WorldWideScience

Sample records for relevant physical quantities

  1. Relevance of protection quantities in medical exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) continues to classify the exposures to radiation in three categories; namely 1- occupational exposure, 2- public exposure, and 3- medical exposure. Protection quantities are primarily meant for the regulatory purpose in radiological protection for controlling and limiting stochastic risks in occupational and public exposures. These are based on two basic assumptions of 1- linear no-threshold dose-effect relationship (LNT) at low doses and 2- long-term additivity of low doses. Medical exposure are predominantly delivered to individuals (patients) undergoing diagnostic examinations, interventional procedures and radiation therapy but also include individual caring for or comforting patients incurring exposure and the volunteers of biomedical medical research programmes. Radiation protection is as relevant to occupational and public exposure as to medical exposures except that the dose limits set for the formers are not applicable to medical exposure but reference levels and dose constrains are recommended for diagnostic and interventional medical procedures. In medical institutions, both the occupational and medical exposure takes place. Since the doses in diagnostic examinations are low, it has been observed that not only the protection quantities are often used in such cases but these are extended to estimate the number of cancer deaths due to such practices. One of the striking features of the new ICRP recommendations has been to elaborate the concepts of the dosimetric quantities. The limitation of protection quantities ((Effective dose, E=Σ RT D TR .W T .W R and Equivalent Dose H T =Σ RT D TR .W R ) have been brought out and this has raised a great concern and initiated debates on the use of these quantities in medical exposures. Consequently, ICRP has set a task group to provide more details and the recommendations. It has, therefore, became important to draw the attention of medical physics community

  2. Handbook of physical quantities

    CERN Document Server

    Meilikhov, Evgenii Z

    1997-01-01

    Reliable and quickly accessible information concerning the physical phenomena and properties of various media is in great demand by many scientists in their everyday work. This extensive reference provides such information, presenting basic physical parameters and properties of substances employed in modern science and industry.

  3. Impact of the Velo 2 half misalignment on physical quantities

    CERN Document Server

    Roguljic, Matej; Borghi, Silvia; Grillo, Lucia; CERN. Geneva. EP Department

    2016-01-01

    The impact of the misalignment of the Vertex Locator of the LHCb experiment on the physical quantities of the decay "$D^{*+} \\rightarrow (D^{0}\\rightarrow K^{-}\\pi^{+}) \\pi^{+} $" is studied in this note. Different misalignments of the 2 halves are applied to Monte Carlo data and the variations of the physical quantities with respect to the case without misalignment are evaluated. The results show the importance of the VELO 2 half alignment which can significantly affect the physics performance in the large misalignment case. A misalignment equal to the precision of the real-time alignment of the Vertex Locator is found to have a negligible effect on the studied physical quantities.

  4. A note on the expectation and deviation of physical quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasawa, Masao

    2009-01-01

    By using the function representation of self-adjoint operators, the expectation and variance of physical quantities (self-adjoint operators) are defined, and it is shown that the so-called uncertainty principle does not hold.

  5. Physical quantities, their role and treatment in gasflow measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narjes, L.

    1977-06-01

    We begin by taking a closer look at the concepts physical quantity, dimension and unit of measurement. Then a survey is given of the physical quantities applied in gasflow measurement techniques. Here the volume-, as well as the mass-flow rate, as derived quantities are of particular interest. The application of these quantities in relation to the legal units of measurement is specifically described. In addition the quantity equation and further the quantity equation adapted to the use of suitable units and their modes of application are compared. In the appendix four examples clarify these modes. Special attention is paid to the quantity equation adapted to practically oriented units. The applications of this type of equation in VDI regulations, standards and other technical guidelines for measurement of flow are mentioned. Moreover, the meaning of the standard state for the comparison of flows of gaseous fluids is illustrated. The difficulties concerning an international agreement on uniform standard temperature are explained. Starting from there, the advantages of the fundamental quantity 'amount of substance' applied to the measurement of flow are described. The use of this quantity for the thermodynamic state of ideal and real gases, respectively gas mixtures, is demonstrated in the appendix by an example. (orig.) [de

  6. Ultracold atoms for precision measurement of fundamental physical quantities

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    Cooling and trapping of neutral atoms has been one of the most active fields of research in physics in recent years. Several methods were demonstrated to reach temperatures as low as a few nanokelvin allowing, for example, the investigation of quantum degenerate gases. The ability to control the quantum degrees of freedom of atoms opens the way to applications for precision measurement of fundamental physical quantities. Experiments in progress, planned or being considered using new quantum devices based on ultracold atoms, namely atom interferometers and atomic clocks, will be discussed.

  7. The Relevance of Nuclear Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisskopf, V.F.

    1969-01-01

    I am asked what nuclear physics is about, that is, nuclear physics as distinct from particle physics and other parts of physics. I see three trends in this science. One is the discovery of new phenomena, phenomena of nature which we have not seen or observed, of which we did not know anything before. The second trend, I would say, is towards the solution of fundamental problems, the answers to certain basic questions in physics; I shall give some details later on. The third is the construction of new concepts in physics necessary to deal with the problems not only in nuclear physics but also in the rest of physics. The order of these three items is unimportant. This meeting should be concerned not only with the factual questions of science, but also with the, let me say, philosophic and practical questions of nuclear physics. Why do we do nuclear physics, what is the sense of it, what is the meaning of it and, most importantly, how can we defend the support of nuclear physics, how can we convince the governments to spend money on such a thing, which to a certain extent is our pleasure? And so we will have to be quite clear among ourselves that this is a very important matter

  8. A statistical law in the perception of risks and physical quantities in traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-01-01

    This paper suggests that a universal psychophysical law influences the perception of risks and physical quantities in traffic. This law states that there will be a tendency to overestimate low probabilities or small quantities, while high probabilities or large quantities may be underestimated....... Studies of the perception of risk and physical quantities in traffic have found a highly consistent pattern....

  9. Relevance of physics to the pharmacy major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Richard P

    2007-08-15

    To offer a physics course that is relevant to pharmacy students, yet still contains many of the fundamental principles of physics. The course was modified over a period of several years to include activities and examples that were related to other courses in the curriculum. Course evaluations were given to assess student attitudes about the importance of physics in the pharmacy curriculum. Students' attitudes have changed over time to appreciate the role that physics plays in their studies. Students gained confidence in their ability to learn in other courses.

  10. Units for physical quantities used in dosimetry and radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taubert, R; Wagner, S

    1976-04-01

    The 15th General Conference on Weights and Measures (1975) decided to introduce the name Becquerel for the SI unit of the quantity activity (1 Bq = 1 s/sup -1/) and the name Gray for the SI unit of ionizing radiations (1 Gy = 1 J/kg). The consequences of this latter decision are discussed. The Bundesanstalt is of the opinion that no further names for this unit should be introduced, but that the Gray should be used also for other quantities of the same dimension, especially for the dose equivalent.

  11. Discussion on concepts for radiological dosimetric quantities in the Japan Health Physics Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Fumiaki; Oda, Keiji

    2007-01-01

    Many dosimetric quantities have been used for radiation protection purpose. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has recommended protection quantities and the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) has introduced operational quantities to provide a reasonable estimate of the protection quantities. Enthusiastic discussions are continuously made on the issues of the dosimetric quantities, such as basic biological data for the definition of these quantities and applicability of the quantities to actual radiation protection practice. At the moment, some changes are being proposed concerning dosimetric quantities in the draft recommendations of ICRP, opened for consultation in recent years. Thus, the Japan Health Physics Society (JHPS) established the Expert Committee on concepts of Dosimetric Quantities used in radiological protection (ECDQ) in April 2005 to reviewed and discuss issues in the dosimetric quantities. (author)

  12. The Relevant Physical Trace in Criminal Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durdica Hazard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A criminal investigation requires the forensic scientist to search and to interpret vestiges of a criminal act that happened in the past. The forensic scientist is one of the many stakeholders who take part in the information quest within the criminal justice system. She reads the investigation scene in search of physical traces that should enable her to tell the story of the offense/crime that allegedly occurred. The challenge for any investigator is to detect and recognize relevant physical traces in order to provide clues for investigation and intelligence purposes, and that will constitute sound and relevant evidence for the court. This article shows how important it is to consider the relevancy of physical traces from the beginning of the investigation and what might influence the evaluation process. The exchange and management of information between the investigation stakeholders are important. Relevancy is a dimension that needs to be understood from the standpoints of law enforcement personnel and forensic scientists with the aim of strengthening investigation and ultimately the overall judicial process.

  13. Physical quantities related to measurement campaigns for cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boegel, W.

    1975-12-01

    The nomenclature in reports on the measurement campaigns for cooling towers will be adapted as far as possible to the already existing VDI report on this subject. On the other hand, the appropriate standards will also be accounted for. In order to facilitate a decision in individual cases in a first table the meteorologically or generally interesting quantities of the VDI reports are compared with the German, international, and WMO standards and - if necessary - also commented. A second table contains the air humidity parameters standardized by WMO including brief definitions. (orig/HP) [de

  14. Nanostructure symmetry: Relevance for physics and computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupertuis, Marc-André; Oberli, D. Y.; Karlsson, K. F.; Dalessi, S.; Gallinet, B.; Svendsen, G.

    2014-01-01

    We review the research done in recent years in our group on the effects of nanostructure symmetry, and outline its relevance both for nanostructure physics and for computations of their electronic and optical properties. The exemples of C3v and C2v quantum dots are used. A number of surprises and non-trivial aspects are outlined, and a few symmetry-based tools for computing and analysis are shortly presented

  15. Nanostructure symmetry: Relevance for physics and computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupertuis, Marc-André; Oberli, D. Y. [Laboratory for Physics of Nanostructure, EPF Lausanne (Switzerland); Karlsson, K. F. [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology (IFM), Linköping University (Sweden); Dalessi, S. [Computational Biology Group, Department of Medical Genetics, University of Lausanne (Switzerland); Gallinet, B. [Nanophotonics and Metrology Laboratory, EPF Lausanne (Switzerland); Svendsen, G. [Dept. of Electronics and Telecom., Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway)

    2014-03-31

    We review the research done in recent years in our group on the effects of nanostructure symmetry, and outline its relevance both for nanostructure physics and for computations of their electronic and optical properties. The exemples of C3v and C2v quantum dots are used. A number of surprises and non-trivial aspects are outlined, and a few symmetry-based tools for computing and analysis are shortly presented.

  16. W, F, and I : Three quantities basic to radiation physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inokuti, M.

    1998-01-01

    The W value is an index of the mean number of ions produced in a gas subjected to ionizing radiation. Formally, it is defined as the radiation energy absorbed (usually expressed in units of eV) ''per ion pair of either sign produced'', or, in a simpler language, ''per electron liberated''. The basic knowledge up to 1961 is eloquently articulated in a classic essay by Platzman [1], which Professor Doke loves to cite. The theme of Platzman was to explain from the point of view of basic physics the magnitude and characteristics of the ratio W/I, where I is the (first) ionization threshold energy. In summary, major characteristics are as follows. (1) The W value for a given gas depends weakly on the properties of the radiation such as the mass and charge of particles or initial energies (provided they are sufficiently high). This makes the ionization measurement useful as a method of dosimetry, viz., the determination of the absorbed energy. (2) The ratio W/I is always greater than unity because a part of the absorbed energy must be used in nonionizing events such as discrete excitation or molecular dissociation into neutral fragments and also in producing subexcitation electrons, viz., electrons with kinetic energies too low to cause electronic excitation or ionization [2]. (3) The ratio W/I is 1.7-1.8 for rare gases, and 2.1-2.6 for gases of common molecules (depending on the electronic structure, going from ''hard'' to ''soft''). Calculation of the W value is possible from three approaches: (i) the energy balance of Platzman, heuristic for general understanding and appropriate for an estimate; (ii) the Fowler equation [3] for the direct evaluation of the mean number of ions produced; and (iii) the method of Spencer and Fano [4] through the degradation spectra (or the track length distributions) of charged particles, most importantly of electrons, present in the medium. The Fowler method is good for obtaining the mean number of ions or excited states resulting from

  17. Other relevant papers in physical oceanography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyffeler, F.

    1989-01-01

    During the past few years, significant progress has occurred in the field of physical oceanography partly as a consequence of developing cooperation and international participation in well-coordinated ocean research programmes. Although these programs were not designed specifically to address CRESP problems, many have proved to be directly relevant to CRESP objectives. For example, MODE, POLYMODE, and Tourbillon were intensive site-specific experiments that included studies of dispersion processes throughout the water column. NOAMP and GME were also site specific, involved the entire water column, and even stressed near-bottom and suspended-sediment processes. Others, (e.g., WOCE) are larger in scope and include extensive observations of the general circulation of entire ocean basins. As a whole, they contribute immensely to improving the data base for exchange and transport processes and thereby for the verification and validation of both regional-scale and general-circulation ocean models. That, in turn, is directly relevant to radiological assessments. Selected papers deriving from experiments such as these are discussed and referenced below

  18. Validity of the concept of absorbed dose as a physical quantity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tada, Jun-Ichiro; Katoh, Kazuaki.

    1995-01-01

    The concept of the 'absorbed dose' of ionizing radiation is scrutinized from physical point of view. It is shown that the concept and definition of the quantity in the ICRU system is disqualified as a physical quantity and the absorbed dose can not always be a 'measure of cause' in describing causality relation between radiation and effects on matter. The current absorbed dose depends even on the energy that have already been brought out from the matter, contrary to the intention of introducing the quantity. Trials to remove these difficulties are made. However, it is also shown there still exists an essential problem that cannot be solved by improving the formulation. (author)

  19. Analytical Expressions of Matrix Elements of Physical Quantities for Dirac Oscillator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ning; JU Guo-Xing; REN Zhong-Zhou

    2004-01-01

    The analytical expressions of the matrix elements for physical quantities are obtained for the Dirac oscillator in two and three spatial dimensions. Their behaviour for the case of operator's square is discussed in details. The twodimensional Dirac oscillator has similar behavior to that for three-dimensional one.

  20. Definition of the chief physical quantities in use in vacuum techniques, and their corresponding units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulassier, J.C.

    1959-01-01

    It would seem desirable for vacuum technicians to adopt the coherent systems of units generally used in physics. This article presents an internal standardisation project in the CEA, and gives a brief review of the definitions of the physical quantities to which it applies. Reprint of a paper published in 'Le vide', n. 79, January-February 1959, p. 29-35 [fr

  1. Is QCD relevant to nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, A.W.

    1985-01-01

    A review is given of recent work on baryon structure in a number of QCD-motivated models. After establishing a prima facie case that the quark model should be relevant in a consistent description of the nucleus over a wide range of momentum transfer, the author looks for experimental confirmation. The discussion includes the search for exotic states, for a six quark component of the deuteron, and an up to date report on the interpretation of the EMC effect. (Auth.)

  2. Comparative Assessment of Physical and Social Determinants of Water Quantity and Water Quality Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunda, T.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2017-12-01

    Concerns over water resources have evolved over time, from physical availability to economic access and recently, to a more comprehensive study of "water security," which is inherently interdisciplinary because a secure water system is influenced by and affects both physical and social components. The concept of water security carries connotations of both an adequate supply of water as well as water that meets certain quality standards. Although the term "water security" has many interpretations in the literature, the research field has not yet developed a synthetic analysis of water security as both a quantity (availability) and quality (contamination) issue. Using qualitative comparative and multi-regression analyses, we evaluate the primary physical and social factors influencing U.S. states' water security from a quantity perspective and from a quality perspective. Water system characteristics are collated from academic and government sources and include access/use, governance, and sociodemographic, and ecosystem metrics. Our analysis indicates differences in variables driving availability and contamination concerns; for example, climate is a more significant determinant in water quantity-based security analyses than in water quality-based security analyses. We will also discuss coevolution of system traits and the merits of constructing a robust water security index based on the relative importance of metrics from our analyses. These insights will improve understanding of the complex interactions between quantity and quality aspects and thus, overall security of water systems.

  3. Developments in entanglement theory and applications to relevant physical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lamata Manuel, Lucas

    2007-01-01

    This Thesis is devoted to the analysis of entanglement in relevant physical systems. Entanglement is the conducting theme of this research, though I do not dedicate to a single topic, but consider a wide scope of physical situations. I have followed mainly three lines of research for this Thesis, with a series of different works each, which are, Entanglement and Relativistic Quantum Theory, Continuous-variable entanglement, and Multipartite entanglement.

  4. Flip-flop electrometer: a system for measuring radiation and other physical quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Luiz Antonio P.

    2007-01-01

    Several nuclear instrumentation systems operate based on the electrometer technique: dosimetry, spectrometry and calibration. In general, electrometers are expensive and require a sophisticated calibration at secondary laboratories. The problem is that the electrical current is very low, picoampere or femtoampere, and it is very difficult to be measured. The purpose of this work is to show an electrometer system based on the flip-flop circuitry that can be used in innumerous applications in accurate instrumentation and metrology of physical quantities. Actually, an electronic flip-flop register is used as frequency generator. It was possible to build it by using an analog-digital feedback (ADF) between the device output and a schimitt-trigger field sensor (STFS) at the device input. When a very low electrical current enters in the STFS circuitry the output change the logical state and the ADF circuitry acts in the input to make the circuit oscillate. The digital oscillation frequency is proportional to the very low input current which comes from a radiation detector or scintillation dosimeter. The Flip-flop electrometer R was calibrated with a 6430 Keithley R sub-femto-amperemeter. The great advantage is its low cost and it can be used for measurements of any type of detector or transducer: ion chamber, photodiode, phototransistor, scintillator, TLD or temperature, pressure and humidity sensor, etc. An application software that controls the Flip-flop electrometer will also be presented. The software, called DoseX, can program the instrument, change the conversion factors from different detection systems and choose the physical quantity to be measured dependent on the transducer. (author)

  5. The Teaching Effectiveness of a Relevant Physics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Art

    1998-04-01

    If America is to achieve the science literacy that is ssential to industrialized democracy, all students must study such topics as scientific methodology, pseudoscience, critical thinking, ozone depletion, technological risk, and global warming. My large-enrollment liberal-arts physics course covers the great principles of physics along with several such philosophical and societal topics. Students find these topics relevant and fascinating, leading to strong course evaluations and large enrollments by non-scientists even in courses labeled physics. I will describe this course and present some evidence indicating that the course is effective in communicating physics and its interdisciplinary connections. A textbook, Physics: Concepts and Connections (Prentice Hall, 1995, 2nd edition to appear in June 1998), is available.

  6. Instrumental broadening of spectral line profiles due to discrete representation of a continuous physical quantity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulov, E.N.; Khripunov, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    It is the usual situation in spectroscopy that a continuous physical quantity, which plays the role of a spectral function argument (i.e. the abscissa of a spectrum), is sampled electronically as discrete point clouds or channels. Each channel corresponds to the midpoint of a small interval of the continuous argument. The experimentally registered value of intensity in the channel describes the averaged spectral intensity in this interval. However, an approximation of spectra by a continuous theoretical model function often assumes that the interval is small enough, and tabulation of the theoretical model function may be used without appreciable disadvantages for the fitting results. At this point, a new type of approximation error appears, such as the error of midpoint approximation to a definite integral in the rectangle method of numeric integration. This paper aims at quantitative estimation of this error in the cases of a pure Lorentz lineshape and a generalized Voigt contour. It is shown that discrete representation of continuous spectral data leads to some non-physical broadening in comparison with the tabulated model function. As a first approximation it is normal broadening. We show that even in the case of a Lorentz true lineshape we must use the tabulated Voigt function measured in channels fixed Gauss linewidth rather than a tabulated Lorentzian. Application of the results of this paper is demonstrated on Moessbauer spectra

  7. A wireless interrogation system exploiting narrowband acoustic resonator for remote physical quantity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedt, J.-M; Droit, C.; Martin, G.; Ballandras, S.

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring physical quantities using acoustic wave devices can be advantageously achieved using the wave characteristic dependence to various parametric perturbations (temperature, stress, and pressure). Surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators are particularly well suited to such applications as their resonance frequency is directly influenced by these perturbations, modifying both the phase velocity and resonance conditions. Moreover, the intrinsic radio frequency (rf) nature of these devices makes them ideal for wireless applications, mainly exploiting antennas reciprocity and piezoelectric reversibility. In this paper, we present a wireless SAW sensor interrogation unit operating in the 434 MHz centered ISM band--selected as a tradeoff between antenna dimensions and electromagnetic wave penetration in dielectric media--based on the principles of a frequency sweep network analyzer. We particularly focus on the compliance with the ISM standard which reveals complicated by the need for switching from emission to reception modes similarly to radar operation. In this matter, we propose a fully digital rf synthesis chain to develop various interrogation strategies to overcome the corresponding difficulties and comply with the above-mentioned standard. We finally assess the reader interrogation range, accuracy, and dynamics.

  8. A wireless interrogation system exploiting narrowband acoustic resonator for remote physical quantity measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedt, J.-M [SENSeOR, 32 Avenue de l' Observatoire, 25044 Besancon (France); Droit, C.; Martin, G.; Ballandras, S. [Department of Time and Frequency, FEMTO-ST, 32 Avenue de l' Observatoire, 25044 Besancon (France)

    2010-01-15

    Monitoring physical quantities using acoustic wave devices can be advantageously achieved using the wave characteristic dependence to various parametric perturbations (temperature, stress, and pressure). Surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators are particularly well suited to such applications as their resonance frequency is directly influenced by these perturbations, modifying both the phase velocity and resonance conditions. Moreover, the intrinsic radio frequency (rf) nature of these devices makes them ideal for wireless applications, mainly exploiting antennas reciprocity and piezoelectric reversibility. In this paper, we present a wireless SAW sensor interrogation unit operating in the 434 MHz centered ISM band--selected as a tradeoff between antenna dimensions and electromagnetic wave penetration in dielectric media--based on the principles of a frequency sweep network analyzer. We particularly focus on the compliance with the ISM standard which reveals complicated by the need for switching from emission to reception modes similarly to radar operation. In this matter, we propose a fully digital rf synthesis chain to develop various interrogation strategies to overcome the corresponding difficulties and comply with the above-mentioned standard. We finally assess the reader interrogation range, accuracy, and dynamics.

  9. Bottom–up protein identifications from microliter quantities of individual human tear samples. Important steps towards clinical relevance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Raus

    2015-12-01

    With 375 confidently identified proteins in the healthy adult tear, the obtained results are comprehensive and in large agreement with previously published observations on pooled samples of multiple patients. We conclude that, to a limited extent, bottom–up tear protein identifications from individual patients may have clinical relevance.

  10. The jumps of physical quantities at fast shocks under pressure anisotropy: theory versus observations at the bow shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogl, D.F.

    2000-10-01

    The interaction of the solar wind with magnetized planets leads to the formation of the so-called magnetosphere, a cavity generated by the geomagnetic field. The supersonic, superalfvenic, and magnetized solar wind flow interacting with blunt bodies produces a detached bow shock, separating the solar wind from the magnetosheath, the region between the shock wave and the magnetopause. On approach to a planetary obstacle, the solar wind becomes subsonic at the bow shock and then flows past the planet in the magnetosheath. At the bow shock, the plasma parameters and the magnetic field strength change from upstream to downstream, i.e., an increase of plasma density, temperature, pressure, and magnetic field strength, and a decrease of the velocity across the shock. In this PhD thesis we mainly concentrate on the variations of all physical quantities across the bow shock taking into account pressure anisotropy, which is an important feature in space plasma physics and observed by various spacecraft missions in the solar wind as well as in the magnetosheath. Dealing with anisotropic plasma conditions, one has to introduce the so-called pressure tensor, characterized by two scalar pressures, the pressure perpendicular (P p erp) and the pressure parallel (P p arallel) with respect to the magnetic field and in general one speaks of anisotropic conditions for P p erp is not P p arallel. Many spacecraft observations of the solar wind show P p arallel > P p erp, whereas observations of the magnetosheath show the opposite case, P p arallel p erp. Therefore, dissipation of kinetic energy into thermal energy plays an important role in studying the variations of the relevant physical quantities across the shock. It has to be mentioned that planetary bow shocks are good examples for fast MHD shock waves. Therefore, the basic equations for describing the changes across the shock can be obtained by integrating the MHD equations in conservative form. We note that these equations, the

  11. Variational symmetries, conserved quantities and identities for several equations of mathematical physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donchev, Veliko, E-mail: velikod@ie.bas.bg [Laboratory “Physical Problems of Electron and Ion Technologies,” Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko shosse, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2014-03-15

    We find variational symmetries, conserved quantities and identities for several equations: envelope equation, Böcher equation, the propagation of sound waves with losses, flow of a gas with losses, and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with losses or gains, and an electro-magnetic interaction. Most of these equations do not have a variational description with the classical variational principle and we find such a description with the generalized variational principle of Herglotz.

  12. An exploratory investigation of the intuition of physical quantity among 15 to 17 year old high school students from an evolutionary epistemological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernavski, Ghennady

    This study examines the issue of perception of extreme amounts of various physical quantities among 14 to 17 year old public schools students. The methods used in this investigation consisted of combined multiple-choice-open response questions and clinical interviews. The subjects in this study have relatively well defined ideas about quantitative relationships of the physical world as long as the quantities involved lie within their perceptual limits. Beyond these limits, their quantitative understanding was vague across all concepts with respect to their inability to do adequate quantitative comparisons. Very small physical quantities as well as very small changes in quantities did not seem to be present in the mental frameworks of the subjects. Most subjects were able to comprehend micro-quantities and micro-changes by relating them to those within their mesocosmical range. Analogical reasoning appeared to be central to this process. The subjects failed to perceive identical physical situations as analogical if one of them involved mesocosmical quantities and the other contained those lying beyond their mental mesocosmical range. Crossing mesocosmical boundaries in one's mind caused interruption in analogical reasoning. Very large physical quantities, namely those beyond the human range of sensual perception, were present in the subjects' mental frameworks. However, they were unable to reason adequately about quantitative differences between distinct quantities of the same concept if these quantities were beyond their sensual range. The findings of this study provide empirical support to Vollmer's (1984) theory of mesocosmical mind.

  13. Quantity, Type, and Correlates of Physical Activity among American Middle Eastern University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, David

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of hypokinetic disease among persons of Middle Eastern heritage is higher than whites and research on American young adults of this population is limited. Therefore 214 tertiary students of Middle Eastern descent self-reported their physical activity (PA) over a 1-week monitoring period using pedometers and daily activity logs.…

  14. Absence of even-integer ζ-function values in Euclidean physical quantities in QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamin, Matthias; Miravitllas, Ramon

    2018-04-01

    At order αs4 in perturbative quantum chromodynamics, even-integer ζ-function values are present in Euclidean physical correlation functions like the scalar quark correlation function or the scalar gluonium correlator. We demonstrate that these contributions cancel when the perturbative expansion is expressed in terms of the so-called C-scheme coupling αˆs which has recently been introduced in Ref. [1]. It is furthermore conjectured that a ζ4 term should arise in the Adler function at order αs5 in the MS ‾-scheme, and that this term is expected to disappear in the C-scheme as well.

  15. Calculation of quantities of interest in high energy physics using visual basic 3.0. The Flow Tensor Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besliu, C.; Jipa, A.; Zaharia, R.

    1995-01-01

    The Flow Tensor is an important physical quantity in High Energy Physics. The program used for the calculation of the Flow Tensor has been a complex menu-driven application, to allow the selection of various triggers for the studied reaction, of the number of traces in each studied event, of the momentum cut values for the resulting particles of fragments in each event, etc. We realised all that requests using a very modern and powerful tool: Visual Basic 3.0. This programming system allows the realisation of Windows-like programs and has numerous facilities: OLE (Object Linking and Embedding), the possibility to create professional graphics, to work with databases, to create and compile Windows-like help files. All these advantages make the effort to learn Visual Basic 3.0 worthwhile. (author)

  16. Ethnolinguistically Relevant Pedagogy: Empowering English Language Learners in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Joe W., Jr.; Columna, Luis; Hodge, Samuel R.; Mansilla, Patricia Martinez de la Vega

    2013-01-01

    People from diverse cultures interpret languages and gestures differently (Columna & Lieberman, 2011). It is not surprising, therefore, that communication differences may have negative implications for teachers and English language learners in K-12 physical education environments. To address this issue, we advocate preparing physical education…

  17. Quantity, type, and correlates of physical activity among American Middle Eastern university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, David

    2009-09-01

    The prevalence of hypokinetic disease among persons of Middle Eastern heritage is higher than whites and research on American young adults of this population is limited. Therefore 214 tertiary students of Middle Eastern descent self-reported their physical activity (PA) over a 1-week monitoring period using pedometers and daily activity logs. Daily step count averaged 9,256 (SD = 3,084) steps, while daily energy expenditure averaged 6.26 kcal/kg (SD = 4.92). Most participants reported no weekly engagement in sport (69.2%) and walk/run (52.8%) activities, and at least once-weekly engagement in conditioning (68.7%) activities. Moderately religious and highly acculturated men, and Muslims, and moderately/highly acculturated persons were more likely to average > or = 10,000 steps/day and engage in at least one sport activity per week, respectively. These findings may be related to religious and cultural issues unique to Middle Eastern American college students whose collectivist social affiliations with family and community members may facilitate or inhibit various aspects of PA behavior.

  18. On the physical relevance of the discrete Fourier transform

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, JM

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper originated from the author's dissatisfaction with the way the discrete Fourier transform is usually presented in the literature. Although mathematically correct, the physical meaning of the common representation is unsatisfactory...

  19. Edge Plasma Physics and Relevant Diagnostics on the CASTOR tokamak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stöckel, Jan; Devynck, P.; Gunn, J.; Martines, E.; Bonhomme, G.; Van Oost, G.; Hron, Martin; Ďuran, Ivan; Pánek, Radomír; Stejskal, Pavel; Adámek, Jiří

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 3, - (2004), s. 1-6 ISSN 1433-5581. [First Cairo Conference on Plasma Physics & Applications. Cairo, 11.10.2003-15.10.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/03/0786; GA ČR GP202/03/P062 Keywords : tokamak * edge plasma * probe diagnostics * biasing * turbulence * polarization Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  20. The Relevance of Heavy Flavour Physics in the LHC Era

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Mangano, Michelangelo L; Alvarez-Gaumé, Luís

    2005-01-01

    Experimental high energy physics is poised to break out of the prison of the Standard Model. When the field turns to the exploration of exciting new phenomena beyond the Standard Model, will there still be a role for the study of old-fashioned heavy quarks and leptons?

  1. Measurements at LHC and their relevance for cosmic ray physics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Many LHC measurements are already used to improve hadronic interaction models used in cosmic ray analyses. This already had a positive effect on the model dependence of crucial data analyses. Some of the data and the model tuning is reviewed. However, the LHC still has a lot more potential to provide crucial information. Since the start of Run2 the highest accelerator beam energies are reached and no further increase can be expected for a long time. First data of Run2 are published and the fundamental performance of cosmic ray hadronic interaction models can be scrutinized. The relevance of LHC data in general for cosmic ray data analyses is demonstrated.

  2. A topos foundation for theories of physics: III. The representation of physical quantities with arrows δo(A):Σ lowbar →Rsccue lowbar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doering, A.; Isham, C. J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is the third in a series whose goal is to develop a fundamentally new way of viewing theories of physics. Our basic contention is that constructing a theory of physics is equivalent to finding a representation in a topos of a certain formal language that is attached to the system. In Paper II, we studied the topos representations of the propositional language PL(S) for the case of quantum theory, and in the present paper we do the same thing for the, more extensive, local language L(S). One of the main achievements is to find a topos representation for self-adjoint operators. This involves showing that, for any physical quantity A, there is an arrow δ o (A):Σ lowbar →R sccue lowbar , where R sccue lowbar is the quantity-value object for this theory. The construction of δ o (A) is an extension of the daseinisation of projection operators that was discussed in Paper II. The object R sccue lowbar is a monoid object only in the topos, τ φ =Sets V(H) op , of the theory, and to enhance the applicability of the formalism, we apply to R sccue lowbar a topos analog of the Grothendieck extension of a monoid to a group. The resulting object, k(R sccue lowbar ), is an abelian group object in τ φ . We also discuss another candidate, R ↔ lowbar , for the quantity-value object. In this presheaf, both inner and outer daseinisations are used in a symmetric way. Finally, there is a brief discussion of the role of unitary operators in the quantum topos scheme

  3. SL(2, 7) representations and their relevance to neutrino physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliferis, G.; Vlachos, N.D. [University of Thessaloniki, Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics, Thessaloniki (Greece); Leontaris, G.K. [University of Ioannina, Physics Department, Ioannina (Greece); CERN, Department of Physics, Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2017-06-15

    The investigation of the role of finite groups in flavor physics and, particularly, in the interpretation of the neutrino data has been the subject of intensive research. Motivated by this fact, in this work we derive the three-dimensional unitary representations of the projective linear group PSL{sub 2}(7). Based on the observation that the generators of the group exhibit a Latin square pattern, we use available computational packages on discrete algebra to determine the generic properties of the group elements. We present analytical expressions and discuss several examples which reproduce the neutrino mixing angles in accordance with the experimental data. (orig.)

  4. Methods, Devices and Computer Program Products Providing for Establishing a Model for Emulating a Physical Quantity Which Depends on at Least One Input Parameter, and Use Thereof

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention proposes methods, devices and computer program products. To this extent, there is defined a set X including N distinct parameter values x_i for at least one input parameter x, N being an integer greater than or equal to 1, first measured the physical quantity Pm1 for each...

  5. The physical environment and its relevance to customer satisfaction in boutique hotels; Hotel Haven, Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Jysmä, Ekaterina

    2012-01-01

    Object of this research is physical environment of the boutique hotel named Haven. As there is lack of the researches concerning physical environment role in the boutique hotels, this paper could be useful both for the studied hotel as well as for the other boutique hotels managers and owners. Moreover, it could be useful for the potential customers of Hotel Haven. Main topic of this research is the importance and relevance of the physical environment in Hotel Haven, mostly its impact o...

  6. Clinically Relevant Physical Benefits of Exercise Interventions in Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, Amy A; Bland, Kelcey A; Sayyari, Sarah; Campbell, Kristin L; Davis, Margot K

    2016-02-01

    Evidence is currently limited for the effect of exercise on breast cancer clinical outcomes. However, several of the reported physical benefits of exercise, including peak oxygen consumption, functional capacity, muscle strength and lean mass, cardiovascular risk factors, and bone health, have established associations with disability, cardiovascular disease risk, morbidity, and mortality. This review will summarize the clinically relevant physical benefits of exercise interventions in breast cancer survivors and discuss recommendations for achieving these benefits. It will also describe potential differences in intervention delivery that may impact outcomes and, lastly, describe current physical activity guidelines for cancer survivors.

  7. Proceedings of the tenth biennial national conference of Physics Academy of North East: recent advances in physics research and its relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chutia, Simanta; Saikia, Shantu

    2017-06-01

    This conference provided a platform to discuss the recent developments in Physics research in different fields which includes high energy astrophysics, condensed matter physics, electronics, spectroscopy, atmospheric sciences, cosmology, general physics etc. The papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  8. Lexical Studies of Filipino Person Descriptors: Adding Personality-Relevant Social and Physical Attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperio, Shellah Myra; Church, A Timothy; Katigbak, Marcia S; Reyes, Jose Alberto S

    2008-06-01

    Lexical studies have focused on traits. In the Filipino language, we investigated whether additional dimensions can be identified when personality-relevant terms for social roles, statuses, and effects, plus physical attributes, are included. Filipino students (N = 496) rated themselves on 268 such terms, plus 253 markers of trait and evaluative dimensions. We identified 10 dimensions of social and physical attributes-Prominence, Uselessness, Attractiveness, Respectability, Uniqueness, Destructiveness, Presentableness, Strength, Dangerousness, and Charisma. Most of these dimensions did not correspond in a one-to-one manner to Filipino or alternative trait models (Big Five, HEXACO, ML7). However, considerable redundancy was observed between the social and physical attribute dimensions and trait and evaluative dimensions. Thus, social and physical attributes communicate information about personality traits, and vice-versa.

  9. Lexical Studies of Filipino Person Descriptors: Adding Personality-Relevant Social and Physical Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperio, Shellah Myra; Church, A. Timothy; Katigbak, Marcia S.; Reyes, Jose Alberto S.

    2009-01-01

    Lexical studies have focused on traits. In the Filipino language, we investigated whether additional dimensions can be identified when personality-relevant terms for social roles, statuses, and effects, plus physical attributes, are included. Filipino students (N = 496) rated themselves on 268 such terms, plus 253 markers of trait and evaluative dimensions. We identified 10 dimensions of social and physical attributes—Prominence, Uselessness, Attractiveness, Respectability, Uniqueness, Destructiveness, Presentableness, Strength, Dangerousness, and Charisma. Most of these dimensions did not correspond in a one-to-one manner to Filipino or alternative trait models (Big Five, HEXACO, ML7). However, considerable redundancy was observed between the social and physical attribute dimensions and trait and evaluative dimensions. Thus, social and physical attributes communicate information about personality traits, and vice-versa. PMID:19779603

  10. Physical fitness training reference manual for security force personnel at fuel cycle facilities possessing formula quantities of special nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzino, P.A.; Caplan, C.S.; Goold, R.E.

    1991-09-01

    The recommendations contained throughout this NUREG are being provided to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a reference manual which can be used by licensee management as they develop a program plan for the safe participation of guards, Tactical Response Team members (TRTs), and all other armed response personnel in physical fitness training and in physical performance standards testing. The information provided in this NUREG will help licensees to determine if guards, TRTs, and other armed response personnel can effectively perform their normal and emergency duties without undue hazard to themselves, to fellow employees, to the plant site, and to the general public. The recommendations in this NUREG are similar in part to those contained within the Department of Energy (DOE) Medical and Fitness Implementation Guide which was published in March 1991. The guidelines contained in this NUREG are not requirements, and compliance is not required. 25 refs

  11. Physical fitness training reference manual for security force personnel at fuel cycle facilities possessing formula quantities of special nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arzino, P.A.; Caplan, C.S.; Goold, R.E. (California State Univ., Hayward, CA (United States). Foundation)

    1991-09-01

    The recommendations contained throughout this NUREG are being provided to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a reference manual which can be used by licensee management as they develop a program plan for the safe participation of guards, Tactical Response Team members (TRTs), and all other armed response personnel in physical fitness training and in physical performance standards testing. The information provided in this NUREG will help licensees to determine if guards, TRTs, and other armed response personnel can effectively perform their normal and emergency duties without undue hazard to themselves, to fellow employees, to the plant site, and to the general public. The recommendations in this NUREG are similar in part to those contained within the Department of Energy (DOE) Medical and Fitness Implementation Guide which was published in March 1991. The guidelines contained in this NUREG are not requirements, and compliance is not required. 25 refs.

  12. Understanding why an active video game intervention did not improve motor skill and physical activity in children with developmental coordination disorder: A quantity or quality issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howie, Erin K; Campbell, Amity C; Abbott, Rebecca A; Straker, Leon M

    2017-01-01

    Active video games (AVGs) have been identified as a novel strategy to improve motor skill and physical activity in clinical populations. A recent cross-over randomized trial found AVGs to be ineffective at improving motor skill and physical activity in the home-environment for children with or at-risk for developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The study purpose was to better understand why the intervention had been ineffective by examining the quantity and quality of AVG play during an AVG intervention for children with or at-risk for DCD. Participants (n=21, ages 9-12) completed the 16 week AVG intervention. Detailed quantitative and qualitative data were systematically triangulated to obtain the quantity of exposure (AVG exposure over time, patterns of exposure) and quality of use (game selection, facilitators and barriers to play). The median AVG dose (range 30-35min/day) remained relatively stable across the intervention and met the prescribed dose. Play quality was impacted by game selection, difficulty playing games, lack of time, illness, technical difficulties and boredom. The ineffectiveness of a home-based AVG intervention may be due to quality of play. Strategies to improve the quality of game play may help realize the potential benefits of AVGs as a clinical tool for children with DCD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The estimation of effective doses using measurement of several relevant physical parameters from radon exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridzikova, A; Fronka, A.; Maly, B.; Moucka, L.

