental history, providing group and individual counseling, working in partnership with families on home, school, and community environments, mobilizing school and community resources and assisting in the development of positive early intervention strategies (2, 3. The commonality amongst these roles resides in the importance of providing up-to-date, relevant information to families and children. The purpose of this review is to provide pertinent up-to-date knowledge for early interventionists to help inform practice in working with individuals with ASD, including common behavioral models of intervention.
Oleg M. Spirin
Full Text Available The article deals with the foreign and domestic experience of using the Open Journal Systems (OJS software platform for informational support of scientific and educational activities, in particular: a as a means of publicizing and disseminating the results of scientific research; b for creating and maintaining repositories of libraries of higher educational establishments; c for developing the scientific and educational space of an educational establishments; d as a cloud-based service for the preservation and access to scientific resources; e for information support in organization of student training; and f for deployment of student journals. As a result of the analysis of scientific periodicals of Ukraine in the field of psychological and pedagogical sciences, the scientific journals on the basis of Open Journal Systems are identified. The experience of support the electronic scientific journal «Information Technologies and Learning Tools» (http://journal.iitta.gov.ua is presented separately.
Full Text Available In addition to universal social changes, the information revolution also brought a lot of innovation to the workings of intelligence services, which are traditionally the part of the national security system that is conducting data analyses and for which information is the primary product. If in the past the main problem and challenge has been the timely acquisition of data, today most agencies are faced with an entirely different problem - information overload. This problem is being tackled by technical as well as systemic measures that combine various types of intelligence work. However, there are still unanswered questions regarding the applicability of intelligence products for decision makers. Here we have to point out information visualization as the subject of an interdisciplinary scientific research that definitely shows a lot of potential in the context of the defense science as well. This article points out three key requirements that allow the application of information visualization to defense research: (1 the concept of the intelligence cycle can be used as a good basis for the information that is subject to visualization; (2 the quality of decision-making support information depends on proper visualization; (3 the first two requirements offer a stable theoretical and empirical basis for the introduction of innovative scientific methods in the field of defense science, such as experiments.
Jouhet, V; Defossez, G; Ingrand, P
The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a selection algorithm of relevant records for the notification of incident cases of cancer on the basis of the individual data available in a multi-source information system. This work was conducted on data for the year 2008 in the general cancer registry of Poitou-Charentes region (France). The selection algorithm hierarchizes information according to its level of relevance for tumoral topography and tumoral morphology independently. The selected data are combined to form composite records. These records are then grouped in respect with the notification rules of the International Agency for Research on Cancer for multiple primary cancers. The evaluation, based on recall, precision and F-measure confronted cases validated manually by the registry's physicians with tumours notified with and without records selection. The analysis involved 12,346 tumours validated among 11,971 individuals. The data used were hospital discharge data (104,474 records), pathology data (21,851 records), healthcare insurance data (7508 records) and cancer care centre's data (686 records). The selection algorithm permitted performances improvement for notification of tumour topography (F-measure 0.926 with vs. 0.857 without selection) and tumour morphology (F-measure 0.805 with vs. 0.750 without selection). These results show that selection of information according to its origin is efficient in reducing noise generated by imprecise coding. Further research is needed for solving the semantic problems relating to the integration of heterogeneous data and the use of non-structured information.
Morales, Francisco J.; Reyes, Antonio; Cáceres, Noelia; Romero, Luis M.; Benitez, Francisco G.; Morgado, Joao; Duarte, Emanuel; Martins, Teresa
A large percentage of transport infrastructures are composed of linear assets, such as roads and rail tracks. The large social and economic relevance of these constructions force the stakeholders to ensure a prolonged health/durability. Even though, inevitable malfunctioning, breaking down, and out-of-service periods arise randomly during the life cycle of the infrastructure. Predictive maintenance techniques tend to diminish the appearance of unpredicted failures and the execution of needed corrective interventions, envisaging the adequate interventions to be conducted before failures show up. This communication presents: i) A procedural approach, to be conducted, in order to collect the relevant information regarding the evolving state condition of the assets involved in all maintenance interventions; this reported and stored information constitutes a rich historical data base to train Machine Learning algorithms in order to generate reliable predictions of the interventions to be carried out in further time scenarios. ii) A schematic flow chart of the automatic learning procedure. iii) Self-learning rules from automatic learning from false positive/negatives. The description, testing, automatic learning approach and the outcomes of a pilot case are presented; finally some conclusions are outlined regarding the methodology proposed for improving the self-learning predictive capability.
Using a socio-psycholinguistic perspective of literacy and a social-semiotic analysis of texts, this study investigates how six students made meaning of informational texts. The students came to school from a variety of English and Spanish language backgrounds. The research question being asked was 'How do Latino(a) fourth and fifth grade students make meaning of English informational texts?' Miscue analysis was used as a tool to investigate how students who have been labeled non-struggling readers by their classroom teacher and are from various language backgrounds approached five informational texts. In order to investigate students' responses to the nature of informational texts, this dissertation draws on commonly occurring structures within texts. Primary data collected included read alouds and retellings of five texts, retrospective miscue analysis, and interviews with six participant students. Two of these participants are discussed within this dissertation. Secondary data included classroom observations and teacher interviews. This study proposes that non-native speakers may use scientific concept placeholders as they transact with informational texts. The use of scientific concept placeholders by a reader indicates that the reader is engaged in the meaning making process and possesses evolving scientific knowledge about a phenomenon. The findings suggest that Latino(a) students' understandings of English informational texts is influenced not only by a student's language development but also (1) the nature of the text; (2) the reading strategies that a student uses, such as the use of placeholders; (3) the influence of the researcher during the aided retelling. This study contributes methodological tools to assess English language learners' reading. The conclusions presented within this study also support the idea that students from a variety of language backgrounds slightly altered their reliance on certain cuing systems as they encountered various sub
Lowner, R.; Conze, R. [GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Potsdam (Germany)
The Mallik Data and Information System (Mallik DIS) includes 3 main components which make it possible to acquire, integrate and disseminate interdisciplinary data from the Mallik 2002 Gas Hydrate Production Research Well Program. The system provides a secure and accessible archive of quality controlled scientific results of the project. The 3 main components are: (1) a digital scanner which produces a catalogue of digital core images, (2) the data warehouse which is a vital database and archive that provides members of the Mallik team with access to project data sets via Internet, and (3) the web portal of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program information network which allows the separate data sets to be retrieved, viewed and integrated with other project data sets.
María Soledad Bravo-Marchant
Full Text Available The design and implementation of public policies to grant access to scientific information is now a marked trend among numerous countries of Latin America. The creation of specific instruments, the allocation of an ongoing budget and the accumulation of experience in negotiation and contracting of national licences have all been clear signs of the achievements resulting from recent initiatives in these countries. This article reviews the experience of the Consorcio para el Acceso a la Información Cientifíca Electrónica (CINCEL Corporation, a Chilean consortium created in 2002, the public policy that made it possible and the evaluation experience of its main programme, the Electronic Library of Scientific Information (BEIC.
Kosteniuk, Julie G; Morgan, Debra G; D'Arcy, Carl K
The research determined (1) the information sources that family physicians (FPs) most commonly use to update their general medical knowledge and to make specific clinical decisions, and (2) the information sources FPs found to be most physically accessible, intellectually accessible (easy to understand), reliable (trustworthy), and relevant to their needs. A cross-sectional postal survey of 792 FPs and locum tenens, in full-time or part-time medical practice, currently practicing or on leave of absence in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan was conducted during the period of January to April 2008. Of 666 eligible physicians, 331 completed and returned surveys, resulting in a response rate of 49.7% (331/666). Medical textbooks and colleagues in the main patient care setting were the top 2 sources for the purpose of making specific clinical decisions. Medical textbooks were most frequently considered by FPs to be reliable (trustworthy), and colleagues in the main patient care setting were most physically accessible (easy to access). When making specific clinical decisions, FPs were most likely to use information from sources that they considered to be reliable and generally physically accessible, suggesting that FPs can best be supported by facilitating easy and convenient access to high-quality information.
Argaud, J.P.; Bouriquet, B.; Clerc, T.; Lucet-Sanchez, F.; Poncot, A.
The goal of this study is to look after the amount of information that is mandatory to get a relevant parameters optimisation by data assimilation for physical models in neutronic diffusion calculations, and to determine what is the best information to reach the optimum of accuracy at the cheapest cost. To evaluate the quality of the optimisation, we study the covariance matrix that represents the accuracy of the optimised parameter. This matrix is a classical output of the data assimilation procedure, and it is the main information about accuracy and sensitivity of the parameter optimal determination. We present some results collected in the field of neutronic simulation for PWR type reactor. We seek to optimise the reflector parameters that characterise the neutronic reflector surrounding the whole reactive core. On the basis of the configuration studies, it has been shown that with data assimilation we can determine a global strategy to optimise the quality of the result with respect to the amount of information provided. The consequence of this is a cost reduction in terms of measurement and/or computing time with respect to the basic approach. Another result is that using multi-campaign data rather data from a unique campaign significantly improves the efficiency of parameters optimisation
Full Text Available It has been proved that the use of qualitative approach is one of the ways to further development of the accounting. The features of the concept of «quality of accounting information» in the Ukrainian legislation have been analyzed in the article. The author grounds the necessity of development of the normative document where the further ways of accounting on the basis of qualitative approach should be formulated. The article singles out two main groups of scientists who raised the issue of the need to improve the quality of accounting information. Points of view of each group of scientists have been grounded. The relationship between the quality of accounting information and the efficiency of management decisions have been analyzed. The article proves that the generation of quality information by accounting system creates the necessary preconditions for effective management decisions. General scientific and methodological reasons for research aimed at improving the quality of accounting information have been showen.
... Collection; Comment Request; Scientific Research, Exempted Fishing, and Exempted Activity Submissions AGENCY... collection. Fishery regulations do not generally affect scientific research activities conducted by a scientific research vessel. Persons planning to conduct such research are encouraged to submit a scientific...
K. S., Christine Dwi; Agustina, Lidya
The purpose of this research is to analyze and examine the hyphothesis effect of participation budgeting on job relevant information and information asimetry as a moderating variable , and effect of participation budgeting and information asimetry on budget slack and job relevant information as mediating varible. The respondent of this research are 30 structural staf of program and ministry in Maranatha Christian University who have participated to make budgeting. This method that...
The explosion of information communication technology (ICT) since the beginning of the 20th century has been rendering manual-based library system in academic, research, special and public libraries less relevant. This is because using and implementing information communication technology in the library depend largely on the librarian attitude toward the current digital age. This study examined the attitudinal correlates of some selected scientific and research institutes libraries in Irantowards the use and application of ICT in their various libraries. A total of ten libraries from all the forty nine libraries in Iran formed the studyís population. It is observed that 'Internet/intranet etc' (1046; 67.5%) is the most important source through which the users become aware of modern information technologies used in their libraries. The vast majority of the respondents who answered electronic sources make it 'Easier' to gather and use information are (1313; 84.7%). The results indicate that there is a significant relationship between e-environment and collection development (?262.86, p=0.000). Findings further show that all of librarians (9; 100%) opined they feel that ICT application affects the collection development of library. Based on these findings, it is recommended that libraries in the developing countries should consider training those librarians who do not have knowledge of ICT in order to remove the fear and anxiety hindering them from developing good attitude towards the use of ICT in their libraries.
McLachlan, J. S.
The distribution of tree species is largely determined by climate, with important consequences for ecosystem function, biodiversity, and the human economy. In the past, conflicts about priority among these various goods have produced persistent debate about forest policy and management. Despite this history of conflict, there has been general agreement on the framework for the debate: Our benchmark for assessing human impact is generally some historical condition (in the New World, this is often pre-European settlement). Wilderness is to be managed with minimal human intervention. Native species are preferred over non-natives. And regional landscapes can be effectively partitioned into independent jurisdictions with different management priorities. Each of these principles was always somewhat mythical, but the dynamics of broad scale species range shifts under climate change make all of them untenable in the future. Managed relocation (MR, or assisted migration) is a controversial proposal partly because it demands scientific answers that we do not have: Are trees naturally capable of shifting their ranges as fast as climate will force them? Will deliberate introductions of species beyond their native ranges have adverse impacts on the receiving ecosystem? What are appropriate targets for hydrologic or fire management under novel no-analog climates? However, these demands on science mask a more fundamental concern: the ethical framework underlying existing forest policy is unsupported in the context of long-term non-stationary environmental trends. Whether or not we conclude that MR is a useful policy option, debate about MR is useful because it forces us to place the global change ecology agenda in a larger ethical debate about our goals when managing novel ecosystems.
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Scientific Information Request on the Use of Natriuretic Peptide Measurement in the Management of Heart Failure AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION: Request for scientific information...
Klucevsek, Kristin M.; Brungard, Allison B.
For undergraduate students to achieve science literacy, they must first develop information literacy skils. These skills align with Information Literacy Standards and include determining appropriate databases, distinguishing among resource types, and citing resources ethically. To effectively improve information literacy and science literacy, we must identify how students interact with authentic scientific texts. In this case study, we addressed this aim by embedding a science librarian into a science writing course, where students wrote a literature review on a research topic of their choice. Library instruction was further integrated through the use of an online guide and outside assistance. To evaluate the evolution of information literacy in our students and provide evidence of student practices, we used task-scaffolded writing assessments, a reflection, and surveys. We found that students improved their ability and confidence in finding research articles using discipline-specific databases as well as their ability to distinguish primary from secondary research articles. We also identified ways students improperly used and cited resources in their writing assignments. While our results reveal a better understanding of how students find and approach scientific research articles, additional research is needed to develop effective strategies to improve long-term information literacy in the sciences.
Hess, Thomas M; Queen, Tara L; Ennis, Gilda E
We investigated how information search strategies used to support decision making were influenced by self-related implications of the task to the individual. Consistent with the notion of selective engagement, we hypothesized that increased self-relevance would result in more adaptive search behaviors and that this effect would be stronger in older adults than in younger adults. We examined search behaviors in 79 younger and 81 older adults using a process-tracing procedure with 2 different decision tasks. The impact of motivation (i.e., self-related task implications) was examined by manipulating social accountability and the age-related relevance of the task. Although age differences in search strategies were not great, older adults were more likely than younger adults to use simpler strategies in contexts with minimal self-implications. Contrary to expectations, young and old alike were more likely to use noncompensatory than compensatory strategies, even when engaged in systematic search, with education being the most important determinant of search behavior. The results support the notion that older adults are adaptive decision makers and that factors other than age may be more important determinants of performance in situations where knowledge can be used to support performance.
Cameron, Delroy; Sheth, Amit P; Jaykumar, Nishita; Thirunarayan, Krishnaprasad; Anand, Gaurish; Smith, Gary A
While contemporary semantic search systems offer to improve classical keyword-based search, they are not always adequate for complex domain specific information needs. The domain of prescription drug abuse, for example, requires knowledge of both ontological concepts and "intelligible constructs" not typically modeled in ontologies. These intelligible constructs convey essential information that include notions of intensity, frequency, interval, dosage and sentiments, which could be important to the holistic needs of the information seeker. In this paper, we present a hybrid approach to domain specific information retrieval that integrates ontology-driven query interpretation with synonym-based query expansion and domain specific rules, to facilitate search in social media on prescription drug abuse. Our framework is based on a context-free grammar (CFG) that defines the query language of constructs interpretable by the search system. The grammar provides two levels of semantic interpretation: 1) a top-level CFG that facilitates retrieval of diverse textual patterns, which belong to broad templates and 2) a low-level CFG that enables interpretation of specific expressions belonging to such textual patterns. These low-level expressions occur as concepts from four different categories of data: 1) ontological concepts, 2) concepts in lexicons (such as emotions and sentiments), 3) concepts in lexicons with only partial ontology representation, called lexico-ontology concepts (such as side effects and routes of administration (ROA)), and 4) domain specific expressions (such as date, time, interval, frequency and dosage) derived solely through rules. Our approach is embodied in a novel Semantic Web platform called PREDOSE, which provides search support for complex domain specific information needs in prescription drug abuse epidemiology. When applied to a corpus of over 1 million drug abuse-related web forum posts, our search framework proved effective in retrieving
Bearth, Angela; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Siegrist, Michael
Intensive risk assessment is required before the approval of food additives. During this process, based on the toxicological principle of "the dose makes the poison,ˮ maximum usage doses are assessed. However, most consumers are not aware of these efforts to ensure the safety of food additives and are therefore sceptical, even though food additives bring certain benefits to consumers. This study investigated the effect of a short video, which explains the scientific risk assessment and regulation of food additives, on consumers' perceptions and acceptance of food additives. The primary goal of this study was to inform consumers and enable them to construct their own risk-benefit assessment and make informed decisions about food additives. The secondary goal was to investigate whether people have different perceptions of food additives of artificial (i.e., aspartame) or natural origin (i.e., steviolglycoside). To attain these research goals, an online experiment was conducted on 185 Swiss consumers. Participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental group, which was shown a video about the scientific risk assessment of food additives, or the control group, which was shown a video about a topic irrelevant to the study. After watching the video, the respondents knew significantly more, expressed more positive thoughts and feelings, had less risk perception, and more acceptance than prior to watching the video. Thus, it appears that informing consumers about complex food safety topics, such as the scientific risk assessment of food additives, is possible, and using a carefully developed information video is a successful strategy for informing consumers. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.
Kim, Sunghwan; Thiessen, Paul A; Cheng, Tiejun; Yu, Bo; Shoemaker, Benjamin A; Wang, Jiyao; Bolton, Evan E; Wang, Yanli; Bryant, Stephen H
PubChem is an open archive consisting of a set of three primary public databases (BioAssay, Compound, and Substance). It contains information on a broad range of chemical entities, including small molecules, lipids, carbohydrates, and (chemically modified) amino acid and nucleic acid sequences (including siRNA and miRNA). Currently (as of Nov. 2015), PubChem contains more than 150 million depositor-provided chemical substance descriptions, 60 million unique chemical structures, and 225 million biological activity test results provided from over 1 million biological assay records. Many PubChem records (substances, compounds, and assays) include depositor-provided cross-references to scientific articles in PubMed. Some PubChem contributors provide bioactivity data extracted from scientific articles. Literature-derived bioactivity data complement high-throughput screening (HTS) data from the concluded NIH Molecular Libraries Program and other HTS projects. Some journals provide PubChem with information on chemicals that appear in their newly published articles, enabling concurrent publication of scientific articles in journals and associated data in public databases. In addition, PubChem links records to PubMed articles indexed with the Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) controlled vocabulary thesaurus. Literature information, both provided by depositors and derived from MeSH annotations, can be accessed using PubChem's web interfaces, enabling users to explore information available in literature related to PubChem records beyond typical web search results. Graphical abstractLiterature information for PubChem records is derived from various sources.
The possibility of obtaining the photodisintegration cross section using the equivalent-photon number method first deduced and employed for the Coulomb disintegration processes has been suggested. This is very interesting because there exist radioactive capture processes, related to the photodisintegration through time reversal, that are relevant in astrophysics. In this paper, the recent results of the Karlsruhe and the Texas A and M groups on the Coulomb disintegration of 6 Li and 7 Li and the problems of the method are discussed. The ideas developed in a previous paper (Nucl. Phys. A458 (1986) 188) are confirmed qualitatively. To understand the process quantitatively it is necessary to use a quantum treatment that would imply the introduction of Coulomb excitation effects of higher orders. The Coulomb disintegration of exotic secondary beams is also studied. It is particularly interesting the question about what kind of nuclear structure information, as binding energies of momentum distributions, may be obtained. (Author) [es
Full Text Available In view of the tremendous potential benefits of clinical information systems (CIS for the quality of patient care; it is hard to understand why not every CIS is embraced by its targeted users, the physicians. The aim of this study is to propose a framework for assessing hospital physicians' CIS-acceptance that can serve as a guidance for future research into this area. Hereto, a review of the relevant literature was performed in the ISI Web-of-Science database. Eleven studies were withheld from an initial dataset of 797 articles. Results show that just as in business settings, there are four core groups of variables that influence physicians' acceptance of a CIS: its usefulness and ease of use, social norms, and factors in the working environment that facilitate use of the CIS (such as providing computers/workstations, compatibility between the new and existing system.... We also identified some additional variables as predictors of CIS-acceptance.
Within the last years there has been an ongoing change in the energy domain. The German renewable energies law EnWG requires a liberalization that leads to a strict separation of domains such as transportation, supply and conversion of energy. Furthermore, climate and environmental protection as well as cost transparency and energy saving in combination with efficiency of resources leads to new challenges for the energy industry. The so called smart grid vision and the concluding design of an ICT-based information structure for the energy domain will help to reach these goals by integrating renewable energy resources, saving fuels and getting a higher energy efficiency. In order to reach these goals, information about current energy generation, energy storage and energy demand is required. Through an efficient network and fast information exchange by means of an energy information network an efficient energy use can be gained. The federated networking of an energy information network like this can tend to a weakness for cyber security within the energy domain. The growing number of people involved and data exchanges will create more potential points of attacks than before. Therefore, a suitable protection of an energy information network is necessary. Through paragraph 9 EnWG the protection goal confidentiality is particularly important. But the implementation of confidentiality must not lead to a violation of availability requirements, which are very important at some point of the energy domain. Additionally to the identification of such crucial side effects, the implementation of confidentiality for distributed, decentral systems is a challenge for the domain. The ENERTRUST security model includes a knowledge base construction, which allows the identification of such side effects or conflicts in the energy domain by applying reasoning techniques. Moreover, it allows the realization of confidentiality from distributed locations through a use and combination of
Bales, R. C.; Bernacchi, L.; Conklin, M. H.; Viers, J. H.; Fogg, G. E.; Fisher, A. T.; Kiparsky, M.
