WorldWideScience

Sample records for relevant principles include

  1. Energy principle with included boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1994-01-01

    Earlier comments by the author on the limitations of the classical form of the extended energy principle are supported by a complementary analysis on the potential energy change arising from free-boundary displacements of a magnetically confined plasma. In the final formulation of the extended principle, restricted displacements, satisfying pressure continuity by means of plasma volume currents in a thin boundary layer, are replaced by unrestricted (arbitrary) displacements which can give rise to induced surface currents. It is found that these currents contribute to the change in potential energy, and that their contribution is not taken into account by such a formulation. A general expression is further given for surface currents induced by arbitrary displacements. The expression is used to reformulate the energy principle for the class of displacements which satisfy all necessary boundary conditions, including that of the pressure balance. This makes a minimization procedure of the potential energy possible, for the class of all physically relevant test functions which include the constraints imposed by the boundary conditions. Such a procedure is also consistent with a corresponding variational calculus. (Author)

  2. Ecological principles relevant to nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, T.C.; Cropper, W.P. Jr.; Grover, H.D.

    1985-01-01

    The ecological principles outlined are very basic ones; the authors anticipate a readership trained in a broad range of disciplines, including those unfamiliar with the academic discipline of ecology. The authors include substantial discussion on ecophysiology (i.e., the responses of organisms to their environment) because this is relevant to the new understanding of the potential climatic consequences of nuclear war. In particular, the physiological sensitivity of organisms to reduced levels of light and temperature are a key part of the analysis of the potential ecological effects and agricultural effects of nuclear war. Much of the ecological analysis has been organized around major biological units called biomes. The authors describe the biome concept and discuss some of the environmental-climatic factors that are believed to control biome distribution. Emphasis is given to plants because of their controlling influence on ecosystem functions through their role as primary producers. Future reports are needed to address more fully the potential effects on animals. Much more research needs to be done on both plant and animal responses to the types of perturbations possible for the aftermath of a nuclear war. Another important element for analysis of the potential ecological consequences of nuclear war concerns recovery processes. As the post-nuclear war environmental extremes ameliorate, ecological communities in devastated regions would begin to reorganize. It is not possible to predict the course of such a succession precisely, but some principles concerning post-perturbation replacement (such as seed banks and germination), relevant successional patterns, and organism strategies are discussed

  3. Ethics Today: Are Our Principles Still Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnar, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In 1939 technological advances included the first handheld electric slicing knife, the first mass-produced helicopter, and the first transmission of a picture via a cable system (Science and Technology 2001). That year also saw the first Code of Ethics adopted by the American Library Association (ALA OIF 2010, 311). Can an ethical code first…

  4. A principled and cosmopolitan neuroethics: considerations for international relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Shook, John R; Giordano, James

    2014-01-01

    Neuroethics applies cognitive neuroscience for prescribing alterations to conceptions of self and society, and for prescriptively judging the ethical applications of neurotechnologies. Plentiful normative premises are available to ground such prescriptivity, however prescriptive neuroethics may remain fragmented by social conventions, cultural ideologies, and ethical theories. Herein we offer that an objectively principled neuroethics for international relevance requires a new meta-ethics: un...

  5. A principled and cosmopolitan neuroethics: considerations for international relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, John R; Giordano, James

    2014-01-03

    Neuroethics applies cognitive neuroscience for prescribing alterations to conceptions of self and society, and for prescriptively judging the ethical applications of neurotechnologies. Plentiful normative premises are available to ground such prescriptivity, however prescriptive neuroethics may remain fragmented by social conventions, cultural ideologies, and ethical theories. Herein we offer that an objectively principled neuroethics for international relevance requires a new meta-ethics: understanding how morality works, and how humans manage and improve morality, as objectively based on the brain and social sciences. This new meta-ethics will simultaneously equip neuroethics for evaluating and revising older cultural ideologies and ethical theories, and direct neuroethics towards scientifically valid views of encultured humans intelligently managing moralities. Bypassing absolutism, cultural essentialisms, and unrealistic ethical philosophies, neuroethics arrives at a small set of principles about proper human flourishing that are more culturally inclusive and cosmopolitan in spirit. This cosmopolitanism in turn suggests augmentations to traditional medical ethics in the form of four principled guidelines for international consideration: empowerment, non-obsolescence, self-creativity, and citizenship.

  6. A principled and cosmopolitan neuroethics: considerations for international relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Neuroethics applies cognitive neuroscience for prescribing alterations to conceptions of self and society, and for prescriptively judging the ethical applications of neurotechnologies. Plentiful normative premises are available to ground such prescriptivity, however prescriptive neuroethics may remain fragmented by social conventions, cultural ideologies, and ethical theories. Herein we offer that an objectively principled neuroethics for international relevance requires a new meta-ethics: understanding how morality works, and how humans manage and improve morality, as objectively based on the brain and social sciences. This new meta-ethics will simultaneously equip neuroethics for evaluating and revising older cultural ideologies and ethical theories, and direct neuroethics towards scientifically valid views of encultured humans intelligently managing moralities. Bypassing absolutism, cultural essentialisms, and unrealistic ethical philosophies, neuroethics arrives at a small set of principles about proper human flourishing that are more culturally inclusive and cosmopolitan in spirit. This cosmopolitanism in turn suggests augmentations to traditional medical ethics in the form of four principled guidelines for international consideration: empowerment, non-obsolescence, self-creativity, and citizenship. PMID:24387102

  7. The principle of equivalence reconsidered: assessing the relevance of the principle of equivalence in prison medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jotterand, Fabrice; Wangmo, Tenzin

    2014-01-01

    In this article we critically examine the principle of equivalence of care in prison medicine. First, we provide an overview of how the principle of equivalence is utilized in various national and international guidelines on health care provision to prisoners. Second, we outline some of the problems associated with its applications, and argue that the principle of equivalence should go beyond equivalence to access and include equivalence of outcomes. However, because of the particular context of the prison environment, third, we contend that the concept of "health" in equivalence of health outcomes needs conceptual clarity; otherwise, it fails to provide a threshold for healthy states among inmates. We accomplish this by examining common understandings of the concepts of health and disease. We conclude our article by showing why the conceptualization of diseases as clinical problems provides a helpful approach in the delivery of health care in prison.

  8. Double folding model including the Pauli exclusion principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gridnev, K.A.; Soubbotin, V.B.; Oertzen, W. von; Bohlen, H.G.; Vinas, X.

    2002-01-01

    A new method to incorporate the Pauli principle into the double folding approach to the heavy ion potential is proposed. It is shown that in order to take into account the Pauli blocking a redefinition of the density matrices of the free isolated nuclei must be one. A solution to the self-consistent incorporation of the Pauli-blocking effects in the mean-field nucleus-nucleus potential is obtained in the Thomas-Fermi approximation [ru

  9. Double-folding model including the Pauli exclusion principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gridnev, K.A.; Soubbotin, V.B.; Oertzen, W. von; Bohlen, H.G.; Vinas, X.

    2002-01-01

    A new method for incorporating the Pauli exclusion principle into the double-folding approach to the heavy-ion potential is proposed. The description of the exchange terms at the level of the semiclassical one-body density matrix is used. It is shown that, in order to take into account Pauli blocking properly, the density matrices of free isolated nuclei must be redefined. A solution to the self-consistent incorporation of Pauli blocking effects in the mean-field nucleus-nucleus potential is obtained in the Thomas-Fermi approximation

  10. Relevance of Spiritual Principles for Resolving Social Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Natarajan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Society unknowingly follows the course of spiritual evolution. Spirituality is the quest for self-existent order and harmonious perfection. The evolution of society is driven by an irrepressible aspiration for the values that are the translation and embodiment of that order. The history of civilization is a record of its progressive emergence. Spirituality is the quest for a unifying reality that transcends all limitations, distinctions and differences; an inner oneness that unites rather than divides us; a faith in and quest for perfection in all its myriad forms; and a power accessible to human beings to overcome impossible obstacles and achieve the inconceivable. It is founded on the principles of absolute freedom, equality and unity. In the modern era, faith in spirit is embodied in the realization of the intrinsic value, extraordinary endowments and unmanifest potentials of the human being. We find expressions of it in the idealism and power released by revolutionary social change. We revere its power in great individuals. The aspiration for perfection in any form or field of endeavor is spiritual. So also we recognize expressions of spirit in the movements of the masses. Spirituality is not confined to pursuit of the otherworldly or unattainable. It is a living power for the transformation of human consciousness and the solution to the compelling challenges confronting humanity.

  11. Managing intra-EU mobility-do WHO principles of ethical recruitment have relevance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Réka; Girasek, Edmond; Kovács, Eszter; Aszalós, Zoltán; Eke, Edit; Ragány, Károly; Cserháti, Zoltán; Szócska, Miklós

    2017-11-09

    The WHO Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel provides for guidance in health workforce management and cooperation in the international context. This article aims to examine whether the principles of the voluntary WHO Global Code of Practice can be applied to trigger health policy decisions within the EU zone of free movement of persons. In the framework of the Joint Action on European Health Workforce Planning and Forecasting project (Grant Agreement: JA EUHWF 20122201 (see healthworkforce.eu)), focus group discussions were organised with over 30 experts representing ministries, universities and professional and international organisations. Ideas were collected about the applicability of the principles and with the aim to find EU law compatible, relevant solutions using a qualitative approach based on a standardised, semi-structured interview guide and pre-defined statements. Based on implementation practices summarised, focus group experts concluded that positive effects of adhering to the Code can be identified and useful ideas-compatible with EU law-exist to manage intra-EU mobility. The most relevant areas for intervention include bilateral cooperations, better use of EU financial resources, improved retention and integration policies and better data flow and monitoring. Improving retention is of key importance; however, ethical considerations should also apply within the EU. Compensation of source countries can be a solution to further elaborate on when developing EU financial mechanisms. Intra-EU circular mobility might be feasible and made more transparent if directed by tailor-made, institutional-level bilateral cooperations adjusted to different groups and profiles of health professionals. Integration policies should be improved as discrimination still exists when offering jobs despite the legal environment facilitating the recognition of professional qualifications. A system of feedback on registration

  12. Neuroscience and leadership : awareness, relevance and applications of neuroscience principles within leadership development in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Dürrbeck, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    This bachelor’s thesis aimed to elaborate the current importance-level of neuroscience within leadership development as well as its future potential. Thereby awareness of leaders and human resource executives, general relevance for organisational success, and current applications of neuroscience principles within development programmes were identified. Additionally, existent and emergent triggers and forces that impede leadership or organisational success were investigated, in order to examin...

  13. [RELEVANT PRINCIPLES IN THE DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT, AND PREVENTION OF TOXOPLASMOSIS DURING PREGNANCY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merzlova, N B; Serova, I A; Yagodina, A Yu

    2015-01-01

    A retrospective survey of the prevalence of TORCH infections among pregnant women was performed in the perinatal center, M. A. Tverye Military Sanitary Unit Nine (Perm), in June 2010 to December 2013. The survey covered 2060 women: they were all examined for cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, and Toxoplasma. Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were detected in 28.68% (591/2060); 98.62% were found to have antibodies to herpes simplex; antibodies to cytomegalovirus were identified in 87.13% (1795/2060). Acute maternal toxoplasmosis was diagnosed by seroconversion or determination of IgM anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies, in the presence of a low avidity index and a four-fold increase in antibody titers, by simultaneously studying paired serum samples obtained at a 2-week interval. To confirm fetal infection, amniotic fluid PCR examination should be performed after 18 weeks' gestation. No consensus of opinion as to the principles of treatment for toxoplasmosis in pregnant women makes relevant the long-term results of antibacterial and antiprotozoal treatment cycles varying in duration and intensity. The prevention of acute toxoplasmosis in pregnant women ensures the principle of a mother's personal responsibility for infection safety of a newborn infant, which is informationally provided in health and safety fundamentals course and pregravid preparation schools.

  14. Exact multiple scattering theory of two-nucleus collisions including the Pauli principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurvitz, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    Exact equations for two-nucleus scattering are derived in which the effects of the Pauli principle are fully included. Our method exploits a modified equation for the scattering of two identical nucleons, which is obtained at the beginning. Considering proton-nucleus scattering we found that the resulting amplitude has two components, one resembling a multiple scattering series for distinguishable particles, and the other a distorted (A-1) nucleon cluster exchange. For elastic pA scattering the multiple scattering amplitude is found in the form of an optical potential expansion. We show that the Kerman-McManus-Thaler theory of the optical potential could be easily modified to include the effects of antisymmetrization of the projectile with the target nucleons. Nucleus-nucleus scattering is studied first for distinguishable target and beam nucleus. Afterwards the Pauli principle is included, where only the case of deuteron-nucleus scattering is discussed in detail. The resulting amplitude has four components. Two of them correspond to modified multiple scattering expansions and the others are distorted (A-1)- and (A-2)- nucleon cluster exchange. The result for d-A scattering is extended to the general case of nucleus-nucleus scattering. The equations are simple to use and as such constitute an improvement over existing schemes

  15. Web-Scale Discovery Services Retrieve Relevant Results in Health Sciences Topics Including MEDLINE Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Margaret Stovold

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Hanneke, R., & O’Brien, K. K. (2016. Comparison of three web-scale discovery services for health sciences research. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 104(2, 109-117. http://dx.doi.org/10.3163/1536-5050.104.2.004 Abstract Objective – To compare the results of health sciences search queries in three web-scale discovery (WSD services for relevance, duplicate detection, and retrieval of MEDLINE content. Design – Comparative evaluation and bibliometric study. Setting – Six university libraries in the United States of America. Subjects – Three commercial WSD services: Primo, Summon, and EBSCO Discovery Service (EDS. Methods – The authors collected data at six universities, including their own. They tested each of the three WSDs at two data collection sites. However, since one of the sites was using a legacy version of Summon that was due to be upgraded, data collected for Summon at this site were considered obsolete and excluded from the analysis. The authors generated three questions for each of six major health disciplines, then designed simple keyword searches to mimic typical student search behaviours. They captured the first 20 results from each query run at each test site, to represent the first “page” of results, giving a total of 2,086 total search results. These were independently assessed for relevance to the topic. Authors resolved disagreements by discussion, and calculated a kappa inter-observer score. They retained duplicate records within the results so that the duplicate detection by the WSDs could be compared. They assessed MEDLINE coverage by the WSDs in several ways. Using precise strategies to generate a relevant set of articles, they conducted one search from each of the six disciplines in PubMed so that they could compare retrieval of MEDLINE content. These results were cross-checked against the first 20 results from the corresponding query in the WSDs. To aid investigation of overall

  16. The leadership principles of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and their relevance to surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunicardi, F Charles; Cotton, Ronald T; Cole, George W; Martinez, George

    2007-01-01

    In order to face the challenges in healthcare this century, it is essential that surgeons understand modern leadership principles. One of the greatest leaders in history was Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., who provides a shining example of level-5 leadership for us to study. The study of leadership principles of great leaders can provide us with practical methods of conflict resolution as well as inspiration to keep us engaged and focused. As leaders of the medical community, we face numerous challenges, including discovering and implementing new treatments for disease, providing care for the indigent, overcoming educational challenges such as incorporating the ACGME Core Competencies into our surgical training and promoting diversity in education. Achieving these goals is often hindered by the environment in which we labor-nearly 50 million are uninsured, the rising cost of medical care is currently at 16% of the GNP, and reimbursement rates are falling-which makes the practice of surgery a significant challenge. Effective leadership will be paramount in achieving these goals. In this editorial, which summarizes a presentation given to the Surgical Section of the annual National Medical Association meeting, five important leadership principles that are important for surgeons have been selected and related to the outstanding leadership of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

  17. Second-principles method for materials simulations including electron and lattice degrees of freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fernández, Pablo; Wojdeł, Jacek C.; Íñiguez, Jorge; Junquera, Javier

    2016-05-01

    We present a first-principles-based (second-principles) scheme that permits large-scale materials simulations including both atomic and electronic degrees of freedom on the same footing. The method is based on a predictive quantum-mechanical theory—e.g., density functional theory—and its accuracy can be systematically improved at a very modest computational cost. Our approach is based on dividing the electron density of the system into a reference part—typically corresponding to the system's neutral, geometry-dependent ground state—and a deformation part—defined as the difference between the actual and reference densities. We then take advantage of the fact that the bulk part of the system's energy depends on the reference density alone; this part can be efficiently and accurately described by a force field, thus avoiding explicit consideration of the electrons. Then, the effects associated to the difference density can be treated perturbatively with good precision by working in a suitably chosen Wannier function basis. Further, the electronic model can be restricted to the bands of interest. All these features combined yield a very flexible and computationally very efficient scheme. Here we present the basic formulation of this approach, as well as a practical strategy to compute model parameters for realistic materials. We illustrate the accuracy and scope of the proposed method with two case studies, namely, the relative stability of various spin arrangements in NiO (featuring complex magnetic interactions in a strongly-correlated oxide) and the formation of a two-dimensional electron gas at the interface between band insulators LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 (featuring subtle electron-lattice couplings and screening effects). We conclude by discussing ways to overcome the limitations of the present approach (most notably, the assumption of a fixed bonding topology), as well as its many envisioned possibilities and future extensions.

  18. Elaboration of a guide including relevant project and logistic information: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Tchaikowisky M. [Faculdade de Tecnologia e Ciencias (FTC), Itabuna, BA (Brazil); Bresci, Claudio T.; Franca, Carlos M.M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    For every mobilization of a new enterprise it is necessary to quickly obtain the greatest amount of relative information in regards to location and availability of infra-structure, logistics, and work site amenities. Among this information are reports elaborated for management of the enterprise, (organizational chart, work schedule, objectives, contacts, etc.) as well as geographic anomalies, social-economic and culture of the area to be developed such as territorial extension, land aspects, local population, roads and amenities (fuel stations ,restaurants and hotels), infra-structure of the cities (health, education, entertainment, housing, transport, etc.) and logistically the distance between cities the estimated travel time, ROW access maps and notable points, among other relevant information. With the idea of making this information available for everyone involved in the enterprise, it was elaborated for GASCAC Spread 2A a rapid guide containing all the information mentioned above and made it available for all the vehicles used to transport employees and visitors to the spread. With this, everyone quickly received the majority of information necessary in one place, in a practical, quick, and precise manner, since the information is always used and controlled by the same person. This study includes the model used in the gas pipeline GASCAC Spread 2A project and the methodology used to draft and update the information. Besides the above, a file in the GIS format was prepared containing all necessary planning, execution and tracking information for enterprise activities, from social communication to the execution of the works previously mentioned. Part of the GIS file information was uploaded to Google Earth so as to disclose the information to a greater group of people, bearing in mind that this program is free of charge and easy to use. (author)

  19. Energy-Water Nexus Relevant to Baseload Electricity Source Including Mini/Micro Hydropower Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, M.; Tanabe, S.; Yamada, M.

    2014-12-01

    Water, food and energy is three sacred treasures that are necessary for human beings. However, recent factors such as population growth and rapid increase in energy consumption have generated conflicting cases between water and energy. For example, there exist conflicts caused by enhanced energy use, such as between hydropower generation and riverine ecosystems and service water, between shale gas and ground water, between geothermal and hot spring water. This study aims to provide quantitative guidelines necessary for capacity building among various stakeholders to minimize water-energy conflicts in enhancing energy use. Among various kinds of renewable energy sources, we target baseload sources, especially focusing on renewable energy of which installation is required socially not only to reduce CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions but to stimulate local economy. Such renewable energy sources include micro/mini hydropower and geothermal. Three municipalities in Japan, Beppu City, Obama City and Otsuchi Town are selected as primary sites of this study. Based on the calculated potential supply and demand of micro/mini hydropower generation in Beppu City, for example, we estimate the electricity of tens through hundreds of households is covered by installing new micro/mini hydropower generation plants along each river. However, the result is based on the existing infrastructures such as roads and electric lines. This means that more potentials are expected if the local society chooses options that enhance the infrastructures to increase micro/mini hydropower generation plants. In addition, further capacity building in the local society is necessary. In Japan, for example, regulations by the river law and irrigation right restrict new entry by actors to the river. Possible influences to riverine ecosystems in installing new micro/mini hydropower generation plants should also be well taken into account. Deregulation of the existing laws relevant to rivers and

  20. Incorporating sustainable development principles in the governance of Dutch domestic tourism. The relevance of boundary judgments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressers, H.; Dinica, V.

    2008-08-14

    survey revealed that among such 'insiders' the support for sustainable tourism governance and policies was generally much larger than the positions their organizations take in practice until now. Large majorities prove in favor of some form of national coordination and of the application of national policy instruments to guide subnational policy and planning, though most prefer rather weak instruments. We investigate what backgrounds explain to what extent such opinions are held. On the one hand we discern the growth and protection orientations. These are linked to the concern for environmental and nature impacts of tourism and the desire to capture a share of international tourism growth. These orientations have a clear link with the nature of the organizations the respondents are part of. On the other hand we investigate the relation with the perception of the domain of 'sustainable tourism'. What policy subfields are regarded as relevant for 'sustainable tourism'? Interpretation of what sustainable tourism is all about is an aspect of problem perception that in principle can frame a lot of other relevant perceptions and opinions. On the issue of these so-called 'boundary judgments' we see substantial differences among the respondents too. Divergent boundary judgments can impede any attempt to develop more coordinated governance and more coherent policies. The two most important dimensions (or 'factors') among the boundary judgments are again one that loads predominantly on growth related aspects and one that loads predominantly on protection related aspects. While there are correlations between the boundary judgments and the orientations, they are far from identical. Both orientations and boundary judgments seem to contribute to the explanation of opinions on governance of the tourism sector and instruments for sustainable tourism. This provides an interesting extra opportunity to influence the debate. While there is a

  1. Scope and status of the USA Engineering Test Facility including relevant TFTR research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becraft, W.R.; Reardon, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    The vehicle by which the fusion program would move into the engineering testing phase of fusion power development is designated the Engineering Test Facility (ETF). The progress toward the design and construction of the ETF will reflect the significant achievements of past, present, and future experimental tokamak devices. Some of the features of this foundation of experimental results and relevant engineering designs and operation will derive from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Project, now nearing the completion of its construction phase. The ETF would provide a test-bed for reactor components in the fusion environment. In order to initiate preliminary planning for the ETF decision, the Office of Fusion Energy (OFE) established the ETF Design Center activity to prepare the design of the ETF. This paper describes the design status of the ETF and discusses some highlights of the TFTR R and D work

  2. Scope and status of the USA Engineering Test Facility including relevant TFTR research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becraft, W.R.; Reardon, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    The vehicle by which the fusion programme would move into the engineering testing phase of fusion power development is designated the Engineering Test Facility (ETF). The progress toward the design and construction of the ETF will reflect the significant achievements of past, present, and future experimental tokamak devices. Some of the features of this foundation of experimental results and relevant engineering designs and operation will derive from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Project, now nearing the completion of its construction phase. The ETF would provide a test-bed for reactor components in the fusion environment. To initiate preliminary planning for the ETF decision, the Office of Fusion Energy (OFE) established the ETF Design Center activity to prepare the design of the ETF. This paper describes the design status of the ETF and discusses some highlights of the TFTR R and D work. (author)

  3. Basics and principles of particle image velocimetry (PIV) for mapping biogenic and biologically relevant flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stamhuis, Eize J.

    2006-01-01

    Particle image velocimetry (PIV) has proven to be a very useful technique in mapping animal-generated flows or flow patterns relevant to biota. Here, theoretical background is provided and experimental details of 2-dimensional digital PIV are explained for mapping flow produced by or relevant to

  4. Teaching Children How to Include the Inversion Principle in Their Reasoning about Quantitative Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Terezinha; Bryant, Peter; Evans, Deborah; Bell, Daniel; Barros, Rossana

    2012-01-01

    The basis of this intervention study is a distinction between numerical calculus and relational calculus. The former refers to numerical calculations and the latter to the analysis of the quantitative relations in mathematical problems. The inverse relation between addition and subtraction is relevant to both kinds of calculus, but so far research…

  5. Dialectic thinking as a means of understanding systems-in-development: relevance to Rogers's principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, L M; Fitzpatrick, J J

    1984-01-01

    This paper explores the dialectical noncausal category of determination as a method of explaining human development and examines its relationship to Rogers's principles of homeodynamics. The relationships among determinism, causality, and lawfulness are discussed, and the categories of determination are reviewed.

  6. Sound Continuing Bonds with the Deceased: The Relevance of Music, Including Preloss Music Therapy, for Eight Bereaved Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Clare C.; McDermott, Fiona; Hudson, Peter; Zalcberg, John R.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines music's relevance, including preloss music therapy, for 8 informal caregivers of people who died from cancer. The design was informed by constructivist grounded theory and included semistructured interviews. Bereaved caregivers were supported or occasionally challenged as their musical lives enabled a connection with the…

  7. Principles of cobalt-60 teletherapy including an introduction to the compendium. Definitions and conventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.; Mitchell, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    The convention used in the display of the transverse sections of the human body in the plans for radiotherapy follows the editorial policy of the Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography. For the purpose of this Compendium the convention is defined as: The ''seen from above'' convention is used for the head and upper neck, in which is included the oropharynx. This is the 'anatomical convention' now used with the computed tomography (CT) head scanner and is accepted generally by neuroradiologists, neurosurgeons and neurologists. This convention is also employed in the display of isotope scans of the head. The ''seen from below'' convention is used for the rest of the body, i.e. below the level of the lower border of the third cervical vertebral body; this includes the hypopharynx, larynx and thyroid. This is the usual 'radiological convention', i.e. the patient's right is on the observer's left. This is the convention generally used in total body CT scanning of the thorax and abdomen; the same convention is used in isotope and ultrasonic imaging

  8. The Relevance of Bustani Judgment of the Administrative Tribunal of the ILO for the consecration of the Principle of Autonomy of International Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine de Souza Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2177-7055.2016v37n73p227 The purpose of this article is to highlight the importance of the judgment “Bustani” delivered by the Administrative Tribunal of the International Labour Organization (ILOAT, to consolidate the principle of autonomy, considered as one of the constitutive elements of the legal personality of International Organizations. The first topic presents the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW and explains the case that culminated in the dismissal of the Director-General and led to the postulation of the demand before the ILOAT. The second topic shows the main outlines of the process, including the parties’ arguments, the legal basis and the decision of the Court. Finally, the article analyses the way of affirmation of autonomy as a raison d’être of International Organizations and presents the relevance of Bustani jurisprudence.

  9. Genetic diversity and haplotype structure of 21 Y-STRs, including nine noncore loci, in South Tunisian Population: Forensic relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makki-Rmida, Faten; Kammoun, Arwa; Mahfoudh, Nadia; Ayadi, Adnene; Gibriel, Abdullah Ahmed; Mallek, Bakhta; Maalej, Leila; Hammami, Zouheir; Maatoug, Samir; Makni, Hafedh; Masmoudi, Saber

    2015-12-01

    Y chromosome STRs (Y-STRs) are being used frequently in forensic laboratories. Previous studies of Y-STR polymorphisms in different groups of the Tunisian population identified low levels of diversity and discrimination capacity (DC) using various commercial marker sets. This definitely limits the use of such systems for Y-STRs genotyping in Tunisia. In our investigation on South Tunisia, 200 unrelated males were typed for the 12 conventional Y-STRs included in the PowerPlex® Y System. Additional set of nine noncore Y-STRs including DYS446, DYS456, DYS458, DYS388, DYS444, DYS445, DYS449, DYS710, and DYS464 markers were genotyped and evaluated for their potential in improving DC. Allele frequency, gene diversity, haplotype diversity (HD), and DC calculation revealed that DYS464 was the most diverse marker followed by DYS710 and DYS449 markers. The standard panel of 12 Y-STRs (DC = 80.5%) and the nine markers were combined to obtain DC of 99%. Among the 198 different haplotypes observed, 196 haplotypes were unique (HD = 99.999). Out of the nine noncore set, six Y-STRs (DYS458, DYS456, DYS449, DYS710, DYS444, and DYS464) had the greatest impact on enhancing DC. Our data provided putative Y-STRs combination to be used for genetic and forensic applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. How to interpret an unenhanced CT Brain scan. Part 1: Basic principles of Computed Tomography and relevant neuroanatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Osborne

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to: Cover the basics of Computed Tomography (CT Brain imaging. Review relevant CT neuroanatomy. A CT image is produced by firing x-rays at a moving object which is then detected by an array of rotating detectors (Figure 1. The detected x-rays are then converted into a computerised signal which is used to produce a series of cross sectional images.

  11. High-pressure phase diagram of hydrogen and deuterium sulfides from first principles: Structural and vibrational properties including quantum and anharmonic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Raffaello; Errea, Ion; Calandra, Matteo; Mauri, Francesco

    2018-06-01

    We study the structural and vibrational properties of the high-temperature superconducting sulfur trihydride and trideuteride in the high-pressure I m 3 ¯m and R 3 m phases by first-principles density-functional-theory calculations. On lowering pressure, the rhombohedral transition I m 3 ¯m →R 3 m is expected, with hydrogen-bond desymmetrization and occurrence of trigonal lattice distortion. With both Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) and Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr (BLYP) exchange-correlation functional, in hydrostatic conditions we find that, contrary to what is suggested in some recent experiments, if the rhombohedral distortion exists it affects mainly the hydrogen bonds, whereas the resulting cell distortion is minimal. We estimate that the occurrence of a stress anisotropy of approximately 10 % could explain this discrepancy. Assuming hydrostatic conditions, we calculate the critical pressure at which the rhombohedral transition occurs. Quantum and anharmonic effects, which are relevant in this system, are included at nonperturbative level with the stochastic self-consistent harmonic approximation. Within this approach, we determine the transition pressure by calculating the free-energy Hessian, a method that allows to estimate the critical pressure with much higher precision (and much lower computational cost) compared with the free-energy "finite-difference" approach previously used. Using PBE and BLYP, we find that quantum anharmonic effects are responsible for a strong reduction of the critical pressure with respect to the one obtained with the classical harmonic approach. Interestingly, for the two functionals, even if the transition pressures at classical harmonic level differ by 83 GPa, the transition pressures including quantum anharmonic effects differ only by 23 GPa. Moreover, we observe a prominent isotope effect, as we estimate higher transition pressure for D3S than for H3S . Finally, within the stochastic self-consistent harmonic approximation, with PBE

  12. Principle of an operational complexity index for the characterization of the human factor relevance of future reactors concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papin, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    With the increasing reliability of the modern technological systems, the human contribution to the global risk in the operation of industrial systems is becoming more and more significant : in the nuclear reactor operation for example, a recent PSA estimation of this contribution is about 25% of the risk of core melting, all situations considered. This urges the designers of future nuclear reactors to consider the minimisation of this Human Factor (HF) contribution, at the very early stage of their design : the experience feedback shows that this is indeed at this stage that the fundamental design options, impacting the most the human reliability in operation, are fixed. The problem is that at these early design stages, it is also quite impossible to apply formal human reliability methods to support this HF optimisation, while the precise operating conditions of the reactor are not yet known in enough details. In this paper, another approach of the HF evaluation during the design, based on the functional and operational complexity assessment, is proposed. As an illustration, this approach is used to compare various concepts of Pressurized Water Reactors from the point of view of the Human Factor relevance. (Author)

  13. Chirality as a tool in nucleic acid recognition: principles and relevance in biotechnology and in medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, Roberto; Sforza, Stefano; Tedeschi, Tullia; Marchelli, Rosangela

    2007-05-05

    The understanding of the interaction of chiral species with DNA or RNA is very important for the development of new tools in biology and of new drugs. Several cases in which chirality is a crucial point in determining the DNA binding mode are reviewed and discussed, with the aim of illustrating how chirality can be considered as a tool for improving the understanding of mechanisms and the effectiveness of nucleic acid recognition. The review is divided into two parts: the former describes examples of chiral species interacting with DNA: intercalators, metal complexes, and groove binders; the latter part is dedicated to chirality in DNA analogs, with discussion of phosphate stereochemistry and chirality of ribose substitutes, in particular of peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) for which a number of works have been published recently dealing with the effect of chirality in DNA recognition. The discussion is intended to show how enantiomeric recognition originates at the molecular level, by exploiting the enormous progresses recently achieved in the field of structural characterization of complexes formed by nucleic acid with their ligands by crystallographic and spectroscopic methods. Examples of application of the DNA binding molecules described and the role of chirality in DNA recognition relevant for biotechnology or medicinal chemistry are reported. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Evaluation of the Relevance of Piaget's Cognitive Principles among Parented and Orphan Children in Belagavi City, Karnataka, India: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Badakar, Chandrashekhar; J Thakkar, Prachi; M Hugar, Shivayogi; Kukreja, Pratibha; G Assudani, Harsha; Gokhale, Niraj

    2017-01-01

    To determine and compare the relevance of Piaget's cognitive principles among 4- to 7-year-old parented and orphan children in Belagavi City, Karnataka, India. This study was conducted on 240 children between the ages of 4 to 7 years who were equally divided into two groups of 120 parented and 120 orphan children. These were subdivided into four groups of 30 children each. Various characteristics like egocentrism, concept of cardinal numbers based on centration, lack of conservation, and reversibility were assessed, using experiments and comparison of their prevalence between two groups was carried out. There is a statistically significant difference in the cognitive development among parented and orphan children age 4 to 7 years. There is a significantly better cognitive development among parented children as compared with orphan children in Belagavi city. A child is not a miniature adult but rather can think and perceive the world differently from an adult. Understanding a child's intellectual level can enable a pedodontist to deliver improved quality care to children. According to Jean Piaget, in the preoperational period, children think symbolically and their reasoning is based more on appearance rather than logic. It is often rightly said that a child's behavior is a reflection of his parents. However, Piaget did not consider the effect of social setting and culture on the cognitive development. This study was carried out as there is not much literature available to describe the cognitive development of children in the Indian scenario and the influence of parental presence on the same. How to cite this article: Badakar CM, Thakkar PJ, Hugar SM, Kukreja P, Assudani HG, Gokhale N. Evaluation of the Relevance of Piaget's Cognitive Principles among Parented and Orphan Children in Belagavi City, Karnataka, India: A Comparative Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(4):346-350.

  15. A detailed kinetic mechanism including methanol and nitrogen pollutants relevant to the gas-phase combustion and pyrolysis of biomass-derived fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coda Zabetta, Edgardo; Hupa, Mikko [Aabo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Piispankatu 8, FI-20500 Turku (Finland)

    2008-01-15

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for the simulation of the gas-phase combustion and pyrolysis of biomass-derived fuels was compiled by assembling selected reaction subsets from existing mechanisms (parents). The mechanism, here referred to as ''AaA,'' includes reaction subsets for the oxidation of hydrogen (H{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), light hydrocarbons (C{sub 1} and C{sub 2}), and methanol (CH{sub 3}OH). The mechanism also takes into account reaction subsets of nitrogen pollutants, including the reactions relevant to staged combustion, reburning, and selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR). The AaA mechanism was validated against suitable experimental data from the literature. Overall, the AaA mechanism gave more accurate predictions than three other mechanisms of reference, although the reference mechanisms performed better occasionally. The predictions from AaA were also found to be consistent with the predictions of its parent mechanisms within most of their range of validity, thus transferring the validity of the parents to the inheriting mechanism (AaA). In parametric studies the AaA mechanism predicted that the effect of methanol on combustion and pollutants is often similar to that of light hydrocarbons, but it also showed that there are important exceptions, thus suggesting that methanol should be taken into account when simulating biomass combustion. To our knowledge, the AaA mechanism is currently the only mechanism that accounts for the chemistry of methanol and nitrogen relevant to the gas-phase combustion and pyrolysis of biomass-derived fuels. (author)

  16. A comparative analysis of moral principles and behavioral norms in eight ethical codes relevant to health sciences librarianship, medical informatics, and the health professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Gary D; Winkelstein, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Based on the authors' shared interest in the interprofessional challenges surrounding health information management, this study explores the degree to which librarians, informatics professionals, and core health professionals in medicine, nursing, and public health share common ethical behavior norms grounded in moral principles. Using the "Principlism" framework from a widely cited textbook of biomedical ethics, the authors analyze the statements in the ethical codes for associations of librarians (Medical Library Association [MLA], American Library Association, and Special Libraries Association), informatics professionals (American Medical Informatics Association [AMIA] and American Health Information Management Association), and core health professionals (American Medical Association, American Nurses Association, and American Public Health Association). This analysis focuses on whether and how the statements in these eight codes specify core moral norms (Autonomy, Beneficence, Non-Maleficence, and Justice), core behavioral norms (Veracity, Privacy, Confidentiality, and Fidelity), and other norms that are empirically derived from the code statements. These eight ethical codes share a large number of common behavioral norms based most frequently on the principle of Beneficence, then on Autonomy and Justice, but rarely on Non-Maleficence. The MLA and AMIA codes share the largest number of common behavioral norms, and these two associations also share many norms with the other six associations. The shared core of behavioral norms among these professions, all grounded in core moral principles, point to many opportunities for building effective interprofessional communication and collaboration regarding the development, management, and use of health information resources and technologies.

  17. Effects of Cd and Ni toxicity to Ceratophyllum demersum under environmentally relevant conditions in soft and hard water including a German lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andresen, Elisa, E-mail: Elisa.Andresen@uni-konstanz.de [University of Konstanz, Department of Biology, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Opitz, Judith, E-mail: Daniela.Opitz@uni-konstanz.de [University of Konstanz, Department of Biology, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Thomas, George, E-mail: George.Thomas@uni-konstanz.de [University of Konstanz, Department of Biology, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Stärk, Hans-Joachim, E-mail: Ha-Jo.Staerk@ufz.de [UFZ – Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Dienemann, Holger, E-mail: Holger.Dienemann@smul.sachsen.de [Saxon State Company for Environment and Agriculture, Business Domain 5 (Laboratory), Department 53, Bitterfelder Str. 25, D-04849 Bad Düben (Germany); Jenemann, Kerstin, E-mail: Kerstin.Jenemann@smul.sachsen.de [Sächsisches Landesamt für Umwelt, Landwirtschaft und Geologie, Abteilung Wasser, Boden, Wertstoffe, Zur Wetterwarte 11, D-01109 Dresden (Germany); Dickinson, Bryan C., E-mail: Bryan.Dickinson@gmail.com [Harvard University, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Küpper, Hendrik, E-mail: Hendrik.Kuepper@uni-konstanz.de [University of Konstanz, Department of Biology, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); University of South Bohemia, Faculty of Biological Sciences and Institute of Physical Biology, Branišovská 31, CZ-370 05 České Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •Hardly any macrophytic growth occurred in an oligotrophic hard water lake in Germany. •All parameters were optimal, besides elevated, nanomolar concentrations of Ni and Cd. •We cultivated submerged macrophytes in real and simulated hard and soft lake water. •Nanomolar Cd and Ni inhibited the plants’ photosynthetic light reactions in soft water. •The inhibition was synergistic, i.e. stronger than the addition of Cd and Ni effects. -- Abstract: Even essential trace elements are phytotoxic over a certain threshold. In this study, we investigated whether heavy metal concentrations were responsible for the nearly complete lack of submerged macrophytes in an oligotrophic lake in Germany. We cultivated the rootless aquatic model plant Ceratophyllum demersum under environmentally relevant conditions like sinusoidal light and temperature cycles and a low plant biomass to water volume ratio. Experiments lasted for six weeks and were analysed by detailed measurements of photosynthetic biophysics, pigment content and hydrogen peroxide production. We established that individually non-toxic cadmium (3 nM) and slightly toxic nickel (300 nM) concentrations became highly toxic when applied together in soft water, severely inhibiting photosynthetic light reactions. Toxicity was further enhanced by phosphate limitation (75 nM) in soft water as present in many freshwater habitats. In the investigated lake, however, high water hardness limited the toxicity of these metal concentrations, thus the inhibition of macrophytic growth in the lake must have additional reasons. The results showed that synergistic heavy metal toxicity may change ecosystems in many more cases than estimated so far.

  18. Effects of Cd and Ni toxicity to Ceratophyllum demersum under environmentally relevant conditions in soft and hard water including a German lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, Elisa; Opitz, Judith; Thomas, George; Stärk, Hans-Joachim; Dienemann, Holger; Jenemann, Kerstin; Dickinson, Bryan C.; Küpper, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Hardly any macrophytic growth occurred in an oligotrophic hard water lake in Germany. •All parameters were optimal, besides elevated, nanomolar concentrations of Ni and Cd. •We cultivated submerged macrophytes in real and simulated hard and soft lake water. •Nanomolar Cd and Ni inhibited the plants’ photosynthetic light reactions in soft water. •The inhibition was synergistic, i.e. stronger than the addition of Cd and Ni effects. -- Abstract: Even essential trace elements are phytotoxic over a certain threshold. In this study, we investigated whether heavy metal concentrations were responsible for the nearly complete lack of submerged macrophytes in an oligotrophic lake in Germany. We cultivated the rootless aquatic model plant Ceratophyllum demersum under environmentally relevant conditions like sinusoidal light and temperature cycles and a low plant biomass to water volume ratio. Experiments lasted for six weeks and were analysed by detailed measurements of photosynthetic biophysics, pigment content and hydrogen peroxide production. We established that individually non-toxic cadmium (3 nM) and slightly toxic nickel (300 nM) concentrations became highly toxic when applied together in soft water, severely inhibiting photosynthetic light reactions. Toxicity was further enhanced by phosphate limitation (75 nM) in soft water as present in many freshwater habitats. In the investigated lake, however, high water hardness limited the toxicity of these metal concentrations, thus the inhibition of macrophytic growth in the lake must have additional reasons. The results showed that synergistic heavy metal toxicity may change ecosystems in many more cases than estimated so far

  19. Principles of Mobile Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Stüber, Gordon L

    2012-01-01

    This mathematically rigorous overview of physical layer wireless communications is now in a third, fully revised and updated edition. Along with coverage of basic principles sufficient for novice students, the volume includes plenty of finer details that will satisfy the requirements of graduate students aiming to research the topic in depth. It also has a role as a handy reference for wireless engineers. The content stresses core principles that are applicable to a broad range of wireless standards. Beginning with a survey of the field that introduces an array of issues relevant to wireless communications and which traces the historical development of today’s accepted wireless standards, the book moves on to cover all the relevant discrete subjects, from radio propagation to error probability performance and cellular radio resource management. A valuable appendix provides a succinct and focused tutorial on probability and random processes, concepts widely used throughout the book. This new edition, revised...

  20. Principles of mobile communication

    CERN Document Server

    Stüber, Gordon L

    2017-01-01

    This mathematically rigorous overview of physical layer wireless communications is now in a 4th, fully revised and updated edition. The new edition features new content on 4G cellular systems, 5G cellular outlook, bandpass signals and systems, and polarization, among many other topics, in addition to a new chapters on channel assignment techniques. Along with coverage of fundamentals and basic principles sufficient for novice students, the volume includes finer details that satisfy the requirements of graduate students aiming to conduct in-depth research. The book begins with a survey of the field, introducing issues relevant to wireless communications. The book moves on to cover relevant discrete subjects, from radio propagation, to error probability performance, and cellular radio resource management. An appendix provides a tutorial on probability and random processes. The content stresses core principles that are applicable to a broad range of wireless standards. New examples are provided throughout the bo...

  1. Enteric bacterial metabolites propionic and butyric acid modulate gene expression, including CREB-dependent catecholaminergic neurotransmission, in PC12 cells--possible relevance to autism spectrum disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bistra B Nankova

    Full Text Available Alterations in gut microbiome composition have an emerging role in health and disease including brain function and behavior. Short chain fatty acids (SCFA like propionic (PPA, and butyric acid (BA, which are present in diet and are fermentation products of many gastrointestinal bacteria, are showing increasing importance in host health, but also may be environmental contributors in neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Further to this we have shown SCFA administration to rodents over a variety of routes (intracerebroventricular, subcutaneous, intraperitoneal or developmental time periods can elicit behavioral, electrophysiological, neuropathological and biochemical effects consistent with findings in ASD patients. SCFA are capable of altering host gene expression, partly due to their histone deacetylase inhibitor activity. We have previously shown BA can regulate tyrosine hydroxylase (TH mRNA levels in a PC12 cell model. Since monoamine concentration is known to be elevated in the brain and blood of ASD patients and in many ASD animal models, we hypothesized that SCFA may directly influence brain monoaminergic pathways. When PC12 cells were transiently transfected with plasmids having a luciferase reporter gene under the control of the TH promoter, PPA was found to induce reporter gene activity over a wide concentration range. CREB transcription factor(s was necessary for the transcriptional activation of TH gene by PPA. At lower concentrations PPA also caused accumulation of TH mRNA and protein, indicative of increased cell capacity to produce catecholamines. PPA and BA induced broad alterations in gene expression including neurotransmitter systems, neuronal cell adhesion molecules, inflammation, oxidative stress, lipid metabolism and mitochondrial function, all of which have been implicated in ASD. In conclusion, our data are consistent with a molecular mechanism through which gut related environmental signals

  2. Principles of synchronous digital hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Rajesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The book presents the current standards of digital multiplexing, called synchronous digital hierarchy, including analog multiplexing technologies. It is aimed at telecommunication professionals who want to develop an understanding of digital multiplexing and synchronous digital hierarchy in particular and the functioning of practical telecommunication systems in general. The text includes all relevant fundamentals and provides a handy reference for problem solving or defining operations and maintenance strategies. The author covers digital conversion and TDM principles, line coding and digital

  3. Cosmological principles. II. Physical principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, E.R.

    1974-01-01

    The discussion of cosmological principle covers the uniformity principle of the laws of physics, the gravitation and cognizability principles, and the Dirac creation, chaos, and bootstrap principles. (U.S.)