    2003-01-01

    In the present investigation, we will be study the dose relevant factors from continual monitoring in real homes into account getting more accurate estimation of 222 Rn the effective dose. The dose relevant parameters include the radon concentration, the equilibrium factor (f), the fraction (fp) of unattached radon decay products and real time occupancy people in home. The result of the measurement are the time courses of radon concentration that are based on estimation effective doses together with assessment of the real time occupancy people indoor. We found out by analysis that year effective dose is lower than effective dose estimated by ICRP recommendation from the integral measurement that included only average radon concentration. Our analysis of estimation effective doses using measurement of several physical parameters was made only in one case and for the better specification is important to measure in different real occupancy houses. (authors)

  14. Physical, chemical, and biological properties of radiocerium relevant to radiation protection guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Present knowledge of the relevant physical, chemical, and biological properties of radiocerium as a basis for establishing radiation protection guidelines is summarized. The first section of the report reviews the chemical and physical properties of radiocerium relative to the biological behavior of internally-deposited cerium and other lanthanides. The second section of the report gives the sources of radiocerium in the environment and the pathways to man. The third section of the report describes the metabolic fate of cerium in several mammalian species as a basis for predicting its metabolic fate in man. The fourth section of the report considers the biomedical effects of radiocerium in light of extensive animal experimentation. The last two sections of the report describe the history of radiation protection guidelines for radiocerium and summarize data required for evaluating the adequacy of current radiation protection guidelines. Each section begins with a summary of the most important findings that follow

  15. Urban Mining: Quality and quantity of recyclable and recoverable material mechanically and physically extractable from residual waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Maria, Francesco; Micale, Caterina; Sordi, Alessio; Cirulli, Giuseppe; Marionni, Moreno

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Material recycling and recovery from residual waste by physical and mechanical process has been investigated. • About 6% of recyclable can be extracted by NIR and 2-3Dimension selector. • Another 2% of construction materials can be extracted by adopting modified soil washing process. • Extracted material quality is quite high even some residual heavy metal have been detected by leaching test. - Abstract: The mechanically sorted dry fraction (MSDF) and Fines (<20 mm) arising from the mechanical biological treatment of residual municipal solid waste (RMSW) contains respectively about 11% w/w each of recyclable and recoverable materials. Processing a large sample of MSDF in an existing full-scale mechanical sorting facility equipped with near infrared and 2-3 dimensional selectors led to the extraction of about 6% w/w of recyclables with respect to the RMSW weight. Maximum selection efficiency was achieved for metals, about 98% w/w, whereas it was lower for Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), about 2% w/w. After a simulated lab scale soil washing treatment it was possible to extract about 2% w/w of inert exploitable substances recoverable as construction materials, with respect to the amount of RMSW. The passing curve showed that inert materials were mainly sand with a particle size ranging from 0.063 to 2 mm. Leaching tests showed quite low heavy metal concentrations with the exception of the particles retained by the 0.5 mm sieve. A minimum pollutant concentration was in the leachate from the 10 and 20 mm particle size fractions

  16. Recognizing Prefixes in Scientific Quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Although recognizing prefixes in physical quantities is inherent for practitioners, it might not be inherent for students, who do not use prefixes in their everyday life experiences. This deficiency surfaces in AP Physics exams. For example, readers of an AP Physics exam reported "a common mistake of incorrectly converting nanometers to…

  17. Reframing conceptual physics: Improving relevance to elementary education and sonography majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFazia, David Gregory

    This study outlines the steps taken to reframe the Waves and Periodicity unit within a conceptual physics course. Beyond this unit reframing process, this paper explores the activities that made up the reframed unit and how each was developed and revised. The unit was reframed to improve relevance of the activities to the Elementary Education and Diagnostic Medical Sonography majors who make up the bulk of the course roster. The unit was reframed around ten design principles that were built on best practices from the literature, survey responses, and focused interviews. These principles support the selection of a biology-integrated themed approach to teaching physics. This is done through active and highly kinesthetic learning across three realms of human experience: physical, social, and cognitive. The unit materials were designed around making connections to students' future careers while requiring students to take progressively more responsibility in activities and assessments. Several support strategies are employed across these activities and assessments, including an energy-first, guided-inquiry approach to concept scaffolding and accommodations for diverse learners. Survey responses were solicited from physics instructors experienced with this population, Elementary Education and Sonography program advisors, and curriculum design, learning strategies, and educational technology experts. The reframed unit was reviewed by doctoral-level science education experts and revised to further improve the depth and transparency with which the design principles reframe the unit activities. The reframed unit contains a full unit plan, lesson plans, and full unit materials. These include classroom and online activities, assessments, and templates for future unit and lesson planning. Additional supplemental materials are provided to support Elementary Education and Sonography students and program advisors and also further promote the reframed unit materials and design

  18. Determination of trace elements in atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Study of the atomic cloud and atom generator. Application to the measurement of physical quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hircq, Bernard.

    1976-06-01

    After the description of the absorption cell the principal parameters are studied: argon flow rate in the cell, atomization temperature, cell geometry etc. The technique is applied to the measurement of impurities in uranium after deposition on a carbon filament. The atomic concentration distribution and the dimensions of the cloud generated by a graphite filament are then studied along the axes parallel to the filament and as a function of the various experimental parameters. From the determination of the cloud elevation rate it is possible to calculate the absolute atomic concentration, which allows certain physical quantities to be evaluated: oscillator force, Lorentz Widening, diffusion coefficient... The size and penetration depth of the deposit are then determined with an ionic microprobe and the distribution with a Castaing microprobe. The chemical transformations undergone by the uranium matrix during the heat cycles are studied by the X-ray method [fr

  19. Nonlinear waves in Bose–Einstein condensates: physical relevance and mathematical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carretero-González, R; Frantzeskakis, D J; Kevrekidis, P G

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this review is to introduce the reader to some of the physical notions and the mathematical methods that are relevant to the study of nonlinear waves in Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs). Upon introducing the general framework, we discuss the prototypical models that are relevant to this setting for different dimensions and different potentials confining the atoms. We analyse some of the model properties and explore their typical wave solutions (plane wave solutions, bright, dark, gap solitons as well as vortices). We then offer a collection of mathematical methods that can be used to understand the existence, stability and dynamics of nonlinear waves in such BECs, either directly or starting from different types of limits (e.g. the linear or the nonlinear limit or the discrete limit of the corresponding equation). Finally, we consider some special topics involving more recent developments, and experimental setups in which there is still considerable need for developing mathematical as well as computational tools. (invited article)

  20. SEASONAL DIFFERENCES IN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND SEDENTARY PATTERNS: THE RELEVANCE OF THE PA CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Silva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this pilot study was to characterize seasonal variation in the moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA and sedentary behavior of Portuguese school youth, and understand the influence of activity choices and settings. The participants in this study were 24 students, aged 10-13 years. Accelerometers measured daily PA over 7 consecutive days, in different seasons May - June and January - February. In summer, boys accumulated more minutes in MVPA (928 minutes/week than girls (793 minutes/week. In winter the pattern was reversed with girls accumulating more activity than boys (736 minutes/week vs. 598 minutes/week. The repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant effects for season (F = 5.98, p = 0.023 and in- school vs. out-of-school (F = 6.53, p = 0.018. Youth were more active in the summer and activity levels were higher after school than in school. Summer season provided relevant contexts for youth physical activity accumulation. Winter season may have been a significant barrier to boy's preferred PA context. Differences in choices of outdoor or indoor PA, after school, explained the gender differences in seasonal activity patterns

  1. Exploring possible selves in a first-year physics foundation class: Engaging students by establishing relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn Bennett

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Students often complain that they cannot see the relevance of what they are being taught in foundation physics classes. While revising and adjusting the curriculum and teaching are important, this study suggests it might also be useful to help students view their learning in relation to their future career aspirations. This paper reports on a study conducted with first-year students enrolled in a compulsory foundation physics unit with a history of low pass rates. Working within a “possible selves” framework, activities were designed to help students position their learning in relation to possible future lives and careers. Two cohorts of students (N=93 engaged in an intensive workshop comprising multiple activities relating to self and career. Self-reflection worksheets were analyzed using content analysis. The results indicate that students experience immediate benefits from these activities through self-reflection on the current self, future possible professional selves, and the role of current studies in narrowing the gap between the two.

  2. Thermal-hydraulic behavior of physical quantities at critical velocities in a nuclear research reactor core channel using plate type fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidi Ali Kamel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal-hydraulic study presented here relates to a channel of a nuclear reactor core. This channel is defined as being the space between two fuel plates where a coolant fluid flows. The flow velocity of this coolant should not generate vibrations in fuel plates. The aim of this study is to know the distribution of the temperature in the fuel plates, in the cladding and in the coolant fluid at the critical velocities of Miller, of Wambsganss, and of Cekirge and Ural. The velocity expressions given by these authors are function of the geometry of the fuel plate, the mechanical characteristics of the fuel plate’s material and the thermal characteristics of the coolant fluid. The thermal-hydraulic study is made under steady-state; the equation set-up of the thermal problem is made according to El Wakil and to Delhaye. Once the equation set-up is validated, the three critical velocities are calculated and then used in the calculations of the different temperature profiles. The average heat flux and the critical heat flux are evaluated for each critical velocity and their ratio reported. The recommended critical velocity to be used in nuclear channel calculations is that of Wambsganss. The mathematical model used is more precise and all the physical quantities, when using this critical velocity, stay in safe margins.

  3. Analysis of uncertainties and convergence of the statistical quantities in turbulent wall-bounded flows by means of a physically based criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, João Rodrigo; Martins, Ramon Silva; Thompson, Roney Leon; Mompean, Gilmar; da Silveira Neto, Aristeu

    2018-04-01

    The present paper provides an analysis of the statistical uncertainties associated with direct numerical simulation (DNS) results and experimental data for turbulent channel and pipe flows, showing a new physically based quantification of these errors, to improve the determination of the statistical deviations between DNSs and experiments. The analysis is carried out using a recently proposed criterion by Thompson et al. ["A methodology to evaluate statistical errors in DNS data of plane channel flows," Comput. Fluids 130, 1-7 (2016)] for fully turbulent plane channel flows, where the mean velocity error is estimated by considering the Reynolds stress tensor, and using the balance of the mean force equation. It also presents how the residual error evolves in time for a DNS of a plane channel flow, and the influence of the Reynolds number on its convergence rate. The root mean square of the residual error is shown in order to capture a single quantitative value of the error associated with the dimensionless averaging time. The evolution in time of the error norm is compared with the final error provided by DNS data of similar Reynolds numbers available in the literature. A direct consequence of this approach is that it was possible to compare different numerical results and experimental data, providing an improved understanding of the convergence of the statistical quantities in turbulent wall-bounded flows.

  4. Social marketing: approach to cultural and contextual relevance in a community-based physical activity intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Colleen; Vega-López, Sonia; Ainsworth, Barbara; Nagle-Williams, Allison; Records, Kathie; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean

    2014-01-01

    We report the social marketing strategies used for the design, recruitment and retention of participants in a community-based physical activity (PA) intervention, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health). The study example used to illustrate the use of social marketing is a 48-week prescribed walking program, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health), which tests a social support intervention to explore the effectiveness of a culturally specific program using ‘bouts’ of PA to effect the changes in body fat, fat tissue inflammation and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary Hispanic women. Using the guidelines from the National Benchmark Criteria, we developed intervention, recruitment and retention strategies that reflect efforts to draw on community values, traditions and customs in intervention design, through partnership with community members. Most of the women enrolled in Madres para la Salud were born in Mexico, largely never or unemployed and resided among the highest crime neighborhoods with poor access to resources. We developed recruitment and retention strategies that characterized social marketing strategies that employed a culturally relevant, consumer driven and problem-specific design. Cost and benefit of program participation, consumer-derived motivation and segmentation strategies considered the development transition of the young Latinas as well as cultural and neighborhood barriers that impacted retention are described. PMID:23002252

  5. Social marketing: approach to cultural and contextual relevance in a community-based physical activity intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Colleen; Vega-López, Sonia; Ainsworth, Barbara; Nagle-Williams, Allison; Records, Kathie; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean

    2014-03-01

    We report the social marketing strategies used for the design, recruitment and retention of participants in a community-based physical activity (PA) intervention, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health). The study example used to illustrate the use of social marketing is a 48-week prescribed walking program, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health), which tests a social support intervention to explore the effectiveness of a culturally specific program using 'bouts' of PA to effect the changes in body fat, fat tissue inflammation and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary Hispanic women. Using the guidelines from the National Benchmark Criteria, we developed intervention, recruitment and retention strategies that reflect efforts to draw on community values, traditions and customs in intervention design, through partnership with community members. Most of the women enrolled in Madres para la Salud were born in Mexico, largely never or unemployed and resided among the highest crime neighborhoods with poor access to resources. We developed recruitment and retention strategies that characterized social marketing strategies that employed a culturally relevant, consumer driven and problem-specific design. Cost and benefit of program participation, consumer-derived motivation and segmentation strategies considered the development transition of the young Latinas as well as cultural and neighborhood barriers that impacted retention are described.

  6. CARACTERIZAÇÃO FÍSICA E QUANTIDADE DE NUTRIENTES EM FRUTOS DE MARACUJÁ DOCE PHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND QUANTITY OF NUTRIENTS IN SWEET PASSION FRUIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCO ANTONIO DA SILVA VASCONCELLOS

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar algumas características físicas e a distribuição dos nutrientes nos frutos de maracujá doce (Passiflora alata Dryand., segundo sua classificação. Os frutos classificados como tipo 8 foram maiores e mais pesados que os dos tipos 9 e 12, apresentando maior peso de casca e de polpa. Independentemente da classificação dos frutos, o N, P, B, Cu, Fe e Zn estão distribuídos em maior quantidade na polpa do que na casca dos frutos. O K, Ca, S e o Mn estão distribuídos em maior quantidade na casca do que na polpa dos frutos. O magnésio apresenta uma distribuição na casca levemente superior à da polpa. Na média dos três tipos de frutos, os valores obtidos por fruto (casca+polpa foram: 578,6 mg de N; 81,9 mg de P; 740,6 mg de K; 56,8 mg de Ca; 64,6 mg de Mg; 98,3 mg de S; 452,3 mg de B; 302,5 mg de Cu; 1471 mg de Fe; 167,5 mg de Mn, e 644,1 mg de Zn.The present work was conducted in Botucatu, state of São Paulo, in order to evaluate some physical characteristics and the nutrient distribution in sweet passion fruit (Passiflora alata Dryand., by type. The fruit classified as type 8 were larger than those classified as type 9 and 12, have larger weight of peel and pulp. Independently of fruit classification, N, P, B, Cu, Fe, and Zn were found in larger quantities throughout the pulp than in the peel. K, Ca, S, and Mn were present in greater quantity in the peel than in the pulp. Mg showed slightly larger presence in the peel. The fruits of sweet passion fruit presented, in average: 578.6 mg of N; 81.9 mg of P; 740.6 mg of K; 56.8 mg of Ca; 64.6 mg of Mg; 98.3 mg of S; 452.3 mg of B; 302.5 mg of Cu; 1471 mg of Fe; 167.5 mg of Mn; and 644.1 mg of Zn.

  7. Edge Plasma Physics Issues for the Fusion Advanced Studies Torus (FAST) in Reactor Relevant Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddaluno, G.; Pericoli Ridolfini, V.; Apicella, M.L.; Calabro, G.; Crisanti, F.; Cucchiaro, A.; Ramogida, G.; Zagorski, R.

    2008-01-01

    The issue of First wall materials and compatibility with ITER /DEMO relevant plasmas is among the RD missions for possible new European plasma fusion devices that the FAST project will address. FAST can operate with ITER relevant values of P/R (up to 22 MW/m, against the ITER 24 MW/m, inclusive of the α particles power), thanks to its compactness; thus it can investigate the physics of large heat loads on divertor plates. The FAST divertor will be made of bulk W tiles, for basic operations, but also fully toroidal divertor targets made of liquid lithium (L-Li) are foreseen. To have reliable predictions of the thermal loads on the divertor plates and of the core plasma purity a number of numerical self-consistent simulations have been made for the H-mode and steady-state scenario by using the code COREDIV. This code, already validated in the past on experimental data (namely JET, FTU, Textor), is able to describe self-consistently the core and edge plasma in a tokamak device by imposing the continuity of energy and particle fluxes and of particle densities and temperatures at the separatrix. In the present work the results of such calculations will be illustrated, including heat loads on the divertor. The overall picture shows that, marginally in the intermediate and, necessarily in the high density H-mode scenarios ( e >=2 and 5·10 20 m -3 respectively), impurity seeding should be foreseen with W as target material: however, only a small amount of Ar (0.03% atomic concentration), not affecting the core purity, is sufficient to maintain the divertor peak loads below 18 MW/m 2 , that represents the safety limit for the W mono block technology, presently accepted for the ITER divertor tiles. Li always needs additional impurities for decreasing divertor heat loads, the Z eff value being ≤ than 1.8. At low plasma densities (but ≥ 1.3·10 20 m -3 ), typical of steady state regimes, W by alone is effective in dissipating the input power by radiative losses, without

  8. Physical properties of neem (Azadirachta indica seeds and kernels relevant in the design of processing machineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Balami

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine some physical properties of neem seeds and kernels such as axial dimensions, true density, bulk density, surface area, sphericity, moisture content, coefficient of friction, angle of repose and porosity that are relevant in the design of processing machineries. Results shows that the seeds and kernels have major, intermediate and minor diameter values of 13.641.15 mm, 6.800.41 mm and 5.540.44 mm and 9.321.13 mm, 4.320.63 mm and 3.380.35 mm respectively. The true density, bulk density, surface areas and the sphericity determined were 379.0015.16 kg/m3, 39.2930.001 kg/m3, 169.9331.15 mm2, 0.640.043 for the seed while for the kernel were 930.038.53 kg/m3, 534.8910.99 kg/m3, 70.6313.98 mm2, 0.610.044 respectively at an average moisture content of 13.80 % for the seed and 11.9 % for the kernel on wet basis. The coefficient of friction determined on three different structural surfaces namely plywood, glass and mild steel for the seeds were 0.38, 0.42 and 0.33 respectively at an angle of repose of 34.52o while that of the kernels were 0.49, 0.56 and 0.43 respectively at an angle of repose of 42.47°. The mean porosity obtained for the seed and kernel were 89.62 % and 42.47 % respectively.

  9. Radiation quantities and units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This fifth chapter presents the conceptual evolution, the definition procedures, the radiological quantities themselves, the relation between them, the new operational quantities and the new quantities defined in the ICRP 60 that replaced ICRP 26 and was included in the CNEN-NN-3.01 standard of 2011

  10. Selecting relevant and feasible measurement instruments for the revised Dutch clinical practice guideline for physical therapy in patients after stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otterman, Nicoline; Veerbeek, Janne; Schiemanck, Sven; van der Wees, Philip; Nollet, Frans; Kwakkel, Gert

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To select relevant and feasible instruments for the revision of the Dutch clinical practice guideline for physical therapy in patients with stroke. Methods: In this implementation study a comprehensive proposal for ICF categories and matching instruments was developed, based on reliability

  11. Selecting relevant and feasible measurement instruments for the revised Dutch clinical practice guideline for physical therapy in patients after stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otterman, N.; Veerbeek, J.; Schiemanck, S.; Wees, P.J. van der; Nollet, F.; Kwakkel, G.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To select relevant and feasible instruments for the revision of the Dutch clinical practice guideline for physical therapy in patients with stroke. METHODS: In this implementation study a comprehensive proposal for ICF categories and matching instruments was developed, based on reliability

  12. Critical review of the current radiation protection quantities and units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabol, J.

    1998-01-01

    Examples exist in dosimetry and radiation protection where primary attention was focused on the unit rather than the corresponding quantity. Another difficulty arises from the fact that quantities in this field cannot be considered as pure physical quantities, they are rather biophysical quantities. There are too many quantities (e. g. 17 quantities based on the dose equivalent), with differences in numerical values of 'similar' quantities, not always satisfactory approximations of virtually unmeasurable quantities by measurable quantities, inconsistency in definitions and interpretations of quantities of some international expert bodies, and problems of weighting and conversion factors. (M.D.)

  13. Cars and Kinetic Energy--Some Simple Physics with Real-World Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Raghuveer

    2012-01-01

    Understanding energy usage is crucial to understanding modern civilization, as well as many of the challenges it faces. Energy-related issues also offer real-world examples of important physical concepts, and as such have been the focus of several articles in "The Physics Teacher" in the past few decades (e.g., Refs. 1-5, noted further below).…

  14. Dispositional optimism and physical wellbeing: the relevance of culture, gender, and socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khallad, Yacoub

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between dispositional optimism and physical wellbeing (as reflected in physical symptom reporting) in two groups of American and Jordanian college students. It also assessed moderation effects of culture, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES). Participants were administered a questionnaire consisting of items pertaining to dispositional optimism (as measured by the Revised Life Orientation Test, LOT-R) along with items assessing physical symptom reporting and sociodemographic factors (e.g., gender, socioeconomic status). The results revealed significant negative correlations between dispositional optimism and physical symptom reporting for both American and Jordanian participants, although the magnitude of the correlation for the American group was noticeably larger than that for the Jordanian group. The results also showed that women, especially Jordanians, were more likely than men to report physical symptoms. Among Jordanians, physical symptom reporting was more common among those of lower SES. No statistically significant differences in physical symptom reporting were found between American men and women or between the two cultural groups. Multiple regression analyses revealed no statistically significant interactions between optimism and cultural background, optimism and gender, or optimism and SES. Overall, the results suggest that optimism is the factor most predictive of physical symptom reporting, followed by SES and gender. These results corroborate previous findings on the relationship between dispositional optimism and physical wellbeing, and point to crosscultural differences in relationship patterns. These differences suggest that although personality characteristics such as optimism may play an important role in the physical wellbeing of both Western and non-Western groups, the influence of sociodemographic factors such as gender and SES and their interaction with cultural variables must not be overlooked.

  15. Strongly intensive quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorenstein, M. I.; Gazdzicki, M.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of fluctuations of hadron production properties in collisions of relativistic particles profits from use of measurable intensive quantities which are independent of system size variations. The first family of such quantities was proposed in 1992; another is introduced in this paper. Furthermore we present a proof of independence of volume fluctuations for quantities from both families within the framework of the grand canonical ensemble. These quantities are referred to as strongly intensive ones. Influence of conservation laws and resonance decays is also discussed.

  16. Psychological contract breach and employee health: The relevance of unmet obligations for mental and physical health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike Reimann

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of psychological contract breach (PCB on employee mental and physical health (SF-12 using a sample of 3,870 employees derived from a German longitudinal linked employer-employee study across various industries. Results of multivariate regression models and mediation analysis suggest that PCB affects both the mental and the physical health of employees but is more threatening to employee mental health. In addition, mental health partly mediates the effects of PCB on physical health. Also, the findings of this study show that the relative importance of obligations not met by employers differs according to the specific contents of the psychological contract. In conclusion, the results of this study support the idea that PCB works as a psychosocial stressor at work that represents a crucial risk to employee health.

  17. Why is GeV physics relevant in the age of the LHC?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, Michael R. [JLAB

    2014-02-01

    The contribution that Jefferson Lab has made, with its 6 GeV electron beam, and will make, with its 12 GeV upgrade, to our understanding of the way the fundamental interactions work, particularly strong coupling QCD, is outlined. The physics at the GeV scale is essential even in TeV collisions.

  18. Memory for Physical Features of Discourse as a Function of Their Relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ronald P.; Cuervo, Asela

    Memory for sex of the speaker and language of presentation of a spoken message was high and reliably better when the features were instrumental for comprehending the message than when they were not. This suggests that the physical characteristics of an event may be deeply or elaborately encoded when they are meaningful in light of the task…

  19. Characterization of basic physical properties of Sb2Se3 and its relevance for photovoltaics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao CHEN; Matthew C.BEARD; Jiang TANG; David C.BOBELA; Ye YANG; Shuaicheng LU; Kai ZENG; Cong GE; Bo YANG; Liang GAO; Yang ZHAO

    2017-01-01

    Antimony selenide (Sb2Se3) is a promising absorber material for thin film photovoltaics because of its attractive material,optical and electrical properties.In recent years,the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of Sb2Se3 thin film solar cells has gradually enhanced to 5.6%.In this article,we systematically studied the basic physical properties of Sb2Se3 such as dielectric constant,anisotropic mobility,carrier lifetime,diffusion length,defect depth,defect density and optical band tail states.We believe such a comprehensive characterization of the basic physical properties of Sb2Se3 lays a solid foundation for further optimization of solar device performance.

  20. Early-Life Effects on Adult Physical Activity: Concepts, Relevance, and Experimental Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Theodore; Cadney, Marcell D; Waterland, Robert A

    Locomotion is a defining characteristic of animal life and plays a crucial role in most behaviors. Locomotion involves physical activity, which can have far-reaching effects on physiology and neurobiology, both acutely and chronically. In human populations and in laboratory rodents, higher levels of physical activity are generally associated with positive health outcomes, although excessive exercise can have adverse consequences. Whether and how such relationships occur in wild animals is unknown. Behavioral variation among individuals arises from genetic and environmental factors and their interactions as well as from developmental programming (persistent effects of early-life environment). Although tremendous progress has been made in identifying genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in behavior, early-life effects are not well understood. Early-life effects can in some cases persist across multiple generations following a single exposure and, in principle, may constrain or facilitate the rate of evolution at multiple levels of biological organization. Understanding the mechanisms of such transgenerational effects (e.g., exposure to stress hormones in utero, inherited epigenetic alterations) may prove crucial to explaining unexpected and/or sex-specific responses to selection as well as limits to adaptation. One area receiving increased attention is early-life effects on adult physical activity. Correlational data from epidemiological studies suggest that early-life nutritional stress can (adversely) affect adult human activity levels and associated physiological traits (e.g., body composition, metabolic health). The few existing studies of laboratory rodents demonstrate that both maternal and early-life exercise can affect adult levels of physical activity and related phenotypes. Going forward, rodents offer many opportunities for experimental studies of (multigenerational) early-life effects, including studies that use maternal

  1. Method for extracting relevant electrical parameters from graphene field-effect transistors using a physical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boscá, A.; Pedrós, J.; Martínez, J.; Calle, F.

    2015-01-01

    Due to its intrinsic high mobility, graphene has proved to be a suitable material for high-speed electronics, where graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) has shown excellent properties. In this work, we present a method for extracting relevant electrical parameters from GFET devices using a simple electrical characterization and a model fitting. With experimental data from the device output characteristics, the method allows to calculate parameters such as the mobility, the contact resistance, and the fixed charge. Differentiated electron and hole mobilities and direct connection with intrinsic material properties are some of the key aspects of this method. Moreover, the method output values can be correlated with several issues during key fabrication steps such as the graphene growth and transfer, the lithographic steps, or the metalization processes, providing a flexible tool for quality control in GFET fabrication, as well as a valuable feedback for improving the material-growth process

  2. Method for extracting relevant electrical parameters from graphene field-effect transistors using a physical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boscá, A., E-mail: alberto.bosca@upm.es [Instituto de Sistemas Optoelectrónicos y Microtecnología, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Dpto. de Ingeniería Electrónica, E.T.S.I. de Telecomunicación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Pedrós, J. [Instituto de Sistemas Optoelectrónicos y Microtecnología, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Campus de Excelencia Internacional, Campus Moncloa UCM-UPM, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Martínez, J. [Instituto de Sistemas Optoelectrónicos y Microtecnología, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Dpto. de Ciencia de Materiales, E.T.S.I de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Calle, F. [Instituto de Sistemas Optoelectrónicos y Microtecnología, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Dpto. de Ingeniería Electrónica, E.T.S.I. de Telecomunicación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Campus de Excelencia Internacional, Campus Moncloa UCM-UPM, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2015-01-28

    Due to its intrinsic high mobility, graphene has proved to be a suitable material for high-speed electronics, where graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) has shown excellent properties. In this work, we present a method for extracting relevant electrical parameters from GFET devices using a simple electrical characterization and a model fitting. With experimental data from the device output characteristics, the method allows to calculate parameters such as the mobility, the contact resistance, and the fixed charge. Differentiated electron and hole mobilities and direct connection with intrinsic material properties are some of the key aspects of this method. Moreover, the method output values can be correlated with several issues during key fabrication steps such as the graphene growth and transfer, the lithographic steps, or the metalization processes, providing a flexible tool for quality control in GFET fabrication, as well as a valuable feedback for improving the material-growth process.

  3. Electronic structures and relevant physical properties of Ni2MnGa alloy films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. W.; Kim, J. B.; Huang, M. D.; Lee, N. N.; Lee, Y. P.; Kudryavtsev, Y. V.; Rhee, J. Y.

    2004-01-01

    The electronic structures and physical properties of the ordered and disordered Ni 2 MnGa alloy films were investigated in this study. Ordered and disordered Ni 2 MnGa alloy films were prepared by flash evaporation onto substrates maintained at 720 K and 150 K, respectively. The results show that the ordered films behave in nearly the same way as the bulk Ni 2 MnGa ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy, including the martensitic transformation at 200 K. It was also revealed that the film deposition onto substrates cooled by liquid nitrogen leads to the formation of a substantially-disordered or an amorphous phase which is not ferromagnetically ordered at room temperature. An annealing of such an amorphous film restores its crystallinity and also recovers the ferromagnetic order. It was also clarified how the structural disordering in the films influences the physical properties, including the loss of ferromagnetism in the disordered films, by performing electronic-structure calculations and a photoemission study.

  4. Green roof rainfall-runoff modelling: is the comparison between conceptual and physically based approaches relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versini, Pierre-Antoine; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Green roofs are commonly considered as efficient tools to mitigate urban runoff as they can store precipitation, and consequently provide retention and detention performances. Designed as a compromise between water holding capacity, weight and hydraulic conductivity, their substrate is usually an artificial media differentiating significantly from a traditional soil. In order to assess green roofs hydrological performances, many models have been developed. Classified into two categories (conceptual and physically based), they are usually applied to reproduce the discharge of a particular monitored green roof considered as homogeneous. Although the resulted simulations could be satisfactory, the question of robustness and consistency of the calibrated parameters is often not addressed. Here, a modeling framework has been developed to assess the efficiency and the robustness of both modelling approaches (conceptual and physically based) in reproducing green roof hydrological behaviour. SWMM and VS2DT models have been used for this purpose. This work also benefits from an experimental setup where several green roofs differentiated by their substrate thickness and vegetation cover are monitored. Based on the data collected for several rainfall events, it has been studied how the calibrated parameters are effectively linked to their physical properties and how they can vary from one green roof configuration to another. Although both models reproduce correctly the observed discharges in most of the cases, their calibrated parameters exhibit a high inconsistency. For a same green roof configuration, these parameters can vary significantly from one rainfall event to another, even if they are supposed to be linked to the green roof characteristics (roughness, residual moisture content for instance). They can also be different from one green roof configuration to another although the implemented substrate is the same. Finally, it appears very difficult to find any

  5. Geometric constraints on the space of N = 2 SCFTs. Part I: physical constraints on relevant deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyres, Philip; Lotito, Matteo; Lü, Yongchao; Martone, Mario

    2018-02-01

    We initiate a systematic study of four dimensional N = 2 superconformal field theories (SCFTs) based on the analysis of their Coulomb branch geometries. Because these SCFTs are not uniquely characterized by their scale-invariant Coulomb branch geometries we also need information on their deformations. We construct all inequivalent such deformations preserving N = 2 supersymmetry and additional physical consistency conditions in the rank 1 case. These not only include all the ones previously predicted by S-duality, but also 16 additional deformations satisfying all the known N = 2 low energy consistency conditions. All but two of these additonal deformations have recently been identified with new rank 1 SCFTs; these identifications are briefly reviewed. Some novel ingredients which are important for this study include: a discussion of RG-flows in the presence of a moduli space of vacua; a classification of local N = 2 supersymmetry-preserving deformations of unitary N = 2 SCFTs; and an analysis of charge normalizations and the Dirac quantization condition on Coulomb branches. This paper is the first in a series of three. The second paper [1] gives the details of the explicit construction of the Coulomb branch geometries discussed here, while the third [2] discusses the computation of central charges of the associated SCFTs.

  6. Service-learning in Higher Education Relevant to the Promotion of Physical Activity, Healthful Eating, and Prevention of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, Richard R

    2012-10-01

    Service-learning is a type of experiential teaching and learning strategy combining classroom instruction and meaningful community service and guided activities for reflection. This educational approach has been used frequently in higher education settings, including an array of disciplines such as medicine, theology, public health, physical education, nutrition, psychology, anthropology, and sociology. The purpose of the present review paper was to provide guidance on the use of service-learning within higher education, relevant to the preventive medicine and public health topics of healthful eating, physical activity, and obesity prevention. In service-learning, coursework is structured to address community needs, and to benefit students through the real-world application of knowledge. The benefits for students include positive impacts on social skills, empathy, awareness, understanding, and concern regarding community issues, plus greater confidence and skills to work with diverse populations, increased awareness of community resources, improved motivation, and enhanced knowledge. Educational institutions may also benefit through improved "town and gown" relations, as strong ties, partnerships, and mutually beneficial activities take place. The present literature review describes several service-learning applications such as nutrition education for kids, dietary improvement for seniors, foodservice recipe modification on a college campus, an intergenerational physical activity program for nursing home residents, motor skill development in kindergarteners, organized elementary school recess physical activities, health education, and obesity prevention in children. From this review, service-learning appears to have great potential as a flexible component of academic coursework in the areas of preventive medicine and public health.

  7. Quantities for environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    It is recommended that if measurements are made with the objective of monitor radiation levels in the environment to elucidate long-term changes in these levels, then air kerma should be used. If the objective is to give an indication that levels from man-made sources are acceptable within specified limits for the exposure of people, then ambient dose equivalent should be used. It should be noted that radiation risks to individuals are best expressed by the quantity effective dose equivalent. If this latter quantity is to be accurately assessed, it may be necessary to obtain details of the quality of the environmental radiation that cannot be described adequately by simple measurements of either air kerma or ambient dose equivalent. If the above objectives pertain, the measurements should record both air kerma and ambient dose equivalent. If neutrons are measured in the environment then ambient dose equivalent is the appropriate quantity for both the above objectives. (author)

  8. Emission sources and quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinen, B.

    1991-01-01

    The paper examines emission sources and quantities for SO 2 and NO x . Natural SO 2 is released from volcanic sources and to a much lower extent from marsh gases. In nature NO x is mainly produced in the course of the chemical and bacterial denitrification processes going on in the soil. Manmade pollutants are produced in combustion processes. The paper concentrates on manmade pollution. Aspects discussed include: mechanism of pollution development; manmade emission sources (e.g. industry, traffic, power plants and domestic sources); and emission quantities and forecasts. 11 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  9. Radiation quantities and units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This report supersedes ICRU Report 19. Since ICRU Report 19 was published, a number of discussions have taken place between members of the Report Committee on Fundamental Quantities and Units and other workers in the field. Some of these discussions have resulted in the acceptance of certain modifications in the material set out in Report 19 and these modifications are incorporated in the current report. In addition, there has been some expansion and rearrangement of the material in the earlier report. In line, with providing more didactic material and useful source material for other ICRU reports, the general considerations in subsection 1.A of Report 19 have been expanded and placed in a separate subsection. The additional material includes discussions of four terms that are used in this document - quantity, unit, stochastic, and non-stochastic - along with a brief discussion of the mathematical formalism used in ICRU reports. As in ICRU Report 19, the definitions of quantities and units specifically designed for radiation protection (Part B) are separated from those of the general quantities (Part A). The inclusion of the index concept outlined in ICRU Report 25[4] required an extension of Part B

  10. Generalized Lorentz transformation in the general relativity theory and the behaviour of some physical quantities at the boundary of R and T regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nekrasov, A.G.; Mikhal'chuk, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    Transition between diagonal metrics is considered. The transformations are written in the generalized Lorentz form. On the basis of the thus introduced form of transformations of coordinates the transformations for velocity, acceleration, force, momentum, energy and energy-momentum tensor components have been obtained. The resultant relationships are used for the estimation of physical values at the R and T region boundaries

  11. Six categories of ionizing radiation quantities practical in various fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Junzheng; Zhuo Weihai

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the part of review on the evolvement of the systems for ionizing radiation quantities and units. In the paper, for better understanding and correct use of the relevant quantities of ionizing radiation, the major ionizing radiation quantities in various fields are divided into six categories. (authors)

  12. Service-learning in higher education relevant to the promotion of physical activity, healthful eating, and prevention of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R Rosenkranz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Service-learning is a type of experiential teaching and learning strategy combining classroom instruction and meaningful community service and guided activities for reflection. This educational approach has been used frequently in higher education settings, including an array of disciplines such as medicine, theology, public health, physical education, nutrition, psychology, anthropology, and sociology. The purpose of the present review paper was to provide guidance on the use of service-learning within higher education, relevant to the preventive medicine and public health topics of healthful eating, physical activity, and obesity prevention. In service-learning, coursework is structured to address community needs, and to benefit students through the real-world application of knowledge. The benefits for students include positive impacts on social skills, empathy, awareness, understanding, and concern regarding community issues, plus greater confidence and skills to work with diverse populations, increased awareness of community resources, improved motivation, and enhanced knowledge. Educational institutions may also benefit through improved "town and gown" relations, as strong ties, partnerships, and mutually beneficial activities take place. The present literature review describes several service-learning applications such as nutrition education for kids, dietary improvement for seniors, foodservice recipe modification on a college campus, an intergenerational physical activity program for nursing home residents, motor skill development in kindergarteners, organized elementary school recess physical activities, health education, and obesity prevention in children. From this review, service-learning appears to have great potential as a flexible component of academic coursework in the areas of preventive medicine and public health.

  13. Load estimation and assessment of land-based pollution for Quanzhou Bay and their relevance to the Total Quantity Control of Pollutants Discharged into the Sea (TQCPS) Program in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, W. L.; Yang, S. Y.; Wang, J.; Xiao, J. M.; Lu, X. X.; Lin, J.; Huang, P.; Cai, M. G.

    2015-12-01

    The Total Quantity Control of Pollutants Discharged into the Sea (TQCPS) Program belonged to the Public Science and Technology Research Funds Projects of Ocean in China, launched in 2008. As one of the most important and typical demonstration cases of the TQCPS Program, a full investigation of the land-based pollutions discharges around Quanzhou Bay, China developed the total input for three main environmental factors (NH3-N, TP, COD) which were estimated and quantified in 2008 and 2012, respectively. Combined with the trend of seawater quality changes in Quanzhou Bay in the same periods, the effects of the program's implementation were then evaluated. On the whole, by using the basic survey data and export coefficient method, the total amounts of NH3-N, TP and COD discharged into the bay were estimated to be approximately 888.3, 130.6 and 14527.4 t/a in 2008, and 1518.6, 558.8 and 19986.7 t/a in 2012, respectively, where the percentage of the discharge from domestic sources (46.5% in 2008 and 45.2% in 2012) was generally higher than that from the other sources. Based on the characteristic of geography and administrative division, the land areas around the bay were divided into three parts: the south coast region (SCR), the west coast region (WCR), and the north coast region (NCR). The SCR and WCR accounted for 59.2 and 35.4% of the COD loads, and 49.2 and 48.0% of NH3-N loads in 2008. The NCR contributed less of the industrial pollution, but most to domestic pollution (54.1%), followed by 26.2% in the SCR in 2012. The contributions of the discharge from different land areas to the pollution of Quanzhou Bay were found to be differed in 2008 and 2012. Due to the difference in the levels of the economic development among these three areas, the discharge of pollutants from the north coast was much lower than that from the other two parts in 2008; however, following our suggestion of the moderation and optimization of the industrial distribution and the sewage

  14. Definition of the chief physical quantities in use in vacuum techniques, and their corresponding units; Definition des principales grandeurs physiques en usage dans la technique du vide et des unites correspondantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulassier, J. C. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - Service de Physique Appliquee, CEA (France)

    1959-07-01

    It would seem desirable for vacuum technicians to adopt the coherent systems of units generally used in physics. This article presents an internal standardisation project in the CEA, and gives a brief review of the definitions of the physical quantities to which it applies. Reprint of a paper published in 'Le vide', n. 79, January-February 1959, p. 29-35 [French] Il serait souhaitable de voir les techniciens du vide adopter les systemes d'unites coherents usites generalement en physique. Cet article presente un projet de normalisation interne au C.E. A. et rappelle succinctement les definitions des grandeurs physiques auxquelles il se rapporte. Reproduction d'un article publie dans 'Le vide', n. 79, Janvier-Fevrier 1959, p. 29-35.

  15. The Radiometric Measurement Quantity for SAR Images

    OpenAIRE

    Döring, Björn J.; Schwerdt, Marco

    2013-01-01

    A Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system measures among other quantities the terrain radar reflectivity. After image calibration, the pixel intensities are commonly expressed in terms of radar cross sections (for point targets) or as backscatter coefficients (for distributed targets), which are directly related. This paper argues that pixel intensities are not generally proportional to radar cross section or derived physical quantities. The paper further proposes to replace the inaccurate term...

  16. Forage quantity and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Janet C.; Udevitz, Mark S.; Felix, Nancy A.; Douglas, David C.; Reynolds, Patricia E.; Rhode, E.B.

    2002-01-01

    The Porcupine caribou herd has traditionally used the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, for calving. Availability of nutritious forage has been hypothesized as one of the reasons the Porcupine caribou herd migrates hundreds of kilometers to reach the coastal plain for calving (Kuropat and Bryant 1980, Russell et al. 1993).Forage quantity and quality and the chronology of snowmelt (which determines availability and phenological stages of forage) have been suggested as important habitat attributes that lead calving caribou to select one area over another (Lent 1980, White and Trudell 1980, Eastland et al. 1989). A major question when considering the impact of petroleum development is whether potential displacement of the caribou from the 1002 Area to alternate calving habitat will limit access to high quantity and quality forage.Our study had the following objectives: 1) quantify snowmelt patterns by area; 2) quantify relationships among phenology, biomass, and nutrient content of principal forage species by vegetation type; and 3) determine if traditional concentrated calving areas differ from adjacent areas with lower calving densities in terms of vegetation characteristics.

  17. Prices versus Quantities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Gårn; Jensen, Frank

    illustrate that this result does not generalise to a search fishery, where marginal costs are allowed to depend on harvest. Hansen et al (2008) study a fishery where non-compliance with regulations is a problem. When the regulator is uncertain about non-compliance (compliance uncertainty), then landing fees......Weitzman (2002) studies the regulation of a fishery characterised by constant marginal harvest costs and shows that price regulation performs better than quantity regulation when the regulator is uncertain about the biological reproduction function (ecological uncertainty). Here, we initially...... are the preferred type of regulation, and Hansen et al (2008) find that this result does generalise to a search fishery where marginal costs depend on harvest. In this paper, we simulate a stochastic stock-recruitment model for the Danish cod fishery in the Kategat capturing both ecological and compliance...

  18. Allen's astrophysical quantities

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This new, fourth, edition of Allen's classic Astrophysical Quantities belongs on every astronomer's bookshelf. It has been thoroughly revised and brought up to date by a team of more than ninety internationally renowned astronomers and astrophysicists. While it follows the basic format of the original, this indispensable reference has grown to more than twice the size of the earlier editions to accommodate the great strides made in astronomy and astrophysics. It includes detailed tables of the most recent data on: - General constants and units - Atoms, molecules, and spectra - Observational astronomy at all wavelengths from radio to gamma-rays, and neutrinos - Planetary astronomy: Earth, planets and satellites, and solar system small bodies - The Sun, normal stars, and stars with special characteristics - Stellar populations - Cataclysmic and symbiotic variables, supernovae - Theoretical stellar evolution - Circumstellar and interstellar material - Star clusters, galaxies, quasars, and active galactic nuclei ...