California's historic drought of 2011-2015 provided excellent conditions for researchers to listen to water-management challenges from decision makers, particularly with regard to data and information needs for improved decision making. Through the UC Water Security and Sustainability Research Initiative (http://ucwater.org/) we began a multi-year dialog with water-resources decision makers and state agencies that provide data and technical support for water management. Near-term products of that collaboration will be both a vision for a 21st-century water data and information system, and near-term steps to meet immediate legislative deadlines in a way that is consistent with the longer-term vision. While many university-based water researchers engage with state and local agencies on both science and policy challenges, UC Water's focus was on: i) integrated system management, from headwaters through groundwater and agriculture, and on ii) improved decision making through better water information systems. This focus aligned with the recognition by water leaders that fundamental changes in the way the state manages water were overdue. UC Water is focused on three "I"s: improved water information, empowering Institutions to use and to create new information, and enabling decision makers to make smart investments in both green and grey Infrastructure. Effective communication with water decision makers has led to engagement on high-priority programs where large knowledge gaps remain, including more-widespread groundwater recharge of storm flows, restoration of mountain forests in important source-water areas, governance structures for groundwater sustainability, and filling information gaps by bringing new technology to bear on measurement and data programs. Continuing engagement of UC Water researchers in public dialog around water resources, through opinion pieces, feature articles, blogs, white papers, social media, video clips and a feature documentary film have
Huber, Sigbert; Baumgarten, Andreas; Birli, Barbara; Englisch, Michael; Tulipan, Monika; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie
The Austrian Soil Science Society (ASSS), founded in 1954, is a non-profit organisation aiming at furthering all branches of soil science in Austria. The ASSS provides information on the current state of soil research in Austria and abroad. It organizes annual conferences for scientists from soil and related sciences to exchange their recent studies and offers a journal for scientific publications. Annually, ASSS awards the Kubiena Research Prize for excellent scientific studies provided by young scientists. In order to conserve and improve soil science in the field, excursions are organized, also in cooperation with other scientific organisations. Due to well-established contacts with soil scientists and soil science societies in many countries, the ASSS is able to provide its members with information about the most recent developments in the field of soil science. This contributes to a broadening of the current scientific knowledge on soils. The ASSS also co-operates in the organisation of excursions and meetings with neighbouring countries. Several members of the ASSS teach soil science at various Austrian universities. More detail on said conferences, excursions, publications and awards will be given in the presentation. Beside its own scientific journal, published once or twice a year, and special editions such as guidebooks for soil classification, the ASSS runs a website providing information on the Society, its activities, meetings, publications, awards and projects. Together with the Environment Agency Austria the ASSS runs a soil platform on the internet. It is accessible for the public and thus informs society about soil issues. This platform offers a calendar with national and international soil events, contacts of soil related organisations and networks, information on national projects and publications. The society has access to products, information material and information on educational courses. Last but not least information on specific soil
Guo, Yufan; Silins, Ilona; Stenius, Ulla; Korhonen, Anna
Techniques that are capable of automatically analyzing the information structure of scientific articles could be highly useful for improving information access to biomedical literature. However, most existing approaches rely on supervised machine learning (ML) and substantial labeled data that are expensive to develop and apply to different sub-fields of biomedicine. Recent research shows that minimal supervision is sufficient for fairly accurate information structure analysis of biomedical abstracts. However, is it realistic for full articles given their high linguistic and informational complexity? We introduce and release a novel corpus of 50 biomedical articles annotated according to the Argumentative Zoning (AZ) scheme, and investigate active learning with one of the most widely used ML models-Support Vector Machines (SVM)-on this corpus. Additionally, we introduce two novel applications that use AZ to support real-life literature review in biomedicine via question answering and summarization. We show that active learning with SVM trained on 500 labeled sentences (6% of the corpus) performs surprisingly well with the accuracy of 82%, just 2% lower than fully supervised learning. In our question answering task, biomedical researchers find relevant information significantly faster from AZ-annotated than unannotated articles. In the summarization task, sentences extracted from particular zones are significantly more similar to gold standard summaries than those extracted from particular sections of full articles. These results demonstrate that active learning of full articles' information structure is indeed realistic and the accuracy is high enough to support real-life literature review in biomedicine. The annotated corpus, our AZ classifier and the two novel applications are available at http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/yg244/12bioinfo.html
Rubin, Geoffrey D; Krishnaraj, Arun; Mahesh, Mahadevappa; Rajendran, Ramji R; Fishman, Elliot K
RadiologyInfo.org is a public information portal designed to support patient care and broaden public awareness of the essential role radiology plays in overall patient health care. Over the past 14 years, RadiologyInfo.org has evolved considerably to provide access to more than 220 mixed-media descriptions of tests, treatments, and diseases through a spectrum of mobile and desktop platforms, social media, and downloadable documents in both English and Spanish. In 2014, the RSNA-ACR Public Information Website Committee, which stewards RadiologyInfo.org, developed 3- to 5-year strategic and implementation plans for the website. The process was informed by RadiologyInfo.org user surveys, formal stakeholder interviews, focus groups, and usability testing. Metrics were established as key performance indicators to assess progress toward the stated goals of (1) optimizing content to enhance patient-centeredness, (2) enhancing reach and engagement, and (3) maintaining sustainability. Major changes resulting from this process include a complete redesign of the website, the replacement of text-rich PowerPoint presentations with conversational videos, and the development of an affiliate network. Over the past year, visits to RadiologyInfo.org have increased by 60.27% to 1,424,523 in August 2016 from 235 countries and territories. Twenty-two organizations have affiliated with RadiologyInfo.org with new organizations being added on a monthly basis. RadiologyInfo provides a tangible demonstration of how radiologists can engage directly with the global public to educate them on the value of radiology in their health care and to allay concerns and dispel misconceptions. Regular self-assessment and responsive planning will ensure its continued growth and relevance. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rohal, C B; Kettenring, K M; Sims, K; Hazelton, E L G; Ma, Z
more pertinent to manager needs and trusted by managers. Such an approach that integrates manager surveys to inform management experiments could be adapted to any developing research program seeking to be relevant to management audiences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The current external environment of information work has undergone profound changes. The world competition in Military fields, the development of national economy and the applications of high-technologies put forward higher requirements to intelligence work. Under the environment of global information integration, 'eyes and ears' roles of nuclear scientific and technical information will be more highlighted. In this context, we believe that the way of nuclear sci-tech information development should be focused on comprehensive research and be based on the building of information resources and advanced information technology methods, forming an integrated service system with capabilities of rapid resources, decision support, information assurance and sustainable development. The goal of nuclear sci-tech information development should be to serve the development of nuclear power and the popularization and application of nuclear technology in the fields of national economy, to implement the strategy of 'integrated intelligence support', to ensure the formation of rapid response capability, to enhance capabilities of decision support and science and technology development guidance, to build digital information resources and to constantly promote the research on network collaboration. This paper analyzes the characteristics of nuclear sci-tech information under new competitive environment, describes the ideas and goals of its development and proposes the way to achieve these goals. In order to provide the information support and service with the characteristics of rapid response, high quality and high efficiency, the paper also puts forward that under the new environment, we should optimize the service system, extend service functions, transform service mode, speed up the transformation on intelligence work, adjust and optimize business content and structure, promote business process re-engineering, and pay equal attention to 'ensuring demands' and 'guiding the future
Buslov, A. S.; Kotov, Yu. D.; Yurov, V. N.; Bessonov, M. V.; Kalmykov, P. A.; Oreshnikov, E. M.; Alimov, A. M.; Tumanov, A. V.; Zhuchkova, E. A.
This paper deals with the organizational structure of ground-based receiving, processing, and dissemination of scientific information created by the Astrophysics Institute of the Scientific Research Nuclear University, Moscow Engineering Physics Institute. Hardware structure and software features are described. The principles are given for forming sets of control commands for scientific equipment (SE) devices, and statistics data are presented on the operation of facility during flight tests of the spacecraft (SC) in the course of one year.
Translated By Joho Kanri Editorial Committee
This is a translation of Chapter 4 : Information Systems of Volume 5 : Environment and Resources in the first number of White Paper on Science and Technology edited in May 1986 by State Scientific and Technological Commission (SSTC). Scientific and technological information activity in China has progressed by keeping close cooperation among the Institute for Scientific and Technological Information in China (ISTIC) as a core organization, 33 information institutes under the control of each ministrial commission of The State Council and 35 information institutes of the local governments and cities. As a result of having promoted the information activities along with the guiding principle decided by the 5th National Conference on Scientific and Technological Information in July 1980, information business could be made a great contribution to political decision, national projects and economy stressing plan, technology introduction, etc. The Scientific and Technological Information Bureau of SSTC as a coordinating body proposed the following subjects as an important item for promoting future information business in China: standardization of abstract journals, bringing up of investigators and researchers, production of data bases and consolidation of international online retrieval services, step by step introduction of a charging system for information service, etc.
Krumhansl, R. A.; Foster, J.; Peach, C. L.; Busey, A.; Baker, I.
The practice of science and engineering is being revolutionized by the development of cyberinfrastructure for accessing near real-time and archived observatory data. Large cyberinfrastructure projects have the potential to transform the way science is taught in high school classrooms, making enormous quantities of scientific data available, giving students opportunities to analyze and draw conclusions from many kinds of complex data, and providing students with experiences using state-of-the-art resources and techniques for scientific investigations. However, online interfaces to scientific data are built by scientists for scientists, and their design can significantly impede broad use by novices. Knowledge relevant to the design of student interfaces to complex scientific databases is broadly dispersed among disciplines ranging from cognitive science to computer science and cartography and is not easily accessible to designers of educational interfaces. To inform efforts at bridging scientific cyberinfrastructure to the high school classroom, Education Development Center, Inc. and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography conducted an NSF-funded 2-year interdisciplinary review of literature and expert opinion pertinent to making interfaces to large scientific databases accessible to and usable by precollege learners and their teachers. Project findings are grounded in the fundamentals of Cognitive Load Theory, Visual Perception, Schemata formation and Universal Design for Learning. The Knowledge Status Report (KSR) presents cross-cutting and visualization-specific guidelines that highlight how interface design features can address/ ameliorate challenges novice high school students face as they navigate complex databases to find data, and construct and look for patterns in maps, graphs, animations and other data visualizations. The guidelines present ways to make scientific databases more broadly accessible by: 1) adjusting the cognitive load imposed by the user
Ever since the terrorist attacks of 9/11, the federal government has increased funding for emergency preparedness. However, the literature continues to document several areas of weaknesses in public health emergency management by local health departments (LHD). This lack of preparedness affects the entire public. The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not Maryland LHDs have effectively put in place the information technology (IT) that is relevant for emergency preparedness. Base Firm-wide IT Infrastructure Services and the Feeny/Willcocks Framework for Core IS Capabilities are the two conceptual frameworks used in this study. This qualitative study used the survey method and the data were analyzed through content analysis. The results revealed that utilization, practice, and performance of IT by Maryland LHDs are not efficient or effective. Recommendations included the development of "best practices," increased funding for IT infrastructure and the establishment of strategic management framework for IT initiatives. Implications for positive social change include the development of recommendations to enhance emergency preparedness practice, and advancement of knowledge so as to facilitate the functions, and duties of health departments in emergency preparedness operations.
Nardi, Valentina; Pulluqi, Olja; Abramson, Jeremy S; Dal Cin, Paola; Hasserjian, Robert P
Bone marrow (BM) evaluation is an important part of lymphoma staging, which guides patient management. Although positive staging marrow is defined as morphologically identifiable disease, such samples often also include flow cytometric analysis and conventional karyotyping. Cytogenetic analysis is a labor-intensive and costly procedure and its utility in this setting is uncertain. We retrospectively reviewed pathological reports of 526 staging marrow specimens in which conventional karyotyping had been performed. All samples originated from a single institution from patients with previously untreated Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas presenting in an extramedullary site. Cytogenetic analysis revealed clonal abnormalities in only eight marrow samples (1.5%), all of which were positive for lymphoma by morphologic evaluation. Flow cytometry showed a small clonal lymphoid population in three of the 443 morphologically negative marrow samples (0.7%). Conventional karyotyping is rarely positive in lymphoma staging marrow samples and, in our cohort, the BM karyotype did not contribute clinically relevant information in the vast majority of cases. Our findings suggest that karyotyping should not be performed routinely on BM samples taken to stage previously diagnosed extramedullary lymphomas unless there is pathological evidence of BM involvement by lymphoma. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Drouillard, Antoine; Bouvier, Anne-Marie; Rollot, Fabien; Faivre, Jean; Jooste, Valérie; Lepage, Côme
Traditionally, survival estimates have been reported as survival from the time of diagnosis. A patient's probability of survival changes according to time elapsed since the diagnosis and this is known as conditional survival. The aim was to estimate 5-year net conditional survival in patients with colorectal cancer in a well-defined French population at yearly intervals up to 5 years. Our study included 18,300 colorectal cancers diagnosed between 1976 and 2008 and registered in the population-based digestive cancer registry of Burgundy (France). We calculated conditional 5-year net survival, using the Pohar Perme estimator, for every additional year survived after diagnosis from 1 to 5 years. The initial 5-year net survival estimates varied between 89% for stage I and 9% for advanced stage cancer. The corresponding 5-year net survival for patients alive after 5 years was 95% and 75%. Stage II and III patients who survived 5 years had a similar probability of surviving 5 more years, respectively 87% and 84%. For survivors after the first year following diagnosis, five-year conditional net survival was similar regardless of age class and period of diagnosis. For colorectal cancer survivors, conditional net survival provides relevant and complementary prognostic information for patients and clinicians. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kumaran, Dharshan; Banino, Andrea; Blundell, Charles; Hassabis, Demis; Dayan, Peter
Knowledge about social hierarchies organizes human behavior, yet we understand little about the underlying computations. Here we show that a Bayesian inference scheme, which tracks the power of individuals, better captures behavioral and neural data compared with a reinforcement learning model inspired by rating systems used in games such as chess. We provide evidence that the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) selectively mediates the updating of knowledge about one's own hierarchy, as opposed to that of another individual, a process that underpinned successful performance and involved functional interactions with the amygdala and hippocampus. In contrast, we observed domain-general coding of rank in the amygdala and hippocampus, even when the task did not require it. Our findings reveal the computations underlying a core aspect of social cognition and provide new evidence that self-relevant information may indeed be afforded a unique representational status in the brain. Copyright Â© 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Higgins, G; McGinley, B; Faul, S; McEvoy, R P; Glavin, M; Marnane, W P; Jones, E
This paper examines the effects of compression on EEG signals, in the context of automated detection of epileptic seizures. Specifically, it examines the use of lossy compression on EEG signals in order to reduce the amount of data which has to be transmitted or stored, while having as little impact as possible on the information in the signal relevant to diagnosing epileptic seizures. Two popular compression methods, JPEG2000 and SPIHT, were used. A range of compression levels was selected for both algorithms in order to compress the signals with varying degrees of loss. This compression was applied to the database of epileptiform data provided by the University of Freiburg, Germany. The real-time EEG analysis for event detection automated seizure detection system was used in place of a trained clinician for scoring the reconstructed data. Results demonstrate that compression by a factor of up to 120:1 can be achieved, with minimal loss in seizure detection performance as measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the seizure detection system.
Segev, Elad; Sharon, Aviv J
In response to the news coverage of scientific events and to science education, people increasingly go online to get more information. This study investigates how patterns of science and technology information-seeking on Google and Wikipedia change over time, in ways that differ between "ad hoc" terms that correspond to news coverage and "cyclic" terms that correspond to the academic period. Findings show that the science and technology activity in Google and Wikipedia was significantly associated with ad hoc and cyclic patterns. While the peak activity in Google and Wikipedia largely overlapped for ad hoc terms, it mismatched for cyclic terms. The findings indicate the importance of external cues such as news media and education, and also of the online engagement process, and particularly the crucial but different role played by Google and Wikipedia in gaining science and technology knowledge. Educators and policy makers could benefit from taking into account those different patterns.
Full Text Available The arguments for and against genetically modified (GM food focus on the characteristics of the scientific uncertainty and asymmetric information for the GM food. How do these two factors affect the competition and pricing strategy of food firms that separate GM food and conventional food conforming to consumer’s right to know? We explore the issue of pricing strategies between two firms producing horizontally and vertically differentiated foods in the context of asymmetric information and scientific uncertainty. The theoretical results show that there are two separating perfect Bayesian equilibria in which the prices of the conventional food and GM food are strategic complements and the profits of two types of firms are both increasing in the price of GM food. The numerical example shows that a decrease of the expected potential net damage as the most sensitive parameter leads to an increase of the profits of the two firms. Additionally, an increase in product differentiation helps to increase the two firms’ profits. Finally, the decrease in risk aversion as the second sensitive parameter helps to increase both products’ prices and quantities and both firms’ profits. This paper contributes by combining food safety regulation with market mechanisms and competition.
Sheridan, Heather; Reingold, Eyal M
The present study explored the ability of expert and novice chess players to rapidly distinguish between regions of a chessboard that were relevant to the best move on the board, and regions of the board that were irrelevant. Accordingly, we monitored the eye movements of expert and novice chess players, while they selected white's best move for a variety of chess problems. To manipulate relevancy, we constructed two different versions of each chess problem in the experiment, and we counterbalanced these versions across participants. These two versions of each problem were identical except that a single piece was changed from a bishop to a knight. This subtle change reversed the relevancy map of the board, such that regions that were relevant in one version of the board were now irrelevant (and vice versa). Using this paradigm, we demonstrated that both the experts and novices spent more time fixating the relevant relative to the irrelevant regions of the board. However, the experts were faster at detecting relevant information than the novices, as shown by the finding that experts (but not novices) were able to distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information during the early part of the trial. These findings further demonstrate the domain-related perceptual processing advantage of chess experts, using an experimental paradigm that allowed us to manipulate relevancy under tightly controlled conditions.
Full Text Available The present study explored the ability of expert and novice chess players to rapidly distinguish between regions of a chessboard that were relevant to the best move on the board, and regions of the board that were irrelevant. Accordingly, we monitored the eye movements of expert and novice chess players, while they selected white’s best move for a variety of chess problems. To manipulate relevancy, we constructed two different versions of each chess problem in the experiment, and we counterbalanced these versions across participants. These two versions of each problem were identical except that a single piece was changed from a bishop to a knight. This subtle change reversed the relevancy map of the board, such that regions that were relevant in one version of the board were now irrelevant (and vice versa. Using this paradigm, we demonstrated that both the experts and novices spent more time fixating the relevant relative to the irrelevant regions of the board. However, the experts were faster at detecting relevant information than the novices, as shown by the finding that experts (but not novices were able to distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information during the early part of the trial. These findings further demonstrate the domain-related perceptual processing advantage of chess experts, using an experimental paradigm that allowed us to manipulate relevancy under tightly controlled conditions.
Ruppert, S D; Dodge, D A; Ganzberger, M D; Harris, D B; Hauk, T F
The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Development (GNEMRD) Program at LLNL continues to make significant progress enhancing the process of deriving seismic calibrations and performing scientific integration, analysis, and information management with software automation tools. Our tool efforts address the problematic issues of very large datasets and varied formats encountered during seismic calibration research. New information management and analysis tools have resulted in demonstrated gains in efficiency of producing scientific data products and improved accuracy of derived seismic calibrations. In contrast to previous years, software development work this past year has emphasized development of automation at the data ingestion level. This change reflects a gradually-changing emphasis in our program from processing a few large data sets that result in a single integrated delivery, to processing many different data sets from a variety of sources. The increase in the number of sources had resulted in a large increase in the amount of metadata relative to the final volume of research products. Software developed this year addresses the problems of: (1) Efficient metadata ingestion and conflict resolution; (2) Automated ingestion of bulletin information; (3) Automated ingestion of waveform information from global data centers; and (4) Site Metadata and Response transformation required for certain products. This year, we also made a significant step forward in meeting a long-standing goal of developing and using a waveform correlation framework. Our objective for such a framework is to extract additional calibration data (e.g. mining blasts) and to study the extent to which correlated seismicity can be found in global and regional scale environments.
Full Text Available The article presents a historical reconstruction of Ukrainian-Polish scientific relations in the field of humanities in 1955-1960, conducted on the basis of archival sources study. Scientific information exchange of humanitarian institutions of the AS of the Ukrainian SSR with Polish research institutions was quite diversified. It included mutual visits of the scientists from research institutes as delegations members, individual scientific missions to research institutions in order to acquaint with scientific developments, participation in international workshops, congresses and conferences, international book exchange, joint publishing, mutual reviewing of scientific publications. From the second half of the 50s of the 20th century there was an intensification of joint research projects conducted for the development of certain scientific issues, which were of interest for both Ukrainian and Polish scientists, who endeavored to solve them
Wang, Dong-Yuan Debbie; Richard, F Dan; Ray, Brittany
The stimulus-response correspondence (SRC) effect refers to advantages in performance when stimulus and response correspond in dimensions or features, even if the common features are irrelevant to the task. Previous research indicated that the SRC effect depends on the temporal course of stimulus information processing. The current study investigated how the temporal overlap between relevant and irrelevant stimulus processing influences the SRC effect. In this experiment, the irrelevant stimulus (a previously associated tone) preceded the relevant stimulus (a coloured rectangle). The irrelevant and relevant stimuli onset asynchrony was varied to manipulate the temporal overlap between the irrelevant and relevant stimuli processing. Results indicated that the SRC effect size varied as a quadratic function of the temporal overlap between the relevant stimulus and irrelevant stimulus. This finding extends previous experimental observations that the SRC effect size varies in an increasing or decreasing function with reaction time. The current study demonstrated a quadratic function between effect size and the temporal overlap.
Oh, Jooyoung; Chun, Ji-Won; Kim, Eunseong; Park, Hae-Jeong; Lee, Boreom; Kim, Jae-Jin
Patients with schizophrenia exhibit several cognitive deficits, including memory impairment. Problems with recognition memory can hinder socially adaptive behavior. Previous investigations have suggested that altered activation of the frontotemporal area plays an important role in recognition memory impairment. However, the cerebral networks related to these deficits are not known. The aim of this study was to elucidate the brain networks required for recognizing socially relevant information in patients with schizophrenia performing an old-new recognition task. Sixteen patients with schizophrenia and 16 controls participated in this study. First, the subjects performed the theme-identification task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. In this task, pictures depicting social situations were presented with three words, and the subjects were asked to select the best theme word for each picture. The subjects then performed an old-new recognition task in which they were asked to discriminate whether the presented words were old or new. Task performance and neural responses in the old-new recognition task were compared between the subject groups. An independent component analysis of the functional connectivity was performed. The patients with schizophrenia exhibited decreased discriminability and increased activation of the right superior temporal gyrus compared with the controls during correct responses. Furthermore, aberrant network activities were found in the frontopolar and language comprehension networks in the patients. The functional connectivity analysis showed aberrant connectivity in the frontopolar and language comprehension networks in the patients with schizophrenia, and these aberrations possibly contribute to their low recognition performance and social dysfunction. These results suggest that the frontopolar and language comprehension networks are potential therapeutic targets in patients with schizophrenia.
Erik André de Nazaré Pires
Full Text Available The present study seeks to investigate the use of the Digital Object Identifier (DOI in the scientific journals of Communication and Information and, providing new integration utilities with the Lattes Platform. In this sense, it aims to inform the existing titles in Communication Information in electronic format, demonstrate the importance of DOI in the integration with the Lattes Platform in order to guarantee author credibility and analyze the characteristics of publications that have DOI. The methodology used for the development of this study is bibliographic, research with descriptive-descriptive characteristics. From the development of the research, it is inferred that of all the analyzed journals (33 journals, 10 titles in the evaluation of 2013 and 06 titles of the evaluation of 2014 present DOI in their publications, all have WebQualis classification, Qualis A1 in the area Communication and Information. Most publications are international and only 3 titles are national. It is necessary that journals, principally national ones, accompany new technologies such as DOI for objects and ORCID for the identification of people, bringing more mechanisms that guarantee authors 'credibility and to bring the researchers' connection, and both can already be adopted in the Platform Lattes.
The library and information branch is an important constituent part of a scientific and technic research institute, and is a technically assistant department which is set for scientific and technic research and production. The investigations show that the achievements by the library and information departments are marked in scientific and technic research institutes, and the library and information works play important roles for the existence, development and innovation of the institute in past years. But, the present conditions and statuses are dropped behind, and more problems existed in the library and information departments as a whole. The development ideas are proposed for the library and information work by analyzing the characteristics of nowadays knowledge service, knowledge economy and network information time. (authors)
Márcio André Veras Machado
Full Text Available The usefulness of financial statements depends, fundamentally, on the degree of relevance of the information they disclose to users. Thus, studies that measure the relevance of accounting information to the users of financial statements are of some importance. One line of research within this subject is in ascertaining the relevance and importance of accounting information for the capital markets: if a particular item of accounting information is minimally reflected in the price of a share, it is because this information has relevance, at least at a certain level of significance, for investors and analysts of the capital markets. This present study aims to analyze the relevance, in the Brazilian capital markets, of the information content of the Value Added Statement (or VAS - referred to in Brazil as the Demonstração do Valor Adicionado, or DVA. It analyzed the ratio between stock price and Wealth created per share (WCPS, using linear regressions, for the period 2005-2011, for non-financial listed companies included in Melhores & Maiores ('Biggest & Best', an annual listing published by Exame Magazine in Brazil. As a secondary objective, this article seeks to establish whether WCPS represents a better indication of a company's result than Net profit per share (in this study, referred to as NPPS. The empirical evidence that was found supports the concept that the VAS has relevant information content, because it shows a capacity to explain a variation in the share price of the companies studied. Additionally, the relationship between WCPS and the stock price was shown to be significant, even after the inclusion of the control variables Stockholders' equity per share (which we abbreviate in this study to SEPS and NPPS. Finally, the evidence found indicates that the market reacts more to WCPS (Wealth created per share than to NPPS. Thus, the results obtained give some indication that, for the Brazilian capital markets, WCPS may be a better proxy
Oliveras, B.; Márquez, C.; Sanmartí, N.
This research analyses what happens when a critical reading activity based on a press article dealing with an energy-related problem is implemented with two groups of students of 13-14 years old and 16-17 years old in the same school (a total of 117 students). Specifically, the research analyses the students' profiles from the standpoint of their attitudes to the information given in the news story and the use they make of it when writing an argumentative text. It also analyses the difficulties the students have when it comes to applying their knowledge about energy in a real-life context. Lastly, some strategies are suggested for helping students to critically analyse the scientific content of a newspaper article. Three reader profiles were identified (the credulous reader, the ideological reader and the critical reader). No significant differences were found in reading profiles in terms of age or scientific knowledge. The findings show that the activity helped to link science learning in school with facts relating to an actual context, particularly in the case of students with more science knowledge.
Alla V. Kilchenko
Full Text Available A construction and introduction of the information systems in a management education is the actual task of forming of modern information society. In the article the results of research of automation of treatment of financial documents, which was conducted within the project «Scientific-methodical providing of the informative system of programming of scientific researches in Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine based on the Internet» № 0109U002139 are represented. The article contains methodical principles of automation of treatment programming and financial documents as well as requirements to the information system, which will be the base to next project stages.
Ruppert, S; Dodge, D A; Ganzberger, M D; Hauk, T F; Matzel, E M
The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Development (GNEMRD) Program at LLNL continues to make significant progress enhancing the process of deriving seismic calibrations and performing scientific integration, analysis, and information management with software automation tools. Our tool efforts address the problematic issues of very large datasets and varied formats encountered during seismic calibration research. New information management and analysis tools have resulted in demonstrated gains in efficiency of producing scientific data products and improved accuracy of derived seismic calibrations. The foundation of a robust, efficient data development and processing environment is comprised of many components built upon engineered versatile libraries. We incorporate proven industry 'best practices' throughout our code and apply source code and bug tracking management as well as automatic generation and execution of unit tests for our experimental, development and production lines. Significant software engineering and development efforts have produced an object-oriented framework that provides database centric coordination between scientific tools, users, and data. Over a half billion parameters, signals, measurements, and metadata entries are all stored in a relational database accessed by an extensive object-oriented multi-technology software framework that includes stored procedures, real-time transactional database triggers and constraints, as well as coupled Java and C++ software libraries to handle the information interchange and validation requirements. Significant resources were applied to schema design to enable management of processing methods and station parameters, responses and metadata. This allowed for the development of merged ground-truth (GT) data sets compiled by the NNSA labs and AFTAC that include hundreds of thousands of events and tens of millions of arrivals. The
Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.