  4. Regionalism as a Principle for Curriculum Relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunt, R. J. S.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the rhetoric of a curriculum development proposal at the University of Port Elizabeth (South Africa) which uses the concept of regionalism as a principal for curriculum development. The regionalist approach is then examined in light of two different approaches to the function of the university. It is concluded that postmodern universities…

  5. The principle of equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unnikrishnan, C.S.

    1994-01-01

    Principle of equivalence was the fundamental guiding principle in the formulation of the general theory of relativity. What are its key elements? What are the empirical observations which establish it? What is its relevance to some new experiments? These questions are discussed in this article. (author). 11 refs., 5 figs

  6. A cyclic symmetry principle in physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, H.S.; Adelaide Univ., SA

    1994-01-01

    Many areas of modern physics are illuminated by the application of a symmetry principle, requiring the invariance of the relevant laws of physics under a group of transformations. This paper examines the implications and some of the applications of the principle of cyclic symmetry, especially in the areas of statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics, including quantized field theory. This principle requires invariance under the transformations of a finite group, which may be a Sylow π-group, a group of Lie type, or a symmetric group. The utility of the principle of cyclic invariance is demonstrated in finding solutions of the Yang-Baxter equation that include and generalize known solutions. It is shown that the Sylow π-groups have other uses, in providing a basis for a type of generalized quantum statistics, and in parametrising a new generalization of Lie groups, with associated algebras that include quantized algebras. 31 refs

  7. Bernoulli's Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Paul G.

    2004-01-01

    Some teachers have difficulty understanding Bernoulli's principle particularly when the principle is applied to the aerodynamic lift. Some teachers favor using Newton's laws instead of Bernoulli's principle to explain the physics behind lift. Some also consider Bernoulli's principle too difficult to explain to students and avoid teaching it…

  8. Fundamental safety principles. Safety fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This publication states the fundamental safety objective and ten associated safety principles, and briefly describes their intent and purpose. The fundamental safety objective - to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation - applies to all circumstances that give rise to radiation risks. The safety principles are applicable, as relevant, throughout the entire lifetime of all facilities and activities - existing and new - utilized for peaceful purposes, and to protective actions to reduce existing radiation risks. They provide the basis for requirements and measures for the protection of people and the environment against radiation risks and for the safety of facilities and activities that give rise to radiation risks, including, in particular, nuclear installations and uses of radiation and radioactive sources, the transport of radioactive material and the management of radioactive waste

  9. Fundamental safety principles. Safety fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This publication states the fundamental safety objective and ten associated safety principles, and briefly describes their intent and purpose. The fundamental safety objective - to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation - applies to all circumstances that give rise to radiation risks. The safety principles are applicable, as relevant, throughout the entire lifetime of all facilities and activities - existing and new - utilized for peaceful purposes, and to protective actions to reduce existing radiation risks. They provide the basis for requirements and measures for the protection of people and the environment against radiation risks and for the safety of facilities and activities that give rise to radiation risks, including, in particular, nuclear installations and uses of radiation and radioactive sources, the transport of radioactive material and the management of radioactive waste

  10. Analysis and radiological assessment of residues containing NORM materials resulting from earlier activities including modelling of typical industrial residues. Pt. 1. Historical investigation of the radiological relevance of NORM residues and concepts for site identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, Andreas; Niedermayer, Matthias; Sitte, Beate; Hamel, Peter Michael

    2007-01-01

    Natural radionuclides are part of the human environment and of the raw materials used. Technical processes may cause their accumulation in residues, and the result will be so-called NORM materials (Naturally occurring radioactive material). The amended Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV 2001) specifies how the public should be protected, but there are also residues dating back before the issuing of the StrlSchV 2001, the so-called NORM residues. The project intended to assess the risks resulting from these residues. It comprises four parts. Part 1 was for clarification of the radiological relevance of NORM residues and for the development of concepts to detect them. The criterion for their radiological relevance was their activity per mass unit and the material volume accumulated through the centuries. The former was calculated from a wide bibliographic search in the relevant literature on radiation protection, while the mass volume was obtained by a detailed historical search of the consumption of materials that may leave NORM residues. These are, in particular, residues from coal and ore mining and processing. To identify concrete sites, relevant data sources were identified, and a concept for identification of concrete NORM residues was developed on this basis. (orig.) [de

  11. A new computing principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatmi, H.A.; Resconi, G.

    1988-01-01

    In 1954 while reviewing the theory of communication and cybernetics the late Professor Dennis Gabor presented a new mathematical principle for the design of advanced computers. During our work on these computers it was found that the Gabor formulation can be further advanced to include more recent developments in Lie algebras and geometric probability, giving rise to a new computing principle

  12. Multimedia Principle in Teaching Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari Jabbour, Khayrazad

    2012-01-01

    Multimedia learning principle occurs when we create mental representations from combining text and relevant graphics into lessons. This article discusses the learning advantages that result from adding multimedia learning principle into instructions; and how to select graphics that support learning. There is a balance that instructional designers…

  13. Variational principles

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseiwitsch, B L

    2004-01-01

    This graduate-level text's primary objective is to demonstrate the expression of the equations of the various branches of mathematical physics in the succinct and elegant form of variational principles (and thereby illuminate their interrelationship). Its related intentions are to show how variational principles may be employed to determine the discrete eigenvalues for stationary state problems and to illustrate how to find the values of quantities (such as the phase shifts) that arise in the theory of scattering. Chapter-by-chapter treatment consists of analytical dynamics; optics, wave mecha

  14. Relevance of physics to the pharmacy major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Richard P

    2007-08-15

    To offer a physics course that is relevant to pharmacy students, yet still contains many of the fundamental principles of physics. The course was modified over a period of several years to include activities and examples that were related to other courses in the curriculum. Course evaluations were given to assess student attitudes about the importance of physics in the pharmacy curriculum. Students' attitudes have changed over time to appreciate the role that physics plays in their studies. Students gained confidence in their ability to learn in other courses.

  15. Safety Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Grinenko

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The offered material in the article is picked up so that the reader could have a complete representation about concept “safety”, intrinsic characteristics and formalization possibilities. Principles and possible strategy of safety are considered. A material of the article is destined for the experts who are taking up the problems of safety.

  16. Maquet principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, R.B.; Stassi, J.; Karasick, D.

    1985-04-01

    Anterior displacement of the tibial tubercle is a well-accepted orthopedic procedure in the treatment of certain patellofemoral disorders. The radiologic appearance of surgical procedures utilizing the Maquet principle has not been described in the radiologic literature. Familiarity with the physiologic and biochemical basis for the procedure and its postoperative appearance is necessary for appropriate roentgenographic evaluation and the radiographic recognition of complications.

  17. Cosmological principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesson, P.S.

    1979-01-01

    The Cosmological Principle states: the universe looks the same to all observers regardless of where they are located. To most astronomers today the Cosmological Principle means the universe looks the same to all observers because density of the galaxies is the same in all places. A new Cosmological Principle is proposed. It is called the Dimensional Cosmological Principle. It uses the properties of matter in the universe: density (rho), pressure (p), and mass (m) within some region of space of length (l). The laws of physics require incorporation of constants for gravity (G) and the speed of light (C). After combining the six parameters into dimensionless numbers, the best choices are: 8πGl 2 rho/c 2 , 8πGl 2 rho/c 4 , and 2 Gm/c 2 l (the Schwarzchild factor). The Dimensional Cosmological Principal came about because old ideas conflicted with the rapidly-growing body of observational evidence indicating that galaxies in the universe have a clumpy rather than uniform distribution

  18. Microprocessors principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Debenham, Michael J

    1979-01-01

    Microprocessors: Principles and Applications deals with the principles and applications of microprocessors and covers topics ranging from computer architecture and programmed machines to microprocessor programming, support systems and software, and system design. A number of microprocessor applications are considered, including data processing, process control, and telephone switching. This book is comprised of 10 chapters and begins with a historical overview of computers and computing, followed by a discussion on computer architecture and programmed machines, paying particular attention to t

  19. Electrical and electronic principles

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, S A

    1991-01-01

    Electrical and Electronic Principles, 2, Second Edition covers the syllabus requirements of BTEC Unit U86/329, including the principles of control systems and elements of data transmission. The book first tackles series and parallel circuits, electrical networks, and capacitors and capacitance. Discussions focus on flux density, electric force, permittivity, Kirchhoff's laws, superposition theorem, arrangement of resistors, internal resistance, and powers in a circuit. The text then takes a look at capacitors in circuit, magnetism and magnetization, electromagnetic induction, and alternating v

  20. Electrical and electronic principles

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, SA

    1988-01-01

    Electrical and Electronic Principles, 3 focuses on the principles involved in electrical and electronic circuits, including impedance, inductance, capacitance, and resistance.The book first deals with circuit elements and theorems, D.C. transients, and the series circuits of alternating current. Discussions focus on inductance and resistance in series, resistance and capacitance in series, power factor, impedance, circuit magnification, equation of charge, discharge of a capacitor, transfer of power, and decibels and attenuation. The manuscript then examines the parallel circuits of alternatin

  1. Music-evoked emotions: principles, brain correlates, and implications for therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes principles underlying the evocation of emotion with music: evaluation, resonance, memory, expectancy/tension, imagination, understanding, and social functions. Each of these principles includes several subprinciples, and the framework on music-evoked emotions emerging from these principles and subprinciples is supposed to provide a starting point for a systematic, coherent, and comprehensive theory on music-evoked emotions that considers both reception and production of music, as well as the relevance of emotion-evoking principles for music therapy. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. Zymography Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkesman, Jeff; Kurz, Liliana

    2017-01-01

    Zymography, the detection, identification, and even quantification of enzyme activity fractionated by gel electrophoresis, has received increasing attention in the last years, as revealed by the number of articles published. A number of enzymes are routinely detected by zymography, especially with clinical interest. This introductory chapter reviews the major principles behind zymography. New advances of this method are basically focused towards two-dimensional zymography and transfer zymography as will be explained in the rest of the chapters. Some general considerations when performing the experiments are outlined as well as the major troubleshooting and safety issues necessary for correct development of the electrophoresis.

  3. Basic principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    Some basic explanations are given of the principles underlying the nuclear fuel cycle, starting with the physics of atomic and nuclear structure and continuing with nuclear energy and reactors, fuel and waste management and finally a discussion of economics and the future. An important aspect of the fuel cycle concerns the possibility of ''closing the back end'' i.e. reprocessing the waste or unused fuel in order to re-use it in reactors of various kinds. The alternative, the ''oncethrough'' cycle, discards the discharged fuel completely. An interim measure involves the prolonged storage of highly radioactive waste fuel. (UK)

  4. Principles of Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Max; Wolf, Emil

    1999-10-01

    Principles of Optics is one of the classic science books of the twentieth century, and probably the most influential book in optics published in the past forty years. This edition has been thoroughly revised and updated, with new material covering the CAT scan, interference with broad-band light and the so-called Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction theory. This edition also details scattering from inhomogeneous media and presents an account of the principles of diffraction tomography to which Emil Wolf has made a basic contribution. Several new appendices are also included. This new edition will be invaluable to advanced undergraduates, graduate students and researchers working in most areas of optics.

  5. Governança corporativa na América Latina: a relevância dos princípios da OCDE na integridade dos conselhos e autonomia dos conselheiros Corporate governance in Latin America: the relevance of OECD principles for the board's integrity and directors' independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Kitagawa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Os conselhos de administração são caracterizados como um importante elemento da boa governança corporativa. Nesse sentido, este trabalho busca identificar as práticas de governança das empresas latino-americanas aos princípios recomendados pela Organização para Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico, OCDE, para essa região (Brasil, Argentina, México e Chile. Dentre os sete princípios por ela recomendados para a América Latina, este trabalho tem como foco apenas o quinto princípio, que trata das "Responsabilidades do Conselho de Administração", mais especificadamente das recomendações com respeito à "Integridade dos Conselhos e Autonomia dos Conselheiros". O principal objetivo é de verificar o posicionamento das empresas em relação às responsabilidades e a supervisão dos administradores como forma de garantir o controle e os resultados esperados pelos acionistas. Para atingir esse objetivo, formulou-se um questionário que expressa as principais recomendações de governança da OCDE para a América Latina e confrontou-se com as legislações desses quatro países e com as práticas societárias das empresas da amostra, de modo a identificar procedimentos adicionais em relação aos exigidos pela legislação. Os resultados evidenciam que o México é o país com maior índice de atendimento às recomendações da OCDE, seguido do Brasil, Argentina e Chile. Os principais pontos fracos, de modo geral, são a ausência de comitês específicos, compostos, no mínimo, por maioria de conselheiros independentes, e proibições de práticas como reuniões prévias ou instruções de voto dadas por acionistas controladores a conselheiros.Boards of directors are characterized as important elements for good corporate governance. In this regard, the present study aims to associate governance practices of Latin American companies to the principles recommended by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, OECD, for

  6. Principles of musical acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Hartmann, William M

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Musical Acoustics focuses on the basic principles in the science and technology of music. Musical examples and specific musical instruments demonstrate the principles. The book begins with a study of vibrations and waves, in that order. These topics constitute the basic physical properties of sound, one of two pillars supporting the science of musical acoustics. The second pillar is the human element, the physiological and psychological aspects of acoustical science. The perceptual topics include loudness, pitch, tone color, and localization of sound. With these two pillars in place, it is possible to go in a variety of directions. The book treats in turn, the topics of room acoustics, audio both analog and digital, broadcasting, and speech. It ends with chapters on the traditional musical instruments, organized by family. The mathematical level of this book assumes that the reader is familiar with elementary algebra. Trigonometric functions, logarithms and powers also appear in the book, but co...

  7. A Principle of Intentionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Charles K

    2017-01-01

    The mainstream theories and models of the physical sciences, including neuroscience, are all consistent with the principle of causality. Wholly causal explanations make sense of how things go, but are inherently value-neutral, providing no objective basis for true beliefs being better than false beliefs, nor for it being better to intend wisely than foolishly. Dennett (1987) makes a related point in calling the brain a syntactic (procedure-based) engine. He says that you cannot get to a semantic (meaning-based) engine from there. He suggests that folk psychology revolves around an intentional stance that is independent of the causal theories of the brain, and accounts for constructs such as meanings, agency, true belief, and wise desire. Dennett proposes that the intentional stance is so powerful that it can be developed into a valid intentional theory. This article expands Dennett's model into a principle of intentionality that revolves around the construct of objective wisdom. This principle provides a structure that can account for all mental processes, and for the scientific understanding of objective value. It is suggested that science can develop a far more complete worldview with a combination of the principles of causality and intentionality than would be possible with scientific theories that are consistent with the principle of causality alone.

  8. How Many Principles for Public Health Ethics?

    OpenAIRE

    Coughlin, Steven S.

    2008-01-01

    General moral (ethical) principles play a prominent role in certain methods of moral reasoning and ethical decision-making in bioethics and public health. Examples include the principles of respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. Some accounts of ethics in public health have pointed to additional principles related to social and environmental concerns, such as the precautionary principle and principles of solidarity or social cohesion. This article provides an overview...

  9. Core principles of evolutionary medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunspan, Daniel Z; Nesse, Randolph M; Barnes, M Elizabeth; Brownell, Sara E

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background and objectives Evolutionary medicine is a rapidly growing field that uses the principles of evolutionary biology to better understand, prevent and treat disease, and that uses studies of disease to advance basic knowledge in evolutionary biology. Over-arching principles of evolutionary medicine have been described in publications, but our study is the first to systematically elicit core principles from a diverse panel of experts in evolutionary medicine. These principles should be useful to advance recent recommendations made by The Association of American Medical Colleges and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute to make evolutionary thinking a core competency for pre-medical education. Methodology The Delphi method was used to elicit and validate a list of core principles for evolutionary medicine. The study included four surveys administered in sequence to 56 expert panelists. The initial open-ended survey created a list of possible core principles; the three subsequent surveys winnowed the list and assessed the accuracy and importance of each principle. Results Fourteen core principles elicited at least 80% of the panelists to agree or strongly agree that they were important core principles for evolutionary medicine. These principles over-lapped with concepts discussed in other articles discussing key concepts in evolutionary medicine. Conclusions and implications This set of core principles will be helpful for researchers and instructors in evolutionary medicine. We recommend that evolutionary medicine instructors use the list of core principles to construct learning goals. Evolutionary medicine is a young field, so this list of core principles will likely change as the field develops further. PMID:29493660

  10. The Principles of Organization of Internal Control of Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panteleiev

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The question to give a convincing assessment of the Rules of the internal controls and present them in the form of principles of organization of internal control. Since the final decision in the form of an exhaustive list and universal principles of internal control is no scientific research continues these principles. It is necessary to examine the logic of the main provisions of the organization's internal control due consideration of the requirements of international practice controls and propose principles of internal control. For this purpose, conducted a critical analysis of the main provisions of internal controls contained in the publications and in the regulations on internal control proceedings. Synthesis of articles of authors of lead scientific and practical journal Ukraine "Accounting and Auditing" for the 1994-2015 biennium pointed out that despite the coverage of current journal articles provisions, principles, requirements, rules and other modern techniques. On internal control and comprehensive set of reasonable response to the organization and classification of internal control is absent. This leads to continue the search key components of the organization's internal control. The above basic concepts in publications on the organization of internal control were used in the formation of a set of principles of control. According to the requirements of the OECD field of internal control includes risk management, cost control, change in control, complete information to guarantee the effectiveness of internal control systems, providing the ability to make decisions and so on. COSO model contains an exhaustive list of five components. The results of the questionnaire trainees have provided compelling arguments for classifying and establishing relevant principles of organization and internal controls were rejected. A list of the basic principles of the organization of internal control, which consists of 25 elements that are shaped

  11. Why relevance theory is relevant for lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothma, Theo; Tarp, Sven

    2014-01-01

    This article starts by providing a brief summary of relevance theory in information science in relation to the function theory of lexicography, explaining the different types of relevance, viz. objective system relevance and the subjective types of relevance, i.e. topical, cognitive, situational...... that is very important for lexicography as well as for information science, viz. functional relevance. Since all lexicographic work is ultimately aimed at satisfying users’ information needs, the article then discusses why the lexicographer should take note of all these types of relevance when planning a new...... dictionary project, identifying new tasks and responsibilities of the modern lexicographer. The article furthermore discusses how relevance theory impacts on teaching dictionary culture and reference skills. By integrating insights from lexicography and information science, the article contributes to new...

  12. Principles of mathematical modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Dym, Clive

    2004-01-01

    Science and engineering students depend heavily on concepts of mathematical modeling. In an age where almost everything is done on a computer, author Clive Dym believes that students need to understand and "own" the underlying mathematics that computers are doing on their behalf. His goal for Principles of Mathematical Modeling, Second Edition, is to engage the student reader in developing a foundational understanding of the subject that will serve them well into their careers. The first half of the book begins with a clearly defined set of modeling principles, and then introduces a set of foundational tools including dimensional analysis, scaling techniques, and approximation and validation techniques. The second half demonstrates the latest applications for these tools to a broad variety of subjects, including exponential growth and decay in fields ranging from biology to economics, traffic flow, free and forced vibration of mechanical and other systems, and optimization problems in biology, structures, an...

  13. PRINCIPLES OF CONTENT FORMATION EDUCATIONAL ELECTRONIC RESOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О Ю Заславская

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers modern possibilities of information and communication technologies for the design of electronic educational resources. The conceptual basis of the open educational multimedia system is based on the modular architecture of the electronic educational resource. The content of the electronic training module can be implemented in several versions of the modules: obtaining information, practical exercises, control. The regularities in the teaching process in modern pedagogical theory are considered: general and specific, and the principles for the formation of the content of instruction at different levels are defined, based on the formulated regularities. On the basis of the analysis, the principles of the formation of the electronic educational resource are determined, taking into account the general and didactic patterns of teaching.As principles of the formation of educational material for obtaining information for the electronic educational resource, the article considers: the principle of methodological orientation, the principle of general scientific orientation, the principle of systemic nature, the principle of fundamentalization, the principle of accounting intersubject communications, the principle of minimization. The principles of the formation of the electronic training module of practical studies in the article include: the principle of systematic and dose based consistency, the principle of rational use of study time, the principle of accessibility. The principles of the formation of the module for monitoring the electronic educational resource can be: the principle of the operationalization of goals, the principle of unified identification diagnosis.

  14. Principles of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pykett, I.L.; Newhouse, J.H.; Buonanno, F.S.; Brady, T.J.; Goldman, M.R.; Kistler, J.P.; Pohost, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    The physical principles which underlie the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are presented in this primer. The major scanning methods are reviewed, and the principles of technique are discussed. A glossary of NMR terms is included

  15. The gauge principle vs. the equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, S.J. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Within the context of field theory, it is argued that the role of the equivalence principle may be replaced by the principle of gauge invariance to provide a logical framework for theories of gravitation

  16. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, W.-T.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  17. Principles of Burn Pain Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Dominika Lipowska; Jowza, Maryam

    2017-10-01

    This article describes pathophysiology of burn injury-related pain and the basic principles of burn pain management. The focus is on concepts of perioperative and periprocedural pain management with extensive discussion of opioid-based analgesia, including patient-controlled analgesia, challenges of effective opioid therapy in opioid-tolerant patients, and opioid-induced hyperalgesia. The principles of multimodal pain management are discussed, including the importance of psychological counseling, perioperative interventional pain procedures, and alternative pain management options. A brief synopsis of the principles of outpatient pain management is provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Basic principles of radiation protection in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    The major goal of radiation protection in Canada is to ensure that individuals are adequately protected against the harm that might arise from unwarranted exposure to ionizing radiation. This report deals with the basic principles and organizations involved in protection against ionizing radiation. Three basic principles of radiation protection are: 1) that no practice shall be adopted unless its introduction produces a positive net benefit for society, 2) that all exposures shall be kept as low as reasonably achievable, relevant economic and social factors being taken into account, and 3) that doses to individuals should not exceed specified annual limits. The limit for radiation workers is currently 50 mSv per year, and exposures of the general public should not exceed a small fraction of that of radiation workers. Other specific areas in radiation protection which have received considerable attention in Canada include limitations on collective dose (the sum of the individual doses for all exposed individuals), exemption rules for extremely small radiation doses or amounts of radioactive materials, occupational hazards in uranium mining, and special rules for protection of the foetus in pregnant female radiation workers. Implementation of radiation protection principles in Canada devolves upon the Atomic Energy Control Board, the Department of National Health and Welfare, provincial authorities, licensees and radiation workers. A brief description is given of the roles of each of these groups

  19. Expanding Uncertainty Principle to Certainty-Uncertainty Principles with Neutrosophy and Quad-stage Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Yuhua

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The most famous contribution of Heisenberg is uncertainty principle. But the original uncertainty principle is improper. Considering all the possible situations (including the case that people can create laws and applying Neutrosophy and Quad-stage Method, this paper presents "certainty-uncertainty principles" with general form and variable dimension fractal form. According to the classification of Neutrosophy, "certainty-uncertainty principles" can be divided into three principles in different conditions: "certainty principle", namely a particle’s position and momentum can be known simultaneously; "uncertainty principle", namely a particle’s position and momentum cannot be known simultaneously; and neutral (fuzzy "indeterminacy principle", namely whether or not a particle’s position and momentum can be known simultaneously is undetermined. The special cases of "certain ty-uncertainty principles" include the original uncertainty principle and Ozawa inequality. In addition, in accordance with the original uncertainty principle, discussing high-speed particle’s speed and track with Newton mechanics is unreasonable; but according to "certaintyuncertainty principles", Newton mechanics can be used to discuss the problem of gravitational defection of a photon orbit around the Sun (it gives the same result of deflection angle as given by general relativity. Finally, for the reason that in physics the principles, laws and the like that are regardless of the principle (law of conservation of energy may be invalid; therefore "certaintyuncertainty principles" should be restricted (or constrained by principle (law of conservation of energy, and thus it can satisfy the principle (law of conservation of energy.

  20. Deep learning relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Petersen, Casper

    2016-01-01

    train a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) on existing relevant information to that query. We then use the RNN to "deep learn" a single, synthetic, and we assume, relevant document for that query. We design a crowdsourcing experiment to assess how relevant the "deep learned" document is, compared...... to existing relevant documents. Users are shown a query and four wordclouds (of three existing relevant documents and our deep learned synthetic document). The synthetic document is ranked on average most relevant of all....

  1. Principles of Fourier analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, Kenneth B

    2001-01-01

    Fourier analysis is one of the most useful and widely employed sets of tools for the engineer, the scientist, and the applied mathematician. As such, students and practitioners in these disciplines need a practical and mathematically solid introduction to its principles. They need straightforward verifications of its results and formulas, and they need clear indications of the limitations of those results and formulas.Principles of Fourier Analysis furnishes all this and more. It provides a comprehensive overview of the mathematical theory of Fourier analysis, including the development of Fourier series, "classical" Fourier transforms, generalized Fourier transforms and analysis, and the discrete theory. Much of the author''s development is strikingly different from typical presentations. His approach to defining the classical Fourier transform results in a much cleaner, more coherent theory that leads naturally to a starting point for the generalized theory. He also introduces a new generalized theory based ...

  2. Principles of chemical kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    House, James E

    2007-01-01

    James House's revised Principles of Chemical Kinetics provides a clear and logical description of chemical kinetics in a manner unlike any other book of its kind. Clearly written with detailed derivations, the text allows students to move rapidly from theoretical concepts of rates of reaction to concrete applications. Unlike other texts, House presents a balanced treatment of kinetic reactions in gas, solution, and solid states. The entire text has been revised and includes many new sections and an additional chapter on applications of kinetics. The topics covered include quantitative rela

  3. Principles of a reversible programming language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuo; Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The principles of reversible programming languages are explicated and illustrated with reference to the design of a high-level imperative language, Janus. The fundamental properties for such languages include backward as well as forward determinism and reversible updates of data. The unique design...... languages, and demonstrate this for Janus. We show the practicality of the language by implementation of a reversible fast Fourier transform. Our results indicate that the reversible programming paradigm has fundamental properties that are relevant to many different areas of computer science....... features of the language include explicit post-condition assertions, direct access to an inverse semantics and the possibility of clean (i.e., garbage-free) computation of injective functions. We suggest the clean simulation of reversible Turing machines as a criterion for computing strength of reversible...

  4. Nonlinear Optics: Principles and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    of applications, Nonlinear Optics: Principles and Applications effectively bridges physics and mathematics with relevant applied material for real-world use. The book progresses naturally from fundamental aspects to illustrative examples, and presents a strong theoretical foundation that equips the reader...... and matter, this text focuses on the physical understanding of nonlinear optics, and explores optical material response functions in the time and frequency domain....

  5. Introductory remote sensing principles and concepts principles and concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Introduction to Remote Sensing Principles and Concepts provides a comprehensive student introduction to both the theory and application of remote sensing. This textbook* introduces the field of remote sensing and traces its historical development and evolution* presents detailed explanations of core remote sensing principles and concepts providing the theory required for a clear understanding of remotely sensed images.* describes important remote sensing platforms - including Landsat, SPOT and NOAA * examines and illustrates many of the applications of remotely sensed images in various fields.

  6. Le Chatelier's Principle, Temperature Effects, and Entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. Arthur

    1985-01-01

    One of the most useful methods of understanding chemical equilibria is provided by Le Chatelier's principle. The relationships between this principle, temperature, and entropy are discussed. Tables with thermodynamic data for some net reactions commonly used to illustrate the principle and for reactions involving gases are included. (JN)

  7. 16 CFR 260.6 - General principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL MARKETING CLAIMS § 260.6 General principles. The following general principles apply to all environmental marketing claims, including, but not limited to, those described in § 260.7. In addition, § 260.7... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General principles. 260.6 Section 260.6...

  8. Other relevant biological papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, M.

    1989-01-01

    A considerable number of CRESP-relevant papers concerning deep-sea biology and radioecology have been published. It is the purpose of this study to call attention to them. They fall into three general categories. The first is papers of general interest. They are mentioned only briefly, and include text references to the global bibliography at the end of the volume. The second are papers that are not only mentioned and referenced, but for various reasons are described in abstract form. The last is a list of papers compiled by H.S.J. Roe specifically for this volume. They are listed in bibliographic form, and are also included in the global bibliography at the end of the volume

  9. Proposal to consistently apply the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP) to names of the oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria (cyanobacteria), including those validly published under the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN)/International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants (ICN), and proposal to change Principle 2 of the ICNP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinevich, Alexander V

    2015-03-01

    This taxonomic note was motivated by the recent proposal [Oren & Garrity (2014) Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 64, 309-310] to exclude the oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria (cyanobacteria) from the wording of General Consideration 5 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP), which entails unilateral coverage of these prokaryotes by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN; formerly the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, ICBN). On the basis of key viewpoints, approaches and rules in the systematics, taxonomy and nomenclature of prokaryotes it is reciprocally proposed to apply the ICNP to names of cyanobacteria including those validly published under the ICBN/ICN. For this purpose, a change to Principle 2 of the ICNP is proposed to enable validation of cyanobacterial names published under the ICBN/ICN rules. © 2015 IUMS.

  10. Principles of meteoritics

    CERN Document Server

    Krinov, E L

    1960-01-01

    Principles of Meteoritics examines the significance of meteorites in relation to cosmogony and to the origin of the planetary system. The book discusses the science of meteoritics and the sources of meteorites. Scientists study the morphology of meteorites to determine their motion in the atmosphere. The scope of such study includes all forms of meteorites, the circumstances of their fall to earth, their motion in the atmosphere, and their orbits in space. Meteoric bodies vary in sizes; in calculating their motion in interplanetary space, astronomers apply the laws of Kepler. In the region of

  11. Principles of speech coding

    CERN Document Server

    Ogunfunmi, Tokunbo

    2010-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that all forms of communication-including voice-will be transmitted through packet-switched networks based on the Internet Protocol (IP). Therefore, the design of modern devices that rely on speech interfaces, such as cell phones and PDAs, requires a complete and up-to-date understanding of the basics of speech coding. Outlines key signal processing algorithms used to mitigate impairments to speech quality in VoIP networksOffering a detailed yet easily accessible introduction to the field, Principles of Speech Coding provides an in-depth examination of the

  12. Principles of quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    George, David V

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Quantum Chemistry focuses on the application of quantum mechanics in physical models and experiments of chemical systems.This book describes chemical bonding and its two specific problems - bonding in complexes and in conjugated organic molecules. The very basic theory of spectroscopy is also considered. Other topics include the early development of quantum theory; particle-in-a-box; general formulation of the theory of quantum mechanics; and treatment of angular momentum in quantum mechanics. The examples of solutions of Schroedinger equations; approximation methods in quantum c

  13. Time-advance algorithms based on Hamilton's principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, H.R.; Kostelec, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    Time-advance algorithms based on Hamilton's variational principle are being developed for application to problems in plasma physics and other areas. Hamilton's principle was applied previously to derive a system of ordinary differential equations in time whose solution provides an approximation to the evolution of a plasma described by the Vlasov-Maxwell equations. However, the variational principle was not used to obtain an algorithm for solving the ordinary differential equations numerically. The present research addresses the numerical solution of systems of ordinary differential equations via Hamilton's principle. The basic idea is first to choose a class of functions for approximating the solution of the ordinary differential equations over a specific time interval. Then the parameters in the approximating function are determined by applying Hamilton's principle exactly within the class of approximating functions. For example, if an approximate solution is desired between time t and time t + Δ t, the class of approximating functions could be polynomials in time up to some degree. The issue of how to choose time-advance algorithms is very important for achieving efficient, physically meaningful computer simulations. The objective is to reliably simulate those characteristics of an evolving system that are scientifically most relevant. Preliminary numerical results are presented, including comparisons with other computational methods

  14. The principle of finiteness – a guideline for physical laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sternlieb, Abraham

    2013-01-01

    I propose a new principle in physics-the principle of finiteness (FP). It stems from the definition of physics as a science that deals with measurable dimensional physical quantities. Since measurement results including their errors, are always finite, FP postulates that the mathematical formulation of legitimate laws in physics should prevent exactly zero or infinite solutions. I propose finiteness as a postulate, as opposed to a statement whose validity has to be corroborated by, or derived theoretically or experimentally from other facts, theories or principles. Some consequences of FP are discussed, first in general, and then more specifically in the fields of special relativity, quantum mechanics, and quantum gravity. The corrected Lorentz transformations include an additional translation term depending on the minimum length epsilon. The relativistic gamma is replaced by a corrected gamma, that is finite for v=c. To comply with FP, physical laws should include the relevant extremum finite values in their mathematical formulation. An important prediction of FP is that there is a maximum attainable relativistic mass/energy which is the same for all subatomic particles, meaning that there is a maximum theoretical value for cosmic rays energy. The Generalized Uncertainty Principle required by Quantum Gravity is actually a necessary consequence of FP at Planck's scale. Therefore, FP may possibly contribute to the axiomatic foundation of Quantum Gravity.

  15. Profiles of Dialogue for Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Walton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses argument diagrams, argumentation schemes, and some tools from formal argumentation systems developed in artificial intelligence to build a graph-theoretic model of relevance shown to be applicable (with some extensions as a practical method for helping a third party judge issues of relevance or irrelevance of an argument in real examples. Examples used to illustrate how the method works are drawn from disputes about relevance in natural language discourse, including a criminal trial and a parliamentary debate.

  16. Progress in classical and quantum variational principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, C G; Karl, G; Novikov, V A

    2004-01-01

    We review the development and practical uses of a generalized Maupertuis least action principle in classical mechanics in which the action is varied under the constraint of fixed mean energy for the trial trajectory. The original Maupertuis (Euler-Lagrange) principle constrains the energy at every point along the trajectory. The generalized Maupertuis principle is equivalent to Hamilton's principle. Reciprocal principles are also derived for both the generalized Maupertuis and the Hamilton principles. The reciprocal Maupertuis principle is the classical limit of Schroedinger's variational principle of wave mechanics and is also very useful to solve practical problems in both classical and semiclassical mechanics, in complete analogy with the quantum Rayleigh-Ritz method. Classical, semiclassical and quantum variational calculations are carried out for a number of systems, and the results are compared. Pedagogical as well as research problems are used as examples, which include nonconservative as well as relativistic systems. '... the most beautiful and important discovery of Mechanics.' Lagrange to Maupertuis (November 1756)

  17. Radiation chemistry; principles and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, F.; Rodgers, M.A.J.

    1994-01-01

    The book attempts to present those fields of radiation chemistry which depend on the principles of radiation chemistry. The first four chapters are some prelude about radiation chemistry principles with respect to how ionizing radiation interacts with matter, and primary results from these interactions and, which kinetic laws are followed by these primary interactions and which equipment for qualitative studies is necessary. Following chapters included principles fields of radiation chemistry. The last six chapters discussed of principle of chemistry from physical and chemical point of view. In this connection the fundamentals of radiation on biological system is emphasised. On one hand, the importance of it for hygiene and safety as neoplasms therapy is discussed. on the other hand, its industrial importance is presented

  18. Principles of Mechanical Excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lislerud, A.

    1997-12-01

    Mechanical excavation of rock today includes several methods such as tunnel boring, raiseboring, roadheading and various continuous mining systems. Of these raiseboring is one potential technique for excavating shafts in the repository for spent nuclear fuel and dry blind boring is promising technique for excavation of deposition holes, as demonstrated in the Research Tunnel at Olkiluoto. In addition, there is potential for use of other mechanical excavation techniques in different parts of the repository. One of the main objectives of this study was to analyze the factors which affect the feasibility of mechanical rock excavation in hard rock conditions and to enhance the understanding of factors which affect rock cutting so as to provide an improved basis for excavator performance prediction modeling. The study included the following four main topics: (a) phenomenological model based on similarity analysis for roller disk cutting, (b) rock mass properties which affect rock cuttability and tool life, (c) principles for linear and field cutting tests and performance prediction modeling and (d) cutter head lacing design procedures and principles. As a conclusion of this study, a test rig was constructed, field tests were planned and started up. The results of the study can be used to improve the performance prediction models used to assess the feasibility of different mechanical excavation techniques at various repository investigation sites. (orig.)

  19. Principles of Mechanical Excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lislerud, A. [Tamrock Corp., Tampere (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Mechanical excavation of rock today includes several methods such as tunnel boring, raiseboring, roadheading and various continuous mining systems. Of these raiseboring is one potential technique for excavating shafts in the repository for spent nuclear fuel and dry blind boring is promising technique for excavation of deposition holes, as demonstrated in the Research Tunnel at Olkiluoto. In addition, there is potential for use of other mechanical excavation techniques in different parts of the repository. One of the main objectives of this study was to analyze the factors which affect the feasibility of mechanical rock excavation in hard rock conditions and to enhance the understanding of factors which affect rock cutting so as to provide an improved basis for excavator performance prediction modeling. The study included the following four main topics: (a) phenomenological model based on similarity analysis for roller disk cutting, (b) rock mass properties which affect rock cuttability and tool life, (c) principles for linear and field cutting tests and performance prediction modeling and (d) cutter head lacing design procedures and principles. As a conclusion of this study, a test rig was constructed, field tests were planned and started up. The results of the study can be used to improve the performance prediction models used to assess the feasibility of different mechanical excavation techniques at various repository investigation sites. (orig.). 21 refs.

  20. Radiation protection principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail Bahari

    2007-01-01

    The presentation outlines the aspects of radiation protection principles. It discussed the following subjects; radiation hazards and risk, the objectives of radiation protection, three principles of the system - justification of practice, optimization of protection and safety, dose limit

  1. Principles of project management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The basic principles of project management as practiced by NASA management personnel are presented. These principles are given as ground rules and guidelines to be used in the performance of research, development, construction or operational assignments.

  2. Relevance theory: pragmatics and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wearing, Catherine J

    2015-01-01

    Relevance Theory is a cognitively oriented theory of pragmatics, i.e., a theory of language use. It builds on the seminal work of H.P. Grice(1) to develop a pragmatic theory which is at once philosophically sensitive and empirically plausible (in both psychological and evolutionary terms). This entry reviews the central commitments and chief contributions of Relevance Theory, including its Gricean commitment to the centrality of intention-reading and inference in communication; the cognitively grounded notion of relevance which provides the mechanism for explaining pragmatic interpretation as an intention-driven, inferential process; and several key applications of the theory (lexical pragmatics, metaphor and irony, procedural meaning). Relevance Theory is an important contribution to our understanding of the pragmatics of communication. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. The certainty principle (review)

    OpenAIRE

    Arbatsky, D. A.

    2006-01-01

    The certainty principle (2005) allowed to conceptualize from the more fundamental grounds both the Heisenberg uncertainty principle (1927) and the Mandelshtam-Tamm relation (1945). In this review I give detailed explanation and discussion of the certainty principle, oriented to all physicists, both theorists and experimenters.

  4. Quantum Action Principle with Generalized Uncertainty Principle

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Jie

    2013-01-01

    One of the common features in all promising candidates of quantum gravity is the existence of a minimal length scale, which naturally emerges with a generalized uncertainty principle, or equivalently a modified commutation relation. Schwinger's quantum action principle was modified to incorporate this modification, and was applied to the calculation of the kernel of a free particle, partly recovering the result previously studied using path integral.

  5. Goals and Principles of Environmental Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zylicz, T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks at how contemporary environmental (including climate) policy problems are phrased in terms of effectiveness, efficiency, and equity. The latter three concepts have served as foci of theoretical discussions among economists who analyse these issues and identify criteria that determine relevant regulations and programmes adopted by governments. The paper starts with a discussion of Pigouvian taxation as model instrument used in order to solve policy problems. It analyses to what extent and under what circumstances alternative instruments - such as marketable pollution permits - can achieve environmental and climate goals while serving other purposes too. Coase theorem is used as a reference for discussing what government interventions are indeed indispensable to achieve both explicit and tacit policy goals. Popular principles and practically applied 'rules of thumb' - such as the Polluter Pays Principle - are then reviewed. The next part is devoted to examining market structures as they influence environmental outcomes of economic activities. This is followed by a discussion of Environmental Tax Reforms which seems to inspire much of the economic thinking about contemporary policies. An outlook for the 21st century concludes the paper.

  6. Dimensional cosmological principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, L.K.

    1985-01-01

    The dimensional cosmological principles proposed by Wesson require that the density, pressure, and mass of cosmological models be functions of the dimensionless variables which are themselves combinations of the gravitational constant, the speed of light, and the spacetime coordinates. The space coordinate is not the comoving coordinate. In this paper, the dimensional cosmological principle and the dimensional perfect cosmological principle are reformulated by using the comoving coordinate. The dimensional perfect cosmological principle is further modified to allow the possibility that mass creation may occur. Self-similar spacetimes are found to be models obeying the new dimensional cosmological principle

  7. Monte Carlo principles and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeside, D E [Oklahoma Univ., Oklahoma City (USA). Health Sciences Center

    1976-03-01

    The principles underlying the use of Monte Carlo methods are explained, for readers who may not be familiar with the approach. The generation of random numbers is discussed, and the connection between Monte Carlo methods and random numbers is indicated. Outlines of two well established Monte Carlo sampling techniques are given, together with examples illustrating their use. The general techniques for improving the efficiency of Monte Carlo calculations are considered. The literature relevant to the applications of Monte Carlo calculations in medical physics is reviewed.

  8. The normative basis of the Precautionary Principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schomberg, Rene von [European Commission, Directorate General for Research, Brussels (Belgium)

    2006-09-15

    Precautionary measures are provisional measures by nature, and need to be regularly reviewed when scientific information either calls for relaxation or strengthening of those measures. Within the EU context, these provisional measures do not have a prefixed 'expiry' date: one can only lift precautionary measures if scientific knowledge has progressed to a point that one would be able to translate (former) uncertainties in terms of risk and adverse effects in terms of defined, consensual levels of harm/damage. Precautionary frameworks facilitate in particular deliberation at the science/policy/society interfaces to which risk management is fully connected. Applying the precautionary principle is to be seen as a normative risk management exercise which builds upon scientific risk assessments. An ongoing scientific and normative deliberation at the science/policy interface involves a shift in science centred debates on the probability of risks towards a science informed debate on uncertainties and plausible adverse effects: this means that decisions should not only be based on available data but on a broad scientific knowledge base including a variety of scientific disciplines. The invocation, implementation and application of the precautionary principle follows a progressive line of different levels of deliberations (which obviously can be interconnected to each other but are distinguished here for analytical purposes). I have listed these levels of deliberation in a table. The table provides a model for guiding all the relevant normative levels of deliberation which are all needed in order to eventually make the legitimate conclusions on the acceptability of products or processes. The table provides a progressive line of those levels of deliberations from the initial invocation of the precautionary principle at the political level down to level of risk management decisions but at the same time show their inter relatedness. Although the table may suggest a

  9. The normative basis of the Precautionary Principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schomberg, Rene von

    2006-01-01

    Precautionary measures are provisional measures by nature, and need to be regularly reviewed when scientific information either calls for relaxation or strengthening of those measures. Within the EU context, these provisional measures do not have a prefixed 'expiry' date: one can only lift precautionary measures if scientific knowledge has progressed to a point that one would be able to translate (former) uncertainties in terms of risk and adverse effects in terms of defined, consensual levels of harm/damage. Precautionary frameworks facilitate in particular deliberation at the science/policy/society interfaces to which risk management is fully connected. Applying the precautionary principle is to be seen as a normative risk management exercise which builds upon scientific risk assessments. An ongoing scientific and normative deliberation at the science/policy interface involves a shift in science centred debates on the probability of risks towards a science informed debate on uncertainties and plausible adverse effects: this means that decisions should not only be based on available data but on a broad scientific knowledge base including a variety of scientific disciplines. The invocation, implementation and application of the precautionary principle follows a progressive line of different levels of deliberations (which obviously can be interconnected to each other but are distinguished here for analytical purposes). I have listed these levels of deliberation in a table. The table provides a model for guiding all the relevant normative levels of deliberation which are all needed in order to eventually make the legitimate conclusions on the acceptability of products or processes. The table provides a progressive line of those levels of deliberations from the initial invocation of the precautionary principle at the political level down to level of risk management decisions but at the same time show their inter relatedness. Although the table may suggest a particular

  10. [Principles of PET].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuthien-Baumann, B

    2018-05-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a procedure in nuclear medicine, which is applied predominantly in oncological diagnostics. In the form of modern hybrid machines, such as PET computed tomography (PET/CT) and PET magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) it has found wide acceptance and availability. The PET procedure is more than just another imaging technique, but a functional method with the capability for quantification in addition to the distribution pattern of the radiopharmaceutical, the results of which are used for therapeutic decisions. A profound knowledge of the principles of PET including the correct indications, patient preparation, and possible artifacts is mandatory for the correct interpretation of PET results.