  19. Assessment of functioning in the acute hospital: operationalisation and reliability testing of ICF categories relevant for physical therapists interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, Eva; Gloor-Juzi, Thomas; Huber, Erika O; Stucki, Gerold

    2011-01-01

    To operationalize items based on categories of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) relevant to patient problems that are addressed by physiotherapeutic interventions in the acute hospital, and to test the reliability of these items when applied by physiotherapists. A selection of 124 ICF categories was operation-alized in a formal decision-making and consensus process. The reliability of the newly operationalized item list was tested with a cross-sectional study with repeated measurements. The item writing process resulted in 94 dichotomous and 30 polytomous items. Data were collected in a convenience sample of 28 patients with neurological, musculoske-letal, cardiopulmonary, or internal organ conditions, requiring physical therapy in an acute hospital. Fifty-six percent of the polytomous and 68% of the dichotomous items had a raw agreement of 0.7 or above, whereas 36% of all polytomous and 34% of all dichotomous items had a kappa coefficient of 0.7 and above. The study supports that the ICF is adaptable to professional and setting-specific needs of physiotherapists. Further research towards the development of reliable instruments for physiotherapists based on the ICF seems justified. :

  20. A Viewpoint on the Quantity "Plane Angle"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    Properties of the quantity "plane angle" are explored under the hypothesis that it is a dimensional quantity. The exploration proceeds especially with respect to the physical concept, its mathematical treatment, vector concepts, measurement theory, units of related quantities, engineering pragmatism, and SI. An attempt is made to bring these different relations into a rational, logical and consistent framework, and thus to justify the hypothesis. Various types of vectorial quantities are recognized, and their properties described with an outline of the necessary algebraic manipulations. The concept of plane angle is amplified, and its interdependence with the circular arc is explored. The resulting units of plane angle form a class of similar scales of measurement. Consequences of the confirmed hypothesis are developed for mathematical expressions involving trigonometric functions, rotational volumes and areas, mathematical limits, differentiation and series expansion. Consequences for mechanical rotational quantities are developed, with proposals for revisions to a number of expressions for derived units within SI. A revised definition for the quantity "plane angle" is stated to take account of the developed insights. There is a clear need to reconsider the status of plane angle and some other quantities within the international framework of SI.

  1. Recommendations for a culturally relevant Internet-based tool to promote physical activity among overweight young African American women, Alabama, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Nefertiti H; Joseph, Rodney P; Cherrington, Andrea; Cuffee, Yendelela; Knight, BernNadette; Lewis, Dwight; Allison, Jeroan J

    2014-01-16

    Innovative approaches are needed to promote physical activity among young adult overweight and obese African American women. We sought to describe key elements that African American women desire in a culturally relevant Internet-based tool to promote physical activity among overweight and obese young adult African American women. A mixed-method approach combining nominal group technique and traditional focus groups was used to elicit recommendations for the development of an Internet-based physical activity promotion tool. Participants, ages 19 to 30 years, were enrolled in a major university. Nominal group technique sessions were conducted to identify themes viewed as key features for inclusion in a culturally relevant Internet-based tool. Confirmatory focus groups were conducted to verify and elicit more in-depth information on the themes. Twenty-nine women participated in nominal group (n = 13) and traditional focus group sessions (n = 16). Features that emerged to be included in a culturally relevant Internet-based physical activity promotion tool were personalized website pages, diverse body images on websites and in videos, motivational stories about physical activity and women similar to themselves in size and body shape, tips on hair care maintenance during physical activity, and online social support through social media (eg, Facebook, Twitter). Incorporating existing social media tools and motivational stories from young adult African American women in Internet-based tools may increase the feasibility, acceptability, and success of Internet-based physical activity programs in this high-risk, understudied population.

  2. Relativity of Electric Quantity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAO Zhong-wen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The demonstration foundation,which is used to demonstrate that observed values from the interaction force between two charges,which are not at the same point would be different in different reference frames,is that the transmission of the interaction between charges needs time. Firstly,this paper analyzes the foundation of hypothetical process that the electric field and the magnetic field are built by one charge,and then the electromagnetic field would be transferred to another charge in vacuo by the speed of light,and produces force. It points out that from the simultaneity of relativity,the force applied to charge would occur in different time in the different reference frames,the force would be neither in the same size nor in the opposite direction,and Newton’s Third Law is not valid longer, the deeper cause of these conclusions would be known. On this basis,this paper gives the basis that force would keep invariant in different reference frames,and according to this condition,with the situation of the charge that under the Coulombian force and electromagnetism,the relative form of expression and demonstration methods of electric quantity in different reference frames are given. On the basis of the hypothesis that force would keep invariant in different reference frames,with the similar derivation process,the mass relativity equation of Einstein would be obtained.

  3. A conserved quantity in thin body dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, J.A.; Pendar, H.

    2016-01-01

    Thin, solid bodies with metric symmetries admit a restricted form of reparameterization invariance. Their dynamical equilibria include motions with both rigid and flowing aspects. On such configurations, a quantity is conserved along the intrinsic coordinate corresponding to the symmetry. As an example of its utility, this conserved quantity is combined with linear and angular momentum currents to construct solutions for the equilibria of a rotating, flowing string, for which it is akin to Bernoulli's constant. - Highlights: • A conserved quantity relevant to the dynamical equilibria of thin structures. • A mixed Lagrangian–Eulerian non-material action principle for fixed windows of axially moving systems. • Analytical solutions for rotating, flowing strings (yarn balloons). • Noether meets Bernoulli in a textile factory.

  4. A conserved quantity in thin body dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanna, J.A., E-mail: hannaj@vt.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Mechanics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Department of Physics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Pendar, H. [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Mechanics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Thin, solid bodies with metric symmetries admit a restricted form of reparameterization invariance. Their dynamical equilibria include motions with both rigid and flowing aspects. On such configurations, a quantity is conserved along the intrinsic coordinate corresponding to the symmetry. As an example of its utility, this conserved quantity is combined with linear and angular momentum currents to construct solutions for the equilibria of a rotating, flowing string, for which it is akin to Bernoulli's constant. - Highlights: • A conserved quantity relevant to the dynamical equilibria of thin structures. • A mixed Lagrangian–Eulerian non-material action principle for fixed windows of axially moving systems. • Analytical solutions for rotating, flowing strings (yarn balloons). • Noether meets Bernoulli in a textile factory.

  5. Print versus a culturally-relevant Facebook and text message delivered intervention to promote physical activity in African American women: a randomized pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Rodney P; Keller, Colleen; Adams, Marc A; Ainsworth, Barbara E

    2015-03-27

    African American women report insufficient physical activity and are disproportionally burdened by associated disease conditions; indicating the need for innovative approaches to promote physical activity in this underserved population. Social media platforms (i.e. Facebook) and text messaging represent potential mediums to promote physical activity. This paper reports the results of a randomized pilot trial evaluating a theory-based (Social Cognitive Theory) multi-component intervention using Facebook and text-messages to promote physical activity among African American women. Participants (N = 29) were randomly assigned to receive one of two multi-component physical activity interventions over 8 weeks: a culturally-relevant, Social Cognitive Theory-based, intervention delivered by Facebook and text message (FI) (n = 14), or a non-culturally tailored print-based intervention (PI) (n = 15) consisting of promotion brochures mailed to their home. The primary outcome of physical activity was assessed by ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers. Secondary outcomes included self-reported physical activity, physical activity-related psychosocial variables, and participant satisfaction. All randomized participants (N = 29) completed the study. Accelerometer measured physical activity showed that FI participants decreased sedentary time (FI = -74 minutes/week vs. PI = +118 minute/week) and increased light intensity (FI = +95 minutes/week vs. PI = +59 minutes/week) and moderate-lifestyle intensity physical activity (FI = + 27 minutes/week vs. PI = -34 minutes/week) in comparison to PI participants (all P's  .05). Results of secondary outcomes showed that in comparison to the PI, FI participants self-reported greater increases in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (FI = +62 minutes/week vs. PI = +6 minutes/week; P = .015) and had greater enhancements in self-regulation for physical activity (P program to a friend

  6. Using Biomedically Relevant Multimedia Content in an Introductory Physics Course for Life Science and Pre-Health Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylott, Elliot; Kutschera, Ellynne; Dunlap, Justin C.; Christensen, Warren; Widenhorn, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    We will describe a one-quarter pilot algebra-based introductory physics course for pre-health and life science majors. The course features videos with biomedical experts and cogent biomedically inspired physics content. The materials were used in a flipped classroom as well as an all-online environment where students interacted with multimedia…

  7. Physical Inactivity from Adolescence to Young Adulthood: The Relevance of Various Dimensions of Inequality in a Swedish Longitudinal Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Laura; Nermo, Magnus; Östberg, Viveca

    2017-01-01

    As physical inactivity may track from adolescence to adulthood, it is important to identify social determinants of physical inactivity in early life. However, most studies have measured socioeconomic position as one dimension. We examine whether multiple dimensions of socioeconomic position, in addition to other dimensions of inequality (i.e.,…

  8. Quantity Stickiness versus Stackelberg Leadership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, F. A.

    2008-01-01

    We study the endogenous Stackelberg relations in a dynamic market. We analyze a twice-repeated duopoly where, in the beginning, each firm chooses either a quantity-sticky production mode or a quantity-flexible production mode. The size of the market becomes observable after the first period. In the second period, a firm can adjust its quantity if, and only if, it has adopted the flexible mode. Hence, if one firm chooses the sticky mode whilst the other chooses the flexible mode, then they respectively play the roles of a Stackelberg leader and a Stackelberg follower in the second marketing period. We compute the supply quantities at equilibrium and the corresponding expected profits of the firms. We also analyze the effect of the slope parameter of the demand curve on the expected supply quantities and on the profits.

  9. Experimental studies of keV energy neutron-induced reactions relevant to astrophysics and nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shima, T.; Kii, T.; Kikuchi, T.; Okazaki, F.; Kobayashi, T.; Baba, T.; Nagai, Y. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Faculty of Science; Igashira, M.

    1997-03-01

    Nuclear reactions induced by keV energy neutrons provide a plenty of informations for studies of both astrophysics and nuclear physics. In this paper we will show our experimental studies of neutron- induced reactions of light nuclei in the keV energy region by means of a pulsed keV neutron beam and high-sensitivity detectors. Also we will discuss astrophysical and nuclear-physical consequences by using the obtained results. (author)

  10. Thermal quantities of 46Ti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmatinejad, A.; Razavi, R.; Kakavand, T.

    2015-01-01

    Thermodynamic quantities of 46 Ti have been calculated in the framework of the BCS model with inclusion of modified nuclear pairing gap (MPBCS) that was proposed in our previous publication. Using modified paring gap results in an S-shaped heat capacity curve at critical temperature with a smooth behavior instead of singular behavior of the same curve in the BCS calculations. In addition the thermal quantities have been extracted within the framework of a canonical ensemble according to the new experimental data on nuclear level densities measured by the Oslo group. Comparison shows a good agreement between our calculations in MPBCS and the extracted quantities in the canonical ensemble framework

  11. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Growth and Maturation of Relevance to Physical Activity, Performance, and Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Growth, maturation, and development dominate the daily lives of children and adolescents for approximately the first 2 decades of life. Growth and maturation are biological processes, while development is largely a behavioral process. The 3 processes occur simultaneously and interact. They can be influenced by physical activity and also can…

  12. Space flight research relevant to health, physical education, and recreation: With particular reference to Skylab's life science experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhuss, W. D.; Heusner, W. W.

    1979-01-01

    Data collected in the Skylab program relating to physiological stresses is presented. Included are routine blood measures used in clinical medicine as research type endocrine analyses to investigate the metabolic/endocrine responses to weightlessness. The daily routine of physical exercise, coupled with appropriate dietary intake, sleep, work, and recreation periods were considered essential in maintaining the crew's health and well being.

  13. A meta-analysis of the abscopal effect in preclinical models: Is the biologically effective dose a relevant physical trigger?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Marconi

    Full Text Available Preclinical in vivo studies using small animals are considered crucial in translational cancer research and clinical implementation of novel treatments. This is of paramount relevance in radiobiology, especially for any technological developments permitted to deliver high doses in single or oligo-fractionated regimens, such as stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR. In this context, clinical success in cancer treatment needs to be guaranteed, sparing normal tissue and preventing the potential spread of disease or local recurrence. In this work we introduce a new dose-response relationship based on relevant publications concerning preclinical models with regard to delivered dose, fractionation schedule and occurrence of biological effects on non-irradiated tissue, abscopal effects.We reviewed relevant publications on murine models and the abscopal effect in radiation cancer research following PRISMA methodology. In particular, through a log-likelihood method, we evaluated whether the occurrence of abscopal effects may be related to the biologically effective dose (BED. To this aim, studies accomplished with different tumor histotypes were considered in our analysis including breast, colon, lung, fibrosarcoma, pancreas, melanoma and head and neck cancer. For all the tumors, the α / β ratio was assumed to be 10 Gy, as generally adopted for neoplastic cells.Our results support the hypothesis that the occurrence rate of abscopal effects in preclinical models increases with BED. In particular, the probability of revealing abscopal effects is 50% when a BED of 60 Gy is generated.Our study provides evidence that SABR treatments associated with high BEDs could be considered an effective strategy in triggering the abscopal effect, thus shedding light on the promising outcomes revealed in clinical practice.

  14. Body mass index predicts selected physical fitness attributes but is not associated with performance on military relevant tasks in U.S. Army Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Joseph R; DeGroot, David W; Grier, Tyson L; Hauret, Keith G; Nindl, Bradley C; East, Whitfield B; McGurk, Michael S; Jones, Bruce H

    2017-11-01

    Army body composition standards are based upon validated criteria; however, certain field-expedient methodologies (e.g., weight-for-height, body mass index [BMI]) may disqualify individuals from service who may otherwise excel on physical performance and military-relevant tasks. The purpose was to assess soldier physical performance and military-specific task/fitness performance stratified by BMI. Cross-sectional observational study. Male (n=275) and female (n=46) soldiers performed a wide-array of physical fitness tests and military-specific tasks, including the Army physical fitness test (APFT). Within-sex performance data were analyzed by BMI tertile stratification or by Army Body Composition Program (ABCP) weight-for-height (calculated BMI) screening standards using ANOVA/Tukey post-hoc or independent t-tests, respectively. BMI stratification (higher vs. lower BMI) was associated with significant improvements in muscular strength and power, but also with decrements in speed/agility in male and female soldiers. Within the military specific tasks, a higher BMI was associated with an increased APFT 2-Mile Run time; however, performance on a 1600-m Loaded March or a Warrior Task and Battle Drill obstacle course was not related to BMI in either sex. Male and Female soldiers who did not meet ABCP screening standards demonstrated a slower 2-Mile Run time; however, not meeting the ABCP BMI standard only affected a minimal number (∼6%) of soldiers' ability to pass the APFT. Military body composition standards require a careful balance between physical performance, health, and military readiness. Allowances should be considered where tradeoffs exist between body composition classifications and performance on physical tasks with high military relevance. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Physics measurements and health education

    OpenAIRE

    HAJDUCH, Petr

    2016-01-01

    The thesis "Physical measurements and health education" looks at physical quantities that are related to human health and can be measured in a elementary school environment. It focuses especially on the cross-curricular relationship between physics and health education and also on the use of relevant online measurement systems. As part of this thesis, we suggest a number of activities that exploit this relationship.

  16. PHYSICS OF A PARTIALLY IONIZED GAS RELEVANT TO GALAXY FORMATION SIMULATIONS-THE IONIZATION POTENTIAL ENERGY RESERVOIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenbroucke, B.; De Rijcke, S.; Schroyen, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Jachowicz, N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ghent University, Proeftuinstraat 86, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2013-07-01

    Simulation codes for galaxy formation and evolution take on board as many physical processes as possible beyond the standard gravitational and hydrodynamical physics. Most of this extra physics takes place below the resolution level of the simulations and is added in a ''sub-grid'' fashion. However, these sub-grid processes affect the macroscopic hydrodynamical properties of the gas and thus couple to the ''on-grid'' physics that is explicitly integrated during the simulation. In this paper, we focus on the link between partial ionization and the hydrodynamical equations. We show that the energy stored in ions and free electrons constitutes a potential energy term which breaks the linear dependence of the internal energy on temperature. Correctly taking into account ionization hence requires modifying both the equation of state and the energy-temperature relation. We implemented these changes in the cosmological simulation code GADGET2. As an example of the effects of these changes, we study the propagation of Sedov-Taylor shock waves through an ionizing medium. This serves as a proxy for the absorption of supernova feedback energy by the interstellar medium. Depending on the density and temperature of the surrounding gas, we find that up to 50% of the feedback energy is spent ionizing the gas rather than heating it. Thus, it can be expected that properly taking into account ionization effects in galaxy evolution simulations will drastically reduce the effects of thermal feedback. To the best of our knowledge, this potential energy term is not used in current simulations of galaxy formation and evolution.

  17. PHYSICS OF A PARTIALLY IONIZED GAS RELEVANT TO GALAXY FORMATION SIMULATIONS—THE IONIZATION POTENTIAL ENERGY RESERVOIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenbroucke, B.; De Rijcke, S.; Schroyen, J.; Jachowicz, N.

    2013-01-01

    Simulation codes for galaxy formation and evolution take on board as many physical processes as possible beyond the standard gravitational and hydrodynamical physics. Most of this extra physics takes place below the resolution level of the simulations and is added in a ''sub-grid'' fashion. However, these sub-grid processes affect the macroscopic hydrodynamical properties of the gas and thus couple to the ''on-grid'' physics that is explicitly integrated during the simulation. In this paper, we focus on the link between partial ionization and the hydrodynamical equations. We show that the energy stored in ions and free electrons constitutes a potential energy term which breaks the linear dependence of the internal energy on temperature. Correctly taking into account ionization hence requires modifying both the equation of state and the energy-temperature relation. We implemented these changes in the cosmological simulation code GADGET2. As an example of the effects of these changes, we study the propagation of Sedov-Taylor shock waves through an ionizing medium. This serves as a proxy for the absorption of supernova feedback energy by the interstellar medium. Depending on the density and temperature of the surrounding gas, we find that up to 50% of the feedback energy is spent ionizing the gas rather than heating it. Thus, it can be expected that properly taking into account ionization effects in galaxy evolution simulations will drastically reduce the effects of thermal feedback. To the best of our knowledge, this potential energy term is not used in current simulations of galaxy formation and evolution.

  18. The Logical and Psychological Structure of Physical Chemistry and Its Relevance to the Organization/Sequencing of the Major Areas Covered in Physical Chemistry Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaparlis, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    Jensen's scheme for the logical structure of chemistry is taken as reference to study the logical structure of physical chemistry. The scheme distinguishes three dimensions (composition and structure, energy, and time), with each dimension treated at one of the three levels (molar, molecular, and electrical). Such a structure places the outer…

  19. On the convergence of a fully discrete scheme of LES type to physically relevant solutions of the incompressible Navier-Stokes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berselli, Luigi C.; Spirito, Stefano

    2018-06-01

    Obtaining reliable numerical simulations of turbulent fluids is a challenging problem in computational fluid mechanics. The large eddy simulation (LES) models are efficient tools to approximate turbulent fluids, and an important step in the validation of these models is the ability to reproduce relevant properties of the flow. In this paper, we consider a fully discrete approximation of the Navier-Stokes-Voigt model by an implicit Euler algorithm (with respect to the time variable) and a Fourier-Galerkin method (in the space variables). We prove the convergence to weak solutions of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations satisfying the natural local entropy condition, hence selecting the so-called physically relevant solutions.

  20. Physical, Spatial, and Molecular Aspects of Extracellular Matrix of In Vivo Niches and Artificial Scaffolds Relevant to Stem Cells Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Akhmanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular matrix can influence stem cell choices, such as self-renewal, quiescence, migration, proliferation, phenotype maintenance, differentiation, or apoptosis. Three aspects of extracellular matrix were extensively studied during the last decade: physical properties, spatial presentation of adhesive epitopes, and molecular complexity. Over 15 different parameters have been shown to influence stem cell choices. Physical aspects include stiffness (or elasticity, viscoelasticity, pore size, porosity, amplitude and frequency of static and dynamic deformations applied to the matrix. Spatial aspects include scaffold dimensionality (2D or 3D and thickness; cell polarity; area, shape, and microscale topography of cell adhesion surface; epitope concentration, epitope clustering characteristics (number of epitopes per cluster, spacing between epitopes within cluster, spacing between separate clusters, cluster patterns, and level of disorder in epitope arrangement, and nanotopography. Biochemical characteristics of natural extracellular matrix molecules regard diversity and structural complexity of matrix molecules, affinity and specificity of epitope interaction with cell receptors, role of non-affinity domains, complexity of supramolecular organization, and co-signaling by growth factors or matrix epitopes. Synergy between several matrix aspects enables stem cells to retain their function in vivo and may be a key to generation of long-term, robust, and effective in vitro stem cell culture systems.

  1. A systematic review of web-based interventions for patient empowerment and physical activity in chronic diseases: relevance for cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijpers, Wilma; Groen, Wim G; Aaronson, Neil K; van Harten, Wim H

    2013-02-20

    Patient empowerment reflects the ability of patients to positively influence their health and health behavior such as physical activity. While interactive Web-based interventions are increasingly used in various chronic disease settings to enhance empowerment and physical activity, such interventions are still uncommon for cancer survivors. The objective of this study was to systematically review the literature regarding interactive Web-based interventions. We focused on interventions aimed at increasing patient empowerment and physical activity for various chronic conditions, and explored their possible relevance for cancer survivors. Searches were performed in PubMed, Embase, and Scopus to identify peer-reviewed papers reporting on randomized controlled trials that studied the effects of Web-based interventions. These interventions were developed for adults with diabetes, cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart failure, or cancer. Intervention characteristics, effects on patient empowerment and physical activity, information on barriers to and facilitators of intervention use, users' experiences, and methodological quality were assessed. Results were summarized in a qualitative way. We used the recommendations of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) regarding cancer survivorship care to explore the relevance of the interventions for cancer survivors. We included 19 papers reporting on trials with 18 unique studies. Significant, positive effects on patient empowerment were reported by 4 studies and 2 studies reported positive effects on physical activity. The remaining studies yielded mixed results or no significant group differences in these outcomes (ie, no change or improvement for all groups). Although the content, duration, and frequency of interventions varied considerably across studies, commonly used elements included education, self-monitoring, feedback/tailored information, self-management training, personal exercise program, and

  2. Physical Uncertainty Bounds (PUB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, Diane Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Dean L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-19

    This paper introduces and motivates the need for a new methodology for determining upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulations of engineered systems due to limited fidelity in the composite continuum-level physics models needed to simulate the systems. We show that traditional uncertainty quantification methods provide, at best, a lower bound on this uncertainty. We propose to obtain bounds on the simulation uncertainties by first determining bounds on the physical quantities or processes relevant to system performance. By bounding these physics processes, as opposed to carrying out statistical analyses of the parameter sets of specific physics models or simply switching out the available physics models, one can obtain upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulated quantities of interest.

  3. Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cullen, Katherine

    2005-01-01

    Defined as the scientific study of matter and energy, physics explains how all matter behaves. Separated into modern and classical physics, the study attracts both experimental and theoretical physicists. From the discovery of the process of nuclear fission to an explanation of the nature of light, from the theory of special relativity to advancements made in particle physics, this volume profiles 10 pioneers who overcame tremendous odds to make significant breakthroughs in this heavily studied branch of science. Each chapter contains relevant information on the scientist''s childhood, research, discoveries, and lasting contributions to the field and concludes with a chronology and a list of print and Internet references specific to that individual.

  4. Global Social Challenges: insights from the physical sciences and their relevance to the evolution of social science

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The complex challenges confronting humanity today point to the need for new thinking and new theory in the social sciences which overcomes the limitations of compartmentalized, sectoral concepts, strategies and policies and mechanistic approaches to living social systems. The World Academy of Art & Science is convening a consortium of leading institutions and thinkers from different sectors to contribute ideas for formulation of a cohesive framework capable of addressing global social challenges in their totality and complex interrelationships. The objective of my presentation will be to explore the potential for collaboration between the physical and social sciences to arrive at a more cohesive and effective framework by exploring a series of questions, including - - Is an integrated science of society possible that transcends disciplinary boundaries based on common underlying principles as we find in the natural sciences? - To what extent can principles of natural science serve as valid models and a...

  5. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Futyan

    A lot has transpired on the “Physics” front since the last CMS Bulletin. The summer was filled with preparations of new Monte Carlo samples based on CMSSW_3, the finalization of all the 10 TeV physics analyses [in total 50 analyses were approved] and the preparations for the Physics Week in Bologna. A couple weeks later, the “October Exercise” commenced and ran through an intense two-week period. The Physics Days in October were packed with a number of topics that are relevant to data taking, in a number of “mini-workshops”: the luminosity measurement, the determination of the beam spot and the measurement of the missing transverse energy (MET) were the three main topics.  Physics Week in Bologna The second physics week in 2009 took place in Bologna, Italy, on the week of Sep 7-11. The aim of the week was to review and establish how ready we are to do physics with the early collisions at the LHC. The agenda of the week was thus pac...

  6. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Futyan

    A lot has transpired on the “Physics” front since the last CMS Bulletin. The summer was filled with preparations of new Monte Carlo samples based on CMSSW_3, the finalization of all the 10 TeV physics analyses [in total 50 analyses were approved] and the preparations for the Physics Week in Bologna. A couple weeks later, the “October Exercise” commenced and ran through an intense two-week period. The Physics Days in October were packed with a number of topics that are relevant to data taking, in a number of “mini-workshops”: the luminosity measurement, the determination of the beam spot and the measurement of the missing transverse energy (MET) were the three main topics.   Physics Week in Bologna The second physics week in 2009 took place in Bologna, Italy, on the week of Sep 7-11. The aim of the week was to review and establish (we hoped) the readiness of CMS to do physics with the early collisions at the LHC. The agenda of the...

  7. On the Physical Relevance of the Study of gamma* gamma -> pi pi at small t and large Q2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansberg, J.P.; /SLAC; Pire, B.; /Ecole Polytechnique, CPHT; Szymanowski, L.; /Warsaw, Inst. Nucl. Studies

    2010-08-26

    We discuss the relevance of a dedicated measurement of exclusive production of a pair of neutral pions in a hard {gamma}*{gamma} scattering at small momentum transfer. In this case, the virtuality of one photon provides us with a hard scale in the process, enabling us to perform a QCD calculation of this reaction rate using the concept of Transition Distribution Amplitudes (TDA). Those are related by sum rules to the pion axial form factor F{sub A}{sup {pi}} and, as a direct consequence, a cross-section measurement of this process at intense beam electron-positron colliders such as CLEO, KEK-B and PEP-II, or Super-B would provide us with a unique measurement of the neutral pion axial form factor F{sub A}{sup {pi}0} at small scale. We believe that our models for the photon to meson transition distribution amplitudes are sufficiently constrained to give reasonable orders of magnitude for the estimated cross sections. Cross sections are large enough for quantitative studies to be performed at high luminosity e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders. After verifying the scaling and the {phi} independence of the cross section, one should be able to measure these new hadronic matrix elements, and thus open a new gate to the understanding of the hadronic structure. In particular, we argued here that the study of {gamma}*{gamma} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} in the TDA regime could provide with a unique experimental measurement of the {pi}{sup 0} axial form factor.

  8. Quantity Estimation Of The Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorana, Agim; Malkaj, Partizan; Muda, Valbona

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present some considerations about quantity estimations, regarding the range of interaction and the conservations laws in various types of interactions. Our estimations are done under classical and quantum point of view and have to do with the interaction's carriers, the radius, the influence range and the intensity of interactions

  9. Definitions of Quantities and Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgin, C. B.

    1983-01-01

    Compares various methods of defining derived quantities, arguing for a definitional formula using base or fundamental units in a word equation, or symbol-equations with the symbols explained. Suggests that fundamental units be defined operationally or left regarded as intuitive as in the case of length and time. (JM)

  10. Core and edge aspects of quiescent double barrier operation on DIII-D, with relevance to critical ITB physics issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, E.J.; Casper, T.A.; Burrell, K.H.

    2003-01-01

    Recent results from DIII-D address critical internal transport barrier (ITB) research issues relating to sustainability, impurity accumulation and ITB control, and have also demonstrated successful application of general profile control tools. In addition, substantial progress has been made in understanding the physics of the Quiescent Double Barrier (QDB) regime, increasing the demonstrated operating space for the regime and improving performance. Highlights include: (1) A clear demonstration of q-profile modification using electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD); (2) Successful use of localized profile control using electron cyclotron heating (ECH) or ECCD to reduce central high-Z impurity accumulation associated with density peaking; (3) Theory based modeling codes are now being used to design experiments; (4) The operating space for Quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) has been substantially broadened, in particular higher density operation has been achieved; (5) Both absolute (β≤ 3.8%, neutron rate S n ≤ 5.5x10 15 s -1 ) and relative (β N H 89 = 7 for 10τ E ) performance has been increased; (6) With regard to sustainment, QDB plasmas have been run for 3.8 s or 26 τ E . These results emphasize that it is possible to produce sustained high quality H-mode performance with an edge localized mode (ELM)-free edge, directly addressing a major issue in fusion research, of how to ameliorate or eliminate ELM induced pulsed divertor particle and heat loads. (author)

  11. Wire Array Z-pinches on Sphinx Machine: Experimental Results and Relevant Points of Microsecond Implosion Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamy, H.; Hamann, F.; Lassalle, F.; Bayol, F.; Mangeant, C.; Morell, A.; Huet, D.; Bedoch, J. P.; Chittenden, J. P.; Lebedev, S. V.; Jennings, C. A.; Bland, S. N.

    2006-01-01

    Centre d'Etudes de Gramat (France) has developed an efficient long implosion time (800 ns) Aluminum plasma radiation source (PRS). Based on the LTD technology, the SPHINX facility is developed as a 1-3MJ, 1μs rise time, 4-10 MA current driver. In this paper, it was used in 1MJ, 4MA configuration to drive Aluminum nested wire arrays Z-pinches with K-shell yield up to 20 kJ and a FWHM of the x-ray pulse of about 50 ns. We present latest SPHINX experiments and some of the main physic issues of the microsecond regime. Experimental setup and results are described with the aim of giving trends that have been obtained. The main features of microsecond implosion of wire arrays can be analyzed thanks to same methods and theories as used for faster Z-pinches. The effect of load polarity was examined. The stability of the implosion , one of the critical point of microsecond wire arrays due to the load dimensions imposed by the time scale, is tackled. A simple scaling from 100 ns Z-pinch results to 800 ns ones gives good results and the use of nested arrays improves dramatically the implosion quality and the Kshell yield of the load. However, additional effects such as the impact of the return current can geometry on the implosion have to be taken into account on our loads. Axial inhomogeneity of the implosion the origin of which is not yet well understood occurs in some shots and impacts the radiation output. The shape of the radiative pulse is discussed and compared with the homogeneity of the implosion. Numerical 2D R-Z and R-θ simulations are used to highlight some experimental results and understand the plasma conditions during these microsecond wire arrays implosions.

  12. Wire Array Z-pinches on Sphinx Machine: Experimental Results and Relevant Points of Microsecond Implosion Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calamy, H.; Hamann, F.; Lassalle, F.; Bayol, F.; Mangeant, C.; Morell, A.; Huet, D.; Bedoch, J.P.; Chittenden, J.P.; Lebedev, S.V.; Jennings, C.A.; Bland, S.N.

    2006-01-01

    Centre d'Etudes de Gramat (France) has developed an efficient long implosion time (800 ns) Aluminum plasma radiation source (PRS). Based on the LTD technology, the SPHINX facility is developed as a 1-3MJ, 1μs rise time, 4-10 MA current driver. In this paper, it was used in 1MJ, 4MA configuration to drive Aluminum nested wire arrays Z-pinches with K-shell yield up to 20 kJ and a FWHM of the x-ray pulse of about 50 ns. We present latest SPHINX experiments and some of the main physic issues of the microsecond regime. Experimental setup and results are described with the aim of giving trends that have been obtained. The main features of microsecond implosion of wire arrays can be analyzed thanks to same methods and theories as used for faster Z-pinches. The effect of load polarity was examined. The stability of the implosion , one of the critical point of microsecond wire arrays due to the load dimensions imposed by the time scale, is tackled. A simple scaling from 100 ns Z-pinch results to 800 ns ones gives good results and the use of nested arrays improves dramatically the implosion quality and the Kshell yield of the load. However, additional effects such as the impact of the return current can geometry on the implosion have to be taken into account on our loads. Axial inhomogeneity of the implosion the origin of which is not yet well understood occurs in some shots and impacts the radiation output. The shape of the radiative pulse is discussed and compared with the homogeneity of the implosion. Numerical 2D R-Z and R-θ simulations are used to highlight some experimental results and understand the plasma conditions during these microsecond wire arrays implosions

  13. DOE approach to threshold quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickham, L.E.; Kluk, A.F.; Department of Energy, Washington, DC)

    1985-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is developing the concept of threshold quantities for use in determining which waste materials must be handled as radioactive waste and which may be disposed of as nonradioactive waste at its sites. Waste above this concentration level would be managed as radioactive or mixed waste (if hazardous chemicals are present); waste below this level would be handled as sanitary waste. Ideally, the threshold must be set high enough to significantly reduce the amount of waste requiring special handling. It must also be low enough so that waste at the threshold quantity poses a very small health risk and multiple exposures to such waste would still constitute a small health risk. It should also be practical to segregate waste above or below the threshold quantity using available instrumentation. Guidance is being prepared to aid DOE sites in establishing threshold quantity values based on pathways analysis using site-specific parameters (waste stream characteristics, maximum exposed individual, population considerations, and site specific parameters such as rainfall, etc.). A guidance dose of between 0.001 to 1.0 mSv/y (0.1 to 100 mrem/y) was recommended with 0.3 mSv/y (30 mrem/y) selected as the guidance dose upon which to base calculations. Several tasks were identified, beginning with the selection of a suitable pathway model for relating dose to the concentration of radioactivity in the waste. Threshold concentrations corresponding to the guidance dose were determined for waste disposal sites at a selected humid and arid site. Finally, cost-benefit considerations at the example sites were addressed. The results of the various tasks are summarized and the relationship of this effort with related developments at other agencies discussed

  14. Quantities used in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menossi, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    The application of ICRP recommendations requires knowledge of a variety of concepts and magnitudes. Many of them are employed in other fields of science and precision in its definition reflects this wide application. In this regard, information on quantities and basic units of radiation, which exists in numerous publications, are subjects of great interest. The characteristics and radiation effects are studied by physicists, biologists and chemists mainly. However, there are basics that must be known and to be recognized by general practitioners and specialists from all branches of medicine. The information on quantities and units are used only in radiation protection, have been obtained from the reports listed on the attached bibliography. Such quantities and units contain weighting factors used to provide for different types of radiation and energies that affect the body and thus take into account the relative radio-sensitivity of different tissues. Additionally, they have added a series of data for a better understanding of the units: for example, multiples and sub-multiples, and some examples of converting the units used in radiation protection. (author) [es

  15. Metrology of radiation protection. Pt. 1. Physical requirements and terminology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, S R

    1979-10-01

    Starting from a general consideration of the needs for radiation protection the physical requirements of a relevant metrology are developed. The expedient physical quantities are introduced and problems in the realization and dissemination of their units discussed. It is shown that owing to these difficulties, derived or operational quantities have to be developed for the construction and calibration of practical measuring instruments. Finally the relations between the metrology of radiation protection and of medical radiology are pointed out and commented. (orig.).

  16. Layer-Mean Quantities, Local Conservation Laws, and Vorticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camassa, R.; Levermore, C.D.

    1997-01-01

    We derive local conservation laws for layer-mean quantities in two general settings. When applied to Euler flows, the first of these settings yields well-known local conservation laws for quantities averaged between material surfaces. The second, however, leads to new local conservation laws for quantities involving the vorticity that are averaged between arbitrary surfaces. These produce the crucial vorticity conservation laws in shallow water models that admit nonhydrostatic and noncolumnar motion. Moreover, they seem to lie outside the Hamiltonian paradigm of fluid dynamics. The formalism generalizes to skew-symmetric matrix fields; applications to electromagnetism are suggested. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  17. Dosimetric radiation protection quantities. Impact of the forthcoming ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, A.S.; Lee, J.I.; Kim, J.L.; Kim, B.H.

    2008-01-01

    The physical quantities namely fluence, kerma and absorbed dose provide the base for the operational and the protection quantities. The absorbed dose continues to be the fundamental physical quantity for the radiological protection. The most striking feature relating the quantities in the forthcoming recommendations is the updating of the radiation and tissue weighting factors based on the latest available scientific information on radiobiology and the physics of radiation exposure. This is bound to make a significant impact in arriving at the equivalent doses and effective dose. For external exposures of neutrons, the forthcoming recommendations are going to improve the relationship between the operational and protection quantities. The changes in the tissue weighting factors of some tissues/organs, the inclusion of several new tissues/organs for the consideration of tissue weighting factors and the use of the proposed Reference Male and Reference Female voxel phantoms would require new conversion coefficients and dose coefficients for external and internal exposures. The other striking feature appears to be the details of the concepts to ensure that the protections quantities are used for the appropriate and intended purposes only and the misuse is avoided. (author)

  18. How necessary are the new quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, W.

    1991-01-01

    The necessity of the ICRU operational quantities is discussed from the point of view of practical, opertional radiation protection, on the basis of ICRU report 43. It is clear that, although the new quantities have some advantages over previous systems of operational quantities, there are some disadvantages as well. The decision to adopt these quantities is, therefore, not clear cut. (orig.)

  19. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2010-01-01

    The Physics Groups are actively engaged on analyses of the first data from the LHC at 7 TeV, targeting many results for the ICHEP conference taking place in Paris this summer. The first large batch of physics approvals is scheduled for this CMS Week, to be followed by four more weeks of approvals and analysis updates leading to the start of the conference in July. Several high priority analysis areas were organized into task forces to ensure sufficient coverage from the relevant detector, object, and analysis groups in the preparation of these analyses. Already some results on charged particle correlations and multiplicities in 7 TeV minimum bias collisions have been approved. Only one small detail remains before ICHEP: further integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC! Beyond the Standard Model measurements that can be done with these data, the focus changes to the search for new physics at the TeV scale and for the Higgs boson in the period after ICHEP. Particle Flow The PFT group is focusing on the ...

  20. Manual of symbols and terminology for physicochemical quantities and units

    CERN Document Server

    Whiffen, D H

    2013-01-01

    Manual of Symbols and Terminology for Physicochemical Quantities and Units, 1979 Edition contains physical quantity tabulations of products. The Commission on Symbols, Terminology, and Units is a part of the Division of Physical Chemistry of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. Its general responsibilities are to secure clarity and precision, and wider agreement in the use of symbols, by chemists in different countries, among physicists, chemists, and engineers, and by editors of scientific journals. This book is composed of 13 chapters, and begins with the determination o

  1. Are necessary unmeasurable quantities in radiation protection?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, M.G.; Correa, M.F.; Videira, A.A.P.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss in this paper the metrological status of unmeasurable protection quantities and the need to maintain these kind of quantities in the system. The discussion is based on reports from the institutions responsible for the quantities and on scientific publications. In conclusion, we can say that there are alternatives for changing the system in a way that it keep just measurable quantities, nevertheless the present system is well assimilated. Even though a proposal yet to be presented for changing the system, although might simplify and improve it, is not intended to overcome the existence of unmeasurable quantities or the two kinds of quantities. (author)

  2. Processing and physical utilisation of waste materials relevant to iron and steel manufacture; Aufarbeitung und stoffliche Nutzung eisen- und stahlrelevanter Abfallstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harp, G.; Schmidt, B.; Sucker, D. [Betriebsforschungsinstitut VDEh-Institut fuer Angewandte Forschung GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    A part of the waste materials arising in iron and steel manufacture is utilised physically, either internally for the recovery of iron or externally for the production of cement and nonferrous metals. Most of these materials can be used without prior processing. Iron and steel-relevant waste materials which at present are still landfilled or disposed of as hazardous wastes are not immediately suitable for physical recycling as secondary raw material. These waste materials have to be processed without exception before they can be used again in the existing steel and iron manufacturing plants. The results of the authors` own studies have clearly shown that the cupola furnace is suited for the use of a wide variety of waste materials. [Deutsch] Ein Teil der bei der Eisen- und Stahlerzeugung anfallenden Abfallstoffe werden entweder intern zur Rueckgewinnung des Eisens oder extern in der Zement- bzw. Nichteisenmetallgewinnung stofflich verwertet. Dabei handelt es sich ueberwiegend um Materialien, die ohne weitere Aufbereitung verwertbar sind. Die bislang noch deponierten oder als Sonderabfall entsorgten eisen- und stahlrelevanten Abfallstoffe sind ohne weiteres als Sekundaerrohstoff nicht stofflich verwertbar. Die Aufarbeitung dieser Abfallstoffe ist fuer den Wiedereinsatz in den vorhandenen Anlagen zur Gewinnung von Eisen und Stahl zwingend erforderlich. Die Ergebnisse der eigenen Untersuchungen haben klar gezeigt, dass der Kupolofen fuer die Nutzung einer grossen Vielfalt an Abfallstoffen geeignet ist. Zur Erhoehung der spezifischen Einsatzmenge an eisen- und stahlrelevanten Abfallstoffen untersuchen wir derzeit den Einsatz von oxidischen Materialien als sogenannte selbstgaengige Briketts zusammen mit den ueblichen Eisentraegern fuer die Erzeugung von fluessigem Giessereieisen. Selbstgaengig heisst hierbei, dass der Reduktionskohlenstoff und auch die notwendigen Legierungselemente insbesondere Silizium als SiC in den Briketts eingebunden werden. Fuer die Aufbereitung

  3. Asymptotic conditions and conserved quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koul, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    Two problems have been investigated in this dissertation. The first one deals with the relationship between stationary space-times which are flat at null infinity and stationary space-times which are asymptotic flat at space-like infinity. It is shown that the stationary space-times which are asymptotically flat, in the Penrose sense, at null infinity, are asymptotically flat at space-like infinity in the Geroch sense and metric at space like infinity is at least C 1 . In the converse it is shown that the stationary space-times which are asymptotically flat at space like infinity, in the Beig sense, are asymptotically flat at null infinity in the Penrose sense. The second problem addressed deals with the theories of arbitrary dimensions. The theories treated are the ones which have fiber bundle structure, outside some compact region. For these theories the criterion for the choice of the background metric is specified, and the boundary condition for the initial data set (q ab , P ab ) is given in terms of the background metric. Having these boundary conditions it is shown that the symplectic structure and the constraint functionals are well defined. The conserved quantities associated with internal Killing vector fields are specified. Lastly the energy relative to a fixed background and the total energy of the theory have been given. It is also shown that the total energy of the theory is independent of the choice of the background

  4. Foreign materials in the repository - update of estimated quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagros, A.