In fiscal year 1994, the United States government spent about $68 billion for science and technology. Although there is general agreement among policy makers that the results of this expenditure can be used to enhance technological innovation and improve economic competitiveness, there is no coherent scientific and technical information (STI) policy. The absence of a cohesive policy and STI policy framework means that the transfer and utilization of STI goes uncoordinated. This chapter examines the U.S. government's role in funding science and technology, reviews Federal STI activities and involvement in the transfer and use of STI resulting from federally-funded science and technology, presents issues surrounding the use of federally-funded STI, and offers recommendations for improving the transfer and use of STI.
Wake, C.; Frades, M.; Hurtt, G. C.; Magnusson, M.; Gittell, R.; Skoglund, C.; Morin, J.
Carbon Solutions New England (CSNE), a public-private partnership formed to promote collective action to achieve a low carbon society, has been working with the Governor appointed New Hampshire Climate Change Policy Task Force (NHCCTF) to support the development of a state Climate Change Action Plan. CSNE's role has been to quantify the potential carbon emissions reduction, implementation costs, and cost savings at three distinct time periods (2012, 2025, 2050) for a range of strategies identified by the Task Force. These strategies were developed for several sectors (transportation and land use, electricity generation and use, building energy use, and agriculture, forestry, and waste).New Hampshire's existing and projected economic and population growth are well above the regional average, creating additional challenges for the state to meet regional emission reduction targets. However, by pursuing an ambitious suite of renewable energy and energy efficiency strategies, New Hampshire may be able to continue growing while reducing emissions at a rate close to 3% per year up to 2025. This suite includes efficiency improvements in new and existing buildings, a renewable portfolio standard for electricity generation, avoiding forested land conversion, fuel economy gains in new vehicles, and a reduction in vehicle miles traveled. Most (over 80%) of these emission reduction strategies are projected to provide net economic savings in 2025.A collaborative and iterative process was developed among the key partners in the project. The foundation for the project's success included: a diverse analysis team with leadership that was committed to the project, an open source analysis approach, weekly meetings and frequent communication among the partners, interim reporting of analysis, and an established and trusting relationship among the partners, in part due to collaboration on previous projects.To develop decision-relevant information for the Task Force, CSNE addressed
Rouinfar, Amy; Agra, Elise; Larson, Adam M; Rebello, N Sanjay; Loschky, Lester C
This study investigated links between visual attention processes and conceptual problem solving. This was done by overlaying visual cues on conceptual physics problem diagrams to direct participants' attention to relevant areas to facilitate problem solving. Participants (N = 80) individually worked through four problem sets, each containing a diagram, while their eye movements were recorded. Each diagram contained regions that were relevant to solving the problem correctly and separate regions related to common incorrect responses. Problem sets contained an initial problem, six isomorphic training problems, and a transfer problem. The cued condition saw visual cues overlaid on the training problems. Participants' verbal responses were used to determine their accuracy. This study produced two major findings. First, short duration visual cues which draw attention to solution-relevant information and aid in the organizing and integrating of it, facilitate both immediate problem solving and generalization of that ability to new problems. Thus, visual cues can facilitate re-representing a problem and overcoming impasse, enabling a correct solution. Importantly, these cueing effects on problem solving did not involve the solvers' attention necessarily embodying the solution to the problem, but were instead caused by solvers attending to and integrating relevant information in the problems into a solution path. Second, this study demonstrates that when such cues are used across multiple problems, solvers can automatize the extraction of problem-relevant information extraction. These results suggest that low-level attentional selection processes provide a necessary gateway for relevant information to be used in problem solving, but are generally not sufficient for correct problem solving. Instead, factors that lead a solver to an impasse and to organize and integrate problem information also greatly facilitate arriving at correct solutions.
Government financial information is an important part of government information, fully reporting the operational efficiency and the place where government puts tax onto. This paper analyses the problems in Chinese government financial information disclosure and the necessity of reform in detail. It also provides several proposals for the improvement of Chinese governmental financial report and financial information disclosure system.
Full Text Available Government financial information is an important part of government information, fully reporting the operational efficiency and the place where government puts tax onto. This paper analyses the problems in Chinese government financial information disclosure and the necessity of reform in detail. It also provides several proposals for the improvement of Chinese governmental financial report and financial information disclosure system.
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this article is to study whether there exists natural relationship between fair value and corporate external market. A series of special phenomenon in the application of fair value arouses our research interests, which present evidences on how competition affects the correlation of fair value information. Design/methodology/approach: this thesis chooses fair value changes gains and losses and calculate the ratio of DFVPSit as the alternative variable of the fair value. In order to effectively inspect the mutual influence between the degree of industry competition and the value relevance of fair value, and reduce the impact of multi-collinearity, we built a regression model on the hypothesis, which supposes that if other conditions are the same, the fair value information has greater value relevance if the degree of the industry competition is greater. To test the hypothesis, we use the comparison of the DFVPSit coefficient absolute value to judge the value relevance of fair value information, and the greater the absolute value is, the higher relevance between the changes in fair value per share profits and losses with the stock prices. Findings: The higher the degree of competition in the industry is, the more fair value information relevance is. Also, there are evidences representing that fair value information often presents negative correlation with the stock price. Originality/value: The main contribution of the article is to show that not only need we make the formulation and implementation of the high quality of fair value accounting standards to suit for both the national conditions and international practice, but also need we further to improve the company's external governance mechanism to promote fair value’s information correlation.
Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Grunert, Klaus G
It is a requirement that health claims be scientifically founded. However, their phrasing is criticised for being unappealing and cumbersome to communicate to consumers. Instead, it has been found that consumers respond favourably to non-scientifically phrased ‘soft’ health information. We aimed...... were presented in a between subjects experimental design conducted in the US and Denmark. Furthermore, respondents were shown mock-up media reports contradicting the earlier information and asked to repeat their assessment of health inferences and their attitude. This was done to assess how robust...... consumers’ health inferences and attitudes are in an environment of contradictory information. Results show that the soft information positively influences health inferences and attitudes in Denmark, while in the US, scientific information positively influences health inferences but not attitudes. Faced...
Full Text Available
Human health is determined by the interplay of genetic factors and the environment. In this context the recent advances in human genomics are expected to play a central role in medicine and public health by providing genetic information for disease prediction and prevention.
After the completion of the human genome sequencing, a fundamental step will be represented by the translation of these discoveries into meaningful actions to improve health and prevent diseases, and the field of epidemiology plays a central role in this effort. These are some of the issues addressed by Human Genome Epidemiology –A scientific foundation for using genetic information to improve health and prevent disease, a volume edited by Prof. M. Khoury, Prof. J. Little, Prof.W. Burke and published by Oxford university Press 2004.
This book describes the important role that epidemiological methods play in the continuum from gene discovery to the development and application of genetic tests. The Authors calls this continuum human genome epidemiology (HuGE to denote an evolving field of inquiry that uses systematic applications of epidemiological methods to assess the impact of human genetic variation on health and disease.
The book is divided into four sections and it is structured to allow readers to proceed systematically from the fundamentals of genome technology and discovery, to the epidemiological approaches, to gene characterisation, to the evaluation of genetic tests and their use in health services and public health.
Pulew, W.M.; Chlebarow, J.A.; Boitschew, B.B.; Kurtew, I.D.
STAIRS/VS has been installed on an IBM System/370-B5 in the computer centre of the central institute for scientific and technical information (ZINTI) in Sofia since 1975. Besides literature documentation, STAIRS/VS is also used for project documentation in order to supervise projects and their progress. Two types of data banks result from this problem in two parts differing in structure. Internal data as well as external data from magnetic tape service enter the STAIRS/VS data bank. The processing of texts in Cyrillic applied here for the first time is completely new for STAIRS/VS operation. Hence certain modifications for STAIRS/VS were made: STAIRS/VS was supplemented by a series of programmes for project supervision. The data acquisition as well as the change or supplementation of the documents already stored in STAIRS/VS mainly run via VIDEO/370. Besides the STAIRS/VS standard information on high-speed printers or on magnetic tape, special printing forms were developed. Parties interested in STAIRS/VS are supplied with a SDI service produced in batch process based on magnetic tape service; it is made in special size. The appropriate data banks are accordingly available for on-line research. (orig.) [de
Regulations require that all reasonable efforts must be made to maintain exposure to radiation as far below the limits specified in 10 CFR Part 20 as is reasonably achievable. Information is provided relevant to attaining goals and objectives for planning, designing, constructing, operating and decommissioning a light-water-cooled nuclear power station to meet that criterion. Much of the information presented is also applicable to other than light-water-cooled nuclear power stations
... Policy-Relevant Science to Inform EPA's Integrated Plan for the Review of the Lead National Ambient Air.... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is announcing that a workshop entitled, ``Workshop to Discuss Policy... workshop will be open to attendance by interested public observers on a first-come, first-served basis up...
This study uses the human approach to examine the sources and effectiveness of search terms selected during 40 mediated interactive database searches and focuses on determining the retrieval effectiveness of search terms identified by users and intermediaries from retrieved items during term relevance feedback. (Author/JKP)
Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Gandour, Jackson T
Pitch is a robust perceptual attribute that plays an important role in speech, language, and music. As such, it provides an analytic window to evaluate how neural activity relevant to pitch undergo transformation from early sensory to later cognitive stages of processing in a well coordinated hierarchical network that is subject to experience-dependent plasticity. We review recent evidence of language experience-dependent effects in pitch processing based on comparisons of native vs. nonnative speakers of a tonal language from electrophysiological recordings in the auditory brainstem and auditory cortex. We present evidence that shows enhanced representation of linguistically-relevant pitch dimensions or features at both the brainstem and cortical levels with a stimulus-dependent preferential activation of the right hemisphere in native speakers of a tone language. We argue that neural representation of pitch-relevant information in the brainstem and early sensory level processing in the auditory cortex is shaped by the perceptual salience of domain-specific features. While both stages of processing are shaped by language experience, neural representations are transformed and fundamentally different at each biological level of abstraction. The representation of pitch relevant information in the brainstem is more fine-grained spectrotemporally as it reflects sustained neural phase-locking to pitch relevant periodicities contained in the stimulus. In contrast, the cortical pitch relevant neural activity reflects primarily a series of transient temporal neural events synchronized to certain temporal attributes of the pitch contour. We argue that experience-dependent enhancement of pitch representation for Chinese listeners most likely reflects an interaction between higher-level cognitive processes and early sensory-level processing to improve representations of behaviorally-relevant features that contribute optimally to perception. It is our view that long
Glynn, P. D.; Voinov, A. A.; Shapiro, C. D.
Post-normal science requires public engagement and adaptive corrections in addressing issues with high complexity and uncertainty. An adaptive management framework is presented for the improved management of natural resources and environments through a public participation process. The framework solicits the gathering and transformation and/or modeling of scientific information but also explicitly solicits the expression of participant beliefs. Beliefs and information are compared, explicitly discussed for alignments or misalignments, and ultimately melded back together as a "knowledge" basis for making decisions. An effort is made to recognize the human or participant biases that may affect the information base and the potential decisions. In a separate step, an attempt is made to recognize and predict the potential "winners" and "losers" (perceived or real) of any decision or action. These "winners" and "losers" include present human communities with different spatial, demographic or socio-economic characteristics as well as more dispersed or more diffusely characterized regional or global communities. "Winners" and "losers" may also include future human communities as well as communities of other biotic species. As in any adaptive management framework, assessment of predictions, iterative follow-through and adaptation of policies or actions is essential, and commonly very difficult or impossible to achieve. Recognizing beforehand the limits of adaptive management is essential. More generally, knowledge of the behavioral and economic sciences and of ethics and sociology will be key to a successful implementation of this adaptive management framework. Knowledge of biogeophysical processes will also be essential, but by definition of the issues being addressed, will always be incomplete and highly uncertain. The human dimensions of the issues addressed and the participatory processes used carry their own complexities and uncertainties. Some ideas and principles are
Tolzman, Jean M.
The potential for expanded communication among researchers, scholars, and students is supported by growth in the capabilities for electronic communication as well as expanding access to various forms of electronic interchange and computing capabilities. Increased possibilities for information exchange, collegial dialogue, collaboration, and access to remote resources exist as high-speed networks, increasingly powerful workstations, and large, multi-user computational facilities are more frequently linked and more commonly available. Numerous writers speak of the telecommunications revolution and its impact on the development and dissemination of knowledge and learning. One author offers the phrase 'Scholarly skywriting' to represent a new form of scientific communication that he envisions using electronic networks. In the United States (U.S.), researchers associated with the National Science Foundation (NSF) are exploring 'nationwide collaboratories' and 'digital collaboration.' Research supported by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) points to a future where workstations with built-in audio, video monitors, and screen sharing protocols are used to support collaborations with colleagues located throughout the world. Instruments and sensors located worldwide will produce data streams that will be brought together, analyzed, and distributed as new findings. Researchers will have access to machines that can supply domain-specific information in addition to locator and directory assistance. New forms of electronic journals will emerge and provide opportunities for researchers and scientists to exchange information electronically and interactively in a range of structures and formats. Ultimately, the wide-scale use of these technologies in the dissemination of research results and the stimulation of collegial dialogue will change the way we represent and express our knowledge of the world. A new paradigm will evolve--perhaps a truly worldwide
Marcelo Alvaro da Silva Macedo
Full Text Available Law 11.638/07 marked the start of a series of changes in the laws that regulate Brazilian accounting practices. The main reason for these changes is the convergence process of local with international accounting standards. As a result of Law 11.638/07, the legal precedent was established to achieve convergence. In that context, the aim of this study is to analyze the impact of the convergence process with international accounting standards on the relevance of financial information, based on data for 2007, without and with the alterations Law 11.638/07 introduced and according to the CPC Pronouncements, applicable as from 2008 onwards. Therefore, a value relevance study is used, applying regression analysis to annual stock price information (dependent variable and net profit per share (NPPS and net equity per share (NEPS as independent variables. The main results show that financial information on NPPS and NEPS for 2007, with and without the legal alterations, are relevant for the capital market. A comparison between both regressions used in the analysis, however, shows an information gain for financial information that includes the changes introduced in the first phase of the accounting convergence process with the international standards.
Parinov, A. V.; Korotkikh, L. P.; Desyatov, D. B.; Stepanov, L. V.
The uniqueness of information processing mechanisms in special-purpose infocommunication systems and the increased interest of intruders lead to an increase in the relevance of the problems associated with their protection. The paper considers the issues of building risk-models for the violation of the relevance and value of information in infocommunication systems for special purposes. Also, special attention is paid to the connection between the qualities of relevance and the value of information obtained as a result of the operation of infocommunication systems for special purposes. Analytical expressions for the risk and damage function in the time range in special-purpose infocommunication systems are obtained, which can serve as a mathematical basis for risk assessment. Further, an analytical expression is obtained to assess the chance of obtaining up-to-date information in the operation of infocommunication systems up to the time the information quality is violated. An analytical expression for estimating the chance can be used to calculate the effectiveness of a special-purpose infocommunication system.
Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to assess the compliance with the characteristic of the relevance of disclosure in Management Reports, particularly dealing with Human Capital (HC information.Design/methodology/approach: We codify all instances where narratives of IBEX-35 stock index companies over a five year period in Spain comply with the recommendations for a “high quality” Management Commentary (MC in terms of the relevance characteristic of the information disclosed (IASB, 2005.Findings: The analysis results show that a greater quantity of information about HC in terms of the number of pages devoted is not always indicative of higher quality in terms of relevance if we look for the application of IASB recommendations.Research limitations/implications: Further research could assess compliance with other qualitative characteristics required by other standards or guidances that were internationaly generaly accepted.Practical implications: Among the areas that require improvement in HC disclosures we highlight forward-looking information.Social implications: We propose that an internationally accepted agreement must be struck to unite all the efforts that are being made to improve narrative information in the MC section, and specifically with reference to HC.Originality/value: This work compiles the HC disclosures identified as best practices that may serve as a reference to other companies.
Hedner, Charlotta; Sundgren, Pia C; Kelly, Aine Marie
The purpose of this study was to assess if the presence of information including the pretest probability (Wells score), other known risk factors, and symptoms given on referrals for computed tomography (CT) pulmonary angiography correlated with prevalence rates for pulmonary embolism (PE). Also, to evaluate for differences between a university and a regional hospital setting regarding patient characteristics, amount of relevant information provided on referrals, and prevalence rates for pulmonary embolism. Retrospective review of all consecutive referrals (emergency room, inpatient, and outpatient) for CT performed on children and adults for suspected PE from two sites: a tertiary (university) hospital (site 1) and a secondary (regional) hospital (site 2) over a 5-year period. The overall prevalence rate was 510/3641 or 14% of all referrals. Significantly higher number of males had a positive CT compared to women (18% versus 12%, P relevant information on the referral and the probability for positive finding existed, a slight trend was noted (P = .09). In two categories, "hypoxia" and "signs of deep vein thrombosis," the presence of this information conferred a higher probability for pulmonary embolism, P information conferred a higher probability for pulmonary embolism. The amount of relevant clinical information on the request did not correlate with prevalence rates, which may reflect a lack of documentation on the part of emergency physicians who may use a "gestalt" approach. Request forms likely did not capture all relevant patient risks and many factors may interact with each other, both positively and negatively. Pretest probability estimations were rarely performed, despite their inclusion in major society guidelines. Copyright © 2013 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fernando César Lima Leite
Full Text Available This paper presents results of study on the characteristics of search activities, access to and use of information, and dissemination habits of researchers from scientific research institutes. From the methodological point of view, it is a mixed methods study which adopted the concurrent triangulation strategy. Data were collected through questionnaires, interviews and checklist, and then submitted to statistical and text analysis. The research sphere was consisted of researchers linked to the research units of the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation, and the sample basis were the researchers of the Brazilian Centre for Physics Research (CBPF and Museum of Astronomy and Related Sciences (MAST. Among other aspects, the findings shows that the safeguarded their disciplinary differences, search, access and communication activities, regardless of the knowledge area, occurring mainly in the digital environment; communication habits are stimulated by motives common to scientists and social scientists and humanists, share knowledge and visibility are the main reasons for the dissemination of research results, physicists are naturally within the open access context.
Rohra, Dileep K.; Rohra, Vikram K.; Cahusac, Peter
Objectives: To compare the journal impact factor (JIF) and Eigenfactor score (ES) of Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)-indexed biomedical journals published from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the last 8 years. Methods: This is a retrospective study, conducted at Alfaisal University, Riyadh, KSA from January to March 2016. The Journal Citation Reports of ISI Web of Knowledge were accessed, and 6 Saudi biomedical journals were included for analysis. Results: All Saudi journals have improved their IF compared with their baseline. However, the performance of the Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Neurosciences has been exceptionally good. The biggest improvement in percent growth in JIF was seen in the Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal (approximately 887%) followed by Neurosciences (approximately 462%). Interestingly, the ES of all biomedical journals, except Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology and Saudi Medical Journal, increased over the years. The greatest growth in ES (more than 5 fold) was noted for Neurosciences and Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal. Conclusion: This study shows that the overall quality of all Saudi biomedical journals has improved in the last 8 years. PMID:27761565
Price, C. Aaron; Lee, H.-S.; Malatesta, K.
Stereoscopic technology (3D) is rapidly becoming ubiquitous across research, entertainment and informal educational settings. Children of today may grow up never knowing a time when movies, television and video games were not available stereoscopically. Despite this rapid expansion, the field's understanding of the impact of stereoscopic visualizations on learning is rather limited. Much of the excitement of stereoscopic technology could be due to a novelty effect, which will wear off over time. This study controlled for the novelty factor using a variety of techniques. On the floor of an urban science center, 261 children were shown 12 photographs and visualizations of highly spatial scientific objects and scenes. The images were randomly shown in either traditional (2D) format or in stereoscopic format. The children were asked two questions of each image—one about a spatial property of the image and one about a real-world application of that property. At the end of the test, the child was asked to draw from memory the last image they saw. Results showed no overall significant difference in response to the questions associated with 2D or 3D images. However, children who saw the final slide only in 3D drew more complex representations of the slide than those who did not. Results are discussed through the lenses of cognitive load theory and the effect of novelty on engagement.
Maman, Shimrit; Isaacson, Sivan; Blumberg, Dan G.
In recent years, a decline in the rates of examinees in the academic track that were entitled to an enhanced matriculation certificate in scientific-technological education was reported in Israel. To confront this problem the Earth and Planetary Image Facility (EPIF) at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev fosters interdisciplinary exploration through educational programs that make use of the facility and its equipment and enable the empowerment of the community by understanding and appreciating science and technology. This is achieved by using Geographic Information Technologies (GIT) such as remote sensing and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) for geo-physical sciences in activities that combine theoretical background with hands-on activities. Monitoring Earth from space by satellites, digital atlases and virtual-based positioning applications are examples for fusion of spatial information (geographic) and technology that the activity is based on. GIT opens a new chapter and a recent history of Cartography starting from the collection of spatial data to its presentation and analysis. GIS have replaced the use of classical atlas books and offer a variety of Web-based applications that provide maps and display up-to-date imagery. The purpose of this workshop is to expose teachers and students to GITs which are applicable in every classroom. The activity imparts free geographic information systems that exist in cyberspace and accessible to single users as the Israeli national GIS and Google earth, which are based on a spatial data and long term local and global satellite imagery coverage. In this paper, our "Think global-Map Local" activity is presented. The activity uses GIS and change detection technologies as means to encourage students to explore environmental issues both around the globe and close to their surroundings. The students detect changes by comparing multi temporal images of a chosen site and learn how to map the alterations and produce change
... Collection: Strengthening the Scientific Understanding of Climate Change Impacts on Freshwater Resources of... Scientific Understanding of Climate Change Impacts on Freshwater Resources of the United States.'' The draft report reviews key issues related to freshwater resource data and climate change and identifies next...
Lizier, Joseph T; Heinzle, Jakob; Horstmann, Annette; Haynes, John-Dylan; Prokopenko, Mikhail
The human brain undertakes highly sophisticated information processing facilitated by the interaction between its sub-regions. We present a novel method for interregional connectivity analysis, using multivariate extensions to the mutual information and transfer entropy. The method allows us to identify the underlying directed information structure between brain regions, and how that structure changes according to behavioral conditions. This method is distinguished in using asymmetric, multivariate, information-theoretical analysis, which captures not only directional and non-linear relationships, but also collective interactions. Importantly, the method is able to estimate multivariate information measures with only relatively little data. We demonstrate the method to analyze functional magnetic resonance imaging time series to establish the directed information structure between brain regions involved in a visuo-motor tracking task. Importantly, this results in a tiered structure, with known movement planning regions driving visual and motor control regions. Also, we examine the changes in this structure as the difficulty of the tracking task is increased. We find that task difficulty modulates the coupling strength between regions of a cortical network involved in movement planning and between motor cortex and the cerebellum which is involved in the fine-tuning of motor control. It is likely these methods will find utility in identifying interregional structure (and experimentally induced changes in this structure) in other cognitive tasks and data modalities.
Hall, Robert T.; White, Joshua S.; Fields, Jeremy
Information Cascades (IC) through a social network occur due to the decision of users to disseminate content. We define this decision process as User Diffusion (UD). IC models typically describe an information cascade by treating a user as a node within a social graph, where a node's reception of an idea is represented by some activation state. The probability of activation then becomes a function of a node's connectedness to other activated nodes as well as, potentially, the history of activation attempts. We enrich this Coarse-Grained User Diffusion (CGUD) model by applying actor type logics to the nodes of the graph. The resulting Fine-Grained User Diffusion (FGUD) model utilizes prior research in actor typing to generate a predictive model regarding the future influence a user will have on an Information Cascade. Furthermore, we introduce a measure of Information Resonance that is used to aid in predictions regarding user behavior.
the essential elements of the sensor selection problem is defined from the Fisher information matrix. An example application consisting in a commercial turbofan engine illustrates the enhancement that can be expected from a wise selection of the sensor set.