  11. Emulsion Science Basic Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Leal-Calderon, Fernando; Schmitt, Véronique

    2007-01-01

    Emulsions are generally made out of two immiscible fluids like oil and water, one being dispersed in the second in the presence of surface-active compounds.They are used as intermediate or end products in a huge range of areas including the food, chemical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, paint, and coating industries. Besides the broad domain of technological interest, emulsions are raising a variety of fundamental questions at the frontier between physics and chemistry. This book aims to give an overview of the most recent advances in emulsion science. The basic principles, covering aspects of emulsions from their preparation to their destruction, are presented in close relation to both the fundamental physics and the applications of these materials. The book is intended to help scientists and engineers in formulating new materials by giving them the basics of emulsion science.

  12. Dynamical principles in neuroscience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinovich, Mikhail I.; Varona, Pablo; Selverston, Allen I.; Abarbanel, Henry D. I.

    2006-01-01

    Dynamical modeling of neural systems and brain functions has a history of success over the last half century. This includes, for example, the explanation and prediction of some features of neural rhythmic behaviors. Many interesting dynamical models of learning and memory based on physiological experiments have been suggested over the last two decades. Dynamical models even of consciousness now exist. Usually these models and results are based on traditional approaches and paradigms of nonlinear dynamics including dynamical chaos. Neural systems are, however, an unusual subject for nonlinear dynamics for several reasons: (i) Even the simplest neural network, with only a few neurons and synaptic connections, has an enormous number of variables and control parameters. These make neural systems adaptive and flexible, and are critical to their biological function. (ii) In contrast to traditional physical systems described by well-known basic principles, first principles governing the dynamics of neural systems are unknown. (iii) Many different neural systems exhibit similar dynamics despite having different architectures and different levels of complexity. (iv) The network architecture and connection strengths are usually not known in detail and therefore the dynamical analysis must, in some sense, be probabilistic. (v) Since nervous systems are able to organize behavior based on sensory inputs, the dynamical modeling of these systems has to explain the transformation of temporal information into combinatorial or combinatorial-temporal codes, and vice versa, for memory and recognition. In this review these problems are discussed in the context of addressing the stimulating questions: What can neuroscience learn from nonlinear dynamics, and what can nonlinear dynamics learn from neuroscience?

  13. Dynamical principles in neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Mikhail I.; Varona, Pablo; Selverston, Allen I.; Abarbanel, Henry D. I.

    2006-10-01

    Dynamical modeling of neural systems and brain functions has a history of success over the last half century. This includes, for example, the explanation and prediction of some features of neural rhythmic behaviors. Many interesting dynamical models of learning and memory based on physiological experiments have been suggested over the last two decades. Dynamical models even of consciousness now exist. Usually these models and results are based on traditional approaches and paradigms of nonlinear dynamics including dynamical chaos. Neural systems are, however, an unusual subject for nonlinear dynamics for several reasons: (i) Even the simplest neural network, with only a few neurons and synaptic connections, has an enormous number of variables and control parameters. These make neural systems adaptive and flexible, and are critical to their biological function. (ii) In contrast to traditional physical systems described by well-known basic principles, first principles governing the dynamics of neural systems are unknown. (iii) Many different neural systems exhibit similar dynamics despite having different architectures and different levels of complexity. (iv) The network architecture and connection strengths are usually not known in detail and therefore the dynamical analysis must, in some sense, be probabilistic. (v) Since nervous systems are able to organize behavior based on sensory inputs, the dynamical modeling of these systems has to explain the transformation of temporal information into combinatorial or combinatorial-temporal codes, and vice versa, for memory and recognition. In this review these problems are discussed in the context of addressing the stimulating questions: What can neuroscience learn from nonlinear dynamics, and what can nonlinear dynamics learn from neuroscience?

  14. Making Deferred Taxes Relevant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Arjan; Naarding, Ewout

    2018-01-01

    We analyse the conceptual problems in current accounting for deferred taxes and provide solutions derived from the literature in order to make International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) deferred tax numbers value-relevant. In our view, the empirical results concerning the value relevance of

  15. Parsimonious relevance models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, E.; Weerkamp, W.; Balog, K.; de Rijke, M.; Myang, S.-H.; Oard, D.W.; Sebastiani, F.; Chua, T.-S.; Leong, M.-K.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a method for applying parsimonious language models to re-estimate the term probabilities assigned by relevance models. We apply our method to six topic sets from test collections in five different genres. Our parsimonious relevance models (i) improve retrieval effectiveness in terms of

  16. How Many Principles for Public Health Ethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S.

    2009-01-01

    General moral (ethical) principles play a prominent role in certain methods of moral reasoning and ethical decision-making in bioethics and public health. Examples include the principles of respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. Some accounts of ethics in public health have pointed to additional principles related to social and environmental concerns, such as the precautionary principle and principles of solidarity or social cohesion. This article provides an overview of principle-based methods of moral reasoning as they apply to public health ethics including a summary of advantages and disadvantages of methods of moral reasoning that rely upon general principles of moral reasoning. Drawing upon the literature on public health ethics, examples are provided of additional principles, obligations, and rules that may be useful for analyzing complex ethical issues in public health. A framework is outlined that takes into consideration the interplay of ethical principles and rules at individual, community, national, and global levels. Concepts such as the precautionary principle and solidarity are shown to be useful to public health ethics to the extent that they can be shown to provide worthwhile guidance and information above and beyond principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice, and the clusters of rules and maxims that are linked to these moral principles. Future directions likely to be productive include further work on areas of public health ethics such as public trust, community empowerment, the rights of individuals who are targeted (or not targeted) by public health interventions, individual and community resilience and wellbeing, and further clarification of principles, obligations, and rules in public health disciplines such as environmental science, prevention and control of chronic and infectious diseases, genomics, and global health. PMID:20072707

  17. Curriculum structure: principles and strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliver, R.; Kersten, H.; Vinkka-Puhakka, H.; Alpaslan, G.; Bearn, D.; Cema, I.; Delap, E.; Dummer, P.; Goulet, J.P.; Gugushe, T.; Jeniati, E.; Jerolimov, V.; Kotsanos, N.; Krifka, S.; Levy, G.; Neway, M.; Ogawa, T.; Saag, M.; Sidlauskas, A.; Skaleric, U.; Vervoorn, M.; White, D.

    2008-01-01

    This report provides general guidelines for the structure of a curriculum, followed by specific advice on the principles of learning and teaching, the process of restructuring and change leadership and management. It provides examples of several educational philosophies, including vertical and

  18. Microhydrodynamics principles and selected applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Sangtae; Brenner, Howard

    1991-01-01

    Microhydrodynamics: Principles and Selected Applications presents analytical and numerical methods for describing motion of small particles suspended in viscous fluids. The text first covers the fundamental principles of low-Reynolds-number flow, including the governing equations and fundamental theorems; the dynamics of a single particle in a flow field; and hydrodynamic interactions between suspended particles. Next, the book deals with the advances in the mathematical and computational aspects of viscous particulate flows that point to innovations for large-scale simulations on parallel co

  19. Principlism and its alleged competitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Tom L

    1995-09-01

    Principles that provide general normative frameworks in bioethics have been criticized since the late 1980s, when several different methods and types of moral philosophy began to be proposed as alternatives or substitutes. Several accounts have emerged in recent years, including: (1) Impartial Rule Theory (supported in this issue by K. Danner Clouser), (2) Casuistry (supported in this issue by Albert Jonsen), and (3) Virtue Ethics (supported in this issue by Edmund D. Pellegrino). Although often presented as rival methods or theories, these approaches are consistent with and should not be considered adversaries of a principle-based account.

  20. Impact of Thermodynamic Principles in Systems Biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    It is shown that properties of biological systems which are relevant for systems biology motivated mathematical modelling are strongly shaped by general thermodynamic principles such as osmotic limit, Gibbs energy dissipation, near equilibria and thermodynamic driving force. Each of these aspects

  1. General principles of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dostal, J.; Elson, C.

    1980-01-01

    Aspects of the principles of atomic and nuclear structure and the processes of radioactivity, nuclear transformation, and the interaction of radiations with matter which are of direct relevance to neutron activation analysis and its application to geologic materials are discussed. (L.L.)

  2. Principles of the Energy Conservation Bill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeman, J.

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes 21 principles of the draft Energy Conservation Bill. The principles lay down fundamental responsibilities of the government, the municipalities, business entities, citizens and power plants in the field of economical energy management. Included are principles to minimize energy consumption and to stimulate a reasonable energy management, the role of the energy distribution network, responsibilities of the central load dispatching center, and power plant output regulation schemes. (J.B.)

  3. Principles for fostering the transdisciplinary development of assistive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boger, Jennifer; Jackson, Piper; Mulvenna, Maurice; Sixsmith, Judith; Sixsmith, Andrew; Mihailidis, Alex; Kontos, Pia; Miller Polgar, Janice; Grigorovich, Alisa; Martin, Suzanne

    2017-07-01

    Developing useful and usable assistive technologies often presents complex (or "wicked") challenges that require input from multiple disciplines and sectors. Transdisciplinary collaboration can enable holistic understanding of challenges that may lead to innovative, impactful and transformative solutions. This paper presents generalised principles that are intended to foster transdisciplinary assistive technology development. The paper introduces the area of assistive technology design before discussing general aspects of transdisciplinary collaboration followed by an overview of relevant concepts, including approaches, methodologies and frameworks for conducting and evaluating transdisciplinary working and assistive technology design. The principles for transdisciplinary development of assistive technologies are presented and applied post hoc to the COACH project, an ambient-assisted living technology for guiding completion of activities of daily living by older adults with dementia as an illustrative example. Future work includes the refinement and validation of these principles through their application to real-world transdisciplinary assistive technology projects. Implications for rehabilitation Transdisciplinarity encourages a focus on real world 'wicked' problems. A transdisciplinary approach involves transcending disciplinary boundaries and collaborating with interprofessional and community partners (including the technology's intended users) on a shared problem. Transdisciplinarity fosters new ways of thinking about and doing research, development, and implementation, expanding the scope, applicability, and commercial viability of assistive technologies.

  4. Biomechanics principles and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, Donald R

    2014-01-01

    Presents Current Principles and ApplicationsBiomedical engineering is considered to be the most expansive of all the engineering sciences. Its function involves the direct combination of core engineering sciences as well as knowledge of nonengineering disciplines such as biology and medicine. Drawing on material from the biomechanics section of The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition and utilizing the expert knowledge of respected published scientists in the application and research of biomechanics, Biomechanics: Principles and Practices discusses the latest principles and applicat

  5. Fusion research principles

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Thomas James

    2013-01-01

    Fusion Research, Volume I: Principles provides a general description of the methods and problems of fusion research. The book contains three main parts: Principles, Experiments, and Technology. The Principles part describes the conditions necessary for a fusion reaction, as well as the fundamentals of plasma confinement, heating, and diagnostics. The Experiments part details about forty plasma confinement schemes and experiments. The last part explores various engineering problems associated with reactor design, vacuum and magnet systems, materials, plasma purity, fueling, blankets, neutronics

  6. Database principles programming performance

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Database: Principles Programming Performance provides an introduction to the fundamental principles of database systems. This book focuses on database programming and the relationships between principles, programming, and performance.Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of database design principles and presents a comprehensive introduction to the concepts used by a DBA. This text then provides grounding in many abstract concepts of the relational model. Other chapters introduce SQL, describing its capabilities and covering the statements and functions of the programmi

  7. Principles of ecotoxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walker, C. H

    2012-01-01

    "Now in its fourth edition, this exceptionally accessible text provides students with a multidisciplinary perspective and a grounding in the fundamental principles required for research in toxicology today...

  8. The principle of proportionality revisited: interpretations and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermerén, Göran

    2012-11-01

    The principle of proportionality is used in many different contexts. Some of these uses and contexts are first briefly indicated. This paper focusses on the use of this principle as a moral principle. I argue that under certain conditions the principle of proportionality is helpful as a guide in decision-making. But it needs to be clarified and to be used with some flexibility as a context-dependent principle. Several interpretations of the principle are distinguished, using three conditions as a starting point: importance of objective, relevance of means, and most favourable option. The principle is then tested against an example, which suggests that a fourth condition, focusing on non-excessiveness, needs to be added. I will distinguish between three main interpretations of the principle, some primarily with uses in research ethics, others with uses in other areas of bioethics, for instance in comparisons of therapeutic means and ends. The relations between the principle of proportionality and the precautionary principle are explored in the following section. It is concluded that the principles are different and may even clash. In the next section the principle of proportionality is applied to some medical examples drawn from research ethics and bioethics. In concluding, the status of the principle of proportionality as a moral principle is discussed. What has been achieved so far and what remains to be done is finally summarized.

  9. Culturally Relevant Cyberbullying Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Gregory John

    2017-01-01

    In this action research study, I, along with a student intervention committee of 14 members, developed a cyberbullying intervention for a large urban high school on the west coast. This high school contained a predominantly African American student population. I aimed to discover culturally relevant cyberbullying prevention strategies for African American students. The intervention committee selected video safety messages featuring African American actors as the most culturally relevant cyber...

  10. APPLYING THE PRINCIPLES OF ACCOUNTING IN

    OpenAIRE

    NAGY CRISTINA MIHAELA; SABĂU CRĂCIUN; ”Tibiscus” University of Timişoara, Faculty of Economic Science

    2015-01-01

    The application of accounting principles (accounting principle on accrual basis; principle of business continuity; method consistency principle; prudence principle; independence principle; the principle of separate valuation of assets and liabilities; intangibility principle; non-compensation principle; the principle of substance over form; the principle of threshold significance) to companies that are in bankruptcy procedure has a number of particularities. Thus, some principl...

  11. Health Insurance: principles, models and the Nigerian National ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... more resources to the health care sector and improve the level of access and ... This article amongst other things outlines the principles and models of health ... journal articles, abstracts, relevant books and internet articles were reviewed.

  12. PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES ON FISCAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morar Ioan Dan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal science advertise in most analytical situations, while the principles reiterated by specialists in the field in various specialized works The two components of taxation, the tax system relating to the theoretical and the practical procedures relating to tax are marked by frequent references and invocations of the underlying principles to tax. This paper attempts a return on equity fiscal general vision as a principle often invoked and used to justify tax policies, but so often violated the laws fiscality . Also want to emphasize the importance of devising procedures to ensure fiscal equitable treatment of taxpayers. Specific approach of this paper is based on the notion that tax equity is based on equality before tax and social policies of the executive that would be more effective than using the other tax instruments. I want to emphasize that if the scientific approach to justify the unequal treatment of the tax law is based on the various social problems of the taxpayers, then deviates from the issue of tax fairness justification explaining the need to promote social policies usually more attractive to taxpayers. Modern tax techniques are believed to be promoted especially in order to ensure an increasing level of high efficiency at the expense of the taxpayers obligations to ensure equality before the law tax. On the other hand, tax inequities reaction generates multiple recipients from the first budget plan, but finalities unfair measures can not quantify and no timeline for the reaction, usually not known. But while statistics show fluctuations in budgetary revenues and often find in literature reviews and analysis relevant to a connection between changes in government policies, budget execution and outcome. The effects of inequality on tax on tax procedures and budgetary revenues are difficult to quantify and is among others to this work. Providing tax equity without combining it with the principles of discrimination and neutrality

  13. The genetic difference principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Colin

    2004-01-01

    In the newly emerging debates about genetics and justice three distinct principles have begun to emerge concerning what the distributive aim of genetic interventions should be. These principles are: genetic equality, a genetic decent minimum, and the genetic difference principle. In this paper, I examine the rationale of each of these principles and argue that genetic equality and a genetic decent minimum are ill-equipped to tackle what I call the currency problem and the problem of weight. The genetic difference principle is the most promising of the three principles and I develop this principle so that it takes seriously the concerns of just health care and distributive justice in general. Given the strains on public funds for other important social programmes, the costs of pursuing genetic interventions and the nature of genetic interventions, I conclude that a more lax interpretation of the genetic difference principle is appropriate. This interpretation stipulates that genetic inequalities should be arranged so that they are to the greatest reasonable benefit of the least advantaged. Such a proposal is consistent with prioritarianism and provides some practical guidance for non-ideal societies--that is, societies that do not have the endless amount of resources needed to satisfy every requirement of justice.

  14. The Dutch premium principle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heerwaarden, A.E.; Kaas, R.

    1992-01-01

    A premium principle is derived, in which the loading for a risk is the reinsurance loading for an excess-of-loss cover. It is shown that the principle is well-behaved in the sense that it results in larger premiums for risks that are larger in stop-loss order or in stochastic dominance.

  15. The anthropic principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    The anthropic principle (the conjecture that certain features of the world are determined by the existence of Man) is discussed with the listing of the objections, and is stated that nearly all the constants of nature may be determined by the anthropic principle which does not give exact values for the constants but only their orders of magnitude. (J.T.)

  16. The impact of positive, negative and topical relevance feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, Rianne; Kamps, Jaap; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2008-01-01

    This document contains a description of experiments for the 2008 Relevance Feedback track. We experiment with different amounts of feedback, including negative relevance feedback. Feedback is implemented using massive weighted query expansion. Parsimonious query expansion using only relevant

  17. Principles of the Unification of Our Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Klas

    2011-01-01

    Do we need principles of the unification of our agency, our mode of acting? Immanuel Kant and Christine Korsgaard argue that the reflective structure of our mind forces us to have some conception of ourselves, others and the world--including our agency--and that it is through will and reason, and in particular principles of our agency, that we…

  18. Accounting Principles 30G. Interim Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This curriculum guide was developed for a senior-level introductory accounting course for students in high schools in Manitoba. The course introduces Canadian accounting principles and practices; it applies Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) to introductory financial accounting. The guide includes the following components: (1) an…

  19. Signal Enhancement as Minimization of Relevant Information Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Geiger, Bernhard C.; Kubin, Gernot

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the notion of relevant information loss for the purpose of casting the signal enhancement problem in information-theoretic terms. We show that many algorithms from machine learning can be reformulated using relevant information loss, which allows their application to the aforementioned problem. As a particular example we analyze principle component analysis for dimensionality reduction, discuss its optimality, and show that the relevant information loss can indeed vanish if the r...

  20. Mach's holographic principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoury, Justin; Parikh, Maulik

    2009-01-01

    Mach's principle is the proposition that inertial frames are determined by matter. We put forth and implement a precise correspondence between matter and geometry that realizes Mach's principle. Einstein's equations are not modified and no selection principle is applied to their solutions; Mach's principle is realized wholly within Einstein's general theory of relativity. The key insight is the observation that, in addition to bulk matter, one can also add boundary matter. Given a space-time, and thus the inertial frames, we can read off both boundary and bulk stress tensors, thereby relating matter and geometry. We consider some global conditions that are necessary for the space-time to be reconstructible, in principle, from bulk and boundary matter. Our framework is similar to that of the black hole membrane paradigm and, in asymptotically anti-de Sitter space-times, is consistent with holographic duality.

  1. Variational principles in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Basdevant, Jean-Louis

    2007-01-01

    Optimization under constraints is an essential part of everyday life. Indeed, we routinely solve problems by striking a balance between contradictory interests, individual desires and material contingencies. This notion of equilibrium was dear to thinkers of the enlightenment, as illustrated by Montesquieu’s famous formulation: "In all magistracies, the greatness of the power must be compensated by the brevity of the duration." Astonishingly, natural laws are guided by a similar principle. Variational principles have proven to be surprisingly fertile. For example, Fermat used variational methods to demonstrate that light follows the fastest route from one point to another, an idea which came to be known as Fermat’s principle, a cornerstone of geometrical optics. Variational Principles in Physics explains variational principles and charts their use throughout modern physics. The heart of the book is devoted to the analytical mechanics of Lagrange and Hamilton, the basic tools of any physicist. Prof. Basdev...

  2. The Limits to Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averill, M.; Briggle, A.

    2006-12-01

    Science policy and knowledge production lately have taken a pragmatic turn. Funding agencies increasingly are requiring scientists to explain the relevance of their work to society. This stems in part from mounting critiques of the "linear model" of knowledge production in which scientists operating according to their own interests or disciplinary standards are presumed to automatically produce knowledge that is of relevance outside of their narrow communities. Many contend that funded scientific research should be linked more directly to societal goals, which implies a shift in the kind of research that will be funded. While both authors support the concept of useful science, we question the exact meaning of "relevance" and the wisdom of allowing it to control research agendas. We hope to contribute to the conversation by thinking more critically about the meaning and limits of the term "relevance" and the trade-offs implicit in a narrow utilitarian approach. The paper will consider which interests tend to be privileged by an emphasis on relevance and address issues such as whose goals ought to be pursued and why, and who gets to decide. We will consider how relevance, narrowly construed, may actually limit the ultimate utility of scientific research. The paper also will reflect on the worthiness of research goals themselves and their relationship to a broader view of what it means to be human and to live in society. Just as there is more to being human than the pragmatic demands of daily life, there is more at issue with knowledge production than finding the most efficient ways to satisfy consumer preferences or fix near-term policy problems. We will conclude by calling for a balanced approach to funding research that addresses society's most pressing needs but also supports innovative research with less immediately apparent application.

  3. Relevant Subspace Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Emmanuel; Assent, Ira; Günnemann, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    Subspace clustering aims at detecting clusters in any subspace projection of a high dimensional space. As the number of possible subspace projections is exponential in the number of dimensions, the result is often tremendously large. Recent approaches fail to reduce results to relevant subspace...... clusters. Their results are typically highly redundant, i.e. many clusters are detected multiple times in several projections. In this work, we propose a novel model for relevant subspace clustering (RESCU). We present a global optimization which detects the most interesting non-redundant subspace clusters...... achieves top clustering quality while competing approaches show greatly varying performance....

  4. Limitations of Boltzmann's principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavenda, B.H.

    1995-01-01

    The usual form of Boltzmann's principle assures that maximum entropy, or entropy reduction, occurs with maximum probability, implying a unimodal distribution. Boltzmann's principle cannot be applied to nonunimodal distributions, like the arcsine law, because the entropy may be concave only over a limited portion of the interval. The method of subordination shows that the arcsine distribution corresponds to a process with a single degree of freedom, thereby confirming the invalidation of Boltzmann's principle. The fractalization of time leads to a new distribution in which arcsine and Cauchy distributions can coexist simultaneously for nonintegral degrees of freedom between √2 and 2

  5. Biomedical engineering principles

    CERN Document Server

    Ritter, Arthur B; Valdevit, Antonio; Ascione, Alfred N

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Modeling of Physiological ProcessesCell Physiology and TransportPrinciples and Biomedical Applications of HemodynamicsA Systems Approach to PhysiologyThe Cardiovascular SystemBiomedical Signal ProcessingSignal Acquisition and ProcessingTechniques for Physiological Signal ProcessingExamples of Physiological Signal ProcessingPrinciples of BiomechanicsPractical Applications of BiomechanicsBiomaterialsPrinciples of Biomedical Capstone DesignUnmet Clinical NeedsEntrepreneurship: Reasons why Most Good Designs Never Get to MarketAn Engineering Solution in Search of a Biomedical Problem

  6. Modern electronic maintenance principles

    CERN Document Server

    Garland, DJ

    2013-01-01

    Modern Electronic Maintenance Principles reviews the principles of maintaining modern, complex electronic equipment, with emphasis on preventive and corrective maintenance. Unfamiliar subjects such as the half-split method of fault location, functional diagrams, and fault finding guides are explained. This book consists of 12 chapters and begins by stressing the need for maintenance principles and discussing the problem of complexity as well as the requirements for a maintenance technician. The next chapter deals with the connection between reliability and maintenance and defines the terms fai

  7. [Bioethics of principles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Soba Díez del Corral, Juan José

    2008-01-01

    Bioethics emerges about the tecnological problems of acting in human life. Emerges also the problem of the moral limits determination, because they seem exterior of this practice. The Bioethics of Principles, take his rationality of the teleological thinking, and the autonomism. These divergence manifest the epistemological fragility and the great difficulty of hmoralñ thinking. This is evident in the determination of autonomy's principle, it has not the ethical content of Kant's propose. We need a new ethic rationality with a new refelxion of new Principles whose emerges of the basic ethic experiences.

  8. Principles of dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, Rodney

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Dynamics presents classical dynamics primarily as an exemplar of scientific theory and method. This book is divided into three major parts concerned with gravitational theory of planetary systems; general principles of the foundations of mechanics; and general motion of a rigid body. Some of the specific topics covered are Keplerian Laws of Planetary Motion; gravitational potential and potential energy; and fields of axisymmetric bodies. The principles of work and energy, fictitious body-forces, and inertial mass are also looked into. Other specific topics examined are kinematics

  9. Hamilton's principle for beginners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, J L

    2007-01-01

    I find that students have difficulty with Hamilton's principle, at least the first time they come into contact with it, and therefore it is worth designing some examples to help students grasp its complex meaning. This paper supplies the simplest example to consolidate the learning of the quoted principle: that of a free particle moving along a line. Next, students are challenged to add gravity to reinforce the argument and, finally, a two-dimensional motion in a vertical plane is considered. Furthermore these examples force us to be very clear about such an abstract principle

  10. Developing principles of growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Fleck, Emma

    of the principles of growth among women-owned firms. Using an in-depth case study methodology, data was collected from women-owned firms in Denmark and Ireland, as these countries are similar in contextual terms, e.g. population and business composition, dominated by micro, small and medium-sized enterprises....... Extending on principles put forward in effectuation theory, we propose that women grow their firms according to five principles which enable women’s enterprises to survive in the face of crises such as the current financial world crisis....

  11. Principles of Bioremediation Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, E. L.

    2001-12-01

    Although microorganisms have successfully and spontaneously maintained the biosphere since its inception, industrialized societies now produce undesirable chemical compounds at rates that outpace naturally occurring microbial detoxification processes. This presentation provides an overview of both the complexities of contaminated sites and methodological limitations in environmental microbiology that impede the documentation of biodegradation processes in the field. An essential step toward attaining reliable bioremediation technologies is the development of criteria which prove that microorganisms in contaminated field sites are truly active in metabolizing contaminants of interest. These criteria, which rely upon genetic, biochemical, physiological, and ecological principles and apply to both in situ and ex situ bioremediation strategies include: (i) internal conservative tracers; (ii) added conservative tracers; (iii) added radioactive tracers; (iv) added isotopic tracers; (v) stable isotopic fractionation patterns; (vi) detection of intermediary metabolites; (vii) replicated field plots; (viii) microbial metabolic adaptation; (ix) molecular biological indicators; (x) gradients of coreactants and/or products; (xi) in situ rates of respiration; (xii) mass balances of contaminants, coreactants, and products; and (xiii) computer modeling that incorporates transport and reactive stoichiometries of electron donors and acceptors. The ideal goal is achieving a quantitative understanding of the geochemistry, hydrogeology, and physiology of complex real-world systems.

  12. Is Information Still Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The term "information" in information science does not share the characteristics of those of a nomenclature: it does not bear a generally accepted definition and it does not serve as the bases and assumptions for research studies. As the data deluge has arrived, is the concept of information still relevant for information…

  13. Principles of nuclear radiation detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichholz, G.G.; Poston, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    This book covers the transistorization of equipment and provides an introduction into practice of semiconductor and thermoluminescent detectors. It discusses the principles of radiation detectors most widely used in nuclear technology, medical practice and radiation protection. It stresses the alternative detectors available and discusses practical considerations in choosing and setting up detector systems for actual use. Traditional materials, including semiconductors, TLD's and modern data handling facilities are covered

  14. General Principles of the WTO and European Community Laws in Building International Competition Norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Mo Chung

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The World Trade Organization (WTO established a Working Group on the interaction between trade and competition policy in 1996. By the Doha Ministerial Declaration, it recognized the case for international competition policy framework and agreed that the relevant negotiations take place after the Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference. The Working Group is meant to focus on the clarification of: core principles, including transparency, non-discrimination and procedural fairness among others in the period until the Fifth Session. This article attempts to clarify the implications of the core (WTO principles to the would-be international competition laws and practices. It further tries to get lessons from competition law and practices of the European Community. Protection of fundamental rights, proportionality, non-discrimination, transparency, supremacy, subsidiarity and direct effect are the general principles of the European Community law to be discussed in relation to the competition law and policy. It concludes that the general principles of the WTO and EC laws provide guiding principles for the future international competition norms, and makes some preliminary assessment of the present Korean competition law and policy in the light of those principles.

  15. Vaccinology: principles and practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrow, John

    2012-01-01

    ... principles to implementation. This is an authoritative textbook that details a comprehensive and systematic approach to the science of vaccinology focusing on not only basic science, but the many stages required to commercialize...

  16. On the invariance principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moller-Nielsen, Thomas [University of Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Physicists and philosophers have long claimed that the symmetries of our physical theories - roughly speaking, those transformations which map solutions of the theory into solutions - can provide us with genuine insight into what the world is really like. According to this 'Invariance Principle', only those quantities which are invariant under a theory's symmetries should be taken to be physically real, while those quantities which vary under its symmetries should not. Physicists and philosophers, however, are generally divided (or, indeed, silent) when it comes to explaining how such a principle is to be justified. In this paper, I spell out some of the problems inherent in other theorists' attempts to justify this principle, and sketch my own proposed general schema for explaining how - and when - the Invariance Principle can indeed be used as a legitimate tool of metaphysical inference.

  17. Principles of applied statistics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cox, D. R; Donnelly, Christl A

    2011-01-01

    .... David Cox and Christl Donnelly distil decades of scientific experience into usable principles for the successful application of statistics, showing how good statistical strategy shapes every stage of an investigation...

  18. Minimum entropy production principle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maes, C.; Netočný, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 7 (2013), s. 9664-9677 ISSN 1941-6016 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : MINEP Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Minimum_entropy_production_principle

  19. Global ethics and principlism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John-Stewart

    2011-09-01

    This article examines the special relation between common morality and particular moralities in the four-principles approach and its use for global ethics. It is argued that the special dialectical relation between common morality and particular moralities is the key to bridging the gap between ethical universalism and relativism. The four-principles approach is a good model for a global bioethics by virtue of its ability to mediate successfully between universal demands and cultural diversity. The principle of autonomy (i.e., the idea of individual informed consent), however, does need to be revised so as to make it compatible with alternatives such as family- or community-informed consent. The upshot is that the contribution of the four-principles approach to global ethics lies in the so-called dialectical process and its power to deal with cross-cultural issues against the background of universal demands by joining them together.

  20. Applying GRADE-CERQual to qualitative evidence synthesis findings-paper 6: how to assess relevance of the data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Jane; Booth, Andrew; Lewin, Simon; Carlsen, Benedicte; Glenton, Claire; Colvin, Christopher J; Garside, Ruth; Bohren, Meghan A; Rashidian, Arash; Wainwright, Megan; Tunςalp, Özge; Chandler, Jacqueline; Flottorp, Signe; Pantoja, Tomas; Tucker, Joseph D; Munthe-Kaas, Heather

    2018-01-25

    The GRADE-CERQual (Confidence in Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative research) approach has been developed by the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) Working Group. The approach has been developed to support the use of findings from qualitative evidence syntheses in decision-making, including guideline development and policy formulation. CERQual includes four components for assessing how much confidence to place in findings from reviews of qualitative research (also referred to as qualitative evidence syntheses): (1) methodological limitations, (2) coherence, (3) adequacy of data and (4) relevance. This paper is part of a series providing guidance on how to apply CERQual and focuses on CERQual's relevance component. We developed the relevance component by searching the literature for definitions, gathering feedback from relevant research communities and developing consensus through project group meetings. We tested the CERQual relevance component within several qualitative evidence syntheses before agreeing on the current definition and principles for application. When applying CERQual, we define relevance as the extent to which the body of data from the primary studies supporting a review finding is applicable to the context (perspective or population, phenomenon of interest, setting) specified in the review question. In this paper, we describe the relevance component and its rationale and offer guidance on how to assess relevance in the context of a review finding. This guidance outlines the information required to assess relevance, the steps that need to be taken to assess relevance and examples of relevance assessments. This paper provides guidance for review authors and others on undertaking an assessment of relevance in the context of the CERQual approach. Assessing the relevance component requires consideration of potentially important contextual factors at an early stage in the review process. We expect the CERQual

  1. Microwave system engineering principles

    CERN Document Server

    Raff, Samuel J

    1977-01-01

    Microwave System Engineering Principles focuses on the calculus, differential equations, and transforms of microwave systems. This book discusses the basic nature and principles that can be derived from thermal noise; statistical concepts and binomial distribution; incoherent signal processing; basic properties of antennas; and beam widths and useful approximations. The fundamentals of propagation; LaPlace's Equation and Transmission Line (TEM) waves; interfaces between homogeneous media; modulation, bandwidth, and noise; and communications satellites are also deliberated in this text. This bo

  2. Remark on Heisenberg's principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguez, G.

    1988-01-01

    Application of Heisenberg's principle to inertial frame transformations allows a distinction between three commutative groups of reciprocal transformations along one direction: Galilean transformations, dual transformations, and Lorentz transformations. These are three conjugate groups and for a given direction, the related commutators are all proportional to one single conjugation transformation which compensates for uniform and rectilinear motions. The three transformation groups correspond to three complementary ways of measuring space-time as a whole. Heisenberg's Principle then gets another explanation [fr

  3. Ethical principles for novel therapies in veterinary practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, J W

    2016-02-01

    To present insights to aid decision-making about novel veterinary treatments from regulations concerning animal experimentation and human clinical medical trials. EU Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes and EU Regulation 536/2014 on clinical trials on medicinal products for human use were analysed, evaluated and "translated" into relevant principles for veterinary surgeons. A number of principles are relevant, relating to treatment expectations, thresholds and objectives; client consent; minimising harms; personnel; review committees; assessment and publication. These principles should assist veterinary surgeons to make good ethical decisions about novel treatments. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  4. Violations of Management Principles within Academe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikula, Andrew F.; Sikula, John P.

    1980-01-01

    Principles of effective management commonly violated by educational institutions include: (1) unity of command; (2) division or specialization of labor; (3) delegation of authority; and (4) authority equal to responsibility. (JMF)

  5. Principles for Establishing Ecologically Successful Riparian Corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principles for establishing riparian areas. Riparian areas are three‐dimensional ecotones of interaction that include terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, that extend down into the groundwater, up above the canopy, outward across the floodplain.

  6. Basic Concepts and Principles of Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beder, Hal

    1986-01-01

    Presents an overview of marketing concepts and principles. These include (1) organizational objectives, (2) exchange, (3) value, (4) market segmentation, (5) market position, (6) consumer analysis, (7) product, (8) promotion, (9) place, and (10) price. (CH)

  7. First principles of Hamiltonian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Bernard; Foster, Kevin; Úbeda, Francisco

    2014-05-19

    We introduce the field of Hamiltonian medicine, which centres on the roles of genetic relatedness in human health and disease. Hamiltonian medicine represents the application of basic social-evolution theory, for interactions involving kinship, to core issues in medicine such as pathogens, cancer, optimal growth and mental illness. It encompasses three domains, which involve conflict and cooperation between: (i) microbes or cancer cells, within humans, (ii) genes expressed in humans, (iii) human individuals. A set of six core principles, based on these domains and their interfaces, serves to conceptually organize the field, and contextualize illustrative examples. The primary usefulness of Hamiltonian medicine is that, like Darwinian medicine more generally, it provides novel insights into what data will be productive to collect, to address important clinical and public health problems. Our synthesis of this nascent field is intended predominantly for evolutionary and behavioural biologists who aspire to address questions directly relevant to human health and disease.

  8. Indeterminacy and the principle of need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlitz, Anders

    2017-02-01

    The principle of need-the idea that resources should be allocated according to need-is often invoked in priority setting in the health care sector. In this article, I argue that a reasonable principle of need must be indeterminate, and examine three different ways that this can be dealt with: appendicizing the principle with further principles, imposing determinacy, or empowering decision makers. I argue that need must be conceptualized as a composite property composed of at least two factors: health shortfall and capacity to benefit. When one examines how the different factors relate to each other, one discovers that this is sometimes indeterminate. I illustrate this indeterminacy in this article by applying the small improvement argument. If the relation between the factors are always determinate, the comparative relation changes by a small adjustment. Yet, if two needs are dissimilar but of seemingly equal magnitude, the comparative relation does not change by a small adjustment of one of the factors. I then outline arguments in favor of each of the three strategies for dealing with indeterminacy, but also point out that all strategies have significant shortcomings. More research is needed concerning how to deal with this indeterminacy, and the most promising path seems to be to scrutinize the position of the principle of need among a plurality of relevant principles for priority setting in the health care sector.

  9. Principles and applications of nanomems physics

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Hector

    2005-01-01

    ""Principles and Applications of NanoMEMS Physics"" presents the first unified exposition of the physical principles at the heart of NanoMEMS-based devices and applications. In particular, after beginning with a comprehensive presentation of the fundamentals and limitations of nanotechnology and MEMS fabrication techniques, the book addresses the physics germane to this dimensional regime, namely, quantum wave-particle phenomena, including, the manifestation of charge discreteness, quantized electrostatic actuation, and the Casimir effect, and quantum wave phenomena, including, quantized elect

  10. Clinical Relevance of Adipokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Blüher

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of obesity has increased dramatically during recent decades. Obesity increases the risk for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and may therefore contribute to premature death. With increasing fat mass, secretion of adipose tissue derived bioactive molecules (adipokines changes towards a pro-inflammatory, diabetogenic and atherogenic pattern. Adipokines are involved in the regulation of appetite and satiety, energy expenditure, activity, endothelial function, hemostasis, blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, energy metabolism in insulin sensitive tissues, adipogenesis, fat distribution and insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. Therefore, adipokines are clinically relevant as biomarkers for fat distribution, adipose tissue function, liver fat content, insulin sensitivity, chronic inflammation and have the potential for future pharmacological treatment strategies for obesity and its related diseases. This review focuses on the clinical relevance of selected adipokines as markers or predictors of obesity related diseases and as potential therapeutic tools or targets in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.

  11. Information Needs/Relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Wildemuth, Barbara M.

    2009-01-01

    A user's interaction with a DL is often initiated as the result of the user experiencing an information need of some kind. Aspects of that experience and how it might affect the user's interactions with the DL are discussed in this module. In addition, users continuously make decisions about and evaluations of the materials retrieved from a DL, relative to their information needs. Relevance judgments, and their relationship to the user's information needs, are discussed in this module. Draft

  12. Making the history of psychology clinically and philosophically relevant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vande Kemp, Hendrika

    2002-08-01

    The author discusses ways to make the history of psychology course relevant for a clinical psychology doctoral program within a multidenominational Protestant theological seminary. She uses a personalist orientation to emphasize the need to integrate psychology, philosophy, and theology. She differentiates among the intrapersonal, interpersonal, impersonal, and transpersonal dimensions of experience. She illustrates the rich multidisciplinary historical roots of contemporary psychology by tracing the the history of the term psychology and examining its meanings in the existential psychology of Søren Kierkegaard and in the 19th-century novel. She includes brief histories of the "new psychology" and of the unconscious. She describes how she uses the field of psychotheological integration to illustrate principles of historiography and summarizes resources used to supplement traditional textbooks.

  13. The nullum crimen sine iure principle in contemporary International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Olásolo Alonso

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the evolution and current content of the nullum crimen sine iure principle in international law. It analyses the development of the nullum crimen principle from its definition as a principle of justice at the end of Second World War, to its current definition as an individual right imposing a limitation upon States’ sovereignty. The article also explains that, nowadays, the nullum cri- men principle requires for the relevant conduct to be a crime at the time of its com- mission, according to any of the sources of criminal law in the relevant national or international legal system. No written law is necessarily required. As a result, accessibility and foreseability are the main elements of the nullum crimen principle in current international law.

  14. General principles of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easson, E.C.

    1985-01-01

    The daily practice of any established branch of medicine should be based on some acceptable principles. This chapter is concerned with the general principles on which the radiotherapy of the Manchester school is based. Though many radiotherapists in other centres would doubtless accept these principles, there are sufficiently wide differences in practice throughout the world to suggest that some therapists adhere to a fundamentally different philosophy. The authors believe it is important, especially for those beginning their formal training in radiotherapy, to subscribe to an internally consistent school of thought, employing methods of treatment for each type of lesion in each anatomical site that are based on accepted principles and subjected to continuous rigorous scrutiny to test their effectiveness. Not only must each therapeutic technique be evaluated, but the underlying principles too must be questioned if and when this seems indicated. It is a feature of this hospital that similar lesions are all treated by the same technique, so long as statistical evidence justifies such a policy. All members of the staff adhere to the accepted policy until or unless reliable reasons are adduced to change this policy

  15. The traveltime holographic principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunsong; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2015-01-01

    Fermat's interferometric principle is used to compute interior transmission traveltimes τpq from exterior transmission traveltimes τsp and τsq. Here, the exterior traveltimes are computed for sources s on a boundary B that encloses a volume V of interior points p and q. Once the exterior traveltimes are computed, no further ray tracing is needed to calculate the interior times τpq. Therefore this interferometric approach can be more efficient than explicitly computing interior traveltimes τpq by ray tracing. Moreover, the memory requirement of the traveltimes is reduced by one dimension, because the boundary B is of one fewer dimension than the volume V. An application of this approach is demonstrated with interbed multiple (IM) elimination. Here, the IMs in the observed data are predicted from the migration image and are subsequently removed by adaptive subtraction. This prediction is enabled by the knowledge of interior transmission traveltimes τpq computed according to Fermat's interferometric principle. We denote this principle as the `traveltime holographic principle', by analogy with the holographic principle in cosmology where information in a volume is encoded on the region's boundary.

  16. Ethical principles of scientific communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranov G. V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available the article presents the principles of ethical management of scientific communication. The author approves the priority of ethical principle of social responsibility of the scientist.

  17. Bariatric Endocrinology: Principles of Medical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Campoy, J. Michael; Richardson, Bruce; Gonzalez-Cameron, David; Ebrahim, Ayesha; Strobel, Pamela; Martinez, Tiphani; Blaha, Beth; Ransom, Maria; Quinonez-Weislow, Jessica; Pierson, Andrea; Gonzalez Ahumada, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Obesity, is a chronic, biological, preventable, and treatable disease. The accumulation of fat mass causes physical changes (adiposity), metabolic and hormonal changes due to adipose tissue dysfunction (adiposopathy), and psychological changes. Bariatric endocrinology was conceived from the need to address the neuro-endocrinological derangements that are associated with adiposopathy, and from the need to broaden the scope of the management of its complications. In addition to the well-established metabolic complications of overweight and obesity, adiposopathy leads to hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia, hypoadiponectinemia, dysregulation of gut peptides including GLP-1 and ghrelin, the development of an inflammatory milieu, and the strong risk of vascular disease. Therapy for adiposopathy hinges on effectively lowering the ratio of orexigenic to anorexigenic signals reaching the the hypothalamus and other relevant brain regions, favoring a lower caloric intake. Adiposopathy, overweight and obesity should be treated indefinitely with the specific aims to reduce fat mass for the adiposity complications, and to normalize adipose tissue function for the adiposopathic complications. This paper defines the principles of medical practice in bariatric endocrinology—the treatment of overweight and obesity as means to treat adiposopathy and its accompanying metabolic and hormonal derangements. PMID:24899894

  18. 78 FR 17300 - Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... and II Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and... Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles and Administrative Requirements (Including...

  19. The ESM and the Principle of Transparency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Nes Matteo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This note analyses a peculiar feature of the ESM, namely the lack of an acceptable set of standards for the fundamental democratic principle of transparency. Moving from the particular nature of this mechanism, we will highlight the most critical concerns connected to secrecy, confidentiality and inviolability of documents, looking not only at the ESM Treaty but also at relevant documents approved by its bodies (in particular the Code of Conduct and the By-Laws.