    2007-03-01

    In a repository for spent nuclear fuel, a variety of materials are used during the construction process and during the operation of the repository. In addition to materials necessary for the construction and operation, some materials may be transported into the repository through the ventilation air, as emissions from vehicles, as waste produced by the staff etc. Both of these two types of materials are considered here and their quantities - both the introduced quantities and the quantities that remain after closure - in the repository constructed at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki, Finland are estimated here based on new information. This work is intended to update the estimations that have been made previously, and it takes advantage of the experience collected during the construction of the underground rock characterisation facility ONKALO at Olkiluoto. During this construction process, the quantities of the different construction materials introduced into the underground openings have been monitored and they form a basis for estimating the quantities to be used in the future. The estimations made in this report are specific to a KBS-3V type repository and to the Olkiluoto site, although in some cases more generic information has been used, particularly when the relevant quantities have not been monitored in the ONKALO. The estimations are based on the new repository layout produced in 2006 and consider the latest plans for grouting and rock support. As these plans are generally not final yet, several different alternative plans are assumed when necessary. Also two different strategies for the backfilling of the tunnels are considered. The most significant differences with respect to the results of an earlier estimation are related to the materials used in grouting, shotcreting and in support bolts. In the cases where a mixture of bentonite and crushed rock is the used backfill alternative, gypsum and cement are the materials with the largest quantities remaining in the

  5. Validity of a scale of neighbourhood informal social control relevant to pre-schoolers’ physical activity: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Cerin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Childhood physical activity (PA is important for health across the lifespan. Time pre-schoolers spend outdoors, which has been associated with more PA, is likely influenced by parents’ perception of neighbourhood informal social control relevant to pre-schoolers' PA, defined as the willingness of neighbours to intervene to ensure social order and a safe community environment for young children's active play. To advance measurement of this construct, we assessed factorial and construct validities of the PA-related neighbourhood informal social control scale for parents of pre-schoolers (PANISC-PP. In 2013–2014, Hong Kong primary caregivers (n=394 of 3–5 year-old children completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, the preliminary version of the PANISC-PP, and self-report measures of theoretical neighbourhood correlates of PA-related neighbourhood informal social control (perceived signs of physical and social disorder, community cohesion, perceived stranger danger, risk of unintentional injury and traffic safety. The fit of the data to an a priori measurement model of the PANISC-PP was examined using confirmatory factor analyses. As the a priori model showed inadequate fit to the data, the factor structure was re-specified based on theoretical considerations. The final measurement models of the PANISC-PP showed acceptable fit to the data and consisted of three correlated latent factors: “General informal supervision”, “Civic engagement for the creation of a better neighbourhood environment” and “Educating and assisting neighbourhood children”. The internal reliability of the subscales was good (Cronbach's α values 0.82–0.89. Generalised additive mixed models indicated that all subscales were positively associated with community cohesion and scores on the subscale “Educating and assisting neighbourhood children” were related in the expected direction to all indicators of traffic and personal safety, supporting construct

  6. Dose rate constants for new dose quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschurlovits, M.; Daverda, G.; Leitner, A.

    1992-01-01

    Conceptual changes and new quantities made is necessary to reassess dose rate quantities. Calculations of the dose rate constant were done for air kerma, ambient dose equivalent and directional dose equivalent. The number of radionuclides is more than 200. The threshold energy is selected as 20 keV for the dose equivalent constants. The dose rate constant for the photon equivalent dose as used mainly in German speaking countries as a temporary quantity is also included. (Author)

  7. The new operational quantities for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellerer, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    Philosophies and quantities for radiation protection have often been subjected to changes, and some of the developments are traced which ultimately led to recent proposals by ICRU. Development in the past has largely been towards clarification and generalisation of definitions. The present changes, however, reflect a more fundamental issue, the transition from the limitation system to the assessment system in radiation protection. The index quantities were suitable tools to ascertain compliance with the limitation system of radiation protection. The new quantities proposed by ICRU are suitable estimators for effective dose equivalent, which is an essential quantity in the assessment system of radiation protection. A synopsis of the definitions is given. (author)

  8. Foreign materials in the repository. Update of estimated quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karvonen, T.

    2011-06-01

    A variety of materials are used during the construction process and the operation of the repository for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki, Finland. In addition to materials necessary for the construction and operation, some materials may be transported into the repository with the ventilation air, as emissions from vehicles etc. Both of these two types of materials are considered here and both introduced quantities and the quantities that remain after the closure in the repository are estimated here based on the most recent information. This work is intended to update the previous estimations, and it takes advantage of the experience collected during the construction of the underground rock characterisation facility called ONKALO at Olkiluoto. The implemented quantities as well as designs and preliminary designs have been used in calculating the quantities of the foreign materials. The estimations made in this report are specific to a KBS-3V type repository. In some cases more generic information has been used, particularly when the relevant quantities have not been monitored in ONKALO. The estimations are based on the new repository layout produced in 2010 and consider the latest plans for grouting and rock support. As all of these plans are not final some quantities may change in the future. As the repository layout may still go through some changes this report also provides the foreign materials for a hundred meters of different deposition tunnels designed for the OL and LO type canisters1. The results have also been calculated for a space demanded by a deposition tunnel end plug and the tunnel lengths before and after one. The most significant foreign materials are certain accessory minerals of the clay materials followed by organic materials (including the organic carbon from the clay materials), cement, steel and silica. (orig.)

  9. Continuing Professional Development in the quantity surveying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research study was conducted in order to investigate Continuing Professional Development (CPD) in the South African quantity surveying profession. The study further aimed to establish the reasons why some quantity surveyors do not acquire the required CPD hours and face losing their professional registration with ...

  10. Continuing Professional Development in the quantity surveying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-01-01

    Jan 1, 1991 ... The research established that quantity surveyors regarded handing in their CPD ... Surveying, Walter Sisulu University, PO Box 1421, East London, 5200, South Africa. ... Keywords: Continuing professional development, quantity surveying, perception .... In spite of this opportunity enshrined in the Act, the.

  11. 36 CFR 223.220 - Quantity determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quantity determination. 223.220 Section 223.220 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Special Forest Products § 223.220 Quantity determination...

  12. 30 CFR 75.325 - Air quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the exposure of miners. (i) A ventilating air quantity that is less than what is required by paragraph... results of sampling that demonstrate that the lesser air quantity will maintain continuous compliance with applicable TLV ®'s. (j) If during sampling required by § 70.1900(c) of this subchapter the ventilating air is...

  13. Method and means for determining heat quantities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waasdorp, G G; de Jong, J J; Bijl, A

    1965-08-24

    To determine the quantity of potential heat W that has flowed past a certain point in a certain time, the velocity of the combustible Q, the temperature T, and the specific gravity YDTU are measured, and these values are transmitted to a computer which automatically calculates the quantity: ..pi..EQUATION/sup -/ in which delta T is the difference between the combustible temperature T and a reference temperature, and in which the relation f(YDTU, delta T) represents the heat of combustion as a function of the quantities YDTU and delta T and possibly other properties of the combustible. Alternatively the quantity: ..pi..EQUATION/sup -/ may be measured; here the quantities have the same meaning as above.

  14. Principles and foundation: national standards on quantities and units in nuclear science field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lishu

    1993-11-01

    The main contents of National Standards on Quantities and units of atomic and nuclear physics (GB 3102.9) and Quantities and Units of nuclear reactions and ionizing radiations (GB 310.10) are presented in which most important quantities with their symbols and definitions in the nuclear scientific field are given. The principles and foundation, including the International System of Units (SI) and its application to the nuclear scientific field, in the setting of the National Standards are explained

  15. Effects of nonindigenous invasive species on water quality and quantity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank H. McCormick; Glen C. Contreras; Sherri L. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Physical and biological disruptions of aquatic systems caused by invasive species alter water quantity and water quality. Recent evidence suggests that water is a vector for the spread of Sudden Oak Death disease and Port-Orfordcedar root disease. Since the 1990s, the public has become increasingly aware of the presence of invasive species in the Nation’s waters. Media...

  16. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    There have been three physics meetings since the last CMS week: “physics days” on March 27-29, the Physics/ Trigger week on April 23-27 and the most recent physics days on May 22-24. The main purpose of the March physics days was to finalize the list of “2007 analyses”, i.e. the few topics that the physics groups will concentrate on for the rest of this calendar year. The idea is to carry out a full physics exercise, with CMSSW, for select physics channels which test key features of the physics objects, or represent potential “day 1” physics topics that need to be addressed in advance. The list of these analyses was indeed completed and presented in the plenary meetings. As always, a significant amount of time was also spent in reviewing the status of the physics objects (reconstruction) as well as their usage in the High-Level Trigger (HLT). The major event of the past three months was the first “Physics/Trigger week” in Apri...

  17. A systematic review of web-based interventions for patient empowerment and physical activity in chronic diseases: relevance for cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, W.; Groen, W.G.; Aaronson, N.K.; van Harten, W.H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Patient empowerment reflects the ability of patients to positively influence their health and health behavior such as physical activity. While interactive Web-based interventions are increasingly used in various chronic disease settings to enhance empowerment and physical activity, such

  18. A Systematic Review of Web-Based Interventions for Patient Empowerment and Physical Activity in Chronic Diseases : Relevance for Cancer Survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, W.; Groen, W.G.; Aaronson, N.K.; van Harten, Willem H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Patient empowerment reflects the ability of patients to positively influence their health and health behavior such as physical activity. While interactive Web-based interventions are increasingly used in various chronic disease settings to enhance empowerment and physical activity, such

  19. Dimensions of Organisational Culture in Quantity Surveying Firms in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayokunle Olubunmi Olanipekun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The functionalist paradigm of organisational culture (OC views culture as a variable subject to conscious manipulation and control in order to solve organisational challenges. Therefore, this paper provides information on how OC is a solution to the challenges in Quantity Surveying firms (QSFs.  This was achieved by eliciting the dimensions of OC in forty two QSFs in Lagos, Nigeria, which are the business, people and external environment dimensions. The paper concludes that OC is a relevant solution to the identity and management related challenges in QSFs. Specifically, the paper informs on the implications of business and people dimensions of OC as a solution to the identity challenges, as well as on the implication of the external environment dimension of OC to the management challenges. Based on the findings, practical implications and recommendations were directed at the management and employees QSs in QSFs and Quantity Surveying researchers.

  20. Conserved quantities for generalized KdV equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calogero, F.; Rome Univ.; Degasperis, A.; Rome Univ.

    1980-01-01

    It is noted that the nonlinear evolution equation usub(t) = α(t)usub(xxx) - 6ν(t) usub(x)u, u is identical to u(x,t), possesses three (and, in some cases, four) conserved quantities, that are explicitly displayed. These results are of course relevant only to the cases in which this evolution equation is not known to possess an infinite number of conserved quantities. Purpose and scope of this paper is to report three or four simple conservation laws possessed by the evolution equation usub(t) = α(t)usub(xxx) - 6ν(t)usub(x)u, u is identical to u(x,t). (author)

  1. Workplace stress experienced by quantity surveyors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paul (P.A.) Bowen, Department of Construction Economics and Management,. University of Cape Town, Private ..... Explore workplace stress levels among quantity surveyors in the developing nation of ...... London: Free. Association Books.

  2. Relevance of physical fitness levels and exercise-related beliefs for self-reported and experimental pain in fibromyalgia: an explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Saskia T; van Wijck, Albert J M; Geenen, Rinie; Snijders, Tom J; van der Meulen, Wout J T M; Jacobs, Johannes W G; Veldhuijzen, Dieuwke Swaantje

    2011-09-01

    It has been suggested that low physical fitness is a contributor to pain in fibromyalgia and that exercise-related beliefs play a role in the persistence of this association. Yet the association between physical fitness and pain is hardly explored in detail. The aim of this exploratory study in patients with fibromyalgia was to investigate the association of physical fitness levels with self-reported and experimental pain as well as with pain catastrophizing and activity-avoidance beliefs. Physical fitness of 18 patients with fibromyalgia was examined using maximal ergocycling and the 6-minute walking test (6MWT). Pain intensity was assessed using self-report scales and quantitative sensory testing. A reduced walking distance on the 6MWT was correlated with more severe self-reported pain on the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (r = -0.52, P physically fit and experienced more severe pain. The results demonstrate some associations between physical fitness and pain in fibromyalgia and point to the importance of activity avoidance. Although the causal directionality of the associations needs substantiation in clinical research, the findings support the notion that low fitness and activity-avoidance beliefs should be targeted while treating pain in fibromyalgia.

  3. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2010-01-01

    A remarkable amount of progress has been made in Physics since the last CMS Week in June given the exponential growth in the delivered LHC luminosity. The first major milestone was the delivery of a variety of results to the ICHEP international conference held in Paris this July. For this conference, CMS prepared 15 Physics Analysis Summaries on physics objects and 22 Summaries on new and interesting physics measurements that exploited the luminosity recorded by the CMS detector. The challenge was incorporating the largest batch of luminosity that was delivered only days before the conference (300 nb-1 total). The physics covered from this initial running period spanned hadron production measurements, jet production and properties, electroweak vector boson production, and even glimpses of the top quark. Since then, the accumulated integrated luminosity has increased by a factor of more than 100, and all groups have been working tremendously hard on analysing this dataset. The September Physics Week was held ...

  4. Average Transverse Momentum Quantities Approaching the Lightfront

    OpenAIRE

    Boer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution to Light Cone 2014, three average transverse momentum quantities are discussed: the Sivers shift, the dijet imbalance, and the $p_T$ broadening. The definitions of these quantities involve integrals over all transverse momenta that are overly sensitive to the region of large transverse momenta, which conveys little information about the transverse momentum distributions of quarks and gluons inside hadrons. TMD factorization naturally suggests alternative definitions of su...

  5. A conserved quantity in thin body dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, J. A.; Pendar, H.

    2016-02-01

    Thin, solid bodies with metric symmetries admit a restricted form of reparameterization invariance. Their dynamical equilibria include motions with both rigid and flowing aspects. On such configurations, a quantity is conserved along the intrinsic coordinate corresponding to the symmetry. As an example of its utility, this conserved quantity is combined with linear and angular momentum currents to construct solutions for the equilibria of a rotating, flowing string, for which it is akin to Bernoulli's constant.

  6. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Incandela

    There have been numerous developments in the physics area since the September CMS week. The biggest single event was the Physics/Trigger week in the end of Octo¬ber, whereas in terms of ongoing activities the “2007 analyses” went into high gear. This was in parallel with participation in CSA07 by the physics groups. On the or¬ganizational side, the new conveners of the physics groups have been selected, and a new database for man¬aging physics analyses has been deployed. Physics/Trigger week The second Physics-Trigger week of 2007 took place during the week of October 22-26. The first half of the week was dedicated to working group meetings. The ple¬nary Joint Physics-Trigger meeting took place on Wednesday afternoon and focused on the activities of the new Trigger Studies Group (TSG) and trigger monitoring. Both the Physics and Trigger organizations are now focused on readiness for early data-taking. Thus, early trigger tables and preparations for calibr...

  7. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    The CPT project came to an end in December 2006 and its original scope is now shared among three new areas, namely Computing, Offline and Physics. In the physics area the basic change with respect to the previous system (where the PRS groups were charged with detector and physics object reconstruction and physics analysis) was the split of the detector PRS groups (the old ECAL-egamma, HCAL-jetMET, Tracker-btau and Muons) into two groups each: a Detector Performance Group (DPG) and a Physics Object Group. The DPGs are now led by the Commissioning and Run Coordinator deputy (Darin Acosta) and will appear in the correspond¬ing column in CMS bulletins. On the physics side, the physics object groups are charged with the reconstruction of physics objects, the tuning of the simulation (in collaboration with the DPGs) to reproduce the data, the provision of code for the High-Level Trigger, the optimization of the algorithms involved for the different physics analyses (in collaboration with the analysis gr...

  8. Patterns in new dimensionless quantities containing melting temperature, and their dependence on pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. WALZER

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationships existing between melting temperature and other
    macroscopic physical quantities are investigated. A new dimensionless
    quantity Q(1 not containing the Grtineisen parameter proves to be suited for serving in future studies as a tool for the determination of the melting temperature in the outer core of the Earth. The pressure dependence of more general dimensionless quantities Q„ is determined analytically and, for the chemical elements, numerically, too. The patterns of various interesting dimensionless quantities are shown in the Periodic Table and compared.

  9. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Submitted by

    Physics Week: plenary meeting on physics groups plans for startup (14–15 May 2008) The Physics Objects (POG) and Physics Analysis (PAG) Groups presented their latest developments at the plenary meeting during the Physics Week. In the presentations particular attention was given to startup plans and readiness for data-taking. Many results based on the recent cosmic run were shown. A special Workshop on SUSY, described in a separate section, took place the day before the plenary. At the meeting, we had also two special DPG presentations on “Tracker and Muon alignment with CRAFT” (Ernesto Migliore) and “Calorimeter studies with CRAFT” (Chiara Rovelli). We had also a report from Offline (Andrea Rizzi) and Computing (Markus Klute) on the San Diego Workshop, described elsewhere in this bulletin. Tracking group (Boris Mangano). The level of sophistication of the tracking software increased significantly over the last few months: V0 (K0 and Λ) reconstr...

  10. The Experience of a Highly Skilled Student during Handball Lessons in Physical Education: A Relevant Pointer to the Gap between School and Sports Contexts of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crance, Marie-Cecile; Trohel, Jean; Saury, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigated the experience of a highly skilled student during a handball physical education unit in a French high school. More specifically, the analysis describes the nature of his involvement during two lessons that follow a pedagogical model close to the principles of Sport Education. The present case study of a…

  11. Management of small quantities of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    The main objective of this publication is to provide practical guidance primarily to developing Member States on the predisposal management of small quantities of radioactive waste arising from hospitals, laboratories, industries, institutions, research reactors and research centres.The publication covers the management of liquid, solid and gaseous radioactive wastes at the users' premises and gives general guidance on procedures at a centralized waste management facility. Predisposal management of radioactive waste includes handling, treatment, conditioning, storage and transportation. This publication provides information and guidance on the following topics: national waste management framework; origin and characteristics of radioactive waste arising from users generating small quantities of waste; radioactive waste management concepts appropriate for small quantities; local waste management; the documentation and approval necessary for the consignment of waste to a centralized waste management facility; centralized waste management; exemption of radionuclides from the regulatory body; transportation; environmental monitoring; quality assurance for the whole predisposal process; regional co-operation aspects

  12. Mathematics and physics

    CERN Document Server

    Manin, Yu I

    1981-01-01

    A bird's eye view of mathematics ; physical quantities, dimensions and constants : the source of numbers in physics ; a drop of milk : observer, observation, observable and unobservable ; space-time as a physical system ; action and symmetry.

  13. What Is Construed as Relevant Knowledge in Physics Teaching? Similarities and Differences in How Knowledge and Power Are Staged in Three Lower Secondary Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidar, Malena; Danielsson, Anna T.; Berge, Maria

    2018-05-01

    The content that is privileged in teaching has consequences for what the students are given the opportunity to learn and can thus be regarded as an aspect of power. We analyse power aspects in the teaching of physics by identifying actions that guide or direct other people's actions, and then analyse similarities and differences in different classrooms in terms of how governance is staged and what potential consequences this can have. The analyses are made on data from classroom activities, documented through video recordings and field notes, in three lower secondary schools in Y8 and Y9, respectively. At first glance, teachers from all three schools adhere to a traditional interpretation of a physics curriculum. But a more in-depth analysis shows that the students in the different classrooms are given quite dissimilar opportunities to participate in teaching and create relationships with the content. What appears to be a desirable way of acting offers different conditions for meaning-making. In an increasingly individualised society where people are expected to be active, reflective and make choices for their own personal good, the students in these three classrooms are offered very different conditions to practice and learn to take part in knowledge-making, connect physics content to their everyday life and exercise informed citizenship.

  14. Editorial: New operational dose equivalent quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The ICRU Report 39 entitled ''Determination of Dose Equivalents Resulting from External Radiation Sources'' is briefly discussed. Four new operational dose equivalent quantities have been recommended in ICRU 39. The 'ambient dose equivalent' and the 'directional dose equivalent' are applicable to environmental monitoring and the 'individual dose equivalent, penetrating' and the 'individual dose equivalent, superficial' are applicable to individual monitoring. The quantities should meet the needs of day-to-day operational practice, while being acceptable to those concerned with metrological precision, and at the same time be used to give effective control consistent with current perceptions of the risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiations. (U.K.)

  15. Calibration of personal dosimeters: Quantities and terminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleinikov, V.E.

    1999-01-01

    The numerical results obtained in the interpretation of individual monitoring of external radiation depend not only on the accurate calibration of the radiation measurement instruments involved, but also on the definition of the quantities in term of which these instruments are calibrated The absence of uniformity in terminology not only makes it difficult to understand properly the scientific and technical literature but can also lead to incorrect interpretation of particular concepts and recommendations. In this paper, brief consideration is given to definition of radiation quantities and terminology used in calibration procedures. (author)

  16. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Incandela

    The all-plenary format of the CMS week in Cyprus gave the opportunity to the conveners of the physics groups to present the plans of each physics analysis group for tackling early physics analyses. The presentations were complete, so all are encouraged to browse through them on the Web. There is a wealth of information on what is going on, by whom and on what basis and priority. The CMS week was followed by two CMS “physics events”, the ICHEP08 days and the physics days in July. These were two weeks dedicated to either the approval of all the results that would be presented at ICHEP08, or to the review of all the other Monte-Carlo based analyses that were carried out in the context of our preparations for analysis with the early LHC data (the so-called “2008 analyses”). All this was planned in the context of the beginning of a ramp down of these Monte Carlo efforts, in anticipation of data.  The ICHEP days are described below (agenda and talks at: http://indic...

  17. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Joe Incandela

    There have been two plenary physics meetings since the December CMS week. The year started with two workshops, one on the measurements of the Standard Model necessary for “discovery physics” as well as one on the Physics Analysis Toolkit (PAT). Meanwhile the tail of the “2007 analyses” is going through the last steps of approval. It is expected that by the end of January all analyses will have converted to using the data from CSA07 – which include the effects of miscalibration and misalignment. January Physics Days The first Physics Days of 2008 took place on January 22-24. The first two days were devoted to comprehensive re¬ports from the Detector Performance Groups (DPG) and Physics Objects Groups (POG) on their planning and readiness for early data-taking followed by approvals of several recent studies. Highlights of POG presentations are included below while the activities of the DPGs are covered elsewhere in this bulletin. January 24th was devo...

  18. 7 CFR 35.13 - Minimum quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum quantity. 35.13 Section 35.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination, a shipment of 25 packages or...

  19. Varieties of Quantity Estimation in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sella, Francesco; Berteletti, Ilaria; Lucangeli, Daniela; Zorzi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In the number-to-position task, with increasing age and numerical expertise, children's pattern of estimates shifts from a biased (nonlinear) to a formal (linear) mapping. This widely replicated finding concerns symbolic numbers, whereas less is known about other types of quantity estimation. In Experiment 1, Preschool, Grade 1, and Grade 3…

  20. Symmetries and conserved quantities in geodesic motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojman, S.; Nunez, L.; Patino, A.; Rago, H.

    1986-01-01

    Recently obtained results linking several constants of motion to one (non-Noetherian) symmetry to the problem of geodesic motion in Riemannian space-times are applied. The construction of conserved quantities in geodesic motion as well as the deduction of geometrical statements about Riemannian space-times are achieved

  1. Hypergraph topological quantities for tagged social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatić, Vinko; Ghoshal, Gourab; Caldarelli, Guido

    2009-09-01

    Recent years have witnessed the emergence of a new class of social networks, which require us to move beyond previously employed representations of complex graph structures. A notable example is that of the folksonomy, an online process where users collaboratively employ tags to resources to impart structure to an otherwise undifferentiated database. In a recent paper, we proposed a mathematical model that represents these structures as tripartite hypergraphs and defined basic topological quantities of interest. In this paper, we extend our model by defining additional quantities such as edge distributions, vertex similarity and correlations as well as clustering. We then empirically measure these quantities on two real life folksonomies, the popular online photo sharing site Flickr and the bookmarking site CiteULike. We find that these systems share similar qualitative features with the majority of complex networks that have been previously studied. We propose that the quantities and methodology described here can be used as a standard tool in measuring the structure of tagged networks.

  2. Alcohol levels do not accurately predict physical or mental impairment in ethanol-tolerant subjects: relevance to emergency medicine and dram shop laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James R; Dollard, Denis

    2010-12-01

    The human body and the central nervous system can develop tremendous tolerance to ethanol. Mental and physical dysfunctions from ethanol, in an alcohol-tolerant individual, do not consistently correlate with ethanol levels traditionally used to define intoxication, or even lethality, in a nontolerant subject. Attempting to relate observed signs of alcohol intoxication or impairment, or to evaluate sobriety, by quantifying blood alcohol levels can be misleading, if not impossible. We report a case demonstrating the disconnect between alcohol levels and generally assigned parameters of intoxication and impairment. In this case, an alcohol-tolerant man, with a serum ethanol level of 515 mg/dl, appeared neurologically intact and cognitively normal. This individual was without objective signs of impairment or intoxication by repeated evaluations by experienced emergency physicians. In alcohol-tolerant individuals, blood alcohol levels cannot always be predicted by and do not necessarily correlate with outward appearance, overt signs of intoxication, or physical examination. This phenomenon must be acknowledged when analyzing medical decision making in the emergency department or when evaluating the ability of bartenders and party hosts to identify intoxication in dram shop cases.

  3. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Guenther Dissertori

    The time period between the last CMS week and this June was one of intense activity with numerous get-together targeted at addressing specific issues on the road to data-taking. The two series of workshops, namely the “En route to discoveries” series and the “Vertical Integration” meetings continued.   The first meeting of the “En route to discoveries” sequence (end 2007) had covered the measurements of the Standard Model signals as necessary prerequisite to any claim of signals beyond the Standard Model. The second meeting took place during the Feb CMS week and concentrated on the commissioning of the Physics Objects, whereas the third occurred during the April Physics Week – and this time the theme was the strategy for key new physics signatures. Both of these workshops are summarized below. The vertical integration meetings also continued, with two DPG-physics get-togethers on jets and missing ET and on electrons and photons. ...

  4. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Hill

    2012-01-01

    The months that have passed since the last CMS Bulletin have been a very busy and exciting time for CMS physics. We have gone from observing the very first 8TeV collisions produced by the LHC to collecting a dataset of the collisions that already exceeds that recorded in all of 2011. All in just a few months! Meanwhile, the analysis of the 2011 dataset and publication of the subsequent results has continued. These results come from all the PAGs in CMS, including searches for the Higgs boson and other new phenomena, that have set the most stringent limits on an ever increasing number of models of physics beyond the Standard Model including dark matter, Supersymmetry, and TeV-scale gravity scenarios, top-quark physics where CMS has overtaken the Tevatron in the precision of some measurements, and bottom-quark physics where CMS made its first discovery of a new particle, the Ξ*0b baryon (candidate event pictured below). Image 2:  A Ξ*0b candidate event At the same time POGs and PAGs...

  5. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2011-01-01

    Since the last CMS Week, all physics groups have been extremely active on analyses based on the full 2010 dataset, with most aiming for a preliminary measurement in time for the winter conferences. Nearly 50 analyses were approved in a “marathon” of approval meetings during the first two weeks of March, and the total number of approved analyses reached 90. The diversity of topics is very broad, including precision QCD, Top, and electroweak measurements, the first observation of single Top production at the LHC, the first limits on Higgs production at the LHC including the di-tau final state, and comprehensive searches for new physics in a wide range of topologies (so far all with null results unfortunately). Most of the results are based on the full 2010 pp data sample, which corresponds to 36 pb-1 at √s = 7 TeV. This report can only give a few of the highlights of a very rich physics program, which is listed below by physics group...

  6. 16 CFR 500.25 - Net quantity, average quantity, permitted variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... good distribution practice and which unavoidably result in change of weight or mass or measure. (c... good packaging practice: Provided, that such variations shall not be permitted to such extent that the... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Net quantity, average quantity, permitted...

  7. Relevance of transportation to correlations among criticality, physical means of propagation, and distribution of dengue fever cases in the state of Bahia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Hugo; Moret, Marcelo A; Barreto, Florisneide R; Araújo, Marcio Luis Valença; Jorge, Eduardo Manuel F; Nascimento Filho, Aloisio S; Miranda, Jose Garcia Vivas

    2018-03-15

    Dengue infection is a public health problem with a complex distribution. The physical means of propagation and the dynamics of diffusion of the disease between municipalities need to be analysed to direct efficient public policies to prevent dengue infection. The present study presents correlations of occurrences of reported cases of dengue infection among municipalities, self-organized criticality (SOC), and transportation between areas, identifying the municipalities that play an important role in the diffusion of dengue across the state of Bahia, Brazil. The significant correlation found between the correlation network and the SOC demonstrates that the pattern of intramunicipal diffusion of dengue is coupled to the pattern of synchronisation between the municipalities. Transportation emerges as influential in the dynamics of diffusion of epidemics by acting on the aforementioned variables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Radiation during pregnancy: physical aspects relevant to radiological safety of the fetus; Radioterapia durante a gravidez: aspectos fisicos relevantes para seguranca radiologica do feto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Marco A.R. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Dept. de Dermatologia e Radioterapia; Pasqueta, Jessica; Branco, Isabela S.L.; Meira, Luiza L.C.; Morelli, Humberto A.S., E-mail: marfernandes@fmb.unesp.br, E-mail: marco@cetea.com.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Biociencias

    2013-08-15

    The work presents the physical and radiological protection procedures involved in radiotherapy performed in patients during pregnancy that contribute to the security and development of the fetus. We analyzed clinical cases studies with confirmed pregnancy undergoing radiotherapy. The study also analyzed the dosimetry protocols specific to different treatment fields considering the absorbed dose in the region estimated fetal through experimental measurements and computer simulations presented in the literature. It is discussed the concepts of radiation fetuses presented in the Report of the AAPM TG 36 focusing on the influence of the use of appropriate shielding and peripheral dose distribution outside the primary radiation field. Studies show no consensus on the threshold dose for fetal exposure, with values ranging between 2 and 25 cGy, depending on gestational age and position within the abdomen. As recommended by the organs of radiological protection in Brazil, the equivalent dose of radiation to the abdomen of pregnant women occupationally exposed should not exceed 2.0 mSv for the entire period of pregnancy. The measurements show that the main factors contributing to the increase in dose to the fetus are: radiation trail head, scattering from the collimator and dispersion by tissue irradiated region to the region surrounding the fetus. The results of research and clinical situations illustrated in reviewed scientific articles indicate that radiotherapy in pregnant patients is feasible, provided that the dose to the fetus is less than the threshold values, which can be achieved by the use of screens and settings fields Radiation appropriate and properly planned by experts who should simulate physical prior to treatment. The work aims to contribute to subsidize the treatment decision in radiotherapy procedures in pregnant patients pointing out the risks and benefits when the need for treatment. (author)

  9. Entropy and Its Correlations with Other Related Quantities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to find more correlations between entropy and other related quantities, an analogical analysis is conducted between thermal science and other branches of physics. Potential energy in various forms is the product of a conserved extensive quantity (for example, mass or electric charge and an intensive quantity which is its potential (for example, gravitational potential or electrical voltage, while energy in specific form is a dissipative quantity during irreversible transfer process (for example mechanical or electrical energy will be dissipated as thermal energy. However, it has been shown that heat or thermal energy, like mass or electric charge, is conserved during heat transfer processes. When a heat transfer process is for object heating or cooling, the potential of internal energy U is the temperature T and its potential “energy” is UT/2 (called entransy and it is the simplified expression of thermomass potential energy; when a heat transfer process is for heat-work conversion, the potential of internal energy U is (1 − T0/T, and the available potential energy of a system in reversible heat interaction with the environment is U − U0 − T0(S − S0, then T0/T and T0(S − S0 are the unavailable potential and the unavailable potential energy of a system respectively. Hence, entropy is related to the unavailable potential energy per unit environmental temperature for heat-work conversion during reversible heat interaction between the system and its environment. Entropy transfer, like other forms of potential energy transfer, is the product of the heat and its potential, the reciprocal of temperature, although it is in form of the quotient of the heat and the temperature. Thus, the physical essence of entropy transfer is the unavailable potential energy transfer per unit environmental temperature. Entropy is a non-conserved, extensive, state quantity of a system, and entropy generation in an irreversible heat transfer process

  10. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Darin Acosta

    2010-01-01

    The collisions last year at 900 GeV and 2.36 TeV provided the long anticipated collider data to the CMS physics groups. Quite a lot has been accomplished in a very short time. Although the delivered luminosity was small, CMS was able to publish its first physics paper (with several more in preparation), and commence the commissioning of physics objects for future analyses. Many new performance results have been approved in advance of this CMS Week. One remarkable outcome has been the amazing agreement between out-of-the-box data with simulation at these low energies so early in the commissioning of the experiment. All of this is testament to the hard work and preparation conducted beforehand by many people in CMS. These analyses could not have happened without the dedicated work of the full collaboration on building and commissioning the detector, computing, and software systems combined with the tireless work of many to collect, calibrate and understand the data and our detector. To facilitate the efficien...

  11. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    the PAG conveners

    2011-01-01

    The delivered LHC integrated luminosity of more than 1 inverse femtobarn by summer and more than 5 by the end of 2011 has been a gold mine for the physics groups. With 2011 data, we have submitted or published 14 papers, 7 others are in collaboration-wide review, and 75 Physics Analysis Summaries have been approved already. They add to the 73 papers already published based on the 2010 and 2009 datasets. Highlights from each physics analysis group are described below. Heavy ions Many important results have been obtained from the first lead-ion collision run in 2010. The published measurements include the first ever indications of Υ excited state suppression (PRL synopsis), long-range correlation in PbPb, and track multiplicity over a wide η range. Preliminary results include the first ever measurement of isolated photons (showing no modification), J/ψ suppression including the separation of the non-prompt component, further study of jet fragmentation, nuclear modification factor...

  12. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Demortier

    Physics-wise, the CMS week in December was dominated by discussions of the analyses that will be carried out in the “next six months”, i.e. while waiting for the first LHC collisions.  As presented in December, analysis approvals based on Monte Carlo simulation were re-opened, with the caveat that for this work to be helpful to the goals of CMS, it should be carried out using the new software (CMSSW_2_X) and associated samples.  By the end of the week, the goal for the physics groups was set to be the porting of our physics commissioning methods and plans, as well as the early analyses (based an integrated luminosity in the range 10-100pb-1) into this new software. Since December, the large data samples from CMSSW_2_1 were completed. A big effort by the production group gave a significant number of events over the end-of-year break – but also gave out the first samples with the fast simulation. Meanwhile, as mentioned in December, the arrival of 2_2 meant that ...

  13. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2012-01-01

      2012 has started off as a very busy year for the CMS Physics Groups. Planning for the upcoming higher luminosity/higher energy (8 TeV) operation of the LHC and relatively early Rencontres de Moriond are the high-priority activities for the group at the moment. To be ready for the coming 8-TeV data, CMS has made a concerted effort to perform and publish analyses on the 5 fb−1 dataset recorded in 2011. This has resulted in the submission of 16 papers already, including nine on the search for the Higgs boson. In addition, a number of preliminary results on the 2011 dataset have been released to the public. The Exotica and SUSY groups approved several searches for new physics in January, such as searches for W′ and exotic highly ionising particles. These were highlighted at a CERN seminar given on 24th  January. Many more analyses, from all the PAGs, including the newly formed SMP (Standard Model Physics) and FSQ (Forward and Small-x QCD), were approved in February. The ...

  14. PHYSICS

    CERN Document Server

    C. Hill

    2012-01-01

      The period since the last CMS Bulletin has been historic for CMS Physics. The pinnacle of our physics programme was an observation of a new particle – a strong candidate for a Higgs boson – which has captured worldwide interest and made a profound impact on the very field of particle physics. At the time of the discovery announcement on 4 July, 2012, prominent signals were observed in the high-resolution H→γγ and H→ZZ(4l) modes. Corroborating excess was observed in the H→W+W– mode as well. The fermionic channel analyses (H→bb, H→ττ), however, yielded less than the Standard Model (SM) expectation. Collectively, the five channels established the signal with a significance of five standard deviations. With the exception of the diphoton channel, these analyses have all been updated in the last months and several new channels have been added. With improved analyses and more than twice the i...

  15. The economic lot size and relevant costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbeij, M.H.; Jansen, R.A.; Grübström, R.W.; Hinterhuber, H.H.; Lundquist, J.

    1993-01-01

    In many accounting textbooks it is strongly argued that decisions should always be evaluated on relevant costs; that is variable costs and opportunity costs. Surprisingly, when it comes to Economic Order Quantities or Lot Sizes, some textbooks appear to be less straightforward. The question whether

  16. Strategic Planning in Irish Quantity Surveying Pracitces

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Roisin

    2011-01-01

    The role and usefulness of strategic planning has been well documented over several decades of strategic management research. Despite the significant body of existing knowledge in the field of strategic planning, there remains a paucity of investigation into the construction sector, specifically in Professional Service Firms (PSF’s) operating within it. The aim of this research was to ascertain the type, scope and extent of strategic planning within Irish Quantity Surveying (QS) practices and...

  17. Radiation quantities and units. ICRU report 33

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    This report supersedes ICRU Report 19. Since ICRU Report 19 was published, a number of discussions have taken place between members of the Report Committee on Fundamental Quantities and Units and other workers in the field. Some of these discussions have resulted in the acceptance of certain modifications in the material set out in Report 19 and these modifications are incorporated in the current report. In addition, there has been some expansion and rearrangement of the material in the earlier report. It is recommended that energy state be inserted into the definition of activity and that the word transformation be replaced by transition. These modifications have now been incorporated into the current definition. Helpful comments on the previous quantities and units report have resulted in clarification of several points in the present Report. In line with providing more didactic material and useful source material for other ICRU reports, the general considerations in subsection I.A of Report 19 have been expanded and placed in a separate subsection. The additional material includes discussions of four terms that are used in this document - quantity, unit, stochastic, and non-stochastic - along with a brief discussion of the mathematical formalism used in ICRU reports. 11 refs., 4 tabs

  18. Quantity discrimination in wolves (Canis lupus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina eUtrata

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantity discrimination has been studied extensively in different non-human animal species. In the current study, we tested eleven hand-raised wolves (Canis lupus in a two-way choice task. We placed a number of food items (one to four sequentially into two opaque cans and asked the wolves to choose the larger amount. Moreover, we conducted two additional control conditions to rule out non-numerical properties of the presentation that the animals might have used to make the correct choice. Our results showed that wolves are able to make quantitative judgments at the group, but also at the individual level even when alternative strategies such as paying attention to the surface area or time and total amount are ruled out. In contrast to previous canine studies on dogs (Canis familiaris and coyotes (Canis latrans, our wolves’ performance did not improve with decreasing ratio, referred to as Weber’s law. However, further studies using larger quantities than we used in the current setup are still needed to determine whether and when wolves’ quantity discrimination conforms to Weber’s law.

  19. Atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, B.

    1991-01-01

    This general book describes the change from classical physics to quantum physics. The first part presents atom evolution since antiquity and introduces fundamental quantities and elements of relativity. Experiments which have contributed to the evolution of knowledge on matter are analyzed in the second part. Applications of wave mechanics to the study of matter properties are presented in the third part [fr

  20. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. D'Hondt

    The Electroweak and Top Quark Workshop (16-17th of July) A Workshop on Electroweak and Top Quark Physics, dedicated on early measurements, took place on 16th-17th July. We had more than 40 presentations at the Workshop, which was an important milestone for 2007 physics analyses in the EWK and TOP areas. The Standard Model has been tested empirically by many previous experiments. Observables which are nowadays known with high precision will play a major role for data-based CMS calibrations. A typical example is the use of the Z to monitor electron and muon reconstruction in di-lepton inclusive samples. Another example is the use of the W mass as a constraint for di-jets in the kinematic fitting of top-quark events, providing information on the jet energy scale. The predictions of the Standard Model, for what concerns proton collisions at the LHC, are accurate to a level that the production of W/Z and top-quark events can be used as a powerful tool to commission our experiment. On the other hand the measure...

  1. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Christopher Hill

    2013-01-01

    Since the last CMS Bulletin, the CMS Physics Analysis Groups have completed more than 70 new analyses, many of which are based on the complete Run 1 dataset. In parallel the Snowmass whitepaper on projected discovery potential of CMS for HL-LHC has been completed, while the ECFA HL-LHC future physics studies has been summarised in a report and nine published benchmark analyses. Run 1 summary studies on b-tag and jet identification, quark-gluon discrimination and boosted topologies have been documented in BTV-13-001 and JME-13-002/005/006, respectively. The new tracking alignment and performance papers are being prepared for submission as well. The Higgs analysis group produced several new results including the search for ttH with H decaying to ZZ, WW, ττ+bb (HIG-13-019/020) where an excess of ~2.5σ is observed in the like-sign di-muon channel, and new searches for high-mass Higgs bosons (HIG-13-022). Search for invisible Higgs decays have also been performed both using the associ...

  2. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2013-01-01

    In the period since the last CMS Bulletin, the LHC – and CMS – have entered LS1. During this time, CMS Physics Analysis Groups have performed more than 40 new analyses, many of which are based on the complete 8 TeV dataset delivered by the LHC in 2012 (and in some cases on the full Run 1 dataset). These results were shown at, and well received by, several high-profile conferences in the spring of 2013, including the inaugural meeting of the Large Hadron Collider    Physics Conference (LHCP) in Barcelona, and the 26th International Symposium on Lepton Photon Interactions at High Energies (LP) in San Francisco. In parallel, there have been significant developments in preparations for Run 2 of the LHC and on “future physics” studies for both Phase 1 and Phase 2 upgrades of the CMS detector. The Higgs analysis group produced five new results for LHCP including a new H-to-bb search in VBF production (HIG-13-011), ttH with H to γ&ga...

  3. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2013-01-01

    The period since the last CMS bulletin has seen the end of proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy 8 TeV, a successful proton-lead collision run at 5 TeV/nucleon, as well as a “reference” proton run at 2.76 TeV. With these final LHC Run 1 datasets in hand, CMS Physics Analysis Groups have been busy analysing these data in preparation for the winter conferences. Moreover, despite the fact that the pp run only concluded in mid-December (and there was consequently less time to complete data analyses), CMS again made a strong showing at the Rencontres de Moriond in La Thuile (EW and QCD) where nearly 40 new results were presented. The highlight of these preliminary results was the eagerly anticipated updated studies of the properties of the Higgs boson discovered in July of last year. Meanwhile, preparations for Run 2 and physics performance studies for Phase 1 and Phase 2 upgrade scenarios are ongoing. The Higgs analysis group produced updated analyses on the full Run 1 dataset (~25 f...