Kamiyama, Akikazu; Fujita, Kazuhisa; Kashimori, Yoshiki
Visual recognition involves bidirectional information flow, which consists of bottom-up information coding from retina and top-down information coding from higher visual areas. Recent studies have demonstrated the involvement of early visual areas such as primary visual area (V1) in recognition and memory formation. V1 neurons are not passive transformers of sensory inputs but work as adaptive processor, changing their function according to behavioral context. Top-down signals affect tuning property of V1 neurons and contribute to the gating of sensory information relevant to behavior. However, little is known about the neuronal mechanism underlying the gating of task-relevant information in V1. To address this issue, we focus on task-dependent tuning modulations of V1 neurons in two tasks of perceptual learning. We develop a model of the V1, which receives feedforward input from lateral geniculate nucleus and top-down input from a higher visual area. We show here that the change in a balance between excitation and inhibition in V1 connectivity is necessary for gating task-relevant information in V1. The balance change well accounts for the modulations of tuning characteristic and temporal properties of V1 neuronal responses. We also show that the balance change of V1 connectivity is shaped by top-down signals with temporal correlations reflecting the perceptual strategies of the two tasks. We propose a learning mechanism by which synaptic balance is modulated. To conclude, top-down signal changes the synaptic balance between excitation and inhibition in V1 connectivity, enabling early visual area such as V1 to gate context-dependent information under multiple task performances. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Smith, Michelle; Morita, Haruka; Mateo, Katrina F; Nye, Andrea; Hutchinson, Carly; Cohall, Alwyn T
The process of creating a geographically tailored health information website with ongoing feedback from community members is one of inquiry and discovery, frustration and triumph, and development and reevaluation. This article reviews the development and implementation of GetHealthyHarlem.org, a health literacy level-appropriate consumer health information website tailored to consumers in Harlem, New York City. From 2004 to 2009, the Harlem Health Promotion Center, one of 37 Prevention Research Centers in the United States, sought to determine the use and seeking of online health information in Harlem, New York City in order to further explore the possibility of providing online health information to this community. Specifically, this article details how we sought to identify gaps, concerns, and uses of online health information and health care seeking in this local, predominantly racial and ethnic minority population. We review how we identified and addressed the multitude of variables that play a role in determining the degree of success in finding and using online health information, and include discussions about the genesis of the website and our successes and challenges in the development and implementation stages. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.
Renner, Gerolf; Irblich, Dieter
Test Reviews in Child Psychology: Test Users Wish to Obtain Practical Information Relevant to their Respective Field of Work This study investigated to what extent diagnosticians use reviews of psychometric tests for children and adolescents, how they evaluate their quality, and what they expect concerning content. Test users (n = 323) from different areas of work (notably social pediatrics, early intervention, special education, speech and language therapy) rated test reviews as one of the most important sources of information. Readers of test reviews value practically oriented descriptions and evaluations of tests that are relevant to their respective field of work. They expect independent reviews that critically discuss opportunities and limits of the tests under scrutiny. The results show that authors of test reviews should not only have a background in test theory but should also be familiar with the practical application of tests in various settings.
Ramsay, M M; Broughton Pipkin, F; Rubin, P C; Skidmore, R
1. Doppler recordings were made from the brachial artery of healthy female subjects during a series of manoeuvres which altered the pressure-flow characteristics of the vessel. 2. Changes were induced in the peripheral circulation of the forearm by the application of heat or ice-packs. A sphygmomanometer cuff was used to create graded occlusion of the vessel above and below the point of measurement. Recordings were also made whilst the subjects performed a standardized Valsalva manoeuvre. 3. The Doppler recordings were analysed both with the standard waveform indices (systolic/diastolic ratio, pulsatility index and resistance index) and by the method of Laplace transform analysis. 4. The waveform parameters obtained by Laplace transform analysis distinguished the different changes in flow conditions; they thus had direct physiological relevance, unlike the standard waveform indices.
Allen, Donald M.
This research, performed as a part of NASA Langley's Faultfinder project, investigated display implementation issues related to the introduction of real time fault diagnostic systems into next generation commercial aircraft. Three major issues were investigated: visual display styles for presenting fault related information to the crew, the form the output from the expert system should take, and methods for filtering fault related information for presentation to the crew. Twenty-four flight familiar male volunteers participated as subjects. Five subjects were NASA test pilots, six were Commercial Airline Pilots, seven were Air Force Lear Jet pilots, and six were NASA personnel familiar with flight (non-pilots). Subjects were presented with aircraft subsystem information on a CRT screen. They were required to identify the subsystems presented in a display and to remember the state (normal or abnormal) of subsystem parameter information contained in the display. The results of the study indicated that in the simpler experimental test cases (i.e., those involving single subsystem failures and composite hypothesis displays) subjects' performance did not differ across the different display formats. However, for the more complex cases (i.e., those involving multiple subsystem faults and multiple hypotheses displays), subjects' performance was superior in the text- and picture-based display formats compared to the symbol-based format. In addition, the findings suggest that a layered approached to information display is appropriate.
Kaphingst, K A; Facio, F M; Cheng, M-R; Brooks, S; Eidem, H; Linn, A; Biesecker, B B; Biesecker, L G
Increasing availability of individual genomic information suggests that patients will need knowledge about genome sequencing to make informed decisions, but prior research is limited. In this study, we examined genome sequencing knowledge before and after informed consent among 311 participants enrolled in the ClinSeq™ sequencing study. An exploratory factor analysis of knowledge items yielded two factors (sequencing limitations knowledge; sequencing benefits knowledge). In multivariable analysis, high pre-consent sequencing limitations knowledge scores were significantly related to education [odds ratio (OR): 8.7, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.45-31.10 for post-graduate education, and OR: 3.9; 95% CI: 1.05, 14.61 for college degree compared with less than college degree] and race/ethnicity (OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.09, 5.38 for non-Hispanic Whites compared with other racial/ethnic groups). Mean values increased significantly between pre- and post-consent for the sequencing limitations knowledge subscale (6.9-7.7, p benefits knowledge subscale (7.0-7.5, p < 0.0001); increase in knowledge did not differ by sociodemographic characteristics. This study highlights gaps in genome sequencing knowledge and underscores the need to target educational efforts toward participants with less education or from minority racial/ethnic groups. The informed consent process improved genome sequencing knowledge. Future studies could examine how genome sequencing knowledge influences informed decision making. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Based on the results of empirical research, which implemented and evaluated information to the public requested by law (HIO-Paragraph-11a) and based on the general findings of crisis- and risk-communication research, some disturbing elements in the relationship between entrepreneurs, administration and the public will be described in terms of cognitive dissonance, prejudice, fears and false expectations. The empirical example of public information in emergencies will evidence the conflicting views on types, styles, size and profoundity of such information as well as the differences in perception, motivation and interest of all parties involved. Finally, the cultural context of risk perception and of coping capabilities will be interrelated with historical changes of risk-management to prepare for the understanding that risk- and crisis communication has to be more than talking about safety. (orig.) [de
Kraemer, Sara; Thorn, Christopher A.
The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify and describe some of the dimensions of scientific collaborations using high throughput computing (HTC) through the lens of a virtual team performance framework. A secondary purpose was to assess the viability of using a virtual team performance framework to study scientific collaborations using…
Weiskel, Peter K.
Human activity has profoundly altered the Charles River and its watershed over the past 375 years. Restoration of environmental quality in the watershed has become a high priority for private- and public-sector organizations across the region. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Massachusetts Executive Office of Environmental Affairs worked together to coordinate the efforts of the various organizations. One result of this initiative has been a series of scientific studies that provide critical information concerning some of the major hydrologic and ecological concerns in the watershed. These studies have focused upon: * Streamflows - Limited aquifer storage, growing water demands, and the spread of impervious surfaces are some of the factors exacerbating low summer streamflows in headwater areas of the watershed. Coordinated management of withdrawals, wastewater returns, and stormwater runoff could substantially increase low streamflows in the summer. Innovative approaches to flood control, including preservation of upstream wetland storage capacity and construction of a specially designed dam at the river mouth, have greatly reduced flooding in the lower part of the watershed in recent decades. * Water quality - Since the mid-1990s, the bacterial quality of the Charles River has improved markedly, because discharges from combined sewer overflows and the number of illicit sewer connections to municipal storm drains have been reduced. Improved management of stormwater runoff will likely be required, however, for full attainment of State and Federal water-quality standards. Phosphorus inputs from a variety of sources remain an important water-quality problem. * Fish communities and habitat quality - The Charles River watershed supports a varied fish community of about 20 resident and migratory species. Habitat conditions for fish and other aquatic species have improved in many parts of the river system in recent years. However, serious challenges remain
Full Text Available The ability to choose freely is captured under the umbrella concept of “free will,” which designates an ability that plays a crucial role in most understandings of autonomy and responsibility and, thus, bears significance for moral practice and moral theory. Some claim that neuroscience research challenges the existence of free will/voluntary action while some who adopt stronger eliminativist stances have gone as far as describing free will as an illusion. Contrary to that, those relying on realist stances have restated the foundational value and role of folk psychological concepts of voluntary action and free will in, for example, the domains of ethics and law. An emerging body of research in cognitive science and social psychology has generated results suggesting that the phenomena captured by the concepts describing free will and voluntary action are dynamic and responsive to priming and framing effects. We propose that this body of research suggests the existence of dynamic and consequential properties of free will better captured following pragmatist theory and instrumentalist epistemology. This contrasts the simpler static concept of free will and the related metaphysics that was at the basis of earlier debates and structured around the poles of realism and eliminativism. This paper contextualizes ontological and epistemological debates about free will, describes a scientifically-informed and instrumentalist account of the concept of free will and voluntary action consistent with recent research in cognitive science, and discusses its implications for research (e.g., theoretical assumptions of research paradigms, interdisciplinary research and practice (e.g., impact on self-image and social behavior.
James M. Guldin; David Cawrse; Russell Graham; Miles Hemstrom; Linda Joyce; Steve Kessler; Ranotta McNair; George Peterson; Charles G. Shaw; Peter Stine; Mark Twery; Jeffrey Walter
The paper outlines a process called the science consistency review, which can be used to evaluate the use of scientific information in land management decisions. Developed with specific reference to land management decisions in the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, the process involves assembling a team of reviewers under a review administrator to...
Mackenzie, A. Graham
This technical report presents recommendations and plans which are the result of a mission undertaken as part of a project to promote a scientific and technological information service and establish a popular science resource center in Korea. The mission's main emphasis was to help Korean authorities and the United Nations Development Programme…
So, Jiyeon; Jeong, Se-Hoon; Hwang, Yoori
The extant empirical research examining the effectiveness of statistical and exemplar-based health information is largely inconsistent. Under the premise that the inconsistency may be due to an unacknowledged moderator (O'Keefe, 2002), this study examined a moderating role of outcome-relevant involvement (Johnson & Eagly, 1989) in the effects of statistical and exemplified risk information on risk perception. Consistent with predictions based on elaboration likelihood model (Petty & Cacioppo, 1984), findings from an experiment (N = 237) concerning alcohol consumption risks showed that statistical risk information predicted risk perceptions of individuals with high, rather than low, involvement, while exemplified risk information predicted risk perceptions of those with low, rather than high, involvement. Moreover, statistical risk information contributed to negative attitude toward drinking via increased risk perception only for highly involved individuals, while exemplified risk information influenced the attitude through the same mechanism only for individuals with low involvement. Theoretical and practical implications for health risk communication are discussed.
Crain, Marcelle M.; Finch, Cambra L.; Foster, Sharon L.
Two studies examined whether social information-processing variables predict relational aggression in girls. In Study 1, fourth- through sixth-grade girls reported their intent attributions, social goals, outcome expectancies for relational aggression, and the likelihood that they would choose a relationally aggressive response in response to…
Kalina, Jan; Seidl, L.; Grünfeldová, H.; Slovák, Dalibor; Zvárová, Jana
Roč. 9, č. 1 (2013), s. 2-6 ISSN 1801-5603 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : decision support system * web-service * information extraction * high dimension * gene expressions Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://www.ejbi.org/img/ejbi/2013/1/Kalina_en.pdf
Moss, Jarrod; Kotovsky, Kenneth; Cagan, Jonathan
There have been a number of recent findings indicating that unsolved problems, or open goals more generally, influence cognition even when the current task has no relation to the task in which the goal was originally set. It was hypothesized that open goals would influence what information entered the problem-solving process. Three studies were…
Bunget Ovidiu Constantin
The objective of IAS 29 is to establish specific standards for entities reporting in the currency of a hyperinflationary economy, so that the financial information provided is meaningful. Our empirical analysis encompasses a hyperinflationary economy covering a wide variety of hyperinflationary conditions.
Bleda, Marta; Tarraga, Joaquin; de Maria, Alejandro; Salavert, Francisco; Garcia-Alonso, Luz; Celma, Matilde; Martin, Ainoha; Dopazo, Joaquin; Medina, Ignacio
During the past years, the advances in high-throughput technologies have produced an unprecedented growth in the number and size of repositories and databases storing relevant biological data. Today, there is more biological information than ever but, unfortunately, the current status of many of these repositories is far from being optimal. Some of the most common problems are that the information is spread out in many small databases; frequently there are different standards among repositories and some databases are no longer supported or they contain too specific and unconnected information. In addition, data size is increasingly becoming an obstacle when accessing or storing biological data. All these issues make very difficult to extract and integrate information from different sources, to analyze experiments or to access and query this information in a programmatic way. CellBase provides a solution to the growing necessity of integration by easing the access to biological data. CellBase implements a set of RESTful web services that query a centralized database containing the most relevant biological data sources. The database is hosted in our servers and is regularly updated. CellBase documentation can be found at http://docs.bioinfo.cipf.es/projects/cellbase.
Full Text Available The present work analises the main questions and hurdles involved in the adoption of a electronic scientific publication system, those related to the scientific community practices and rules of conduct. We emphasize the quality certification through peer review, interity and legitimiy maintenance and privacity preservation in the digital environment. Furthermore, we analise the academic community own perception of electronic journals available in Internet and its impacts in tenure and prommotion processes.
Dill, Vanderson; Klein, Pedro Costa; Franco, Alexandre Rosa; Pinho, Márcio Sarroglia
Current state-of-the-art methods for whole and subfield hippocampus segmentation use pre-segmented templates, also known as atlases, in the pre-processing stages. Typically, the input image is registered to the template, which provides prior information for the segmentation process. Using a single standard atlas increases the difficulty in dealing with individuals who have a brain anatomy that is morphologically different from the atlas, especially in older brains. To increase the segmentation precision in these cases, without any manual intervention, multiple atlases can be used. However, registration to many templates leads to a high computational cost. Researchers have proposed to use an atlas pre-selection technique based on meta-information followed by the selection of an atlas based on image similarity. Unfortunately, this method also presents a high computational cost due to the image-similarity process. Thus, it is desirable to pre-select a smaller number of atlases as long as this does not impact on the segmentation quality. To pick out an atlas that provides the best registration, we evaluate the use of three meta-information parameters (medical condition, age range, and gender) to choose the atlas. In this work, 24 atlases were defined and each is based on the combination of the three meta-information parameters. These atlases were used to segment 352 vol from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. Hippocampus segmentation with each of these atlases was evaluated and compared to reference segmentations of the hippocampus, which are available from ADNI. The use of atlas selection by meta-information led to a significant gain in the Dice similarity coefficient, which reached 0.68 ± 0.11, compared to 0.62 ± 0.12 when using only the standard MNI152 atlas. Statistical analysis showed that the three meta-information parameters provided a significant improvement in the segmentation accuracy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd
Jiménez Molero, María Consuelo; Miranda Alonso, Miguel Ángel
The properties of triplet excited states are markedly medium-dependent, which turns this species into valuable tools for investigating the microenvironments existing in protein binding pockets. Monitoring of the triplet excited state behavior of drugs within transport proteins (serum albumins and alpha(1)-acid glycoproteins) by laser flash photolysis constitutes a valuable source of information on the strength of interaction, conformational freedom and protection from oxygen or other external...
Humans have altered the energy balance of the climate system mainly by producing and consuming fossil fuels, but also by emissions from food production. Manufacture and use of halocarbons, many of which are also strong greenhouse gases (GHGs) have added to anthropogenic radiative forcing. In response, the global atmosphere has warmed over the last half century at a rate of 0.17°C. The largest contribution to radiative forcing is due to CO2, and at present, about half of all anthropogenic CO2 emissions have been taken up by the oceans and terrestrial biosphere. The size of this "carbon emission discount" may change in the future as more carbon accumulates in the oceans, as human alter landscapes, and as climate changes. Efforts to limit global average temperature increases to 2°C and avoid the most catastrophic consequences of climate change depend on keeping track of both human emissions of greenhouse gases and changes in natural fluxes of carbon and nitrogen that occur in response to human activities and changing climate. Global in situ network observations provide information about changes in global GHG abundances over recent decades, as well as changing distributions between hemispheres. This information gives insight into changes in global and hemispheric sources and sinks of GHGs. It is, however, currently difficult to obtain robust information about regional sources and to discriminate between natural and anthropogenic fluxes. Information about regional sources is needed for GHG policymaking, while discrimination of natural sources is necessary for detection of trends in GHG fluxes and evaluation of coupled carbon cycle climate models. Although column average GHG abundances from space-based remote sensing data could provide considerable constraints on GHG budgets, there are still technical challenges to be overcome. Possible strategies for making progress involve greater increased observational coverage and more international collaboration, as well as
Sundén, Erika; Dufva, Martina; Dahlberg, Joakim
A number of universities, research institutions, hospitals, and other businesses are in possession of relatively small amounts of nuclear material. In some cases the material is in activities related to the nuclear fuel cycle, but there is also a wide variety of other applications. Regardless of application, material accountancy must be reported to the European Commission (EC) and, in Sweden, to the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM). However, checking the completeness and correctness of the reports from operators with very small amounts of nuclear material can easily be forgotten or viewed as being less important. Starting in the beginning of 2013 SSM increased its effort in this area and began working more actively gathering information and checking its correctness. Informing the operators in possession of nuclear material of the rules and regulations is a major part of this work, as it has been noted that the knowledge level of safeguarding nuclear material in many locations is very low. This paper will give a description of the work being performed by SSM to ensure that information related to the possession of nuclear material are gathered and correctly declared. It will give an overview of the different procedures that are applied to different categories of small holders in Sweden (where the differences are mostly due to historical reasons). It will also entail some of the challenges met along the way; such as explaining to radiographers that for nuclear non-proliferation purposes it is the shielding uranium container which is of interest, not the isotope emitting the radiation. What we have experienced being the major differences between collecting information from small holders as compared to larger nuclear facilities will also be outlined. The paper ends with an outline for future work.
Stephen J. Connor
Full Text Available Good health status is one of the primary aspirations of human social development and, as a consequence, health indicators are key components of the human development indices by which we measure progress toward sustainable development. Certain diseases and ill health are associated with particular environmental and climate conditions. The timeframe of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs demands that the risks to health associated with current climate variability are more fully understood and acted upon to improve the focus of resources in climate sensitive disease control, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, where good epidemiological surveillance data are lacking. In the absence of high-quality epidemiological data on malaria distribution in Africa, climate information has long been used to develop malaria risk maps illustrating the climatic suitability boundaries for endemic transmission. However, experience to date has shown that it is difficult in terms of availability, timing and cost to obtain meteorological observations from national meteorological services in Africa. National health services generally find the costs of purchasing these data prohibitive given their competing demands for resources across the spectrum of health service requirements. Some national health services have tried to overcome this access problem by using proxies derived from satellites, which tend to be available freely, in 'near-real-time' and therefore offer much promise for monitoring applications. This paper discusses the issues related to climate and health, reviews the current use of climate information for malaria endemic and epidemic surveillance, and presents examples of operational use of climate information for malaria control in Africa based on Geographical Information Systems and Remote Sensing.
Bogmans, Christian W.J.; Dijkema, Gerard P.J.; Vliet, Michelle T.H. van
When does climate change information lead to adaptation? We analyze thermal power plant adaptation by means of investing in water-saving (cooling) technology to prevent a decrease in plant efficiency and load reduction. A comprehensive power plant investment model, forced with downscaled climate and hydrological projections, is then numerically solved to analyze the adaptation decisions of a selection of real power plants. We find that operators that base their decisions on current climatic conditions are likely to make identical choices and perform just as well as operators that are fully ‘informed’ about climate change. Where electricity supply is mainly generated by thermal power plants, heat waves, droughts and low river flow may impact electricity supply for decades to come. - Highlights: • We analyze adaptation to climate change by thermal power plants. • A numerical investment model is applied to a coal plant and a nuclear power plant. • The numerical analysis is based on climate and hydrological projections. • Climate change information has a relatively small effect on a power plant's NPV. • Uncertainty and no-regret benefits lower the value of climate change information.
Tanaka, Miho; Strong, Carol; Lee, Sunmin; Juon, Hee-Soon
This study examines how different information sources relate to Health Belief Model constructs, hepatitis B virus (HBV) knowledge, and HBV screening. The Maryland Asian American Liver Cancer Education Program administered a survey of 877 Asian immigrants. The most common sources of information identified by the multiple-answer questions were newspapers (39.8 %), physicians (39.3 %), friends (33.8 %), TV (31.7 %), and the Internet (29.5 %). Path analyses-controlling for age, sex, educational level, English proficiency, proportion of life in U.S., health insurance coverage, and family history of HBV infection-showed that learning about HBV from physicians had the strongest direct effect; friends had a marginal indirect effect. Perceived risk, benefits, and severity played limited roles in mediation effects. Path analysis results differed by ethnicity. Physician-based HBV screening intervention would be effective, but should be complemented with community health campaigns through popular information sources for the uninsured.
Miller, Hilary E; Simmering, Vanessa R
Children's spatial language reliably predicts their spatial skills, but the nature of this relation is a source of debate. This investigation examined whether the mechanisms accounting for such relations are specific to language use or reflect a domain-general mechanism of selective attention. Experiment 1 examined whether 4-year-olds' spatial skills were predicted by their selective attention or their adaptive language use. Children completed (a) an attention task assessing attention to task-relevant color, size, and location cues; (b) a description task assessing adaptive language use to describe scenes varying in color, size, and location; and (c) three spatial tasks. There was correspondence between the cue types that children attended to and produced across description and attention tasks. Adaptive language use was predicted by both children's attention and task-related language production, suggesting that selective attention underlies skills in using language adaptively. After controlling for age, gender, receptive vocabulary, and adaptive language use, spatial skills were predicted by children's selective attention. The attention score predicted variance in spatial performance previously accounted for by adaptive language use. Experiment 2 followed up on the attention task (Experiment 2a) and description task (Experiment 2b) from Experiment 1 to assess whether performance in the tasks related to selective attention or task-specific demands. Performance in Experiments 2a and 2b paralleled that in Experiment 1, suggesting that the effects in Experiment 1 reflected children's selective attention skills. These findings show that selective attention is a central factor supporting spatial skill development that could account for many effects previously attributed to children's language use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jonietz, David; Timpf, Sabine
J. J. Gibson's concept of affordances has provided a theoretical basis for various studies in geographical information science (GISc). This paper sets out to explain its popularity from a GISc perspective. Based on a short review of previous work, it will be argued that its main contributions to GISc are twofold, including an action-centered view of spatial entities and the notion of agent-environment mutuality. Using the practical example of pedestrian behavior simulation, new potentials for using and extending affordances are discussed.
Binetti, Roberto; Costamagna, Francesca Marina; Marcello, Ida
The number of new chemicals synthesized and marketed increases exponentially. The database CAS REGISTRY at present contains more than 33 million organic and inorganic substances. However, the little information regarding the potential hazard associated with a large amount of chemicals is an old known problem in the European Union and also in the United States. This critical problem may find a solution in the collaboration of the different involved countries and in a planned task setting at international level. Both in the United States (e.g., the "Gore Initiative") and in European Union (the REACH policy) a big effort has been dedicated to this solution, within standardized procedures and an appropriate collaboration.
Lenk, Christian; Frommeld, Debora
Genetic predispositions often concern not only individual persons, but also other family members. Advances in the development of genetic tests lead to a growing number of genetic diagnoses in medical practice and to an increasing importance of genetic counseling. In the present article, a number of ethical foundations and preconditions for this issue are discussed. Four different models for the handling of genetic information are presented and analyzed including a discussion of practical implications. The different models' ranges of content reach from a strictly autonomous position over self-governed arrangements in the practice of genetic counseling up to the involvement of official bodies and committees. The different models show a number of elements which seem to be very useful for the handling of genetic data in families from an ethical perspective. In contrast, the limitations of the standard medical attempt regarding confidentiality and personal autonomy in the context of genetic information in the family are described. Finally, recommendations for further ethical research and the development of genetic counseling in families are given.
Arviv, Oshrit; Goldstein, Abraham; Weeting, Janine C; Becker, Eni S; Lange, Wolf-Gero; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva
Deciphering the social meaning of facial displays is a highly complex neurological process. The M170, an event related field component of MEG recording, like its EEG counterpart N170, was repeatedly shown to be associated with structural encoding of faces. However, the scope of information encoded during the M170 time window is still being debated. We investigated the neuronal origin of facial processing of integrated social rank cues (SRCs) and emotional facial expressions (EFEs) during the M170 time interval. Participants viewed integrated facial displays of emotion (happy, angry, neutral) and SRCs (indicated by upward, downward, or straight head tilts). We found that the activity during the M170 time window is sensitive to both EFEs and SRCs. Specifically, highly prominent activation was observed in response to SRC connoting dominance as compared to submissive or egalitarian head cues. Interestingly, the processing of EFEs and SRCs appeared to rely on different circuitry. Our findings suggest that vertical head tilts are processed not only for their sheer structural variance, but as social information. Exploring the temporal unfolding and brain localization of non-verbal cues processing may assist in understanding the functioning of the social rank biobehavioral system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mohamad Alaee Arani
Full Text Available The output of scientific products represents the efforts of scientific and industrial communities. The study on this output shows scientific attitudes and approaches of a community towards world of science. Quantitative studies can give a representation of the size and extent of the scientific efforts of researchers in special occasions, or a particular society. Patents are one of these important outputs. In this study, the names of Iranian inventors were extracted by carrying a combined search and the analysis of patent data available through Europe Patent Office (EPO, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO, Japan Patent Office (JPO, and the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO databases. Inventors amount of scientific products were also evaluated by using citation indexes in Thompson Reuters (formerly ISI Web of Science. Content analysis research method was adopted. Results of this study reported no significant correlation was found between scientific output and patent application. Findings also indicated a 6.5 percent contribution of patent researcher in comparison with non-patent researchers of Iranian indexed articles by Web of Science.