  20. Ethical principles and theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, R C

    1993-01-01

    Ethical theory about what is right and good in human conduct lies behind the issues practitioners face and the codes they turn to for guidance; it also provides guidance for actions, practices, and policies. Principles of obligation, such as egoism, utilitarianism, and deontology, offer general answers to the question, "Which acts/practices are morally right?" A re-emerging alternative to using such principles to assess individual conduct is to center normative theory on personal virtues. For structuring society's institutions, principles of social justice offer alternative answers to the question, "How should social benefits and burdens be distributed?" But human concerns about right and good call for more than just theoretical responses. Some critics (eg, the postmodernists and the feminists) charge that normative ethical theorizing is a misguided enterprise. However, that charge should be taken as a caution and not as a refutation of normative ethical theorizing.

  1. A New Principle in Physics: the Principle 'Finiteness', and Some Consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sternlieb, Abraham

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I propose a new principle in physics: the principle of 'finiteness'. It stems from the definition of physics as a science that deals (among other things) with measurable dimensional physical quantities. Since measurement results, including their errors, are always finite, the principle of finiteness postulates that the mathematical formulation of 'legitimate' laws of physics should prevent exactly zero or infinite solutions. Some consequences of the principle of finiteness are discussed, in general, and then more specifically in the fields of special relativity, quantum mechanics, and quantum gravity. The consequences are derived independently of any other theory or principle in physics. I propose 'finiteness' as a postulate (like the constancy of the speed of light in vacuum, 'c'), as opposed to a notion whose validity has to be corroborated by, or derived theoretically or experimentally from other facts, theories, or principles.

  2. Maximum entropy principle and hydrodynamic models in statistical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trovato, M.; Reggiani, L.

    2012-01-01

    This review presents the state of the art of the maximum entropy principle (MEP) in its classical and quantum (QMEP) formulation. Within the classical MEP we overview a general theory able to provide, in a dynamical context, the macroscopic relevant variables for carrier transport in the presence of electric fields of arbitrary strength. For the macroscopic variables the linearized maximum entropy approach is developed including full-band effects within a total energy scheme. Under spatially homogeneous conditions, we construct a closed set of hydrodynamic equations for the small-signal (dynamic) response of the macroscopic variables. The coupling between the driving field and the energy dissipation is analyzed quantitatively by using an arbitrary number of moments of the distribution function. Analogously, the theoretical approach is applied to many one-dimensional n + nn + submicron Si structures by using different band structure models, different doping profiles, different applied biases and is validated by comparing numerical calculations with ensemble Monte Carlo simulations and with available experimental data. Within the quantum MEP we introduce a quantum entropy functional of the reduced density matrix, the principle of quantum maximum entropy is then asserted as fundamental principle of quantum statistical mechanics. Accordingly, we have developed a comprehensive theoretical formalism to construct rigorously a closed quantum hydrodynamic transport within a Wigner function approach. The theory is formulated both in thermodynamic equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions, and the quantum contributions are obtained by only assuming that the Lagrange multipliers can be expanded in powers of ħ 2 , being ħ the reduced Planck constant. In particular, by using an arbitrary number of moments, we prove that: i) on a macroscopic scale all nonlocal effects, compatible with the uncertainty principle, are imputable to high-order spatial derivatives both of the

  3. Mechanical engineering principles

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, John

    2014-01-01

    A student-friendly introduction to core engineering topicsThis book introduces mechanical principles and technology through examples and applications, enabling students to develop a sound understanding of both engineering principles and their use in practice. These theoretical concepts are supported by 400 fully worked problems, 700 further problems with answers, and 300 multiple-choice questions, all of which add up to give the reader a firm grounding on each topic.The new edition is up to date with the latest BTEC National specifications and can also be used on undergraduate courses in mecha

  4. Itch Management: General Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misery, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Like pain, itch is a challenging condition that needs to be managed. Within this setting, the first principle of itch management is to get an appropriate diagnosis to perform an etiology-oriented therapy. In several cases it is not possible to treat the cause, the etiology is undetermined, there are several causes, or the etiological treatment is not effective enough to alleviate itch completely. This is also why there is need for symptomatic treatment. In all patients, psychological support and associated pragmatic measures might be helpful. General principles and guidelines are required, yet patient-centered individual care remains fundamental. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Electrical principles 3 checkbook

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, J O

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Principles 3 Checkbook aims to introduce students to the basic electrical principles needed by technicians in electrical engineering, electronics, and telecommunications.The book first tackles circuit theorems, single-phase series A.C. circuits, and single-phase parallel A.C. circuits. Discussions focus on worked problems on parallel A.C. circuits, worked problems on series A.C. circuits, main points concerned with D.C. circuit analysis, worked problems on circuit theorems, and further problems on circuit theorems. The manuscript then examines three-phase systems and D.C. transients

  6. Principles of statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Bulmer, M G

    1979-01-01

    There are many textbooks which describe current methods of statistical analysis, while neglecting related theory. There are equally many advanced textbooks which delve into the far reaches of statistical theory, while bypassing practical applications. But between these two approaches is an unfilled gap, in which theory and practice merge at an intermediate level. Professor M. G. Bulmer's Principles of Statistics, originally published in 1965, was created to fill that need. The new, corrected Dover edition of Principles of Statistics makes this invaluable mid-level text available once again fo

  7. WNA's Policy Document : sustaining global best practices in uranium, mining and processing, principles for managing radiation, health and safety, waste and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Pierre, S.; Waste Management and Decommissioning Working Group-WM and DW

    2008-01-01

    The worldwide community of uranium mining and processing recognizes that managing radiation, health and safety, waste and the environment is paramount. Such responsible management applies at all stages of planning and activities. Today we are acting to ensure that all parties directly involved in uranium mining and processing strive to achieve the highest levels of excellence in these fields. We are doing so by sustaining a strong safety culture based on a commitment to common, internationally shared principles. This paper sets out principles for the management of radiation, health and safety, waste and the environment applicable to sites throughout the world. In national and regional settings where nuclear fuel cycle activities are well developed, these principles already serve as the underpinning for 'Codes of Practice' that govern uranium mining and processing. In any given setting, a Code of Practice is needed to guide practical implementation of these principles according to the regional, national or site-specific context. These principles are published in the belief that they hold special relevance for emerging uranium producing countries that do not yet have fully developed regulations for the control of radiation, health and safety, waste and the environment associated with uranium mining and processing. The principles are equally relevant for operators, contractors, and regulators newly engaged in uranium mining and processing. Once national regulations are fully developed, they can be expected to embody these principles. Each principle affirmed here will not apply to the same extent for each party. Ultimately, the precise allocation of responsibilities must be set at the national and local levels. This document holds the status of a policy and ethical declaration by the full WNA membership, which the global nuclear industry. The principles affirmed here are supported by key relevant international organizations, including the IAEA and the global mining

  8. New seismograph includes filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-02

    The new Nimbus ES-1210 multichannel signal enhancement seismograph from EG and G geometrics has recently been redesigned to include multimode signal fillers on each amplifier. The ES-1210F is a shallow exploration seismograph for near subsurface exploration such as in depth-to-bedrock, geological hazard location, mineral exploration, and landslide investigations.

  9. [Relevant public health enteropathogens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, Maribel; Ochoa, Theresa J

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea remains the third leading cause of death in children under five years, despite recent advances in the management and prevention of this disease. It is caused by multiple pathogens, however, the prevalence of each varies by age group, geographical area and the scenario where cases (community vs hospital) are recorded. The most relevant pathogens in public health are those associated with the highest burden of disease, severity, complications and mortality. In our country, norovirus, Campylobacter and diarrheagenic E. coli are the most prevalent pathogens at the community level in children. In this paper we review the local epidemiology and potential areas of development in five selected pathogens: rotavirus, norovirus, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), Shigella and Salmonella. Of these, rotavirus is the most important in the pediatric population and the main agent responsible for child mortality from diarrhea. The introduction of rotavirus vaccination in Peru will have a significant impact on disease burden and mortality from diarrhea. However, surveillance studies are needed to determine the impact of vaccination and changes in the epidemiology of diarrhea in Peru following the introduction of new vaccines, as well as antibiotic resistance surveillance of clinical relevant bacteria.

  10. PRINCIPLE "EARLY MATCHING" AERODYNAMIC DESIGN AIRCRAFT WITH LANDING GEAR HOVERCRAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Morozov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The principle of "early matching" aircraft aerohydrodynamic layouts with air cushion landing gear is suggested. Application of this principle is considered as an example of adaptation to the ball screw base circuit of light transport aircraft. The principle, other than weight, aerodynamic, technological and operational requirements includes additional project activities related to the installation of ball screws.

  11. Complementary Huygens principle for geometrical and nongeometrical optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luis, Alfredo

    2007-01-01

    We develop a fundamental principle depicting the generalized ray formulation of optics provided by the Wigner function. This principle is formally identical to the Huygens-Fresnel principle but in terms of opposite concepts, rays instead of waves, and incoherent superpositions instead of coherent ones. This ray picture naturally includes diffraction and interference, and provides a geometrical picture of the degree of coherence

  12. Three Principles of Perception for Instructional Interface Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, Linda L.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses graphical user interfaces used for instructional purposes in educational environments, which promote learning goals, and in support environments, which promote performance goals. Explains three key principles of perception and gives guidelines for their use, including the figure/ground principle, the hierarchy principle, and the gestalt…

  13. The precautionary principle and regulation of chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Søren

    This dissertation presents a combined approach to the study of discourse and technology. The approach is applied on two different cases involving the precautionary principle and chemicals; namely an in-depth analysis of a short-lived prohibition against a specific class of pesticides based...... on conflicting sciences, and a broader analysis of the development of chemicals regulation and the interrelation to the precautionary principle. It is concluded that the precautionary principle in practise requires a vivid debate at all levels including scientific approaches and public deliberation....

  14. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Fratalocchi, Andrea; Totero Gongora, Juan Sebastian; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Candeloro, Patrizio; Cuda, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  15. Saskatchewan resources. [including uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    The production of chemicals and minerals for the chemical industry in Saskatchewan are featured, with some discussion of resource taxation. The commodities mentioned include potash, fatty amines, uranium, heavy oil, sodium sulfate, chlorine, sodium hydroxide, sodium chlorate and bentonite. Following the successful outcome of the Cluff Lake inquiry, the uranium industry is booming. Some developments and production figures for Gulf Minerals, Amok, Cenex and Eldorado are mentioned.

  16. The Principles of Readability

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBay, William H.

    2004-01-01

    The principles of readability are in every style manual. Readability formulas are in every writing aid. What is missing is the research and theory on which they stand. This short review of readability research spans 100 years. The first part covers the history of adult literacy studies in the U.S., establishing the stratified nature of the adult…

  17. Principles of electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Melvin

    1972-01-01

    This advanced undergraduate- and graduate-level text by the 1988 Nobel Prize winner establishes the subject's mathematical background, reviews the principles of electrostatics, then introduces Einstein's special theory of relativity and applies it throughout the book in topics ranging from Gauss' theorem and Coulomb's law to electric and magnetic susceptibility.

  18. Principles of Bridge Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Nowak, Andrzej S.

    The paper gives a brief introduction to the basic principles of structural reliability theory and its application to bridge engineering. Fundamental concepts like failure probability and reliability index are introduced. Ultimate as well as serviceability limit states for bridges are formulated......, and as an example the reliability profile and a sensitivity analyses for a corroded reinforced concrete bridge is shown....

  19. The Idiom Principle Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siyanova-Chanturia, Anna; Martinez, Ron

    2015-01-01

    John Sinclair's Idiom Principle famously posited that most texts are largely composed of multi-word expressions that "constitute single choices" in the mental lexicon. At the time that assertion was made, little actual psycholinguistic evidence existed in support of that holistic, "single choice," view of formulaic language. In…

  20. The Pauli Exclusion Principle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    his exclusion principle, the quantum theory was a mess. Moreover, it could ... This is a function of all the coordinates and 'internal variables' such as spin, of all the ... must remain basically the same (ie change by a phase factor at most) if we ...

  1. The traveltime holographic principle

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Y.; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2014-01-01

    Fermat's interferometric principle is used to compute interior transmission traveltimes τpq from exterior transmission traveltimes τsp and τsq. Here, the exterior traveltimes are computed for sources s on a boundary B that encloses a volume V of interior points p and q. Once the exterior traveltimes are computed, no further ray tracing is needed to calculate the interior times τpq. Therefore this interferometric approach can be more efficient than explicitly computing interior traveltimes τpq by ray tracing. Moreover, the memory requirement of the traveltimes is reduced by one dimension, because the boundary B is of one fewer dimension than the volume V. An application of this approach is demonstrated with interbed multiple (IM) elimination. Here, the IMs in the observed data are predicted from the migration image and are subsequently removed by adaptive subtraction. This prediction is enabled by the knowledge of interior transmission traveltimes τpq computed according to Fermat's interferometric principle. We denote this principle as the ‘traveltime holographic principle’, by analogy with the holographic principle in cosmology where information in a volume is encoded on the region's boundary.

  2. The Bohr Correspondence Principle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Deepak Dhar. Keywords. Correspondence principle, hy- drogen atom, Kepler orbit. Deepak Dhar works at the. Tata Institute of Funda- mental Research,. Mumbai. His research interests are mainly in the area of statistical physics. We consider the quantum-mechanical non-relati- vistic hydrogen atom. We show that for bound.

  3. Fundamental Safety Principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelmalik, W.E.Y.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a summary of the IAEA Safety Standards Series publication No. SF-1 entitled F UDAMENTAL Safety PRINCIPLES p ublished on 2006. This publication states the fundamental safety objective and ten associated safety principles, and briefly describes their intent and purposes. Safety measures and security measures have in common the aim of protecting human life and health and the environment. These safety principles are: 1) Responsibility for safety, 2) Role of the government, 3) Leadership and management for safety, 4) Justification of facilities and activities, 5) Optimization of protection, 6) Limitation of risks to individuals, 7) Protection of present and future generations, 8) Prevention of accidents, 9)Emergency preparedness and response and 10) Protective action to reduce existing or unregulated radiation risks. The safety principles concern the security of facilities and activities to the extent that they apply to measures that contribute to both safety and security. Safety measures and security measures must be designed and implemented in an integrated manner so that security measures do not compromise safety and safety measures do not compromise security.

  4. Principles of Protocol Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    This is a new and updated edition of a book first published in 1994. The book introduces the reader to the principles used in the construction of a large range of modern data communication protocols, as used in distributed computer systems of all kinds. The approach taken is rather a formal one...

  5. The traveltime holographic principle

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Y.

    2014-11-06

    Fermat\\'s interferometric principle is used to compute interior transmission traveltimes τpq from exterior transmission traveltimes τsp and τsq. Here, the exterior traveltimes are computed for sources s on a boundary B that encloses a volume V of interior points p and q. Once the exterior traveltimes are computed, no further ray tracing is needed to calculate the interior times τpq. Therefore this interferometric approach can be more efficient than explicitly computing interior traveltimes τpq by ray tracing. Moreover, the memory requirement of the traveltimes is reduced by one dimension, because the boundary B is of one fewer dimension than the volume V. An application of this approach is demonstrated with interbed multiple (IM) elimination. Here, the IMs in the observed data are predicted from the migration image and are subsequently removed by adaptive subtraction. This prediction is enabled by the knowledge of interior transmission traveltimes τpq computed according to Fermat\\'s interferometric principle. We denote this principle as the ‘traveltime holographic principle’, by analogy with the holographic principle in cosmology where information in a volume is encoded on the region\\'s boundary.

  6. Fermat's Principle Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, R. V.

    1991-01-01

    A principle is presented to show that, if the time of passage of light is expressible as a function of discrete variables, one may dispense with the more general method of the calculus of variations. The calculus of variations and the alternative are described. The phenomenon of mirage is discussed. (Author/KR)

  7. Principles of economics textbooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Poul Thøis

    2012-01-01

    Has the financial crisis already changed US principles of economics textbooks? Rather little has changed in individual textbooks, but taken as a whole ten of the best-selling textbooks suggest rather encompassing changes of core curriculum. A critical analysis of these changes shows how individual...

  8. Dictionary of scientific units including dimensionless numbers and scales

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jerrard, H.G; McNeill, D.B

    1992-01-01

    .... The text includes the most recently accepted values of all units. Several disciplines, which have in the past employed few scientific principles and the dictionary has been extended to include examples of these.

  9. The precautionary principle and pharmaceutical risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callréus, Torbjörn

    2005-01-01

    Although it is often vigorously contested and has several different formulations, the precautionary principle has in recent decades guided environmental policy making in the face of scientific uncertainty. Originating from a criticism of traditional risk assessment, the key element of the precautionary principle is the justification for acting in the face of uncertain knowledge about risks. In the light of its growing invocation in various areas that are related to public health and recently in relation to drug safety issues, this article presents an introductory review of the main elements of the precautionary principle and some arguments conveyed by its advocates and opponents. A comparison of the characteristics of pharmaceutical risk management and environmental policy making (i.e. the setting within which the precautionary principle evolved), indicates that several important differences exist. If believed to be of relevance, in order to avoid arbitrary and unpredictable decision making, both the interpretation and possible application of the precautionary principle need to be adapted to the conditions of pharmaceutical risk management.

  10. 38 CFR 51.43 - Per diem and drugs and medicines-principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... medicines-principles. 51.43 Section 51.43 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Per diem and drugs and medicines—principles. (a) As a condition for receiving payment of per diem... at the nursing home. Relevant cost principles are set forth in the Office of Management and Budget...

  11. Feminist Scholarship and Its Relevance for Political Engagement: The Test Case of Abortion in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Kamitsuka

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores how gender studies in academe, including in religious studies, might remain relevant to ongoing feminist political engagement.  I explore some specific dynamics of this challenge, using as my test case the issue of abortion in the U.S.  After discussing how three formative feminist principles (women’s experience as feminism’s starting point, the personal is political, and identity politics have shaped approaches to the abortion issue for feminist scholars in religion, I argue that ongoing critique, new theoretical perspectives, and attentiveness to subaltern voices are necessary for these foundational feminist principles to keep pace with fast-changing and complex societal dynamics relevant to women’s struggles for reproductive health and justice.  The essay concludes by proposing ‘natality’ as a helpful concept for future feminist theological and ethical thinking on the subject.

  12. Extremum principles for irreversible processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillert, M.; Agren, J.

    2006-01-01

    Hamilton's extremum principle is a powerful mathematical tool in classical mechanics. Onsager's extremum principle may play a similar role in irreversible thermodynamics and may also become a valuable tool. His principle may formally be regarded as a principle of maximum rate of entropy production but does not have a clear physical interpretation. Prigogine's principle of minimum rate of entropy production has a physical interpretation when it applies, but is not strictly valid except for a very special case

  13. Being Included and Excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Following the civil war of 1996–2006, there was a dramatic increase in the labor mobility of young men and the inclusion of young women in formal education, which led to the transformation of the political landscape of rural Nepal. Mobility and schooling represent a level of prestige that rural...... politics. It analyzes how formal education and mobility either challenge or reinforce traditional gendered norms which dictate a lowly position for young married women in the household and their absence from community politics. The article concludes that women are simultaneously excluded and included from...... community politics. On the one hand, their mobility and decision-making powers decrease with the increase in the labor mobility of men and their newly gained education is politically devalued when compared to the informal education that men gain through mobility, but on the other hand, schooling strengthens...

  14. Reciprocity principle in duct acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Y.-C.

    1979-01-01

    Various reciprocity relations in duct acoustics have been derived on the basis of the spatial reciprocity principle implied in Green's functions for linear waves. The derivation includes the reciprocity relations between mode conversion coefficients for reflection and transmission in nonuniform ducts, and the relation between the radiation of a mode from an arbitrarily terminated duct and the absorption of an externally incident plane wave by the duct. Such relations are well defined as long as the systems remain linear, regardless of acoustic properties of duct nonuniformities which cause the mode conversions.

  15. Basic safety principles for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear power plant safety requires a continuing quest for excellence. All individuals concerned should constantly be alert to opportunities to reduce risks to the lowest practicable level. The quest, however, is most likely to be fruitful if it is based on an understanding of the underlying objectives and principles of nuclear safety, and the way in which its aspects are interrelated. This report is an attempt to provide a logical framework for such an understanding. The proposed objectives and principles of nuclear safety are interconnected and must be taken as a whole; they do not constitute a menu from which selection can be made. The report takes account of current issues and developments. It includes the concept of safety objectives and the use of probabilistic safety assessment. Reliability targets for safety systems are discussed. The concept of a 'safety culture' is crucial. Attention has been paid to the need for planning for accident management. The report contains objectives and principles. The objectives state what is to be achieved; the principles state how to achieve it. In each case, the basic principle is stated as briefly as possible. The accompanying discussion comments on the reasons for the principle and its importance, as well as exceptions, the extent of coverage and any necessary clarification. The discussion is as important as the principle it augments. 4 figs

  16. Making Rainforests Relevant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustbader, Sara

    1995-01-01

    Describes a program for teaching about tropical rainforests in a concrete way using what's outside the door. This activity uses an eastern deciduous hardwood forest as an example. Step-by-step instructions include introductory activities, plus descriptions of stations in the forest to be visited. Resources include books, audio-visual materials,…

  17. Enhancing the Therapy Experience Using Principles of Video Game Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkins, John Wm; Brackenbury, Tim; Krause, Miriam; Haviland, Allison

    2016-02-01

    This article considers the potential benefits that applying design principles from contemporary video games may have on enhancing therapy experiences. Six principles of video game design are presented, and their relevance for enriching clinical experiences is discussed. The motivational and learning benefits of each design principle have been discussed in the education literature as having positive impacts on student motivation and learning and are related here to aspects of clinical practice. The essential experience principle suggests connecting all aspects of the experience around a central emotion or cognitive connection. The discovery principle promotes indirect learning in focused environments. The risk-taking principle addresses the uncertainties clients face when attempting newly learned skills in novel situations. The generalization principle encourages multiple opportunities for skill transfer. The reward system principle directly relates to the scaffolding of frequent and varied feedback in treatment. Last, the identity principle can assist clients in using their newly learned communication skills to redefine self-perceptions. These principles highlight areas for research and interventions that may be used to reinforce or advance current practice.

  18. User perspectives on relevance criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maglaughlin, Kelly L.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2002-01-01

    , partially relevant, or not relevant to their information need; and explained their decisions in an interview. Analysis revealed 29 criteria, discussed positively and negatively, that were used by the participants when selecting passages that contributed or detracted from a document's relevance......This study investigates the use of criteria to assess relevant, partially relevant, and not-relevant documents. Study participants identified passages within 20 document representations that they used to make relevance judgments; judged each document representation as a whole to be relevant...... matter, thought catalyst), full text (e.g., audience, novelty, type, possible content, utility), journal/publisher (e.g., novelty, main focus, perceived quality), and personal (e.g., competition, time requirements). Results further indicate that multiple criteria are used when making relevant, partially...

  19. Studies Relevent to Catalytic Activation Co & other small Molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, Peter C

    2005-02-22

    Detailed annual and triannual reports describing the progress accomplished during the tenure of this grant were filed with the Program Manager for Catalysis at the Office of Basic Energy Sciences. To avoid unnecessary duplication, the present report will provide a brief overview of the research areas that were sponsored by this grant and list the resulting publications and theses based on this DOE supported research. The scientific personnel participating in (and trained by) this grant's research are also listed. Research carried out under this DOE grant was largely concerned with the mechanisms of the homogeneous catalytic and photocatalytic activation of small molecules such as carbon monoxide, dihydrogen and various hydrocarbons. Much of the more recent effort has focused on the dynamics and mechanisms of reactions relevant to substrate carbonylations by homogeneous organometallic catalysts. A wide range of modern investigative techniques were employed, including quantitative fast reaction methodologies such as time-resolved optical (TRO) and time-resolved infrared (TRIR) spectroscopy and stopped flow kinetics. Although somewhat diverse, this research falls within the scope of the long-term objective of applying quantitative techniques to elucidate the dynamics and understand the principles of mechanisms relevant to the selective and efficient catalytic conversions of fundamental feedstocks to higher value materials.

  20. The principles of computer hardware

    CERN Document Server

    Clements, Alan

    2000-01-01

    Principles of Computer Hardware, now in its third edition, provides a first course in computer architecture or computer organization for undergraduates. The book covers the core topics of such a course, including Boolean algebra and logic design; number bases and binary arithmetic; the CPU; assembly language; memory systems; and input/output methods and devices. It then goes on to cover the related topics of computer peripherals such as printers; the hardware aspects of the operating system; and data communications, and hence provides a broader overview of the subject. Its readable, tutorial-based approach makes it an accessible introduction to the subject. The book has extensive in-depth coverage of two microprocessors, one of which (the 68000) is widely used in education. All chapters in the new edition have been updated. Major updates include: powerful software simulations of digital systems to accompany the chapters on digital design; a tutorial-based introduction to assembly language, including many exam...

  1. Principles of geodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Scheidegger, Adrian E

    1982-01-01

    Geodynamics is commonly thought to be one of the subjects which provide the basis for understanding the origin of the visible surface features of the Earth: the latter are usually assumed as having been built up by geodynamic forces originating inside the Earth ("endogenetic" processes) and then as having been degrad­ ed by geomorphological agents originating in the atmosphere and ocean ("exogenetic" agents). The modem view holds that the sequence of events is not as neat as it was once thought to be, and that, in effect, both geodynamic and geomorphological processes act simultaneously ("Principle of Antagonism"); however, the division of theoretical geology into the principles of geodynamics and those of theoretical geomorphology seems to be useful for didactic purposes. It has therefore been maintained in the present writer's works. This present treatise on geodynamics is the first part of the author's treatment of theoretical geology, the treatise on Theoretical Geomorphology (also published by the Sprin...

  2. Principles of systems science

    CERN Document Server

    Mobus, George E

    2015-01-01

    This pioneering text provides a comprehensive introduction to systems structure, function, and modeling as applied in all fields of science and engineering. Systems understanding is increasingly recognized as a key to a more holistic education and greater problem solving skills, and is also reflected in the trend toward interdisciplinary approaches to research on complex phenomena. The subject of systems science, as a basis for understanding the components and drivers of phenomena at all scales, should be viewed with the same importance as a traditional liberal arts education. Principles of Systems Science contains many graphs, illustrations, side bars, examples, and problems to enhance understanding. From basic principles of organization, complexity, abstract representations, and behavior (dynamics) to deeper aspects such as the relations between information, knowledge, computation, and system control, to higher order aspects such as auto-organization, emergence and evolution, the book provides an integrated...

  3. Common principles and multiculturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, Farzaneh; Larijani, Bagher

    2009-01-01

    Judgment on rightness and wrongness of beliefs and behaviors is a main issue in bioethics. Over centuries, big philosophers and ethicists have been discussing the suitable tools to determine which act is morally sound and which one is not. Emerging the contemporary bioethics in the West has resulted in a misconception that absolute westernized principles would be appropriate tools for ethical decision making in different cultures. We will discuss this issue by introducing a clinical case. Considering various cultural beliefs around the world, though it is not logical to consider all of them ethically acceptable, we can gather on some general fundamental principles instead of going to the extremes of relativism and absolutism. Islamic teachings, according to the presented evidence in this paper, fall in with this idea.

  4. Principles of Stellar Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Glindemann, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, stellar interferometry has developed from a specialist tool to a mainstream observing technique, attracting scientists whose research benefits from milliarcsecond angular resolution. Stellar interferometry has become part of the astronomer’s toolbox, complementing single-telescope observations by providing unique capabilities that will advance astronomical research. This carefully written book is intended to provide a solid understanding of the principles of stellar interferometry to students starting an astronomical research project in this field or to develop instruments and to astronomers using interferometry but who are not interferometrists per se. Illustrated by excellent drawings and calculated graphs the imaging process in stellar interferometers is explained starting from first principles on light propagation and diffraction wave propagation through turbulence is described in detail using Kolmogorov statistics the impact of turbulence on the imaging process is discussed both f...

  5. Principles of photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jia-Ming

    2016-01-01

    With this self-contained and comprehensive text, students will gain a detailed understanding of the fundamental concepts and major principles of photonics. Assuming only a basic background in optics, readers are guided through key topics such as the nature of optical fields, the properties of optical materials, and the principles of major photonic functions regarding the generation, propagation, coupling, interference, amplification, modulation, and detection of optical waves or signals. Numerous examples and problems are provided throughout to enhance understanding, and a solutions manual containing detailed solutions and explanations is available online for instructors. This is the ideal resource for electrical engineering and physics undergraduates taking introductory, single-semester or single-quarter courses in photonics, providing them with the knowledge and skills needed to progress to more advanced courses on photonic devices, systems and applications.

  6. Common Principles and Multiculturalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, Farzaneh; Larijani, Bagher

    2009-01-01

    Judgment on rightness and wrongness of beliefs and behaviors is a main issue in bioethics. Over centuries, big philosophers and ethicists have been discussing the suitable tools to determine which act is morally sound and which one is not. Emerging the contemporary bioethics in the West has resulted in a misconception that absolute westernized principles would be appropriate tools for ethical decision making in different cultures. We will discuss this issue by introducing a clinical case. Considering various cultural beliefs around the world, though it is not logical to consider all of them ethically acceptable, we can gather on some general fundamental principles instead of going to the extremes of relativism and absolutism. Islamic teachings, according to the presented evidence in this paper, fall in with this idea. PMID:23908720

  7. Core principles of evolutionary medicine: A Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunspan, Daniel Z; Nesse, Randolph M; Barnes, M Elizabeth; Brownell, Sara E

    2018-01-01

    Evolutionary medicine is a rapidly growing field that uses the principles of evolutionary biology to better understand, prevent and treat disease, and that uses studies of disease to advance basic knowledge in evolutionary biology. Over-arching principles of evolutionary medicine have been described in publications, but our study is the first to systematically elicit core principles from a diverse panel of experts in evolutionary medicine. These principles should be useful to advance recent recommendations made by The Association of American Medical Colleges and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute to make evolutionary thinking a core competency for pre-medical education. The Delphi method was used to elicit and validate a list of core principles for evolutionary medicine. The study included four surveys administered in sequence to 56 expert panelists. The initial open-ended survey created a list of possible core principles; the three subsequent surveys winnowed the list and assessed the accuracy and importance of each principle. Fourteen core principles elicited at least 80% of the panelists to agree or strongly agree that they were important core principles for evolutionary medicine. These principles over-lapped with concepts discussed in other articles discussing key concepts in evolutionary medicine. This set of core principles will be helpful for researchers and instructors in evolutionary medicine. We recommend that evolutionary medicine instructors use the list of core principles to construct learning goals. Evolutionary medicine is a young field, so this list of core principles will likely change as the field develops further.

  8. Principles of (Behavioral) Economics

    OpenAIRE

    David Laibson; John A. List

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral economics has become an important and integrated component of modern economics. Behavioral economists embrace the core principles of economics—optimization and equilibrium—and seek to develop and extend those ideas to make them more empirically accurate. Behavioral models assume that economic actors try to pick the best feasible option and those actors sometimes make mistakes. Behavioral ideas should be incorporated throughout the first-year undergraduate course. Instructors should...

  9. Principles of fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreider, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    This book is an introduction on fluid mechanics incorporating computer applications. Topics covered are as follows: brief history; what is a fluid; two classes of fluids: liquids and gases; the continuum model of a fluid; methods of analyzing fluid flows; important characteristics of fluids; fundamentals and equations of motion; fluid statics; dimensional analysis and the similarity principle; laminar internal flows; ideal flow; external laminar and channel flows; turbulent flow; compressible flow; fluid flow measurements

  10. Principles of electrical safety

    CERN Document Server

    Sutherland, Peter E

    2015-01-01

    Principles of Electrical Safety discusses current issues in electrical safety, which are accompanied by series' of practical applications that can be used by practicing professionals, graduate students, and researchers. .  Provides extensive introductions to important topics in electrical safety Comprehensive overview of inductance, resistance, and capacitance as applied to the human body Serves as a preparatory guide for today's practicing engineers

  11. The uncertainty principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, Hans.

    1991-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the uncertainty principle (UP). The UP is one of the most characteristic points of differences between quantum and classical mechanics. The starting point of this thesis is the work of Niels Bohr. Besides the discussion the work is also analyzed. For the discussion of the different aspects of the UP the formalism of Davies and Ludwig is used instead of the more commonly used formalism of Neumann and Dirac. (author). 214 refs.; 23 figs

  12. PREFERENCE, PRINCIPLE AND PRACTICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Morten; Bro, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Legitimacy has become a central issue in journalism, since the understanding of what journalism is and who journalists are has been challenged by developments both within and outside the newsrooms. Nonetheless, little scholarly work has been conducted to aid conceptual clarification as to how jou...... distinct, but interconnected categories*preference, principle, and practice. Through this framework, historical attempts to justify journalism and journalists are described and discussed in the light of the present challenges for the profession....

  13. Advertisement without Ethical Principles?

    OpenAIRE

    Wojciech Słomski

    2007-01-01

    The article replies to the question, whether the advertisement can exist without ethical principles or ethics should be the basis of the advertisement. One can say that the ethical opinion of the advertisement does not depend on content and the form of advertising content exclusively, but also on recipientís consciousness. The advertisement appeals to the emotions more than to the intellect, thus restricting the area of conscious and based on rational premises choice, so it is morally bad. It...

  14. General Principles Governing Liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper contains a brief review of the basic principles which govern the special regime of liability and compensation for nuclear damage originating on nuclear installations, in particular the strict and exclusive liability of the nuclear operator, the provision of a financial security to cover this liability and the limits applicable both in amount and in time. The paper also reviews the most important international agreements currently in force which constitute the foundation of this special regime. (author)

  15. The Principle of Proportionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Morten; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    2005-01-01

    Recent policy initiatives within the harmonization of European company laws have promoted a so-called "principle of proportionality" through proposals that regulate mechanisms opposing a proportional distribution of ownership and control. We scrutinize the foundation for these initiatives...... in relationship to the process of harmonization of the European capital markets.JEL classifications: G30, G32, G34 and G38Keywords: Ownership Structure, Dual Class Shares, Pyramids, EU companylaws....

  16. Common Principles and Multiculturalism

    OpenAIRE

    Zahedi, Farzaneh; Larijani, Bagher

    2009-01-01

    Judgment on rightness and wrongness of beliefs and behaviors is a main issue in bioethics. Over centuries, big philosophers and ethicists have been discussing the suitable tools to determine which act is morally sound and which one is not. Emerging the contemporary bioethics in the West has resulted in a misconception that absolute westernized principles would be appropriate tools for ethical decision making in different cultures. We will discuss this issue by introducing a clinical case. Con...

  17. The Maquet principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, R.B.; Stassi, J.; Karasick, D.

    1985-01-01

    Anterior displacement of the tibial tubercle is a well-accepted orthopedic procedure in the treatment of certain patellofemoral disorders. The radiologic appearance of surgical procedures utilizing the Maquet principle has not been described in the radiologic literature. Familiarity with the physiologic and biochemical basis for the procedure and its postoperative appearance is necessary for appropriate roentgenographic evaluation and the radiographic recognition of complications. (orig.)

  18. Principles of lake sedimentology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janasson, L.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive outline on the basic sedimentological principles for lakes, and focuses on environmental aspects and matters related to lake management and control-on lake ecology rather than lake geology. This is a guide for those who plan, perform and evaluate lake sedimentological investigations. Contents abridged: Lake types and sediment types. Sedimentation in lakes and water dynamics. Lake bottom dynamics. Sediment dynamics and sediment age. Sediments in aquatic pollution control programmes. Subject index

  19. Principles of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Nils J

    1980-01-01

    A classic introduction to artificial intelligence intended to bridge the gap between theory and practice, Principles of Artificial Intelligence describes fundamental AI ideas that underlie applications such as natural language processing, automatic programming, robotics, machine vision, automatic theorem proving, and intelligent data retrieval. Rather than focusing on the subject matter of the applications, the book is organized around general computational concepts involving the kinds of data structures used, the types of operations performed on the data structures, and the properties of th

  20. Economic uncertainty principle?

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Harin

    2006-01-01

    The economic principle of (hidden) uncertainty is presented. New probability formulas are offered. Examples of solutions of three types of fundamental problems are reviewed.; Principe d'incertitude économique? Le principe économique d'incertitude (cachée) est présenté. De nouvelles formules de chances sont offertes. Les exemples de solutions des trois types de problèmes fondamentaux sont reconsidérés.

  1. Structural integrity of LMFBRs including leak before break

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinzens, K.; Laue, H.; Hosemann, B.

    1990-01-01

    Th German Basis Safety Concept is an approach which allows the possibility of catastrophic failures to be excluded. It was developed in Germany to render the probabilistic approach unnecessary for safety cases relating to nuclear power plants. The process of evaluation started in 1972, and in 1979 the Basis Safety Concept was officially published and thus became a legal requirement for LWR plants. With appropriate modifications in regard of the particular features of LMFBR, this concept has also been applied to SNR 300. The 'Structural Integrity Demonstration Concept' of SNR 300 is based on five principles: Principle of quality by design and fabrication, Principle of multiple examination, Principle of worst case consideration, Principle of operating surveillance and documentation, Principle of verification and continuous development. The same principles are taken over for SNR 2. The specific requirements on the components relevant to safety have to be defined at an early stage so that the components can be designed appropriately to the feasibility of the measures required by the concept. (orig.)

  2. 3D bioprinting for reconstructive surgery: Principles, applications and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessop, Zita M; Al-Sabah, Ayesha; Gardiner, Matthew D; Combellack, Emman; Hawkins, Karl; Whitaker, Iain S

    2017-09-01

    Despite the increasing laboratory research in the growing field of 3D bioprinting, there are few reports of successful translation into surgical practice. This review outlines the principles of 3D bioprinting including software and hardware processes, biocompatible technological platforms and suitable bioinks. The advantages of 3D bioprinting over traditional tissue engineering techniques in assembling cells, biomaterials and biomolecules in a spatially controlled manner to reproduce native tissue macro-, micro- and nanoarchitectures are discussed, together with an overview of current progress in bioprinting tissue types relevant for plastic and reconstructive surgery. If successful, this platform technology has the potential to biomanufacture autologous tissue for reconstruction, obviating the need for donor sites or immunosuppression. The biological, technological and regulatory challenges are highlighted, with strategies to overcome these challenges by using an integrated approach from the fields of engineering, biomaterial science, cell biology and reconstructive microsurgery. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Molecular automata assembly: principles and simulation of bacterial membrane construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahoz-Beltra, R

    1997-01-01

    The motivation to understand the basic rules and principles governing molecular self-assembly may be relevant to explain in the context of molecular biology the self-organization and biological functions exhibited within cells. This paper presents a molecular automata model to simulate molecular self-assembly introducing the concept of molecular programming to simulate the biological function or operation performed by an assembled molecular state machine. The method is illustrated modelling Escherichia coli membrane construction including the assembly and operation of ATP synthase as well as the assembly of the bacterial flagellar motor. Flagellar motor operation was simulated using a different approach based on state machine definition used in virtual reality systems. The proposed methodology provides a modelling framework for simulation of biological functions performed by cellular components and other biological systems suitable to be modelled as molecular state machines.

  4. Harm reduction principles for healthcare settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Hawk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Harm reduction refers to interventions aimed at reducing the negative effects of health behaviors without necessarily extinguishing the problematic health behaviors completely. The vast majority of the harm reduction literature focuses on the harms of drug use and on specific harm reduction strategies, such as syringe exchange, rather than on the harm reduction philosophy as a whole. Given that a harm reduction approach can address other risk behaviors that often occur alongside drug use and that harm reduction principles have been applied to harms such as sex work, eating disorders, and tobacco use, a natural evolution of the harm reduction philosophy is to extend it to other health risk behaviors and to a broader healthcare audience. Methods Building on the extant literature, we used data from in-depth qualitative interviews with 23 patients and 17 staff members from an HIV clinic in the USA to describe harm reduction principles for use in healthcare settings. Results We defined six principles of harm reduction and generalized them for use in healthcare settings with patients beyond those who use illicit substances. The principles include humanism, pragmatism, individualism, autonomy, incrementalism, and accountability without termination. For each of these principles, we present a definition, a description of how healthcare providers can deliver interventions informed by the principle, and examples of how each principle may be applied in the healthcare setting. Conclusion This paper is one of the firsts to provide a comprehensive set of principles for universal harm reduction as a conceptual approach for healthcare provision. Applying harm reduction principles in healthcare settings may improve clinical care outcomes given that the quality of the provider-patient relationship is known to impact health outcomes and treatment adherence. Harm reduction can be a universal precaution applied to all individuals regardless of

  5. Harm reduction principles for healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Mary; Coulter, Robert W S; Egan, James E; Fisk, Stuart; Reuel Friedman, M; Tula, Monique; Kinsky, Suzanne

    2017-10-24

    Harm reduction refers to interventions aimed at reducing the negative effects of health behaviors without necessarily extinguishing the problematic health behaviors completely. The vast majority of the harm reduction literature focuses on the harms of drug use and on specific harm reduction strategies, such as syringe exchange, rather than on the harm reduction philosophy as a whole. Given that a harm reduction approach can address other risk behaviors that often occur alongside drug use and that harm reduction principles have been applied to harms such as sex work, eating disorders, and tobacco use, a natural evolution of the harm reduction philosophy is to extend it to other health risk behaviors and to a broader healthcare audience. Building on the extant literature, we used data from in-depth qualitative interviews with 23 patients and 17 staff members from an HIV clinic in the USA to describe harm reduction principles for use in healthcare settings. We defined six principles of harm reduction and generalized them for use in healthcare settings with patients beyond those who use illicit substances. The principles include humanism, pragmatism, individualism, autonomy, incrementalism, and accountability without termination. For each of these principles, we present a definition, a description of how healthcare providers can deliver interventions informed by the principle, and examples of how each principle may be applied in the healthcare setting. This paper is one of the firsts to provide a comprehensive set of principles for universal harm reduction as a conceptual approach for healthcare provision. Applying harm reduction principles in healthcare settings may improve clinical care outcomes given that the quality of the provider-patient relationship is known to impact health outcomes and treatment adherence. Harm reduction can be a universal precaution applied to all individuals regardless of their disclosure of negative health behaviors, given that health

  6. Principled Missing Data Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Kyle M; Little, Todd D

    2018-04-01

    We review a number of issues regarding missing data treatments for intervention and prevention researchers. Many of the common missing data practices in prevention research are still, unfortunately, ill-advised (e.g., use of listwise and pairwise deletion, insufficient use of auxiliary variables). Our goal is to promote better practice in the handling of missing data. We review the current state of missing data methodology and recent missing data reporting in prevention research. We describe antiquated, ad hoc missing data treatments and discuss their limitations. We discuss two modern, principled missing data treatments: multiple imputation and full information maximum likelihood, and we offer practical tips on how to best employ these methods in prevention research. The principled missing data treatments that we discuss are couched in terms of how they improve causal and statistical inference in the prevention sciences. Our recommendations are firmly grounded in missing data theory and well-validated statistical principles for handling the missing data issues that are ubiquitous in biosocial and prevention research. We augment our broad survey of missing data analysis with references to more exhaustive resources.

  7. Principles for enhancing professionalism of nuclear personnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-03-01

    The management principles in this publication were developed by a committee of senior utility officials with assistance by the staff of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) and with input from virtually all U.S. nuclear utilities. The principles are aimed at creating an environment within a nuclear power plant that promotes a healthy respect for the unique technology that nuclear electric power represents and, thus, to promote great care and conservative, thoughtful decision-making by the nuclear plant staff. The scope of the principles includes all nuclear personnel and gives guidance in the selection and development of management and supervisory personnel and other key individuals in the areas of operations, maintenance, technical support and engineering. Utility managers are encouraged to make in-depth comparisons between these principles and their day-to-day policies and practices, and to use such efforts as opportunities to communicate their organization's management philosophy to all nuclear personnel.

  8. Principles for enhancing professionalism of nuclear personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The management principles in this publication were developed by a committee of senior utility officials with assistance by the staff of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) and with input from virtually all U.S. nuclear utilities. The principles are aimed at creating an environment within a nuclear power plant that promotes a healthy respect for the unique technology that nuclear electric power represents and, thus, to promote great care and conservative, thoughtful decision-making by the nuclear plant staff. The scope of the principles includes all nuclear personnel and gives guidance in the selection and development of management and supervisory personnel and other key individuals in the areas of operations, maintenance, technical support and engineering. Utility managers are encouraged to make in-depth comparisons between these principles and their day-to-day policies and practices, and to use such efforts as opportunities to communicate their organization's management philosophy to all nuclear personnel

  9. On the variational principle for the equations of perfect fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serre, D.