  4. Why relevance theory is relevant for lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothma, Theo; Tarp, Sven

    2014-01-01

    This article starts by providing a brief summary of relevance theory in information science in relation to the function theory of lexicography, explaining the different types of relevance, viz. objective system relevance and the subjective types of relevance, i.e. topical, cognitive, situational...... that is very important for lexicography as well as for information science, viz. functional relevance. Since all lexicographic work is ultimately aimed at satisfying users’ information needs, the article then discusses why the lexicographer should take note of all these types of relevance when planning a new...... dictionary project, identifying new tasks and responsibilities of the modern lexicographer. The article furthermore discusses how relevance theory impacts on teaching dictionary culture and reference skills. By integrating insights from lexicography and information science, the article contributes to new...

  5. Determination of dosimetric quantities in pediatric abdominal computed tomography scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jornada, Tiago da Silva [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Dept. de Diagnostipo por Imagem; Silva, Teogenes Augusto da, E-mail: silvata@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    Objective: aiming at contributing to the knowledge on doses in computed tomography (CT), this study has the objective of determining dosimetric quantities associated with pediatric abdominal CT scans, comparing the data with diagnostic reference levels (DRL). Materials and methods: the study was developed with a Toshiba Asteion single-slice CT scanner and a GE BrightSpeed multi-slice CT unit in two hospitals. Measurements were performed with a pencil-type ionization chamber and a 16 cm-diameter polymethylmethacrylate trunk phantom. Results: No significant difference was observed in the values for weighted air kerma index (C{sub W}), but the differences were relevant in values for volumetric air kerma index (C{sub VOL}), air kerma-length product (P{sub KL,CT}) and effective dose. Conclusion: Only the CW values were lower than the DRL, suggesting that dose optimization might not be necessary. However, P{sub KL,CT} and effective dose values stressed that there still is room for reducing pediatric radiation doses. The present study emphasizes the importance of determining all dosimetric quantities associated with CT scans. (author)

  6. Inventory simulation tools: Separating nuclide contributions to radiological quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Mark R.; Fleming, Michael; Sublet, Jean-Christophe

    2017-09-01

    The activation response of a material is a primary factor considered when evaluating its suitability for a nuclear application. Various radiological quantities, such as total (becquerel) activity, decay heat, and γ dose, can be readily predicted via inventory simulations, which numerically evolve in time the composition of a material under exposure to neutron irradiation. However, the resulting data sets can be very complex, often necessarily resulting in an over-simplification of the results - most commonly by just considering total response metrics. A number of different techniques for disseminating more completely the vast amount of data output from, in particular, the FISPACT-II inventory code system, including importance diagrams, nuclide maps, and primary knock-on atom (PKA) spectra, have been developed and used in scoping studies to produce database reports for the periodic table of elements. This paper introduces the latest addition to this arsenal - standardised and automated plotting of the time evolution in a radiological quantity for a given material separated by contributions from dominant radionuclides. Examples for relevant materials under predicted fusion reactor conditions, and for bench-marking studies against decay-heat measurements, demonstrate the usefulness and power of these radionuclide-separated activation plots. Note to the reader: the pdf file has been changed on September 22, 2017.

  7. Inventory simulation tools: Separating nuclide contributions to radiological quantities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Mark R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The activation response of a material is a primary factor considered when evaluating its suitability for a nuclear application. Various radiological quantities, such as total (becquerel activity, decay heat, and γ dose, can be readily predicted via inventory simulations, which numerically evolve in time the composition of a material under exposure to neutron irradiation. However, the resulting data sets can be very complex, often necessarily resulting in an over-simplification of the results – most commonly by just considering total response metrics. A number of different techniques for disseminating more completely the vast amount of data output from, in particular, the FISPACT-II inventory code system, including importance diagrams, nuclide maps, and primary knock-on atom (PKA spectra, have been developed and used in scoping studies to produce database reports for the periodic table of elements. This paper introduces the latest addition to this arsenal – standardised and automated plotting of the time evolution in a radiological quantity for a given material separated by contributions from dominant radionuclides. Examples for relevant materials under predicted fusion reactor conditions, and for bench-marking studies against decay-heat measurements, demonstrate the usefulness and power of these radionuclide-separated activation plots.

  8. Determination of dosimetric quantities in pediatric abdominal computed tomography scans*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jornada, Tiago da Silva; da Silva, Teógenes Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Objective Aiming at contributing to the knowledge on doses in computed tomography (CT), this study has the objective of determining dosimetric quantities associated with pediatric abdominal CT scans, comparing the data with diagnostic reference levels (DRL). Materials and methods The study was developed with a Toshiba Asteion single-slice CT scanner and a GE BrightSpeed multi-slice CT unit in two hospitals. Measurements were performed with a pencil-type ionization chamber and a 16 cm-diameter polymethylmethacrylate trunk phantom. Results No significant difference was observed in the values for weighted air kerma index (CW), but the differences were relevant in values for volumetric air kerma index (CVOL), air kerma-length product (PKL,CT) and effective dose. Conclusion Only the CW values were lower than the DRL, suggesting that dose optimization might not be necessary. However, PKL,CT and effective dose values stressed that there still is room for reducing pediatric radiation doses. The present study emphasizes the importance of determining all dosimetric quantities associated with CT scans. PMID:25741103

  9. The orientation distribution of tunneling-related quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seif, W. M.; Refaie, A. I.; Botros, M. M.

    2018-03-01

    In the nuclear tunneling processes involving deformed nuclei, most of the tunneling-related quantities depend on the relative orientations of the participating nuclei. In the presence of different multipole deformations, we study the variation of a few relevant quantities for the α-decay and the sub-barrier fusion processes, in an orientation degree of freedom. The knocking frequency and the penetration probability are evaluated within the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation. The interaction potential is calculated with Skyrme-type nucleon-nucleon interaction. We found that the width of the potential pocket, the Coulomb barrier radius, the penetration probability, the α-decay width, and the fusion cross-section follow consistently the orientation-angle variation of the radius of the deformed nucleus. The orientation distribution patterns of the pocket width, the barrier radius, the logarithms of the penetrability, the decay width, and the fusion cross-section are found to be highly analogous to pattern of the deformed-nucleus radius. The curve patterns of the orientation angle distributions of the internal pocket depth, the Coulomb barrier height and width, as well as the knocking frequency simulate inversely the variation of the deformed nucleus radius. The predicted orientation behaviors will be of a special interest in predicting the optimum orientations for the tunneling processes.

  10. Alcohol dependence and physical comorbidity: Increased prevalence but reduced relevance of individual comorbidities for hospital-based mortality during a 12.5-year observation period in general hospital admissions in urban North-West England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoepf, D; Heun, R

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) is associated with an increase in physical comorbidities. The effects of these diseases on general hospital-based mortality are unclear. Consequently, we conducted a mortality study in which we investigated if the burden of physical comorbidities and their relevance on general hospital-based mortality differs between individuals with and without AD during a 12.5-year observation period in general hospital admissions. During 1 January 2000 and 30 June 2012, 23,371 individuals with AD were admitted at least once to seven General Manchester Hospitals. Their physical comorbidities with a prevalence≥1% were compared to those of 233,710 randomly selected hospital controls, group-matched for age and gender (regardless of primary admission diagnosis or specialized treatments). Physical comorbidities that increased the risk of hospital-based mortality (but not outside of the hospital) during the observation period were identified using multiple logistic regression analyses. Hospital-based mortality rates were 20.4% in the AD sample and 8.3% in the control sample. Individuals with AD compared to controls had a higher burden of physical comorbidities, i.e. alcoholic liver and pancreatic diseases, diseases of the conducting airways, neurological and circulatory diseases, diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract, renal diseases, cellulitis, iron deficiency anemia, fracture neck of femur, and peripheral vascular disease. In contrast, coronary heart related diseases, risk factors of cardiovascular disease, diverticular disease and cataracts were less frequent in individuals with AD than in controls. Thirty-two individual physical comorbidities contributed to the prediction of hospital-based mortality in univariate analyses in the AD sample; alcoholic liver disease (33.7%), hypertension (16.9%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (14.1%), and pneumonia (13.3%) were the most frequent diagnoses in deceased individuals with AD. Multiple forward

  11. The Acquisition of Quantity Contrasts in Guina-ang Bontok

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Katsura; Reid, Lawrence A.

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the acquisition of quantity contrasts in Guina-ang Bontok, an indigenous language spoken in the Philippines. Four-year-old and 5-year-old children's perception and production of quantity contrasts were examined using a pair of names that contrast in the quantity of the medial nasal. Frequencies of the quantity contrast were…

  12. A thermogravimetric method for accurate determination of thermodynamic quantities at high temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonk, A.H.; Nedermeijer, J.; Laverman, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    A method for the determination of the change in enthalpy, entropy, and specific heat capacity for monovariant heterogenous equilibria is presented. These quantities are obtained indirectly by measuring the temperature dependence of equilibrium pressures. At a given pressure of the relevant gas the

  13. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    V.Ciulli

    2011-01-01

    The main programme of the Physics Week held between 16th and 20th May was a series of topology-oriented workshops on di-leptons, di-photons, inclusive W, and all-hadronic final states. The goal of these workshops was to reach a common understanding for the set of objects (ID, cleaning...), the handling of pile-up, calibration, efficiency and purity determination, as well as to revisit critical common issues such as the trigger. Di-lepton workshop Most analysis groups use a di-lepton trigger or a combination of single and di-lepton triggers in 2011. Some groups need to collect leptons with as low PT as possible with strong isolation and identification requirements as for Higgs into WW at low mass, others with intermediate PT values as in Drell-Yan studies, or high PT as in the Exotica group. Electron and muon reconstruction, identification and isolation, was extensively described in the workshop. For electrons, VBTF selection cuts for low PT and HEEP cuts for high PT were discussed, as well as more complex d...

  14. Deep learning relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Petersen, Casper

    2016-01-01

    train a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) on existing relevant information to that query. We then use the RNN to "deep learn" a single, synthetic, and we assume, relevant document for that query. We design a crowdsourcing experiment to assess how relevant the "deep learned" document is, compared...... to existing relevant documents. Users are shown a query and four wordclouds (of three existing relevant documents and our deep learned synthetic document). The synthetic document is ranked on average most relevant of all....

  15. Dangerous quantities of radioactive material (D-values)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Radioactive material is widely used in industry, medicine, education and agriculture. In addition, it occurs naturally. The health risk posed by these materials vary widely depending on many factors, the most important of which are the amount of the material involved and its physical and chemical form. Therefore, there is a need to identify the quantity and type of radioactive material for which emergency preparedness and other arrangements (e.g. security) are warrant due to the health risk they pose. The aim of this publication is to provide practical guidance for Member States on that quantity of radioactive material that may be considered dangerous. A dangerous quantity is that, which if uncontrolled, could be involved in a reasonable scenario resulting in the death of an exposed individual or a permanent injury, which decreases that person's quality of life. This publication is published as part of the IAEA Emergency Preparedness and Response Series. It supports several publications including: the IAEA Safety Requirements 'Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency', IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2. IAEA, Vienna (2002). IAEA Safety Guide 'Categorization of Radioactive Sources', IAEA Safety Standards Series No RS-G-1.9, IAEA, Vienna (2005) and IAEA Safety Guide 'Arrangements for Preparedness for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency' IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-G-2.1, IAEA, Vienna (2006). The procedures and data in this publication have been prepared with due attention to accuracy. However, as part of the review process, they undergo ongoing quality assurance checks. Comments are welcome and, following a period that will allow for a more extensive review, the IAEA may revise this publication as part of the process of continuous improvement. The publication uses a number of exposure scenarios, risk models and dosimetric data, which could be used during the response to nuclear or radiological emergency or other purposes

  16. Dating methods and their relevance in physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, H.

    1981-01-01

    The article describes some of the most important radiometric clocks. It is pointed out how much the chronological interpretation of isotopic ratios depends on preconceived models about origin and history of investigated minerals. A number of physico-chemical effects are discussed, which give rise to fictitious datings. The possibility is considered that all the radiometric ages used for establishing the geologic time scale might be due to such effects. The history and foundations of the latter are reviewed, and the possibility of a wrong decision is mentioned. Several results from fossil objects indicate very young ages. The usual treatment of anomalous results is criticised. Long-time clocks fails to reproduce documented young ages. It is suggested that in the age interpretation of isotopic ratios much younger than conventional ages be also taken into consideration. The importance of directly dating fossils is stressed. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Method of Converting Wheat Flour Quantity into Rice Flour Quantity in Cookies (Part-1)

    OpenAIRE

    村田,美穂子; 髙橋,由加

    2016-01-01

    A method of converting the wheat flour quantity of a recipe of wheat-flour cookies into the rice flour quantity of a recipe of rice-flour cookies used domestically for wheat-allergic children was studied. The proportion of the water content with respect to the flour content (the wheat or rice flour content) in cut cookies prepared according to a commercially available recipe was obtained. Next, four types of rice-flour cookies were prepared according to a recipe for wheat-flour cookies using ...

  18. Effective dose: a radiation protection quantity

    CERN Document Server

    Menzel, H G

    2012-01-01

    Modern radiation protection is based on the principles of justification, limitation, and optimisation. Assessment of radiation risks for individuals or groups of individuals is, however, not a primary objective of radiological protection. The implementation of the principles of limitation and optimisation requires an appropriate quantification of radiation exposure. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has introduced effective dose as the principal radiological protection quantity to be used for setting and controlling dose limits for stochastic effects in the regulatory context, and for the practical implementation of the optimisation principle. Effective dose is the tissue weighted sum of radiation weighted organ and tissue doses of a reference person from exposure to external irradiations and internal emitters. The specific normalised values of tissue weighting factors are defined by ICRP for individual tissues, and used as an approximate age- and sex-averaged representation of th...

  19. Partition functions. I. Improved partition functions and thermodynamic quantities for normal, equilibrium, and ortho and para molecular hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovas, A.; Jørgensen, U. G.

    2016-11-01

    Context. Hydrogen is the most abundant molecule in the Universe. Its thermodynamic quantities dominate the physical conditions in molecular clouds, protoplanetary disks, etc. It is also of high interest in plasma physics. Therefore thermodynamic data for molecular hydrogen have to be as accurate as possible in a wide temperature range. Aims: We here rigorously show the shortcomings of various simplifications that are used to calculate the total internal partition function. These shortcomings can lead to errors of up to 40 percent or more in the estimated partition function. These errors carry on to calculations of thermodynamic quantities. Therefore a more complicated approach has to be taken. Methods: Seven possible simplifications of various complexity are described, together with advantages and disadvantages of direct summation of experimental values. These were compared to what we consider the most accurate and most complete treatment (case 8). Dunham coefficients were determined from experimental and theoretical energy levels of a number of electronically excited states of H2. Both equilibrium and normal hydrogen was taken into consideration. Results: Various shortcomings in existing calculations are demonstrated, and the reasons for them are explained. New partition functions for equilibrium, normal, and ortho and para hydrogen are calculated and thermodynamic quantities are reported for the temperature range 1-20 000 K. Our results are compared to previous estimates in the literature. The calculations are not limited to the ground electronic state, but include all bound and quasi-bound levels of excited electronic states. Dunham coefficients of these states of H2 are also reported. Conclusions: For most of the relevant astrophysical cases it is strongly advised to avoid using simplifications, such as a harmonic oscillator and rigid rotor or ad hoc summation limits of the eigenstates to estimate accurate partition functions and to be particularly careful when

  20. Prefrontal cortex and sensory cortices during working memory: quantity and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Yixuan; Bodner, Mark; Zhou, Yong-Di

    2015-04-01

    The activity in sensory cortices and the prefrontal cortex (PFC) throughout the delay interval of working memory (WM) tasks reflect two aspects of WM-quality and quantity, respectively. The delay activity in sensory cortices is fine-tuned to sensory information and forms the neural basis of the precision of WM storage, while the delay activity in the PFC appears to represent behavioral goals and filters out irrelevant distractions, forming the neural basis of the quantity of task-relevant information in WM. The PFC and sensory cortices interact through different frequency bands of neuronal oscillation (theta, alpha, and gamma) to fulfill goal-directed behaviors.

  1. Category 3 threshold quantities for hazard categorization of nonreactor facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandigo, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    This document provides the information necessary to determine Hazard Category 3 threshold quantities for those isotopes of interest not listed in WHC-CM-4-46, Section 4, Table 1.''Threshold Quantities.''

  2. Discounting of quantity surveying fees in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by clients have forced Quantity Surveying firms into competition with ... Furthermore, 43% of consulting engineering firms were discounting their fees at a rate of .... Quantity. Surveying services are also offered in the fields of dispute resolution,.

  3. Rainwater in Egypt: quantity, distribution and harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.I. ABDEL-SHAFY

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Egypt has limited water resources, and it will be under water stress within the year 2030. Therefore, Egypt should consider the natural and non-conventional water resources to overcome such problem. Rain harvesting is one solution; but not all; particularly on the north coast by the Mediterranean Sea and the Red sea. In this paper, the rainwater issue is reviewed and discussed in terms of the quantities and distribution at different selected areas in Egypt. The amount of rain falls at different location in Egypt was collected for a period of 16 months. The data indicated that rainfall in Egypt is very scarce, with an annual average of 12 mm and ranges from 0 mm/year in the desert to 200 mm/year in the north coastal region. The maximum total amount of rain does not exceed 1.8 billion m3per year. However, the average annual amount of rainfall water that is effectively utilized for agriculture purposes is estimated to be 1 billion m3. Harvesting pilot plant was constructed and implemented in Alexandria directly on the Mediterranean Sea. The harvested rain was used for irrigation and treated for drinking. It was, therefore, recommended to develop sustainable catchments at appropriate locations in the rain-fed areas at the north coast as well as cost effective grafting of the indigenous technologies with the innovative techniques.

  4. 41 CFR 101-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 101-27.102 Economic order quantity principle. The economic order quantity (EOQ) principle is a means for achieving economical inventory management. Application of the EOQ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Economic order quantity...

  5. Relationships of chemical composition, quantity of milt to fertility and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... determining the right quantity of milt that can be used to fertilize certain quantity of eggs. ... quantity of milt used for artificial reproduction in fish significantly affect water quality used ... is the major organic substance that supplies the spermatozoa with energy.

  6. 7 CFR 61.102 - Determination of quantity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the quantity index shall equal four times percentage of oil plus six times percentage of ammonia, plus 5. (b) For American Pima cottonseed the quantity index shall equal four times percentage of oil... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of quantity index. 61.102 Section 61.102...

  7. Why should quantities and units be practical (Hans Christian Andersen please forgive me)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    The author considers the fairy tale quality of the thinking behind the introduction of new radiation protection units proposed by ICRU 73. It is felt that the new quantities and their special units add nothing to the health physics profession. The uncertainties with the linear vs threshold hypotheses remain unresolved by these actions. (U.K.)

  8. Health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, J.W.

    1974-01-01

    In a series of eight lectures the following topics are dealt with: 1) interaction of radiation with matter; 2) radiation quantities and units; 3) the physical basis of radiation dosimetry; 4) detection and measurement of radiation; 5) mixed radiation dosimetry; 6) special methods in radiation dosimetry; 7) dose from electrons and beta rays; and 8) introduction to radiation biology

  9. The covariance matrix of derived quantities and their combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Z.; Perey, F.G.

    1992-06-01

    The covariance matrix of quantities derived from measured data via nonlinear relations are only approximate since they are functions of the measured data taken as estimates for the true values of the measured quantities. The evaluation of such derived quantities entails new estimates for the true values of the measured quantities and consequently implies a modification of the covariance matrix of the derived quantities that was used in the evaluation process. Failure to recognize such an implication can lead to inconsistencies between the results of different evaluation strategies. In this report we show that an iterative procedure can eliminate such inconsistencies

  10. Would more social partners leads to enhanced health? The paradox between quantity and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Cai; Zhang, Xin; Cheng, Sheung-Tak

    2017-09-01

    In the current investigation, we examined the association between social network composition (SNC) and mental health, as well as whether quantity and quality of social network could influence mental health differently. The social network quantity and quality of 345 middle-aged and older Chinese adults were measured by the Social Convoy Questionnaire. The Chinese version of the Medical Outcome Studies 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) was used to assess mental health while controlling for physical health. It was found that both quantity and quality of social network were associated with mental health, and more specifically that (1) quantity of peripheral partners (PP) was positively associated with mental health; (2) quality of emotionally close social partners (ECSP) influenced mental health the most; and (3) paradoxically, the effect of ECSP quality on mental health depended on quantity of ECSP, that is, participants with more ECSP showed a stronger association between ECSP quality and mental health. The findings replicated and extended previous studies on SNC and suggested that structure/quantity and quality of SNC were both important for mental health. © 2017 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Biologically Weighted Quantities in Radiotherapy: an EMRP Joint Research Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabus Hans

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Funded within the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP [1], the joint research project “Biologically weighted quantities in radiotherapy” (BioQuaRT [2] aims to develop measurement and simulation techniques for determining the physical properties of ionising particle tracks on different length scales (about 2 nm to 10 μm, and to investigate the correlation of these track structure characteristics with the biological effects of radiation at the cellular level. Work package 1 develops micro-calorimeter prototypes for the direct measurement of lineal energy and will characterise their response for different ion beams by experiment and modelling. Work package 2 develops techniques to measure particle track structure on different length scales in the nanometre range as well as a measurement device integrating a silicon microdosimeter and a nanodosimeter. Work package 3 investigates the indirect effects of radiation based on probes for quantifying particular radical and reactive oxygen species (ROS. Work package 4 focuses on the biological aspects of radiation damage and will produce data on initial DNA damage and late effects for radiotherapy beams of different qualities. Work package 5 provides evaluated data sets of DNA cross-sections and develops a multi-scale model to address microscopic and nanometric track structure properties. The project consortium includes three linked researchers holding so-called Researcher Excellence Grants, who carry out ancillary investigations such as developing and benchmarking a new biophysical model for induction of early radiation damage and developing methods for the translation of quantities derived from particle track structure to clinical applications in ion beam therapy.

  12. Review of lattice results concerning low-energy particle physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aoki, Sinya; Aoki, Yasumichi; Bečirević, D.

    2017-01-01

    We review lattice results related to pion, kaon, D- and B-meson physics with the aim of making them easily accessible to the particle-physics community. More specifically, we report on the determination of the light-quark masses, the form factor f+(0) , arising in the semileptonic K→ π transition...... review the determination of the BK parameter of neutral kaon mixing as well as the additional four B parameters that arise in theories of physics beyond the Standard Model. The latter quantities are an addition compared to the previous review. For the heavy-quark sector, we provide results for mc and mb...... (also new compared to the previous review), as well as those for D- and B-meson-decay constants, form factors, and mixing parameters. These are the heavy-quark quantities most relevant for the determination of CKM matrix elements and the global CKM unitarity-triangle fit. Finally, we review the status...

  13. Management of Water Quantity and Quality Based on Copula for a Tributary to Miyun Reservoir, Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, N.; Wang, X.; Liang, P.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the complex mutual influence between water quantity and water quality of river, it is difficult to reflect the actual characters of the tributaries to reservoir. In this study, the acceptable marginal probability distributions for water quantity and quality of reservoir inflow were calculated. A bivariate Archimedean copula was further applied to establish the joint distribution function of them. Then multiple combination scenarios of water quantity and water quality were designed to analyze their coexistence relationship and reservoir management strategies. Taking Bai river, an important tributary into the Miyun Reservoir, as a study case. The results showed that it is feasible to apply Frank copula function to describe the jointed distribution function of water quality and water quantity for Bai river. Furthermore, the monitoring of TP concentration needs to be strengthen in Bai river. This methodology can be extended to larger dimensions and is transferable to other reservoirs via establishment of models with relevant data for a particular area. Our findings help better analyzing the coexistence relationship and influence degree of the water quantity and quality of the tributary to reservoir for the purpose of water resources protection.

  14. A geochemical module for "AMDTreat" to compute caustic quantity, effluent quantity, and sludge volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta,, Charles A.; Parkhurst, David L.; Means, Brent P; McKenzie, Bob; Morris, Harry; Arthur, Bill

    2010-01-01

    Treatment with caustic chemicals typically is used to increase pH and decrease concentrations of dissolved aluminum, iron, and/or manganese in largevolume, metal-laden discharges from active coal mines. Generally, aluminum and iron can be removed effectively at near-neutral pH (6 to 8), whereas active manganese removal requires treatment to alkaline pH (~10). The treatment cost depends on the specific chemical used (NaOH, CaO, Ca(OH)2, Na2CO3, or NH3) and increases with the quantities of chemical added and sludge produced. The pH and metals concentrations do not change linearly with the amount of chemical added. Consequently, the amount of caustic chemical needed to achieve a target pH and the corresponding effluent composition and sludge volume can not be accurately determined without empirical titration data or the application of geochemical models to simulate the titration of the discharge water with caustic chemical(s). The AMDTreat computer program (http://amd.osmre.gov/ ) is widely used to compute costs for treatment of coal-mine drainage. Although AMDTreat can use results of empirical titration with industrial grade caustic chemicals to compute chemical costs for treatment of net-acidic or net-alkaline mine drainage, such data are rarely available. To improve the capability of AMDTreat to estimate (1) the quantity and cost of caustic chemicals to attain a target pH, (2) the concentrations of dissolved metals in treated effluent, and (3) the volume of sludge produced by the treatment, a titration simulation is being developed using the geochemical program PHREEQC (wwwbrr.cr.usgs.gov/projects/GWC_coupled/phreeqc/) that will be coupled as a module to AMDTreat. The simulated titration results can be compared with or used in place of empirical titration data to estimate chemical quantities and costs. This paper describes the development, evaluation, and potential utilization of the PHREEQC titration module for AMDTreat.

  15. Making Deferred Taxes Relevant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Arjan; Naarding, Ewout

    2018-01-01

    We analyse the conceptual problems in current accounting for deferred taxes and provide solutions derived from the literature in order to make International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) deferred tax numbers value-relevant. In our view, the empirical results concerning the value relevance of

  16. Parsimonious relevance models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, E.; Weerkamp, W.; Balog, K.; de Rijke, M.; Myang, S.-H.; Oard, D.W.; Sebastiani, F.; Chua, T.-S.; Leong, M.-K.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a method for applying parsimonious language models to re-estimate the term probabilities assigned by relevance models. We apply our method to six topic sets from test collections in five different genres. Our parsimonious relevance models (i) improve retrieval effectiveness in terms of

  17. On Complex Networks Representation and Computation of Hydrologycal Quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, F.; Bancheri, M.; David, O.; Rigon, R.

    2017-12-01

    Water is our blue gold. Despite results of discovery-based science keep warning public opinion about the looming worldwide water crisis, water is still treated as a not worth taking resource. Could a different multi-scale perspective affect environmental decision-making more deeply? Can also a further pairing to a new graphical representation of processes interaction sway decision-making more effectively and public opinion consequently?This abstract introduces a complex networks driven way to represent catchments eco-hydrology and related flexible informatics to manage it. The representation is built upon mathematical category. A category is an algebraic structure that comprises "objects" linked by "arrows". It is an evolution of Petri Nets said Time Continuous Petri Nets (TCPN). It aims to display (water) budgets processes and catchment interactions using explicative and self-contained symbolism. The result improves readability of physical processes compared to current descriptions. The IT perspective hinges on the Object Modeling System (OMS) v3. The latter is a non-invasive flexible environmental modeling framework designed to support component-based model development. The implementation of a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) data structure, named Net3, has recently enhanced its flexibility. Net3 represents interacting systems as complex networks: vertices match up with any sort of time evolving quantity; edges correspond to their data (fluxes) interchange. It currently hosts JGrass-NewAge components, and those implementing travel time analysis of fluxes. Further bio-physical or management oriented components can be easily added.This talk introduces both graphical representation and related informatics exercising actual applications and examples.

  18. Environmental physics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Clare

    2001-01-01

    Environmental Physics is a comprehensive introduction to the physical concepts underlying environmental science. The importance and relevance of physics is emphasised by its application to real environmental problems with a wide range of case studies. Applications included cover energy use and production, global climate, the physics of living things, radioactivity, environmental remote sensing, noise pollution and the physics of the Earth. The book makes the subject accessible to those with little physics background, keeping mathematical treatment straightforward. The text is lively and informative, and is supplemented by numerous illustrations, photos, tables of useful data, and a glossary of key terms.

  19. Terms and definitions in the field of radiological technique. Dose quantities and units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    The standard gives the terms and definitions of concepts, dose quantities and units. The radiation field condition 'secondary electron equilibrium', which forms part of the definition of standard ion dose, is given more precisely. The term 'free in air' is used in its original meaning, i.e. characterization of measuring conditions excluding avoidable stray radiation, which deviates from DIN 6814, part 3/06.72. Dosemeters for measurement of standard ion dose of air kerma are calibrated 'free in air', but this calibration condition is not part of the quantity definition. The quantities standard ion dose or air kerma therefore can also be measured in any other material. The qunatitative relationships between standard ion dose and the quantities 'exposure' and air kerma, as given in the ICRU publication 33 'Quantities and Units' (1980), are explained. The standard introduces the SI units Gray (for energy dose), Sievert (for dose equivalent), and Becquerel (for the activity of a radioactive substance). As the change to the SI units conceals the approximated equality of the numerical values of the standrd ion dose of photon radiation in roentgen, of the energy dose for soft tissue in rad, and of the dose equivalent in rem, new definitions are given in accordance with ICRU 33 for the quantities specified dose rate, dose rate constant, and area exposure product. These definitions use the terms 'energy dose' and 'kerma'. The dose concepts applied in the field of radiation protection, especially ambient dose and individual dose, are defined as dose equivalents in compliance with the Radiation Protection Ordinance. The relevant sections present information on the conversion of standard ion dose values to the corresponding values of kerma, energy dose, or dose equivalent. (orig./HP) [de

  20. Uncertainties of exposure-related quantities in mammographic x-ray unit quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, Kent J.; Pattison, John E.; Bibbo, Giovanni

    2006-01-01

    Breast screening programs operate in many countries with mammographic x-ray units subject to stringent quality control tests. These tests include the evaluation of quantities based on exposure measurements, such as half value layer, automatic exposure control reproducibility, average glandular dose, and radiation output rate. There are numerous error sources that contribute to the uncertainty of these exposure-related quantities, some of which are unique to the low energy x-ray spectrum produced by mammographic x-ray units. For each of these exposure-related quantities, the applicable error sources and their magnitudes vary, depending on the test equipment used to make the measurement, and whether or not relevant corrections have been applied. This study has identified and quantified a range of error sources that may be used to estimate the combined uncertainty of these exposure-related quantities, given the test equipment used and corrections applied. The uncertainty analysis uses methods described by the International Standards Organization's Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. Examples of how these error sources combine to give the uncertainty of the exposure-related quantities are presented. Using the best test equipment evaluated in this study, uncertainties of the four exposure-related quantities at the 95% confidence interval were found to be ±1.6% (half value layer), ±0.0008 (automatic exposure control reproducibility), ±2.3% (average glandular dose), and ±2.1% (radiation output rate). In some cases, using less precise test equipment or failing to apply corrections, resulted in uncertainties more than double in magnitude

  1. 48 CFR 52.217-6 - Option for Increased Quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Option for Increased....217-6 Option for Increased Quantity. As prescribed in 17.208(d), insert a clause substantially the same as the following: Option for Increased Quantity (MAR 1989) The Government may increase the...

  2. 41 CFR 109-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 109-27.102 Economic order quantity principle. ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Economic order quantity principle. 109-27.102 Section 109-27.102 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

  3. 48 CFR 916.504 - Indefinite-quantity contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... indefinite-quantity, multiple award contracts to ensure that adequate consideration exists to contractually... contracts. 916.504 Section 916.504 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Indefinite-Delivery Contracts 916.504 Indefinite-quantity...

  4. 30 CFR 75.322 - Harmful quantities of noxious gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Harmful quantities of noxious gases. 75.322... quantities of noxious gases. Concentrations of noxious or poisonous gases, other than carbon dioxide, shall... Governmental Industrial Hygienists in “Threshold Limit Values for Substance in Workroom Air” (1972). Detectors...

  5. Memory-Based Quantity Discrimination in Coyotes (Canis latrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salif Mahamane

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that the ratio between competing quantities of food significantly mediates coyotes‘ (Canis latrans ability to choose the larger of two food options. These previous findings are consistent with predictions made by Weber‘s Law and indicate that coyotes possess quantity discrimination abilities that are similar to other species. Importantly, coyotes‘ discrimination abilities are similar to domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris, indicating that quantitative discrimination may remain stable throughout certain species‘ evolution. However, while previously shown in two domestic dogs, it is unknown whether coyotes possess the ability to discriminate visual quantities from memory. Here, we address this question by displaying different ratios of food quantities to 14 coyotes before placing the choices out of sight. The coyotes were then allowed to select one of either non-visible food quantities. Coyotes‘ discrimination of quantity from memory does not follow Weber‘s Law in this particular task. These results suggest that working memory in coyotes may not be adapted to maintain information regarding quantity as well as in domestic dogs. The likelihood of a coyote‘s choosing the large option increased when it was presented with difficult ratios of food options first, before it was later presented with trials using more easily discriminable ratios, and when the large option was placed on one particular side. This suggests that learning or motivation increased across trials when coyotes experienced difficult ratios first, and that location of food may have been more salient in working memory than quantity of food.

  6. Symbols and definitions of quantities and units in isotope stoichiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junghans, P.; Krumbiegel, P.; Faust, H.

    1982-01-01

    On the basis of the International System of Units and recent recommendations of the IUPAC on 'Symbols and Terminology for Physicochemical Quantities and Units' a system is proposed of uniform and unambiguous symbols and definitions of quantities and units used in the isotope dilution technique. The close relationship between isotope stoichiometry and common stoichiometry is demonstrated. (author)

  7. Variation in Quantity of Heat Produced from Charcoal of Prosopis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were collected using the copper calorimeter, a thermometer, an air tight burner and a weight balance. The results showed a gradual decrease in the quantity of heat produced as combustion time increased from 10 40 minutes in all wood species. Significant differences (p<0.05) in the quantity of heat produced both ...

  8. 19 CFR 144.33 - Minimum quantities to be withdrawn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum quantities to be withdrawn. 144.33 Section 144.33 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... Warehouse § 144.33 Minimum quantities to be withdrawn. Unless by special authority of the Commissioner of...

  9. 21 CFR 1314.20 - Restrictions on sales quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Restrictions on sales quantity. 1314.20 Section 1314.20 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Sales by Regulated Sellers § 1314.20 Restrictions on sales quantity. (a) Without...

  10. Quantifying cannabis: A field study of marijuana quantity estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Mark A; Conner, Bradley T; Pearson, Matthew R

    2018-05-17

    The assessment of marijuana use quantity poses unique challenges. These challenges have limited research efforts on quantity assessments. However, quantity estimates are critical to detecting associations between marijuana use and outcomes. We examined accuracy of marijuana users' estimations of quantities of marijuana they prepared to ingest and predictors of both how much was prepared for a single dose and the degree of (in)accuracy of participants' estimates. We recruited a sample of 128 regular-to-heavy marijuana users for a field study wherein they prepared and estimated quantities of marijuana flower in a joint or a bowl as well as marijuana concentrate using a dab tool. The vast majority of participants overestimated the quantity of marijuana that they used in their preparations. We failed to find robust predictors of estimation accuracy. Self-reported quantity estimates are inaccurate, which has implications for studying the link between quantity and marijuana use outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Culturally Relevant Cyberbullying Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Gregory John

    2017-01-01

    In this action research study, I, along with a student intervention committee of 14 members, developed a cyberbullying intervention for a large urban high school on the west coast. This high school contained a predominantly African American student population. I aimed to discover culturally relevant cyberbullying prevention strategies for African American students. The intervention committee selected video safety messages featuring African American actors as the most culturally relevant cyber...

  12. Supply Chain Coordination under Trade Credit and Quantity Discount with Sales Effort Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihong Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of trade credit and quantity discount in supply chain coordination when the sales effort effect on market demand is considered. In this paper, we consider a two-echelon supply chain consisting of a single retailer ordering a single product from a single manufacturer. Market demand is stochastic and is influenced by retailer sales effort. We formulate an analytical model based on a single trade credit and find that the single trade credit cannot achieve the perfect coordination of the supply chain. Then, we develop a hybrid quantitative analytical model for supply chain coordination by coherently integrating incentives of trade credit and quantity discount with sales effort effects. The results demonstrate that, providing that the discount rate satisfies certain conditions, the proposed hybrid model combining trade credit and quantity discount will be able to effectively coordinate the supply chain by motivating retailers to exert their sales effort and increase product order quantity. Furthermore, the hybrid quantitative analytical model can provide great flexibility in coordinating the supply chain to achieve an optimal situation through the adjustment of relevant parameters to resolve conflict of interests from different supply chain members. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the hybrid model.

  13. Evaluation of Specific Absorption Rate as a Dosimetric Quantity for Electromagnetic Fields Bioeffects

    OpenAIRE

    Panagopoulos, Dimitris J.; Johansson, Olle; Carlo, George L.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate SAR as a dosimetric quantity for EMF bioeffects, and identify ways for increasing the precision in EMF dosimetry and bioactivity assessment. METHODS: We discuss the interaction of man-made electromagnetic waves with biological matter and calculate the energy transferred to a single free ion within a cell. We analyze the physics and biology of SAR and evaluate the methods of its estimation. We discuss the experimentally observed non-linearity between electromagnetic exposu...

  14. Mevatron-74 10MeV photon beam: a study of dosimetric quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, C.N. de

    1986-01-01

    The Mevatron-74 linear accelerator dosimetric quantities were studied. In water and polystyrene measurements with an ionization chamber were done for following physical parameters: maximum dose depth and surface dose, field size dependence, central axis percentage depth dose, beam flatness and simmetry, and also verification the inverse square law for the distances normally used in therapy. Isodose curves were generated by the decrement lines method. (Author) [pt

  15. Concept of ICRU's operational quantity and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Hiroyuki

    1995-01-01

    The operational quantity which was introduced in the ICRU report 39 published in 1985 was shocking rather than fresh for the author. The report was translated into Japanese, but at the beginning, the contents were not able to be understood. Thereafter, the measurement of ICRU sphere dose equivalent was introduced in a national law. But it is feared that the understanding of this operational quantity is limited to specialist level, and is not by men of practical works. The meaning of ''operational'' must be that workers measure and obtain dose on the spot for the radiation protection for themselves. The principles used when ICRU considered the new practical measured quantity are shown. In the definition of operational quantity in area monitoring, two concepts of expanded and aligned connect real measurement with the operational quantity. The problems of measuring individual dose equivalent are discussed. As to the reality of applying the operational quantity, the fundamentals of the calibration of measuring instruments, the investigation of the operational quantity in relation to measuring instruments and measurement mode, and the relation of area monitoring and individual monitoring are described. (K.I.)

  16. Conceptual Model of Quantities, Units, Dimensions, and Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouquette, Nicolas F.; DeKoenig, Hans-Peter; Burkhart, Roger; Espinoza, Huascar

    2011-01-01

    JPL collaborated with experts from industry and other organizations to develop a conceptual model of quantities, units, dimensions, and values based on the current work of the ISO 80000 committee revising the International System of Units & Quantities based on the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM). By providing support for ISO 80000 in SysML via the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM), this conceptual model provides, for the first time, a standard-based approach for addressing issues of unit coherence and dimensional analysis into the practice of systems engineering with SysML-based tools. This conceptual model provides support for two kinds of analyses specified in the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM): coherence of units as well as of systems of units, and dimension analysis of systems of quantities. To provide a solid and stable foundation, the model for defining quantities, units, dimensions, and values in SysML is explicitly based on the concepts defined in VIM. At the same time, the model library is designed in such a way that extensions to the ISQ (International System of Quantities) and SI Units (Systeme International d Unites) can be represented, as well as any alternative systems of quantities and units. The model library can be used to support SysML user models in various ways. A simple approach is to define and document libraries of reusable systems of units and quantities for reuse across multiple projects, and to link units and quantity kinds from these libraries to Unit and QuantityKind stereotypes defined in SysML user models.

  17. Game physics

    CERN Document Server

    Eberly, David H

    2010-01-01

    ""Game Physics, 2nd Edition"" provides clear descriptions of the mathematics and algorithms needed to create a powerful physics engine - while providing a solid reference for all of the math you will encounter anywhere in game development: quaternions, linear algebra, and calculus. Implementing physical simulations for real-time games is a complex task that requires a solid understanding of a wide range of concepts from the fields of mathematics and physics. Previously, the relevant information could only be gleaned through obscure research papers. Thanks to ""Game Physics"", all this informa

  18. Physical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Schulman, Mark

    2006-01-01

    "Protons, electrons, positrons, quarks, gluons, muons, shmuons! I should have paid better attention to my high scholl physics teacher. If I had, maybe I could have understood even a fration of what Israeli particle physicist Giora Mikenberg was talking about when explaining his work on the world's largest science experiment." (2 pages)

  19. New quantities in radiation protection and conversion coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Four new quantities have been proposed by the ICRP for use in radiation protection from external sources, i.e. the ambient dose equivalent, the directional dose equivalent, the individual dose equivalent (penetrating), and the individual dose equivalent (superficial). These quantities are briefly described together with two new concepts of expanded and aligned fields. The BCRU recommends that these quantities should be adopted for use in the UK together with conversion coefficients when re-calibrating existing instruments, reporting the results of measurements and designing instruments. (UK)

  20. Review on evolvement of systems of ionizing radiation quantities and units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Junzheng; Zeng Zhi

    2009-01-01

    To scientifically and practically measure the ionizing radiation in unison is an indispensable prerequisite and foundation for the extensive uses of nuclear science and technology, development of radiological protection and safety standards, as well as prevention and treatment of ionizing radiation hazards. Concerning about the quantities and units of ionizing radiation as well as their corresponding measurement and application methods, relevant international organizations and all countries in the world generally adopt the systems proposed by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) which is a well recognized and authoritative academic organization.In the paper,the major evolutions of the systems for ionizing radiation quantities and units in the past decades are summarized. (authors)

  1. The Limits to Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averill, M.; Briggle, A.

    2006-12-01

    Science policy and knowledge production lately have taken a pragmatic turn. Funding agencies increasingly are requiring scientists to explain the relevance of their work to society. This stems in part from mounting critiques of the "linear model" of knowledge production in which scientists operating according to their own interests or disciplinary standards are presumed to automatically produce knowledge that is of relevance outside of their narrow communities. Many contend that funded scientific research should be linked more directly to societal goals, which implies a shift in the kind of research that will be funded. While both authors support the concept of useful science, we question the exact meaning of "relevance" and the wisdom of allowing it to control research agendas. We hope to contribute to the conversation by thinking more critically about the meaning and limits of the term "relevance" and the trade-offs implicit in a narrow utilitarian approach. The paper will consider which interests tend to be privileged by an emphasis on relevance and address issues such as whose goals ought to be pursued and why, and who gets to decide. We will consider how relevance, narrowly construed, may actually limit the ultimate utility of scientific research. The paper also will reflect on the worthiness of research goals themselves and their relationship to a broader view of what it means to be human and to live in society. Just as there is more to being human than the pragmatic demands of daily life, there is more at issue with knowledge production than finding the most efficient ways to satisfy consumer preferences or fix near-term policy problems. We will conclude by calling for a balanced approach to funding research that addresses society's most pressing needs but also supports innovative research with less immediately apparent application.