Kubesová, H; Holik, J; Bogrova, I
contrast, the dosage of one tablet a day decreases the total number of the tablets taken. A significant influence of new scientific information was visible in the prescription habits of general practitioners. Be that as it may, in elderly patients, the simplest possible medication should continue to be aimed at.
Pan, Xuequn; Cimino, James J
Clinicians and clinical researchers often seek information in electronic health records (EHRs) that are relevant to some concept of interest, such as a disease or finding. The heterogeneous nature of EHRs can complicate retrieval, risking incomplete results. We frame this problem as the presence of two gaps: 1) a gap between clinical concepts and their representations in EHR data and 2) a gap between data representations and their locations within EHR data structures. We bridge these gaps with a knowledge structure that comprises relationships among clinical concepts (including concepts of interest and concepts that may be instantiated in EHR data) and relationships between clinical concepts and the database structures. We make use of available knowledge resources to develop a reproducible, scalable process for creating a knowledge base that can support automated query expansion from a clinical concept to all relevant EHR data.
Full Text Available In this paper we chose to present two components of the financial statements: the profit and loss account and the cash flow statement. These summary documents and different indicators calculated based on them allow us to formulate assessments on the performance and profitability on various functions and levels of the companyâ€™s activity. This paper aims to support the hypothesis that the accounting information presented in the profit and loss account and in the cash flow statement is an appropriate source for assessing company performance. The purpose of this research is to answer the question linked to the main hypothesis: Is it the profit and loss statement or the cash flow account that reflects better the performance of a business? Based on the literature of specialty studied we tried a conceptual, analytical and practical approach of the term performance, overviewing some terminological acceptations of the term performance as well as the main indicators of performance analysis on the basis of the profit and loss account and of the cash flow statement: aggregated indicators, also known as intermediary balances of administration, economic rate of return, rate of financial profitability, rate of return through cash flows, operating cash flow rate, rate of generating operating cash out of gross operating result. At the same time we had a comparative approach of the profit and loss account and cash flow statement, outlining the main advantages and disadvantages of these documents. In order to demonstrate the above theoretical assessments, we chose to analyze these indicators based on information from the financial statements of SC Sinteza SA, a company in Bihor county, listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange.
Bell, Stephen A; Delpech, Valerie; Raben, Dorthe; Casabona, Jordi; Tsereteli, Nino; de Wit, John
In the context of a shift from exceptionalism to normalisation, this study examines recommendations/evidence in current pan-European/global guidelines regarding pre-test HIV testing and counselling practices in health care settings. It also reviews new research not yet included in guidelines. There is consensus that verbal informed consent must be gained prior to testing, individually, in private, confidentially, in the presence of a health care provider. All guidelines recommend pre-test information/discussion delivered verbally or via other methods (information sheet). There is agreement about a minimum standard of information to be provided before a test, but guidelines differ regarding discussion about issues encouraging patients to think about implications of the result. There is heavy reliance on expert consultation in guideline development. Referenced scientific evidence is often more than ten years old and based on US/UK research. Eight new papers are reviewed. Current HIV testing and counselling guidelines have inconsistencies regarding the extent and type of information that is recommended during pre-test discussions. The lack of new research underscores a need for new evidence from a range of European settings to support the process of expert consultation in guideline development. © The Author(s) 2015.
... Committee provides advice on the feasibility, appropriateness, and scientific value of the OCS Environmental... relevance of the research and data being produced to meet BOEM's scientific information needs for decision...
Lack of access to relevant scientific data has limited decision makers from incorporating scientific information into their management and policy schemes. Yet, there is increasing interest among decision makers and scientists to integrate coastal and marine science into the polic...
Jiménez, M Consuelo; Miranda, Miguel A
The properties of triplet excited states are markedly medium-dependent, which turns this species into valuable tools for investigating the microenvironments existing in protein binding pockets. Monitoring of the triplet excited state behavior of drugs within transport proteins (serum albumins and α1-acid glycoproteins) by laser flash photolysis constitutes a valuable source of information on the strength of interaction, conformational freedom and protection from oxygen or other external quenchers. With proteins, formation of spatially confined triplet excited states is favored over competitive processes affording ionic species. Remarkably, under aerobic atmosphere, the triplet decay of drug@protein complexes is dramatically longer than in bulk solution. This offers a convenient dynamic range for assignment of different triplet populations or for stereochemical discrimination. In this review, selected examples of the application of the laser flash photolysis technique are described, including drug distribution between the bulk solution and the protein cavities, or between two types of proteins, detection of drug-drug interactions inside proteins, and enzyme-like activity processes mediated by proteins. Finally, protein encapsulation can also modify the photoreactivity of the guest. This is illustrated by presenting an example of retarded photooxidation.
Banerjee, Avishek; Bhattacharyya, Swapan; Hazra, Simanta; Mondal, Shatabdi
CLIR techniques searches unrestricted texts and typically extract term and relationships from bilingual electronic dictionaries or bilingual text collections and use them to translate query and/or document representations into a compatible set of representations with a common feature set. In this paper, we focus on dictionary-based approach by using a bilingual data dictionary with a combination to statistics-based methods to avoid the problem of ambiguity also the development of human computer interface aspects of NLP (Natural Language processing) is the approach of this paper. The intelligent web search with regional language like Bengali is depending upon two major aspect that is CLIA (Cross language information access) and NLP. In our previous work with IIT, KGP we already developed content based CLIA where content based searching in trained on Bengali Corpora with the help of Bengali data dictionary. Here we want to introduce intelligent search because to recognize the sense of meaning of a sentence and it has a better real life approach towards human computer interactions.
Alex Serrano Almeida
Full Text Available This study has the purpose to check how the social inclusion has been approached at Information Science area, from the scientific production area published at the area national periodicals. Over there, to verify which inclusion forms are recurrently approached at Information Science area; to show the use tendencies of social inclusion concept at the Science Information area scientific articles; to find how it presents the social inclusion concept connected to the information professional and analyze if it there is any association to other themes. It was realized searches in six periodicals at the period between 2001 and 2010. We used how analysis method the Bardin content analysis reference. The analysis corpus was constituted of 30 articles which approached the social inclusion theme. As the results, it was showed that the social inclusion on Information Science area publications, in general, is turned to digital inclusion and to the Information Science area publications uses. Besides, it was still identified connections with the information professionals, which one must serve as mediator between the information and the environment where information and users are inserted.
Brady, Ryan J; Hampton, Robert R
Working memory is a system by which a limited amount of information can be kept available for processing after the cessation of sensory input. Because working memory resources are limited, it is adaptive to focus processing on the most relevant information. We used a retro-cue paradigm to determine the extent to which monkey working memory possesses control mechanisms that focus processing on the most relevant representations. Monkeys saw a sample array of images, and shortly after the array disappeared, they were visually cued to a location that had been occupied by one of the sample images. The cue indicated which image should be remembered for the upcoming recognition test. By determining whether the monkeys were more accurate and quicker to respond to cued images compared to un-cued images, we tested the hypothesis that monkey working memory focuses processing on relevant information. We found a memory benefit for the cued image in terms of accuracy and retrieval speed with a memory load of two images. With a memory load of three images, we found a benefit in retrieval speed but only after shortening the onset latency of the retro-cue. Our results demonstrate previously unknown flexibility in the cognitive control of memory in monkeys, suggesting that control mechanisms in working memory likely evolved in a common ancestor of humans and monkeys more than 32 million years ago. Future work should be aimed at understanding the interaction between memory load and the ability to control memory resources, and the role of working memory control in generating differences in cognitive capacity among primates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zuidervaart, Huib J.
This paper discusses the scientific instruments made and used by the microscopist Antony van Leeuwenhoek (1632–1723). The immediate cause of our study was the discovery of an overlooked document from the Delft archive: an inventory of the possessions that were left in 1745 after the death of
Moghissi, A Alan; Pei, Shiqian; Liu, Yinzuo
Historically, agricultural development evolved in three phases. During the first phase the plants were selected on the basis of the availability of a plant with desirable properties at a specific location. The second phase provided the agricultural community with crossbreeding plants to achieve improvement in agricultural production. The evolution of biological knowledge has provided the ability to genetically engineer (GE) crops, one of the key processes within genetically modified organisms (GMO). This article uses golden rice, a species of transgenic Asian rice which contains a precursor of vitamin A in the edible part of the plant as an example of GE/GMO emphasizing Chinese experience in agricultural evolution. It includes a brief review of agricultural evolution to be followed by a description of golden rice development. Golden rice was created as a humanitarian project and has received positive comments by the scientific community and negative voices from certain environmental groups. In this article, we use the Best Available Science (BAS) Concept and Metrics for Evaluation of Scientific Claims (MESC) derived from it to evaluate claims and counter claims on scientific aspects of golden rice. This article concludes that opposition to golden rice is based on belief rather than any of its scientifically derived nutritional, safety or environmental properties.
Vaquero Ortiz, E. M.; Cascante Díaz, E.; González Pineda, L. M.
The precise knowledge of the available Resources in an Organization, regardless the work it carries out, is an essential strategic enabler to achieve its goals. Material Resources are part of the resources in an organization, The “Material Resources” expression includes a wide span of elements, because a Material Resource, as a generic concept, is each and every specific physical mean, utilized to get any of the Organization objectives. In CIEMAT, as Public Research Agency, its Material Resources consist of its scientific and technological facilities. These resources are the basis of this Agency numerous amount of technical capabilities, allowing it to carry out its research, development and innovation activity to transfer its results to the society later. This report is a summary on CIEMAT scientific and technological facilities, whose spread can help to show its scientific and technological capabilities, to enable the execution of a wide variety of projects and to open new external cooperation channels. Outstanding among these facilities are two “Unique Scientific and Technological Infrastructures” (ICTS) and the Ionizing Radiations Metrology Laboratory (LMRI) which is the Spanish National Standards Laboratory for ionising radiations.
Hollabaugh, C.M.; Wagner, P.; Wahman, L.A.; White, R.W.
Development of coating on nuclear fuel particles for the High-Temperature Fuels Technology program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory included process studies for low-density porous and high-density isotropic carbon coats, and for ZrC and ''alloy'' C/ZrC coats. This report documents the data generated by these studies.
Bulkley, G. B.; Mattenberger, S.
Black Drake Ranch comprises ~1000 acres of Klamath Basin high desert in S. Central OR, containing 2.5m reaches each of the North Fork Sprague River (NFSR) and its major tributary, Five Mile Creek, a meandering meadow spring creek anchoring 26m of upstream habitat for several species of concern, including native redband trout. Decades of unenlightened management had resulted in substantial watershed degradation: channelization and diking by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (hubris), massive stream bank head cuts and erosion by cattle hooves, complete blockade of fish passage by two irrigation diversion dams, loss of eggs and fry in irrigation runoff, upland juniper overgrowth from fire suppression, and extensive infestation of noxious weeds. After in depth analysis by the Working Landscapes Alliance, Klamath Watershed Partnership, Oregon Dept. of Fish and Wildlife, and adjacent landowners, the landowner, a retired cellular biologist, collaborated with an United States Fish & Wildlife Service hydrologist to formulate a comprehensive Long Term Strategic Plan (LTSP) to restore a functioning ecosystem compatible with an economically viable cattle/hay ranching operation. The LTSP is based upon current best practices (CPBs) recommended by experts in relevant, but relatively young scientific fields, with the recognition that these CPBs are constantly evolving as new information becomes available, particularly relevant to this particular site. Consequently, the LTSP remains flexible, and is repeatedly revised as new information is culled from the literature, but mostly from on-site experience and errors. This LTSP entails: 1. Rotational cattle grazing and riparian fencing to allow the re-establishment of bank-stabilizing native plant populations; 2. At diversion dams, installation of fish screens and 3. re-establishment of fish passage using paleochannels revealed by aerial contour mapping; 4. Selective stream bank head cut repair to retain and thereby reduce irrigation
The theory underlying radiation protection was developed from studies of people, laboratory animals, tissues, cells and macromolecules. Data on people were obtained from opportunistic studies of individuals previously exposed to radiation. Rarely has it been possible to conduct prospective studies of people exposed to known quantities of radiation, which sharply restricts the nature of questions that they can address. In contrast, studies using laboratory animals and simpler biological systems can be designed to address specific questions, using controlled exposure conditions. In-vitro research with macromolecules, cells and tissues leads to understanding normal and disease processes in isolated biological components. Studies of the intact animals provide opportunities to study in vivo interactive mechanisms observed in vitro and their role in development of radiation-induced diseases such as cancer. In the future, studies of intact animals should prove increasingly valuable in linking new knowledge at the subanimal level with the more fragmentary information obtained from direct observations on people. This will provide insight into important issues such as (a) effects of low-level radiation exposures, (b) mechanism of cancer induction at high versus low radiation doses, and (c) influence of factors such as nutrition and exposure to chemicals on radiation-induced cancer. This presentation describes strategies for conducting and integrating results of research using macromolecules, cells, tissues, laboratory animals and people to improve our understanding of radiation-induced cancer. It will also emphasize the problems encountered in studies at all levels of biological organization when the disease is observed in low excess incidence long after exposure to the toxicant
Cheong, B. J.; Koh, Y. J.; Kim, H. S.; Koh, S. H.; Kang, D. H.; Kang, T. W. [Cheju National Univ., Jeju (Korea, Republic of)
The goal of this study is to estimate the Relevance and Influence of the Existing Regulation and the RI-PBR to the institutionalization of the regulatory system. This study reviews the current regulatory system and the status of the RI-PBR implementation of the US NRC and Korea based upon SECY Papers, Risk Informed Regulation Implementation Plan (RIRIP) of the US NRC and other domestic studies. Also the recent trends of the individual technologies regarding the RI-PBR and RIA are summarized.
Epstein, Richard H; Dexter, Franklin
For this special article, we reviewed the computer code, used to extract the data, and the text of all 47 studies published between January 2006 and August 2017 using anesthesia information management system (AIMS) data from Thomas Jefferson University Hospital (TJUH). Data from this institution were used in the largest number (P = .0007) of papers describing the use of AIMS published in this time frame. The AIMS was replaced in April 2017, making this finite sample finite. The objective of the current article was to identify factors that made TJUH successful in publishing anesthesia informatics studies. We examined the structured query language used for each study to examine the extent to which databases outside of the AIMS were used. We examined data quality from the perspectives of completeness, correctness, concordance, plausibility, and currency. Our results were that most could not have been completed without external database sources (36/47, 76.6%; P = .0003 compared with 50%). The operating room management system was linked to the AIMS and was used significantly more frequently (26/36, 72%) than other external sources. Access to these external data sources was provided, allowing exploration of data quality. The TJUH AIMS used high-resolution timestamps (to the nearest 3 milliseconds) and created audit tables to track changes to clinical documentation. Automatic data were recorded at 1-minute intervals and were not editable; data cleaning occurred during analysis. Few paired events with an expected order were out of sequence. Although most data elements were of high quality, there were notable exceptions, such as frequent missing values for estimated blood loss, height, and weight. Some values were duplicated with different units, and others were stored in varying locations. Our conclusions are that linking the TJUH AIMS to the operating room management system was a critical step in enabling publication of multiple studies using AIMS data. Access to this and
Dialogue concerning the survival of the one great world system: a study of the post-war scientific and theological perception of time scales as a relevant moral category in analyzing the dilemmas of the nuclear age
This thesis seeks to extend the search for the moral implications inherent in the development, possession, and the threatened use of physical/astrophysical processes and in current understandings of the evolution of the physical universe. The nature of normal/theological discussion will not be a primary concern although clearly some residual position that such discussion is meaningful is presupposed. Neither is the nature of science or the scientific method at issue. It is assumed that both theology and science have long since negotiated the confidence crises of adolescence, and have mustered the requisite self-esteem regarding their respective disciplines. The aim of this work is to present the concept of time scales as a relevant moral category. It investigates the use of this concept and its relationship to the other categories developed in the relevant scientific literature. The question is raised as to the validity of and the future of the concept of time scales as a common moral ground.
Dialogue concerning the survival of the one great world system: a study of the post-war scientific and theological perception of time scales as a relevant moral category in analyzing the dilemmas of the nuclear age
This thesis seeks to extend the search for the moral implications inherent in the development, possession, and the threatened use of physical/astrophysical processes and in current understandings of the evolution of the physical universe. The nature of normal/theological discussion will not be a primary concern although clearly some residual position that such discussion is meaningful is presupposed. Neither is the nature of science or the scientific method at issue. It is assumed that both theology and science have long since negotiated the confidence crises of adolescence, and have mustered the requisite self-esteem regarding their respective disciplines. The aim of this work is to present the concept of time scales as a relevant moral category. It investigates the use of this concept and its relationship to the other categories developed in the relevant scientific literature. The question is raised as to the validity of and the future of the concept of time scales as a common moral ground
Blados, Walter R.
The Research Agenda contains three themes: information management, provision of information, and access to information. Provision of information is further divided into two subordinate themes, dissemination and bibliographic control; access to information is also further divided into two subordinate themes, barriers and equity and networking. Each theme or sub-theme was examined from four possible aspects, namely, human resources, quality assurance, cost, and technology. It was concluded that, in fact, a theme or sub-theme need not contain all four aspects.
Muhammad Yusuf Alkali
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine the effect of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS as a new accounting reporting among Nigerian listed firms. This study uses book value, earnings and dividends to fill in the gap using a sample of 126 Nigerian listed firms in the stock market from 2009 to 2013 (pre and Post-IFRS adoption. Data was collected from Thompson Reuters, Bank scope DataStreams and annual reports. The study adopted Ohlson (1995 [Ohlson, J. (1995. Earnings, book-value, and dividends in equity valuation. Contemporary Accounting Research, 11(2, 661–687.] price model that has been frequently used in determining the quality of accounting information studies. The study finds that combined book value, earnings and dividends do not provide statistical significance effects on IFRS after adoption on the quality of accounting information. This could be possible, as dividends do not provide a significant effect in the presence of earnings. Furthermore, the audit big 4 quality provided an effect on the quality of accounting information because of IFRS adoption. Therefore, findings of this study provide additional literature on the decreasing quality of accounting information in an emerging market setting like Nigeria. The study implication is to the policy makers, regulators, and government that accounting information do not provide value relevance among Nigerian listed firms after IFRS adoption.
Gayoso C, C; Ezpinoza Z, M; Prado C, A; Robles N, A [eds.
IPEN has elaborated the 1998-2001 Scientific-Technological Report as a result of several research and development works within the fields of production and services, and related with mining, archaeology, agriculture, biology, industry and medicine as well with tracer techniques in industry, welding quality control, speed and underground waters flows, direction, water treatment, environmental pollution, geothermy, production and calibration of radioactive sources, X-rays equipment quality control, neutron physics, neutron radiography, neutron activation analysis, water traces analysis, crystal growth and building of nuclear equipment. The 1998-2001 Scientific-Technological Report includes 148 papers divided in 8 subject matters: Nuclear and Reactor Physics, Nuclear Chemistry, Nuclear Engineering, Materials, Nuclear Safety, Protection and Radiological Safety, Nuclear Applications, and Rules and Regulation.
Zhizhchenko, A B; Izaak, A D
This paper is devoted to a description of the information system Math-Net.Ru, the All-Russian mathematical portal providing various resources to Russian and foreign mathematicians in their search for information for their scientific work (http://www.mathnet.ru/). The most interesting section of the portal is Journals, which combines Russian periodical and continuous publications in the mathematical sciences as a unified information system. The portal structure and its diverse opportunities and tools available for information searches are described. A survey of similar Russian and foreign systems is presented. This article is aimed at the wide community of mathematicians ready to use new information technologies in their research. Technical details of the system's realization are omitted, and attention is focused rather on a description of the users' possibilities.
Abraham, Anna; Kaufmann, Carolin; Redlich, Ronny; Hermann, Andrea; Stark, Rudolf; Stevens, Stephan; Hermann, Christiane
The fear of negative evaluation is one of the hallmark features of social anxiety. Behavioral evidence thus far largely supports cognitive models which postulate that information processing biases in the face of socially relevant information are a key factor underlying this widespread phobia. So far only one neuroimaging study has explicitly focused on the fear of negative evaluation in social anxiety where the brain responses of social phobics were compared to healthy participants during the processing of self-referential relative to other-referential criticism, praise or neutral information. Only self-referential criticism led to stronger activations in emotion-relevant regions of the brain, such as the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortices (mPFC), in the social phobics. The objective of the current study was to determine whether these findings could be extended to subclinical social anxiety. In doing so, the specificity of this self-referential bias was also examined by including both social and non-social (physical illness-related) threat information as well as a highly health anxious control group in the experimental paradigm. The fMRI findings indicated that the processing of emotional stimuli was accompanied by activations in the amygdala and the ventral mPFC, while self-referential processing was associated with activity in regions such as the mPFC, posterior cingulate and temporal poles. Despite the validation of the paradigm, the results revealed that the previously reported behavioral and brain biases associated with social phobia could not be unequivocally extended to subclinical social anxiety. The divergence between the findings is explored in detail with reference to paradigm differences and conceptual issues.
Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla; Ogbu, Ogbonnaya; Onwe, Friday; Edoga, Chima
Information and communication technology (ICT) tools are known to facilitate communication and processing of information and sharing of knowledge by electronic means. In Nigeria, the lack of adequate capacity on the use of ICT by health sector policymakers constitutes a major impediment to the uptake of research evidence into the policymaking process. The objective of this study was to improve the knowledge and capacity of policymakers to access and utilize policy relevant evidence. A modified "before and after" intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on the target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. A 4-point likert scale according to the degree of adequacy; 1 = grossly inadequate, 4 = very adequate was employed. This study was conducted in Ebonyi State, south-eastern Nigeria and the participants were career health policy makers. A two-day intensive ICT training workshop was organized for policymakers who had 52 participants in attendance. Topics covered included: (i). intersectoral partnership/collaboration; (ii). Engaging ICT in evidence-informed policy making; use of ICT for evidence synthesis; (iv) capacity development on the use of computer, internet and other ICT. The pre-workshop mean of knowledge and capacity for use of ICT ranged from 2.19-3.05, while the post-workshop mean ranged from 2.67-3.67 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in mean of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 8.3%-39.1%. Findings of this study suggest that policymakers' ICT competence relevant to evidence-informed policymaking can be enhanced through training workshop.
including the Albert gory of Preventative Medicine. In the cate- Schweitzer International Prize for gory of Energy I echnology, French scientist...Australian National University. From and the Albert Lasker Prize (1986). 1949-67 he was professor of microbiology at Dr. Robert C. Gallo, leading his own...Hammer Prize for Cancer Research (1985), and the Albert Lasker Sandy Kawano is the editor of the Clinical Medical Research Award (1986). Scientific
Grimm, Lisa R; Maddox, W Todd
Research has identified multiple category-learning systems with each being "tuned" for learning categories with different task demands and each governed by different neurobiological systems. Rule-based (RB) classification involves testing verbalizable rules for category membership while information-integration (II) classification requires the implicit learning of stimulus-response mappings. In the first study to directly test rule priming with RB and II category learning, we investigated the influence of the availability of information presented at the beginning of the task. Participants viewed lines that varied in length, orientation, and position on the screen, and were primed to focus on stimulus dimensions that were relevant or irrelevant to the correct classification rule. In Experiment 1, we used an RB category structure, and in Experiment 2, we used an II category structure. Accuracy and model-based analyses suggested that a focus on relevant dimensions improves RB task performance later in learning while a focus on an irrelevant dimension improves II task performance early in learning. © 2013.
Ma, Bin; Shang, Zhaohui; Hu, Yi; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Lifan; Wei, Peng
We have developed a new method to correct dark current at relatively high temperatures for Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) images when dark frames cannot be obtained on the telescope. For images taken with the Antarctic Survey Telescopes (AST3) in 2012, due to the low cooling efficiency, the median CCD temperature was -46°C, resulting in a high dark current level of about 3e-/pix/sec, even comparable to the sky brightness (10e-/pix/sec). If not corrected, the nonuniformity of the dark current could even overweight the photon noise of the sky background. However, dark frames could not be obtained during the observing season because the camera was operated in frame-transfer mode without a shutter, and the telescope was unattended in winter. Here we present an alternative, but simple and effective method to derive the dark current frame from the scientific images. Then we can scale this dark frame to the temperature at which the scientific images were taken, and apply the dark frame corrections to the scientific images. We have applied this method to the AST3 data, and demonstrated that it can reduce the noise to a level roughly as low as the photon noise of the sky brightness, solving the high noise problem and improving the photometric precision. This method will also be helpful for other projects that suffer from similar issues.