    1993-01-01

    One gives a new version of the variational principle δL = 0, L being the usual Lagrangian, for the perfect fluid mechanics. It is formally equivalent to the well-known principle but it gives the first rigorous derivation of the conservation laws (momentum and energy), including the discontinuous case (shock waves, contact discontinuities). Thanks to a new formulation of the constraints, we do not involve any Lagrange multiplier, which in previous works were neither physically relevant, since they do not appear in the Euler equations, nor mathematically relevant. We even give a variational interpretation of the entropy inequality when shock waves occur. Our method covers all aspects of the perfect fluids, including stationary and unstationary motion, compressible and incompressible fluids, axisymmetric case. When the velocity field admits a stream function, the variational principle gives rise to extremal points of the Lagrangian on various infinite dimensional manifolds. For a suitable choice of this manifold, the flow is itself periodic, that is all the fluid particles have a periodic motion with the same period. The flow describes a closed geodesic on some group of diffeomorphisms. (author). 10 refs

  10. The relevance of surveying content in mining engineering education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tomi Oshokoya

    The paper will highlight the surveying content that is relevant to the mining engineering ... This article attempts to answer the question as to what ... mechanical and electrical engineering, surveying, marketing and financial .... an overview of what surveying is, its principles, surveying instrumentation and surveying.

  11. Paris agreement in the light of the objectives and principles of the contemporary policy and environmental law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todić Dragoljub

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The author points to the overall context of the discussion about the problems related to Climate change. The paper analyzes the provisions of the Paris Agreement, adopted on the 21st Conference of the Parties of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (Paris, December, 2015. The overall context of the discussion is determined by the content and significance of the objectives and principles defined in the Paris Agreement in relation to the goals and principles of the contemporary policy and environmental law in general. Particular emphasis is given to the place and importance of the objectives related to human rights (the right to a healthy environment and sustainable development. The central part of the paper examines the significance of the objectives and principles in the field of the climate change that are contained in the provisions of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change with the Kyoto Protocol and other relevant international agreements relevant to climate change that were adopted prior to the Paris Agreement. Further on, the provisions of the Paris Agreement are analyzed, and in particular the parts relating to the objectives and principles. The last part of the paper gives an overview of the relevance of the solutions contained in the Paris Agreement for the Republic of Serbia. Paper provides an overview of the basic strategic and normative elements of national policy in the field of climate change, including the question of objectives and principles. In addition to that it considers the thesis that Paris agreement, aside from the elements of the continuity as the successor of the Kyoto protocol, contains a new element regarding goals and principles of international community's activities in the climate change field.

  12. "Essential Principles of Economics:" A Hypermedia Textbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCain, Roger A.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses an electronic textbook called "Essential Principles of Economics." Explains that economic concepts are found by following links from the table of contents, while each chapter includes both expository information and interactive material including online multiple-choice drill questions. States that the textbook is a "work…

  13. Principles and Ethics in Scientific Communication in Biomedicine

    OpenAIRE

    Donev, Doncho

    2013-01-01

    Introduction and aim: To present the basic principles and standards of scientific communication and writing a paper, to indicate the importance of honesty and ethical approach to research and publication of results in scientific journals, as well as the need for continuing education in the principles and ethics in science and publication in biomedicine. Methods: An analysis of relevant materials and documents, sources from the internet and published literature and personal experience and obse...

  14. Experiments with positive, negative and topical relevance feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, R.; Kamps, J.; Li, R.; Hiemstra, D.

    2008-01-01

    This document contains a description of experiments for the 2008 Relevance Feedback track. We experiment with different amounts of feedback, including negative relevance feedback. Feedback is implemented using massive weighted query expansion. Parsimonious query expansion using Dirichlet smoothing

  15. Sustainable development and the nature of environmental legal principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Verschuuren

    2006-05-01

    . Principles can become rules over time, when directly applicable in concrete cases. The nine functions are following: 1. principles can enhance the normative power of statutory rules; 2. principles can help to fill in open or unclear statutory rules; 3. principles can increase legal certainty and enhance the legitimacy of decision-making; 4. principles form the basis for new statutory rules; 5. principles give guidance to self-regulation; 6. principles create flexibility in the law; 7. principles help to implement international obligations; 8. principles stimulate the integration of environmental considerations into other policy fields; 9. principles are necessary to pursue an ideal. Principles thus influence the meaning of a rule but, at the same time, the application of a rule in a concrete case gives the relevant principle a clearer meaning than the principle has on its own. This goes for rules in various legal documents, such as acts and regulations, as well as transnational regulations, and self regulatory rules. Principles thus are dynamic beacons in a wild ocean of ever changing concrete environmental rules. Although the underlying ideal of sustainable development has a rather anthropocentric character, the danger of influencing environmental legal principles (and through principles legal rules and policies as well in a highly anthropocentric way is small. Firstly, because man is an inseparable part of nature and is very much dependent on balanced and intact ecosystems, especially when future generations are considered as well. Secondly, there is a moral relationship between man and nature. Natural objects have an inherent value: not destroying these objects contributes to the virtue of man. The ecological aspects of the ideal of sustainable development can be sufficiently advanced in decision-making processes by governmental authorities and courts, because most principles that rule environmental decision-making processes create enough room to take into account the

  16. Principles of Sociology in Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Michael D.; Andrews, James G.; Larsen, Jordan A.

    2017-01-01

    Systems engineering involves both the integration of the system and the integration of the disciplines which develop and operate the system. Integrating the disciplines is a sociological effort to bring together different groups, often with different terminology, to achieve a common goal, the system. The focus for the systems engineer is information flow through the organization, between the disciplines, to ensure the system is developed and operated with all relevant information informing system decisions. Robert K. Merton studied the sociological principles of the sciences and the sociological principles he developed apply to systems engineering. Concepts such as specification of ignorance, common terminology, opportunity structures, role-sets, and the reclama (reconsideration) process are all important sociological approaches that should be employed by the systems engineer. In bringing the disciplines together, the systems engineer must also be wary of social ambivalence, social anomie, social dysfunction, insider-outsider behavior, unintended consequences, and the self-fulfilling prophecy. These sociological principles provide the systems engineer with key approaches to manage the information flow through the organization as the disciplines are integrated and share their information. This also helps identify key sociological barriers to information flow through the organization. This paper will discuss this theoretical basis for the application of sociological principles to systems engineering.

  17. Efficiency principles of consulting entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Moroz Yustina S.; Drozdov Igor N.

    2015-01-01

    The article reviews the primary goals and problems of consulting entrepreneurship. The principles defining efficiency of entrepreneurship in the field of consulting are generalized. The special attention is given to the importance of ethical principles of conducting consulting entrepreneurship activity.

  18. Algorithmic Principles of Mathematical Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faigle, Ulrich; Kern, Walter; Still, Georg

    2002-01-01

    Algorithmic Principles of Mathematical Programming investigates the mathematical structures and principles underlying the design of efficient algorithms for optimization problems. Recent advances in algorithmic theory have shown that the traditionally separate areas of discrete optimization, linear

  19. The Principle-Based Method of Practical Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielthenner, Georg

    2017-09-01

    This paper is about the methodology of doing practical ethics. There is a variety of methods employed in ethics. One of them is the principle-based approach, which has an established place in ethical reasoning. In everyday life, we often judge the rightness and wrongness of actions by their conformity to principles, and the appeal to principles plays a significant role in practical ethics, too. In this paper, I try to provide a better understanding of the nature of principle-based reasoning. To accomplish this, I show in the first section that these principles can be applied to cases in a meaningful and sufficiently precise way. The second section discusses the question how relevant applying principles is to the resolution of ethical issues. This depends on their nature. I argue that the principles under consideration in this paper should be interpreted as presumptive principles and I conclude that although they cannot be expected to bear the weight of definitely resolving ethical problems, these principles can nevertheless play a considerable role in ethical research.

  20. The Playtime Principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sifa, Rafet; Bauckhage, Christian; Drachen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    be derived from this large-scale analysis, notably that playtime as a function of time, across the thousands of games in the dataset, and irrespective of local differences in the playtime frequency distribution, can be modeled using the same model: the Wei bull distribution. This suggests...... that there are fundamental properties governing player engagement as it evolves over time, which we here refer to as the Playtime Principle. Additionally, the analysis shows that there are distinct clusters, or archetypes, in the playtime frequency distributions of the investigated games. These archetypal groups correspond...

  1. Complex Correspondence Principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, Carl M.; Meisinger, Peter N.; Hook, Daniel W.; Wang Qinghai

    2010-01-01

    Quantum mechanics and classical mechanics are distinctly different theories, but the correspondence principle states that quantum particles behave classically in the limit of high quantum number. In recent years much research has been done on extending both quantum and classical mechanics into the complex domain. These complex extensions continue to exhibit a correspondence, and this correspondence becomes more pronounced in the complex domain. The association between complex quantum mechanics and complex classical mechanics is subtle and demonstrating this relationship requires the use of asymptotics beyond all orders.

  2. RFID design principles

    CERN Document Server

    Lehpamer, Harvey

    2012-01-01

    This revised edition of the Artech House bestseller, RFID Design Principles, serves as an up-to-date and comprehensive introduction to the subject. The second edition features numerous updates and brand new and expanded material on emerging topics such as the medical applications of RFID and new ethical challenges in the field. This practical book offers you a detailed understanding of RFID design essentials, key applications, and important management issues. The book explores the role of RFID technology in supply chain management, intelligent building design, transportation systems, military

  3. Principles of Uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Kadane, Joseph B

    2011-01-01

    An intuitive and mathematical introduction to subjective probability and Bayesian statistics. An accessible, comprehensive guide to the theory of Bayesian statistics, Principles of Uncertainty presents the subjective Bayesian approach, which has played a pivotal role in game theory, economics, and the recent boom in Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. Both rigorous and friendly, the book contains: Introductory chapters examining each new concept or assumption Just-in-time mathematics -- the presentation of ideas just before they are applied Summary and exercises at the end of each chapter Discus

  4. On Weak Markov's Principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlenbach, Ulrich Wilhelm

    2002-01-01

    We show that the so-called weak Markov's principle (WMP) which states that every pseudo-positive real number is positive is underivable in E-HA + AC. Since allows one to formalize (atl eastl arge parts of) Bishop's constructive mathematics, this makes it unlikely that WMP can be proved within...... the framework of Bishop-style mathematics (which has been open for about 20 years). The underivability even holds if the ine.ective schema of full comprehension (in all types) for negated formulas (in particular for -free formulas) is added, which allows one to derive the law of excluded middle...

  5. Principles of thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufman, Myron

    2002-01-01

    Ideal for one- or two-semester courses that assume elementary knowledge of calculus, This text presents the fundamental concepts of thermodynamics and applies these to problems dealing with properties of materials, phase transformations, chemical reactions, solutions and surfaces. The author utilizes principles of statistical mechanics to illustrate key concepts from a microscopic perspective, as well as develop equations of kinetic theory. The book provides end-of-chapter question and problem sets, some using Mathcad™ and Mathematica™; a useful glossary containing important symbols, definitions, and units; and appendices covering multivariable calculus and valuable numerical methods.

  6. Principles of fluorescence techniques

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence techniques are being used and applied increasingly in academics and industry. The Principles of Fluorescence Techniques course will outline the basic concepts of fluorescence techniques and the successful utilization of the currently available commercial instrumentation. The course is designed for students who utilize fluorescence techniques and instrumentation and for researchers and industrial scientists who wish to deepen their knowledge of fluorescence applications. Key scientists in the field will deliver theoretical lectures. The lectures will be complemented by the direct utilization of steady-state and lifetime fluorescence instrumentation and confocal microscopy for FLIM and FRET applications provided by leading companies.

  7. Provincial responsibility for carbon emissions in China under different principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Youguo

    2015-01-01

    By applying a multi-regional input–output model, the study compares the provincial responsibility for carbon emissions and provincial carbon multipliers in China under seven responsibility-allocating principles, including three basic principles, the production, income and consumption principles, and four shared responsibility principles, the income-weighted, consumption weighted, comprehensive, and weighted comprehensive principles. Empirical results indicate that carbon multipliers of provinces under these principles are significantly different from one another. The carbon multipliers of provinces with higher ratios of carbon intensive sectors in their outputs are also larger. At the same time, the carbon multipliers of the same sector in the provinces are significantly different from one another. Changing the principle causes significant changes in the responsibility for carbon emissions of some provinces, but only slight changes in the responsibilities of some other provinces. However, the responsibilities of provinces with large economic sizes (output) are always the largest, whereas provinces with the smallest economic sizes are always the smallest regardless of the principles. Further, this study proposes a series of regional policies for carbon mitigation according to provincial carbon multipliers and responsibility allocation features under the different principles. - Highlights: • We link regional environmental responsibility to seven benefit principles. • We analyze provincial responsibility for carbon emissions in China. • We also report provincial carbon multipliers under different principles. • We compare the seven principles from the regional perspective. • Policy implications of the study are discussed.

  8. Reframing conceptual physics: Improving relevance to elementary education and sonography majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFazia, David Gregory

    This study outlines the steps taken to reframe the Waves and Periodicity unit within a conceptual physics course. Beyond this unit reframing process, this paper explores the activities that made up the reframed unit and how each was developed and revised. The unit was reframed to improve relevance of the activities to the Elementary Education and Diagnostic Medical Sonography majors who make up the bulk of the course roster. The unit was reframed around ten design principles that were built on best practices from the literature, survey responses, and focused interviews. These principles support the selection of a biology-integrated themed approach to teaching physics. This is done through active and highly kinesthetic learning across three realms of human experience: physical, social, and cognitive. The unit materials were designed around making connections to students' future careers while requiring students to take progressively more responsibility in activities and assessments. Several support strategies are employed across these activities and assessments, including an energy-first, guided-inquiry approach to concept scaffolding and accommodations for diverse learners. Survey responses were solicited from physics instructors experienced with this population, Elementary Education and Sonography program advisors, and curriculum design, learning strategies, and educational technology experts. The reframed unit was reviewed by doctoral-level science education experts and revised to further improve the depth and transparency with which the design principles reframe the unit activities. The reframed unit contains a full unit plan, lesson plans, and full unit materials. These include classroom and online activities, assessments, and templates for future unit and lesson planning. Additional supplemental materials are provided to support Elementary Education and Sonography students and program advisors and also further promote the reframed unit materials and design

  9. The principle of general tovariance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heunen, C.; Landsman, N.P.; Spitters, B.A.W.; Loja Fernandes, R.; Picken, R.

    2008-01-01

    We tentatively propose two guiding principles for the construction of theories of physics, which should be satisfied by a possible future theory of quantum gravity. These principles are inspired by those that led Einstein to his theory of general relativity, viz. his principle of general covariance

  10. Fermat and the Minimum Principle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arguably, least action and minimum principles were offered or applied much earlier. This (or these) principle(s) is/are among the fundamental, basic, unifying or organizing ones used to describe a variety of natural phenomena. It considers the amount of energy expended in performing a given action to be the least required ...

  11. Fundamental Principle for Quantum Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2002-01-01

    We propose the principle, the law of statistical balance for basic physical observables, which specifies quantum statistical theory among all other statistical theories of measurements. It seems that this principle might play in quantum theory the role that is similar to the role of Einstein's relativity principle.

  12. Principles for School Drug Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Lois

    2004-01-01

    This document presents a revised set of principles for school drug education. The principles for drug education in schools comprise an evolving framework that has proved useful over a number of decades in guiding the development of effective drug education. The first edition of "Principles for Drug Education in Schools" (Ballard et al.…

  13. Knowledge of health principles among professionals in Slovenian kindergartens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slabe, Damjan; Fink, Rok; Dolenc, Eva; Kvas, Andreja

    2016-09-01

    Preschool children have significant health issues. From the relevant legislation and regulations, it can be seen that kindergarten teachers (KTs) and kindergarten teacher assistants (KTAs) are expected to be familiarwith the basic hygienic measures and steps for preventing injuries and illnesses, to recognize infectious diseases, and to know how to give the first aid. To gain these skills, a continuous life-long learning is necessary, because the characteristics of diseases are changing. Study design: original research. 45 kindergartens in Slovenia were randomly selected and a questionnaire with 17 questions on health themes was sent. An analysis was performed via SPSS 17.0, using descriptive methods and nonparametric χ 2 tests. There were 774 participants, of whom 56% were KTs and 44% KTAs. The share of KTs and KTAs who consider their knowledge of health principles to be very good or excellent is 67%. Their estimation of first aid knowledge is lower. They are also well aware of the importance of health knowledge in their work; a total of 87% strongly agree with this. The results also show that they are familiar with hygiene principles. The χ 2 test showed there are certain statistically characteristic connections between the age of teachers and their assistants, occupation and work experiences. Because children are a particularly vulnerable group, teachers can encounter injuries and sudden illnesses at their work. Supplementary education is necessary among skilled workers in educational institutions, including kindergartens.

  14. Principles of Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary Chromatography Applied in Pharmaceutical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Árpád Gyéresi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since its introduction capillary electrophoresis has shown great potential in areas where electrophoretic techniques have rarely been used before, including here the analysis of pharmaceutical substances. The large majority of pharmaceutical substances are neutral from electrophoretic point of view, consequently separations by the classic capillary zone electrophoresis; where separation is based on the differences between the own electrophoretic mobilities of the analytes; are hard to achieve. Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, a hybrid method that combines chromatographic and electrophoretic separation principles, extends the applicability of capillary electrophoretic methods to neutral analytes. In micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, surfactants are added to the buffer solution in concentration above their critical micellar concentrations, consequently micelles are formed; micelles that undergo electrophoretic migration like any other charged particle. The separation is based on the differential partitioning of an analyte between the two-phase system: the mobile aqueous phase and micellar pseudostationary phase. The present paper aims to summarize the basic aspects regarding separation principles and practical applications of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, with particular attention to those relevant in pharmaceutical analysis.

  15. THE RESPONSIBILITY PRINCIPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ANGHEL

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available "I'm wishing Law this: all legal obligations sholud be executed with the scrupulosity with which moral obligations are being performed by those people who feel bound by them ...", so beautifully portraited by Nicolae Titulescu`s words1. Life in the society means more than a simple coexistence of human beings, it actually means living together, collaborating and cooperating; that is why I always have to relate to other people and to be aware that only by limiting my freedom of action, the others freedom is feasible. Neminem laedere should be a principle of life for each of us. The individual is a responsible being. But responsibility exceeds legal prescriptions. Romanian Constitution underlines that I have to exercise my rights and freedoms in good faith, without infringing the rights and freedoms of others. The legal norm, developer of the constitutional principles, is endowed with sanction, which grants it exigibility. But I wonder: If I choose to obey the law, is my decision essentially determined only due of the fear of punishment? Is it not because I am a rational being, who developed during its life a conscience towards values, and thus I understand that I have to respect the law and I choose to comply with it?

  16. Ehrenfest's principle in quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greensite, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Ehrenfest principle d t = is proposed as (part of) a definition of the time variable in canonical quantum gravity. This principle selects a time direction in superspace, and provides a conserved, positive definite probability measure. An exact solution of the Ehrenfest condition is obtained, which leads to constant-time surfaces in superspace generated by the operator d/dτ=ΛθxΛ, where Λ is the gradient operator in superspace, and θ is the phase of the Wheeler-DeWitt wavefunction Φ; the constant-time surfaces are determined by this solution up to a choice of initial t=0 surface. This result holds throughout superspace, including classically forbidden regions and in the neighborhood of caustics; it also leads to ordinary quantum field theory and classical gravity in regions of superspace where the phase satisfies vertical stroked t θvertical stroke>>vertical stroked t ln(Φ * Φ)vertical stroke and (d t θ) 2 >>vertical stroked t 2 θvertical stroke. (orig.)

  17. Evolutionary principles and their practical application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendry, A. P.; Kinnison, M. T.; Heino, M.

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary principles are now routinely incorporated into medicine and agriculture. Examples include the design of treatments that slow the evolution of resistance by weeds, pests, and pathogens, and the design of breeding programs that maximize crop yield or quality. Evolutionary principles...... are also increasingly incorporated into conservation biology, natural resource management, and environmental science. Examples include the protection of small and isolated populations from inbreeding depression, the identification of key traits involved in adaptation to climate change, the design...... of harvesting regimes that minimize unwanted life-history evolution, and the setting of conservation priorities based on populations, species, or communities that harbor the greatest evolutionary diversity and potential. The adoption of evolutionary principles has proceeded somewhat independently...

  18. A survey of variational principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewins, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    In this article survey of variational principles has been given. Variational principles play a significant role in mathematical theory with emphasis on the physical aspects. There are two principals used i.e. to represent the equation of the system in a succinct way and to enable a particular computation in the system to be carried out with greater accuracy. The survey of variational principles has ranged widely from its starting point in the Lagrange multiplier to optimisation principles. In an age of digital computation, these classic methods can be adapted to improve such calculations. We emphasize particularly the advantage of basic finite element methods on variational principles. (A.B.)

  19. Mach's principle and rotating universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, D.H.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown that the Bianchi 9 model universe satisfies the Mach principle. These closed rotating universes were previously thought to be counter-examples to the principle. The Mach principle is satisfied because the angular momentum of the rotating matter is compensated by the effective angular momentum of gravitational waves. A new formulation of the Mach principle is given that is based on the field theory interpretation of general relativity. Every closed universe with 3-sphere topology is shown to satisfy this formulation of the Mach principle. It is shown that the total angular momentum of the matter and gravitational waves in a closed 3-sphere topology universe is zero

  20. A survey of variational principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewins, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The survey of variational principles has ranged widely from its starting point in the Lagrange multiplier to optimisation principles. In an age of digital computation, these classic methods can be adapted to improve such calculations. We emphasize particularly the advantage of basing finite element methods on variational principles, especially if, as maximum and minimum principles, these can provide bounds and hence estimates of accuracy. The non-symmetric (and hence stationary rather than extremum principles) are seen however to play a significant role in optimisation theory. (Orig./A.B.)

  1. The base rate principle and the fairness principle in social judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jack; Banaji, Mahzarin R

    2016-07-05

    Meet Jonathan and Elizabeth. One person is a doctor and the other is a nurse. Who is the doctor? When nothing else is known, the base rate principle favors Jonathan to be the doctor and the fairness principle favors both individuals equally. However, when individuating facts reveal who is actually the doctor, base rates and fairness become irrelevant, as the facts make the correct answer clear. In three experiments, explicit and implicit beliefs were measured before and after individuating facts were learned. These facts were either stereotypic (e.g., Jonathan is the doctor, Elizabeth is the nurse) or counterstereotypic (e.g., Elizabeth is the doctor, Jonathan is the nurse). Results showed that before individuating facts were learned, explicit beliefs followed the fairness principle, whereas implicit beliefs followed the base rate principle. After individuating facts were learned, explicit beliefs correctly aligned with stereotypic and counterstereotypic facts. Implicit beliefs, however, were immune to counterstereotypic facts and continued to follow the base rate principle. Having established the robustness and generality of these results, a fourth experiment verified that gender stereotypes played a causal role: when both individuals were male, explicit and implicit beliefs alike correctly converged with individuating facts. Taken together, these experiments demonstrate that explicit beliefs uphold fairness and incorporate obvious and relevant facts, but implicit beliefs uphold base rates and appear relatively impervious to counterstereotypic facts.

  2. THE EQUALITY PRINCIPLE REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA ANDRIŢOI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The problem premises and the objectives followed: the idea of inserting the equality principle between the freedom and the justice principles is manifested in positive law in two stages, as a general idea of all judicial norms and as requirement of the owner of a subjective right of the applicants of an objective law. Equality in face of the law and of public authorities can not involve the idea of standardization, of uniformity, of enlisting of all citizens under the mark of the same judicial regime, regardless of their natural or socio-professional situation. Through the Beijing Platform and the position documents of the European Commission we have defined the integrative approach of equality as representing an active and visible integration of the gender perspective in all sectors and at all levels. The research methods used are: the conceptualist method, the logical method and the intuitive method necessary as means of reasoning in order to argue our demonstration. We have to underline the fact that the system analysis of the research methods of the judicial phenomenon doesn’t agree with “value ranking”, because one value cannot be generalized in rapport to another. At the same time, we must fight against a methodological extremism. The final purpose of this study is represented by the reaching of the perfecting/excellence stage by all individuals through the promotion of equality and freedom. This supposes the fact that the existence of a non-discrimination favourable frame (fairness represents a means and a condition of self-determination, and the state of perfection/excellency is a result of this self-determination, the condition necessary for the obtaining of this nondiscrimination frame for all of us and in conditions of freedom for all individuals, represents the same condition that promotes the state of perfection/excellency. In conclusion we may state the fact that the equality principle represents a true catalyst of the

  3. Immunolabeling of fingermarks left on forensic relevant surfaces, including thermal paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, Annemieke; van Nes, Kirsten A.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Lambrechts, Saskia A. G.

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition of a fingermark contains donor profiling information. Immunolabeling is a technique that can be used to retrieve this chemical information from fingermarks. Additionally, immunolabeling can be used to (re) develop fingermarks. To be of interest in the forensic field, the

  4. Update on the Human Broad Tapeworm (Genus Diphyllobothrium), Including Clinical Relevance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scholz, Tomáš; García, H. H.; Kuchta, Roman; Wicht, B.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2009), s. 146-160 ISSN 0893-8512 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522; GA ČR GA524/04/0342; GA ČR GA524/08/0885 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Cestoda * D. latum * zoonosis Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 14.691, year: 2009

  5. No-Hypersignaling Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Arno, Michele; Brandsen, Sarah; Tosini, Alessandro; Buscemi, Francesco; Vedral, Vlatko

    2017-07-01

    A paramount topic in quantum foundations, rooted in the study of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox and Bell inequalities, is that of characterizing quantum theory in terms of the spacelike correlations it allows. Here, we show that to focus only on spacelike correlations is not enough: we explicitly construct a toy model theory that, while not contradicting classical and quantum theories at the level of spacelike correlations, still displays an anomalous behavior in its timelike correlations. We call this anomaly, quantified in terms of a specific communication game, the "hypersignaling" phenomena. We hence conclude that the "principle of quantumness," if it exists, cannot be found in spacelike correlations alone: nontrivial constraints need to be imposed also on timelike correlations, in order to exclude hypersignaling theories.

  6. Principles of Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Svelto, Orazio

    2010-01-01

    This new Fifth Edition of Principles of Lasers incorporates corrections to the previous edition. The text’s essential mission remains the same: to provide a wide-ranging yet unified description of laser behavior, physics, technology, and current applications. Dr. Svelto emphasizes the physical rather than the mathematical aspects of lasers, and presents the subject in the simplest terms compatible with a correct physical understanding. Praise for earlier editions: "Professor Svelto is himself a longtime laser pioneer and his text shows the breadth of his broad acquaintance with all aspects of the field … Anyone mastering the contents of this book will be well prepared to understand advanced treatises and research papers in laser science and technology." (Arthur L. Schawlow, 1981 Nobel Laureate in Physics) "Already well established as a self-contained introduction to the physics and technology of lasers … Professor Svelto’s book, in this lucid translation by David Hanna, can be strongly recommended for...

  7. Principles of asymmetric synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Gawley, Robert E; Aube, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    The world is chiral. Most of the molecules in it are chiral, and asymmetric synthesis is an important means by which enantiopure chiral molecules may be obtained for study and sale. Using examples from the literature of asymmetric synthesis, this book presents a detailed analysis of the factors that govern stereoselectivity in organic reactions. After an explanation of the basic physical-organic principles governing stereoselective reactions, the authors provide a detailed, annotated glossary of stereochemical terms. A chapter on "Practical Aspects of Asymmetric Synthesis" provides a critical overview of the most common methods for the preparation of enantiomerically pure compounds, techniques for analysis of stereoisomers using chromatographic, spectroscopic, and chiroptical methods. The authors then present an overview of the most important methods in contemporary asymmetric synthesis organized by reaction type. Thus, there are four chapters on carbon-carbon bond forming reactions, one chapter on reductions...

  8. Principles of modern physics

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, A K

    2014-01-01

    Principles of Modern Physics, divided into twenty one chapters, begins with quantum ideas followed by discussions on special relativity, atomic structure, basic quantum mechanics, hydrogen atom (and Schrodinger equation) and periodic table, the three statistical distributions, X-rays, physics of solids, imperfections in crystals, magnetic properties of materials, superconductivity, Zeeman-, Stark- and Paschen Back- effects, Lasers, Nuclear physics (Yukawa's meson theory and various nuclear models), radioactivity and nuclear reactions, nuclear fission, fusion and plasma, particle accelerators and detectors, the universe, Elementary particles (classification, eight fold way and quark model, standard model and fundamental interactions), cosmic rays, deuteron problem in nuclear physics, and cathode ray oscilloscope. NEW TO THE FOURTH EDITION: The CO2 Laser Theory of magnetic moments on the basis of shell model Geological dating Laser Induced fusion and laser fusion reactor. Hawking radiation The cosmological red ...

  9. Principles & practice of physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mazur, Eric; Dourmashkin, Peter A; Pedigo, Daryl; Bieniek, Ronald J

    2015-01-01

    Putting physics first Based on his storied research and teaching, Eric Mazur's Principles & Practice of Physics builds an understanding of physics that is both thorough and accessible. Unique organization and pedagogy allow you to develop a true conceptual understanding of physics alongside the quantitative skills needed in the course. *New learning architecture: The book is structured to help you learn physics in an organized way that encourages comprehension and reduces distraction.*Physics on a contemporary foundation: Traditional texts delay the introduction of ideas that we now see as unifying and foundational. This text builds physics on those unifying foundations, helping you to develop an understanding that is stronger, deeper, and fundamentally simpler.*Research-based instruction: This text uses a range of research-based instructional techniques to teach physics in the most effective manner possible. The result is a groundbreaking book that puts physics first, thereby making it more accessible to...

  10. Principles of Bioenergetics

    CERN Document Server

    Skulachev, Vladimir P; Kasparinsky, Felix O

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Bioenergetics summarizes one of the quickly growing branches of modern biochemistry. Bioenergetics concerns energy transductions occurring in living systems and this book pays special attention to molecular mechanisms of these processes. The main subject of the book is the "energy coupling membrane" which refers to inner membranes of intracellular organelles, for example, mitochondria and chloroplasts. Cellular cytoplasmic membranes where respiratory and photosynthetic energy transducers, as well as ion-transporting ATP-synthases (ATPases) are also part of this membrane. Significant attention is paid to the alternative function of mitochondria as generators of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that mediate programmed death of cells (apoptosis and necrosis) and organisms (phenoptosis). The latter process is considered as a key mechanism of aging which may be suppressed by mitochondria-targeted antioxidants.

  11. The nonholonomic variational principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupkova, Olga [Department of Algebra and Geometry, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, Tomkova 40, 779 00 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Department of Mathematics, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria 3086 (Australia)], E-mail: krupkova@inf.upol.cz

    2009-05-08

    A variational principle for mechanical systems and fields subject to nonholonomic constraints is found, providing Chetaev-reduced equations as equations for extremals. Investigating nonholonomic variations of the Chetaev type and their properties, we develop foundations of the calculus of variations on constraint manifolds, modelled as fibred submanifolds in jet bundles. This setting is appropriate to study general first-order 'nonlinear nonitegrable constraints' that locally are given by a system of first-order ordinary or partial differential equations. We obtain an invariant constrained first variation formula and constrained Euler-Lagrange equations both in intrinsic and coordinate forms, and show that the equations are the same as Chetaev equations 'without Lagrange multipliers', introduced recently by other methods. We pay attention to two possible settings: first, when the constrained system arises from an unconstrained Lagrangian system defined in a neighbourhood of the constraint, and second, more generally, when an 'internal' constrained system on the constraint manifold is given. In the latter case a corresponding unconstrained system need not be a Lagrangian, nor even exist. We also study in detail an important particular case: nonholonomic constraints that can be alternatively modelled by means of (co)distributions in the total space of the fibred manifold; in nonholonomic mechanics this happens whenever constraints affine in velocities are considered. It becomes clear that (and why) if the distribution is completely integrable (= the constraints are semiholonomic), the principle of virtual displacements holds and can be used to obtain the constrained first variational formula by a more or less standard procedure, traditionally used when unconstrained or holonomic systems are concerned. If, however, the constraint is nonintegrable, no significant simplifications are available. Among others, some properties of nonholonomic

  12. Fault Management Guiding Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Marilyn E.; Friberg, Kenneth H.; Fesq, Lorraine; Barley, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Regardless of the mission type: deep space or low Earth orbit, robotic or human spaceflight, Fault Management (FM) is a critical aspect of NASA space missions. As the complexity of space missions grows, the complexity of supporting FM systems increase in turn. Data on recent NASA missions show that development of FM capabilities is a common driver for significant cost overruns late in the project development cycle. Efforts to understand the drivers behind these cost overruns, spearheaded by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD), indicate that they are primarily caused by the growing complexity of FM systems and the lack of maturity of FM as an engineering discipline. NASA can and does develop FM systems that effectively protect mission functionality and assets. The cost growth results from a lack of FM planning and emphasis by project management, as well the maturity of FM as an engineering discipline, which lags behind the maturity of other engineering disciplines. As a step towards controlling the cost growth associated with FM development, SMD has commissioned a multi-institution team to develop a practitioner's handbook representing best practices for the end-to-end processes involved in engineering FM systems. While currently concentrating primarily on FM for science missions, the expectation is that this handbook will grow into a NASA-wide handbook, serving as a companion to the NASA Systems Engineering Handbook. This paper presents a snapshot of the principles that have been identified to guide FM development from cradle to grave. The principles range from considerations for integrating FM into the project and SE organizational structure, the relationship between FM designs and mission risk, and the use of the various tools of FM (e.g., redundancy) to meet the FM goal of protecting mission functionality and assets.

  13. The hologram principles and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Martin J

    2018-01-01

    Written by Martin Richardson (an acclaimed leader and pioneer in the field) and John Wiltshire, The Hologram: Principles and Techniques is an important book that explores the various types of hologram in their multiple forms and explains how to create and apply the technology. The authors offer an insightful overview of the currently available recording materials, chemical formulas, and laser technology that includes the history of phase imaging and laser science. Accessible and comprehensive, the text contains a step-by-step guide to the production of holograms. In addition, The Hologram outlines the most common problems encountered in producing satisfactory images in the laboratory, as well as dealing with the wide range of optical and chemical techniques used in commercial holography. The Hologram is a well-designed instructive tool, involving three distinct disciplines: physics, chemistry, and graphic arts. This vital resource offers a guide to the development and understanding of the recording of mater...

  14. Principles of magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mlynarik, V.; Tkac, I.; Srbecky, M.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this review is to describe and explain the basic principles of magnetic resonance imaging. The first part of the text is devoted to the phenomenon of magnetic resonance (the interaction of RF magnetic field with the set of magnetic moments in the homogeneous magnetic field) and to relaxation processes. Then, the creation of MR image is described (slice selection, phase and frequency encoding of spatial information). The basic and the most frequently used techniques are explained (spin echo, gradient echo). The way the repetition and echo times influence the image quality and contrast (T1 or T2 weighing) is described. The part with the technical description of the MR equipment is included in the review. The MR imagination examination are compared with X-ray computer tomography technique

  15. Principles of computational fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Wesseling, Pieter

    2001-01-01

    The book is aimed at graduate students, researchers, engineers and physicists involved in flow computations. An up-to-date account is given of the present state-of-the-art of numerical methods employed in computational fluid dynamics. The underlying numerical principles are treated with a fair amount of detail, using elementary mathematical analysis. Attention is given to difficulties arising from geometric complexity of the flow domain and of nonuniform structured boundary-fitted grids. Uniform accuracy and efficiency for singular perturbation problems is studied, pointing the way to accurate computation of flows at high Reynolds number. Much attention is given to stability analysis, and useful stability conditions are provided, some of them new, for many numerical schemes used in practice. Unified methods for compressible and incompressible flows are discussed. Numerical analysis of the shallow-water equations is included. The theory of hyperbolic conservation laws is treated. Godunov's order barrier and ho...

  16. Communications receivers principles and design

    CERN Document Server

    Rohde, Ulrich L; Zahnd, Hans

    2017-01-01

    This thoroughly updated guide offers comprehensive explanations of the science behind today’s radio receivers along with practical guidance on designing, constructing, and maintaining real-world communications systems. You will explore system planning, antennas and antenna coupling, amplifiers and gain control, filters, mixers, demodulation, digital communication, and the latest software defined radio (SDR) technology. Written by a team of telecommunication experts, Communications Receivers: Principles and Design, Fourth Edition, features technical illustrations, schematic diagrams, and detailed examples. Coverage includes: • Basic radio considerations • Radio receiver characteristics • Receiver system planning • Receiver implementation considerations • RF and baseband techniques for Software-Defined Radios • Transceiver SDR considerations • Antennas and antenna coupling • Mixers • Frequency sources and control • Ancillary receiver circuits • Performance measurement

  17. General principles of antimicrobial therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leekha, Surbhi; Terrell, Christine L; Edson, Randall S

    2011-02-01

    Antimicrobial agents are some of the most widely, and often injudiciously, used therapeutic drugs worldwide. Important considerations when prescribing antimicrobial therapy include obtaining an accurate diagnosis of infection; understanding the difference between empiric and definitive therapy; identifying opportunities to switch to narrow-spectrum, cost-effective oral agents for the shortest duration necessary; understanding drug characteristics that are peculiar to antimicrobial agents (such as pharmacodynamics and efficacy at the site of infection); accounting for host characteristics that influence antimicrobial activity; and in turn, recognizing the adverse effects of antimicrobial agents on the host. It is also important to understand the importance of antimicrobial stewardship, to know when to consult infectious disease specialists for guidance, and to be able to identify situations when antimicrobial therapy is not needed. By following these general principles, all practicing physicians should be able to use antimicrobial agents in a responsible manner that benefits both the individual patient and the community.

  18. Curriculum structure: principles and strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, R; Kersten, H; Vinkka-Puhakka, H; Alpasan, G; Bearn, D; Cema, I; Delap, E; Dummer, P; Goulet, J P; Gugushe, T; Jeniati, E; Jerolimov, V; Kotsanos, N; Krifka, S; Levy, G; Neway, M; Ogawa, T; Saag, M; Sidlauskas, A; Skaleric, U; Vervoorn, M; White, D

    2008-02-01

    This report provides general guidelines for the structure of a curriculum, followed by specific advice on the principles of learning and teaching, the process of restructuring and change leadership and management. It provides examples of several educational philosophies, including vertical and horizontal integration. It discusses the use of competence, learning outcomes, level of degree and assessment and provides a number of recommendations. It does not seek to be prescriptive of time allocation to disciplines within a curriculum. Although this report has been written primarily for those who will develop an undergraduate curriculum, the information may be sufficiently generic to apply to the recent development in graduate entry ('shortened dental' or 'accelerated') courses and to postgraduate degree planning and higher education certificate or diploma courses for other dental care professionals (auxiliaries). The report may have a European bias as progress is made to converge and enhance educational standards in 29 countries with different educational approaches - a microcosm of global collaboration.

  19. Intelligent instrumentation principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bhuyan, Manabendra

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of microprocessors and digital-processing technologies as catalyst, classical sensors capable of simple signal conditioning operations have evolved rapidly to take on higher and more specialized functions including validation, compensation, and classification. This new category of sensor expands the scope of incorporating intelligence into instrumentation systems, yet with such rapid changes, there has developed no universal standard for design, definition, or requirement with which to unify intelligent instrumentation. Explaining the underlying design methodologies of intelligent instrumentation, Intelligent Instrumentation: Principles and Applications provides a comprehensive and authoritative resource on the scientific foundations from which to coordinate and advance the field. Employing a textbook-like language, this book translates methodologies to more than 80 numerical examples, and provides applications in 14 case studies for a complete and working understanding of the material. Beginn...

  20. Principles of taxation as a means of implementing fiscal function of the tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К. О. Гетьман

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Problem setting. problems of the principles of taxation, as a means of implementing fiscal functions of tax for a long time did not go beyond scientific publications and was not even trying to solve them in tax legislation of Ukraine. Reform legislation, including in taxation, conducted before, even in terms of staging did not address the question of the principles of taxation. This approach did not promote cohesion of financial system, for a certain time did not allow to systematize financial legislation, part of which is tax legislation. The need for more detailed and comprehensive definition of common fundamental principles of development of financial systems and legal forms of action and ways to ensure the unity of the financial system relevant institutions and associations finance and financial law on these principles can be established only through comprehensive research system of taxation principles as a means of implementing fiscal function of the tax. Recent research and publications analysis. until today, the analysis of legal principles of taxation fixing occurred only in individual scientific articles and books devoted to the study of common problems of tax law. In this area next scientists showed their interests: A. V. Bryzgalin, L. K. Voronov, A. N.Gorbunov, N. V.Karasev, A. M. Kozyrina, M. P.Kucheryavenko, P. S.Patsurkivskoho, S. G.Pepeliaev, M. I.Piskotina, G. P.Tolstopyatenko, N. I. Himichevoyi, D. G.Chernika and others, which considered very general questions of legal regulation of taxes and fees, certain aspects of the content and classification principles of tax law. In the study of major problems dissertation widely used for foreign scientists E. Bradley, R. Dernberha, M. Janis, R. Kay, J. Stiglitz. Paper objective. The goal is to deepen scientific knowledge of the legal nature of the principles of taxation as a means of implementing fiscal functions of tax by developing a holistic and comprehensive scientific understanding

  1. 46 CFR 560.5 - Receipt of relevant information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Receipt of relevant information. 560.5 Section 560.5... FOREIGN PORTS § 560.5 Receipt of relevant information. (a) In making its decision on matters arising under... submissions should be supported by affidavits of fact and memorandum of law. Relevant information may include...

  2. Mirror neurons and their clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Fabbri-Destro, Maddalena; Cattaneo, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    One of the most exciting events in neurosciences over the past few years has been the discovery of a mechanism that unifies action perception and action execution. The essence of this 'mirror' mechanism is as follows: whenever individuals observe an action being done by someone else, a set of neurons that code for that action is activated in the observers' motor system. Since the observers are aware of the outcome of their motor acts, they also understand what the other individual is doing without the need for intermediate cognitive mediation. In this Review, after discussing the most pertinent data concerning the mirror mechanism, we examine the clinical relevance of this mechanism. We first discuss the relationship between mirror mechanism impairment and some core symptoms of autism. We then outline the theoretical principles of neurorehabilitation strategies based on the mirror mechanism. We conclude by examining the relationship between the mirror mechanism and some features of the environmental dependency syndromes.

  3. Diglossic principles in Shona lexicography | Mangoya | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    graphic publications including glossed word lists and medium-sized dictionaries have appeared, examples of which are used in this article to demonstrate the diglossic principles in Shona lexico-graphy. As is the case with many languages, Shona is ...