  2. Relevant Subspace Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Emmanuel; Assent, Ira; Günnemann, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    Subspace clustering aims at detecting clusters in any subspace projection of a high dimensional space. As the number of possible subspace projections is exponential in the number of dimensions, the result is often tremendously large. Recent approaches fail to reduce results to relevant subspace...... clusters. Their results are typically highly redundant, i.e. many clusters are detected multiple times in several projections. In this work, we propose a novel model for relevant subspace clustering (RESCU). We present a global optimization which detects the most interesting non-redundant subspace clusters...... achieves top clustering quality while competing approaches show greatly varying performance....

  3. Expansions of Fermi and symmetrized Fermi integrals and applications in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grypeos, M.; Koutroulos, C.; Luk'yanov, V.; Shebeko, A.

    1998-01-01

    A detailed study is undertaken, using various techniques, in deriving expansions of integrals containing the Fermi or the symmetrized Fermi distributions. The results are presented in a mathematically compact form and consist of generalizations and extensions of previously known expansions. The relevance of the results to quantities of interest in nuclear physics is recalled and particular attention is paid to the so-called exponentially small terms which may play an essential role in certain cases

  4. The ICRU dose equivalence quantities in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimbergen, T.W.M.

    1990-09-01

    The definitions and application of the new ICRU radiation protection quantities have been reviewed and studied in literature. Special emphasis was laid on the consequences of the use of the new quantities by personnel dosimetry services, and on the consequences of the use of the new quantities during an intercomparison programme for dosimetry services. The study shows that the recommendations of the ICRU are not yet complete and not fully realizable. This means that the dosimetry services always have to make certain approximations, when they use the new quantities. In literature, several approaches have been proposed. The feasibility of an approach depends on the characteristics of the dosimeters used. The use of different approaches by the dosimetry services is thought to be of possible influence on the results of an intercomparison programme. (author). 42 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  5. Is Information Still Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The term "information" in information science does not share the characteristics of those of a nomenclature: it does not bear a generally accepted definition and it does not serve as the bases and assumptions for research studies. As the data deluge has arrived, is the concept of information still relevant for information…

  6. Machine Learning and Deep Learning Models to Predict Runoff Water Quantity and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, S. A.; Liang, J.; Li, W.; Murata, T.; Simunek, J.

    2017-12-01

    Contaminants can be rapidly transported at the soil surface by runoff to surface water bodies. Physically-based models, which are based on the mathematical description of main hydrological processes, are key tools for predicting surface water impairment. Along with physically-based models, data-driven models are becoming increasingly popular for describing the behavior of hydrological and water resources systems since these models can be used to complement or even replace physically based-models. In this presentation we propose a new data-driven model as an alternative to a physically-based overland flow and transport model. First, we have developed a physically-based numerical model to simulate overland flow and contaminant transport (the HYDRUS-1D overland flow module). A large number of numerical simulations were carried out to develop a database containing information about the impact of various input parameters (weather patterns, surface topography, vegetation, soil conditions, contaminants, and best management practices) on runoff water quantity and quality outputs. This database was used to train data-driven models. Three different methods (Neural Networks, Support Vector Machines, and Recurrence Neural Networks) were explored to prepare input- output functional relations. Results demonstrate the ability and limitations of machine learning and deep learning models to predict runoff water quantity and quality.

  7. Import and export of small quantities of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, M.

    1986-06-01

    Administrative procedures for import export of nuclear materials are specific for each country. In France regulations are reviewed for small quantities, lower threshold, in some cases, allows a simplified procedure, however thresholds are not the same in the different texts (and for one of them, concerning proliferation, is zero). It is obvious that regulations are necessary even for small quantities but national and international threshold should be harmonized [fr

  8. Complexity in an Unexpected Place: Quantities in Selected Acquisition Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    by the Army Acquisition Executive contains the following language . As a recently delegated Acquisition Category IC program, the AH-64E Apache...Complexity in an Unexpected Place: Quantities in Selected Acquisition Reports Gregory A. Davis, Project Leader Margaret L. Giles David M. Tate I...F E N S E A N A L Y S E S IDA Paper P-8490 Complexity in an Unexpected Place: Quantities in Selected Acquisition Reports Gregory A. Davis

  9. Charaterisation of function spaces via mollification; fractal quantities for distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Triebel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is twofold. First we characterise elements f belonging to the Besov spaces Bpqs(ℝn with s∈ℝ,  0quantities for distributions generalising well-known corresponding quantities for Radon measures.

  10. Information quantity in a pixel of digital image

    OpenAIRE

    Kharinov, M.

    2014-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the problem of integer-valued estimating of information quantity in a pixel of digital image. The definition of an integer estimation of information quantity based on constructing of the certain binary hierarchy of pixel clusters is proposed. The methods for constructing hierarchies of clusters and generating of hierarchical sequences of image approximations that minimally differ from the image by a standard deviation are developed. Experimental results on integer-valu...

  11. Uncertainty analysis of thermal quantities measurement in a centrifugal compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurda, Lukáš; Matas, Richard

    2017-09-01

    Compressor performance characteristics evaluation process based on the measurement of pressure, temperature and other quantities is examined to find uncertainties for directly measured and derived quantities. CFD is used as a tool to quantify the influences of different sources of uncertainty of measurements for single- and multi-thermocouple total temperature probes. The heat conduction through the body of the thermocouple probe and the heat-up of the air in the intake piping are the main phenomena of interest.

  12. Testing quantity theory of money for the Turkish economy

    OpenAIRE

    Levent, Korap

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, it is tried to test the main assumptions of the Quantity Theory of Money for the Turkish economy. Using some contemporaneous estimation techniques to examine the long-run stationary economic relationships on which the quantity theory is constructed, it is found that stationary characteristics of the velocitities of narrowly and broadly defined monetary aggregates cannot be rejected. However, monetary aggregates seem to be endogenous for the long-run evoluation of prices and rea...

  13. THE RELATION BETWEEN RESUDUE CHLOR QUANTITY AND WATER RELATED DISEASES IN AYDIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Didem EVCI

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The correlation between the residue chlor quantity in water sampled in different points of Aydin province in 2004 and the incidence of infections via water (diarrhea, thyphoid fever, amoebic and bacillary dysentery is studied. Materials and Methods: A retrospective definitive study is performed during June-July 2005. Results: 924 physical and chemical analysis are performed in 2004. In winter season, the mean residue chlor was 0,57±0,10 mg/lt; there were 310 diarrhea cases and a bacillary dysentery case. In summer season, the mean residue chlor was 0,46±0,13 mg/lt; there were 529 diarrhea cases and an amoebic dysentery. Both seasons determined that there was a negative correlation between diarrhea and the residue chlor quantity and there was a poor connection between them and it was statistically unsignificant (for winter r= -0,242, p=0,224; for summer r= -0,148, p=0,480 Conclusion: However there is no determined, expressive connection between diarrhea cases and residue chlor quantity it was seen that as the residue chlor quantity evaluated, the diarrhea cases were reduced. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(1.000: 1-7

  14. Mei Symmetry and New Conserved Quantities of Tzénoff Equations for the Variable Mass Higher-Order Nonholonomic System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Shi-Wang; Wang Jian-Bo; Chen Xiang-Wei; Xie Jia-Fang

    2012-01-01

    Operational systems of spacecraft are general variable mass mechanics systems, and their symmetries and conserved quantities imply profound physical rules of the space system. We study the Mei symmetry of Tzénoff equations for a variable mass nonholonomic system and the new conserved quantities derived. The function expression of the new conserved quantities and the criterion equation which deduces these conserved quantities are presented. This result has some theoretical values in further research of conservation laws obeyed by the variable mass system. (general)

  15. [Application of target restoration space quantity and quantitative relation in precise esthetic prosthodontics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiyang, Yu; Tian, Luo

    2016-06-01

    Target restoration space (TRS) is the most precise space required for designing optimal prosthesis. TRS consists of an internal or external tooth space to confirm the esthetics and function of the final restoration. Therefore, assisted with quantitive analysis transfer, TRS quantitative analysis is a significant improvement for minimum tooth preparation. This article presents TRS quantity-related measurement, analysis, transfer, and internal relevance of three TR. classifications. Results reveal the close bond between precision and minimally invasive treatment. This study can be used to improve the comprehension and execution of precise esthetic prosthodontics.

  16. Cancelling the Maxim of Quantity: Another challenge for a Gricean theory of Scalar Implicatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Fox

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Grice (1975 pointed out that the ignorance inferences normally drawn when disjunctive sentences are uttered are cancelled when it is presupposed that speakers are not going to provide all of the relevant information that they have available (e.g., in the context of a treasure hunt. This argues that ignorance inferences depend on the maxim of quantity for their derivation. Here it is argued that the situation with Scalar Implicatures is different. This is expected by the grammatical theory of Scalar Implicatures, but not by standard Gricean or neo-Gricean alternatives. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.7.5 BibTeX info

  17. Clinical Relevance of Adipokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Blüher

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of obesity has increased dramatically during recent decades. Obesity increases the risk for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and may therefore contribute to premature death. With increasing fat mass, secretion of adipose tissue derived bioactive molecules (adipokines changes towards a pro-inflammatory, diabetogenic and atherogenic pattern. Adipokines are involved in the regulation of appetite and satiety, energy expenditure, activity, endothelial function, hemostasis, blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, energy metabolism in insulin sensitive tissues, adipogenesis, fat distribution and insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. Therefore, adipokines are clinically relevant as biomarkers for fat distribution, adipose tissue function, liver fat content, insulin sensitivity, chronic inflammation and have the potential for future pharmacological treatment strategies for obesity and its related diseases. This review focuses on the clinical relevance of selected adipokines as markers or predictors of obesity related diseases and as potential therapeutic tools or targets in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.

  18. Information Needs/Relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Wildemuth, Barbara M.

    2009-01-01

    A user's interaction with a DL is often initiated as the result of the user experiencing an information need of some kind. Aspects of that experience and how it might affect the user's interactions with the DL are discussed in this module. In addition, users continuously make decisions about and evaluations of the materials retrieved from a DL, relative to their information needs. Relevance judgments, and their relationship to the user's information needs, are discussed in this module. Draft

  19. Trained Quantity Abilities in Horses (Equus caballus: A Preliminary Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Miletto Petrazzini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Once believed to be a human prerogative, the capacity to discriminate between quantities now has also been reported in several vertebrates. To date, only two studies investigated numerical abilities in horses (Equus caballus but reported contrasting data. To assess whether horses can be trained to discriminate between quantities, I have set up a new experimental protocol using operant conditioning. One adult female was trained to discriminate between 1 and 4 (Test 1 in three different conditions: non-controlled continuous variables (numerical and continuous quantities that co-vary with number are simultaneously available, 50% controlled continuous variables (intermediate condition, and 100% controlled continuous variables (only numerical information available. The subject learned the discrimination in all conditions, showing the capacity to process numerical information. When presented with a higher numerical ratio (2 vs. 4, Test 2, the subject still discriminated between the quantities but its performance was statistically significant only in the non-controlled condition, suggesting that the subject used multiple cues in presence of a more difficult discrimination. On the whole, the results here reported encourage the use of this experimental protocol as a valid tool to investigate the capacity to process numerical and continuous quantities in horses in future research.

  20. Processing ordinality and quantity: the case of developmental dyscalculia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orly Rubinsten

    Full Text Available In contrast to quantity processing, up to date, the nature of ordinality has received little attention from researchers despite the fact that both quantity and ordinality are embodied in numerical information. Here we ask if there are two separate core systems that lie at the foundations of numerical cognition: (1 the traditionally and well accepted numerical magnitude system but also (2 core system for representing ordinal information. We report two novel experiments of ordinal processing that explored the relation between ordinal and numerical information processing in typically developing adults and adults with developmental dyscalculia (DD. Participants made "ordered" or "non-ordered" judgments about 3 groups of dots (non-symbolic numerical stimuli; in Experiment 1 and 3 numbers (symbolic task: Experiment 2. In contrast to previous findings and arguments about quantity deficit in DD participants, when quantity and ordinality are dissociated (as in the current tasks, DD participants exhibited a normal ratio effect in the non-symbolic ordinal task. They did not show, however, the ordinality effect. Ordinality effect in DD appeared only when area and density were randomized, but only in the descending direction. In the symbolic task, the ordinality effect was modulated by ratio and direction in both groups. These findings suggest that there might be two separate cognitive representations of ordinal and quantity information and that linguistic knowledge may facilitate estimation of ordinal information.

  1. Processing ordinality and quantity: the case of developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinsten, Orly; Sury, Dana

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to quantity processing, up to date, the nature of ordinality has received little attention from researchers despite the fact that both quantity and ordinality are embodied in numerical information. Here we ask if there are two separate core systems that lie at the foundations of numerical cognition: (1) the traditionally and well accepted numerical magnitude system but also (2) core system for representing ordinal information. We report two novel experiments of ordinal processing that explored the relation between ordinal and numerical information processing in typically developing adults and adults with developmental dyscalculia (DD). Participants made "ordered" or "non-ordered" judgments about 3 groups of dots (non-symbolic numerical stimuli; in Experiment 1) and 3 numbers (symbolic task: Experiment 2). In contrast to previous findings and arguments about quantity deficit in DD participants, when quantity and ordinality are dissociated (as in the current tasks), DD participants exhibited a normal ratio effect in the non-symbolic ordinal task. They did not show, however, the ordinality effect. Ordinality effect in DD appeared only when area and density were randomized, but only in the descending direction. In the symbolic task, the ordinality effect was modulated by ratio and direction in both groups. These findings suggest that there might be two separate cognitive representations of ordinal and quantity information and that linguistic knowledge may facilitate estimation of ordinal information.

  2. Quantity Distortion Effect in Consumers' Perception of Different Volumes and Weights of Money: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Gianluigi; Piper, Luigi; Prete, M Irene; Mileti, Antonio; Fonda, Marco

    2016-08-01

    Consumers tend to misunderstand the physical value of cash money by adopting improper anchors for their judgments (e.g., banknote size and shape, currency denominations, etc.). In a pilot study carried out on a sample of 242 participants (n = 116 men; M age = 29.6 year, SD = 10.8), a quantity distortion effect was demonstrated by evaluating consumers' misperceptions of different monetary quantities, either in terms of volume or weight, using banknotes of the same denomination (€50). A threshold value was found, for both volume (€876,324) and weight (€371,779), above (below) which consumers tend to overrate (underrate) monetary amounts. The theoretical and operative implications are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Aspects of ICRP 60 and ICRU 47 relevant to individual monitoring of external exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietze, G.; Menzel, H.G.

    1994-01-01

    Exposure limits recommended by the ICRP and used in regulations are expressed in risk related quantities such as effective dose or effective dose equivalent. Operational quantities such as ambient dose equivalent or personal dose equivalent are defined in phantoms and are designed to give reasonable estimates of exposure limiting quantities. The readings of individual dosemeters are calibrated in terms of operational quantities. The international commissions involved in the definition of risk related quantities (ICRP) and operational quantities (ICRU) have introduced various new definitions and modifications to previous quantities used in their respective publications ICRP 60 and ICRU 39, ICRU 47. The consequences of these alterations for the relationships between quantities within the hierarchy have to be examined and the new quantitative relationships (conversion coefficients) between basic physical radiation quantities such as particle fluence or air kerma and the new quantities have to be evaluated. In 1992, the ICRP and ICRU charged a joint task group with addressing these tasks with a view to revising ICRP Publication 51. This paper presents an outline for the subject of the report to be prepared by the task group. An introduction to the new phantom-based quantities is given and conceptional differences between the newly introduced and the previous quantities are discussed. (author)

  4. Quantities of natural gas transported in January-December 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    GRTgaz is a European leader in natural gas transmission, a world expert in gas transmission networks and systems, and an operator firmly committed to the energy transition. It owns and operates the gas transmission network throughout most of France and it manages the transmission network in Germany, thereby helping to ensure correct operation of the French and European gas market. It contributes to the energy security of regional supply systems and performs a public service mission to ensure the continuity of consumer supply. This document presents the monthly key figures of GRTgaz activity in 2009: Total quantities transmitted by GRTgaz (Inputs to the GRTgaz network/Outputs from the GRTgaz network); Maximum and minimum daily flow (Daily quantities transported, Daily consumption, Daily inputs excluding storage); Quantities exchanged on the wholesale market; Consumption on the GRTgaz Network (gross monthly consumption and Average monthly temperatures)

  5. Quantities of natural gas transported in August-December 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    GRTgaz is a European leader in natural gas transmission, a world expert in gas transmission networks and systems, and an operator firmly committed to the energy transition. It owns and operates the gas transmission network throughout most of France and it manages the transmission network in Germany, thereby helping to ensure correct operation of the French and European gas market. It contributes to the energy security of regional supply systems and performs a public service mission to ensure the continuity of consumer supply. This document presents the available monthly key figures of GRTgaz activity from August to December 2007: Total quantities transmitted by GRTgaz (Inputs to the GRTgaz network/Outputs from the GRTgaz network); Maximum and minimum daily flow (Daily quantities transported, Daily consumption, Daily inputs excluding storage); Quantities exchanged on the wholesale market; Consumption on the GRTgaz Network (gross monthly consumption and Average monthly temperatures)

  6. BIRTHDAY CAKE ACTIVITY STRUCTURED ARRANGEMENT FOR HELPING CHILDREN DETERMINING QUANTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neni Mariana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Few researches have been concerned about relation between children’s spatialthinking and number sense. Narrowing for this small research, we focused onone component of spatial thinking, that is structuring objects, and onecomponent of number senses, that is cardinality by determining quantities. Thisstudy focused on a design research that was conducted in Indonesia in which weinvestigated pre-school children’s (between 2 and 3.5 years old ability inmaking structured arrangement and their ability to determine the quantities bylooking at the arrangements. The result shows us that some of the children wereable to make such arrangement. However, the children found difficulties eitherto determine quantities from those arrangements or to compare some structuresto easily recognize number of objects.Keywords: structures, structured arrangement, cardinality DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.1.1.790.53-70

  7. Birthday Cake Activity Structured Arrangement for Helping Children Determining Quantities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neni Mariana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Few researches have been concerned about relation between children’s spatial thinking and number sense. Narrowing for this small research, we focused on one component of spatial thinking, that is structuring objects, and one component of number senses, that is cardinality by determining quantities. This study focused on a design research that was conducted in Indonesia in which we investigated pre-school children’s (between 2 and 3.5 years old ability in making structured arrangement and their ability to determine the quantities by looking at the arrangements. The result shows us that some of the children were able to make such arrangement. However, the children found difficulties either to determine quantities from those arrangements or to compare some structures to easily recognize number of objects.

  8. Multimodal semantic quantity representations: further evidence from Korean Sign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank eDomahs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Korean deaf signers performed a number comparison task on pairs of Arabic digits. In their RT profiles, the expected magnitude effect was systematically modified by properties of number signs in Korean Sign Language in a culture-specific way (not observed in hearing and deaf Germans or hearing Chinese. We conclude that finger-based quantity representations are automatically activated even in simple tasks with symbolic input although this may be irrelevant and even detrimental for task performance. These finger-based numerical representations are accessed in addition to another, more basic quantity system which is evidenced by the magnitude effect. In sum, these results are inconsistent with models assuming only one single amodal representation of numerical quantity.

  9. How tobacco companies have used package quantity for consumer targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persoskie, Alexander; Donaldson, Elisabeth A; Ryant, Chase

    2018-05-31

    Package quantity refers to the number of cigarettes or amount of other tobacco product in a package. Many countries restrict minimum cigarette package quantities to avoid low-cost packs that may lower barriers to youth smoking. We reviewed Truth Tobacco Industry Documents to understand tobacco companies' rationales for introducing new package quantities, including companies' expectations and research regarding how package quantity may influence consumer behaviour. A snowball sampling method (phase 1), a static search string (phase 2) and a follow-up snowball search (phase 3) identified 216 documents, mostly from the 1980s and 1990s, concerning cigarettes (200), roll-your-own tobacco (9), smokeless tobacco (6) and 'smokeless cigarettes' (1). Companies introduced small and large packages to motivate brand-switching and continued use among current users when faced with low market share or threats such as tax-induced price increases or competitors' use of price promotions. Companies developed and evaluated package quantities for specific brands and consumer segments. Large packages offered value-for-money and matched long-term, heavy users' consumption rates. Small packages were cheaper, matched consumption rates of newer and lighter users, and increased products' novelty, ease of carrying and perceived freshness. Some users also preferred small packages as a way to try to limit consumption or quit. Industry documents speculated about many potential effects of package quantity on appeal and use, depending on brand and consumer segment. The search was non-exhaustive, and we could not assess the quality of much of the research or other information on which the documents relied. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. A shared system of representation governing quantity discrimination in canids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M Baker

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available One way to investigate the evolution of cognition is to compare the abilities of phylogenetically related species. The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris, for example, still shares cognitive abilities with the coyote (C. latrans. Both of these canids possess the ability to make psychophysical less/more discriminations of food based on quantity. Like many other species including humans, this ability is mediated by Weber’s Law: discrimination of continuous quantities is dependent on the ratio between the two quantities. As two simultaneously presented quantities of food become more similar, choice of the large or small option becomes random in both dogs and coyotes. It remains unknown, however, whether these closely related species within the same family—one domesticated, and one wild—make such quantitative comparisons with comparable accuracy. Has domestication honed or diminished this quantitative ability? Might different selective and ecological pressures facing coyotes drive them to be more or less able to accurately represent and discriminate food quantity than domesticated dogs? This study is an effort to elucidate this question concerning the evolution of non-verbal quantitative cognition.Here, we tested the quantitative discrimination ability of 16 domesticated dogs. Each animal was given 9 trials in which two different quantities of food were simultaneously displayed to them. The domesticated dogs’ performance on this task was then compared directly to the data from 16 coyotes’ performance on this same task reported by Baker and colleagues (2011.The quantitative discrimination abilities between the two species were strikingly similar. Domesticated dogs demonstrated similar quantitative sensitivity as coyotes, suggesting that domestication may not have significantly altered the psychophysical discrimination abilities of canids. Instead, this study provides further evidence for similar nonverbal quantitative abilities across

  11. [Relevant public health enteropathogens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, Maribel; Ochoa, Theresa J

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea remains the third leading cause of death in children under five years, despite recent advances in the management and prevention of this disease. It is caused by multiple pathogens, however, the prevalence of each varies by age group, geographical area and the scenario where cases (community vs hospital) are recorded. The most relevant pathogens in public health are those associated with the highest burden of disease, severity, complications and mortality. In our country, norovirus, Campylobacter and diarrheagenic E. coli are the most prevalent pathogens at the community level in children. In this paper we review the local epidemiology and potential areas of development in five selected pathogens: rotavirus, norovirus, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), Shigella and Salmonella. Of these, rotavirus is the most important in the pediatric population and the main agent responsible for child mortality from diarrhea. The introduction of rotavirus vaccination in Peru will have a significant impact on disease burden and mortality from diarrhea. However, surveillance studies are needed to determine the impact of vaccination and changes in the epidemiology of diarrhea in Peru following the introduction of new vaccines, as well as antibiotic resistance surveillance of clinical relevant bacteria.

  12. Quality or Quantity: A Statement for Teacher Training in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali AZAR

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Developed countries are initiating and implementing effective and appropriate technics in the field of teacher training. In Turkey, much research has been done in order to determine the qualification of teachers and, by this way, to train qualified teachers. Ministry of Education, Turkish Council of Higher Education, Faculties of Education and Faculties of Sciences have cooperated some certification systems, however, the research which is not supported by preliminary studies but exposured to political coercions lowered the quality of education. Besides, quantity is increased by pedagogical formation programs. In this study, Turkish teacher training system is analyzed with respect to quantity and quality.

  13. Studies on quantity and composition of dairy cow excreta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peschke, H.

    1982-01-01

    After feeding a lactating dairy cow a day ration completely enriched with 15 N, the quantities of feces and urine were registered over a period of ten days and put into proportion to the animal mass. The fecal dry matter was put into proportion to the dry matter of the fodder by means of 15 N analysis the N excretion with the excreta was determined concerning quantity and time. Selected feces and urine charges were used to produce a slurry model. The content of nutritive elements of the initial components and of the organic fertilizer are discussed. (author)

  14. Photosynthesis-related quantities for education and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antal, Taras K; Kovalenko, Ilya B; Rubin, Andrew B; Tyystjärvi, Esa

    2013-11-01

    A quantitative understanding of the photosynthetic machinery depends largely on quantities, such as concentrations, sizes, absorption wavelengths, redox potentials, and rate constants. The present contribution is a collection of numbers and quantities related mainly to photosynthesis in higher plants. All numbers are taken directly from a literature or database source and the corresponding reference is provided. The numerical values, presented in this paper, provide ranges of values, obtained in specific experiments for specific organisms. However, the presented numbers can be useful for understanding the principles of structure and function of photosynthetic machinery and for guidance of future research.

  15. Transfer entropy in physical systems and the arrow of time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinney, Richard E.; Lizier, Joseph T.; Prokopenko, Mikhail

    2016-08-01

    Recent developments have cemented the realization that many concepts and quantities in thermodynamics and information theory are shared. In this paper, we consider a highly relevant quantity in information theory and complex systems, the transfer entropy, and explore its thermodynamic role by considering the implications of time reversal upon it. By doing so we highlight the role of information dynamics on the nuanced question of observer perspective within thermodynamics by relating the temporal irreversibility in the information dynamics to the configurational (or spatial) resolution of the thermodynamics. We then highlight its role in perhaps the most enduring paradox in modern physics, the manifestation of a (thermodynamic) arrow of time. We find that for systems that process information such as those undergoing feedback, a robust arrow of time can be formulated by considering both the apparent physical behavior which leads to conventional entropy production and the information dynamics which leads to a quantity we call the information theoretic arrow of time. We also offer an interpretation in terms of optimal encoding of observed physical behavior.

  16. Quantities of natural gas transmitted in January-December 2012. Quantities of natural gas transported in January-December 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    GRTgaz is a European leader in natural gas transmission, a world expert in gas transmission networks and systems, and an operator firmly committed to the energy transition. It owns and operates the gas transmission network throughout most of France and it manages the transmission network in Germany, thereby helping to ensure correct operation of the French and European gas market. It contributes to the energy security of regional supply systems and performs a public service mission to ensure the continuity of consumer supply. This document presents the monthly key figures of GRTgaz activity in 2012: Total quantities transmitted by GRTgaz (Inputs to the GRTgaz network/Outputs from the GRTgaz network); Maximum and minimum daily flow (Daily quantities transported, Daily consumption, Daily inputs excluding storage); Quantities exchanged on the wholesale market; Consumption on the GRTgaz Network (gross monthly consumption and Average monthly temperatures)

  17. Other relevant biological papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, M.

    1989-01-01

    A considerable number of CRESP-relevant papers concerning deep-sea biology and radioecology have been published. It is the purpose of this study to call attention to them. They fall into three general categories. The first is papers of general interest. They are mentioned only briefly, and include text references to the global bibliography at the end of the volume. The second are papers that are not only mentioned and referenced, but for various reasons are described in abstract form. The last is a list of papers compiled by H.S.J. Roe specifically for this volume. They are listed in bibliographic form, and are also included in the global bibliography at the end of the volume

  18. Teacher quality and quantity as correlates of secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the twin variables of quality and quantity of teachers as correlates of secondary school academic performance in Ogun State of Nigeria between 1997/98 and 2000/2001 academic sessions. The study was conducted ex-post facto under a descriptive survey research design using the proportional to ...

  19. 16 CFR 1.23 - Quantity limit rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quantity limit rules. 1.23 Section 1.23 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL... Robinson-Patman Act. These rules have the force and effect of law. [32 FR 8444, June 13, 1967. Redesignated...

  20. Food quantity affects the sensitivity of Daphnia to road salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Arran H; Yan, Norman D

    2015-04-07

    Road deicing operations have raised chloride (Cl) levels in many temperate lakes in Europe and North America. These lakes vary widely in trophic status, but to date, no one has quantified the interaction between food quantity and road salt toxicity. We examined the effects of food quantity (particulate algal C concentration (C)) on the chronic toxicity of Cl to Daphnia in soft-water bioassays. There was a strong positive linear relationship (r(2) = 0.92 for NaCl and r(2) = 0.96 for CaCl2) between food quantity and Cl LC50. As food quantity increased from 0.2 to 1.0 mg C/L (levels characteristic of oligotrophic to eutrophic lakes, respectively), the chronic Cl LC50 increased from 55.7 to 284.8 mg Cl/L. Salt type (NaCl or CaCl2) did not affect the Cl LC50, Daphnia life history parameters, or the intrinsic rate of population increase (r). The life history parameter most sensitive to Cl was neonate production. Cl did not inhibit egg production, nor was the maternal lipid investment in eggs changed, but egg viability and the subsequent release of live neonates decreased as Cl levels increased and food decreased. Our results suggest the trophic status of lakes should be considered when assessing ecological threat from Cl.

  1. Quantity, Quality, and Satisfaction with Mentoring: What Matters Most?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohong; Payne, Stephanie C.

    2014-01-01

    According to Kram's mentor role theory, satisfaction with mentoring and mentorship quality are key indicators of effective and successful mentoring. We contribute to mentoring research by demonstrating the relative importance of mentorship quantity, mentorship quality, and satisfaction with mentoring to the prediction of job satisfaction,…

  2. 19 CFR 351.409 - Differences in quantities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DUTIES Calculation of Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.409... comparing export price or constructed export price with normal value, the Secretary will make a reasonable... section 773(a)(6)(C)(i) of the Act.) (b) Sales with quantity discounts in calculating normal value. The...

  3. Color Coding of Circuit Quantities in Introductory Circuit Analysis Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisslein, Jana; Johnson, Amy M.; Reisslein, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Learning the analysis of electrical circuits represented by circuit diagrams is often challenging for novice students. An open research question in electrical circuit analysis instruction is whether color coding of the mathematical symbols (variables) that denote electrical quantities can improve circuit analysis learning. The present study…

  4. Thermodynamic quantities for the Klein–Gordon equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study some thermodynamic quantities for the Klein–Gordon equation with a linear plus inverselinear, scalar potential. We obtain the energy eigenvalues with the help of the quantization rule from the biconfluent Heun's equation.We use a method based on the Euler–MacLaurin formula to analytically compute thethermal ...

  5. Thermodynamic quantities for the Klein–Gordon equation with a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-02-01

    Feb 1, 2017 ... Abstract. We study some thermodynamic quantities for the Klein–Gordon equation with a linear plus inverse- linear, scalar potential. We obtain the energy eigenvalues with the help of the quantization rule from the biconfluent Heun's equation. We use a method based on the Euler–MacLaurin formula to ...

  6. Conserved quantities for stationary Einstein-Maxwell space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, F.P.; Witten, L.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that every stationary Einstein-Maxwell space-time has eight divergence-free vector fields and these are isolated in general form. The vector fields and associated conserved quantities are calculated for several families of space-times. (Auth.)

  7. Photographs in Dutch History Textbooks: Quantity, type and educational use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kleppe (Martijn)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis article demonstrates a media scientific approach by studying the use of photographs in Dutch History textbooks for High School pupils in the period 1970 – 2000. The quantity of photos has been determined as well as the types of pictures and its use as educational tool. Results show

  8. A colorimeter for measurement of picomole quantities of urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vurek, G G; Knepper, M A

    1982-04-01

    We described a new colorimeter for the measurement of picomole quantities of urea in nanoliter volume fluid samples. The diacetyl monoxime reaction was used to produce a colored product from urea. The method is capable of resolving differences of 10 pmoles between samples containing 0 to 225 pmoles.

  9. Estimating waste disposal quantities from raw waste samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negin, C.A.; Urland, C.S.; Hitz, C.G.; GPU Nuclear Corp., Middletown, PA)

    1985-01-01

    Estimating the disposal quantity of waste resulting from stabilization of radioactive sludge is complex because of the many factors relating to sample analysis results, radioactive decay, allowable disposal concentrations, and options for disposal containers. To facilitate this estimation, a microcomputer spread sheet template was created. The spread sheet has saved considerable engineering hours. 1 fig., 3 tabs

  10. Do Speakers and Listeners Observe the Gricean Maxim of Quantity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Paul E.; Bailey, Karl G. D.; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2006-01-01

    The Gricean Maxim of Quantity is believed to govern linguistic performance. Speakers are assumed to provide as much information as required for referent identification and no more, and listeners are believed to expect unambiguous but concise descriptions. In three experiments we examined the extent to which naive participants are sensitive to the…

  11. Whither the Nigerian Quantity Surveyors in the Information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paucity of information on the computing status of the quantity surveyors in Nigeria have been scanty and without empirical substantiation. The basic platform for entry to the information technology gateway is the acquisition, adoption and utilization of the computer. Baseline information is therefore indispensable for the ...

  12. Water quantity and quality at the urban-rural interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; B. Graeme Lockaby

    2012-01-01

    Population growth and urban development dramatically alter natural watershed ecosystem structure and functions and stress water resources. We review studies on the impacts of urbanization on hydrologic and biogeochemical processes underlying stream water quantity and water quality issues, as well as water supply challenges in an urban environment. We conclude that...

  13. Hazardous Waste Management for the Small Quantity Generator. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This instructional package for teaching about the regulations imposed on small quantity generators by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Resource Conservation Recovery Act is organized around ll program objectives: students will be able to (l) determine a hazardous waste from lists or by identifying characteristics; (2) identify…

  14. Birthday Cake Activity Structured Arrangement for Helping Children Determining Quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariana, Neni

    2010-01-01

    Few researches have been concerned about relation between children's spatial thinking and number sense. Narrowing for this small research, we focused on one component of spatial thinking, that is structuring objects, and one component of number senses, that is cardinality by determining quantities. This study focused on a design research that was…

  15. 7 CFR 1427.170 - Quantity for loan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to the preservation or safety of the loan collateral. Loans may be made on a lower percentage basis... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quantity for loan. 1427.170 Section 1427.170... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.170...

  16. Quantity and quality of written feedback, action plans, and student ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Mini-clinical-evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) assessment forms that have been modified with the addition of specific spaces on separate sheets are expected to improve the quantity and quality of written feedback and the action plan for further learning which is agreed upon, and to encourage written reflection.

  17. Is the dose equivalent index a quantity to be measured

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, S.R.

    1980-01-01

    The following modifying factors are briefly considered in relation to the ambiguities and limitations of the Dose Equivalent Index: 1) Variations with time or of the movement of the exposed person 2) Irradiation geometry 3) Effect of radiation energy 4) Instrument performance and calibration, and other operational quantities. (U.K.)

  18. Threshold quantities for infectious diseases in periodic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesterbeek, J.A.P.; Roberts, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    In this short note we give threshold quantities that determine the stability of the infection-free steady state for periodic deterministic systems that describe the spread of infectious diseases in populations whose individuals can be divided into a finite number of distinct groups. We concentrate

  19. Mei Symmetry and New Conserved Quantities of Tzénoff Equations for the Variable Mass Higher-Order Nonholonomic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Shi-Wang; WANG Jian-Bo; CHEN Xiang-Wei; XIE Jia-Fang

    2012-01-01

    Operational systems of spacecraft are general variable mass mechanics systems,and their symmetries and conserved quantities imply profound physical rules of the space system.We study the Mei symmetry of Tzénoff equations for a variable mass nonholonomic system and the new conserved quantities derived.The function expression of the new conserved quantities and the criterion equation which deduces these conserved quantities are presented.This result has some theoretical values in further research of conservation laws obeyed by the variable mass system.%Operational systems of spacecraft are general variable mass mechanics systems, and their symmetries and conserved quantities imply profound physical rules of the space system. We study the Mei symmetry of Tzenoff equations for a variable mass nonholonomic system and the new conserved quantities derived. The function expression of the new conserved quantities and the criterion equation which deduces these conserved quantities are presented. This result has some theoretical values in further research of conservation laws obeyed by the variable mass system.

  20. EOQ Model for Deteriorating Items with exponential time dependent Demand Rate under inflation when Supplier Credit Linked to Order Quantity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Prakash Tripathi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In paper (2004 Chang studied an inventory model under a situation in which the supplier provides the purchaser with a permissible delay of payments if the purchaser orders a large quantity. Tripathi (2011 also studied an inventory model with time dependent demand rate under which the supplier provides the purchaser with a permissible delay in payments. This paper is motivated by Chang (2004 and Tripathi (2011 paper extending their model for exponential time dependent demand rate. This study develops an inventory model under which the vendor provides the purchaser with a credit period; if the purchaser orders large quantity. In this chapter, demand rate is taken as exponential time dependent. Shortages are not allowed and effect of the inflation rate has been discussed. We establish an inventory model for deteriorating items if the order quantity is greater than or equal to a predetermined quantity. We then obtain optimal solution for finding optimal order quantity, optimal cycle time and optimal total relevant cost. Numerical examples are given for all different cases. Sensitivity of the variation of different parameters on the optimal solution is also discussed. Mathematica 7 software is used for finding numerical examples.

  1. Design of the Coordinate Transformation Function for Cylindrical Acoustic Cloaks with a Quantity of Discrete Layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Li; Wen Ji-Hong; Yu Dian-Long; Lu Zhi-Miao; Wen Xi-Sen

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic cloak based on coordinate transformation is of great topical interest and has promise in potential applications such as sound transparency and insulation. The frequency response of acoustic cloaks with a quantity of discrete homogeneous layers is analyzed by the acoustic scattering theory. The effect of coordinate transformation function on the acoustic total scattering cross section is discussed to achieve low scattering with only a few layers of anisotropic metamaterials. Also, the physics of acoustic wave interaction with the interfaces between the discrete layers inside the cloak shell is discussed. These results provide a better way of designing a multilayered acoustic cloak with fewer layers. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  2. Design of the Coordinate Transformation Function for Cylindrical Acoustic Cloaks with a Quantity of Discrete Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Li; Wen, Ji-Hong; Yu, Dian-Long; Lu, Zhi-Miao; Wen, Xi-Sen

    2014-09-01

    Acoustic cloak based on coordinate transformation is of great topical interest and has promise in potential applications such as sound transparency and insulation. The frequency response of acoustic cloaks with a quantity of discrete homogeneous layers is analyzed by the acoustic scattering theory. The effect of coordinate transformation function on the acoustic total scattering cross section is discussed to achieve low scattering with only a few layers of anisotropic metamaterials. Also, the physics of acoustic wave interaction with the interfaces between the discrete layers inside the cloak shell is discussed. These results provide a better way of designing a multilayered acoustic cloak with fewer layers.

  3. Higgs physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The theoretical aspects of the physics of Higgs bosons are reviewed focussing on the elements that are relevant for the production and detection at present hadron colliders. After briefly summarizing the basics of electroweak symmetry breaking in the Standard Model, the Higgs production at the LHC and at the Tevatron is ...

  4. Pramana – Journal of Physics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this talk I review the physics possible at India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO). I discuss the improvement in the precision of currently known quantities and the possibility measuring the presently unknown quantities.

  5. Radiation physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Sang Hui

    1991-02-01

    This book deals with radiation physics, which introduces atomic theory and an atomic nucleus of materials, conception of an atom and materials, wave and particle, X ray generation and character, a radioactive element and change law, nature of radioactivity, neutron rays, fission, alpha collapse and beta collage and a neutrino collapse of artificial radioactivity such as collapse of artificial nucleus and artificial radioactivity and radiative capture, interaction with materials like interaction between a charged particle and materials and interaction among X-ray, r-ray and materials, radiation of quantity and unit and a charged particle accelerator.

  6. Clarification of the confusion concerning the crystal-field quantities vs the zero-field splitting quantities in magnetism studies: Part II-Survey of literature dealing with model studies of spin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudowicz, C.

    2008-01-01

    For respective quantities, i.e., Hamiltonians, parameters, and energy level splittings, related to two physically distinct notions X and Y, various cases of confused terminology have been identified in literature. Referring to a quantity related actually to the notion Y using incorrectly the name of another well-defined notion X constitutes, what may be defined for short as, the type X=Y confusion. An ongoing survey of magnetism literature indicates that quantities related to zero-field splitting (ZFS) or equivalently fine structure (FS) are most often confused with those related to crystal-field (CF) or equivalently ligand field (LF). In this review the CF=ZFS confusion cases, i.e., labelling actual ZFS/FS quantities as purportedly 'CF/LF' ones, appearing in magnetism studies are surveyed and clarified. Part I covers the cases occurring in literature dealing with specific compounds. In this part model studies of spin systems are surveyed. The cases of terminology mixing up actual ZFS/FS quantities with purported CF/LF ones are identified and presented comprehensively in tabular form. To facilitate discussion, problems pertinent for the CF=ZFS confusion are categorized into several groups, including origin of the two notions, physical consequences, usage of specific numerical values, invoking real magnetic spin systems, and properties of spin S=1/2 systems. Physical implications of this confusion for interpretation of model results are also considered. Overall implications of incorrect terminology go beyond simple semantic issues and concern possible misinterpretation of data describing various physical properties of models studied. Such terminology contributes also to misleading keyword classifications of papers in journals and scientific databases. Other types of confusion identified in survey of magnetism literature will be discussed in separate reviews

  7. Approximate models for the study of exponential changed quantities: Application on the plasma waves growth rate or damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xaplanteris, C. L.; Xaplanteris, L. C.; Leousis, D. P.