Nathan P. Kettle
Full Text Available Risk-based management approaches to climate adaptation depend on the assessment of potential threats, and their causes, vulnerabilities, and impacts. The refinement of these approaches relies heavily on detailed local knowledge of places and priorities, such as infrastructure, governance structures, and socio-economic conditions, as well as scientific understanding of climate projections and trends. Developing processes that integrate local and scientific knowledge will enhance the value of risk-based management approaches, facilitate group learning and planning processes, and support the capacity of communities to prepare for change. This study uses the Vulnerability, Consequences, and Adaptation Planning Scenarios (VCAPS process, a form of analytic-deliberative dialogue, and the conceptual frameworks of hazard management and climate vulnerability, to integrate scientific and local knowledge. We worked with local government staff in an urbanized barrier island community (Sullivan’s Island, South Carolina to consider climate risks, impacts, and adaptation challenges associated with sea level rise and wastewater and stormwater management. The findings discuss how the process increases understanding of town officials’ views of risks and climate change impacts to barrier islands, the management actions being considered to address of the multiple impacts of concern, and the local tradeoffs and challenges in adaptation planning. We also comment on group learning and specific adaptation tasks, strategies, and needs identified.
Henkel, Heather S.
In March 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) held the first Scientific Information Management (SIM) Workshop in Reston, Virginia. The workshop brought together more than 150 SIM professionals from across the organization to discuss the range and importance of SIM problems, identify common challenges and solutions, and investigate the use and value of “communities of practice” (CoP) as mechanisms to address these issues. The 3-day workshop began with presentations of SIM challenges faced by the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) network and two USGS programs from geology and hydrology. These presentations were followed by a keynote address and discussion of CoP by Dr. Etienne Wenger, a pioneer and leading expert in CoP, who defined them as "groups of people who share a passion for something that they know how to do and who interact regularly to learn how to do it better." Wenger addressed the roles and characteristics of CoP, how they complement formal organizational structures, and how they can be fostered. Following this motivating overview, five panelists (including Dr. Wenger) with CoP experience in different institutional settings provided their perspectives and lessons learned. The first day closed with an open discussion on the potential intersection of SIM at the USGS with SIM challenges and the potential for CoP. The second session began the process of developing a common vocabulary for both scientific data management and CoP, and a list of eight guiding principles for information management were proposed for discussion and constructive criticism. Following this discussion, 20 live demonstrations and posters of SIM tools developed by various USGS programs and projects were presented. Two community-building sessions were held to explore the next steps in 12 specific areas: Archiving of Scientific Data and Information; Database Networks; Digital Libraries; Emerging Workforce; Field Data for Small Research Projects; Knowledge Capture; Knowledge
Klucevsek, Kristin M.; Brungard, Allison B.
For undergraduate students to achieve science literacy, they must first develop information literacy skils. These skills align with Information Literacy Standards and include determining appropriate databases, distinguishing among resource types, and citing resources ethically. To effectively improve information literacy and science literacy, we…
Full Text Available In recent years, pluvial floods caused by extreme rainfall events have occurred frequently. Especially in urban areas, they lead to serious damages and endanger the citizens’ safety. Therefore, real-time information about such events is desirable. With the increasing popularity of social media platforms, such as Twitter or Instagram, information provided by voluntary users becomes a valuable source for emergency response. Many applications have been built for disaster detection and flood mapping using crowdsourcing. Most of the applications so far have merely used keyword filtering or classical language processing methods to identify disaster relevant documents based on user generated texts. As the reliability of social media information is often under criticism, the precision of information retrieval plays a significant role for further analyses. Thus, in this paper, high quality eyewitnesses of rainfall and flooding events are retrieved from social media by applying deep learning approaches on user generated texts and photos. Subsequently, events are detected through spatiotemporal clustering and visualized together with these high quality eyewitnesses in a web map application. Analyses and case studies are conducted during flooding events in Paris, London and Berlin.
Full Text Available Individual skin health attitudes are influenced by various factors, including public education campaigns, mass media, family, and friends. Evidence-based, educative information materials assist communication and decision-making in doctor-patient interactions. The present study aims at assessing the prevailing use of skin health information material and sources and their impact on skin health knowledge, motives to tan, and sun protection. We conducted a questionnaire survey among a representative sample of Austrian residents. Print media and television were perceived as the two most relevant sources for skin health information, whereas the source physician was ranked third. Picking the information source physician increased participants’ skin health knowledge (p = 0.025 and sun-protective behavior (p < 0.001. The study results highlight the demand for targeted health messages to attain lifestyle changes towards photo-protective habits. Providing resources that encourage pro-active counseling in every-day doctor-patient communication could increase skin health knowledge and sun-protective behavior, and thus, curb the rise in skin cancer incidence rates.
Alexandria, Joao Carlos Soares de
The increase of the connectivity in the business environment, combined with the growing dependency of information systems, has become the information security management an important governance tool. Information security has as main goal to protect the business transactions in order to work normally. In this way, It will be safeguarding the business continuity. The threats of information come from hackers' attacks, electronic frauds and spying, as well as fire, electrical energy interruption and humans fault. Information security is made by implementation of a set of controls, including of the others politics, processes, procedures, organizational structures, software and hardware, which require a continuous management and a well established structure to be able to face such challenges. This work tried to search the reasons why the organizations have difficulties to make a practice of information security management. Many of them just limit to adopt points measures, sometimes they are not consistent with their realities. The market counts on enough quantity of standards and regulations related to information security issues, for example, ISO/IEC 27002, American Sarbanes-Oxley act, Basel capital accord, regulations from regulatory agency (such as the Brazilians ones ANATEL, ANVISA and CVM). The market researches have showed that the information security implementation is concentrated on a well-defined group of organization mainly formed by large companies and from specifics sectors of economy, for example, financial and telecommunication. However, information security must be done by all organizations that use information systems to carry out their activities, independently of its size or economic area that it belongs. The situation of information security in the governmental sector of Brazil, and inside its research institutions, is considered worrying by the Brazilian Court of Accounts (TCU). This research work presents an assessment and diagnostic proposal of
Christoph Keinn; Goran Stahl
Current research in forest inventory focuses very much on technical-statistical problems geared mainly to the optimization of data collection and information generation. The basic assumption is that better information leads to better decisions and, therefore, to better forest management and forest policy. Not many studies, however, strive to explicitly establish the...
Castillo-Ortiz, Jose Dionisio; Valdivia-Nuno, Jose de Jesus; Ramirez-Gomez, Andrea; Garagarza-Mariscal, Heber; Gallegos-Rios, Carlos; Flores-Hernandez, Gabriel; Hernandez-Sanchez, Luis; Brambila-Barba, Victor; Castaneda-Sanchez, Jose Juan; Barajas-Ochoa, Zalathiel; Suarez-Rico, Angel; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Jorge Manuel; Ramos-Remus, Cesar
Education is a major health determinant and one of the main independent outcome predictors in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The use of the Internet by patients has grown exponentially in the last decade. To assess the characteristics, legibility and quality of the information available in Spanish in the Internet regarding to rheumatoid arthritis. The search was performed in Google using the phrase rheumatoid arthritis. Information from the first 30 pages was evaluated according to a pre-established format (relevance, scope, authorship, type of publication and financial objective). The quality and legibility of the pages were assessed using two validated tools, DISCERN and INFLESZ respectively. Data extraction was performed by senior medical students and evaluation was achieved by consensus. The Google search returned 323 hits but only 63% were considered relevant; 80% of them were information sites (71% discussed exclusively RA, 44% conventional treatment and 12% alternative therapies) and 12.5% had a primary financial interest. 60% of the sites were created by nonprofit organizations and 15% by medical associations. Web sites posted by medical institutions from the United States of America were better positioned in Spanish (Arthritis Foundation 4th position and American College of Rheumatology 10th position) than web sites posted by Spanish speaking countries. There is a risk of disinformation for patients with RA that use the Internet. We identified a window of opportunity for rheumatology medical institutions from Spanish-speaking countries to have a more prominent societal involvement in the education of their patients with RA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.
what constitutes the other extreme of the spectrum, but terms like anti- positivism , interpretivism and phenomenology are frequently used. Somewhere...Pragmatists are advocates of mixed methodology, or multi- methodology, i.e. a combination of both qualitative and quantitative research methods. Even within...predominantly quantitatively oriented in their approach to science, even go as far as considering their approach to scientific rigour to be the one and
An overview of research and development activities of the Constituyentes Atomic Center, National Atomic Energy Commission (Argentine), during the period January-December 1995 is presented. The research and development activities are reported under the following headings: Fuel Elements; Non Destructive and Structural Test; Physics; Materials; Chemistry; Radiobiology Nuclear Reactors; Institute of Technology; Quality Management; Technical Assistance to Industry (SATI); Computer and Communication Services Center; Nuclear Power Stations Support Group. List of publications by the scientific staff of the Atomic Center is provided. The list includes paper published in journals, papers presented in conferences, symposia, etc., and technical reports.
An overview of research and development activities of the Constituyentes Atomic Center, National Atomic Energy Commission (Argentine), during the period January-December 1996 is presented. The research and development activities are reported under the following headings: Fuel Elements; Non Destructive and Structural Test; Physics; Materials; Chemistry; Radiobiology Nuclear Reactors; Institute of Technology; Quality Management; Technical Assistance to Industry (SATI); Computer and Communication Services Center; Nuclear Power Stations Support Group. List of publications by the scientific staff of the Atomic Center is provided. The list includes paper published in journals, papers presented in conferences, symposia, etc., and technical reports.
Ana Maria Mattos
Full Text Available This paper identifies the set of journals cited in PhD theses about Management at the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul completed from 1997 until 2007, and distinguish the journals in which the authors of these theses published his scientific and technical papers one year after obtaining the doctoral degree up to 2010. The authors used a set of 1,131 titles in their theses and published their articles in another set of 187 journals. The two sets had in common only 31 journals, or about 2% of the titles.
Are women getting relevant information about mammography screening for an informed consent: a critical appraisal of information brochures used for screening invitation in Germany, Italy, Spain and France.
Gummersbach, Elisabeth; Piccoliori, Giuliano; Zerbe, Cristina Oriol; Altiner, Attila; Othman, Cecile; Rose, Christine; Abholz, Heinz-Harald
The aim was to find out if information brochures on mammography screening in Germany, Italy, Spain and France contain more information to facilitate informed consent than in similar studies carried out over the last few years in Sweden, Canada, USA and the UK, countries with different medical cultures. We generated a list of essential information items on mammography screening for the purpose of informed consent. We mostly used the same items of information as had been used in previous studies and analysed the information brochures of major national initiatives in Germany and France, and three brochures each from regionalized programmes in Italy and Spain. We cross-checked which of our items were covered in the brochures and if correct numbers were given. We found that the information brochures contained only about half of the information items we defined. Six of the eight brochures mentioned the reduction in breast-cancer fatalities. Four of the eight provided information on false positives, and four of the brochures highlighted the side-effects of radiation. The information on side-effects and risks provided by the brochures was generally of poor quality, and none of them referred to over diagnosis. When numbers were given, they were only indicated in terms of relative numbers. The information brochures currently being used in Germany, Italy, Spain and France are no better than the brochures analysed some years ago. Our results suggest that the providers of mammography screening programmes continue to conceal information from women that is essential when making an informed decision.
Nataliia V. Morze
Full Text Available In the article it was analyzed one of the basic conditions of providing the quality of higher education according to the system of internal quality assurance standards ESG (European quality assurance standards and guidelines to increase the ICT competence of scientific-pedagogical staff of the University. It was described the modular system of training for scientific and pedagogical staff of the Borys Grinchenko Kyiv University. Special attention is paid to the description of the system of raising the level of formation the ICT competence as one of the key competences of the modern teacher. The system of professional development, which is based on creating mixed studying and technology of "flipped classroom", formative assessment, innovative educational and ICT technologies according to the specially designed informative module "Informational and communication technologies", which allows scientific-pedagogical staff to use modern ICT and educational technologies effectively for their further applying in the provision of educational services and the development of quality of open educational content and open educational e-environment available to the student at any convenient time, which will significantly improve the quality of the educational process.
María del Mar Molero Jurado
Full Text Available Introduction: The figure of the caregiver of dependent persons is today the subject of scientific research in various disciplines in the health and social sciences. However, the terminology used to refer to the caregiver is often confusing, especially when they are not health professionals. Purpose: To analyze the terminology used to refer to the figure of the unpaid caregiver without technical training in scientific publications in recent years. Methods: A two-stage analysis was conducted: (1 review of publications in national and international databases in 1996-2005 and 2006-2016, and (2 review 2006-2016 using specific Dialnet database filters. Results: Despite the more frequent use of "family caregivers" (in Spanish and English in the publication titles, differences were observed in the use of other terms depending on the year of publication, the subject matter, type of journal or quality of the publication. Conclusion: The lack of agreement on the use of an established terminology to refer to the caregiver profile shows the need for constant revision and updating of the terms.
Pinelli, Thomas E.
This report addresses the relationship between library science and information science theory and practice, between the development of conceptual understanding, and the practical competence of information professionals. Consideration is given to the concept of research, linking theory with practice, and the reality of theory based practice. Attention is given to the need for research and research priorities, focus on the user and information-seeking behavior, and a user-oriented research agenda for STI.
Pinelli, Thomas E.
This report addresses the relationship between library science and information science theory and practice, between the development of conceptual understanding, and the practical competence of information professionals. Consideration is given to the concept of research, linking theory with practice, and the reality of theory based practice. Attention is given to the need for research and research priorities, focus on the user and information-seeking behavior, and a user-oriented research agenda for STI.
... program. AHRQ is not requesting and will not consider marketing material, health economics information, or..., auditory processing, academic achievement, attention and behavioral outcomes, health-related quality of...
G. P. Averyanov
Full Text Available The work is devoted to the questions of creation at the Department of Electrophysical Installations of a center of information support for the main education cycles connected mainly with solving the problems of electrophysics. An important part of this development is to guarantee the safety and integrity of rapidly changing information resources of the center. The peculiarities of the information systems of computer education centers make their specific demands to the necessary protection of the information resources from accidental and intentional factors, especially in connection with development of remote education.
Виктор Семенович Корнилов
Full Text Available In article attention that when training in the inverse problems for differential equations at students scientific and cognitive potential develops is paid. Students realize that mathematical models of the inverse problems for differential equations find the application in economy, the industries, ecology, sociology, biology, chemistry, mathematician, physics, in researches of the processes and the phenomena occurring in water and earth’s environment, air and space.Attention of the reader that in training activity to the inverse problems for differential equations at students the scientific outlook, logical, algorithmic, information thinking, creative activity, independence and ingenuity develop is focused. Students acquire skills to apply knowledge of many physical and mathematical disciplines, to carry out the analysis of the received decision of the reverse task and to formulate logical outputs of application-oriented character. Solving the inverse problems for differential equations, students acquire new knowledge in the field of applied and calculus mathematics, informatics, natural sciences and other knowledge.
Radioactive waste is associated with all phases of the nuclear fuel cycle as well as the use of radioactive materials in medicine, research and industry. For the most hazardous and long-lived waste, the solution being investigated worldwide is disposal in engineered repositories deep underground. The importance of geo-scientific information in selecting a site for geological disposal has long been recognised, but there has been growing acknowledgement of the broader role of this information in assessing and documenting the safety of disposal. The OECD/NEA Approaches and Methods for Integrating Geological Information in the Safety Case (AMIGO) project has demonstrated that geological data and understanding serve numerous roles in safety cases. The project, which ran from 2002 to 2008, underscored the importance of integrating geo-scientific information in the development of a disposal safety case and increasingly in the overall process of repository development, including, for example, siting decisions and ensuring the practical feasibility of repository layout and engineering. (authors)
... submitting information from the list to upload your documents. Email submissions: src.org ">SIPS@epc- src.org... Email: src.org ">SIPS@epc- src.org . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Agency for Healthcare Research and... Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma, including those that describe adverse events. The entire research protocol...
... information from the list to upload your documents. Email submissions: src.org ">SIPS@epc- src.org . Print... ">SIPS@epc- src.org . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality has... in the key questions detailed below. The entire research protocol, including the key questions, is...
The pattern of the mood-congruent effect in an autobiographical memory recall task was investigated. Each subject was randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions: positive mood, negative mood (induced with music), and control groups (no specific mood). Subjects were then presented with a word at a time from a list of trait words, which were pleasant or unpleasant. They decided whether they could recall any of their autobiographical memories related to the word, and responded with "yes" or "no" buttons as rapidly and accurately as possible. After the task, they were given five minutes for an incidental free recall test. Results indicated that the mood-congruent effect was found regardless of whether there was an autobiographical memory related to the word or not in both positive and negative mood states. The effect of moods on self-relevant information processing was discussed.
Litvinenko, E I; Astakhov, Yu A [Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Akishina, E P [Moscow State Engineering Physics Institute (Technical University), Moscow (Russian Federation); Semenov, R N; Smol` kov, I S [International University ` Dubna` , Dubna (Russian Federation)
The work on the creation of the hypertext information system has been performed on the basis of the web-server of the Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, JINR. The initial project proposed the creation of HTML information resources and did not consider the usage of any database for the information management. During the project implementation it became obvious that the system should have well defined structured informational model and it might be helpful to imply the relational database as a part of the system. The ORACLE server at the Laboratory of Computing Techniques and Automation (LCTA) of the JINR has been used for this task. Now we have a set of ORACLE tables designed using CASE tools for the informational model of the system, structured information about neutron sources, neutron instruments, printed publications and URL addresses. We have also the web interface to these tables using free ware gateway ORALINK installed on our Pentium PC with Windows NT and some tools to administer database and view pictures stored in the tables. We took into account NeXuS specifications while tried to design the informational model of the system, and we continue to work on its creation 15 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab. Submitted to the Proceedings of the International Workshop on New Opportunities for Better User Group Software (NOBUGS`97), 10-12 Dec 1997, USA
Litvinenko, E.I; Astakhov, Yu.A.; Akishina, E.P.; Semenov, R.N.; Smol'kov, I.S.
The work on the creation of the hypertext information system has been performed on the basis of the web-server of the Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, JINR. The initial project proposed the creation of HTML information resources and did not consider the usage of any database for the information management. During the project implementation it became obvious that the system should have well defined structured informational model and it might be helpful to imply the relational database as a part of the system. The ORACLE server at the Laboratory of Computing Techniques and Automation (LCTA) of the JINR has been used for this task. Now we have a set of ORACLE tables designed using CASE tools for the informational model of the system, structured information about neutron sources, neutron instruments, printed publications and URL addresses. We have also the web interface to these tables using free ware gateway ORALINK installed on our Pentium PC with Windows NT and some tools to administer database and view pictures stored in the tables. We took into account NeXuS specifications while tried to design the informational model of the system, and we continue to work on its creation
Full Text Available In this article, which reports the second part of a two-part study of the use of electronic journals by researchers in two French research institutions, we attempt to explain the integration of the use of electronic journals in the scientists' information habits, going beyond usage analysis. First, we describe how the development of electronic journals use follows a three-phase innovation process - research-development, first uses, and technical acculturation. Then, we attempt to find more significant explanatory factors, and emphasis is placed on the wider context of information activity. Three main information activity types are outlined - marginal, parallel, and integrated. Each of these types corresponds to a particular attitude towards scientific information and to different levels of electronic journal use.
Cheong, B. J.; Kang, J. M.; Kim, H. S.; Koh, S. H.; Kang, D. H.; Park, C. H. [Cheju Univ., Jeju (Korea, Republic of)
The goal of this study is to estimate the relevance and Influence of the Existing Regulation and the RI-PBR to the institutionalization of the regulatory system. This study reviews the current regulatory system and the status of the RI-PBR implementation of the US NRC and Korea based upon SECY Papers, Risk Informed Regulation Implementation Plan (RIRIP) of the US NRC and other domestic studies. In order to investigate the perceptions, knowledge level, ground for the regulatory change, a survey was performed to Korean nuclear utilities, researchers and regulators on the perception on the RIR. The questionnaire was composed of 50 questions regarding personal details on work experience, level of education and specific field of work ; level of knowledge on the risk informed performance based regulation (RI-PBR); the perception of the current regulation, the effectiveness, level of procedure, flexibility, dependency on the regulator and personal view, and the perception of the RI-PBR such as flexibility of regulation, introduction time and the effect of RI-PBR, safety improvement, public perception, parts of the existing regulatory system that should be changed, etc. 515 answered from all sectors of the nuclear field; utilities, engineering companies, research institutes, and regulatory bodies.
Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate medical and dental students' utilization of electronic information resources. Methods A web survey sent to 837 students (49.9% responded. Results Twenty-four per cent of medical students and ninteen per cent of dental students searched MEDLINE 2+ times/month for study purposes, and thiry-two per cent and twenty-four per cent respectively for research. Full-text articles were used 2+ times/month by thirty-three per cent of medical and ten per cent of dental students. Twelve per cent of respondents never utilized either MEDLINE or full-text articles. In multivariate models, the information-searching skills among students were significantly associated with use of MEDLINE and full-text articles. Conclusion Use of electronic resources differs among students. Forty percent were non-users of full-text articles. Information-searching skills are correlated with the use of electronic resources, but the level of basic PC skills plays not a major role in using these resources. The student data shows that adequate training in information-searching skills will increase the use of electronic information resources.
Kovalev, Sergey; Tarassov, Valery; Snášel, Václav
This volume of Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing contains papers presented in the main track of IITI 2016, the First International Conference on Intelligent Information Technologies for Industry held in May 16-21 in Sochi, Russia. The conference was jointly co-organized by Rostov State Transport University (Russia) and VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava (Czech Republic) with the participation of Russian Association for Artificial Intelligence (RAAI) and Russian Association for Fuzzy Systems and Soft Computing (RAFSSC). The volume is devoted to practical models and industrial applications related to intelligent information systems. The conference has been a meeting point for researchers and practitioners to enable the implementation of advanced information technologies into various industries. Nevertheless, some theoretical talks concerning the-state-of-the-art in intelligent systems and soft computing are included in the proceedings as well.
Peskin,A.M.; Shimamoto, Y.
The topic of computer graphics serves well to illustrate that AEC affiliated scientific computing installations are well represented in the forefront of computing science activities. The participant response to the technical program was overwhelming--both in number of contributions and quality of the work described. Session I, entitled Advanced Systems, contains presentations describing systems that contain features not generally found in graphics facilities. These features can be roughly classified as extensions of standard two-dimensional monochromatic imaging to higher dimensions including color and time as well as multidimensional metrics. Session II presents seven diverse applications ranging from high energy physics to medicine. Session III describes a number of important developments in establishing facilities, techniques and enhancements in the computer graphics area. Although an attempt was made to schedule as many of these worthwhile presentations as possible, it appeared impossible to do so given the scheduling constraints of the meeting. A number of prospective presenters 'came to the rescue' by graciously withdrawing from the sessions. Some of their abstracts have been included in the Proceedings.
...? d. What are the adverse effects or harms associated with imaging- based surveillance strategies? Key...; marketing materials; study types not included in the review; or information on indications not included in...-based surveillance strategies (listed below under interventions for KQ 1), used singly or in sequence...
... program. AHRQ is not requesting and will not consider marketing material, health economics information, or... of alternative test-and-treat strategies (including a no-testing strategy) for therapeutic decision...? a. What is the comparative effectiveness of the following testing strategies on therapeutic decision...
... Information Request on Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality... Review of the Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation, which is currently being conducted by the Evidence-based... the treatment of atrial fibrillation. The EHC Program is dedicated to identifying as many studies as...
Price, C. Aaron; Lee, H.-S.; Malatesta, K.
Stereoscopic technology (3D) is rapidly becoming ubiquitous across research, entertainment and informal educational settings. Children of today may grow up never knowing a time when movies, television and video games were not available stereoscopically. Despite this rapid expansion, the field's understanding of the impact of stereoscopic…
Garvey, William D.; And Others
Despite growing numbers of psychologists and of research reports presented at APA conventions and in core psychology journals, relatively few changes have occurred in the type of information presented. The stability of these media relates to quality control and the discouragement of rapid change in the discipline. (Author/GC)
discussed below. Operations Research And Economic Analysis Office (DTIC-LO) This organizational element is currently being staffed. Its primary planned... Analysis Centers DASIAC - Ed Martin, Dave Reitz GACIAC - Richard Bartl* MCIAC - Helen Pestel * MMIAC - Sarah Ellingsworth...Overall Organization 2-5 Office Of The Administrator And Personal Staff 2-7 Equal Employment Opportunity Manager 2-7 Information Analysis
Fernandez de Zamora, Rosa Maria
Describes the effects of economic factors on information services in Mexico. Topics discussed include librarians' salaries; inadequate library budgets; acquisitions in academic libraries; the development of public libraries; library networks; national databases; microcomputers and library automation; library research; effects of devaluation; and…
Jankowski, L.; Toepfer, S.; Riedel, F.; Weber, A.; Hertel, L.
The Unitid Software System (USS) is analyzed and characterized. The adaption of USS to the Automated Document Retrieval System (AIDOS) is discussed and the feasibility of establishing a apecial information service on the basis of several magnetic tape services is shown
... educational activities with respect to Atlantic HMS. Since the Magnuson-Stevens Act does not consider... recreational fishing platforms. To regulate these fishing activities, NMFS needs information to determine the... Review: Regular submission (extension of a currently approved collection). Affected Public: Non-profit...