  4. Irrigation water management: Basic principles and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ella, Victor B.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation defines the term, irrigation, as well as explains the common methods of irrigation in attempt to define the fundamental principles needed to wisely design an irrigation system. It outlines a typical drip irrigation set-up, and discusses management of an irrigation system, including water volume application suggestions. LTRA-5 (Agroforestry and Sustainable Vegetable Production)

  5. RFID Malware: Design Principles and Examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rieback, M.R.; Simpson, P.N.D.; Crispo, B.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of malware for Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems - including RFID exploits, RFID worms, and RFID viruses. We present RFID malware design principles together with concrete examples; the highlight is a fully illustrated example of a self-replicating RFID

  6. Principle and application of ion mobility spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, J.; Arnold, G.; Baumbach, J.I.; Doering, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    An outline is given of the principle and application of ion mobility spectroscopy to the selective measurement of single substances in a substance matrix, including advantages and disadvantages of ion mobility detectors for solving analytical problems in the fields of environment, microelectronics, medicine, and military engineering. (orig.) [de

  7. Software Engineering Principles for Courseware Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magel, Kenneth

    1980-01-01

    Courseware (computer based curriculum materials) development should follow the lessons learned by software engineers. The most important of 28 principles of software development presented here include a stress on human readability, the importance of early planning and analysis, the need for independent evaluation, and the need to be flexible.…

  8. Private law principles, pluralism and perfectionism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Bernitz, U.; Groussot, X.; Schulyok, F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the legitimacy of general principles of private law as they have been formulated recently by the Court of Justice of the European Union and proposed by the European Commission. It addresses challenges from different strands in political theory including liberal perfectionism,

  9. Management Principles for Nonproliferation Organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Hund, Gretchen

    2012-01-01

    This paper identifies business models and six management principles that can be applied by a nonproliferation organization to maximize the value and effectiveness of its products. The organizations responsible for reducing the nuclear proliferation threat have experienced a substantial growth in responsibility and visibility since the September 11 attacks. Since then, the international community has witnessed revelations of clandestine nuclear facilities, nuclear black markets, periodic nuclear tests, and a resurgence of interest by countries worldwide in developing nuclear capabilities. The security environment will likely continue to evolve in unexpected ways since most of the proliferation threats with which the world will be forced to contend remain unforeseen. To better prepare for and respond to this evolving security environment, many nonproliferation organizations are interested in finding new or better ways to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of their operations. Of course, all organizations, whether they are market driven or non-profit, must operate effectively and efficiently if they are to succeed. Indeed, as this study demonstrates, many of the management principles that this study recommends can help all organizations succeed. However, this study pays particular attention to nonproliferation organizations because of the mission they are responsible for fulfilling. Nonproliferation organizations, including nonproliferation programs that operate within a larger national security organization, are responsible for reducing the threat of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. These organizations have an enduring mandate from the public and the international community not to fail in the completion of their mission for failure could have detrimental impacts on international security, public health and the environment. Moreover, the public expects nonproliferation organizations and programs to fulfill their mission, even when resources are limited

  10. Management Principles for Nonproliferation Organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Hund, Gretchen

    2012-03-06

    This paper identifies business models and six management principles that can be applied by a nonproliferation organization to maximize the value and effectiveness of its products. The organizations responsible for reducing the nuclear proliferation threat have experienced a substantial growth in responsibility and visibility since the September 11 attacks. Since then, the international community has witnessed revelations of clandestine nuclear facilities, nuclear black markets, periodic nuclear tests, and a resurgence of interest by countries worldwide in developing nuclear capabilities. The security environment will likely continue to evolve in unexpected ways since most of the proliferation threats with which the world will be forced to contend remain unforeseen. To better prepare for and respond to this evolving security environment, many nonproliferation organizations are interested in finding new or better ways to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of their operations. Of course, all organizations, whether they are market driven or non-profit, must operate effectively and efficiently if they are to succeed. Indeed, as this study demonstrates, many of the management principles that this study recommends can help all organizations succeed. However, this study pays particular attention to nonproliferation organizations because of the mission they are responsible for fulfilling. Nonproliferation organizations, including nonproliferation programs that operate within a larger national security organization, are responsible for reducing the threat of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. These organizations have an enduring mandate from the public and the international community not to fail in the completion of their mission for failure could have detrimental impacts on international security, public health and the environment. Moreover, the public expects nonproliferation organizations and programs to fulfill their mission, even when resources are limited

  11. Principles of record keeping for decommissioning purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laraia, M.

    2003-01-01

    of future generations' and 'Burden on future generations' as highlighted in the top-level IAEA document on Principles of Radioactive Waste Management. It should be noted that other programmes of the IAEA have addressed record keeping for radioactive waste management and disposal facilities. A newly-published IAEA report provides guidance in records relevant to decommissioning and its key statements are summarised in this paper. The contents is as follows: 1. Introduction; 2. Design and Operational Data Required for Decommissioning; 2.1. Decommissioning Strategy; 2.2 Primary Data Sources for Decommissioning; 2.2.1 Design, construction and modification data; 2.2.2. Operating, shutdown and post-shutdown data; 3. The Process of Selecting Decommissioning Records; 3.1 Establishing the Records Management System; 3.2 Selection of Decommissioning Records; 3.3. Documentation Prepared for Decommissioning; 4. Record Medium and Location

  12. Exercising older people´s brains in Costa Rica: Design principles for using information and communication technologies for cognitive activity and social interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro Rojas, Maria Dolores; Bygholm, Ann; Hansen, Tia Gitte Bondesen

    2018-01-01

    This study is part of a design-based research project aimed at designing a learning intervention for enabling Costa Rican older people to use information and communication technologies for cognitive activity and social interaction. Data from relevant literature, a focus group with older adults......-sensitive design principles that include wider topics that influence the learning process, such as emotions and stereotypes related to learning about and using information and communication technologies, as well as the social support to that learning. The resulting eight design principles argue for respectful...

  13. Ten guiding principles for youth mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Frank; Hebel, Lisa; Badcock, Paul; Parker, Alexandra G

    2018-06-01

    Guiding principles are arguably central to the development of any health service. The aim of this article is to report on the outcomes of a youth mental health (YMH) community of practice (CoP), which identified a range of guiding principles that provide a clear point of comparison for the only other set of principles for YMH service delivery proposed to date. A YMH CoP was established in 2010 as part of the Victorian State Government approach to improving YMH care. An initial literature search was undertaken to locate articles on YMH service delivery. A number of common themes were identified, which the YMH community of practice (YMHCoP) members then elaborated upon by drawing from their collective experience of the YMH sector. The resultant themes were then refined through subsequent group discussions to derive a definitive set of guiding principles. These principles were then augmented by a second literature search conducted in July 2015. Fifteen key themes were derived from the initial literature search and YMH CoP discussions. These were refined by the YMH CoP to produce 10 guiding principles for YMH service development. These are discussed through reference to the relevant literature, using the only other article on principles of YMH service delivery as a notable point of comparison. The 10 principles identified may be useful for quality improvement and are likely to have international relevance. We suggest the timely pursuit of an international consensus on guiding principles for service delivery under the auspices of a peak body for YMH. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Principles and procedures in forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, John F

    2012-09-01

    The principles and procedures employed in a modern forensic toxicology lab are detailed in this review. Aspects of Behavioral and Postmortem toxicology, including certification of analysts and accreditation of labs, chain of custody requirements, typical testing services provided, rationale for specimen selection, and principles of quality assurance are discussed. Interpretation of toxicology results in postmortem specimens requires the toxicologist and pathologist to be cognizant of drug-drug interactions, drug polymorphisms and pharmacogenomics, the gross signs of toxic pathology, postmortem redistribution, confirmation of systemic toxicity in suspected overdoses, the possibility of developed tolerance, and the effects of decomposition on drug concentration.

  15. Electron microscopy - principles of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This 8 minute programme explains the nature of the possible radiation hazard in Electron Microscopy and outlines the ways in which modern equipment is designed and made so that in normal use the worker is not exposed to radiation. The interlock principle is explained and illustrated by an example from the field of X-ray crystallography. By filming machines while they were dismantled for servicing, details of several internal safety devices have been included. In this way workers who normally use the equipment as a 'black box' get some insight into the principles and practice of radiation protection in the field. (author)

  16. [The precautionary principle: advantages and risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubiana, M

    2001-04-01

    innovation, highly restrictive administrative procedures, and a waste of funds on the search for the utopian goal of zero risk. Other drawbacks are more insidious. The precautionary principle could contribute to a general feeling of anxiety and unease in the population. It could be used by campaigns to manipulate public opinion in favor of a particular commercial interest or ideology. Furthermore, practitioners and public policy makers could be led to make choices not dictated by a search for the optimal solution but rather a solution that would protect them from future accusations (the so-called umbrella phenomenon). On the international level, the precautionary principle must not be used to mask protectionism. Nevertheless, a clear advantage of the precautionary principle is that it requires decision-makers to explain the rationale behind their decisions, to quantify the risks, and to provide objective information. However, the physician must not be tempted to make patients sign documents certifying that they have been given all relevant information on his or her diagnosis and treatment. This example underlines the role of legal texts and jurisprudence in the application of the precautionary principle. Finally, the precautionary principle implies new obligations for the State. In the field of health and healthcare, the State must undertake actions based on fully open and undisguised decision-making and provide complete information to the public. A pplication of the precautionary principle requires much discernment because the final outcome can be beneficial or harmful, depending on the way it is implemented. The precautionary principle, and its applications, must be precise and detailed within a well-defined framework.

  17. Toward Principles for Enhancing the Resilience of Ecosystem Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biggs, R.; Schlüter, M.; Biggs, D.; Bohensky, E.L.; BurnSilver, S.; Cundill, G.; Dakos, V.; Daw, T.M.; Evans, L.S.; Kotschy, K.; Leitch, A.M.; Meek, C.; Quinlan, A.; Raudsepp-Hearne, C.; Robards, M.D.; Schoon, M.L.; Schultz, L.; West, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Enhancing the resilience of ecosystem services (ES) that underpin human well-being is critical for meeting current and future societal needs, and requires specific governance and management policies. Using the literature, we identify seven generic policy-relevant principles for enhancing the

  18. Basic economic principles of road pricing: From theory to applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouwendal, J.; Verhoef, E.T.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents, a non-technical introduction to the economic principles relevant for transport pricing design and analysis. We provide the basic rationale behind pricing of externalities, discuss why simple Pigouvian tax rules that equate charges to marginal external costs are not optimal in

  19. The principle of electron microscopy; SEM and TEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauzi, S.H.

    1992-01-01

    The article reviews the principle of electron microscopy which is used in scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). These instruments are important for the examination and analysis of the microstructural properties of solid objects. Relevance physical concept lies behind the devices are given. The main components of each device are also discussed

  20. MBA theory and application of business and management principles

    CERN Document Server

    Davim, J

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the relevant subjects in the curriculum of an MBA program. Covering many different fields within business, this book is ideal for readers who want to prepare for a Master of Business Administration degree. It provides discussions and exchanges of information on principles, strategies, models, techniques, methodologies and applications in the business area.

  1. Learning Characteristics of Small Business Managers: Principles for Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, Lynn M.; Hide, Sophie; Legg, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to report on the second half of a two-part study that identified relevant content for safety audit training in small businesses. The specific aim of the paper is to determine the preferred learning styles and approaches of managers in these businesses in order to identify some principles which could be used to tailor…

  2. An energy principle for two-dimensional collisionless relativistic plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, A.; Schindler, K.

    1984-01-01

    Using relativistic Vlasov theory an energy principle for two-dimensional plasmas is derived, which provides a sufficient and necessary criterion for the stability of relativistic plasma equilibria. This energy principle includes charge separating effects since the exact Poisson equation was taken into consideration. Applying the variational principle to the case of the relativistic plane plasma sheet, the same marginal wave length is found as in the non-relativistic case. (author)

  3. [Precautionary principle. State of the situation in Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemelmajer de Carlucci, Aída

    2017-10-13

    The new Argentine Civil and Commercial Code includes the prevention principle. The precautionary Principle is regulated by the Environmental Protection Act.A significant number of cases have reached the Supreme Court of the Nation. This Court, in general, estimates that the decisions concerning the precautionary principle have definitive nature, i.e., are not merely provisional. Usually, the situation is caused by the State itself, which fails to control. The different decisions show a Judiciary worried about protecting the environment.

  4. 26 CFR 1.671-2 - Applicable principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicable principles. 1.671-2 Section 1.671-2...) INCOME TAXES Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.671-2 Applicable principles. (a) Under... included in a portion of the trust are set forth in § 1.671-3. (b) Since the principle underlying subpart E...

  5. Variational principles for the projected breakup amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Y.

    1976-01-01

    Two alternate forms of variational principles for the breakup amplitude describing the two- to three-cluster transition are derived such that all the integrals involved in the intermediate stages are well defined. The first form contains a trial Green's function with which both the initial and final state trial wave functions are constructed. The earlier form of the Kohn-type variational principle derived by Lieber, Rosenberg, and Spruch is recovered, however, when this connection between the trial functions is removed. The second form of the variational principle is derived by projecting out from the trial functions all the open channel components which correspond to the two-cluster structures including the rearrangement channels. The remaining part of the wave functions describes the channels with three-cluster structures, and the integrals involving this part are then mathematically well defined

  6. Dynamic principle for ensemble control tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoletov, A; Vasiev, B

    2017-11-28

    Dynamical equations describing physical systems in contact with a thermal bath are commonly extended by mathematical tools called "thermostats." These tools are designed for sampling ensembles in statistical mechanics. Here we propose a dynamic principle underlying a range of thermostats which is derived using fundamental laws of statistical physics and ensures invariance of the canonical measure. The principle covers both stochastic and deterministic thermostat schemes. Our method has a clear advantage over a range of proposed and widely used thermostat schemes that are based on formal mathematical reasoning. Following the derivation of the proposed principle, we show its generality and illustrate its applications including design of temperature control tools that differ from the Nosé-Hoover-Langevin scheme.

  7. Seven Foundational Principles of Population Health Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Dru; Bhatt, Jay

    2017-10-01

    In 2016, Keyes and Galea issued 9 foundational principles of population health science and invited further deliberations by specialists to advance the field. This article presents 7 foundational principles of population health policy whose intersection with health care, public health, preventive medicine, and now population health, presents unique challenges. These principles are in response to a number of overarching questions that have arisen in over a decade of the authors' collective practice in the public and private sectors, and having taught policy within programs of medicine, law, nursing, and public health at the graduate and executive levels. The principles address an audience of practitioners and policy makers, mindful of the pressing health care challenges of our time, including: rising health-related expenditures, an aging population, workforce shortages, health disparities, and a backdrop of inequities rooted in social determinants that have not been adequately translated into formal policies or practices among the key stakeholders in population health. These principles are meant to empower stakeholders-whether it is the planner or the practitioner, the decision maker or the dedicated caregiver-and inform the development of practical tools, research, and education.

  8. A Framework for Culturally Relevant Online Learning: Lessons from Alaska's Tribal Health Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva, Katie; Cueva, Melany; Revels, Laura; Lanier, Anne P; Dignan, Mark; Viswanath, K; Fung, Teresa T; Geller, Alan C

    2018-03-22

    Culturally relevant health promotion is an opportunity to reduce health inequities in diseases with modifiable risks, such as cancer. Alaska Native people bear a disproportionate cancer burden, and Alaska's rural tribal health workers consequently requested cancer education accessible online. In response, the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium cancer education team sought to create a framework for culturally relevant online learning to inform the creation of distance-delivered cancer education. Guided by the principles of community-based participatory action research and grounded in empowerment theory, the project team conducted a focus group with 10 Alaska Native education experts, 12 culturally diverse key informant interviews, a key stakeholder survey of 62 Alaska Native tribal health workers and their instructors/supervisors, and a literature review on distance-delivered education with Alaska Native or American Indian people. Qualitative findings were analyzed in Atlas.ti, with common themes presented in this article as a framework for culturally relevant online education. This proposed framework includes four principles: collaborative development, interactive content delivery, contextualizing learning, and creating connection. As an Alaskan tribal health worker shared "we're all in this together. All about conversations, relationships. Always learn from you/with you, together what we know and understand from the center of our experience, our ways of knowing, being, caring." The proposed framework has been applied to support cancer education and promote cancer control with Alaska Native people and has motivated health behavior change to reduce cancer risk. This framework may be adaptable to other populations to guide effective and culturally relevant online interventions.

  9. Pedagogical Principles in Online Teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beckmann, Suzanne C.; Uth Thomsen, Thyra; von Wallpach, Sylvia

    of the seven pedagogical principles that govern the teaching at our university. We also present a case study that illustrates how both opportunities and challenges were met in two “first-mover” fully online courses during Fall 2014. The experiences from this case study are discussed in terms of to what extent...... they met the pedagogical principles and observations unrelated to the pedagogical principle are shared....

  10. Great Lakes Literacy Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey

    2011-03-01

    Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.

  11. Advertisement without Ethical Principles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Słomski

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The article replies to the question, whether the advertisement can exist without ethical principles or ethics should be the basis of the advertisement. One can say that the ethical opinion of the advertisement does not depend on content and the form of advertising content exclusively, but also on recipients consciousness. The advertisement appeals to the emotions more than to the intellect, thus restricting the area of conscious and based on rational premises choice, so it is morally bad. It is not that the moral evil immanently underlines the advertisement, but it concerns the mechanisms which cause that the advertisement turns out to be effective. The only admissible form of the advertisement would be the reliable full information about the advantages and flaws of the concrete advertised product. The only admissible form of the advertisement would be the reliable full information about the advantages and defects of the concrete advertised product. The most serious difficulty connected with the ethical opinion of the advertisement is the fact that the advertisement is the indispensable link of the present economy, and everyone who accepts the free market and perceives the positives of the economic growth, should also accept the advertisement. The advertisement constitutes the element of the economic activity, so in consequence the responsibility first of all lies with enterprises for its far-reaching results.

  12. Quantum principles and particles

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcox, Walter

    2012-01-01

    QUANTUM PRINCIPLESPerspective and PrinciplesPrelude to Quantum MechanicsStern-Gerlach Experiment Idealized Stern-Gerlach ResultsClassical Model AttemptsWave Functions for Two Physical-Outcome CaseProcess Diagrams, Operators, and Completeness Further Properties of Operators/ModulationOperator ReformulationOperator RotationBra-Ket Notation/Basis StatesTransition AmplitudesThree-Magnet Setup Example-CoherenceHermitian ConjugationUnitary OperatorsA Very Special OperatorMatrix RepresentationsMatrix Wave Function RecoveryExpectation ValuesWrap Up ProblemsFree Particles in One DimensionPhotoelectric EffectCompton EffectUncertainty Relation for PhotonsStability of Ground StatesBohr ModelFourier Transform and Uncertainty RelationsSchrödinger EquationSchrödinger Equation ExampleDirac Delta FunctionsWave Functions and ProbabilityProbability CurrentTime Separable SolutionsCompleteness for Particle StatesParticle Operator PropertiesOperator RulesTime Evolution and Expectation ValuesWrap-UpProblemsSome One-Dimensional So...

  13. The iceberg principles

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer-Devlin, Marni

    2013-01-01

    The Iceberg Principles connect spirituality and science in a way that proves that the energy, which is the substance of the Universe, really is Love - not sweet, syrupy, candy-and-roses kind of love but the most powerful force in the Universe. Love without expression is meaningless. This is why the Big Bang was the only logical outcome. Love had to become reflected in dimensionality. With the Big Bang a 4:96 ratio was created between the dimensional and non-dimensional realms. This ratio between visibility and invisibility the ratio of an iceberg also applies to human beings. Only four percent of who we are is visible. Our physical DNA describes us but it does not define us. What defines us are our characteristics, our gifts, and talents - the spiritual DNA. This is invisible but makes up ninety-six percent of who we are. Our talents are not accidental; our life purpose is to express them. Just as the Universe emerges into dimensionality, constantly creating galaxies at millions of miles a minute, we are al...

  14. Principles of alternative gerontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilinski, Tomasz; Bylak, Aneta; Zadrag-Tecza, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Surveys of taxonomic groups of animals have shown that contrary to the opinion of most gerontologists aging is not a genuine trait. The process of aging is not universal and its mechanisms have not been widely conserved among species. All life forms are subject to extrinsic and intrinsic destructive forces. Destructive effects of stochastic events are visible only when allowed by the specific life program of an organism. Effective life programs of immortality and high longevity eliminate the impact of unavoidable damage. Organisms that are capable of agametic reproduction are biologically immortal. Mortality of an organism is clearly associated with terminal specialisation in sexual reproduction. The longevity phenotype that is not accompanied by symptoms of senescence has been observed in those groups of animals that continue to increase their body size after reaching sexual maturity. This is the result of enormous regeneration abilities of both of the above-mentioned groups. Senescence is observed when: (i) an organism by principle switches off the expression of existing growth and regeneration programs, as in the case of imago formation in insect development; (ii) particular programs of growth and regeneration of progenitors are irreversibly lost, either partially or in their entirety, in mammals and birds. “We can't solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them.” (Ascribed to Albert Einstein) PMID:27017907

  15. Principles of precision medicine in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinman, Jason D; Rost, Natalia S; Leung, Thomas W; Montaner, Joan; Muir, Keith W; Brown, Scott; Arenillas, Juan F; Feldmann, Edward; Liebeskind, David S

    2017-01-01

    The era of precision medicine has arrived and conveys tremendous potential, particularly for stroke neurology. The diagnosis of stroke, its underlying aetiology, theranostic strategies, recurrence risk and path to recovery are populated by a series of highly individualised questions. Moreover, the phenotypic complexity of a clinical diagnosis of stroke makes a simple genetic risk assessment only partially informative on an individual basis. The guiding principles of precision medicine in stroke underscore the need to identify, value, organise and analyse the multitude of variables obtained from each individual to generate a precise approach to optimise cerebrovascular health. Existing data may be leveraged with novel technologies, informatics and practical clinical paradigms to apply these principles in stroke and realise the promise of precision medicine. Importantly, precision medicine in stroke will only be realised once efforts to collect, value and synthesise the wealth of data collected in clinical trials and routine care starts. Stroke theranostics, the ultimate vision of synchronising tailored therapeutic strategies based on specific diagnostic data, demand cerebrovascular expertise on big data approaches to clinically relevant paradigms. This review considers such challenges and delineates the principles on a roadmap for rational application of precision medicine to stroke and cerebrovascular health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Experimental toxicology: the basic principles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anderson, Diana; Conning, D. M

    1988-01-01

    Principles and methods are discussed in detail, covering experimental design, biochemical issues, animal husbandry, species differences, immunological issues, carcinogenesis, reproductive approaches...

  17. The Principle of General Tovariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heunen, C.; Landsman, N. P.; Spitters, B.

    2008-06-01

    We tentatively propose two guiding principles for the construction of theories of physics, which should be satisfied by a possible future theory of quantum gravity. These principles are inspired by those that led Einstein to his theory of general relativity, viz. his principle of general covariance and his equivalence principle, as well as by the two mysterious dogmas of Bohr's interpretation of quantum mechanics, i.e. his doctrine of classical concepts and his principle of complementarity. An appropriate mathematical language for combining these ideas is topos theory, a framework earlier proposed for physics by Isham and collaborators. Our principle of general tovariance states that any mathematical structure appearing in the laws of physics must be definable in an arbitrary topos (with natural numbers object) and must be preserved under so-called geometric morphisms. This principle identifies geometric logic as the mathematical language of physics and restricts the constructions and theorems to those valid in intuitionism: neither Aristotle's principle of the excluded third nor Zermelo's Axiom of Choice may be invoked. Subsequently, our equivalence principle states that any algebra of observables (initially defined in the topos Sets) is empirically equivalent to a commutative one in some other topos.

  18. Using Principles of Programmed Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Harry

    1971-01-01

    Although programmed instruction in accounting is available, it is limited in scope and in acceptance. Teachers, however, may apply principles of programming to the individualizing of instruction. (Author)

  19. Fundamental principles of quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugajski, S.

    1980-01-01

    After introducing general versions of three fundamental quantum postulates - the superposition principle, the uncertainty principle and the complementarity principle - the question of whether the three principles are sufficiently strong to restrict the general Mackey description of quantum systems to the standard Hilbert-space quantum theory is discussed. An example which shows that the answer must be negative is constructed. An abstract version of the projection postulate is introduced and it is demonstrated that it could serve as the missing physical link between the general Mackey description and the standard quantum theory. (author)

  20. The inconstant "principle of constancy".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzer, M

    1983-01-01

    A review of the principle of constancy, as it appeared in Freud's writings, shows that it was inspired by his clinical observations, first with Breuer in the field of cathartic therapy and then through experiences in the early usage of psychoanalysis. The recognition that memories repressed in the unconscious created increasing tension, and that this was relieved with dischargelike phenomena when the unconscious was made conscious, was the basis for his claim to originality in this area. The two principles of "neuronic inertia" Freud expounded in the Project (1895), are found to offer the key to the ambiguous definition of the principle of constancy he was to offer in later years. The "original" principle, which sought the complete discharge of energy (or elimination of stimuli), became the forerunner of the death drive; the "extended" principle achieved balances that were relatively constant, but succumbed in the end to complete discharge. This was the predecessor of the life drives. The relation between the constancy and pleasure-unpleasure principles was maintained for twenty-five years largely on an empirical basis which invoked the concept of psychophysical parallelism between "quantity" and "quality." As the links between the two principles were weakened by clinical experiences attendant upon the growth of ego psychology, a revision of the principle of constancy was suggested, and it was renamed the Nirvana principle. Actually it was shifted from alignment with the "extended" principle of inertia to the original, so that "constancy" was incongruously identified with self-extinction. The former basis for the constancy principle, the extended principle of inertia, became identified with Eros. Only a few commentators seem aware of this radical transformation, which has been overlooked in the Standard Edition of Freud's writings. Physiological biases in the history and conception of the principle of constancy are noted in the Standard Edition. The historical

  1. Bioethical Principles of Biomedical Research Involving Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakir Mehić

    2011-08-01

    animals for research, testing, or training in different countries. In the few that have done so, the measures adopted vary widely: on the one hand, legally enforceable detailed regulations with licensing of experimenters and their premises together with an official inspectorate; on the other, entirely voluntary self-regulation by the biomedical community, with lay participation. Many variations are possible between these extremes, one intermediate situation being a legal requirement that experiments or other procedures involving the use of animals should be subject to the approval of ethical committees of specified composition.The International Guiding Principles are the product of the collaboration of a representative sample of the international biomedical community, including experts of the World Health Organization, and of consultations with responsible animal welfare groups. The International Guiding Principles have already gained a considerable measure of acceptance internationally. European Medical Research Councils (EMRC, an international association that includes all the West European medical research councils, fully endorsed the Guiding Principles in 1984. Here we bring the basic bioethical principles for using animals in biomedical research[3]: Methods such as mathematical models, computer simulation and in vitro biological systems should be used wherever appropriate,Animal experiments should be undertaken only after due consideration of their relevance for human or animal health and the advancement of biological knowledge,The animals selected for an experiment should be of an appropriate species and quality, and the minimum number required to obtain scientifically valid results,Investigators and other personnel should never fail to treat animals as sentient, and should regard their proper care and use and the avoidance or minimization of discomfort, distress, or pain as ethical imperatives,Procedures with animals that may cause more than momentary or minimal

  2. Principles of animal extrapolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabrese, E.J.

    1991-01-01

    Animal Extrapolation presents a comprehensive examination of the scientific issues involved in extrapolating results of animal experiments to human response. This text attempts to present a comprehensive synthesis and analysis of the host of biomedical and toxicological studies of interspecies extrapolation. Calabrese's work presents not only the conceptual basis of interspecies extrapolation, but also illustrates how these principles may be better used in selection of animal experimentation models and in the interpretation of animal experimental results. The book's theme centers around four types of extrapolation: (1) from average animal model to the average human; (2) from small animals to large ones; (3) from high-risk animal to the high risk human; and (4) from high doses of exposure to lower, more realistic, doses. Calabrese attacks the issues of interspecies extrapolation by dealing individually with the factors which contribute to interspecies variability: differences in absorption, intestinal flora, tissue distribution, metabolism, repair mechanisms, and excretion. From this foundation, Calabrese then discusses the heterogeneticity of these same factors in the human population in an attempt to evaluate the representativeness of various animal models in light of interindividual variations. In addition to discussing the question of suitable animal models for specific high-risk groups and specific toxicological endpoints, the author also examines extrapolation questions related to the use of short-term tests to predict long-term human carcinogenicity and birth defects. The book is comprehensive in scope and specific in detail; for those environmental health professions seeking to understand the toxicological models which underlay health risk assessments, Animal Extrapolation is a valuable information source.

  3. The equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smorodinskij, Ya.A.

    1980-01-01

    The prerelativistic history of the equivalence principle (EP) is presented briefly. Its role in history of the general relativity theory (G.R.T.) discovery is elucidated. A modern idea states that the ratio of inert and gravitational masses does not differ from 1 at least up to the 12 sign after comma. Attention is paid to the difference of the gravitational field from electromagnetic one. The difference is as follows, the energy of the gravitational field distributed in space is the source of the field. These fields always interact at superposition. Electromagnetic fields from different sources are put together. On the basis of EP it is established the Sun field interact with the Earth gravitational energy in the same way as with any other one. The latter proves the existence of gravitation of the very gravitational field to a heavy body. A problem on gyroscope movement in the Earth gravitational field is presented as a paradox. The calculation has shown that gyroscope at satellite makes a positive precession, and its axis turns in an angle equal to α during a turn of the satellite round the Earth, but because of the space curvature - into the angle two times larger than α. A resulting turn is equal to 3α. It is shown on the EP basis that the polarization plane in any coordinate system does not turn when the ray of light passes in the gravitational field. Together with the historical value of EP noted is the necessity to take into account the requirements claimed by the EP at description of the physical world

  4. Foundations of gravitation theory: the principle of equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugan, M.P.

    1978-01-01

    A new framework is presented within which to discuss the principle of equivalence and its experimental tests. The framework incorporates a special structure imposed on the equivalence principle by the principle of energy conservation. This structure includes relations among the conceptual components of the equivalence principle as well as quantitative relations among the outcomes of its experimental tests. One of the most striking new results obtained through use of this framework is a connection between the breakdown of local Lorentz invariance and the breakdown of the principle that all bodies fall with the same acceleration in a gravitational field. An extensive discussion of experimental tests of the equivalence principle and their significance is also presented. Within the above framework, theory-independent analyses of a broad range of equivalence principle tests are possible. Gravitational redshift experiments. Doppler-shift experiments, the Turner-Hill and Hughes-Drever experiments, and a number of solar-system tests of gravitation theories are analyzed. Application of the techniques of theoretical nuclear physics to the quantitative interpretation of equivalence principle tests using laboratory materials of different composition yields a number of important results. It is found that current Eotvos experiments significantly demonstrate the compatibility of the weak interactions with the equivalence principle. It is also shown that the Hughes-Drever experiment is the most precise test of local Lorentz invariance yet performed. The work leads to a strong, tightly knit empirical basis for the principle of equivalence, the central pillar of the foundations of gravitation theory

  5. Key principles for a national clinical decision support knowledge sharing framework: synthesis of insights from leading subject matter experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Kensaku; Hongsermeier, Tonya; Wright, Adam; Lewis, Janet; Bell, Douglas S; Middleton, Blackford

    2013-01-01

    To identify key principles for establishing a national clinical decision support (CDS) knowledge sharing framework. As part of an initiative by the US Office of the National Coordinator for Health IT (ONC) to establish a framework for national CDS knowledge sharing, key stakeholders were identified. Stakeholders' viewpoints were obtained through surveys and in-depth interviews, and findings and relevant insights were summarized. Based on these insights, key principles were formulated for establishing a national CDS knowledge sharing framework. Nineteen key stakeholders were recruited, including six executives from electronic health record system vendors, seven executives from knowledge content producers, three executives from healthcare provider organizations, and three additional experts in clinical informatics. Based on these stakeholders' insights, five key principles were identified for effectively sharing CDS knowledge nationally. These principles are (1) prioritize and support the creation and maintenance of a national CDS knowledge sharing framework; (2) facilitate the development of high-value content and tooling, preferably in an open-source manner; (3) accelerate the development or licensing of required, pragmatic standards; (4) acknowledge and address medicolegal liability concerns; and (5) establish a self-sustaining business model. Based on the principles identified, a roadmap for national CDS knowledge sharing was developed through the ONC's Advancing CDS initiative. The study findings may serve as a useful guide for ongoing activities by the ONC and others to establish a national framework for sharing CDS knowledge and improving clinical care.

  6. Passage relevance models for genomics search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frieder Ophir

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a passage relevance model for integrating syntactic and semantic evidence of biomedical concepts and topics using a probabilistic graphical model. Component models of topics, concepts, terms, and document are represented as potential functions within a Markov Random Field. The probability of a passage being relevant to a biologist's information need is represented as the joint distribution across all potential functions. Relevance model feedback of top ranked passages is used to improve distributional estimates of query concepts and topics in context, and a dimensional indexing strategy is used for efficient aggregation of concept and term statistics. By integrating multiple sources of evidence including dependencies between topics, concepts, and terms, we seek to improve genomics literature passage retrieval precision. Using this model, we are able to demonstrate statistically significant improvements in retrieval precision using a large genomics literature corpus.

  7. Quantification of the equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, K.J.

    1978-01-01

    Quantitative relationships illustrate Einstein's equivalence principle, relating it to Newton's ''fictitious'' forces arising from the use of noninertial frames, and to the form of the relativistic time dilatation in local Lorentz frames. The equivalence principle can be interpreted as the equivalence of general covariance to local Lorentz covariance, in a manner which is characteristic of Riemannian and pseudo-Riemannian geometries

  8. Principles and Criteria for Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beghin, D.; Cervetto, D.; Hansen, Peter Friis

    1997-01-01

    The mandate of ISSC Committee IV.1 on principles and Criteria for Design is to report on the following:The ongoing concern for quantification of general economic and safety criteria for marine structures and for the development of appropriate principles for rational life cycle design using...

  9. The Virtue of Principle Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersoff, Donald N.

    1996-01-01

    Presents arguments against adopting virtue ethics as a guiding concept in developing counseling guidelines: (1) virtue ethics is irrelevant in the resolution of most ethics cases; (2) virtue and principle ethics overlap; (3) principle ethics are more suited to acting and deciding; (4) the emphasis on virtue ethics increases the possibility of…

  10. Gene probes: principles and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aquino de Muro, Marilena; Rapley, Ralph

    2002-01-01

    ... of labeled DNA has allowed genes to be mapped to single chromosomes and in many cases to a single chromosome band, promoting significant advance in human genome mapping. Gene Probes: Principles and Protocols presents the principles for gene probe design, labeling, detection, target format, and hybridization conditions together with detailed protocols, accom...

  11. Legal Principles and Legislative Instrumentalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gribnau, J.L.M.; Soeteman, A.

    2003-01-01

    Instrumentalist legislation usually underestimates the importance of legal principles in modern law. Legal principles are the normative core of a value oriented conception of law. They function as essential criteria of evaluation for lawmaking by the legislator and the executive. In fact,

  12. Evolutionary principles and their practical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Andrew P; Kinnison, Michael T; Heino, Mikko; Day, Troy; Smith, Thomas B; Fitt, Gary; Bergstrom, Carl T; Oakeshott, John; Jørgensen, Peter S; Zalucki, Myron P; Gilchrist, George; Southerton, Simon; Sih, Andrew; Strauss, Sharon; Denison, Robert F; Carroll, Scott P

    2011-03-01

    Evolutionary principles are now routinely incorporated into medicine and agriculture. Examples include the design of treatments that slow the evolution of resistance by weeds, pests, and pathogens, and the design of breeding programs that maximize crop yield or quality. Evolutionary principles are also increasingly incorporated into conservation biology, natural resource management, and environmental science. Examples include the protection of small and isolated populations from inbreeding depression, the identification of key traits involved in adaptation to climate change, the design of harvesting regimes that minimize unwanted life-history evolution, and the setting of conservation priorities based on populations, species, or communities that harbor the greatest evolutionary diversity and potential. The adoption of evolutionary principles has proceeded somewhat independently in these different fields, even though the underlying fundamental concepts are the same. We explore these fundamental concepts under four main themes: variation, selection, connectivity, and eco-evolutionary dynamics. Within each theme, we present several key evolutionary principles and illustrate their use in addressing applied problems. We hope that the resulting primer of evolutionary concepts and their practical utility helps to advance a unified multidisciplinary field of applied evolutionary biology.

  13. A Business-Relevant View of Human Nature

    OpenAIRE

    Mitreanu, Cristian

    2007-01-01

    The article, "A Business-Relevant View of Human Nature," provides a new theory of human nature, and aims to bring it to the center of our understanding of business, or commerce, creating a strong foundation for new business and economic principles and practices. The article has three parts. In the first section, the author identifies and discusses the fundamental drives that characterize all forms of life. Building upon these findings, he then develops the unique view of human nature in the s...

  14. The principles of radioactive waste management. A publication within the RADWASS programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This publication defines the objective of radioactive waste management and the associated set of internationally agreed principles. The Safety Fundamentals include the objective of radioactive waste management and fundamental principles of radioactive waste management. The fundamental principles fall into the following general subject areas: protection of human health, protection of the environment, protection beyond national borders, responsibility to future generations and implementation procedures. Each principle is stated, and supporting and explanatory information pertaining to the principle is provided. 1 fig

  15. Wildland fire and fuel management: principles for effective communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric Toman; Bruce Shindler

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we discuss four principles identified through recent research for effective citizen-agency communication and examine their use in accomplishing fire management objectives. Principles include the following: (1) effective communication is a product of effective planning; (2) both unidirectional (one-way) and interactive approaches are part of successful...

  16. Clinical relevance in anesthesia journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Jakob; Møller, Ann M

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present the latest knowledge and research on the definition and distribution of clinically relevant articles in anesthesia journals. It will also discuss the importance of the chosen methodology and outcome of articles.......The purpose of this review is to present the latest knowledge and research on the definition and distribution of clinically relevant articles in anesthesia journals. It will also discuss the importance of the chosen methodology and outcome of articles....

  17. Principles of European Contract Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole; Beale, Hugh

    This text provides a comprehensive guide to the principles of European contract law. They have been drawn up by an independent body of experts from each Member State of the EU, under a project supported by the European Commission and many other organizations. The principles are stated in the form...... of articles, with a detailed commentary explaining the purpose and operation of each article and its relation to the remainder. Each article also has extensive comparative notes surveying the national laws and other international provisions on the topic. "The Principles of European Contract Law Parts I &...... in developing a common European legal culture. The European Parliament has twice called for the creation of a European Civil Code. The principles of European contract law are essential steps in these projects. This text provides a comprehensive guide to the Principles of European contract law. They have been...

  18. Two conceptions of legal principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spaić Bojan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the classical understanding of legal principles as the most general norms of a legal order, confronting it with Dworkin's and Alexy's understanding of legal principles as prima facie, unconditional commands. The analysis shows that the common, classical conception brings into question the status of legal principles as norms, by disreguarding their usefulness in judicial reasoning, while, conversely, the latterhas significant import forlegal practice and consequently for legal dogmatics. It is argued that the heuristic fruitfulness of understanding principles as optimization commands thusbecomesapparent. When we understand the relation of priciples to the idea of proportionality, as thespecific mode of their application, which is different from the supsumtive mode of applying rules, the theory of legal principles advanced by Dworkin and Alexy appears therefore to be descriptively better than others, but not without its flaws.

  19. Quantum principles in field interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkov, D.V.

    1986-01-01

    The concept of quantum principle is intruduced as a principle whosee formulation is based on specific quantum ideas and notions. We consider three such principles, viz. those of quantizability, local gauge symmetry, and supersymmetry, and their role in the development of the quantum field theory (QFT). Concerning the first of these, we analyze the formal aspects and physical contents of the renormalization procedure in QFT and its relation to ultraviolet divergences and the renorm group. The quantizability principle is formulated as an existence condition of a self-consistent quantum version with a given mechanism of the field interaction. It is shown that the consecutive (from a historial point of view) use of these quantum principles puts still larger limitations on possible forms of field interactions

  20. The Fundamental Principle of Human Dignity and the Right to Life : Collision Any of These Fundamental Principles The Perspective of Abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika do Amaral Véras

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This legal article works the theme of the collision of the fundamental principles, especially the principle of human dignity and the right to life, abortion perspective. First, we discuss of fundamental rights, bringing its definition, observed the distinction between human rights and fundamental rights. Then the super principle of human dignity is covered and, soon after, the right to life is highlighted through its relevant elements. Finally, talks on a possible collision beween the fundamental right to life and the principle of human dignity, with a special focus on the issue of abortion.

  1. Principles of cobalt-60 teletherapy including an introduction to the compendium. Guidelines in clinical radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, J.S.; Hlasivec, Z.

    1984-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the clinical radiotherapeutic oncologist must be a well educated doctor, with wide knowledge and experience, able to deal with the many difficult problems that can arise in connection with radiotherapy, curative, palliative or prophylactic. The management, treatment and care of the individual patient with malignant disease is a major task of medicine, requiring up-to-date knowledge in a number of rapidly advancing fields. To be efficient, it is essential for the clinical radiation oncologist to continue his education throughout his life, by reading the literature, attending lectures, conferences and advanced 'refresher' courses, and by visiting other centres. The clinical radiation oncologist will discover that it is wise, where at all possible, to spend a proportion of his time working with other specialists on clinical trials and research, with formal publication of the results. The disciplines of such work will deepen his understanding, not only of his own speciality, but of the whole field of oncology, and will further co-operation between the many different specialists on whose combined efforts the cure of each individual patient and the advances in the treatment of cancer must ultimately depend

  2. Intervention principles: Theory and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, P.H.; Crick, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, it became clear that some clarification of the basic principles for intervention was necessary as well as more internationally recognised numerical guidance on intervention levels. There was in the former USSR and in Europe much confusion over, and lack of recognition of, the very different origins and purposes of dose limits for controlling deliberate increases in radiation exposure for practices and dose levels at which intervention is prompted to decrease existing radiation exposure. In the latest recommendations from ICRP in its Publication 60, a clear distinction is made between the radiation protection systems for a practice and for intervention. According to ICRP, the protective measures forming a program of intervention, which always have some disadvantages, should each be justified on their own merit in the sense that they should do more good than harm, and their form, scale, and duration should be optimised so as to do the most good. Intervention levels for protective actions can be established for many possible accident scenarios. For planning and preparedness purposes, a generic optimisation based on generic accident scenario calculations, should result in optimised generic intervention levels for each protective measure. The factors entering such an optimisation will on the benefit side include avertable doses and avertable risks as well as reassurance. On the harm side the factors include monetary costs, collective and individual risk for the action itself, social disruption and anxiety. More precise optimisation analyses based on real site and accident specific data can be carried out and result in specific intervention levels. It is desirable that values for easily measurable quantities such as dose rate and surface contamination density be developed as surrogates for intervention levels of avertable dose. However, it is important that these quantities should be used carefully and applied taking account of local

  3. The value relevance of direct cash flows under international financial reporting standards

    OpenAIRE

    Clacher, I; de Ricquebourg, AD; Hodgson, A

    2013-01-01

    This study examines if there has been a change in the value relevance of direct cash flow components since the adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) in Australia. Our results show that for both industrial and extractive firms direct cash flow statements are value relevant under Australian Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (AGAAP) and remain so after the adoption of IFRS. In addition, for industrial firms there is a significant increase in the value relevance of...

  4. Information security management principles

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Andy; Finch, Amanda; Sutton, David; Taylor, Andy

    2013-01-01

    In today's technology-driven environment, there is an ever-increasing demand for information delivery. A compromise has to be struck between security and availability. This book is a pragmatic guide to information assurance for both business professionals and technical experts. This second edition includes the security of cloud-based resources.

  5. Principles of managing stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Marquis; Rodney Jacobs

    1989-01-01

    Forest stands are managed to achieve some combination of desired products or values. These products or values may include income and tangible benefits from timber production or fees for hunting rights and other recreational activities. The values may be intangible, such as the enjoyment of seeing wildlife or flowering plants, or the simple satisfaction of knowing that...

  6. Analytical chemistry: Principles and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargis, L.G.

    1988-01-01

    Although this text seems to have been intended for use in a one-semester course in undergraduate analytical chemistry, it includes the range of topics usually encountered in a two-semester introductory course in chemical analysis. The material is arranged logically for use in a two-semester course: the first 12 chapters contain the subjects most often covered in the first term, and the next 10 chapters pertain to the second (instrumental) term. Overall breadth and level of treatment are standards for an undergraduate text of this sort, and the only major omission is that of kinetic methods (which is a common omission in analytical texts). In the first 12 chapters coverage of the basic material is quite good. The emphasis on the underlying principles of the techniques rather than on specifics and design of instrumentation is welcomed. This text may be more useful for the instrumental portion of an analytical chemistry course than for the solution chemistry segment. The instrumental analysis portion is appropriate for an introductory textbook

  7. Principles of computational fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesseling, P.

    2001-01-01

    The book is aimed at graduate students, researchers, engineers and physicists involved in flow computations. An up-to-date account is given of the present state- of-the-art of numerical methods employed in computational fluid dynamics. The underlying numerical principles are treated with a fair amount of detail, using elementary mathematical analysis. Attention is given to difficulties arising from geometric complexity of the flow domain and of nonuniform structured boundary-fitted grids. Uniform accuracy and efficiency for singular perturbation problems is studied, pointing the way to accurate computation of flows at high Reynolds number. Much attention is given to stability analysis, and useful stability conditions are provided, some of them new, for many numerical schemes used in practice. Unified methods for compressible and incompressible flows are discussed. Numerical analysis of the shallow-water equations is included. The theory of hyperbolic conservation laws is treated. Godunov's order barrier and how to overcome it by means of slope-limited schemes is discussed. An introduction is given to efficient iterative solution methods, using Krylov subspace and multigrid acceleration. Many pointers are given to recent literature, to help the reader to quickly reach the current research frontier. (orig.)

  8. Turbulence and the Stabilization Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail

    2010-01-01

    Further results of research, reported in several previous NASA Tech Briefs articles, were obtained on a mathematical formalism for postinstability motions of a dynamical system characterized by exponential divergences of trajectories leading to chaos (including turbulence). To recapitulate: Fictitious control forces are introduced to couple the dynamical equations with a Liouville equation that describes the evolution of the probability density of errors in initial conditions. These forces create a powerful terminal attractor in probability space that corresponds to occurrence of a target trajectory with probability one. The effect in ordinary perceived three-dimensional space is to suppress exponential divergences of neighboring trajectories without affecting the target trajectory. Con sequently, the postinstability motion is represented by a set of functions describing the evolution of such statistical quantities as expectations and higher moments, and this representation is stable. The previously reported findings are analyzed from the perspective of the authors Stabilization Principle, according to which (1) stability is recognized as an attribute of mathematical formalism rather than of underlying physics and (2) a dynamical system that appears unstable when modeled by differentiable functions only can be rendered stable by modifying the dynamical equations to incorporate intrinsic stochasticity.