    2014-01-01

    Many physical phenomena that concern the research these days are basically complicated because of being multi-parametric. Thus, their study and understanding meets with big if not unsolved obstacles. Such complicated and multi-parametric is the plasmatic state as well, where the plasma and the physical quantities that appear along with it have chaotic behavior. Many of those physical quantities change exponentially and at most times they are stabilized by presenting wavy behavior. Mostly in the transitive state rather than the steady state, the exponentially changing quantities (Growth, Damping etc) depend on each other in most cases. Thus, it is difficult to distinguish the cause from the result. The present paper attempts to help this difficult study and understanding by proposing mathematical exponential models that could relate with the study and understanding of the plasmatic wavy instability behavior. Such instabilities are already detected, understood and presented in previous publications of our laboratory. In other words, our new contribution is the study of the already known plasmatic quantities by using mathematical models (modeling and simulation). These methods are both useful and applicable in the chaotic theory. In addition, our ambition is to also conduct a list of models useful for the study of chaotic problems, such as those that appear into the plasma, starting with this paper's examples

  8. Approximate models for the study of exponential changed quantities: Application on the plasma waves growth rate or damping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xaplanteris, C. L., E-mail: cxaplanteris@yahoo.com [Plasma Physics Laboratory, IMS, NCSR “Demokritos”, Athens, Greece and Hellenic Army Academy, Vari Attica (Greece); Xaplanteris, L. C. [School of Physics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Leousis, D. P. [Technical High School of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2014-03-15

    Many physical phenomena that concern the research these days are basically complicated because of being multi-parametric. Thus, their study and understanding meets with big if not unsolved obstacles. Such complicated and multi-parametric is the plasmatic state as well, where the plasma and the physical quantities that appear along with it have chaotic behavior. Many of those physical quantities change exponentially and at most times they are stabilized by presenting wavy behavior. Mostly in the transitive state rather than the steady state, the exponentially changing quantities (Growth, Damping etc) depend on each other in most cases. Thus, it is difficult to distinguish the cause from the result. The present paper attempts to help this difficult study and understanding by proposing mathematical exponential models that could relate with the study and understanding of the plasmatic wavy instability behavior. Such instabilities are already detected, understood and presented in previous publications of our laboratory. In other words, our new contribution is the study of the already known plasmatic quantities by using mathematical models (modeling and simulation). These methods are both useful and applicable in the chaotic theory. In addition, our ambition is to also conduct a list of models useful for the study of chaotic problems, such as those that appear into the plasma, starting with this paper's examples.

  9. Neutrino physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez, P.

    2016-01-01

    This is the writeup of the lectures on neutrino physics delivered at various schools: TASI and Trieste in 2013 and the CERN-Latin American School in 2015. The topics discussed in this lecture include: general properties of neutrinos in the SM, the theory of neutrino masses and mixings (Dirac and Majorana), neutrino oscillations both in vacuum and in matter, as well as an overview of the experimental evidence for neutrino masses and of the prospects in neutrino oscillation physics. We also briefly review the relevance of neutri- nos in leptogenesis and in beyond-the-Standard-Model physics.

  10. User perspectives on relevance criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maglaughlin, Kelly L.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2002-01-01

    , partially relevant, or not relevant to their information need; and explained their decisions in an interview. Analysis revealed 29 criteria, discussed positively and negatively, that were used by the participants when selecting passages that contributed or detracted from a document's relevance......This study investigates the use of criteria to assess relevant, partially relevant, and not-relevant documents. Study participants identified passages within 20 document representations that they used to make relevance judgments; judged each document representation as a whole to be relevant...... matter, thought catalyst), full text (e.g., audience, novelty, type, possible content, utility), journal/publisher (e.g., novelty, main focus, perceived quality), and personal (e.g., competition, time requirements). Results further indicate that multiple criteria are used when making relevant, partially...

  11. Electroweak penguin decays as probes of physics beyond the Standard Model

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Electroweak penguin decays are sensitive to new, virtual particles and therefore offer a unique window on any physics beyond the Standard Model. In the B sector, penguin decays such as B0->K*0mu+mu- give a number of measurable quantities which can be precisely predicted by theory. The LHCb experiment has made the world's most precise measurements of this and several other related decays. These measurements give constraints on any new physics phenomena contributing to the relevant loop processes at mass scales well in excess of those that can be accessed by direct searches. The recent experimental progress of such measurements will be presented.

  12. A relevância do exame físico do idoso para a assistência de enfermagem hospitalar La relevancia del examen fisico del anciano para la asistencia de enfermería hospitalar The relevance of physical examination of the elderly patient in the nursing assistance hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Coutinho de Paula

    2005-09-01

    contemplado. La mayoría de los entrevistados (88% realiza el examen físico y se muestra motivada para efectuarlo, aunque lo hagan de manera incompleta. Conn Los datos obtenidos apuntan la necesidad de capacitación de los enfermeros que cuidan de los ancianos, considerando las particularidades de este examen y las necesidades de estos pacientes.BACKGROUND: In nursing practice, it has been noticed that those examinations are rarely done in a singular and systematic way. AIM: To verify the importance attributed by nurses to the physical examination in elderly, for hospital nursing assistance. METHOD: Twenty five nurses from the following wards were interviewed: Surgery, Gastroenterology, Cardiology and Pneumology, and Adult General ward I - II at the Clinical Hospital, Campinas State University. RESULTS: Only one of the informants had no information on physical examination during graduation and most of them had lack of information or no information at all on senescence and senility. Most informants (88% perform the physical examination and show motivation to execute it, though they do it in an incomplete way. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: This results show the requirement of capacitation for nurses who treats the aged, considering that physical examination in elderly has its specificities.

  13. Study of dosimetric quantities and image quality in pediatric examinations of chest and abdomen computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jornada, Tiago da Silva

    2013-01-01

    , despite the low dose values found. Dose values very lower than DRLs might induce to an unjustified practice of increasing the dose for improving the image diagnostic quality; the results showed that if it was done there was not a relevant change in the quality. Based on the results of this work, it was possible to state that the dosimetric quantity values in the studied pediatric tomographic procedures were lower than DRLs, but there was still room of optimization for patient protection and to maintain an adequate image diagnostic quality in computed tomography. (author)

  14. Role of Leadership in Transforming the Profession of Quantity Surveying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Ofori

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry is facing a period of change. The roles ofthe professions involved in the industry in general, and of quantitysurveyors in particular, are also changing. There are opportunitiesfor surveyors to seize the initiative to broaden their involvement inprojects, and attain strategic positions within the industry. However,they will have to improve upon their skill sets and their knowledgebases. Senior quantity surveyors interviewed in Singapore sharedtheir views on the challenges facing the construction industry,and their profession. They suggested that the quantity surveyingprofession would only be able to address the pressing issues itfaces if it pays more attention to innovation and the development ofits people. It should be able to attract and retain talent. Knowledgemanagement will be of critical importance. This will be enabled andfacilitated by knowledge leadership.

  15. Does quantity generate quality? Testing the fundamental principle of brainstorming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Adánez, Alfredo

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to test the chief principle of brainstorming, formulated as "quantity generates quality." The study is included within a broad program whose goal is to detect the strong and weak points of creative techniques. In a sample of 69 groups, containing between 3 and 8 members, the concurrence of two commonly accepted criteria was established as a quality rule: originality and utility or value. The results fully support the quantity-quality relation (r = .893): the more ideas produced to solve a problem, the better quality of the ideas. The importance of this finding, which supports Osborn's theory, is discussed, and the use of brainstorming is recommended to solve the many open problems faced by our society.

  16. On the operational quantity Hp(3) for eye lens dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, R

    2012-01-01

    In the past the operational quantity H p (3) has been defined for calibration purposes in a slab phantom. Recently, an additional phantom in the form of a cylinder was suggested for eye lens dosimetry as a cylinder much better approximates the shape of a head than a slab. Therefore, this work investigates whether the quantity H p (3), when defined in the respective calibration phantom, adequately estimates the eye lens dose (or is at least conservative) depending on the phantom: it turns out that in most cases both calibration phantoms are similarly well suited. Finally, the definition of the eye lens dose is discussed together with possible consequences on the definition of H p (3): the consideration of only the radiation sensitive volume of the lens causes H p (3) not to be conservative in beta radiation fields. (paper)

  17. Securing water quality and quantity: Research and development perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pienaar, H

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available : ? economic growth & development ? human & environmental needs ? meeting international obligations ? energy needs (strategic water users) ? ensuring availability and allocation (all other users) ? CSIR 2012 Slide 3 Background ? SA 30th driest country... and quantity: Research and development perspective 4th Biennial Conference Harrison Pienaar 10 October 2012 Presentation outline ? Introduction and background to water in South Africa ? Transboundary water resource aspects ? Water related challenges...

  18. Surface tension and related thermodynamic quantities of aqueous electrolyte solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Matubayasi, Norihiro

    2013-01-01

    Surface tension provides a thermodynamic avenue for analyzing systems in equilibrium and formulating phenomenological explanations for the behavior of constituent molecules in the surface region. While there are extensive experimental observations and established ideas regarding desorption of ions from the surfaces of aqueous salt solutions, a more successful discussion of the theory has recently emerged, which allows the quantitative calculation of the distribution of ions in the surface region. Surface Tension and Related Thermodynamic Quantities of Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions provides a d

  19. Synthesis of bulk quantity BN nanotubes with uniform morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, G.; Zhang, T.; Huang, X.X.; Zhong, B.; Zhang, X.D.; Yu, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Bulk quantity hexagonal BN nanotubes (h-BNNTs) with uniform morphology were synthesized via an improved ball-milling and annealing method. The sample was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectrometry, electron energy loss spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution TEM. The results show that the fabricated BNNTs have a uniform diameter ranging from 80 to 100 nm and a length of about 50-60 μm.

  20. Monitoring the eye lens: which dose quantity is adequate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, R; Dietze, G

    2010-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies suggest a rather low dose threshold (below 0.5 Gy) for the induction of a cataract of the eye lens. Some other studies even assume that there is no threshold at all. Therefore, protection measures have to be optimized and current dose limits for the eye lens may be reduced in the future. The question of which personal dose equivalent quantity is appropriate for monitoring the dose to the eye lens arises from this situation. While in many countries dosemeters calibrated in terms of the dose equivalent quantity H p (0.07) have been seen as being adequate for monitoring the dose to the eye lens, this might be questionable in the case of reduced dose limits and, thus, it may become necessary to use the dose equivalent quantity H p (3) for this purpose. To discuss this question, the dose conversion coefficients for the equivalent dose of the eye lens (in the following eye lens dose) were determined for realistic photon and beta radiation fields and compared with the values of the corresponding conversion coefficients for the different operational quantities. The values obtained lead to the following conclusions: in radiation fields where most of the dose comes from photons, especially x-rays, it is appropriate to use dosemeters calibrated in terms of H p (0.07) on a slab phantom, while in other radiation fields (dominated by beta radiation or unknown contributions of photon and beta radiation) dosemeters calibrated in terms of H p (3) on a slab phantom should be used. As an alternative, dosemeters calibrated in terms of H p (0.07) on a slab phantom could also be used; however, in radiation fields containing beta radiation with the end point energy near 1 MeV, an overestimation of the eye lens dose by up to a factor of 550 is possible.

  1. Mass spectrometry of submicrogram quantities of lead and cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Noemia M.P. de; Kakazu, M.H.; Iyer, S.S.

    1980-01-01

    Isotope analyses of submicrogram quantities of lead and cadmium are carried out by single filament solid source mass spectrometry. Thermionic emission of Pb and Cd is enhanced using silica gel as an emitter. Details of the chemical and mass spectrometric techniques are described. The low blank levels are maintained by extra purification of the reagents. The applications of isotope ratios of Pb and Cd in environmental sciences and geochemistry are discussed. (Author) [pt

  2. Multidemand Multisource Order Quantity Allocation with Multiple Transportation Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Gang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on a multidemand multisource order quantity allocation problem with multiple transportation alternatives. To solve this problem, a bilevel multiobjective programming model under a mixed uncertain environment is proposed. Two levels of decision makers are considered in the model. On the upper level, the purchaser aims to allocate order quantity to multiple suppliers for each demand node with the consideration of three objectives: total purchase cost minimization, total delay risk minimization, and total defect risk minimization. On the lower level, each supplier attempts to optimize the transportation alternatives with total transportation and penalty costs minimization as the objective. In contrast to prior studies, considering the information asymmetry in the bilevel decision, random and fuzzy random variables are used to model uncertain parameters of the construction company and the suppliers. To solve the bilevel model, a solution method based on Kuhn-Tucker conditions, sectional genetic algorithm, and fuzzy random simulation is proposed. Finally, the applicability of the proposed model and algorithm is evaluated through a practical case from a large scale construction project. The results show that the proposed model and algorithm are efficient in dealing with practical order quantity allocation problems.

  3. Testing the standard model of particle physics using lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water, Ruth S van de

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in both computers and algorithms now allow realistic calculations of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) interactions using the numerical technique of lattice QCD. The methods used in so-called '2+1 flavor' lattice calculations have been verified both by post-dictions of quantities that were already experimentally well-known and by predictions that occurred before the relevant experimental determinations were sufficiently precise. This suggests that the sources of systematic error in lattice calculations are under control, and that lattice QCD can now be reliably used to calculate those weak matrix elements that cannot be measured experimentally but are necessary to interpret the results of many high-energy physics experiments. These same calculations also allow stringent tests of the Standard Model of particle physics, and may therefore lead to the discovery of new physics in the future

  4. Remarks and suggestions concerned with formulation of the definition of quantity ''committed dose'' and quantity ''radiation burden'' useful in estimates of population exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cwik, T.

    1990-01-01

    The paper contains remarks to the definitions of the quantity ''commited dose'' given in the publications of the ICRP. The suggestions are presented on the mode of formulating the definition of the quantity ''commited dose'' and the definition of the quantity denoted hitherto by the symbol H 50 . The other suggestions deal with introduction of the quantity ''radiation burden'', assigned for use in assessments of irradiation expressed ''per caput'' of population. 9 refs. (author)

  5. A Novel Experimental and Modelling Strategy for Nanoparticle Toxicity Testing Enabling the Use of Small Quantities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinda van Pomeren

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Metallic nanoparticles (NPs differ from other metal forms with respect to their large surface to volume ratio and subsequent inherent reactivity. Each new modification to a nanoparticle alters the surface to volume ratio, fate and subsequently the toxicity of the particle. Newly-engineered NPs are commonly available only in low quantities whereas, in general, rather large amounts are needed for fate characterizations and effect studies. This challenge is especially relevant for those NPs that have low inherent toxicity combined with low bioavailability. Therefore, within our study, we developed new testing strategies that enable working with low quantities of NPs. The experimental testing method was tailor-made for NPs, whereas we also developed translational models based on different dose-metrics allowing to determine dose-response predictions for NPs. Both the experimental method and the predictive models were verified on the basis of experimental effect data collected using zebrafish embryos exposed to metallic NPs in a range of different chemical compositions and shapes. It was found that the variance in the effect data in the dose-response predictions was best explained by the minimal diameter of the NPs, whereas the data confirmed that the predictive model is widely applicable to soluble metallic NPs. The experimental and model approach developed in our study support the development of (ecotoxicity assays tailored to nano-specific features.

  6. The usage of amount, quantity and body in a corpus of biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purificación Sánchez Hernández

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Grammars and dictionaries usually offer relevant and accurate information to students of a second language. However, the meaning of a textual element is often dynamic and that information is not always based on real usage patterns. New occurrences on the object level in new contexts can introduce novel semantic potentials, so that existing interpretations may be superseded by new ones. Concordancing has been shown to be one of the most important tools to facilitate the understanding of the usage patterns of a language. In this paper we examine the differences between amount, quantity and body as terms expressing magnitude, sum and size in a corpus of Biology. According to some popular dictionaries and grammars, the terms amount and quantity have always been considered synonymous terms for expressing magnitude, size and sum. We demonstrate that, according to our records, they cannot be always used as synonymous terms since they have different patterns of usage. On the other hand there are other forms, such as body, that appear in our Corpus, implying magnitude, size and sum, that are not usually described as having such meanings in dictionaries.

  7. Quantity estimation based on numerical cues in the mealworm beetle (Tenebrio molitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau eCarazo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we used a biologically relevant experimental procedure to ask whether mealworm beetles (Tenebrio molitor are spontaneously capable of assessing quantities based on numerical cues. Like other insect species, mealworm beetles adjust their reproductive behaviour (i.e. investment in mate guarding according to the perceived risk of sperm competition (i.e. probability that a female will mate with another male. To test whether males have the ability to estimate numerosity based on numerical cues, we staged matings between virgin females and virgin males in which we varied the number of rival males the experimental male had access to immediately preceding mating as a cue to sperm competition risk (from 1 to 4. Rival males were presented sequentially, and we controlled for continuous cues by ensuring that males in all treatments were exposed to the same amount of male-male contact. Males exhibited a marked increase in the time they devoted to mate guarding in response to an increase in the number of different rival males they were exposed to. Since males could not rely on continuous cues we conclude that they kept a running tally of the number of individuals they encountered serially, which meets the requirements of the basic ordinality and cardinality principles of proto-counting. Our results thus offer good evidence of ‘true’ numerosity estimation or quantity estimation and, along with recent studies in honey-bees, suggest that vertebrates and invertebrates share similar core systems of non-verbal numerical representation.

  8. Publications as an indicator of increased tobacco control research productivity (quantity and quality) in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kira, Anette; Glover, Marewa; Bullen, Chris; Viehbeck, Sarah

    2011-06-01

    Tobacco control (TC) research capacity and productivity are critical for developing evidence-informed interventions that will reduce the harmful effects of smoking. The aim of this paper was to investigate New Zealand's (NZ) TC research capacity along with the quantity and quality of publications, following two government initiatives aimed, in part, at improving the quantity and quality of NZ TC research. Scopus was searched for articles with at least one NZ author and where the topic was of primary relevance to TC. Publications were organized into two time periods, following the government initiatives, 1993-2003 and 2004-2009. We analyzed the number of publications, publication journals, type of publications, impact (using the impact factor), and authorship. There has been an increase in number and impact of publications and number of authors. The number of publications has increased from an average of 14 (1994-2003) to 38 per year (2004-2009). The number of journals published increased from 64 to 86. The impact during 2004-2009 was almost threefold than in 1993-2003. The number of authors increased from 212 to 345, and the number of authors who had at least one first-authored publication increased from 80 to 124. These results show an encouraging trend in NZ TC research, with an increase in research productivity, quality, and in research capacity. It is possible that government-initiated and -funded infrastructural support contributed to increasing needed TC research, which supports the worth of such initiatives.

  9. Quantity and functionality of protein fractions in chicken breast fillets affected by white striping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudalal, S; Babini, E; Cavani, C; Petracci, M

    2014-08-01

    Recently, white striations parallel to muscle fibers direction have been observed on the surface of chicken breast, which could be ascribed to intensive growth selection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of white striping on chemical composition with special emphasis on myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic protein fractions that are relevant to the processing features of chicken breast meat. During this study, a total of 12 pectoralis major muscles from both normal and white striped fillets were used to evaluate chemical composition, protein solubility (sarcoplasmic, myofibrillar, and total protein solubility), protein quantity (sarcoplasmic, myofibrillar, and stromal proteins), water holding capacity, and protein profile by SDS-PAGE analysis. White-striped fillets exhibited a higher percentage of moisture (75.4 vs. 73.8%; P cooking loss (33.7 vs. 27.4%; P chicken breast meat with white striping defect had different chemical composition (more fat and less protein) and protein quality and quantity (low content of myofibrillar proteins and high content of stromal proteins) with respect to normal meat. Furthermore, white striped fillets had lower protein functionality (higher cooking loss). All the former changes indicate that white striping has great impact on quality characteristics of chicken breast meat. © Poultry Science Association Inc.

  10. Solvation quantities from a COSMO-RS equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panayiotou, C.; Tsivintzelis, I.; Aslanidou, D.; Hatzimanikatis, V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Extension of the successful COSMO-RS model to an equation-of-state model. • Two scaling constants, obtained from atom-specific contributions. • Overall estimation of the solvation quantities and contributions. - Abstract: This work focuses on the extension of the successful COSMO-RS model of mixtures into an equation-of-state model of fluids and its application for the estimation of solvation/hydration quantities of a variety of chemical substances. These quantities include free-energies, enthalpies and entropies of hydration as well as the separate contributions to each of them. Emphasis is given on the estimation of contributions from the conformational changes of solutes upon solvation and the associated restructuring of solvent in its immediate neighborhood. COSMO-RS is a quantum-mechanics based group/segment contribution model in which the Quasi-Chemical (QC) approach is used for the description of the non-random distribution of interacting segments in the system. Thus, the equation-of-state development is done through such a QC framework. The new model will not need any adjustable parameters for the strong specific interactions, such as hydrogen bonds, since they will be provided by the quantum-mechanics based cosmo-files – a key feature of COSMO-RS model. It will need, however, one volumetric and one energy parameter per fluid, which are scaling constants or molecular descriptors of the fluid and are obtained from rather easily available data such as densities, boiling points, vapor pressures, heats of vaporization or second virial coefficients. The performance and the potential of the new equation-of-state model to become a fully predictive model are critically discussed

  11. Radiation quantities, units and measurements. Final report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambersie, A.; Allisy, A.; Caswell, R.S.

    2000-01-01

    The determination of human exposure to radiation and radioactivity, whether arising from environmental exposures, medical practice or industrial activities, requires a fundamental set of quantities and units with which exposures can be specified and the means and ability to make measurements which yield results in terms of these quantities and units. Radiation protection then, as well as effective use of radiation in medical applications, requires the capability to accurately quantify the characteristics and extent of radiation exposure, so that appropriate and useful assessments of the potential health consequences and risks, whether for protection of the public and workers or for diagnosis and treatment of disease, can be formulated. The work carried out via this concerted action on ''Radiation quantities, units and measurements'' has addressed these needs. Measurement of radiation is a complex subject and is a science in itself. Yet many users of radiation who need to make radiation measurements cannot be expected to become experts in this particular field. They need authoritative guidance on how to deal with the measurement problems connected with their particular use of radiation. The work carried out pursuant to this concerted action has resulted in publications that meet this need. Important achievements include the publication of seven new ICRU reports, the completion of all but the printing of three other ICRU reports, completion of the drafting work on two other reports, the development of many others reports and the initiation of seven new activities that will result in ICRU reports representing important future contribution to the needs identified in this project. (orig.)

  12. Instrument for ultrasonic measurement of physical quantities of flowing media, especially the flow velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thun, N.; Brown, A.E.

    1977-01-01

    The invention is based on the task to present an instrument for ultrasonic measurement of flow velocities with high accuracy which may be produced substantially cheaper because of the use of a simple circuit design and normal components. The task is solved according to the invention by connecting the output of the first signal level transmitter as main signal and the output of the second signal level transmitter as auxiliary signal with a summing circuit forming a control signal by adding and/or subtracting the auxiliary signal to/from the main signal and providing for a switch, controlled by the transmitting direction, causing alternatingly two different delay times for the reference signal to become effective. (orig./RW) [de

  13. Evaluating the uncertainty of input quantities in measurement models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possolo, Antonio; Elster, Clemens

    2014-06-01

    The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) gives guidance about how values and uncertainties should be assigned to the input quantities that appear in measurement models. This contribution offers a concrete proposal for how that guidance may be updated in light of the advances in the evaluation and expression of measurement uncertainty that were made in the course of the twenty years that have elapsed since the publication of the GUM, and also considering situations that the GUM does not yet contemplate. Our motivation is the ongoing conversation about a new edition of the GUM. While generally we favour a Bayesian approach to uncertainty evaluation, we also recognize the value that other approaches may bring to the problems considered here, and focus on methods for uncertainty evaluation and propagation that are widely applicable, including to cases that the GUM has not yet addressed. In addition to Bayesian methods, we discuss maximum-likelihood estimation, robust statistical methods, and measurement models where values of nominal properties play the same role that input quantities play in traditional models. We illustrate these general-purpose techniques in concrete examples, employing data sets that are realistic but that also are of conveniently small sizes. The supplementary material available online lists the R computer code that we have used to produce these examples (stacks.iop.org/Met/51/3/339/mmedia). Although we strive to stay close to clause 4 of the GUM, which addresses the evaluation of uncertainty for input quantities, we depart from it as we review the classes of measurement models that we believe are generally useful in contemporary measurement science. We also considerably expand and update the treatment that the GUM gives to Type B evaluations of uncertainty: reviewing the state-of-the-art, disciplined approach to the elicitation of expert knowledge, and its encapsulation in probability distributions that are usable in

  14. Comparison of simulated and measured quantities of a duplex reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koskela, M.; Kajava, M. [ABB Marine, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this article is to illustrate the use of an analog simulator as a design tool when designing new power electric equipment. The purpose of simulation is to predict the functionality of electrical equipment to be constructed. Duplex reactor is an electromagnetic device designed to reduce voltage harmonics and short circuit currents in the ship electrical network. In this report a comparison between simulated and measured electrical quantities of a duplex reactor has been made. The purpose of the measurements was to show the correct functioning of the reactor. The simulation results and the measured waveforms corresponds well to each other. (orig.) 4 refs.

  15. Sustainable economic production quantity models for inventory systems with shortage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taleizadeh, Ata Allah; Soleymanfar, Vahid Reza; Govindan, Kannan

    2018-01-01

    optimal values of inventory system variables, we solve four independent profit maximization problems for four different situations. These proposed models include a basic model in which shortages are not allowed, and when shortages are allowed, the lost sale, full backordering and partial backordering...... (EPQ). The theoretical sustainable EOQ and EPQ models are basic models that ignore many real-life conditions such as the possibility of stock-out in inventory systems. In this paper, we develop four new sustainable economic production quantity models that consider different shortage situations. To find...

  16. Net present value analysis of the economic production quantity

    OpenAIRE

    Disney, Stephen Michael; Warburton, R. D. H.; Zhong, Q. C.

    2013-01-01

    Using Laplace transforms we extend the economic production quantity (EPQ) model by analysing cash flows from a net present value (NPV) viewpoint. We obtain an exact expression for the present value of the cash flows in the EPQ problem. From this, we are able to derive the optimal batch size. We obtain insights into the monotonicity and convexity of the present value of each of the cash flows, and show that there is a unique minimum in the present value of the sum of the cash flows in the exte...

  17. MICROMICETES QUANTITY AND BIOMASS IN TECHNOGENIC AND NATURAL SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Korinovskaya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that in edaphotopes around of freight checkpoint of CJSC «Krivorozhskiy Surikovyy Zavod», ore-enrichment factory and fresh-inwashed pool of tailings dam of PJSC «Northern Iron Ore Enrichment Works» there is an increase of heavy metals mobile forms (which are the most dangerous for microorganisms, plants, animals and human: for iron in 310; for zinc - in 4,3-6,5; for lead - in 3.2-5.7; for cadmium - in 5,6-9,8; for copper – 6,8-66,5 and for nickel - in 9 times as compared to zonal soil. Whereas in soils of CJSC «Krivorozhskiy Surikovyy Zavod» sanitary protection zone number of copper, nickel, lead, cadmium and zinc mobile forms exceeded the control values in 2,4-6,6 times. For the first time the features of soil microscopic fungi seasonal dynamics of quantity in industrial disturbed soils of Kryvorizhzhya compared to zonal soil (chernozem usual were registered. Changes in fungal mycelium length and biomass, its spore’s amount and biomass in edaphotopes of ore-enrichment and chemical enterprises and of common chernozem are also presented. It is shown that in edaphotopes of heavy contamination areas of «Krivorozhskiy Surikovyy Zavod» and of «Northern Iron Ore Enrichment Works» in spring, summer, and autumn there was decrease of microscopic fungi quantity in 4-10 times, moreover in tehnozems of «Northern Iron Ore Enrichment Works» fresh-inwashed pool of tailings dam their amount reduces in more than 100 times, compared with common chernozem. In low contamination area of «Krivorozhskiy Surikovyy Zavod» their quantity decreases in 2 times. Also in heavy contamination areas of chemical and ore-enrichment enterprises there is strong decrease in the length of fungal mycelium in 2.7-4.2 times, its biomass in 2,6-4,5 times, the spores amount - in 4,5-7,7 times and their biomass - in 10,5-21 times compared to the natural soil, which could be explained by high contents of toxicants. While in the sanitary protection zone of the

  18. Documentation and analysis for packaging limited quantity ice chests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this Documentation and Analysis for Packaging (DAP) is to document that ice chests meet the intent of the International Air Transport Association (IATA) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Code of Federal Regulations as strong, tight containers for the packaging of limited quantities for transport. This DAP also outlines the packaging method used to protect the sample bottles from breakage. Because the ice chests meet the DOT requirements, they can be used to ship LTD QTY on the Hanford Site

  19. Investigation on Capability of Reaming Process using Minimal Quantity Lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Tosello, Guido; Piska, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    An investigation on reaming using minimal quantity lubrication (MQL) was carried out with the scope of documenting process capability using a metrological approach. Reaming tests were carried out on austenitic stainless steel, using HSS reamers with different cutting data and lubrication conditions...... depth of cut was employed. The suitability of MQL for reaming was proven under the investigated process conditions, concerning both the quality of the machined holes, in terms of geometrical characteristics and surface finishing, and the process quality, with respect to reaming torque and thrust, along...

  20. Astroparticle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Grupen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    The book describes the branch of astrophysics in which processes in the universe are investigated with experimental methods known from particle physics experiments. After a historical introduction to the basics of elementary particles, their interactions and the relevant detection techniques are described. The main body of the book concerns cosmic rays. The modern aspects of astroparticle physics are described in a chapter on cosmology. The book provides an orientation in the field of astroparticle physics that many beginners might look for. The physics issues are presented with little mathematics, and the results are illustrated by many diagrams. The reader has a chance to enter this field of astrophysics with a book that closes the gap between expert and popular level.

  1. Peer Assessment for Construction Management and Quantity Surveying Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia McLaughlin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Students undertaking the Bachelor of ConstructionManagement degree course at RMIT University, Melbourne,qualify for registration with the Australian Institute ofQuantity Surveyors (AIQS and the Australian Institute ofBuilding (AIB upon graduation. Over the past decade thedegree course has been constantly upgraded and altered inline with recommendations from professional bodies such asthese and other industry partners. In 1994 the Departmentof Building and Construction Economics re-assesseda range of subjects including the first year technologysubjects. Out of the review a problem-based integratedlearning unit was developed and tested. This unit has nowbeen in place for ten years.Quantity surveying and construction management likemost other professions in the construction industryrequire teamwork and advanced consultation skills. Theseskills may be learnt through experience but there isconsiderable evidence that these skills can be taught in theundergraduate years. Therefore in line with team-basedapproaches used in industry and professional constructionsettings, this year a new assessment model - peerassessment - will be applied to the problem-based learningunit. This paper describes the procedures and processesused to introduce the change and examines the theoreticalbase upon which the model was developed.

  2. Determinants of procurement strategy for construction works: quantity surveyors’ perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrewaju AbdulLateef

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The selection of the ‘appropriate’ procurement strategy is a prerequisite to the success or failure of a construction project. This paper investigates the factors determining the selection of appropriate procurement strategy for construction works in Nigeria. Data for the study was collected through an online survey questionnaire. The survey administration involves only quantity surveyors. Quantity surveyors were targeted because they advise clients and other stakeholders on procurement and contractual issues on construction works. A total of 33 usable responses were received and analysed for this study. On the basis of the results, it is concluded that the selection of procurement strategies for construction depend on complex interrelated factors. The study could not detect a particular factor or few factors responsible for a procurement strategy selection. The findings of this study is useful because it argues that the construction sector needs to broaden its considerations on the procurement strategy’s determinants rather than focusing solely on the client’s type and nature of projects as is often cited. Future research could segment these factors in terms of class of construction works or increase the sample size, which might lead to different findings.

  3. Estimation of Waste Quantities Using DeCAT-Pro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Taesik; Jung, Hyejin; Oh, Jaeyoung; Kim, Younggook [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The D and D (Dismantling and Decontamination) is scheduled to get started in June 2022 elapsing five years of cooling spent fuels down. The final site status is postulated as Brown Field and tentative DCGL of less than 0.1 mSv per year to evaluate waste quantities in a conservative manner. The decommissioning strategy was determined the immediate decommissioning whose whole period would be taken for approximately 15 years; pre-decommissioning for two years, spent fuel cool-down for five years, D and D for six years, site remediation for two years. The assumption to dismantle the underground facilities including SSCs is to one meter beneath the ground level and the other facilities remain intact. In addition, non-radioactive concrete wastes would be used to landfill gaps of the remaining facilities. Although there are many assumptions we applied, the methodologies developed and the data produced by this research will play a meaningful role as a good starting point for the Kori-1 decommissioning after its shutdown to logically and reasonably estimate the waste quantity. However it is clear that tenacious efforts should be taken to successfully perform the decommissioning project.

  4. Highway route controlled quantity shipment routing reports - An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashwell, J.W.; Welles, B.W.; Welch, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations require a postnotification report from the shipper for all shipments of radioactive materials categorized as a Highway Route Controlled Quantity. These postnotification reports, filed in compliance with 49 CFR 172.203(d), have been compiled by the DOT in a database known as the Radioactive Materials Routing Report (RAMRT) since 1982. The data were sorted by each of its elements to establish historical records and trends of Highway Route Controlled Quantity shipments from 1982 through 1987. Approximately 1520 records in the RAMRT database were compiled for this analysis. Approximately half of the shipments reported for the study period were from the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors, with the others being commercial movements. Two DOE installations, EG and G Idaho and Oak Ridge, accounted for nearly half of the DOE activities. Similarly, almost half of the commercial movements were reported by two vendors, Nuclear Assurance Corporation and Transnuclear, Incorporated. Spent fuel from power and research reactors accounted for approximately half of all shipments

  5. Dangerous quantities of radioactive material (D-values). Emergency preparedness and response. Publication date: August 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-08-01

    Radioactive material is widely used in industry, medicine, education and agriculture. In addition, it occurs naturally. The health risk posed by these materials vary widely depending on many factors, the most important of which are the amount of the material involved and its physical and chemical form. Therefore, there is a need to identify the quantity and type of radioactive material for which emergency preparedness and other arrangements (e.g. security) are warrant due to the health risk they pose. The aim of this publication is to provide practical guidance for Member States on that quantity of radioactive material that may be considered dangerous. A dangerous quantity is that, which if uncontrolled, could be involved in a reasonable scenario resulting in the death of an exposed individual or a permanent injury, which decreases that person's quality of life. This publication is published as part of the IAEA Emergency Preparedness and Response Series. It supports several publications including: the IAEA Safety Requirements 'Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency', IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2. IAEA, Vienna (2002); IAEA Safety Guide 'Categorization of Radioactive Sources', IAEA Safety Standards Series No RS-G-1.9, IAEA, Vienna (2005) and IAEA Safety Guide 'Arrangements for Preparedness for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency' IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-G-2.1, IAEA, Vienna (2006). The procedures and data in this publication have been prepared with due attention to accuracy. However, as part of the review process, they undergo ongoing quality assurance checks. Comments are welcome and, following a period that will allow for a more extensive review, the IAEA may revise this publication as part of the process of continuous improvement. The publication uses a number of exposure scenarios, risk models and dosimetric data, which could be used during the response to nuclear or radiological emergency or other purposes

  6. B Physics at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Pepe Altarelli, Monica

    2008-01-01

    LHCb is a dedicated detector for b physics at the LHC. In this article we present a concise review of the detector design and performance together with the main physics goals and their relevance for a precise test of the Standard Model and search of New Physics beyond it.

  7. MICROMICETES QUANTITY AND BIOMASS IN TECHNOGENIC AND NATURAL SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korinovskaya Olga Nikolaevna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that in edaphotopes around of freight checkpoint of CJSC «Krivorozhskiy Surikovyy Zavod», ore-enrichment factory and fresh-inwashed pool of tailings dam of PJSC «Northern Iron Ore Enrichment Works» there is an increase of heavy metals mobile forms (which are the most dangerous for microorganisms, plants, animals and human: for iron in 310; for zinc - in 4,3-6,5; for lead - in 3.2-5.7; for cadmium - in 5,6-9,8; for copper – 6,8-66,5 and for nickel - in 9 times as compared to zonal soil. Whereas in soils of CJSC «Krivorozhskiy Surikovyy Zavod» sanitary protection zone number of copper, nickel, lead, cadmium and zinc mobile forms exceeded the control values in 2,4-6,6 times. For the first time the features of soil microscopic fungi seasonal dynamics of quantity in industrial disturbed soils of Kryvorizhzhya compared to zonal soil (chernozem usual were registered. Changes in fungal mycelium length and biomass, its spore’s amount and biomass in edaphotopes of ore-enrichment and chemical enterprises and of common chernozem are also presented. It is shown that in edaphotopes of heavy contamination areas of «Krivorozhskiy Surikovyy Zavod» and of «Northern Iron Ore Enrichment Works» in spring, summer, and autumn there was decrease of microscopic fungi quantity in 4-10 times, moreover in tehnozems of «Northern Iron Ore Enrichment Works» fresh-inwashed pool of tailings dam their amount reduces in more than 100 times, compared with common chernozem. In low contamination area of «Krivorozhskiy Surikovyy Zavod» their quantity decreases in 2 times. Also in heavy contamination areas of chemical and ore-enrichment enterprises there is strong decrease in the length of fungal mycelium in 2.7-4.2 times, its biomass in 2,6-4,5 times, the spores amount - in 4,5-7,7 times and their biomass - in 10,5-21 times compared to the natural soil, which could be explained by high contents of toxicants. While in the sanitary protection zone of the

  8. Approach to determine measurement uncertainty in complex nanosystems with multiparametric dependencies and multivariate output quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, B.; Liu, B.; Nording, F.; Ostermann, J.; Struszewski, P.; Langfahl-Klabes, J.; Bieler, M.; Bosse, H.; Güttler, B.; Lemmens, P.; Schilling, M.; Tutsch, R.

    2018-03-01

    In many cases, the determination of the measurement uncertainty of complex nanosystems provides unexpected challenges. This is in particular true for complex systems with many degrees of freedom, i.e. nanosystems with multiparametric dependencies and multivariate output quantities. The aim of this paper is to address specific questions arising during the uncertainty calculation of such systems. This includes the division of the measurement system into subsystems and the distinction between systematic and statistical influences. We demonstrate that, even if the physical systems under investigation are very different, the corresponding uncertainty calculation can always be realized in a similar manner. This is exemplarily shown in detail for two experiments, namely magnetic nanosensors and ultrafast electro-optical sampling of complex time-domain signals. For these examples the approach for uncertainty calculation following the guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM) is explained, in which correlations between multivariate output quantities are captured. To illustate the versatility of the proposed approach, its application to other experiments, namely nanometrological instruments for terahertz microscopy, dimensional scanning probe microscopy, and measurement of concentration of molecules using surface enhanced Raman scattering, is shortly discussed in the appendix. We believe that the proposed approach provides a simple but comprehensive orientation for uncertainty calculation in the discussed measurement scenarios and can also be applied to similar or related situations.

  9. The quantity time relation in the ionizing radiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordão, B. O.; Quaresma, D. S.; Peixoto, J. G. P.

    2018-03-01

    The metrology area has taken a step forward with regard to the uncertainty calculation. This mathematical tool used in laboratories is essential to ensure that the values resulting from a measurement are reliable. For this to be possible, all equipment used in a measurement process must be reliable and, above all, traceable to the international metrology system. We propose to present in this work: (i) the development and calibration of a microcontrolled time device with a resolution of 1x10-4 s, in order to characterize the time greatness and make it re-producible; (ii) the calibration of the quartz clock present in a computer present in the dosimetry laboratories; (iii) a more in-depth study of the influence of time quantity on calibrations of instruments used in the area of radiological protection, diagnostic radiology and radiotherapy, with measurements performed on the Kerma magnitude in air or its rate.

  10. Quantity and structure of word knowledge across adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salthouse, Timothy A

    2014-09-01

    Cross-sectional and longitudinal data from moderately large samples of healthy adults confirmed prior findings of age-related declines in measures of the quantity of word knowledge beginning around age 65. Additional analyses were carried out to investigate the interrelations of different types of vocabulary knowledge at various periods in adulthood. Although the organizational structures were similar in adults of different ages, scores on tests with different formats had weaker relations to a higher-order vocabulary construct beginning when adults were in their 60's. The within-person dispersion among different vocabulary test scores was also greater after about 65 years of age. The discovery of quantitative decreases in amount of knowledge occurring at about the same age as qualitative shifts in the structure of knowledge raises the possibility that the two types of changes may be causally linked.

  11. Synthesis of pure iron magnetic nanoparticles in large quantity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwary, C S; Kashyap, S; Chattopadhyay, K; Biswas, K

    2013-01-01

    Free nanoparticles of iron (Fe) and their colloids with high saturation magnetization are in demand for medical and microfluidic applications. However, the oxide layer that forms during processing has made such synthesis a formidable challenge. Lowering the synthesis temperature decreases rate of oxidation and hence provides a new way of producing pure metallic nanoparticles prone to oxidation in bulk amount (large quantity). In this paper we have proposed a methodology that is designed with the knowledge of thermodynamic imperatives of oxidation to obtain almost oxygen-free iron nanoparticles, with or without any organic capping by controlled milling at low temperatures in a specially designed high-energy ball mill with the possibility of bulk production. The particles can be ultrasonicated to produce colloids and can be bio-capped to produce transparent solution. The magnetic properties of these nanoparticles confirm their superiority for possible biomedical and other applications. (paper)

  12. Protection of groundwater resources quality and quantity in mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grmela, A.