Gritzay, O.; Kalchenko, O.
Full text: Scientific support of NPPs has to cover several important aspects of scientific and organization activity, namely:1.Training for group of high skilled specialists to do the following work: o nuclear data generation for engineer calculations; o engineer calculations to ensure the safety operation of NPPs; o experimental-calculation support of fluence dosimetry at NPP. 2.Development of up-to-date computer base, equipped with necessary program packages for nuclear data generation and engineer calculations. 3.The updated Libraries of Evaluated Nuclear Data (ENDF), such as ENDF/B-VII (USA), JENDL-3.3 (Japan) and JEFF-3.1 (Europe), RUSFOND ( Russia) and as a result the generation of specialized nuclear data multi-group libraries for special purpose engineer calculations.To reach these purposes, the Ukrainian Nuclear Data Center (UKRNDC) was organized and developed for more, than 10 years (since 1996).The capabilities of the UKRNDC are detailed below. o Modern ENDF libraries, first of all the general purpose libraries, such as ENDF/B-7.0, -6.8, JEFF-3.1.1, JENDL-3.3, etc. These databases contain recommended, evaluated cross sections, spectra, angular distributions, fission product yields, photo-atomic and thermal scattering law data, with emphasis on neutron induced reactions.o Codes for processing these data, updated to the last versions of ENDF and other libraries. First of all these are PREPRO 2007 package (Updated March 17, 2007) and NJOY package updated to versions NJOY-158 and NJOY-253 (in 2009). These codes may give the possibilities to produce the multi-group data for needed spectrum of interacting particles (neutrons, protons, gammas) and temperatures.o Computer base of several specialized server stations, such as ESCALA- S120 (analogous to IBM -240 with RISC 6000 processor) operating under OS under OS UNIX (version AIX 5.1) and IBM PC operating under Linux Red Hat 7.2.o The set of PC computers joined in UKRNDC network, operating mainly in OS Windows
Robinson, D.; Maggi, B.
The Education and Public Outreach (EPO) component of the satellite-based research mission "Aeronomy of Ice In the Mesosphere" (AIM) will bridge the unique scientific aspects of the mission to informal education organizations. The informal education materials developed by the EPO will utilize AIM data and educate the public about the environmental implications associated with the data. This will assist with creating a scientifically literate workforce and in developing a citizenry capable of making educated decisions related to environmental policies and laws. The objective of the AIM mission is to understand the mechanisms that cause Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) to form, how their presence affects the atmosphere, and how change in the atmosphere affects them. PMCs are sometimes known as Noctilucent Clouds (NLCs) because of their visibility during the night from appropriate locations. The phenomenon of PMCs is an observable indicator of global change, a concern to all citizens. Recent sightings of these clouds over populated regions have compelled AIM educators to expand informal education opportunities to communities worldwide. Collaborations with informal organizations include: Museums/Science Centers; NASA Sun-Earth Connection Forum; Alaska Native Ways of Knowing Project; Amateur Noctilucent Cloud Observers Organization; National Parks Education Programs; After School Science Clubs; Public Broadcasting Associations; and National Public Radio. The Native Ways of Knowing Project is an excellent example of informal collaboration with the AIM EPO. This Alaska based project will assist native peoples of the state with photographing NLCs for the EPO website. It will also aid the EPO with developing materials for informal organizations that incorporate traditional native knowledge and science, related to the sky. Another AIM collaboration that will offer citizens lasting informal education opportunities is the one established with the United States National Parks
Scientific Center for Aerospace Research of the Earth GSI NASU (CASRE) has developed methods of satellite observation of the earth surface for assessment of separate anthropogenic and natural safety parameters. 1. Space audit of greenhouse gases balance It was created space technology of forecasting and monitoring of emissions changes and carbon dioxide absorption by vegetation over the territory of Ukraine with the aim to make recommendations on efficient correction of climate-protective measures. The results of these investigations became a part of the Proposal of NASU to Cabinet of Ministries of Ukraine as for execution of its Decree from 05.03.2009 "Development of the strategic forecasting of climate change, consequences of such change for sectors of economics. . . " Recently scientists of NASU establishments, especially collaborating with international scientific community, obtained significant results in assessment and forecast not only of climate change but also geosystems condition not only of Ukraine but the whole Eastern Europe. According to obtained materials maps and diagrams of emissions' distribution and carbon dioxide absorption by vegetation at administrative regions were firstly built for Ukraine. According to this it's possible to make administrative decisions on rational management of nature and greenhouse gases' quotas trading according to Kyoto Protocol. Obtained results allow making next decisions: — Predominance of industrial CO2 emissions over its absorption by vegetation canopy almost twice is characteristic for the territory of Ukraine; — It's traced a certain regularity of zones' localization of the most intensive increase of CO2 concentration over industrially developed regions; — Negative biotic compensation of anthropogenic influence is observed on the considerable territory of Ukraine. It means that nat-ural environment has not time to renew those resources which human being uses in the process of his vital activity. As a rule
de Rubeis, Valerio; Sbarra, Paola; Sebaste, Beppe; Tosi, Patrizia
The experience of collection of data on earthquake effects and diffusion of information to people, carried on through the site "haisentitoilterremoto.it" (didyoufeelit) managed by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), has evidenced a constantly growing interest by Italian citizens. Started in 2007, the site has collected more than 520,000 compiled intensity questionnaires, producing intensity maps of almost 6,000 earthquakes. One of the most peculiar feature of this experience is constituted by a bi-directional information exchange. Every person can record observed effects of the earthquake and, at the same time, look at the generated maps. Seismologists, on the other side, can find each earthquake described in real time through its effects on the whole territory. In this way people, giving punctual information, receive global information from the community, mediated and interpreted by seismological knowledge. The relationship amongst seismologists, mass media and civil society is, thus, deep and rich. The presence of almost 20,000 permanent subscribers distributed on the whole Italian territory, alerted in case of earthquake, has reinforced the participation: the subscriber is constantly informed by the seismologists, through e-mail, about events occurred in his-her area, even if with very small magnitude. The "alert" service provides the possibility to remember that earthquakes are a phenomenon continuously present, on the other hand it shows that high magnitude events are very rare. This kind of information is helpful as it is fully complementary to that one given by media. We analyze the effects of our activity on society and mass media. The knowledge of seismic phenomena is present in each person, having roots on fear, idea of death and destruction, often with the deep belief of very rare occurrence. This position feeds refusal and repression. When a strong earthquake occurs, surprise immediately changes into shock and desperation. A
This study investigated research meteorologists' current usage and evaluation of information and communication technologies (ICT) in performing research tasks and the current relationship between meteorologists' ICT use and content characteristics of their research outputs. It surveyed research meteorologists working in three NOAA funded research institutes based at universities. Follow-up interviews with two selective samples of the survey participants were conducted to provide additional evidence to survey results and make suggestions for future measurement development work. Multiple regression analysis was performed to test the hypothesized relationships between meteorologists' ICT use and two substantive characteristics of their research---data integration and intra-/interdisciplinarity. Descriptive statistics were calculated to discern inferences of the scientists' current state of use and their degree of satisfaction with ICT tools. Follow-up interviews were transcribed and analyzed qualitatively with open coding and axial coding. The study findings contradicted the two assumptions of ICT effects on meteorological research by showing that the greater frequency of networked ICT use is not significantly associated with either greater data integration in research analysis, or greater intra- or interdisciplinary research. The major ICT barrier is the lack of a data and information infrastructure and support system for integrated, standardized, specialized, and easily accessible data and information from distributed servers. Suggestions were provided on the improvements of technical, social, political, and educational settings to promote large-scale date integration and intra-/interdisciplinary research. By moving further from theoretical assumptions to practical examinations, the research findings provide empirical evidence of Bowker's theories on the social shaping and social impact of infrastructure in sciences and affirmed some of Bowker's arguments regarding
Full Text Available Background. The 7th Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development is helping the European to prepare for an integrative system for intelligent management of biodiversity knowledge. The infrastructure that is envisaged and that will be further developed within the Programme “Horizon 2020” aims to provide open and free access to taxonomic information to anyone with a requirement for biodiversity data, without the need for individual consent of other persons or institutions. Open and free access to information will foster the re-use and improve the quality of data, will accelerate research, and will promote new types of research. Progress towards the goal of free and open access to content is hampered by numerous technical, economic, sociological, legal, and other factors. The present article addresses barriers to the open exchange of biodiversity knowledge that arise from European laws, in particular European legislation on copyright and database protection rights.We present a legal point of view as to what will be needed to bring distributed information together and facilitate its re-use by data mining, integration into semantic knowledge systems, and similar techniques. We address exceptions and limitations of copyright or database protection within Europe, and we point to the importance of data use agreements. We illustrate how exceptions and limitations have been transformed into national legislations within some European states to create inconsistencies that impede access to biodiversity information.Conclusions. The legal situation within the EU is unsatisfactory because there are inconsistencies among states that hamper the deployment of an open biodiversity knowledge management system. Scientists within the EU who work with copyright protected works or with protected databases have to be aware of regulations that vary from country to country. This is a major stumbling block to international collaboration and is an
Guz, A. N.; Rushchitsky, J. J.
The paper performs a citation analysis of publications of mechanicians of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (NASU) based on information tools developed by the Thomson Reuters Institute for Scientific Information. Two groups of mechanicians are considered: representatives of the S. P. Timoshenko Institute of Mechanics of the NASU (NASU members, heads of departments) and members (academicians) of the NASU Division of Mechanics. Three elements of the Citation Report (Results Found, Citation Index (Sum of the Times Cited), h-index) are presented for each scientist. This paper may be considered as a follow-up on the papers [6-11] published by Prikladnaya Mekhanika ( International Applied Mechanics) in 2005-2009
Bothma, Theo; Tarp, Sven
This article starts by providing a brief summary of relevance theory in information science in relation to the function theory of lexicography, explaining the different types of relevance, viz. objective system relevance and the subjective types of relevance, i.e. topical, cognitive, situational...... that is very important for lexicography as well as for information science, viz. functional relevance. Since all lexicographic work is ultimately aimed at satisfying users’ information needs, the article then discusses why the lexicographer should take note of all these types of relevance when planning a new...... dictionary project, identifying new tasks and responsibilities of the modern lexicographer. The article furthermore discusses how relevance theory impacts on teaching dictionary culture and reference skills. By integrating insights from lexicography and information science, the article contributes to new...
Noll. Carey E.
Since 1982. the Crustal Dynamics Data Information System (CDDIS) has supported the archive and distribution of geodetic data products acquired by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as well as national and international programs. The CDDIS provides easy, timely, and reliable access to a variety of data sets, products, and information about these data. These measurements. obtained from a global network of nearly 650 instruments at more than 400 distinct sites, include DORIS (Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite), GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System), SLR and LLR (Satellite and Lunar Laser Ranging), and VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry). The CDDIS data system and its archive have become increasingly important to many national and international science communities, particularly several of the operational services within the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) and its observing system the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS), including the International DORIS Service (IDS), the International GNSS Service (IGS). the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS), the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS). and the International Earth rotation and Reference frame Service (IERS), Investigations resulting from the data and products available through the CDDIS support research in many aspects of Earth system science and global change. Each month, the CDDIS archives more than one million data and derived product files totaling over 90 Gbytes in volume. In turn. the global user community downloads nearly 1.2 TBytes (over 10.5 million files) of data and products from the CDDIS each month. The requirements of analysts have evolved since the start of the CDDIS; the specialized nature of the system accommodates the enhancements required to support diverse data sets and user needs. This paper discusses the CDDIS. including background information about the system and its. user communities
Fortune, Nicola; Madden, Richard; Almborg, Ann-Helene
Development of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Health Interventions (ICHI) is currently underway. Once finalised, ICHI will provide a standard basis for collecting, aggregating, analysing, and comparing data on health interventions across all sectors of the health system. In this paper, we introduce the classification, describing its underlying tri-axial structure, organisation and content. We then discuss the potential value of ICHI for capturing information on met and unmet need for health interventions relevant to people with a disability, with a particular focus on interventions to support functioning and health promotion interventions. Early experiences of use of the Swedish National Classification of Social Care Interventions and Activities, which is based closely on ICHI, illustrate the value of a standard classification to support practice and collect statistical data. Testing of the ICHI beta version in a wide range of countries and contexts is now needed so that improvements can be made before it is finalised. Input from those with an interest in the health of people with disabilities and health promotion more broadly is welcomed.
Hanson, E. W.; Burakowski, E. A.
For much of the northern United States, the months surrounding the winter solstice are times of increased darkness, low temperatures, and frozen landscapes. It's a time when many high school science educators, who otherwise would venture outside with their classes, hunker down and are wary of the outdoors. However, a plethora of learning opportunities lies just beyond the classroom. Working collaboratively, a high school science teacher and a snow scientist have developed multiple activities to engage students in the scientific process of collecting, analyzing and interpreting the winter world using snow data to (1) learn about the insulative properties of snow, and (2) to learn about the role of snow cover on winter climate through its reflective properties while participating in a volunteer network that collects snow depth, albedo (reflectivity), and density data. These outdoor field-based snow investigations incorporate Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and disciplinary core ideas, including ESS2.C: The roles of water in Earth's surface processes and ESS2.D: Weather and Climate. Additionally, the lesson plans presented address Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in Mathematics, including the creation and analysis of bar graphs and time series plots (CCSS.Math.HSS-ID.A.1) and xy scatter plots (CCSS.Math.HSS-ID.B.6). High school students participating in the 2013/2014 snow sampling season described their outdoor learning experience as "authentic" and "hands-on" as compared to traditional class indoors. They emphasized that learning outdoors was essential to their understanding of underlying content and concepts because they "learn through actual experience."
Patricia R. Ladd
Full Text Available This study analyzes gender bias in children's informational books about science and science careers to determine how these early resources are affecting the disparity between males and females in science and engineering fields. The study focused on the number of male and female scientists both in pictures and text, and how much space was devoted to discussion of scientists of each gender. Overall, the findings of the study show that only 18% of the pictured scientists were female as well as only 16% of the scientists discussed in the text. These numbers are below current industry data that puts the number of females working in science and engineering fields at 26%.
One of the main aims of the IAEA is to foster the exchange of scientific and technical information and one of the main ways of doing this is to convene international scientific meetings. They range from large international conferences bringing together several hundred scientists, smaller symposia attended by an average of 150 to 250 participants and seminars designed to instruct rather than inform, to smaller panels and study groups of 10 to 30 experts brought together to advise on a particular programme or to develop a set of regulations. The topics of these meetings cover every part of the Agency's activities and form a backbone of many of its programmes. (author)
Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Petersen, Casper
train a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) on existing relevant information to that query. We then use the RNN to "deep learn" a single, synthetic, and we assume, relevant document for that query. We design a crowdsourcing experiment to assess how relevant the "deep learned" document is, compared...... to existing relevant documents. Users are shown a query and four wordclouds (of three existing relevant documents and our deep learned synthetic document). The synthetic document is ranked on average most relevant of all....
Lippi, Giuseppe; Ciaccio, Marcello; Giavarina, Davide
Digital libraries are typically used for retrieving and accessing articles in academic journals and repositories. Previous studies have been published about the performance of various biomedical research platforms, but no information is available about access preferences. A six-question survey was designed by the Italian Society of Clinical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine (SIBioC) using the platform Google Drive, and made available for 1 month to the members of the society. The information about the survey was published on the website of SIBioC and also disseminated by two sequential newsletters. Overall, 165 replies were collected throughout the 1-month survey availability. The largest number of replies were provided by laboratory professionals working in the national healthcare system (44.2%), followed by those working in private facilities (13.9%), university professors (12.7%) and specialization training staff (12.7%). The majority of responders published zero to one articles per year (55.2%), followed by two to five articles per year (37.6%), whereas only 7.3% published more than five articles per year. A total of 34.5% of the responders consulted biomedical research platforms on weekly basis, followed by 33.9% who did so on daily basis. PubMed/Medline was the most accessed scientific database, followed by Scopus, ISI Web of Science and Google Scholar. The impact factor was the leading reason when selecting which journal to publish in. The most consulted journals in the field of laboratory medicine were Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine and Biochimica Clinica. This survey provides useful indications about the personal inclination towards access to scientific information in our country.
This review of scientific literature on impacts of seismic sound on aquatic organisms was initiated following a 2003 workshop to develop a decision framework for seismic survey referrals in Canadian waters. That workshop revealed that there are sources of uncertainty about the effects of seismic sound on aquatic organisms. It was determined that seismic sounds on the marine environment are not completely without consequence nor are they certain to result in serious harm. Following the workshop, and in order to clearly determine the level of risk posed by seismic sounds, teams of scientists prepared reviews of literature on experimental studies and field monitoring on the effects of seismic sound on marine organisms. Standards and mitigation methods were also reviewed. The scientific deliberations resulted in a body of information that allowed several conclusions to be reached that provide a scientific basis for developing a regulatory framework for conducting seismic surveys in marine environments. This paper presented literature highlights regarding: habitat concern; management considerations; physical and behavioural effects on fish; functional uses of sound; physical, physiological and behavioural effects on invertebrates; effects of seismic sound on zooplankton, eggs, larvae of fish and invertebrates; effect of seismic sound on marine turtles; and mortality, physical and behavioural effects on marine mammals. The literature review sought to seek if seismic sound contributed to displacement and migratory diversion; changes in dive and respiratory patterns; changes in social behaviour; and changes in vocalisation patterns. Several areas of future research needs were identified following this literature review which revealed that the long-term effects of seismic sound on marine animals remain inconclusive. 2 refs., 1 fig.
Hughes, J. Steven; Crichton, Daniel J.; Mattmann, Chris A.
Scientific digital libraries serve complex and evolving research communities. Justifications for the development of scientific digital libraries include the desire to preserve science data and the promises of information interconnectedness, correlative science, and system interoperability. Shared ontologies are fundamental to fulfilling these promises. We present a tool framework, some informal principles, and several case studies where shared ontologies are used to guide the implementation of scientific digital libraries. The tool framework, based on an ontology modeling tool, was configured to develop, manage, and keep shared ontologies relevant within changing domains and to promote the interoperability, interconnectedness, and correlation desired by scientists.
Fiorani, D.; Acierno, M.
The aim of the present research is to develop an instrument able to adequately support the conservation process by means of a twofold approach, based on both BIM environment and ontology formalisation. Although BIM has been successfully experimented within AEC (Architecture Engineering Construction) field, it has showed many drawbacks for architectural heritage. To cope with unicity and more generally complexity of ancient buildings, applications so far developed have shown to poorly adapt BIM to conservation design with unsatisfactory results (Dore, Murphy 2013; Carrara 2014). In order to combine achievements reached within AEC through BIM environment (design control and management) with an appropriate, semantically enriched and flexible The presented model has at its core a knowledge base developed through information ontologies and oriented around the formalization and computability of all the knowledge necessary for the full comprehension of the object of architectural heritage an its conservation. Such a knowledge representation is worked out upon conceptual categories defined above all within architectural criticism and conservation scope. The present paper aims at further extending the scope of conceptual modelling within cultural heritage conservation already formalized by the model. A special focus is directed on decay analysis and surfaces conservation project.
Full Text Available The aim of the present research is to develop an instrument able to adequately support the conservation process by means of a twofold approach, based on both BIM environment and ontology formalisation. Although BIM has been successfully experimented within AEC (Architecture Engineering Construction field, it has showed many drawbacks for architectural heritage. To cope with unicity and more generally complexity of ancient buildings, applications so far developed have shown to poorly adapt BIM to conservation design with unsatisfactory results (Dore, Murphy 2013; Carrara 2014. In order to combine achievements reached within AEC through BIM environment (design control and management with an appropriate, semantically enriched and flexible The presented model has at its core a knowledge base developed through information ontologies and oriented around the formalization and computability of all the knowledge necessary for the full comprehension of the object of architectural heritage an its conservation. Such a knowledge representation is worked out upon conceptual categories defined above all within architectural criticism and conservation scope. The present paper aims at further extending the scope of conceptual modelling within cultural heritage conservation already formalized by the model. A special focus is directed on decay analysis and surfaces conservation project.
Maria Dolores Guerra-Martín
Full Text Available En este trabajo presentamos el proceso y la evaluación de una intervención educativa para la capacitación en búsquedas de información científica, dentro del programa de alfabetización en información, que se llevó a cabo con 158 estudiantes de 3er año de Enfermería en la asignatura de Administración de Servicios de Enfermería. Respecto a los resultados de la evaluación de los conocimientos adquiridos, la media de aciertos es de 11,8 (desviación estándar=2,2; las calificaciones obtenidas en el informe de búsquedas de información fueron el 46,8% sobresaliente, 22,4% notable, 19,2% aprobado y 11,5% reprobaron; en cuanto a las opiniones y satisfacción con el proceso de aprendizaje, un 79,5% de los/as estudiantes opinaban que después del aprendizaje tienen conocimientos suficientes para buscar información científica y un 78,6% estaban satisfechos/as con el aprendizaje. Concluimos que la intervención educativa es adecuada para el desarrollo de competencias en búsquedas de información científica en los/as estudiantes de enfermería.
Yan, Koon-Kiu; Gerstein, Mark
The presence of web-based communities is a distinctive signature of Web 2.0. The web-based feature means that information propagation within each community is highly facilitated, promoting complex collective dynamics in view of information exchange. In this work, we focus on a community of scientists and study, in particular, how the awareness of a scientific paper is spread. Our work is based on the web usage statistics obtained from the PLoS Article Level Metrics dataset compiled by PLoS. The cumulative number of HTML views was found to follow a long tail distribution which is reasonably well-fitted by a lognormal one. We modeled the diffusion of information by a random multiplicative process, and thus extracted the rates of information spread at different stages after the publication of a paper. We found that the spread of information displays two distinct decay regimes: a rapid downfall in the first month after publication, and a gradual power law decay afterwards. We identified these two regimes with two distinct driving processes: a short-term behavior driven by the fame of a paper, and a long-term behavior consistent with citation statistics. The patterns of information spread were found to be remarkably similar in data from different journals, but there are intrinsic differences for different types of web usage (HTML views and PDF downloads versus XML). These similarities and differences shed light on the theoretical understanding of different complex systems, as well as a better design of the corresponding web applications that is of high potential marketing impact.
Full Text Available The presence of web-based communities is a distinctive signature of Web 2.0. The web-based feature means that information propagation within each community is highly facilitated, promoting complex collective dynamics in view of information exchange. In this work, we focus on a community of scientists and study, in particular, how the awareness of a scientific paper is spread. Our work is based on the web usage statistics obtained from the PLoS Article Level Metrics dataset compiled by PLoS. The cumulative number of HTML views was found to follow a long tail distribution which is reasonably well-fitted by a lognormal one. We modeled the diffusion of information by a random multiplicative process, and thus extracted the rates of information spread at different stages after the publication of a paper. We found that the spread of information displays two distinct decay regimes: a rapid downfall in the first month after publication, and a gradual power law decay afterwards. We identified these two regimes with two distinct driving processes: a short-term behavior driven by the fame of a paper, and a long-term behavior consistent with citation statistics. The patterns of information spread were found to be remarkably similar in data from different journals, but there are intrinsic differences for different types of web usage (HTML views and PDF downloads versus XML. These similarities and differences shed light on the theoretical understanding of different complex systems, as well as a better design of the corresponding web applications that is of high potential marketing impact.
Full Text Available We examined in two empirical studies how situational and personal aspects of uncertainty influence laypeople’s understanding of the uncertainty of scientific information, with focus on the detection of tentativeness and perception of scientific credibility. In the first study (N = 48, we investigated the impact of a perceived conflict due to contradicting information as a situational, text-inherent aspect of uncertainty. The aim of the second study (N = 61 was to explore the role of general self-efficacy as an intra-personal uncertainty factor. In Study 1, participants read one of two versions of an introductory text in a between-group design. This text provided them with an overview about the neurosurgical procedure of deep brain stimulation (DBS. The text expressed a positive attitude toward DBS in one experimental condition or focused on the negative aspects of this method in the other condition. Then participants in both conditions read the same text that dealt with a study about DBS as experimental treatment in a small sample of patients with major depression. Perceived conflict between the two texts was found to increase the perception of tentativeness and to decrease the perception of scientific credibility, implicating that text-inherent aspects have significant effects on critical appraisal. The results of Study 2 demonstrated that participants with higher general self-efficacy detected the tentativeness to a lesser degree and assumed a higher level of scientific credibility, indicating a more naïve understanding of scientific information. This appears to be contradictory to large parts of previous findings that showed positive effects of high self-efficacy on learning. Both studies showed that perceived tentativeness and perceived scientific credibility of medical information contradicted each other. We conclude that there is a need for supporting laypeople in understanding the uncertainty of scientific information and that
Keller, Carmen; Junghans, Alex
Individuals with low numeracy have difficulties with understanding complex graphs. Combining the information-processing approach to numeracy with graph comprehension and information-reduction theories, we examined whether high numerates' better comprehension might be explained by their closer attention to task-relevant graphical elements, from which they would expect numerical information to understand the graph. Furthermore, we investigated whether participants could be trained in improving their attention to task-relevant information and graph comprehension. In an eye-tracker experiment ( N = 110) involving a sample from the general population, we presented participants with 2 hypothetical scenarios (stomach cancer, leukemia) showing survival curves for 2 treatments. In the training condition, participants received written instructions on how to read the graph. In the control condition, participants received another text. We tracked participants' eye movements while they answered 9 knowledge questions. The sum constituted graph comprehension. We analyzed visual attention to task-relevant graphical elements by using relative fixation durations and relative fixation counts. The mediation analysis revealed a significant ( P attention to task-relevant information, which did not differ between the 2 conditions. Training had a significant main effect on visual attention ( P attention to task-relevant graphical elements than individuals with low numeracy. With appropriate instructions, both groups can be trained to improve their graph-processing efficiency. Future research should examine (e.g., motivational) mediators between visual attention and graph comprehension to develop appropriate instructions that also result in higher graph comprehension.