  9. Drug targeting to tumors: principles, pitfalls and (pre-) clinical progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Twan; Kiessling, Fabian; Hennink, Wim E; Storm, Gert

    2012-07-20

    Many different systems and strategies have been evaluated for drug targeting to tumors over the years. Routinely used systems include liposomes, polymers, micelles, nanoparticles and antibodies, and examples of strategies are passive drug targeting, active drug targeting to cancer cells, active drug targeting to endothelial cells and triggered drug delivery. Significant progress has been made in this area of research both at the preclinical and at the clinical level, and a number of (primarily passively tumor-targeted) nanomedicine formulations have been approved for clinical use. Significant progress has also been made with regard to better understanding the (patho-) physiological principles of drug targeting to tumors. This has led to the identification of several important pitfalls in tumor-targeted drug delivery, including I) overinterpretation of the EPR effect; II) poor tumor and tissue penetration of nanomedicines; III) misunderstanding of the potential usefulness of active drug targeting; IV) irrational formulation design, based on materials which are too complex and not broadly applicable; V) insufficient incorporation of nanomedicine formulations in clinically relevant combination regimens; VI) negligence of the notion that the highest medical need relates to metastasis, and not to solid tumor treatment; VII) insufficient integration of non-invasive imaging techniques and theranostics, which could be used to personalize nanomedicine-based therapeutic interventions; and VIII) lack of (efficacy analyses in) proper animal models, which are physiologically more relevant and more predictive for the clinical situation. These insights strongly suggest that besides making ever more nanomedicine formulations, future efforts should also address some of the conceptual drawbacks of drug targeting to tumors, and that strategies should be developed to overcome these shortcomings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Applying bioethical principles to human biomonitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison Myron

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bioethical principles are widely used as a normative framework in areas of human research and medical care. In recent years there has been increasing formalization of their use in public health decisions. The "traditional bioethical principles" are applied in this discussion to the important issue human biomonitoring for environmental exposures. They are: (1 Autonomy – Also known as the "respect for humans" principle, people understand their own best interests; (2 Beneficence – "do good" for people; (3 Nonmaleficence – "do no harm"; (4 Justice – fair distribution of benefits and costs (including risks to health across stakeholders. Some of the points made are: (1 There is not a single generic bioethical analysis applicable to the use of human biomonitoring data, each specific use requires a separate deliberation; (2 Using unidentified, population-based biomonitoring information for risk assessment or population surveillance raises fewer bioethical concerns than personally identified biomonitoring information such as employed in health screening; (3 Companies should proactively apply normative bioethical principles when considering the disposition of products and by-products in the environment and humans; (4 There is a need for more engagement by scholars on the bioethical issues raised by the use of biomarkers of exposure; (5 Though our scientific knowledge of biology will continue to increase, there will always be a role for methods or frameworks to resolve substantive disagreements in the meaning of this data that are matters of belief rather than knowledge.

  11. Applying bioethical principles to human biomonitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison Myron

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bioethical principles are widely used as a normative framework in areas of human research and medical care. In recent years there has been increasing formalization of their use in public health decisions. The "traditional bioethical principles" are applied in this discussion to the important issue human biomonitoring for environmental exposures. They are: (1 Autonomy – Also known as the "respect for humans" principle, people understand their own best interests; (2 Beneficence – "do good" for people; (3 Nonmaleficence – "do no harm"; (4 Justice – fair distribution of benefits and costs (including risks to health across stakeholders. Some of the points made are: (1 There is not a single generic bioethical analysis applicable to the use of human biomonitoring data, each specific use requires a separate deliberation; (2 Using unidentified, population-based biomonitoring information for risk assessment or population surveillance raises fewer bioethical concerns than personally identified biomonitoring information such as employed in health screening; (3 Companies should proactively apply normative bioethical principles when considering the disposition of products and by-products in the environment and humans; (4 There is a need for more engagement by scholars on the bioethical issues raised by the use of biomarkers of exposure; (5 Though our scientific knowledge of biology will continue to increase, there will always be a role for methods or frameworks to resolve substantive disagreements in the meaning of this data that are matters of belief rather than knowledge.

  12. Energy conservation and the principle of equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugan, M.P.

    1979-01-01

    If the equivalence principle is violated, then observers performing local experiments can detect effects due to their position in an external gravitational environment (preferred-location effects) or can detect effects due to their velocity through some preferred frame (preferred frame effects). We show that the principle of energy conservation implies a quantitative connection between such effects and structure-dependence of the gravitational acceleration of test bodies (violation of the Weak Equivalence Principle). We analyze this connection within a general theoretical framework that encompasses both non-gravitational local experiments and test bodies as well as gravitational experiments and test bodies, and we use it to discuss specific experimental tests of the equivalence principle, including non-gravitational tests such as gravitational redshift experiments, Eoetvoes experiments, the Hughes-Drever experiment, and the Turner-Hill experiment, and gravitational tests such as the lunar-laser-ranging ''Eoetvoes'' experiment, and measurements of anisotropies and variations in the gravitational constant. This framework is illustrated by analyses within two theoretical formalisms for studying gravitational theories: the PPN formalism, which deals with the motion of gravitating bodies within metric theories of gravity, and the THepsilonμ formalism that deals with the motion of charged particles within all metric theories and a broad class of non-metric theories of gravity

  13. NanoBiosensing Principles, Development and Application

    CERN Document Server

    Ju, Huangxian; Wang, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This book will cover the full scope of nanobiosensing, which combines the newest research results in the cross-disciplines of chemistry, biology, and materials science with biosensing and bioanalysis to develop novel detection principles, sensing mechanisms, and device engineering methods. It not only covers the important types of nanomaterials for biosensing applications, including carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofiber, quantum dots, fullerenes, fluorescent and biological molecules, etc., but also illustrates a wide range of sensing principles, including electrochemical detection, fluorescence, chemiluminesence, antibody-antigen interactions, and magnetic detection. The book details novel developments in the methodology and devices of biosensing and bioanalysis combined with nanoscience and nanotechnology, as well as their applications in biomedicine and environmental monitoring. Furthermore, the reported works on the application and biofunction of nanoparticles have attracted extensive attention and interest, ...

  14. Biaxial stretching of film principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Demeuse, M T

    2011-01-01

    Biaxial (having two axes) stretching of film is used for a range of applications and is the primary manufacturing process by which products are produced for the food packaging industry. Biaxial stretching of film: principles and applications provides an overview of the manufacturing processes and range of applications for biaxially stretched films. Part one reviews the fundamental principles of biaxial stretching. After an introductory chapter which defines terms, chapters discuss equipment design and requirements, laboratory evaluations, biaxial film structures and typical industrial processes for the biaxial orientation of films. Additional topics include post production processing of biaxially stretched films, the stress-strain behaviour of poly(ethylene terephthalate) and academic investigations of biaxially stretched films. Part two investigates the applications of biaxial films including fresh cut produce, snack packaging and product labelling. A final chapter investigates potential future trends for bi...

  15. Principles and guidelines for radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    Four basic principles relevant to radioactive waste disposal identified. These principles cover the justification of the activity giving rise to the waste, the consideration of risk to present and future generations, the minimization of the need for intervention in the future, and the financial obligations of the licensee. The use of risk limits as opposed to dose limits associated with disposal is discussed, as are the concepts of critical group, de minimis, and ALARA, in the context of a waste disposal facility. Guidance is given on the selection of the preferred waste disposal concept from among several alternatives, and for judging proposed design improvements to the chosen concept

  16. An introduction to heat transfer principles and calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Ede, A J; Ower, E

    1967-01-01

    An Introduction to Heat Transfer Principles and Calculations is an introductory text to the principles and calculations of heat transfer. The theory underlying heat transfer is described, and the principal results and formulae are presented. Available techniques for obtaining rapid, approximate solutions to complicated problems are also considered. This book is comprised of 12 chapters and begins with a brief account of some of the concepts, methods, nomenclature, and other relevant information about heat transfer. The reader is then introduced to radiation, conduction, convection, and boiling

  17. Shippingport: A relevant decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crimi, F.P.

    1988-01-01

    Because of Shippingport's low electrical power rating (72 MWe), there has been some misunderstanding on the relevancy of the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP) to a modern 1175 MWe commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR) power station. This paper provides a comparison of the major components of the reactor plant of the 72 MWe Shippingport Atomic Power Station and an 1175 MWe nuclear plant and the relevancy of the Shippingport decommissioning as a demonstration project for the nuclear industry. For the purpose of this comparison, Portland General Electric Company's 1175 MWe Trojan Nuclear Plant at Rainier, Oregon, has been used as the reference nuclear power plant. 2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  18. Consolidated principles for screening based on a systematic review and consensus process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrow, Mark J; Hagens, Victoria; Chafe, Roger; Sullivan, Terrence; Rabeneck, Linda

    2018-04-09

    In 1968, Wilson and Jungner published 10 principles of screening that often represent the de facto starting point for screening decisions today; 50 years on, are these principles still the right ones? Our objectives were to review published work that presents principles for population-based screening decisions since Wilson and Jungner's seminal publication, and to conduct a Delphi consensus process to assess the review results. We conducted a systematic review and modified Delphi consensus process. We searched multiple databases for articles published in English in 1968 or later that were intended to guide population-based screening decisions, described development and modification of principles, and presented principles as a set or list. Identified sets were compared for basic characteristics (e.g., number, categorization), a citation analysis was conducted, and principles were iteratively synthesized and consolidated into categories to assess evolution. Participants in the consensus process assessed the level of agreement with the importance and interpretability of the consolidated screening principles. We identified 41 sets and 367 unique principles. Each unique principle was coded to 12 consolidated decision principles that were further categorized as disease/condition, test/intervention or program/system principles. Program or system issues were the focus of 3 of Wilson and Jungner's 10 principles, but comprised almost half of all unique principles identified in the review. The 12 consolidated principles were assessed through 2 rounds of the consensus process, leading to specific refinements to improve their relevance and interpretability. No gaps or missing principles were identified. Wilson and Jungner's principles are remarkably enduring, but increasingly reflect a truncated version of contemporary thinking on screening that does not fully capture subsequent focus on program or system principles. Ultimately, this review and consensus process provides a

  19. Consolidated principles for screening based on a systematic review and consensus process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagens, Victoria; Chafe, Roger; Sullivan, Terrence; Rabeneck, Linda

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 1968, Wilson and Jungner published 10 principles of screening that often represent the de facto starting point for screening decisions today; 50 years on, are these principles still the right ones? Our objectives were to review published work that presents principles for population-based screening decisions since Wilson and Jungner’s seminal publication, and to conduct a Delphi consensus process to assess the review results. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and modified Delphi consensus process. We searched multiple databases for articles published in English in 1968 or later that were intended to guide population-based screening decisions, described development and modification of principles, and presented principles as a set or list. Identified sets were compared for basic characteristics (e.g., number, categorization), a citation analysis was conducted, and principles were iteratively synthesized and consolidated into categories to assess evolution. Participants in the consensus process assessed the level of agreement with the importance and interpretability of the consolidated screening principles. RESULTS: We identified 41 sets and 367 unique principles. Each unique principle was coded to 12 consolidated decision principles that were further categorized as disease/condition, test/intervention or program/system principles. Program or system issues were the focus of 3 of Wilson and Jungner’s 10 principles, but comprised almost half of all unique principles identified in the review. The 12 consolidated principles were assessed through 2 rounds of the consensus process, leading to specific refinements to improve their relevance and interpretability. No gaps or missing principles were identified. INTERPRETATION: Wilson and Jungner’s principles are remarkably enduring, but increasingly reflect a truncated version of contemporary thinking on screening that does not fully capture subsequent focus on program or system principles

  20. Demonstration of Human-Autonomy Teaming Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Robert Jay

    2016-01-01

    Known problems with automation include lack of mode awareness, automation brittleness, and risk of miscalibrated trust. Human-Autonomy Teaming (HAT) is essential for improving these problems. We have identified some critical components of HAT and ran a part-task study to introduce these components to a ground station that supports flight following of multiple aircraft. Our goal was to demonstrate, evaluate, and refine HAT principles. This presentation provides a brief summary of the study and initial findings.

  1. Design Principles for E-Government Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoz, Alain

    The paper introduces a holistic approach for architecting systems which must sustain the entire e-government activity of a public authority. Four principles directly impact the architecture: Legality, Responsibility, Transparency, and Symmetry leading to coherent representations of the architecture for the client, the designer and the builder. The approach enables to deploy multipartite, distributed public services, including legal delegation of roles and outsourcing of non mandatory tasks through PPP.

  2. Principles and practice of sustainable tourism planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Dumbraveanu

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is developing a theoretical introduction and presentation of concepts, principles and development strategies in sustainable tourism. A detailed presentation of all the theoretical concepts concerning sustainable development and its tourism dimension is included further focusing on theoretical strategic framework for and its fundamental components. Its second part is concerned with sustainable tourism in practice with a special emphasis on types of carrying capacity.

  3. Basic principles of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valk, J.; MacLean, C.; Algra, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    The intent of this book is to help clinicians understand the basic physical principles of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The book consists of the following: a discussion of elementary considerations; pulse sequencing; localization of MR signals in space; MR equipment; MR contrast agents; clinical applications; MR spectroscopy; and biological effects of MR imaging; a set of appendixes; and a bibliography. Illustrations and images are included

  4. Identifying internet marketing principles relevant to generic marketers / Ayesha Lian Bevan-Dye

    OpenAIRE

    Bevan-Dye, Ayesha Lian

    2005-01-01

    To deliver the type of marketing graduate that meets industry demand necessitates that marketing curricula content be continuously updated to keep pace with the dynamic marketing environment. One of the major trends influencing the twenty-first century marketing environment is the advent of the Internet and substantial growth in Internet usage and Internet-based commerce. Not only is the Internet driving major marketing environmental change, it is also emerging as a new marketing tool of sign...

  5. Which Management Control System principles and aspects are relevant when deploying a learning machine?

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Johansson; Mikael, Göthager

    2017-01-01

    How shall a business adapt its management control systems when learning machines enter the arena? Will the control system continue to focus on humans aspects and continue to consider a learning machine to be an automation tool as any other historically programmed computer? Learning machines introduces productivity capabilities that achieve very high levels of efficiency and quality. A learning machine can sort through large amounts of data and make conclusions difficult by a human mind. Howev...

  6. Risk management: Core principles and practices, and their relevance to wildland fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew P. Thompson; Donald G. MacGregor; Dave Calkin

    2016-01-01

    The Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture faces a future of increasing complexity and risk, pressing financial issues, and the inescapable possibility of loss of human life. These issues are perhaps most acute for wildland fire management, the highest risk activity in which the Forest Service engages. Risk management (RM) has long been put forth as an...

  7. Is QCD relevant to nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, A.W.

    1985-01-01

    A review is given of recent work on baryon structure in a number of QCD-motivated models. After establishing a prima facie case that the quark model should be relevant in a consistent description of the nucleus over a wide range of momentum transfer, the author looks for experimental confirmation. The discussion includes the search for exotic states, for a six quark component of the deuteron, and an up to date report on the interpretation of the EMC effect. (Auth.)

  8. A Multistep Equilibria-Redox-Complexation Demonstration to Illustrate Le Chatelier's Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Tomas G.; Mellon, Edward K.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a process that can be used to illustrate a number of chemical principles including Le Chatelier's principle, redox chemistry, equilibria versus steady state situations, and solubility of species. (JRH)

  9. VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLE FOR PLANETARY INTERIORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Li; Jacobsen, Stein B.

    2016-01-01

    In the past few years, the number of confirmed planets has grown above 2000. It is clear that they represent a diversity of structures not seen in our own solar system. In addition to very detailed interior modeling, it is valuable to have a simple analytical framework for describing planetary structures. The variational principle is a fundamental principle in physics, entailing that a physical system follows the trajectory, which minimizes its action. It is alternative to the differential equation formulation of a physical system. Applying the variational principle to the planetary interior can beautifully summarize the set of differential equations into one, which provides us some insight into the problem. From this principle, a universal mass–radius relation, an estimate of the error propagation from the equation of state to the mass–radius relation, and a form of the virial theorem applicable to planetary interiors are derived.

  10. Principles and practice of psychopharmacotherapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Janicak, Philip G; Marder, Stephen R; Pavuluri, Mani N

    2011-01-01

    "Fully updated for its Fifth Edition, Principles and Practice of Psychopharmacotherapy summarizes the latest data on hundreds of drug and device-based therapies and offers practical, evidence-based...

  11. Guiding Principles for Data Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The principles in the document are intended to help guide the identification of data needs, promote and optimize full use of existing knowledge, provide consistency in the data request process across all scientific disciplines for pesticide review.

  12. Quantum mechanics principles and formalism

    CERN Document Server

    McWeeny, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Focusing on main principles of quantum mechanics and their immediate consequences, this graduate student-oriented volume develops the subject as a fundamental discipline, opening with review of origins of Schrödinger's equations and vector spaces.

  13. Review of nuclear fuel cycle alternatives including certain features pertaining to weapon proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.C.; Rosenstroch, B.

    1978-01-01

    Largely as a result of concerns over nuclear weapon proliferation, the U.S. program to develop and commercialize the plutonium-fueled breeder reactor has been slowed down; interest in alternative fuel cycles has increased. The report offers an informal review of the various nuclear fuel cycle options including some aspects relevant to weapon proliferation, although no complete review of the latter subject is attempted. Basic principles governing breeding, reactor safety, and efficient utilization of fission energy resources (thorium and uranium) are discussed. The controversial problems of weapon proliferation and its relation to fuel reprocessing (which is essential for efficient fuel cycles) are reviewed and a number of proposed approaches to reducing proliferation risks are noted. Some representative specific reactor concepts are described, with emphasis on their development status, their potentials for resource utilization, and their implications for proliferation

  14. Update heat exchanger designing principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipets, A.U.; Yampol'skij, A.E.

    1985-01-01

    Update heat exchanger design principles are analysed. Different coolant pattern in a heat exchanger are considered. It is suggested to rationally organize flow rates irregularity in it. Applying on heat exchanger designing measures on using really existing temperature and flow rate irregularities will permit to improve heat exchanger efficiency. It is expedient in some cases to artificially produce irregularities. In this connection some heat exchanger design principles must be reviewed now

  15. Gyro precession and Mach's principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eby, P.

    1979-01-01

    The precession of a gyroscope is calculated in a nonrelativistic theory due to Barbour which satisfies Mach's principle. It is shown that the theory predicts both the geodetic and motional precession of general relativity to within factors of order 1. The significance of the gyro experiment is discussed from the point of view of metric theories of gravity and this is contrasted with its significance from the point of view of Mach's principle. (author)

  16. Teaching the Principles of Economics

    OpenAIRE

    N. Gregory Mankiw

    1998-01-01

    In this brief essay, I describe my approach to the principles course. I emphasize three themes. First, in teaching microeconomics, the tools of welfare economics should play a larger role than they have in the past. Second, in teaching macroeconomics, classical ideas should play a larger role than they have in the past. Third, in teaching all parts of the course, we instructors should be sure to stress the important principles and be careful not to overwhelm students with an excess of details.

  17. The principles of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The aim of radiation protection is to avoid or to reduce the risks linked to ionizing radiation. In order to reduce these risks, the radiation protection uses three great principles: justification, optimization and limitation of radiation doses. to apply these principles, the radiation protection has regulatory and technical means adapted to three different categories of people: public, patients and workers. The nuclear safety authority elaborates the regulation, and carries out monitoring of the reliable application of radiation protection system. (N.C.)

  18. The Laughter as Hope Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Domingues da Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The work aims to establish a parallel between the concept of laughter and the Hope Principle of Ernst Bloch, differentiating their relationship between the pursuit of individual happiness, said to be ideological, deceptive and precarious, and the pursuit of collective happiness, altruistic, that despite utopian it is also true and real, just for being selfless and real because, as a collective expression, indicating concretely and politically, is a real possibility.Keywords: Laughter, Hope Principle, Ernest Bloch, altruism.

  19. Does the relativity principle violate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barashenkov, V.S.

    1994-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental data about a possible existence in Nature of some preferred reference frame with a violation of the principle of relativity are considered. The Einstein's and Lorentz's points of view are compared. Although some experiments are known which, in opinion of their authors, indicate the relativity principle violation persuasive evidences supporting this conclusion are absent for the present. The proposals of new experiments in this region, particularly with electron spin precession, are discussed. 55 refs., 4 figs

  20. Quantum principles and particles

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcox, Walter

    2018-01-01

    This textbook offers a unique introduction to quantum mechanics progressing gradually from elementary quantum mechanics to aspects of particle physics. It presents the microscopic world by analysis of the simplest possible quantum mechanical system (spin 1/2). A special feature is the author’s use of visual aids known as process diagrams, which show how amplitudes for quantum mechanical processes are computed. The second edition include a new chapter on time-dependent processes, in addition to many new problems and improved illustrations.

  1. Principles of algebraic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Phillip A

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive, self-contained treatment presenting general results of the theory. Establishes a geometric intuition and a working facility with specific geometric practices. Emphasizes applications through the study of interesting examples and the development of computational tools. Coverage ranges from analytic to geometric. Treats basic techniques and results of complex manifold theory, focusing on results applicable to projective varieties, and includes discussion of the theory of Riemann surfaces and algebraic curves, algebraic surfaces and the quadric line complex as well as special top

  2. Thermodynamic principles governing metabolic operation : inference, analysis, and prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niebel, Bastian

    2015-01-01

    The principles governing metabolic flux are poorly understood. Because diverse organisms show similar metabolic flux patterns, we hypothesized that fundamental thermodynamic constraints might shape cellular metabolism. We developed a constraint-based model for Saccharomyces cerevisiae that included

  3. Sample Stacking in capillary zone electrophoresis : Principles, advantages and limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, J.L.; Bocek, P.

    2000-01-01

    The principles of stacking procedures are described and their properties are discussed, including the fundamentals of the behavior of zone boundaries and the consequences of the self-correcting properties of boundaries in moving boundary electrophoresis, isotachophoresis, and zone electrophoresis.

  4. Developmental principles: fact or fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durston, A J

    2012-01-01

    While still at school, most of us are deeply impressed by the underlying principles that so beautifully explain why the chemical elements are ordered as they are in the periodic table, and may wonder, with the theoretician Brian Goodwin, "whether there might be equally powerful principles that account for the awe-inspiring diversity of body forms in the living realm". We have considered the arguments for developmental principles, conclude that they do exist and have specifically identified features that may generate principles associated with Hox patterning of the main body axis in bilaterian metazoa in general and in the vertebrates in particular. We wonder whether this exercise serves any purpose. The features we discuss were already known to us as parts of developmental mechanisms and defining developmental principles (how, and at which level?) adds no insight. We also see little profit in the proposal by Goodwin that there are principles outside the emerging genetic mechanisms that need to be taken into account. The emerging developmental genetic hierarchies already reveal a wealth of interesting phenomena, whatever we choose to call them.

  5. Developmental Principles: Fact or Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Durston

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While still at school, most of us are deeply impressed by the underlying principles that so beautifully explain why the chemical elements are ordered as they are in the periodic table, and may wonder, with the theoretician Brian Goodwin, “whether there might be equally powerful principles that account for the awe-inspiring diversity of body forms in the living realm”. We have considered the arguments for developmental principles, conclude that they do exist and have specifically identified features that may generate principles associated with Hox patterning of the main body axis in bilaterian metazoa in general and in the vertebrates in particular. We wonder whether this exercise serves any purpose. The features we discuss were already known to us as parts of developmental mechanisms and defining developmental principles (how, and at which level? adds no insight. We also see little profit in the proposal by Goodwin that there are principles outside the emerging genetic mechanisms that need to be taken into account. The emerging developmental genetic hierarchies already reveal a wealth of interesting phenomena, whatever we choose to call them.

  6. Dramatic lives and relevant becomings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ann-Karina; Miller, Jody

    2012-01-01

    of marginality into positions of relevance. The analysis builds on empirical data from Copenhagen, Denmark, gained through ethnographic fieldwork with the participation of 20 female informants aged 13–22. The theoretical contribution proposes viewing conflicts as multi-linear, multi-causal and non...

  7. Regularization in Matrix Relevance Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, Petra; Bunte, Kerstin; Stiekema, Han; Hammer, Barbara; Villmann, Thomas; Biehl, Michael

    A In this paper, we present a regularization technique to extend recently proposed matrix learning schemes in learning vector quantization (LVQ). These learning algorithms extend the concept of adaptive distance measures in LVQ to the use of relevance matrices. In general, metric learning can

  8. THE PRINCIPLES OF METHODICAL SYSTEM OF TEACHING GEOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Feodosevna Miteneva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the main components of methodical system of teaching geometry, including the developing spatial thinking, the process of creating images, the conditions for the organization of students cognitive activity. The author describes the scheme of formation of spatial understanding of geometric objects, marks the conditions of students activities organization aimed at creating a spatial image of the studied object, lists research skills to address geometric problems and ways to implement these skills into practice, gives a summary of methods of teaching geometry, including the principle of holistic approach priority, the principle of an open multi-valuedness, the principle of subjective experience accounting.

  9. Principles to Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitford, Michelle; Phi, Giang; Dredge, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Governments are increasingly involved in public–private partnerships to attract, support, and/or stage events. This involvement often leads to governments becoming embroiled in highly politicized battles that focus on issues including community benefit, mitigation of impacts, transparency...... in decision making, and lack of consultation before, during, and after the event. To date, minimal attention has been paid to the public–private governance arrangements underpinning events. This article seeks to address this gap by presenting a set of indicators that can be operationalized to improve event...... governance. The article proposes an indicators framework for event governance designed to reflect the event policy-making process. It contributes to the literature by facilitating greater understanding of the significance and influence of event governance indicators. Future application of the framework...

  10. First principles simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palummo, M.; Reining, L.; Ballone, P.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we outline the major features of the ''ab-initio'' simulation scheme of Car and Parrinello, focusing on the physical ideas and computational details at the basis of its efficiency and success. We briefly review the main applications of the method. We discuss the limitations of the standard scheme, as well as recent developments proposed in order to extend the reach of the method. Moreover, we consider more in detail two specific subjects. First, we describe a simple improvement (Gradient Corrections) on the basic approximation of the ''ab-initio'' simulation, i.e. the Local Density Approximation. These corrections can be easily and efficiently included in the Car-Parrinello code, bringing computed structural and cohesive properties significantly closer to their experimental values. Finally, we discuss the choice of the pseudopotential, with special attention to the possibilities and limitations of the last generation of soft pseudopotentials. (orig.)

  11. Critical point anomalies include expansion shock waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nannan, N. R., E-mail: ryan.nannan@uvs.edu [Mechanical Engineering Discipline, Anton de Kom University of Suriname, Leysweg 86, PO Box 9212, Paramaribo, Suriname and Process and Energy Department, Delft University of Technology, Leeghwaterstraat 44, 2628 CA Delft (Netherlands); Guardone, A., E-mail: alberto.guardone@polimi.it [Department of Aerospace Science and Technology, Politecnico di Milano, Via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano (Italy); Colonna, P., E-mail: p.colonna@tudelft.nl [Propulsion and Power, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-02-15

    From first-principle fluid dynamics, complemented by a rigorous state equation accounting for critical anomalies, we discovered that expansion shock waves may occur in the vicinity of the liquid-vapor critical point in the two-phase region. Due to universality of near-critical thermodynamics, the result is valid for any common pure fluid in which molecular interactions are only short-range, namely, for so-called 3-dimensional Ising-like systems, and under the assumption of thermodynamic equilibrium. In addition to rarefaction shock waves, diverse non-classical effects are admissible, including composite compressive shock-fan-shock waves, due to the change of sign of the fundamental derivative of gasdynamics.

  12. Principles of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, M.P.; Share, F.S.; Goodman, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation oncology now represents the integration of knowledge obtained over an 80-year period from the physics and biology laboratories and the medical clinic. Such integration is recent; until the supervoltage era following World War II, the chief developments in these three areas for the most part were realized independently. The physics and engineering laboratories have now developed a dependable family of sources of ionizing radiations that can be precisely directed at tumor volumes at various depths within the body. The biology laboratory has provided the basic scientific support underlying the intensive clinical experience and currently is suggesting ways of using ionizing radiations more effectively, such as modified fractionation schedules relating to cell cycle kinetics and the use of drugs and chemicals as modifiers of radiation response and normal tissue reaction. The radiation therapy clinic has provided the patient stratum on which the acute and chronic effects of irradiation have been assessed, and the patterns of treatment success and failure identified. The radiation therapist has shared with the surgeon and medical oncologist the responsibility for clarifying the natural history of a large number of human neoplasms, and through such clarifications, has developed more effective treatment strategies. Several examples of this include the improved results in the treatment of Hodgkin's disease, squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, seminoma, and epithelial neoplasms of the upper aerodigestive tract

  13. Accountability Principles for Research Organizations | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-10-28

    Oct 28, 2011 ... Accountability Principles of Research Organisations provides a ... good practices and principles for policy-oriented research organizations working in developing countries. ... Image. IDRC. Accountability Principles of Research Organisations ... The Association for Progressive Communications Women's ...

  14. Selection of relevant dietary indicators for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingrímsdóttir, L; Ovesen, L; Moreiras, O; Jacob, S

    2002-05-01

    To define a set of dietary components that are relevant determinants for health in Europe. The selected components are intended to serve as nutrition indicators for health in the European Health Monitoring Programme and, as such, must be limited in number, relevant to health in Europe and practical for all involved countries with respect to data gathering and comparability of data. Major nutrition factors were determined by reviewing relevant epidemiological and clinical literature in nutrition and health as well as referring to reports from international expert groups, including the report from the project Nutrition and Diet for Healthy Lifestyles in Europe. The selection of factors was also based on the relative ease and cost involved for participating countries to obtain comparable and valid data. The selected factors include foods or food groups as well as individual nutrients. Biomarkers are suggested for selected nutrients that pose the greatest difficulty in obtaining valid and comparable data from dietary studies. The following list of diet indicators for health monitoring in Europe was agreed upon by the EFCOSUM group in 2001, in order of priority: vegetables, fruit, bread, fish, saturated fatty acids as percentage of energy (%E), total fat as %E, and ethanol in grams per day. Biomarkers were suggested for the following nutrients: folate, vitamin D, iron, iodine and sodium. Energy has to be assessed in order to calculate %E from total fat and saturated fatty acids.

  15. Iontophoresis: principles and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Krueger

    Full Text Available Introduction Iontophoresis is a noninvasive technique used to increase transdermal penetration of substances through the skin layer (epidermis, dermis and hypodermis in a controlled manner. Technological advance in recent decades have provided reduced cost of equipment needed for implementation, which allowed for the expansion of this technique. Objective The aim of this paper is to present the state of the art on iontophoresis, ranging from the atomic characteristics of the ion formation to the current applications of the technique. Methods Were researched papers from databases: IOP publishing, ScienceDirect, Pubmed, Springer, IEEE Xplore, Google Scholar and books with keywords iontophoresis, ions, topical applications between 1967 and 2010. Results Were selected (number of papers and database 1 IOP Publishing, 1 from ScienceDirect, Central, 1 from Springer, 2 from PubMed, 11 from IEEE Xplore, 35 from Google Scholar, and 15 books, totaling 66 references and websites with nationally marketed electrotherapy products. Conclusion Iontophoresis is suitable for applications such as acetic acid (calcific tendinitis and myositis ossificans, calcium chloride and magnesium sulfate (control of musculoskeletal spasms, dexamethasone (inflammation, lidocaine (inflammation of soft tissues, zinc oxide (rheumatoid arthritis. It is also used in cosmetic applications with devices attached to the skin and for eye treatment aimed at specific tissues of the eye, providing a treatment option for various eye diseases, reducing the complications secondary to traditional methods of treatment. The advantages are the significant increase in the release and control of therapeutic agents, including drugs with high molecular weight. The disadvantages of iontophoresis are the complexity of the drug release system and prolonged exposure of the skin to an electrical current.

  16. Green tribology: principles, research areas and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosonovsky, Michael; Bhushan, Bharat

    2010-10-28

    In this introductory paper for the Theme Issue on green tribology, we discuss the concept of green tribology and its relation to other areas of tribology as well as other 'green' disciplines, namely, green engineering and green chemistry. We formulate the 12 principles of green tribology: the minimization of (i) friction and (ii) wear, (iii) the reduction or complete elimination of lubrication, including self-lubrication, (iv) natural and (v) biodegradable lubrication, (vi) using sustainable chemistry and engineering principles, (vii) biomimetic approaches, (viii) surface texturing, (ix) environmental implications of coatings, (x) real-time monitoring, (xi) design for degradation, and (xii) sustainable energy applications. We further define three areas of green tribology: (i) biomimetics for tribological applications, (ii) environment-friendly lubrication, and (iii) the tribology of renewable-energy application. The integration of these areas remains a primary challenge for this novel area of research. We also discuss the challenges of green tribology and future directions of research.

  17. Principles of the theory of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Ziman, J M

    1972-01-01

    Professor Ziman's classic textbook on the theory of solids was first pulished in 1964. This paperback edition is a reprint of the second edition, which was substantially revised and enlarged in 1972. The value and popularity of this textbook is well attested by reviewers' opinions and by the existence of several foreign language editions, including German, Italian, Spanish, Japanese, Polish and Russian. The book gives a clear exposition of the elements of the physics of perfect crystalline solids. In discussing the principles, the author aims to give students an appreciation of the conditions which are necessary for the appearance of the various phenomena. A self-contained mathematical account is given of the simplest model that will demonstrate each principle. A grounding in quantum mechanics and knowledge of elementary facts about solids is assumed. This is therefore a textbook for advanced undergraduates and is also appropriate for graduate courses.

  18. Anthropic principle in biology and radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akif'ev, A. P.; Degtyarev, S.V.

    1999-01-01

    It was suggested to add the anthropic principle of the Universe according to which the physical constants of fundamental particles of matter and the laws of their counteraction are those that an appearance of man and mind becomes possible and necessary, with some biological constants to the set of fundamental constants. With reparation of DNA as an example it was shown how a cell ran some parameters of Watson-Crick double helix. It was pointed that the concept of the anthropic principle of the Universe in its full body including biological constants was a key to developing of a unified theory of evolution of the Universe within the limits of scientific creationism [ru

  19. Academic Training: Particle Detectors - Principles and Techniques

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES FOR POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS 11, 12, 13, 14 & 15 April from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Particle Detectors - Principles and Techniques C. JORAM, L. ROPELEWSKI, M. MOLL, C. D'AMBROSIO, T. GYS / CERN-PH The lecture series presents an overview of the physical principles and basic techniques of particle detection, applied to current and future high energy physics experiments. Illustrating examples, chosen mainly from the field of collider experiments, demonstrate the performance and limitations of the various techniques. Main topics of the series are: interaction of particles and photons with matter; particle tracking with gaseous and solid state devices, including a discussion of radiation damage and strategies for improved radiation hardness; scintillation and photon detection; electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry; particle identification using specific energy loss dE/dx, time of flight, Cherenkov light and transition radi...

  20. Universal Instructional Design Principles for Moodle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Elias

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies a set of universal instructional design (UID principles appropriate to distance education (DE and tailored to the needs of instructional designers and instructors teaching online. These principles are then used to assess the accessibility level of a sample online course and the availability of options in its LMS platform (Moodle to increase course accessibility. Numerous accessibility-sensitive plug-in modules are found to be available to Moodle users, though relatively few features were included in the sample course analysed. This may be because they have not been made available to instructors at the institutional level. The paper offers a series of recommendations to improve the accessibility of online DE to learners with diverse abilities, disabilities, and needs.

  1. The Improved Relevance Voxel Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganz, Melanie; Sabuncu, Mert; Van Leemput, Koen

    The concept of sparse Bayesian learning has received much attention in the machine learning literature as a means of achieving parsimonious representations of features used in regression and classification. It is an important family of algorithms for sparse signal recovery and compressed sensing....... Hence in its current form it is reminiscent of a greedy forward feature selection algorithm. In this report, we aim to solve the problems of the original RVoxM algorithm in the spirit of [7] (FastRVM).We call the new algorithm Improved Relevance Voxel Machine (IRVoxM). Our contributions...... and enables basis selection from overcomplete dictionaries. One of the trailblazers of Bayesian learning is MacKay who already worked on the topic in his PhD thesis in 1992 [1]. Later on Tipping and Bishop developed the concept of sparse Bayesian learning [2, 3] and Tipping published the Relevance Vector...

  2. Precautionary principle, economic and energy systems and social equity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Joaquim Francisco de; Mercedes, Sonia Seger P.; Sauer, Ildo L.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the precautionary principle is reviewed alongside the process of international implementation. Adoption of the precautionary principle is advocated to deal with energy choices as a mechanism to account for potential climate change impacts, notwithstanding the debate on scientific uncertainty on the links between solar activity, greenhouse gas concentration and climate. However, it is also recognized that the widespread application of the precautionary principle to energy choices does not seem to be taking place in the real world. Relevant concrete barriers are identified stemming from the intrinsic logic governing the hegemonic economic system, driving the energy choices by economic surplus and rent generation potential, the existence of social asymmetries inside and among societies as well as by the absence of democratic global governance mechanisms, capable of dealing with climate change issues. Such perception seems to have been reinforced by the outcome of the United Nations Climate Change Conference, held in Copenhagen in December 2009.

  3. Data fusion according to the principle of polyrepresentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Birger; Ingwersen, Peter; Lund, Berit

    2009-01-01

    logical data fusion combinations compared to the performance of the four individual models and their intermediate fusions when following the principle of polyrepresentation. This principle is based on cognitive IR perspective (Ingwersen & Järvelin, 2005) and implies that each retrieval model is regarded...... that only the inner disjoint overlap documents between fused models are ranked. The second set of experiments was based on traditional data fusion methods. The experiments involved the 30 TREC 5 topics that contain more than 44 relevant documents. In all tests, the Borda and CombSUM scoring methods were...... the individual models at DCV100. At DCV15, however, the results of polyrepresentative fusion were less predictable.The traditional fusion method based on polyrepresentation principles demonstrates a clear picture of performance at both DCV levels and verifies the polyrepresentation predictions for data fusion...

  4. Clinical empathy and narrative competence: the relevance of reading talmudic legends as literary fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, John H

    2015-04-01

    The "curative potential" in almost any clinical setting depends on a caregiver establishing and maintaining an empathic connection with patients so as to achieve "narrative competence" in discerning and acting in accord with their preferences and best interests. The "narrative medicine" model of shared "close reading of literature and reflective writing" among clinicians as a means of fostering a capacity for clinical empathy has gained validation with recent empirical studies demonstrating the enhancement of theory of mind (ToM), broadly conceived as empathy, in readers of literary fiction. Talmudic legends, like that of Rabbi Judah's death, are under-appreciated, relevant sources of literary fiction for these efforts. The limitations of narrative medicine are readily counterbalanced by simultaneously practiced attention to traditional bioethical principles, including-especially-beneficence, non-maleficence, and autonomy.

  5. Principles and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhäuser, Klaus Günter; Richter, Steffi; Greiner, Petra; Penning, Jutta; Angrick, Michael

    2004-01-01

    With respect to the enormous increase of chemical production in the last decades and the tens of thousands of individual chemicals on the market, the permanent improvement of chemical management is a permanent target to achieve the goals of sustainable consumption and production set by the WSSD in Johannesburg 2002. Several approaches exist to describe sustainability of chemistry. However, commonly agreed criteria are still missing. There is no doubt that products of modern chemistry help to achieve important goals of sustainability and that significant improvements have occurred regarding direct releases from production sites, but several facts demonstrate that chemistry is far from being sustainable. Still too many chemicals exhibit hazardous characteristics and pose a risk to health and environment. Too many resources are needed to produce chemicals and finished products. Therefore, a strategy for sustainability of chemistry should be developed which comprises the following main elements: 1. Sustainable chemicals: sustainable chemical management includes a regulatory framework which makes no difference between new and existing chemicals, contains efficient information flow through the supply chain which allows users to handle chemicals safely and offers an authorisation procedure and/or an efficient restriction procedure for substances of high concern. This regulatory scheme should promote the development of inherently safe chemicals. 2. Sustainable chemical production: Sustainable chemical production needs the development and implementation of emerging alternative techniques like selective catalysis, biotechnology in order to release less CO2 and less toxic by-products, to save energy and to achieve higher yields. Information exchange on best available techniques (BAT) and best environmental practices (BEP) may help to promote changes towards more sustainability. 3. Sustainable products: An integrated product policy which provides a framework for sustainable

  6. Limited entropic uncertainty as new principle of quantum physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion, D.B.; Ion, M.L.

    2001-01-01

    The Uncertainty Principle (UP) of quantum mechanics discovered by Heisenberg, which constitute the corner-stone of quantum physics, asserts that: there is an irreducible lower bound on the uncertainty in the result of a simultaneous measurement of non-commuting observables. In order to avoid this state-dependence many authors proposed to use the information entropy as a measure of the uncertainty instead of above standard quantitative formulation of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. In this paper the Principle of Limited Entropic Uncertainty (LEU-Principle), as a new principle in quantum physics, is proved. Then, consistent experimental tests of the LEU-principle, obtained by using the available 49 sets of the pion-nucleus phase shifts, are presented for both, extensive (q=1) and nonextensive (q=0.5 and q=2.0) cases. Some results obtained by the application of LEU-Principle to the diffraction phenomena are also discussed. The main results and conclusions of our paper can be summarized as follows: (i) We introduced a new principle in quantum physics namely the Principle of Limited Entropic Uncertainty (LEU-Principle). This new principle includes in a more general and exact form not only the old Heisenberg uncertainty principle but also introduce an upper limit on the magnitude of the uncertainty in the quantum physics. The LEU-Principle asserts that: 'there is an irreducible lower bound as well as an upper bound on the uncertainty in the result of a simultaneous measurement of non-commuting observables for any extensive and nonextensive (q ≥ 0) quantum systems'; (ii) Two important concrete realizations of the LEU-Principle are explicitly obtained in this paper, namely: (a) the LEU-inequalities for the quantum scattering of spinless particles and (b) the LEU-inequalities for the diffraction on single slit of width 2a. In particular from our general results, in the limit y → +1 we recover in an exact form all the results previously reported. In our paper an

  7. Overview of the principles and practice of biodosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, Harold M.; Williams, Benjamin B.; Flood, Ann Barry

    2014-01-01

    The principle of biodosimetry is to utilize changes induced in the individual by ionizing radiation to estimate the dose and, if possible, to predict or reflect the clinically relevant response, i.e., the biological consequences of the dose. Ideally, the changes should be specific for ionizing radiation, and the response should be unaffected by prior medical or physiological variations among subjects, including changes that might be caused by the stress and trauma from a radiation event. There are two basic types of biodosimetry with different and often complementary characteristics: those based on changes in biological parameters such as gene activation or chromosomal abnormalities and those based on physical changes in tissues (detected by techniques such as EPR). In this paper, we consider the applicability of the various techniques for different scenarios: small- and large-scale exposures to levels of radiation that could lead to the acute radiation syndrome and exposures with lower doses that do not need immediate care, but should be followed for evidence of long-term consequences. The development of biodosimetry has been especially stimulated by the needs after a large-scale event where it is essential to have a means to identify those individuals who would benefit from being brought into the medical care system. Analyses of the conventional methods officially recommended for responding to such events indicate that these methods are unlikely to achieve the results needed for timely triage of thousands of victims. Emerging biodosimetric methods can fill this critically important gap. (orig.)

  8. Basic Principles of Interpersonal Social Rhythm Therapy in Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokben Hizli Sayar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Interpersonal Social Rhythm Therapy is a psychotherapy modality that helps the patient recognize the relationship between disruptions in social rhythms and the onset of previous episodes of psychiatric disorders. It uses psychoeducation and behavioral techniques to maintain social rhythm and sleep/wake regularity. It is closely related to and ldquo;social zeitgeber theory and rdquo; that emphasizes the importance that social rhythm regularity may play in synchronization of circadian rhythms in individuals with or at risk for bipolar spectrum disorders. Interpersonal and social rhythm therapy have been shown to stabilize social rhythms and enhance course and outcome in bipolar disorder. This review focuses on the theoretical principles and the basic steps of interpersonal and social rhythm therapy as a psychotherapy approach in bipolar disorder. PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar databases were searched without temporal restriction. Search terms included interpersonal social rhythm therapy, bipolar, mood disorders. Abstracts were reviewed for relevance, and randomized controlled trials of interpersonal and social rhythm therapy in bipolar disorder selected. These researches also summarized on the final part of this review. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 438-446

  9. Overview of the principles and practice of biodosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swartz, Harold M.; Williams, Benjamin B.; Flood, Ann Barry [Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, EPR Center for the Study of Viable Systems, Hanover, NH (United States)

    2014-05-15

    The principle of biodosimetry is to utilize changes induced in the individual by ionizing radiation to estimate the dose and, if possible, to predict or reflect the clinically relevant response, i.e., the biological consequences of the dose. Ideally, the changes should be specific for ionizing radiation, and the response should be unaffected by prior medical or physiological variations among subjects, including changes that might be caused by the stress and trauma from a radiation event. There are two basic types of biodosimetry with different and often complementary characteristics: those based on changes in biological parameters such as gene activation or chromosomal abnormalities and those based on physical changes in tissues (detected by techniques such as EPR). In this paper, we consider the applicability of the various techniques for different scenarios: small- and large-scale exposures to levels of radiation that could lead to the acute radiation syndrome and exposures with lower doses that do not need immediate care, but should be followed for evidence of long-term consequences. The development of biodosimetry has been especially stimulated by the needs after a large-scale event where it is essential to have a means to identify those individuals who would benefit from being brought into the medical care system. Analyses of the conventional methods officially recommended for responding to such events indicate that these methods are unlikely to achieve the results needed for timely triage of thousands of victims. Emerging biodosimetric methods can fill this critically important gap. (orig.)

  10. Support Vector Machines: Relevance Feedback and Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, Harris; Shahrary, Behzad; Gibbon, David C.

    2002-01-01

    Compares support vector machines (SVMs) to Rocchio, Ide regular and Ide dec-hi algorithms in information retrieval (IR) of text documents using relevancy feedback. If the preliminary search is so poor that one has to search through many documents to find at least one relevant document, then SVM is preferred. Includes nine tables. (Contains 24…

  11. High-energy cosmic rays and tests of basic principles of Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Mestres L.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With the present understanding of data, the observed flux suppression for ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR at energies above 4.1019 eV can be a signature of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK cutoff or be related to a similar mechanism. But it may also correspond, for instance, to the maximum energies available at the relevant sources. In both cases, violations of special relativity modifying cosmic-ray propagation or acceleration at very high energy can potentially play a role. Other violations of fundamental principles of standard particle physics (quantum mechanics, energy and momentum conservation, vacuum homogeneity and “static” properties, effective space dimensions, quark confinement… can also be relevant at these energies. In particular, UHECR data would in principle allow to set bounds on Lorentz symmetry violation (LSV in patterns incorporating a privileged local reference frame (the “vacuum rest frame”, VRF. But the precise analysis is far from trivial, and other effects can also be present. The effective parameters can be related to Planckscale physics, or even to physics beyond Planck scale, as well as to the dynamics and effective symmetries of LSV for nucleons, quarks, leptons and the photon. LSV can also be at the origin of GZK-like effects. In the presence of a VRF, and contrary to a “grand unification” view, LSV and other violations of standard principles can modify the internal structure of particles at very high energy and conventional symmetries may cease to be valid at energies close to the Planck scale. We present an updated discussion of these topics, including experimental prospects, new potentialities for high-energy cosmic ray phenomenology and the possible link with unconventional pre-Big Bang scenarios, superbradyon (superluminal preon patterns… The subject of a possible superluminal propagation of neutrinos at accelerator energies is also dealt with.

  12. On the uncertainty principle. V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, O.

    1976-01-01

    The treatment of ideal experiments connected with the uncertainty principle is continued. The author analyzes successively measurements of momentum and position, and discusses the common reason why the results in all cases differ from the conventional ones. A similar difference exists for the measurement of field strengths. The interpretation given by Weizsaecker, who tried to interpret Bohr's complementarity principle by introducing a multi-valued logic is analyzed. The treatment of the uncertainty principle ΔE Δt is deferred to a later paper as is the interpretation of the method of variation of constants. Every ideal experiment discussed shows various lower limits for the value of the uncertainty product which limits depend on the experimental arrangement and are always (considerably) larger than h. (Auth.)

  13. The 4th Thermodynamic Principle?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero Garcia, Jose de la Luz; Novoa Blanco, Jesus Francisco

    2007-01-01

    It should be emphasized that the 4th Principle above formulated is a thermodynamic principle and, at the same time, is mechanical-quantum and relativist, as it should inevitably be and its absence has been one of main the theoretical limitations of the physical theory until today.We show that the theoretical discovery of Dimensional Primitive Octet of Matter, the 4th Thermodynamic Principle, the Quantum Hexet of Matter, the Global Hexagonal Subsystem of Fundamental Constants of Energy and the Measurement or Connected Global Scale or Universal Existential Interval of the Matter is that it is possible to be arrived at a global formulation of the four 'forces' or fundamental interactions of nature. The Einstein's golden dream is possible

  14. Cosmological implications of Heisenberg's principle

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalo, Julio A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this book is to analyze the all important implications of Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle for a finite universe with very large mass-energy content such as ours. The earlier and main contributors to the formulation of Quantum Mechanics are briefly reviewed regarding the formulation of Heisenberg's Principle. After discussing “indeterminacy” versus ”uncertainty”, the universal constants of physics are reviewed and Planck's units are given. Next, a novel set of units, Heisenberg–Lemaitre units, are defined in terms of the large finite mass of the universe. With the help of Heisenberg's principle, the time evolution of the finite zero-point energy for the universe is investigated quantitatively. Next, taking advantage of the rigorous solutions of Einstein's cosmological equation for a flat, open and mixed universe of finite mass, the most recent and accurate data on the “age” (to) and the expansion rate (Ho) of the universe and their implications are reconsidered.

  15. Principles of neural information processing

    CERN Document Server

    Seelen, Werner v

    2016-01-01

    In this fundamental book the authors devise a framework that describes the working of the brain as a whole. It presents a comprehensive introduction to the principles of Neural Information Processing as well as recent and authoritative research. The books´ guiding principles are the main purpose of neural activity, namely, to organize behavior to ensure survival, as well as the understanding of the evolutionary genesis of the brain. Among the developed principles and strategies belong self-organization of neural systems, flexibility, the active interpretation of the world by means of construction and prediction as well as their embedding into the world, all of which form the framework of the presented description. Since, in brains, their partial self-organization, the lifelong adaptation and their use of various methods of processing incoming information are all interconnected, the authors have chosen not only neurobiology and evolution theory as a basis for the elaboration of such a framework, but also syst...

  16. CONTEMPORARY PRINCIPLES OF SUICIDE PREVENTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljusic, Dragana; Ravanic, Dragan; Filipovic Danic, Snezana; Soldatovic, Ivan; Cvetkovic, Jovana; Stojanovic Tasic, Mirjana

    2016-11-01

    Suicide remains a significant public health problem worldwide. This study is aimed at analyzing and presenting contemporary methods in suicide prevention in the world as well as at identifying specific risk groups and risk factors in order to explain their importance. in suicide prevention. The literature search covered electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus. In order to select the relevant articles, the authors searched for the combination of key-words which included the following medical subject heading terms (suicide or suicide ideation or attempted) and (prevention or risk factors) and (man or elders or mental disorders). Data analysis covered meta-analyses, systematic reviews and original scientific papers with different characteristics of suicide preventions, risk factors and risk groups. Worldwide evidence-based interventions for suicide prevention are divided in universal, selective and indicated interventions. Restricted approach to various methods of committing suicide as well as pharmacotherapy contributes to a lower suicide rate. Suicide risk factors can be categorized as proximal and distal. The following groups are at highest risk of committing suicide: males. older persons and persons with registered psychiatric disorders. There is a lot of evidence that suicide is preventable. It is known that only 28 coun tries in the world have national suicide prevention strategies and Serbia is not one of them.

  17. [Relevance of big data for molecular diagnostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin-Andresen, M; Smiljanovic, B; Stuhlmüller, B; Sörensen, T; Grützkau, A; Häupl, T

    2018-04-01

    Big data analysis raises the expectation that computerized algorithms may extract new knowledge from otherwise unmanageable vast data sets. What are the algorithms behind the big data discussion? In principle, high throughput technologies in molecular research already introduced big data and the development and application of analysis tools into the field of rheumatology some 15 years ago. This includes especially omics technologies, such as genomics, transcriptomics and cytomics. Some basic methods of data analysis are provided along with the technology, however, functional analysis and interpretation requires adaptation of existing or development of new software tools. For these steps, structuring and evaluating according to the biological context is extremely important and not only a mathematical problem. This aspect has to be considered much more for molecular big data than for those analyzed in health economy or epidemiology. Molecular data are structured in a first order determined by the applied technology and present quantitative characteristics that follow the principles of their biological nature. These biological dependencies have to be integrated into software solutions, which may require networks of molecular big data of the same or even different technologies in order to achieve cross-technology confirmation. More and more extensive recording of molecular processes also in individual patients are generating personal big data and require new strategies for management in order to develop data-driven individualized interpretation concepts. With this perspective in mind, translation of information derived from molecular big data will also require new specifications for education and professional competence.

  18. Principle Paradigms Revisiting the Dublin Core 1:1 Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    The Dublin Core "1:1 Principle" asserts that "related but conceptually different entities, for example a painting and a digital image of the painting, are described by separate metadata records" (Woodley et al., 2005). While this seems to be a simple requirement, studies of metadata quality have found that cultural heritage…

  19. Principles and applications of tribology

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Desmond F

    1975-01-01

    Principles and Applications of Tribology provides a mechanical engineering perspective of the fundamental understanding and applications of tribology. This book is organized into two parts encompassing 16 chapters that cover the principles of friction and different types of lubrication. Chapter 1 deals with the immense scope of tribology and the range of applications in the existing technology, and Chapter 2 is devoted entirely to the evaluation and measurement of surface texture. Chapters 3 to 5 present the fundamental concepts underlying the friction of metals, elastomers, and other material

  20. Fiber optics principles and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Azzawi, Abdul

    2007-01-01

    Since the invention of the laser, our fascination with the photon has led to one of the most dynamic and rapidly growing fields of technology. New advances in fiber optic devices, components, and materials make it more important than ever to stay current. Comprising chapters drawn from the author's highly anticipated book Photonics: Principles and Practices, Fiber Optics: Principles and Practices offers a detailed and focused treatment for anyone in need of authoritative information on this critical area underlying photonics.Using a consistent approach, the author leads you step-by-step throug

  1. Fundamental principles of heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Whitaker, Stephen

    1977-01-01

    Fundamental Principles of Heat Transfer introduces the fundamental concepts of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. It presents theoretical developments and example and design problems and illustrates the practical applications of fundamental principles. The chapters in this book cover various topics such as one-dimensional and transient heat conduction, energy and turbulent transport, forced convection, thermal radiation, and radiant energy exchange. There are example problems and solutions at the end of every chapter dealing with design problems. This book is a valuable int

  2. Cooling towers principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, G B; Osborn, Peter D

    1990-01-01

    Cooling Towers: Principles and Practice, Third Edition, aims to provide the reader with a better understanding of the theory and practice, so that installations are correctly designed and operated. As with all branches of engineering, new technology calls for a level of technical knowledge which becomes progressively higher; this new edition seeks to ensure that the principles and practice of cooling towers are set against a background of up-to-date technology. The book is organized into three sections. Section A on cooling tower practice covers topics such as the design and operation of c

  3. Microhydrodynamics principles and selected applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Sangtae

    2005-01-01

    ""This book is well organized and comprehensive . . . an eloquent and enduring statement of significant hydrodynamic principles."" - AIChE JournalMicrohydrodynamics concerns the flow and related phenomena pertinent to the motion of small particles suspended in viscous fluids. This text focuses on determining the motion of a particle or particles through a viscous fluid in bounded and unbounded flow. Its central theme is the mobility relation between particle motion and forces.Microhydrodynamics: Principles and Selected Applications functions as a manual that explains methods for solving partic

  4. General principles of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauli, W.

    1980-01-01

    This book is a textbook for a course in quantum mechanics. Starting from the complementarity and the uncertainty principle Schroedingers equation is introduced together with the operator calculus. Then stationary states are treated as eigenvalue problems. Furthermore matrix mechanics are briefly discussed. Thereafter the theory of measurements is considered. Then as approximation methods perturbation theory and the WKB approximation are introduced. Then identical particles, spin, and the exclusion principle are discussed. There after the semiclassical theory of radiation and the relativistic one-particle problem are discussed. Finally an introduction is given into quantum electrodynamics. (HSI)

  5. Protecting the principles during progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, W.K.G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper will discuss the importance in recognizing the unique aspects of nuclear power generation in an industry facing deregulation, competitiveness, and commercialization. While exciting times of opportunity are again ahead for the nuclear industry, the excitement has to consider that there are differences between general nuclear and general commerce. These differences are driven by some fundamental principles that impact nuclear reactor operation and examples are given of how these principles must be protected to ensure that nuclear generation can be of continued benefit to the public. (author)

  6. Principles of European Company Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2010-01-01

    The article focuses on how much we have in common in Europe within company law and its development, and on the principles which are the determining factors for the activities of European companies. The article shows that what we have in common greatly outweighs what divides us, and this is presen......The article focuses on how much we have in common in Europe within company law and its development, and on the principles which are the determining factors for the activities of European companies. The article shows that what we have in common greatly outweighs what divides us...

  7. Attainment of radiation equivalency principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shmelev, A.N.; Apseh, V.A.

    2004-01-01

    Problems connected with the prospects for long-term development of the nuclear energetics are discussed. Basic principles of the future large-scale nuclear energetics are listed, primary attention is the safety of radioactive waste management of nuclear energetics. The radiation equivalence principle means close of fuel cycle and management of nuclear materials transportation with low losses on spent fuel and waste processing. Two aspects are considered: radiation equivalence in global and local aspects. The necessity of looking for other strategies of fuel cycle management in full-scale nuclear energy on radioactive waste management is supported [ru

  8. Conscious and unconscious thought in risky choice: testing the capacity principle and the appropriate weighting principle of unconscious thought theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Nathaniel J S; Glöckner, Andreas; Dickert, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Daily we make decisions ranging from the mundane to the seemingly pivotal that shape our lives. Assuming rationality, all relevant information about one's options should be thoroughly examined in order to make the best choice. However, some findings suggest that under specific circumstances thinking too much has disadvantageous effects on decision quality and that it might be best to let the unconscious do the busy work. In three studies we test the capacity assumption and the appropriate weighting principle of Unconscious Thought Theory using a classic risky choice paradigm and including a "deliberation with information" condition. Although we replicate an advantage for unconscious thought (UT) over "deliberation without information," we find that "deliberation with information" equals or outperforms UT in risky choices. These results speak against the generality of the assumption that UT has a higher capacity for information integration and show that this capacity assumption does not hold in all domains. Furthermore, we show that "deliberate thought with information" leads to more differentiated knowledge compared to UT which speaks against the generality of the appropriate weighting assumption.

  9. Conscious and unconscious thought in risky choice: Testing the capacity principle and the appropriate weighting principle of Unconscious Thought Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel James Siebert Ashby

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Daily we make decisions ranging from the mundane to the seemingly pivotal that shape our lives. Assuming rationality, all relevant information about one’s options should be thoroughly examined in order to make the best choice. However, some findings suggest that under specific circumstances thinking too much has disadvantageous effects on decision quality and that it might be best to let the unconscious do the busy work. In three studies we test the capacity assumption and the appropriate weighting principle of unconscious thought theory using a classic risky choice paradigm and including a ‘deliberation with information’ condition. Although we replicate an advantage for unconscious thought over ‘deliberation without information’, we find that ‘deliberation with information’ equals or outperforms unconscious thought in risky choices. These results speak against the generality of the assumption that unconscious thought has a higher capacity for information integration and show that this capacity assumption does not hold in all domains. We furthermore show that ‘deliberate thought with information’ leads to more differentiated knowledge compared to unconscious thought which speaks against the generality of the appropriate weighting assumption.

  10. 77 FR 17360 - Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles And...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... II Reform of Federal Policies Relating to Grants and Cooperative Agreements; Cost Principles And...; cost principles and administrative requirements (including Single Audit Act). The original comment...-idx?c=ecfr&tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title02/2cfrv1_02.tpl . The Cost Principles for Hospitals are in the...

  11. The nature and principles of the radiation-induced cancerogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lips'ka, A.YI.; Serkyiz, Ya.Yi.

    2004-01-01

    The paper represents the analysis of the authors and literary data concerning the nature and principles of the radiation-induced neoplasms. The mechanisms of the radiation-induced cancerogenesis development are not clear understood. The experimental data altogether do not allow developing the mathematical model of the radiation-induced cancerogenesis at the molecular level. This model has to take into account all necessary indices including radiation factor and the state of the organism. The general principles of the radiation-induced cancerogenesis have been formulated in the present review. It is possible to use these principles in order to predict and calculate the risks of the radiation-induced neoplasms

  12. Microdosing: Concept, application and relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Tewari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of microdose pharmacokinetic studies as an essential tool in drug development is still to catch on. While this approach promises potential cost savings and a quantum leap in efficiencies of the drug development process, major hurdles still need to be overcome before the technique becomes commonplace and part of routine practice. Clear regulations in Europe and the USA have had an enabling effect. The lack of enabling provisions for microdosing studies in Indian regulation, despite low risk and manifest relevance for the local drug development industry, is inconsistent with the country′s aspirations to be among the leaders in pharmaceutical research.

  13. Defining the relevant market in the sharing economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Russo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the establishment of commercial sharing economy services like Uber, Blablacar, Lyft, Airbnb, TaskRabbit, etc., the debate about the sharing economy and its effects on competition has generated lively discussions, which have too often dangerously departed from a debate based on objective (market observation to evolve into a quarrel among the supporters and opponents of the online platforms. Undoubtedly, the peculiar features of these new firms’ business models create frictions with the traditional regulatory environment, which currently appears to be incapable of framing them into models and schemes typical of a previous economic phase, such as, for example, one-sided markets, no externalities, and competition mainly on price. Nevertheless, setting aside the more or less impromptu debate about the “social goodness” of these firms, we argue that competition enforcers should look at their effective market power. In fact, as the basic principles of competition law teach us, only when those firms have (more or less legitimate significant market power, will they be subject to special responsibilities and to stringent restrictions and obligations. Toward this aim, it is first necessary to define the relevant market. And, immediately afterwards, to delimit firms’ market position. This, in turn, should help to assess their compliance with the competition rules and the obligations that they are – or rather that they should be – subjected to. This exercise is not an easy one because the traditional regulatory concepts and definitions do not seem to reflect the competition dynamics that characterise the new markets on which we are reflecting. In this paper we focus on a number of challenges that are posed by the sharing economy businesses, suggesting that they could be solved with the traditional competition instruments, although adapted to the peculiar features of the markets that are at stake. These include, among others, multi

  14. Contextual factors, methodological principles and teacher cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupert Walsh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Teachers in various contexts worldwide are sometimes unfairly criticized for not putting teaching methods developed for the well-resourced classrooms of Western countries into practice. Factors such as the teachers’ “misconceptualizations” of “imported” methods, including Communicative Language Teaching (CLT, are often blamed, though the challenges imposed by “contextual demands,” such as large class sizes, are sometimes recognised. Meanwhile, there is sometimes an assumption that in the West there is a happy congruence between policy supportive of CLT or Task-Based Language Teaching, teacher education and supervision, and curriculum design with teachers’ cognitions and their practices. Our case study of three EFL teachers at a UK adult education college is motivated by a wish to question this assumption. Findings from observational and interview data suggest the practices of two teachers were largely consistent with their methodological principles, relating to stronger and weaker forms of CLT respectively, as well as to more general educational principles, such as a concern for learners; the supportive environment seemed to help. The third teacher appeared to put “difficult” contextual factors, for example, tests, ahead of methodological principles without, however, obviously benefiting. Implications highlight the important role of teacher cognition research in challenging cultural assumptions.

  15. The value relevance of environmental emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Lydia Nelwan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines whether environmental performance has value relevance by investigating the relations between environmental emissions and stock prices for the U.S. public companies. The previous studies argued that the conjectured relations between accounting performance measures and environmental performance do not have a strong theoretical basis, and the modeling of relations between market per-formance measures and environmental performance do not adequately consider the relevance of accounting performance to market value. Therefore, this study examines whether publicly reported environmental emissions provide incremental information to accounting earnings in pricing companies stocks. It is done among the complete set of industries covered by Toxics Release Inventory (TRI reporting for the period 2007 to 2010. Using Ohlson model but modified to include different types of emis-sions, it is found that ground emissions (underground injection and land emissions are value relevant but other emission types (air and water and transferred-out emis-sions appear to not provide incremental information in the valuation model. The result in this study raise concerns that different types of emissions are assessed differently by the market, confirming that studies should not aggregate such measures.

  16. Are electrostatic potentials between regions of different chemical composition measurable? The Gibbs-Guggenheim Principle reconsidered, extended and its consequences revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethica, Brian A

    2007-12-21

    As indicated by Gibbs and made explicit by Guggenheim, the electrical potential difference between two regions of different chemical composition cannot be measured. The Gibbs-Guggenheim Principle restricts the use of classical electrostatics in electrochemical theories as thermodynamically unsound with some few approximate exceptions, notably for dilute electrolyte solutions and concomitant low potentials where the linear limit for the exponential of the relevant Boltzmann distribution applies. The Principle invalidates the widespread use of forms of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation which do not include the non-electrostatic components of the chemical potentials of the ions. From a thermodynamic analysis of the parallel plate electrical condenser, employing only measurable electrical quantities and taking into account the chemical potentials of the components of the dielectric and their adsorption at the surfaces of the condenser plates, an experimental procedure to provide exceptions to the Principle has been proposed. This procedure is now reconsidered and rejected. No other related experimental procedures circumvent the Principle. Widely-used theoretical descriptions of electrolyte solutions, charged surfaces and colloid dispersions which neglect the Principle are briefly discussed. MD methods avoid the limitations of the Poisson-Bolzmann equation. Theoretical models which include the non-electrostatic components of the inter-ion and ion-surface interactions in solutions and colloid systems assume the additivity of dispersion and electrostatic forces. An experimental procedure to test this assumption is identified from the thermodynamics of condensers at microscopic plate separations. The available experimental data from Kelvin probe studies are preliminary, but tend against additivity. A corollary to the Gibbs-Guggenheim Principle is enunciated, and the Principle is restated that for any charged species, neither the difference in electrostatic potential nor the

  17. Understanding Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Knee Cartilage Repair: A Focus on Clinical Relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Daichi; Li, Xinning; Murakami, Akira M; Roemer, Frank W; Trattnig, Siegfried; Guermazi, Ali

    2017-06-01

    The aims of this review article are (a) to describe the principles of morphologic and compositional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques relevant for the imaging of knee cartilage repair surgery and their application to longitudinal studies and (b) to illustrate the clinical relevance of pre- and postsurgical MRI with correlation to intraoperative images. First, MRI sequences that can be applied for imaging of cartilage repair tissue in the knee are described, focusing on comparison of 2D and 3D fast spin echo and gradient recalled echo sequences. Imaging features of cartilage repair tissue are then discussed, including conventional (morphologic) MRI and compositional MRI techniques. More specifically, imaging techniques for specific cartilage repair surgery techniques as described above, as well as MRI-based semiquantitative scoring systems for the knee cartilage repair tissue-MR Observation of Cartilage Repair Tissue and Cartilage Repair OA Knee Score-are explained. Then, currently available surgical techniques are reviewed, including marrow stimulation, osteochondral autograft, osteochondral allograft, particulate cartilage allograft, autologous chondrocyte implantation, and others. Finally, ongoing research efforts and future direction of cartilage repair tissue imaging are discussed.

  18. Principles and practice of sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischer, A.C.; James, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    This book is a text of sonographic technique, emphasizing clinical and diagnostic procedures. Ultrasound images and explanatory line drawings are placed side-by-side to facilitate interpretation. This book covers instrumentation and scanning principles, obstetric, gynecologic, abdominal, renal and urologic, pediatric, plus superficial structure sonography

  19. Thermionics basic principles of electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, J; Ashhurst, W

    2013-01-01

    Basic Principles of Electronics, Volume I : Thermionics serves as a textbook for students in physics. It focuses on thermionic devices. The book covers topics on electron dynamics, electron emission, and the themionic vacuum diode and triode. Power amplifiers, oscillators, and electronic measuring equipment are studied as well. The text will be of great use to physics and electronics students, and inventors.

  20. Semiconductor photocatalysis principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kisch, Horst

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on the basic principles of semiconductor photocatalysis, this book also gives a brief introduction to photochemistry, photoelectrochemistry, and homogeneous photocatalysis. In addition, the author - one of the leading authorities in the field - presents important environmental and practical aspects. A valuable, one-stop source for all chemists, material scientists, and physicists working in this area, as well as novice researchers entering semiconductor photocatalysis.

  1. Chemical Principles Revisited: Chemical Equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickey, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes: (1) Law of Mass Action; (2) equilibrium constant and ideal behavior; (3) general form of the equilibrium constant; (4) forward and reverse reactions; (5) factors influencing equilibrium; (6) Le Chatelier's principle; (7) effects of temperature, changing concentration, and pressure on equilibrium; and (8) catalysts and equilibrium. (JN)

  2. Demonstrating Fermat's Principle in Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleiov, Orr; Pupko, Ofir; Lipson, S. G.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate Fermat's principle in optics by a simple experiment using reflection from an arbitrarily shaped one-dimensional reflector. We investigated a range of possible light paths from a lamp to a fixed slit by reflection in a curved reflector and showed by direct measurement that the paths along which light is concentrated have either…

  3. The precautionary principle is incoherent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peterson, M.B.

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that no version of the precautionary principle can be reasonably applied to decisions that may lead to fatal outcomes. In support of this strong claim, a number of desiderata are proposed, which reasonable rules for rational decision making ought to satisfy. Thereafter, two

  4. Basic safety principles: Lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erp, J.B. van [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The presentation reviews the following issues: basic safety principles and lessons learned; some conclusions from the Kemeny report on the accident at TMI; some recommendations from the Kemeny report on the accident at TMI; conclusions and recommendations from the Rogovin report on the accident on TMI; instrumentation deficiencies (from Rogovin report).

  5. The Principle of Structural Reciprocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pugnale, Alberto; Parigi, Dario; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the principle of structural reciprocity, considering its origins in both Occidental and Orient culture and aiming to highlight the definition, main peculiarities and interesting aspects of such concept referring to its application to the world of construction. Issues spannin...

  6. Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) - Basic Principles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 4. Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) - Basic Principles. Bhaskar G Maiya. Series Article Volume 5 Issue 4 April 2000 pp 6-18. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/04/0006-0018 ...

  7. The Principle of Least Action

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    THOLASI

    Reproduced from the book A Survey of Physical Theory (formerly titled: A Survey ... The dynamical laws for physical systems are usually expressed in the form of ... The reason for the difference in the results derived from the two principles lies ...

  8. Ion exchange : principles and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bank, Nader; Majumdar, A.S.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt is made to provide a brief state-of-the-art review of the basic principles underlying the unit operation of ion exchange and its numerous and diverse commercial applications. A selective bibliography is provided for the benefit of the reader interested in pursuing any specific aspect of ion exchange. (author)

  9. ACCOUNTING PRINCIPLES: EVOLUTION, CONTENT, CONSEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana LAZARI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Accounting principles are rules that help producers of financial information to recognize, evaluate, classify and present information. At the same time, they are very general rules, which can be implemented in several ways, generating more accounting treatments. Although the foreign literature presents numerous classifications of the principles in terms of the given research, we will continue to deal with the terms that have the value of accounting principles, their evolution in the Republic of Moldova, but also the influence on keeping the accounting and financial reporting. In the research, we used the method of comparison, analysis, deduction, but also the historical method. The results of the research on accounting principles will contribute to the development of their applicability both for those studying and researching the field of accounting, as well as for those who apply in practice the keeping of accounting in all stages of work: elaboration of accounting policies, recognition, evaluation and accounting for economic transactions and preparing the financial statements of the entity.

  10. Basic safety principles: Lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erp, J.B. van

    1997-01-01

    The presentation reviews the following issues: basic safety principles and lessons learned; some conclusions from the Kemeny report on the accident at TMI; some recommendations from the Kemeny report on the accident at TMI; conclusions and recommendations from the Rogovin report on the accident on TMI; instrumentation deficiencies (from Rogovin report)

  11. On the Dirichlet's Box Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Kin-Keung; Shiu, Wai-Chee

    2008-01-01

    In this note, we will focus on several applications on the Dirichlet's box principle in Discrete Mathematics lesson and number theory lesson. In addition, the main result is an innovative game on a triangular board developed by the authors. The game has been used in teaching and learning mathematics in Discrete Mathematics and some high schools in…

  12. The Oscillator Principle of Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Oscillators are found on all levels in Nature. The general oscillator concept is defined and investigated. Oscillators may synchronize into fractal patterns. Apparently oscillators are the basic principle in Nature. The concepts of zero and infinite are discussed. Electronic manmade oscillators...

  13. GM Food. Fundamental safety principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena GALLARDO

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide a concise exposition of some of the most basic legal principles linked to the process of evaluation of genetically modified food safety, revealing their most salient features and also highlighting the deficiencies that some of them bring along in their application to the products under study.

  14. IFA proof of principle experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, C.L.

    1979-01-01

    IFA proof of principle experiments is discussed. Controlled beam front motion experiments are reported, which demonstrate that accurate IFA programming of the motion of the potential well at the head of an IREB has been achieved. The status of IFA ion experiments is also discussed

  15. Comments on field equivalence principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen

    1987-01-01

    It is pointed Out that often-used arguments based on a short-circuit concept in presentations of field equivalence principles are not correct. An alternative presentation based on the uniqueness theorem is given. It does not contradict the results obtained by using the short-circuit concept...

  16. Design Principles for Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    For many years mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately. Naturally, the next step in this development is the development of ventilation concepts that utilize and combine the best features from each system to create a new type of ventilation system -Hybrid Ventilation. ....... The hybrid ventilation concepts, design challenges and - principles are discussed and illustrated by four building examples....

  17. Structuring Principles for the Designer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Thomas Dedenroth; Pedersen, Per Erik Elgård

    1998-01-01

    This paper suggests a list of structuring principles that support the designer in making alternative concepts for product architectures. Different architectures may support different points of diversification in the product life-cycle. The aim is to balance reuse of resources and reduction...

  18. Principles of modern radar systems

    CERN Document Server

    Carpentier, Michel H

    1988-01-01

    Introduction to random functions ; signal and noise : the ideal receiver ; performance of radar systems equipped with ideal receivers ; analysis of the operating principles of some types of radar ; behavior of real targets, fluctuation of targets ; angle measurement using radar ; data processing of radar information, radar coverage ; applications to electronic scanning antennas to radar ; introduction to Hilbert spaces.

  19. An extension of Babinet's principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    da Silveira, R.

    1990-07-01

    It is shown that the diffraction pattern produced by any of two complementary screens and the one produced by a slit having the shape of their boundary, oscillates in opposite phase. This extension of Babinet's principle is illustrated with examples from nuclear scattering and classical optics

  20. Quantum Mechanics and the Principle of Least Radix Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Morales, Vladimir

    2015-03-01

    A new variational method, the principle of least radix economy, is formulated. The mathematical and physical relevance of the radix economy, also called digit capacity, is established, showing how physical laws can be derived from this concept in a unified way. The principle reinterprets and generalizes the principle of least action yielding two classes of physical solutions: least action paths and quantum wavefunctions. A new physical foundation of the Hilbert space of quantum mechanics is then accomplished and it is used to derive the Schrödinger and Dirac equations and the breaking of the commutativity of spacetime geometry. The formulation provides an explanation of how determinism and random statistical behavior coexist in spacetime and a framework is developed that allows dynamical processes to be formulated in terms of chains of digits. These methods lead to a new (pre-geometrical) foundation for Lorentz transformations and special relativity. The Parker-Rhodes combinatorial hierarchy is encompassed within our approach and this leads to an estimate of the interaction strength of the electromagnetic and gravitational forces that agrees with the experimental values to an error of less than one thousandth. Finally, it is shown how the principle of least-radix economy naturally gives rise to Boltzmann's principle of classical statistical thermodynamics. A new expression for a general (path-dependent) nonequilibrium entropy is proposed satisfying the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

  1. Fundamental principles of the cultural-activity approach in the psychology of giftedness

    OpenAIRE

    Babaeva, Julia

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the cultural-activity approach to the study of giftedness, which is based on the ideas of L. S. Vygotsky, A. N. Leontiev, and O. K. Tikhomirov. Three basic principles of this approach are described: the principle of polymorphism, the dynamic principle, and the principle of the holistic analysis of the giftedness phenomenon. The article introduces the results of empirical research (including a 10-year longitudinal study), which verifies the efficacy of the cultural-activi...

  2. OHB's Exploration Capabilities Overview Relevant to Mars Sample Return Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, A.; Gerth, I.; Rohrbeck, M.; Scheper, M.

    2018-04-01

    The presentation will give an overview to all the OHB past and current projects that are relevant to the Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission, including some valuable lessons learned applicable to the upcoming MSR mission.

  3. 48 CFR 49.113 - Cost principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost principles. 49.113 Section 49.113 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.113 Cost principles. The cost principles and procedures in the...

  4. 32 CFR 203.6 - Cost principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost principles. 203.6 Section 203.6 National... Cost principles. (a) Non-profit contractors must comply with the cost principles in OMB Circular A-122...) For-profit contractors and subcontractors must comply with the cost principles in the FAR (48 CFR part...

  5. 32 CFR 776.19 - Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Principles. 776.19 Section 776.19 National... Professional Conduct § 776.19 Principles. The Rules of this subpart are based on the following principles... exists, this subpart should be interpreted consistent with these general principles. (a) Covered...

  6. Landauer's principle and the conservation of information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daffertshofer, A.; Plastino, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    Erasure of information requires the dissipation of a minimal amount of energy as being formulated in Landauer's principle. This profound concept in information processing has recently been derived by use of basic dynamical principles of statistical mechanics. We present an alternative derivation of Landauer's principle based on dynamical principles and certain properties of the Shannon-Gibbs-Boltzmann entropy, in particular (sub-)additivity

  7. 7 CFR 3015.111 - Cost principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost principles. 3015.111 Section 3015.111... § 3015.111 Cost principles. (a) The cost principles prescribed by subpart T of this part require prior... approvals required by the cost principles are in § 3015.196. Procedures for prior approvals required by this...

  8. 36 CFR 219.2 - Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Principles. 219.2 Section 219... Forest System Land and Resource Management Planning Purpose and Principles § 219.2 Principles. The planning regulations in this subpart are based on the following principles: (a) The first priority for...

  9. Stakeholders' Perspectives on Stakeholder-engaged Research (SER): Strategies to Operationalize Patient-centered Outcomes Research Principles for SER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Thomas I; Sheldrick, Radley C; de Ferranti, Sarah D; Saunders, Tully; Rojas, Erick G; Leslie, Laurel K

    2017-01-01

    US federal funding agencies increasingly incentivize stakeholder-engaged research which represents a paradigm shift toward incorporating a range of stakeholders in research design, conduct, and dissemination. We use qualitative methods to capture experience-based recommendations on how to operationalize 4 Patient-Centered Outcomes Research (PCOR) principles in stakeholder-engaged research, specifically: (1) reciprocal relationships; (2) colearning; (3) partnership; and (4) trust, transparency, and honesty. We conducted semistructured interviews with members of a stakeholder panel who participated in a 2-year comparative effectiveness study of cholesterol screening and treatment among young adults. Participants included 8 young adults and parent panelists and 11 professional panelists (clinicians, researchers, policy developers, and disseminators). The interview guide included questions about the 4 PCOR principles and queried preferred strategies to attain them. Interview transcripts were analyzed using an a priori and emergent coding structure. Participants provided strategies to promote the 4 PCOR principles. Although some stakeholder-identified strategies were complementary, others conflicted due to (1) competing ideologies identified among the principles, and (2) distinct stakeholder preferences. Illustrative of competing ideologies, participants simultaneously preferred receiving relevant articles before calls (to facilitate colearning) but also minimal outside reading (to achieve partnership). Illustrative of distinct stakeholder preferences, young adult and parent panelists generally preferred calls to occur on weekends/evenings, whereas professional panelists preferred mid-week work hours. Our exploratory study provides stakeholder-identified strategies to achieve the 4 PCOR principles, and demonstrates the need to identify, acknowledge, and address potentially conflicting strategies due to the potential for competing ideologies or variation in stakeholder

  10. The Principle of Energetic Consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    A basic result in estimation theory is that the minimum variance estimate of the dynamical state, given the observations, is the conditional mean estimate. This result holds independently of the specifics of any dynamical or observation nonlinearity or stochasticity, requiring only that the probability density function of the state, conditioned on the observations, has two moments. For nonlinear dynamics that conserve a total energy, this general result implies the principle of energetic consistency: if the dynamical variables are taken to be the natural energy variables, then the sum of the total energy of the conditional mean and the trace of the conditional covariance matrix (the total variance) is constant between observations. Ensemble Kalman filtering methods are designed to approximate the evolution of the conditional mean and covariance matrix. For them the principle of energetic consistency holds independently of ensemble size, even with covariance localization. However, full Kalman filter experiments with advection dynamics have shown that a small amount of numerical dissipation can cause a large, state-dependent loss of total variance, to the detriment of filter performance. The principle of energetic consistency offers a simple way to test whether this spurious loss of variance limits ensemble filter performance in full-blown applications. The classical second-moment closure (third-moment discard) equations also satisfy the principle of energetic consistency, independently of the rank of the conditional covariance matrix. Low-rank approximation of these equations offers an energetically consistent, computationally viable alternative to ensemble filtering. Current formulations of long-window, weak-constraint, four-dimensional variational methods are designed to approximate the conditional mode rather than the conditional mean. Thus they neglect the nonlinear bias term in the second-moment closure equation for the conditional mean. The principle of

  11. Accelerated Simulation of Kinetic Transport Using Variational Principles and Sparsity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caflisch, Russel [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2017-06-30

    This project is centered on the development and application of techniques of sparsity and compressed sensing for variational principles, PDEs and physics problems, in particular for kinetic transport. This included derivation of sparse modes for elliptic and parabolic problems coming from variational principles. The research results of this project are on methods for sparsity in differential equations and their applications and on application of sparsity ideas to kinetic transport of plasmas.

  12. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  13. Conformal radiotherapy: principles and classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenwald, J.C.; Gaboriaud, G.; Pontvert, D.

    1999-01-01

    'Conformal radiotherapy' is the name fixed by usage and given to a new form of radiotherapy resulting from the technological improvements observed during the last ten years. While this terminology is now widely used, no precise definition can be found in the literature. Conformal radiotherapy refers to an approach in which the dose distribution is more closely 'conformed' or adapted to the actual shape of the target volume. However, the achievement of a consensus on a more specific definition is hampered by various difficulties, namely in characterizing the degree of 'conformality'. We have therefore suggested a classification scheme be established on the basis of the tools and the procedures actually used for all steps of the process, i.e., from prescription to treatment completion. Our classification consists of four levels: schematically, at level 0, there is no conformation (rectangular fields); at level 1, a simple conformation takes place, on the basis of conventional 2D imaging; at level 2, a 3D reconstruction of the structures is used for a more accurate conformation; and level 3 includes research and advanced dynamic techniques. We have used our personal experience, contacts with colleagues and data from the literature to analyze all the steps of the planning process, and to define the tools and procedures relevant to a given level. The corresponding tables have been discussed and approved at the European level within the Dynarad concerted action. It is proposed that the term 'conformal radiotherapy' be restricted to procedures where all steps are at least at level 2. (author)

  14. Tomographic PIV: principles and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarano, F

    2013-01-01

    A survey is given of the major developments in three-dimensional velocity field measurements using the tomographic particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. The appearance of tomo-PIV dates back seven years from the present review (Elsinga et al 2005a 6th Int. Symp. PIV (Pasadena, CA)) and this approach has rapidly spread as a versatile, robust and accurate technique to investigate three-dimensional flows (Arroyo and Hinsch 2008 Topics in Applied Physics vol 112 ed A Schröder and C E Willert (Berlin: Springer) pp 127–54) and turbulence physics in particular. A considerable number of applications have been achieved over a wide range of flow problems, which requires the current status and capabilities of tomographic PIV to be reviewed. The fundamental aspects of the technique are discussed beginning from hardware considerations for volume illumination, imaging systems, their configurations and system calibration. The data processing aspects are of uppermost importance: image pre-processing, 3D object reconstruction and particle motion analysis are presented with their fundamental aspects along with the most advanced approaches. Reconstruction and cross-correlation algorithms, attaining higher measurement precision, spatial resolution or higher computational efficiency, are also discussed. The exploitation of 3D and time-resolved (4D) tomographic PIV data includes the evaluation of flow field pressure on the basis of the flow governing equation. The discussion also covers a-posteriori error analysis techniques. The most relevant applications of tomo-PIV in fluid mechanics are surveyed, covering experiments in air and water flows. In measurements in flow regimes from low-speed to supersonic, most emphasis is given to the complex 3D organization of turbulent coherent structures. (topical review)

  15. Principles of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Lawden, D F

    2005-01-01

    A thorough exploration of the universal principles of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, this volume explains the applications of these essential rules to a multitude of situations arising in physics and engineering. It develops their use in a variety of circumstances-including those involving gases, crystals, and magnets-in order to illustrate general methods of analysis and to provide readers with all the necessary background to continue in greater depth with specific topics.Author D. F. Lawden has considerable experience in teaching this subject to university students of varied abili

  16. Principles of wireless access and localization

    CERN Document Server

    Pahlavan, Kaveh

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive, encompassing and accessible text examining a wide range of key Wireless Networking and Localization technologies This book provides a unified treatment of issues related to all wireless access and wireless localization techniques.  The book reflects principles of design and deployment of infrastructure for wireless access and localization for wide, local, and personal networking.   Description of wireless access methods includes design and deployment of traditional TDMA and CDMA technologies and emerging Long Term Evolution (LTE) techniques for wide area cellular networks, the

  17. Xeroradiography. Principles, characteristics and method indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uemura, L.; Forni, S.S.; Abreu Neto, B.P.; Broccoli Neto, J.; Abilio, S.O.

    1987-01-01

    The xeroradiography is an entirely photoeletric process to obtain the radiographic image, employing a selenium plate instead of the conventional radiologic film. A revision of the physical principles and technical aspects of the method is presented, and the characteristics of xeroradiographic images are explained. The applications of xeroradiography include evaluation of breast, structures of the neck soft tissues tumors and some bone tumors for soft tissue components, foreign body detection in soft issues and visualization of the smaller skeletal structures of the extremeties. (Author) [pt

  18. Internal Combustion Engine Principles with Vehicle Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C

    The book is an introductory text on the subject of internal combustion engines, intended for use in engineering courses at the senior or introductory graduate student level. The focus in on describing the basic principles of engine operation on a broad basis, to provide a foundation for further...... exchange processes, combustion in different engine types, exhaust emissions, engine control including mean value engine models, pressure charging, fuels and fuel systems, balancing, friction, and heat transfer. In addition, methods to establish the connection between engine characteristics and vehicle...

  19. Other relevant numerical modelling papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chartier, M.

    1989-01-01

    The ocean modelling is a rapidly evolving science and a large number of results have been published. Several categories of papers are of particular interest for this review: the papers published by the international atomic institutions, such as the NEA (for the CRESP or Subseabed Programs), the IAEA (for example the Safety Series, the Technical Report Series or the TECDOC), and the ICRP, and the papers concerned by more fundamental research, which are published in specific scientific literature. This paper aims to list some of the most relevant publications for the CRESP purposes. It means by no way to be exhaustive, but informative on the incontestable progress recently achieved in that field. One should note that some of these papers are so recent that their final version has not yet been published

  20. Industrial relevance of thermophilic Archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, Ksenia; Antranikian, Garabed

    2005-12-01

    The dramatic increase of newly isolated extremophilic microorganisms, analysis of their genomes and investigations of their enzymes by academic and industrial laboratories demonstrate the great potential of extremophiles in industrial (white) biotechnology. Enzymes derived from extremophiles (extremozymes) are superior to the traditional catalysts because they can perform industrial processes even under harsh conditions, under which conventional proteins are completely denatured. In particular, enzymes from thermophilic and hyperthermophilic Archaea have industrial relevance. Despite intensive investigations, our knowledge of the structure-function relationships of their enzymes is still limited. Information concerning the molecular properties of their enzymes and genes has to be obtained to be able to understand the mechanisms that are responsible for catalytic activity and stability at the boiling point of water.