Radiske, Andressa; Gonzalez, Maria Carolina; Conde-Ocazionez, Sergio A; Feitosa, Anatildes; Köhler, Cristiano A; Bevilaqua, Lia R; Cammarota, Martín
Reactivated memories can be modified during reconsolidation, making this process a potential therapeutic target for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a mental illness characterized by the recurring avoidance of situations that evoke trauma-related fears. However, avoidance memory reconsolidation depends on a set of still loosely defined boundary conditions, limiting the translational value of basic research. In particular, the involvement of the hippocampus in fear-motivated avoidance memory reconsolidation remains controversial. Combining behavioral and electrophysiological analyses in male Wistar rats, we found that previous learning of relevant nonaversive information is essential to elicit the participation of the hippocampus in avoidance memory reconsolidation, which is associated with an increase in theta- and gamma-oscillation power and cross-frequency coupling in dorsal CA1 during reactivation of the avoidance response. Our results indicate that the hippocampus is involved in memory reconsolidation only when reactivation results in contradictory representations regarding the consequences of avoidance and suggest that robust nesting of hippocampal theta-gamma rhythms at the time of retrieval is a specific reconsolidation marker. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by maladaptive avoidance responses to stimuli or behaviors that represent or bear resemblance to some aspect of a traumatic experience. Disruption of reconsolidation, the process by which reactivated memories become susceptible to modifications, is a promising approach for treating PTSD patients. However, much of what is known about fear-motivated avoidance memory reconsolidation derives from studies based on fear conditioning instead of avoidance-learning paradigms. Using a step-down inhibitory avoidance task in rats, we found that the hippocampus is involved in memory reconsolidation only when the animals acquired the avoidance response in an
Epstein, Richard H; Dexter, Franklin; Hofer, Ira S; Rodriguez, Luis I; Schwenk, Eric S; Maga, Joni M; Hindman, Bradley J
Perioperative hypothermia may increase the incidences of wound infection, blood loss, transfusion, and cardiac morbidity. US national quality programs for perioperative normothermia specify the presence of at least 1 "body temperature" ≥35.5°C during the interval from 30 minutes before to 15 minutes after the anesthesia end time. Using data from 4 academic hospitals, we evaluated timing and measurement considerations relevant to the current requirements to guide hospitals wishing to report perioperative temperature measures using electronic data sources. Anesthesia information management system databases from 4 hospitals were queried to obtain intraoperative temperatures and intervals to the anesthesia end time from discontinuation of temperature monitoring, end of surgery, and extubation. Inclusion criteria included age >16 years, use of a tracheal tube or supraglottic airway, and case duration ≥60 minutes. The end-of-case temperature was determined as the maximum intraoperative temperature recorded within 30 minutes before the anesthesia end time (ie, the temperature that would be used for reporting purposes). The fractions of cases with intervals >30 minutes between the last intraoperative temperature and the anesthesia end time were determined. Among the hospitals, averages (binned by quarters) of 34.5% to 59.5% of cases had intraoperative temperature monitoring discontinued >30 minutes before the anesthesia end time. Even if temperature measurement had been continued until extubation, averages of 5.9% to 20.8% of cases would have exceeded the allowed 30-minute window. Averages of 8.9% to 21.3% of cases had end-of-case intraoperative temperatures <35.5°C (ie, a quality measure failure). Because of timing considerations, a substantial fraction of cases would have been ineligible to use the end-of-case intraoperative temperature for national quality program reporting. Thus, retrieval of postanesthesia care unit temperatures would have been necessary. A
with volcanic eruptions. backbone hierarchical KREONET, that currently "* Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy independent research and educational...Zone, East Indonesia: Dpt., Southampton University, Southampton Adrian Richardson, Dpt. of Geology, Royal S09 5NH, U.K. ***Dpt. of Geological Sciences
Present research investigates reciprocal relations amidst computer self-efficacy, scientific research and information literacy self-efficacy. Research findings have demonstrated that according to standardized regression coefficients, computer self-efficacy has a positive effect on information literacy self-efficacy. Likewise it has been detected…
Levett-Jones, Tracy; Kenny, Raelene; Van der Riet, Pamela; Hazelton, Michael; Kable, Ashley; Bourgeois, Sharon; Luxford, Yoni
This paper profiles a study that explored nursing students' information and communication technology competence and confidence. It presents selected findings that focus on students' attitudes towards information and communication technology as an educational methodology and their perceptions of its relevance to clinical practice. Information and communication technology is integral to contemporary nursing practice. Development of these skills is important to ensure that graduates are 'work ready' and adequately prepared to practice in increasingly technological healthcare environments. This was a mixed methods study. Students (n=971) from three Australian universities were surveyed using an instrument designed specifically for the study, and 24 students participated in focus groups. The focus group data revealed that a number of students were resistant to the use of information and communication technology as an educational methodology and lacked the requisite skills and confidence to engage successfully with this educational approach. Survey results indicated that 26 per cent of students were unsure about the relevance of information and communication technology to clinical practice and only 50 per cent felt 'very confident' using a computer. While the importance of information and communication technology to student's learning and to their preparedness for practice has been established, it is evident that students' motivation is influenced by their level of confidence and competence, and their understanding of the relevance of information and communication technology to their future careers.
Douglas N. Swanston; Charles G. Shaw; Winston P. Smith; Kent R. Julin; Guy A. Cellier; Fred H. Everest
This document highlights key items of information obtained from the published literature and from specific assessments, workshops, resource analyses, and various risk assessment panels conducted as part of the Tongass land management planning process. None of this information dictates any particular decision; however, it is important to consider during decisionmaking...
Sabuncu, Mert R.; Van Leemput, Koen
This paper presents the relevance voxel machine (RVoxM), a dedicated Bayesian model for making predictions based on medical imaging data. In contrast to the generic machine learning algorithms that have often been used for this purpose, the method is designed to utilize a small number of spatially...
Whitley, Meredith A.
While the quality and quantity of research on service-learning has increased considerably over the past 20 years, researchers as well as governmental and funding agencies have called for more rigor in service-learning research. One key variable in improving rigor is using relevant existing theories to improve the research. The purpose of this…
This dissertation examines the impact of exploration and learning upon eDiscovery information retrieval; it is written in three parts. Part I contains foundational concepts and background on the topics of information retrieval and eDiscovery. This part informs the reader about the research frameworks, methodologies, data collection, and…
It has long been noted that there are crucial differences between the functions of the law and science (Brief for Bloembergen et al., 1993). Difference in function leads to different logics and processes of enacting law and science, including the system for generating a body of peer-reviewed research. The current research uses an overarching anthropological approach to address academic communication between two powerful and influential social groups: scientists and legal scholars. Using Burt’s (1992) structural holes, which examines the position of actors across network gaps, and the newer area of cultural holes, which adds a cultural dimension through linguistic networks (Pachucki & Breiger, 2010), this research looks at whether, in addition to structural divides in patterns of citations between legal academic and scientific publishing, there are also language and contextual differences. By investigating these key issues this research will not only expand the applications of these well validated scientometric techniques to new areas, but also will explore the intersection of two academic publication areas, the way they communicate, and how information across both is attempting to influence policy. (Author)
Ivan F. Honcharenko
Full Text Available The article deals with the place and the role of information and communication technologies in the scientific and pedagogical activity of pedagogical personnel in the sphere of post diploma military medicine education. The results of the questionnaire for the above mentioned personnel are presented in the article. There are emphasized and generalized the problems of information and communication competence formation of scientific and educational personnel in the sphere of post diploma military medicine using ICT in their teaching activities in the process of post-diploma education.
Hulshof, Casper D.; de Jong, Ton
Students encounter many obstacles during scientific discovery learning with computer-based simulations. It is hypothesized that an effective type of support, that does not interfere with the scientific discovery learning process, should be delivered on a "just-in-time" base. This study explores the effect of facilitating access to…
Schizas, Dimitrios; Papatheodorou, Efimia; Stamou, George
This study conducts a textbook analysis in the frame of the following working hypothesis: The transformation of scientific knowledge into school knowledge is expected to reproduce the problems encountered with the scientific knowledge itself or generate additional problems, which may both induce misconceptions in textbook users. Specifically, we…
E. V. Golubev
Full Text Available The article presents the approaches to the creation of cloud information system for automation of business processes related to the preparation and publication of periodic scientific and educational publications (publishing. The aim of the research is the development of concepts, models, patterns, architecture of such a system, the choice of software implementation. The urgency of development based on the results of a study of existing and used in practice technologies for creating electronic versions of scientific journals and other types of scientific and educational resources. It is expected that the use of cloud-based systems will reduce the time and cost of publishing houses, as well as improve the quality of published material (for example, through the use of their interactive and multimedia elements, add comments and assessment opportunities articles and so forth..Description is given on an example of cloud Redactor.Online system developed by small innovative enterprises of Petrozavodsk State University «Internet-business-system». As a means of implementation chosen freelydistributed products, such as PostgreSQL, PHP, Yii Framework.Logically, the cloud structure of the system is a set of components, based on common data sources and interacting with each other. The main components of the system are the basic (general part of promo-site system, editorial offices of periodicals created in the system, media sites, mobile applications editions, complex control system as a whole.The central element of the system architecture is the editorial offices. It provides a set of features related to the preparation for release and publication of the magazine, including the management of the lifecycle of the article (step preparation of the article the author, its review, proofreading, typesetting, translation, publication, and export to external citation indexes. Available functionality of this component is determined by the role assigned to the user
Kanewala, Upulee; Bieman, James M.
Context Scientific software plays an important role in critical decision making, for example making weather predictions based on climate models, and computation of evidence for research publications. Recently, scientists have had to retract publications due to errors caused by software faults. Systematic testing can identify such faults in code. Objective This study aims to identify specific challenges, proposed solutions, and unsolved problems faced when testing scientific software. Method We conducted a systematic literature survey to identify and analyze relevant literature. We identified 62 studies that provided relevant information about testing scientific software. Results We found that challenges faced when testing scientific software fall into two main categories: (1) testing challenges that occur due to characteristics of scientific software such as oracle problems and (2) testing challenges that occur due to cultural differences between scientists and the software engineering community such as viewing the code and the model that it implements as inseparable entities. In addition, we identified methods to potentially overcome these challenges and their limitations. Finally we describe unsolved challenges and how software engineering researchers and practitioners can help to overcome them. Conclusions Scientific software presents special challenges for testing. Specifically, cultural differences between scientist developers and software engineers, along with the characteristics of the scientific software make testing more difficult. Existing techniques such as code clone detection can help to improve the testing process. Software engineers should consider special challenges posed by scientific software such as oracle problems when developing testing techniques. PMID:25125798
Kanewala, Upulee; Bieman, James M
Scientific software plays an important role in critical decision making, for example making weather predictions based on climate models, and computation of evidence for research publications. Recently, scientists have had to retract publications due to errors caused by software faults. Systematic testing can identify such faults in code. This study aims to identify specific challenges, proposed solutions, and unsolved problems faced when testing scientific software. We conducted a systematic literature survey to identify and analyze relevant literature. We identified 62 studies that provided relevant information about testing scientific software. We found that challenges faced when testing scientific software fall into two main categories: (1) testing challenges that occur due to characteristics of scientific software such as oracle problems and (2) testing challenges that occur due to cultural differences between scientists and the software engineering community such as viewing the code and the model that it implements as inseparable entities. In addition, we identified methods to potentially overcome these challenges and their limitations. Finally we describe unsolved challenges and how software engineering researchers and practitioners can help to overcome them. Scientific software presents special challenges for testing. Specifically, cultural differences between scientist developers and software engineers, along with the characteristics of the scientific software make testing more difficult. Existing techniques such as code clone detection can help to improve the testing process. Software engineers should consider special challenges posed by scientific software such as oracle problems when developing testing techniques.
Full Text Available When the World Wide Web provides suitable methods for producing and publishing information to scientists, the Web has become a mediator to publishing information. This environment has been formed billions of web pages that each of them has a special title, special content, special address and special purpose. Search engines provide a variety of facilities limit search results to raise the possibility of relevance in the retrieval results. One of these facilities is the limitation of the keywords and search terms to the title or URL. It can increase the possibility of results relevance significantly. Search engines claim what are limited to title and URL is most relevant. This research tried to compare the results relevant between results limited in title and URL in agricultural and Humanities areas from their users sights also it notice to Comparison of the presence of keywords in the title and URL between two areas and the relationship between search query numbers and matching keywords in title and their URLs. For this purpose, the number of 30 students in each area whom were in MA process and in doing their thesis was chosen. There was a significant relevant of the results that they limited their information needs to title and URL. There was significantly relevance in URL results in agricultural area, but there was not any significant difference between title and URL results in the humanities. For comparing the number of keywords in title and URL in two areas, 30 keywords in each area were chosen. There was not any significantly difference between the number of keywords in the title and URL of websites in two areas. To show relationship between number of search keyword and the matching of title and URL 45 keywords in each area were chosen. They were divided to three parts (one keyword, two keywords and three keywords. It was determined that if search keyword was less, the amount of matching between title and URL was more and if the matching
Kim, Kyungil; Markman, Arthur B; Kim, Tae Hoon
Research on causal reasoning has focused on the influence of covariation between candidate causes and effects on causal judgments. We suggest that the type of covariation information to which people attend is affected by the task being performed. For this, we manipulated the test questions for the evaluation of contingency information and observed its influence on both contingency learning and subsequent causal selections. When people select one cause related to an effect, they focus on conditional contingencies assuming the absence of alternative causes. When people select two causes related to an effect, they focus on conditional contingencies assuming the presence of alternative causes. We demonstrated this use of contingency information in four experiments.
In his book, ‘Information Inequality’ (1996) Herbert Schiller argues that, by the mid-1990s, information had become another commodity of the newly global political system of market capitalism and this development was instrumental in widening the gap between the poorest and the best off in American society. This paper reviews Schiller’s claims and examines its bearing on society in the decade and half since the publication of his book.
Melo, Luiza Baptista; Pires, Cesaltina
This paper investigates the factors that influence the value for the users of the Portuguese electronic scientific information consortium b-on (Biblioteca do Conhecimento Online). We used the contingent valuation method based on a willingness to pay scenario to estimate the value that each user is willing to pay. Data were collected through an…
Hsieh, Ya-Hui; Tsai, Chin-Chung
The purpose of this study is to examine the moderating role of cognitive load experience between students' scientific epistemic beliefs and information commitments, which refer to online evaluative standards and online searching strategies. A total of 344 science-related major students participated in this study. Three questionnaires were…
Ferrer-Vinent, Ignacio J.; Bruehl, Margaret; Pan, Denise; Jones, Galin L.
This paper describes the methodology and implementation of a case study introducing the scientific literature and creative experiment design to honors general chemistry laboratory students. The purpose of this study is to determine whether first-year chemistry students can develop information literacy skills while they engage with the primary…
Full Text Available This research study examines the importance of financial information and information contained in the ISA’s New Audit Report effective from 2016 for lenders as capital providers. We base our findings on a survey conducted in September of 2016 with corporate loan officers for medium-large corporate clients in Macedonia. The results show that the annual report of the company, except for the management report and notes to the financial statements, has consistently high importance and usability for respondents’ decision making. Various accounting ratios related to liquidity, financial stability and profitability of the company are considered very important and regularly used in credit analysis. However, respondents were not consistent in their shared perceptions regarding high importance of projected profits and historical information on operating cash flows. All loan officers gave high importance to the information found in existent auditor’s report format regardless of the form of expressed opinion. Also, information on key audit matters, additional information on going concern and related auditor’s judgement, procedures related to fraud risk were considered of high importance. Lenders rated as less important the disclosure of the name of engagement partner, auditor’s statement on independence and compliance with ethical requirements and the level of materiality used in the audit.
Pian, Wenjing; Khoo, Christopher Sg; Chang, Yun-Ke
People are increasingly accessing health-related social media sites, such as health discussion forums, to post and read user-generated health information. It is important to know what criteria people use when deciding the relevance of information found on health social media websites, in different situations. The study attempted to identify the relevance criteria that people use when browsing a health discussion forum, in 3 types of use contexts: when seeking information for their own health issue, when seeking for other people's health issue, and when browsing without a particular health issue in mind. A total of 58 study participants were self-assigned to 1 of the 3 use contexts or information needs and were asked to browse a health discussion forum, HealthBoards.com. In the analysis, browsing a discussion forum was divided into 2 stages: scanning a set of post surrogates (mainly post titles) in the summary result screen and reading a detailed post content (including comments by other users). An eye tracker system was used to capture participants' eye movement behavior and the text they skim over and focus (ie, fixate) on during browsing. By analyzing the text that people's eyes fixated on, the types of health information used in the relevance judgment were determined. Post-experiment interviews elicited participants' comments on the relevance of the information and criteria used. It was found that participants seeking health information for their own health issue focused significantly more on the poster's symptoms, personal history of the disease, and description of the disease (P=.01, .001, and .02). Participants seeking for other people's health issue focused significantly more on cause of disease, disease terminology, and description of treatments and procedures (P=.01, .01, and .02). In contrast, participants browsing with no particular issue in mind focused significantly more on general health topics, hot topics, and rare health issues (P=.01, .01, and .01
Khoo, Christopher SG; Chang, Yun-Ke
Background People are increasingly accessing health-related social media sites, such as health discussion forums, to post and read user-generated health information. It is important to know what criteria people use when deciding the relevance of information found on health social media websites, in different situations. Objective The study attempted to identify the relevance criteria that people use when browsing a health discussion forum, in 3 types of use contexts: when seeking information for their own health issue, when seeking for other people’s health issue, and when browsing without a particular health issue in mind. Methods A total of 58 study participants were self-assigned to 1 of the 3 use contexts or information needs and were asked to browse a health discussion forum, HealthBoards.com. In the analysis, browsing a discussion forum was divided into 2 stages: scanning a set of post surrogates (mainly post titles) in the summary result screen and reading a detailed post content (including comments by other users). An eye tracker system was used to capture participants’ eye movement behavior and the text they skim over and focus (ie, fixate) on during browsing. By analyzing the text that people’s eyes fixated on, the types of health information used in the relevance judgment were determined. Post-experiment interviews elicited participants’ comments on the relevance of the information and criteria used. Results It was found that participants seeking health information for their own health issue focused significantly more on the poster’s symptoms, personal history of the disease, and description of the disease (P=.01, .001, and .02). Participants seeking for other people’s health issue focused significantly more on cause of disease, disease terminology, and description of treatments and procedures (P=.01, .01, and .02). In contrast, participants browsing with no particular issue in mind focused significantly more on general health topics, hot
Veneranda, M.; Negro, J. I.; Medina, J.; Rull, F.; Lantz, C.; Poulet, F.; Cousin, A.; Dypvik, H.; Hellevang, H.; Werner, S. C.
The PTAL website will store multispectral analysis of samples collected from several terrestrial analogue sites and pretend to become a cornerstone tool for the scientific community interested in deepening the knowledge on Mars geological processes.
Martins, Marci Fileti
The present paper thematizes the issue of heterogeneity in the Discourse of Scientific Circulation (DSC). Such a discourse, articulated in the interface between scientific discourse (SC) and the statements of “non-scientists” (SNS), presents a heterogeneity which I call discursive (following GALLO, 2001), and which is constituted not only of non-coincidental enunciations (AUTHIER-REVUZ, 1982), but also of coincidences bearing pre-constructed meanings. From such an interface of meanings a new ...
Hsieh, Ya-Hui; Tsai, Chin-Chung
The purpose of this study is to examine the moderating role of cognitive load experience between students' scientific epistemic beliefs and information commitments, which refer to online evaluative standards and online searching strategies. A total of 344 science-related major students participated in this study. Three questionnaires were used to ascertain the students' scientific epistemic beliefs, information commitments, and cognitive load experience. Structural equation modeling was then used to analyze the moderating effect of cognitive load, with the results revealing its significant moderating effect. The relationships between sophisticated scientific epistemic beliefs and the advanced evaluative standards used by the students were significantly stronger for low than for high cognitive load students. Moreover, considering the searching strategies that the students used, the relationships between sophisticated scientific epistemic beliefs and advanced searching strategies were also stronger for low than for high cognitive load students. However, for the high cognitive load students, only one of the sophisticated scientific epistemic belief dimensions was found to positively associate with advanced evaluative standard dimensions.
Hahn, Rebecca T
Functional or secondary tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is the most common etiology of severe TR in the western world. The presence of functional TR, either isolated or in combination with left heart disease is associated with unfavorable natural history however surgical mortality for isolated tricuspid valve interventions remain higher than for any other single valve surgery. Determining the severity of TR remains a controversial area and will continue to evolve as new techniques for assessing this valve as well as the right ventricle, are investigated. The following review will describe tricuspid anatomy, define echocardiographic views for evaluating tricuspid valve and right heart morphology and function, that are relevant to the pre-procedural assessment of functional TR.
Sium, Aman; Giuliani, Meredith; Papadakos, Janet
Since the early 2000s, web and digital health information and education has progressed in both volume and innovation (Dutta-Bergman 2006; Mano, Computers in Human Behavior 39 404 412, 2014). A growing number of leading Canadian health institutions (e.g., hospitals, community health centers, and health ministries) are migrating much of their vital public health information and education, once restricted to pamphlets and other physically distributed materials, to online platforms. Examples of these platforms are websites and web pages, eLearning modules, eBooks, streamed classrooms, audiobooks, and online health videos. The steady migration of health information to online platforms is raising important questions for fields of patient education, such as cancer education. These questions include, but are not limited to (a) are pamphlets still a useful modality for patient information and education when so much is available on the Internet? (b) If so, what should be the relationship between print-based and online health information and education, and when should one modality take precedence over the other? This article responds to these questions within the Canadian health care context.
ABSTRACT For reaching the target for the increase of managerial performance to consider factors that can influence the issue, among others, the participation of the budget. Participation budget can not walk alone in influencing managerial performance, but there are other factors that synergize, including organizational commitment and job relevant information (JRI). Researchs on the factors that influence managerial performance such as participation of the budget, organizational commitment and...
Santoro, Alessio; Silenzi, Andrea; Ricciardi, Walter; McKee, Martin
The European Union Directive on cross-border health care places an obligation on member states (MSs) to establish one or more national contact points (NCPs). We evaluated whether MSs were meeting their legal obligations. Two researchers created a set of criteria, drawn from the Directive, to evaluate the information that 18 MSs provide on their NCP websites. Some 15 of the 18 MSs evaluated provided >75% of the information sought. This report shows examples of best practices that could be used to encourage other MSs to improve the quality and quantity of information provided. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Taghva, Alexander; Song, Dong; Hampson, Robert E; Deadwyler, Sam A; Berger, Theodore W
Identification of functional dependence among neurons is a necessary component in both the rational design of neural prostheses as well as in the characterization of network physiology. The objective of this article is to provide a tutorial for neurosurgeons regarding information theory, specifically time-delayed mutual information, and to compare time-delayed mutual information, an information theoretic quantity based on statistical dependence, with cross-correlation, a commonly used metric for this task in a preliminary analysis of rat hippocampal neurons. Spike trains were recorded from rats performing delayed nonmatch-to-sample task using an array of electrodes surgically implanted into the hippocampus of each hemisphere of the brain. In addition, spike train simulations of positively correlated neurons, negatively correlated neurons, and neurons correlated by nonlinear functions were generated. These were evaluated by time-delayed mutual information (MI) and cross-correlation. Application of time-delayed MI to experimental data indicated the optimal bin size for information capture in the CA3-CA1 system was 40 ms, which may provide some insight into the spatiotemporal nature of encoding in the rat hippocampus. On simulated data, time-delayed MI showed peak values at appropriate time lags in positively correlated, negatively correlated, and complexly correlated data. Cross-correlation showed peak and troughs with positively correlated and negatively correlated data, but failed to capture some higher order correlations. Comparison of time-delayed MI to cross-correlation in identification of functionally dependent neurons indicates that the methods are not equivalent. Time-delayed MI appeared to capture some interactions between CA3-CA1 neurons at physiologically plausible time delays missed by cross-correlation. It should be considered as a method for identification of functional dependence between neurons and may be useful in the development of neural