    1997-01-01

    This contribution is devoted to the problems of the impact of land subsidence from coal and other mining systems on underground and surface waters, particularly in relation to the possible influence on quality and quantity of pumped waters for public or individual supply. It determines features of permanent and time-limited changes of hydrogeological structure and effectiveness of measures for their minimization (classification of sources from the point of view of protection, delineation of protection zones for water resources, monitoring of effectiveness of measures). Case studies are presented for examples from the Czech part of Upper Silesian Basin - catchment area Doubrava-Spluchov, Karvina-Stare Mesto, Ostrava-Nove Ves, and Dubi, Darkov Spa. Attention is focused on problems of delimitation of protection zones in undermined areas in respect to the new proposal of the Appendix to Water Law. 8 refs., 2 figs

  13. Bulky waste quantities and treatment methods in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Warberg; Petersen, Claus; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2012-01-01

    were identified of which ten were recyclable and constituted 50–60% of the total quantity. The others were combustible waste for incineration (30–40%) and non-combustible waste for landfilling (10%). The largest fractions by mass were combustible waste, bricks and tile, concrete, non-combustible waste....... In addition a sorting analysis was conducted on combustible waste, which is a major fraction of bulky waste in Denmark. The generation of bulky waste was found to be 150–250 kg capita−1 year−1, and 90% of the waste was collected at recycling centres; the rest through kerbside collection. Twelve main fractions......, wood, and metal scrap, which together made up more than 90% of the total waste amounts. The amount of combustible waste could be significantly reduced through better sorting. Many of the waste fractions consisted of composite products that underwent thorough separation before being recycled...

  14. Symbol addition by monkeys provides evidence for normalized quantity coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Margaret S.; Pettine, Warren W.; Srihasam, Krishna; Moore, Brandon; Morocz, Istvan A.; Lee, Daeyeol

    2014-01-01

    Weber’s law can be explained either by a compressive scaling of sensory response with stimulus magnitude or by a proportional scaling of response variability. These two mechanisms can be distinguished by asking how quantities are added or subtracted. We trained Rhesus monkeys to associate 26 distinct symbols with 0–25 drops of reward, and then tested how they combine, or add, symbolically represented reward magnitude. We found that they could combine symbolically represented magnitudes, and they transferred this ability to a novel symbol set, indicating that they were performing a calculation, not just memorizing the value of each combination. The way they combined pairs of symbols indicated neither a linear nor a compressed scale, but rather a dynamically shifting, relative scaling. PMID:24753600

  15. ANALYZER OF QUANTITY AND QUALITY OF THE ELECTRIC POWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Semilyak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the activities of the research center for “Energy Saving Technologies and Smart Metering in Electrical Power Engineering" is research work on the use of electronic devices and systems of intelligent power distribution, produced by Analog Devices and equipped with the accurate energy consumption measurement feature. The article focuses on the development of the analyzer of quantity and quality of electric energy.The main part of the analyzer is a metering IC by Analog Devices ADE7878, designed for use in commercial and industrial smart electricity meters. Such counters measure the amount of consumed or produced electric energy with high accuracy and have the means of remote meter reading.

  16. The quantity time relation in the ionizing radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordão, Bruno; Quaresma, Daniel, E-mail: bjordan@on.br [Observatorio Nacional (LPTF/ON), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Laboratório Primário de Tempo e Frequência; Peixoto, José Guilherme P. [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (LNMRI/IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Laboratório Nacional de Metrologia das Radiações Ionizantes

    2017-07-01

    The area of metrology has taken a step forward with regard to the calculation of uncertainty. This mathematical tool used in laboratories is essential to ensure that the values resulting from a measurement are reliable. For this to be possible, all equipment used in a measurement process must be reliable and, above all, traceable to the international metrology system. We propose to present in this work: (1) the development and calibration of a microcontrolled time device with a resolution of 1 x 10{sup -4} s, in order to characterize the time greatness and make it reproducible; (2) the calibration of the quartz clock present in a computer present in the dosimetry laboratories; (3) a more in-depth study of the influence of time quantity on calibrations of instruments used in the area of radiological protection, diagnostic radiology and radiotherapy, with measurements performed on the Kerma magnitude in air or its rate. (author)

  17. The quantity time relation in the ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordão, Bruno; Quaresma, Daniel; Peixoto, José Guilherme P.

    2017-01-01

    The area of metrology has taken a step forward with regard to the calculation of uncertainty. This mathematical tool used in laboratories is essential to ensure that the values resulting from a measurement are reliable. For this to be possible, all equipment used in a measurement process must be reliable and, above all, traceable to the international metrology system. We propose to present in this work: (1) the development and calibration of a microcontrolled time device with a resolution of 1 x 10 -4 s, in order to characterize the time greatness and make it reproducible; (2) the calibration of the quartz clock present in a computer present in the dosimetry laboratories; (3) a more in-depth study of the influence of time quantity on calibrations of instruments used in the area of radiological protection, diagnostic radiology and radiotherapy, with measurements performed on the Kerma magnitude in air or its rate. (author)

  18. Measuring Radionuclides in the environment: radiological quantities and sampling designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, G.

    1998-10-01

    One aim of the workshop was to support and provide an ICRU report committee (International Union of Radiation Units) with actual information on techniques, data and knowledge of modern radioecology when radionuclides are to be measured in the environment. It has been increasingly recognised that some studies in radioecology, especially those involving both field sampling and laboratory measurements, have not paid adequate attention to the problem of obtaining representative, unbiased samples. This can greatly affect the quality of scientific interpretation, and the ability to manage the environment. Further, as the discipline of radioecology has developed, it has seen a growth in the numbers of quantities and units used, some of which are ill-defined and which are non-standardised. (orig.)

  19. Effects of insemination quantity on honey bee queen physiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddie-Jeanne Richard

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Mating has profound effects on the physiology and behavior of female insects, and in honey bee (Apis mellifera queens, these changes are permanent. Queens mate with multiple males during a brief period in their early adult lives, and shortly thereafter they initiate egg-laying. Furthermore, the pheromone profiles of mated queens differ from those of virgins, and these pheromones regulate many different aspects of worker behavior and colony organization. While it is clear that mating causes dramatic changes in queens, it is unclear if mating number has more subtle effects on queen physiology or queen-worker interactions; indeed, the effect of multiple matings on female insect physiology has not been broadly addressed. Because it is not possible to control the natural mating behavior of queens, we used instrumental insemination and compared queens inseminated with semen from either a single drone (single-drone inseminated, or SDI or 10 drones (multi-drone inseminated, or MDI. We used observation hives to monitor attraction of workers to SDI or MDI queens in colonies, and cage studies to monitor the attraction of workers to virgin, SDI, and MDI queen mandibular gland extracts (the main source of queen pheromone. The chemical profiles of the mandibular glands of virgin, SDI, and MDI queens were characterized using GC-MS. Finally, we measured brain expression levels in SDI and MDI queens of a gene associated with phototaxis in worker honey bees (Amfor. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that insemination quantity significantly affects mandibular gland chemical profiles, queen-worker interactions, and brain gene expression. Further research will be necessary to elucidate the mechanistic bases for these effects: insemination volume, sperm and seminal protein quantity, and genetic diversity of the sperm may all be important factors contributing to this profound change in honey bee queen physiology, queen behavior, and social interactions in the

  20. Is the dose equivalent index a quantity to be measured

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, S.R.

    1980-01-01

    ICRP introduced the concept of Effective Dose Equivalent H(sub)E and fixed the basic limits of radiation exposure in terms of H(sub)I. As H(sub)E cannot be measured, ICRP stated that with external exposure to penetrating radiation the limitation of the Dose Equivalent Index H(sub)I would afford at least as good a level of protection. However, difficulties arise in measuring H(sub)I and in calibrating instruments in terms of H(sub)I, since the height and location of the dose equivalent maximum in the sphere which is the phantom used in the definition of H(sub)I, depend on the energy and the angular distribution of the incident radiation. That is, H(sub)I is not an additive quantity relative to the partial H(sub)I(sub)i-values of the different energy and angular components. Hence, 1) the distribution of dose equivalent in the sphere must be measured in full for a determination of H(sub)I, and 2) it is not possible to calibrate an instrument which does not exhibit the scattering and absorption properties of the sphere, consistently for arbitrary radiation fields in terms of H(sub)I. Thus the calibration in an unidirectional beam would infer an uncertainty which may amount to a factor of up to 4. This would hardly be tolerable as a base for radiation protection provisions. An alternative is to introduce operational quantities which are additive, e.g. 1) the sum of maxima of the dose equivalent distributions in the sphere produced by different radiation components, and 2) the mean dose equivalent in the sphere. Their relation to H(sub)E for different types of radiation and consequences on secondary limits are discussed. (H.K.)

  1. Quantity judgements in the context of risk/reward decision making in striped field mice: First count, then hunt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia ePanteleeva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We simulated the vital situation of risky hunting in the striped field mouse Apodemus agrarius in order to examine whether these animals are able to make a choice between small and large quantities of live prey (ants. In the first (preliminary experiment we investigated to what extent mice were interested in ants as a live prey and how their hunting activity depended on the quantity of these edible but rather aggressive insects. We placed mice one by one into arenas together with ant groups of different size, from 10 to 60. Surprisingly, animals, both wild-caught and laboratory-reared, displayed rather skilled predatory attacks: mice killed and ate from 0.37±003 to 4±0.5 ants per minute. However, there was a threshold number of ants in the arenas when rodents expressed signs of discomfort and started to panic, because ants bit them. This threshold corresponds to the dynamic density (about 400 individuals per m 2per min in the vicinity of anthills and ants’ routes in natural environment. In the second experiment mice had to choose between different quantities of ants placed in two transparent tunnels. Ants here served both as food items and as a source of danger. As far as we know, this is the first experimental paradigm based on evaluation of quantity judgements in the context of risk/reward decision making where the animals face a trade-off between the hedonistic value of the prey and the danger it presents.. We found that when mice have to choose between 5 vs 15, 5 vs 30 and 10 vs 30 ants, they always tend to prefer the smaller quantity, thus displaying the capacity for distinguishing more from less in order to ensure comfortable hunting. The results of this study are ecologically relevant as they reflect situations and challenges faced by free-living small rodents.

  2. To total amount of activity ..... and beyond: Perspectives on measuring physical behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes B.J. Bussmann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to describe and discuss some perspectives on definitions, constructs and outcome parameters of physical behaviour. The paper focuses on the following constructs: Physical activity & active lifestyle vs. sedentary behaviour & sedentary lifestyle; Amount of physical activity vs. amount of walking; Detailed body posture & movement data vs. overall physical activity data; Behavioural context of activities; Quantity vs. quality; Physical behaviour vs. physiological response.Subsequently, the following outcome parameters provided by data reduction procedures are discussed: Distribution of length of bouts; Variability in bout length; Time window; Intensity and intensity threshold.The overview indicates that physical behaviour is a multi-dimensional construct, and it stresses the importance and relevance of constructs and parameters other than total amount of physical activity.It is concluded that the challenge for the future will be to determine which parameters are most relevant, valid and responsive. This is a matter for physical behaviour researchers to consider, that is critical to multi-disciplinary collaboration.

  3. General Relativity: Geometry Meets Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Dietrick E.

    1975-01-01

    Observing the relationship of general relativity and the geometry of space-time, the author questions whether the rest of physics has geometrical explanations. As a partial answer he discusses current research on subatomic particles employing geometric transformations, and cites the existence of geometrical definitions of physical quantities such…

  4. Uncertainties and correlations for the 56Fe damage cross sections and spectra averaged quantities based on TENDL-TMC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simakov, S.P.; Konobeyev, A.Yu.; Koning, A.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this work is a calculation of the covariance matrices for the physical quantities used to characterize the neutron induced radiation damage in the materials. Such quantities usually encompass: the charged particles kinetic energy deposition KERMA (locally deposited nuclear heating), damage energy (to calculate then the number of displaced atoms) and gas production cross sections [(n,xα), (n,xt), (n,xp) … to calculate then transmuting of target nuclei to gases]. The uncertainties and energy-energy or reaction-reaction correlations for such quantities were not assessed so far, whereas the covariances for many underlying cross sections are often presented in the evaluated data libraries. Due to the dependence of damage quantities on many reactions channels, on both total and differential cross sections, and in particular on the energy distribution of reaction recoils, the evaluation of uncertainty is not straightforward. To reach a goal, we used the method based on idea of Total Monte Carlo application to the Nuclear Data. This report summarises the current results for evaluation, validation and representation in the ENDF-6 format of the radiation damage covariances for n + 56 Fe from thermal energy up to 20 MeV. This study was motivated by the IAEA Coordinated Research Project ''Primary Radiation Damage Cross Sections'' and by present dedicated Technical Meeting “Nuclear Reaction Data and Uncertainties for Radiation Damage”

  5. University physics Arfken Griffing Kelly Priest

    CERN Document Server

    Houk, T William; Snider, John W

    1984-01-01

    University Physics: Arfken Griffing Kelly Priest covers the concepts upon which the quantitative nature of physics as a science depends; the types of quantities with which physics deals are defined as well as their nature; and the concepts of units and dimensions. The book describes the concepts of scalars and vectors; the rules for performing mathematical operations on vector quantities; the concepts of force, torque, center of gravity, and types of equilibrium. The text also describes the concepts and quantities required to describe motion; the linear kinematical relationships to describe m

  6. Evaluation of specific absorption rate as a dosimetric quantity for electromagnetic fields bioeffects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris J Panagopoulos

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate SAR as a dosimetric quantity for EMF bioeffects, and identify ways for increasing the precision in EMF dosimetry and bioactivity assessment. METHODS: We discuss the interaction of man-made electromagnetic waves with biological matter and calculate the energy transferred to a single free ion within a cell. We analyze the physics and biology of SAR and evaluate the methods of its estimation. We discuss the experimentally observed non-linearity between electromagnetic exposure and biological effect. RESULTS: WE FIND THAT: a The energy absorbed by living matter during exposure to environmentally accounted EMFs is normally well below the thermal level. b All existing methods for SAR estimation, especially those based upon tissue conductivity and internal electric field, have serious deficiencies. c The only method to estimate SAR without large error is by measuring temperature increases within biological tissue, which normally are negligible for environmental EMF intensities, and thus cannot be measured. CONCLUSIONS: SAR actually refers to thermal effects, while the vast majority of the recorded biological effects from man-made non-ionizing environmental radiation are non-thermal. Even if SAR could be accurately estimated for a whole tissue, organ, or body, the biological/health effect is determined by tiny amounts of energy/power absorbed by specific biomolecules, which cannot be calculated. Moreover, it depends upon field parameters not taken into account in SAR calculation. Thus, SAR should not be used as the primary dosimetric quantity, but used only as a complementary measure, always reporting the estimating method and the corresponding error. Radiation/field intensity along with additional physical parameters (such as frequency, modulation etc which can be directly and in any case more accurately measured on the surface of biological tissues, should constitute the primary measure for EMF exposures, in spite of similar

  7. Evaluation of specific absorption rate as a dosimetric quantity for electromagnetic fields bioeffects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulos, Dimitris J; Johansson, Olle; Carlo, George L

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate SAR as a dosimetric quantity for EMF bioeffects, and identify ways for increasing the precision in EMF dosimetry and bioactivity assessment. We discuss the interaction of man-made electromagnetic waves with biological matter and calculate the energy transferred to a single free ion within a cell. We analyze the physics and biology of SAR and evaluate the methods of its estimation. We discuss the experimentally observed non-linearity between electromagnetic exposure and biological effect. WE FIND THAT: a) The energy absorbed by living matter during exposure to environmentally accounted EMFs is normally well below the thermal level. b) All existing methods for SAR estimation, especially those based upon tissue conductivity and internal electric field, have serious deficiencies. c) The only method to estimate SAR without large error is by measuring temperature increases within biological tissue, which normally are negligible for environmental EMF intensities, and thus cannot be measured. SAR actually refers to thermal effects, while the vast majority of the recorded biological effects from man-made non-ionizing environmental radiation are non-thermal. Even if SAR could be accurately estimated for a whole tissue, organ, or body, the biological/health effect is determined by tiny amounts of energy/power absorbed by specific biomolecules, which cannot be calculated. Moreover, it depends upon field parameters not taken into account in SAR calculation. Thus, SAR should not be used as the primary dosimetric quantity, but used only as a complementary measure, always reporting the estimating method and the corresponding error. Radiation/field intensity along with additional physical parameters (such as frequency, modulation etc) which can be directly and in any case more accurately measured on the surface of biological tissues, should constitute the primary measure for EMF exposures, in spite of similar uncertainty to predict the biological effect due to non-linearity.

  8. Comment on ‘On the units radian and cycle for the quantity plane angle’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, B. P.

    2016-12-01

    In the referenced paper, Ian Mills addresses the confusion caused by the treatment of plane angle in the International System of Units (SI). As he points out, what the SI calls an ‘angle’ is not a dimensional physical quantity but, rather, the dimensionless numerical value of the angle when expressed in radians, thus creating widespread confusion regarding terminology and notation. For example, Mills shows that for the harmonic oscillator, if the conventional argument of the sinusoid represents an angle, it must be divided by a dimensional constant equal to one radian in order to correctly render it dimensionless, thereby greatly clarifying the notation. However, there is a problem with the author’s interpretation of frequency. Although, for uniform rotation, Mills correctly defines the revolution frequency as the number of complete revolutions, N, divided by the time interval, he takes the unit for N to be ‘cycle’ (which he defines as one revolution) rather than the correct unit: the number one. The unit for ‘frequency’ then appears to be ‘cycle per second’ (i.e. revolution per second), whereas it should be one per second, correctly called hertz. Thus Mills concludes that ‘frequency’ is the same physical quantity as angular velocity and calls for the ‘hertz’ to be redefined as 2π rad s-1, a non-coherent derived unit for angular velocity. This misinterpretation of frequency corrupts the remainder of the author’s discussion of the examples considered. In my comment, I explain and correct these and related errors.

  9. Lactose digestion from yogurt: mechanism and relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaiano, Dennis A

    2014-05-01

    Yogurt is traditionally consumed throughout the world among populations who are seemingly unable to digest lactose. This review provides a historical overview of the studies that show lactose digestion and tolerance from yogurt by lactose-intolerant people. The lactose in yogurt is digested more efficiently than other dairy sources of lactose because the bacteria inherent in yogurt assist with its digestion. The bacterial lactase survives the acidic conditions of the stomach, apparently being physically protected within the bacterial cells and facilitated by the buffering capacity of yogurt. The increasing pH as the yogurt enters the small intestine and a slower gastrointestinal transit time allow the bacterial lactase to be active, digesting lactose from yogurt sufficiently to prevent symptoms in lactose-intolerant people. There is little difference in the lactase capability of different commercial yogurts, because they apparently contain Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in sufficient quantities (10(8) bacteria/mL). However, Lactobacillus acidophilus appears to require cell membrane disruption to physically release the lactase. Compared with unflavored yogurts, flavored yogurts appear to exhibit somewhat reduced lactase activity but are still well tolerated.

  10. Profiles of Dialogue for Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Walton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses argument diagrams, argumentation schemes, and some tools from formal argumentation systems developed in artificial intelligence to build a graph-theoretic model of relevance shown to be applicable (with some extensions as a practical method for helping a third party judge issues of relevance or irrelevance of an argument in real examples. Examples used to illustrate how the method works are drawn from disputes about relevance in natural language discourse, including a criminal trial and a parliamentary debate.

  11. The policy relevance of global environmental change research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarnal, Brent

    1996-01-01

    Many scientists are striving to identify and promote the policy implications of their global change research. Much basic research on global environmental change cannot advance policy directly, but new projects can determine the relevance of their research to decision makers and build policy-relevant products into the work. Similarly, many ongoing projects can alter or add to the present science design to make the research policy relevant. Thus, this paper shows scientists working on global change how to make their research policy relevant. It demonstrates how research on physical global change relates to human dimensions studies and integrated assessments. It also presents an example of how policy relevance can be fit retroactively into a global change project (in this case, SRBEX-the Susquehanna River Basin Experiment) and how that addition can enhance the project's status and science. The paper concludes that policy relevance is desirable from social and scientific perspectives

  12. Continuum analysis of biological systems conserved quantities, fluxes and forces

    CERN Document Server

    Suraishkumar, G K

    2014-01-01

    This book addresses the analysis, in the continuum regime, of biological systems at various scales, from the cellular level to the industrial one. It presents both fundamental conservation principles (mass, charge, momentum and energy) and relevant fluxes resulting from appropriate driving forces, which are important for the analysis, design and operation of biological systems. It includes the concept of charge conservation, an important principle for biological systems that is not explicitly covered in any other book of this kind. The book is organized in five parts: mass conservation; charge conservation; momentum conservation; energy conservation; and multiple conservations simultaneously applied. All mathematical aspects are presented step by step, allowing any reader with a basic mathematical background (calculus, differential equations, linear algebra, etc.) to follow the text with ease. The book promotes an intuitive understanding of all the relevant principles and in so doing facilitates their applica...

  13. Quantum Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bellac, Michel

    2006-03-01

    Quantum physics allows us to understand the nature of the physical phenomena which govern the behavior of solids, semi-conductors, lasers, atoms, nuclei, subnuclear particles and light. In Quantum Physics, Le Bellac provides a thoroughly modern approach to this fundamental theory. Throughout the book, Le Bellac teaches the fundamentals of quantum physics using an original approach which relies primarily on an algebraic treatment and on the systematic use of symmetry principles. In addition to the standard topics such as one-dimensional potentials, angular momentum and scattering theory, the reader is introduced to more recent developments at an early stage. These include a detailed account of entangled states and their applications, the optical Bloch equations, the theory of laser cooling and of magneto-optical traps, vacuum Rabi oscillations, and an introduction to open quantum systems. This is a textbook for a modern course on quantum physics, written for advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Completely original and contemporary approach, using algebra and symmetry principles Introduces recent developments at an early stage, including many topics that cannot be found in standard textbooks. Contains 130 physically relevant exercises

  14. Review of lattice results concerning low-energy particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, S.; Aoki, Y.; Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY; Becirevic, D.

    2016-07-01

    We review lattice results related to pion, kaon, D- and B-meson physics with the aim of making them easily accessible to the particle physics community. More specifically, we report on the determination of the light-quark masses, the form factor f_+(0), arising in the semileptonic K→π transition at zero momentum transfer, as well as the decay constant ratio f_K/f_π and its consequences for the CKM matrix elements V_u_s and V_u_d. Furthermore, we describe the results obtained on the lattice for some of the low-energy constants of SU(2)_L x SU(2)_R and SU(3)_L x SU(3)_R Chiral Perturbation Theory. We review the determination of the B_K parameter of neutral kaon mixing as well as the additional four B parameters that arise in theories of physics beyond the Standard Model. The latter quantities are an addition compared to the previous review. For the heavy-quark sector, we provide results for m_c and m_b (also new compared to the previous review), as well as those for D- and B-meson decay constants, form factors, and mixing parameters. These are the heavy-quark quantities most relevant for the determination of CKM matrix elements and the global CKM unitarity-triangle fit. Finally, we review the status of lattice determinations of the strong coupling constant α_s.

  15. Two Curriculum-Relevant/Open Day Physics Experiments Concerning Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosabowski, Michael Hal; Young, Clive; Matkin, Judy; Ponikwer, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    Gravity is an intangible abstract force when considered theoretically and yet we are affected by it constantly. The apparently "strong" nature of gravity, which in the layperson's mind causes him or her to stick to the Earth, is belied by the fact that it is the weakest of the fundamental forces. Demonstrations that allow pupils,…

  16. Recent results relevant to ignition physics and machine design issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppi, B.; Airoldi, A.; Bombarda, F.

    2001-01-01

    The plasma regimes under which ignition can be achieved involve a characteristic range of parameters and issues on which information has been provided by recent experiments. In particular, these results have motivated a new, in-depth analysis of the expected performance of the Ignitor machine as well as of the plasma processes that it can investigate. The main results and recent advances in the design of key systems of the machine are reported. (author)

  17. Individual radiosensitivity and its relevance to health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnarr, K.; Dayes, I.; Sathya, J.; Boreham, D.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: In the radiation protection industry, dose limits are developed to keep the workers safe. These limits assume that people have equal responses to ionizing radiation and that there is no variation in radiation risk. In radiotherapy, where patients receive large doses of radiation to their tumours and the surrounding tissue volume, 5-10% of individuals are sensitive to the treatment (adverse reactions). A radiation sensitive individual may have increased toxicity in the tissue around the tumour. This can result in necrosis, loss of organ function or even death. The cause of this sensitivity is only speculative. We postulate that this variation is due to the individual's intrinsic cellular response to radiation. Therefore, this systemic predisposition results in a lack of ability for damaged cells to be eliminated properly or repaired and consequently causes an adverse reaction. Understanding this phenomenon is crucial for radiation protection practices, since these radiosensitive individuals may also be at increased risk to high occupational or medical exposures. We have investigated individual radiosensitivity using a number of different biological endpoints. Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, was measured in human lymphocytes after receiving in vitro doses of 0, 2, 4, and 8Gy. At high doses (8Gy), radiation induced apoptosis showed a wide range of responses (mean = 34% apoptosis, o = 8.2) with z-scores ranging from -1.5 to 2.4. Low dose responses (mGy range) were also studied measuring apoptosis, DNA double strand break induction and repair in human lymphocytes exposed in vivo when patients a whole body radiation dose during diagnostic PET scans. The results showed varied individual responses and indicates that individuals may be at increased risk due to differences in DNA repair capabilities. Being able to measure radiation sensitivity would allow the radiation protection industry to tailor dose limits to an individual, reducing risk to the worker

  18. Physical considerations relevant to HZE-particle transport in matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmerling, W

    1988-06-01

    High-energy, highly charged (HZE) heavy nuclei may seem at first sight to be an exotic type of radiation, only remotely connected with nuclear power generation. On closer examination it becomes evident that heavy-ion accelerators are being seriously considered for driving inertial confinement fusion reactors, and high-energy heavy nuclei in the cosmic radiation are likely to place significant constraints on satellite power system deployment and space-based power generation. The use of beams of heavy nuclei in an increasing number of current applications, as well as their importance for the development of the state of the art of the future, makes it necessary to develop at the same time a good understanding of their transport through matter.

  19. Low energy heavy particle collisions relevant to gas divertor physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onda, Kunizo [Science Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-01-01

    Cross sections for rotational and vibrational excitations of H{sub 2} molecules caused by impact of electron, proton, H atom, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}{sup +}, or H{sup -} are compared with one another and reviewed for rotational excitations by examining an interaction potential between collision partners. It is pointed out what are difficulties in theoretical approaches to collision of atoms with H{sub 2} molecules initially in vibrationally and rotationally excited states. A theoretical approach developed by our group, which aims quantum mechanically to investigate vibrationally inelastic scattering, exchange reaction, or dissociation of molecule in vibrationally excited states collided with an atom or its ion, is presented. Newly obtained dissociation cross sections of H{sub 2} in vibrationally excited states by He impact are presented and compared in magnitude with those of H{sub 2} caused by electron impact. (author)

  20. Single Molecule Fluorescence: from Physical Fascination to Biological Relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers-Nolten, Gezina M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Confocal fluorescence microscopy is particularly well-known from the beautiful images that have been obtained with this technique from cells. Several cellular components could be nicely visualized simultaneously by staining them with different fluorophores. Not only for ensemble applications but

  1. Recent results relevant to ignition physics and machine design issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppi, B.; Airoldi, A.; Bombarda, F.

    1999-01-01

    The plasma regimes under which ignition can be achieved involve a characteristic range of parameters and issues on which information has been provided by recent experiments. In particular, these results have motivated a new, in-depth analysis of the expected performance of the Ignitor machine as well as of the plasma processes that it can investigate. The main results and recent advances in the design of key systems of the machine are reported. (author)

  2. Single Molecule Fluorescence: from Physical Fascination to Biological Relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Segers-Nolten, Gezina M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Confocal fluorescence microscopy is particularly well-known from the beautiful images that have been obtained with this technique from cells. Several cellular components could be nicely visualized simultaneously by staining them with different fluorophores. Not only for ensemble applications but also in single molecule research confocal fluorescence microscopy became a popular technique. In this thesis the possibilities are shown to study a complicated biological process, which is Nucleotide ...

  3. The symmetric group and its relevance to fermion physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, M.

    1981-04-01

    Notes are given of a series of lectures presented at TRIUMF (Vancouver) during the week of October 17-24, 1980. The lectures, and accompanying notes were designed to give the student a working knowledge of the classification and construction of sets of n-particle states transforming according to a definite irreducible representation of the symmetric group Ssub(n). Applications are given for the classification of quark states of baryons and multibaryons

  4. Relevance theory: pragmatics and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wearing, Catherine J

    2015-01-01

    Relevance Theory is a cognitively oriented theory of pragmatics, i.e., a theory of language use. It builds on the seminal work of H.P. Grice(1) to develop a pragmatic theory which is at once philosophically sensitive and empirically plausible (in both psychological and evolutionary terms). This entry reviews the central commitments and chief contributions of Relevance Theory, including its Gricean commitment to the centrality of intention-reading and inference in communication; the cognitively grounded notion of relevance which provides the mechanism for explaining pragmatic interpretation as an intention-driven, inferential process; and several key applications of the theory (lexical pragmatics, metaphor and irony, procedural meaning). Relevance Theory is an important contribution to our understanding of the pragmatics of communication. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Clinical relevance in anesthesia journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Jakob; Møller, Ann M

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present the latest knowledge and research on the definition and distribution of clinically relevant articles in anesthesia journals. It will also discuss the importance of the chosen methodology and outcome of articles.......The purpose of this review is to present the latest knowledge and research on the definition and distribution of clinically relevant articles in anesthesia journals. It will also discuss the importance of the chosen methodology and outcome of articles....

  6. Safeguards Implementation Guide for States with Small Quantities Protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) works to enhance the contribution of nuclear energy for peace and prosperity around the world, while helping to ensure that nuclear material is not diverted to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. In implementing safeguards, the IAEA plays an instrumental independent verification role, providing credible assurances that States' safeguards commitments are being respected. Most of the world's non-nuclear-weapon States (NNWSs) have concluded comprehensive safeguards agreements (CSAs) with the IAEA, pursuant to the Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The IAEA and States are required to cooperate in the implementation of such agreements. Effective cooperation demonstrates a State's commitment to the peaceful use of nuclear energy and furthers the State's national interests by reducing the risk of unauthorized use of nuclear material. Over 100 NNWSs party to the NPT have very limited quantities of nuclear material and have concluded protocols to their CSAs which hold in abeyance many procedures in Part II of a CSA. These protocols are referred to as 'small quantities protocols' or 'SQPs' and remain in effect as long as the State meets certain eligibility criteria. The purpose of an SQP is to reduce the burden of safeguards implementation for States with little or no nuclear activities, while retaining the integrity of the safeguards system. States with SQPs have very important obligations they must fulfil under their CSAs. In 1997, as part of the IAEA's efforts to strengthen its safeguards system, the Model Additional Protocol to the Agreement(s) between State(s) and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards was developed to provide the IAEA with broader access to information and locations, thus significantly increasing the IAEA's ability to provide assurance of the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities in States. Many States with SQPs have

  7. Process of quantity determination of uranium by chromatography in liquid zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, J.P.; Cojean, J.; Daubizit, M.

    1993-01-01

    The invention concerns a process of quantity determination of uranium by chromatography in liquid zone, usable to determine the quantity of uranium traces. Solutions to be treated can be aqueous or organic

  8. Order Quantity Distributions: Estimating an Adequate Aggregation Horizon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksen Poul Svante

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an investigation into the demand, faced by a company in the form of customer orders, is performed both from an explorative numerical and analytical perspective. The aim of the research is to establish the behavior of customer orders in first-come-first-serve (FCFS systems and the impact of order quantity variation on the planning environment. A discussion of assumptions regarding demand from various planning and control perspectives underlines that most planning methods are based on the assumption that demand in the form of customer orders are independently identically distributed and stem from symmetrical distributions. To investigate and illustrate the need to aggregate demand to live up to these assumptions, a simple methodological framework to investigate the validity of the assumptions and for analyzing the behavior of orders is developed. The paper also presents an analytical approach to identify the aggregation horizon needed to achieve a stable demand. Furthermore, a case study application of the presented framework is presented and concluded on.

  9. Deep groundwater quantity and quality in the southwestern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, M.; Ayars, J. E.; Jackson, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater demands are growing in many arid regions and adaptation through the use of non-traditional resources during extreme droughts is increasingly common. One such resource is deep groundwater, which we define as deeper than 300 m and up to several kilometer-depths. Although deep groundwater has been studied in the context of oil and gas, geothermal, waste disposal, and other uses, it remains poorly characterized, especially for the purposes of human consumption and irrigation uses. Therefore, we evaluate deep groundwater quantity and quality within these contexts. We compile and analyze data from water management agencies and oil and gas-based sources for the southwestern US, with a detailed look at California's Central Valley. We also use crop tolerance thresholds to evaluate deep groundwater quality for irrigation purposes. We find fresh and usable groundwater volume estimates in California's Central Valley to increase by three- and four-fold respectively when depths of up to 3 km are considered. Of the ten basins in the southwestern US with the most data, we find that the Great Basin has the greatest proportions of fresh and usable deep groundwater. Given the potentially large deep groundwater volumes, it is important to characterize the resource, guard against subsidence where extracted, and protect it for use in decades and centuries to come.

  10. Ship waste quantities prediction model for the port of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADANKA PRESBURGER ULNIKOVIĆ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the issues related to the waste management in river ports in general and especially in the port of Belgrade. Data on solid waste, waste oils, oily waters, gray water and black water have been collected for a period of five years. The methodology of data collection is presented. Trends of data were analyzed and the regression model was used to predict the waste quantities in the Belgrade port. This data could be utilized as a basis for the calculation of the equipment capacity for waste selective collection, treatment and storage. The results presented in this study establish the need for an orga¬nized management system for this type of waste which can be achieved either by constructing and providing new specialized terminal or by providing mobile floating facilities and other plants in the Port of Belgrade for these kinds of ser¬vices. In addition to the above, the legislative and organizational strategy of waste management has been explored to complete the study because the im¬pact of good waste management on environment and prevention of environ¬mental accidents would be highly beneficial. This study demonstrated that ad¬dressing these issues should be considered at international as well as national level.

  11. A pilot study to evaluate runoff quantity from green roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Young; Lee, Min Jung; Han, Mooyoung

    2015-04-01

    The use of green roofs is gaining increased recognition in many countries as a solution that can be used to improve environmental quality and reduce runoff quantity. To achieve these goals, pilot-scale green roof assemblies have been constructed and operated in an urban setting. From a stormwater management perspective, green roofs are 42.8-60.8% effective in reducing runoff for 200 mm soil depth and 13.8-34.4% effective in reducing runoff for 150 mm soil depth. By using Spearman rank correlation analysis, high rainfall intensity was shown to have a negative relationship with delayed occurrence time, demonstrating that the soil media in green roofs do not efficiently retain rainwater. Increasing the number of antecedent dry days can help to improve water retention capacity and delay occurrence time. From the viewpoint of runoff water quality, green roofs are regarded as the best management practice by filtration and adsorption through growth media (soil). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Quality and quantity of construction and demolition waste in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, Alireza; Ghorbanian, Tahereh; Yousefi, Nader; Dadashzadeh, Dariush; Khalili, Fatemeh; Bagheri, Amin; Raei, Mehdi; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2017-01-01

    In recent years the generation rate of construction and demolition waste (C&D) has significantly augmented. The aim of this study was to assessed the quality and quantity of construction and demolition waste in Tehran (capital of Iran). Questionnaire methods were used for estimating the amount of generated C&D wastes national statistical data and typical waste generation data. In order to defining the composition of C&D waste, trucks were randomly selected and their wastes were separated and weighted. According to obtained results, about 82,646,051 m 3 of C&D waste (average 16,529,210 m 3 per year) were generated during 2011 to 2016 which only about 26% of them has been recycled. Mixing sand and cement, concrete, broken bricks and soil have the highest amount of the composition of C&D waste in Tehran that was 30, 19, 18 and 11%, respectively. Based on the results, about 2,784,158 t of the waste will generate in 2025 and this is approximately 122% higher than wastes generate in 2016. Based on MAPSA's data, 360 teams of personnel cruise and control the illegal disposals, but due to the expansion of Tehran this number of teams is inadequate and can't be effective in controlling the situation. In general, the overall condition of C&D waste management in Tehran seems undesirable and needs to be updated based on the experience of successful countries in this field.

  13. Quantity and Quality of Inhaled Dose Predicts Immunopathology in Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Patrick Fennelly

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental animal models of tuberculosis (TB have convincingly demonstrated that inhaled dose predicts immunopathology and survival. In contrast, the importance of inhaled dose has generally not been appreciated in TB epidemiology, clinical science, or the practice of TB control. Infectiousness of TB patients has traditionally been assessed using microscopy for acid-fast bacilli in the sputum, which should be considered only a risk factor. We have recently demonstrated that cough aerosol cultures from index cases with pulmonary TB are the best predictors of new infection among household contacts. We suggest that cough aerosols of M. tuberculosis are the best surrogates of inhaled dose, and we hypothesize that the quantity of cough aerosols is associated with TB infection versus disease. Although several factors affect the quality of infectious aerosols, we propose that the particle size distribution of cough aerosols is an important predictor of primary upper airway disease and cervical lymphadenitis and of immune responses in exposed hosts. We hypothesize that large droplet aerosols (> 5 microns containing M. tuberculosis deposit in the upper airway and can induce immune responses without establishing infection. We suggest that this may partially explain the large proportion of humans who never develop TB disease in spite of having immunological evidence of M. tuberculosis infection (e.g. positive TST or IGRA. If these hypotheses are proven true, they would alter the current paradigm of latent TB infection and reactivation, further demonstrating the need for better biomarkers or methods of assessing TB infection and the risk of developing disease.

  14. BIM IMPLEMENTATION IN A NEW ZEALAND CONSULTING QUANTITY SURVEYING PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis Harrison

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available 5D BIM – generating cost data via the building information modelling (BIM process- has the potential to be used by quantity surveyors (QSs to streamline their workflows and increase their provision of quality service. Consultant QSs experienced in the use 5D BIM, from the New Zealand office of one large global practice, were interviewed on their perceptions of the benefits of, and barriers to, 5D BIM implementation within their firm. Findings suggest that 5D BIM has numerous benefits over traditional methods, chiefly through the increased efficiency and visualization that BIM provides, along with the rapid identification of design changes. However, realization of these perceived benefits limited to date, due to several barriers hindering 5D BIM implementation: incomplete design and insufficient model object data in the BIM model; a lack of standards to facilitate electronic measurement; legal issues, and a lack of government support. However, participants perceived that 5D BIM implementation will achieve these benefits to a far greater extent in the future. Further research is recommended to identify the BIM skills which QSs will need in the future to reach the full potential of 5D BIM

  15. Quantities of actinides in nuclear reactor fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, K.P.

    1975-01-01

    The quantities of plutonium and other fuel actinides have been calculated for equilibrium fuel cycles for 1000 MW reactors of the following types: water reactors fueled with slightly enriched uranium, water reactors fueled with plutonium and natural uranium, fast-breeder reactors, gas-cooled reactors fueled with thorium and highly enriched uranium, and gas-cooled reactors fueled with thorium, plutonium, and recycled uranium. The radioactivity levels of plutonium, americium, and curium processed yearly in these fuel cycles are greatest for the water reactors fueled with natural uranium and recycled plutonium. The total amount of actinides processed is calculated for the predicted future growth of the United States nuclear power industry. For the same total installed nuclear power capacity, the introduction of the plutonium breeder has little effect upon the total amount of plutonium processed in this century. The estimated amount of plutonium in the low-level process wastes in the plutonium fuel cycles is comparable to the amount of plutonium in the high-level fission product wastes. The amount of plutonium processed in the nuclear fuel cycles can be considerably reduced by using gas-cooled reactors to consume plutonium produced in uranium-fueled water reactors. These, and other reactors dedicated for plutonium utilization, could be co-located with facilities for fuel reprocessing and fuel fabrication to eliminate the off-site transport of separated plutonium. (U.S.)

  16. Dynamic Coding of Signed Quantities in Cortical Feedback Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana eBallard

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the early sensory and motor areas of the cortex, individual neurons transmit information about specific sensory features via a peaked response. This concept has been crystallized as `labeled lines,' to denote that axons communicate the specific properties of their sensory or motor parent cell. Such cells also can be characterized as being polarized, that is, as representing a signed quantity that is either positive or negative. We show in a model simulation that there are two important consequences when learning receptive fields using such signed codings in circuits that subtract different inputs. The first is that, in feedback circuits using labeled lines, such arithmetic operations need to be distributed across multiple distinct pathways. The second consequence is that such pathways must be necessarily dynamic, i.e. that synapses can grow and retract when forming receptive fields. The model monitors the breaking and growing of new circuit connections when their synapses need to change polarities and predicts that the rate of such changes should be inversely correlated with the progress of receptive field formation.

  17. Sound radiation quantities arising from a resilient circular radiator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarts, Ronald M; Janssen, Augustus J E M

    2009-10-01

    Power series expansions in ka are derived for the pressure at the edge of a radiator, the reaction force on the radiator, and the total radiated power arising from a harmonically excited, resilient, flat, circular radiator of radius a in an infinite baffle. The velocity profiles on the radiator are either Stenzel functions (1-(sigma/a)2)n, with sigma the radial coordinate on the radiator, or linear combinations of Zernike functions Pn(2(sigma/a)2-1), with Pn the Legendre polynomial of degree n. Both sets of functions give rise, via King's integral for the pressure, to integrals for the quantities of interest involving the product of two Bessel functions. These integrals have a power series expansion and allow an expression in terms of Bessel functions of the first kind and Struve functions. Consequently, many of the results in [M. Greenspan, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 65, 608-621 (1979)] are generalized and treated in a unified manner. A foreseen application is for loudspeakers. The relation between the radiated power in the near-field on one hand and in the far field on the other is highlighted.

  18. Energy taxes, resource taxes and quantity rationing for climate protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenack, Klaus [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics; Edenhofer, Ottmar; Kalkuhl, Matthias [Potsdam-Institut fuer Klimafolgenforschung e.V., Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Economic sectors react strategically to climate policy, aiming at a re-distribution of rents. Established analysis suggests a Pigouvian emission tax as efficient instrument, but also recommends factor input or output taxes under specific conditions. However, existing studies leave it open whether output taxes, input taxes or input rationing perform better, and at best only touch their distributional consequences. When emissions correspond to extracted ressources, it is questionable whether taxes are effective at all. We determine the effectiveness, efficiency and functional income distribution for these instruments in the energy and resource sector, based on a game theoretic growth model with explicit factor markets and policy instruments. Market equilibrium depends on a government that acts as a Stackelberg leader with a climate protection goal. We find that resource taxes and cumulative resource quantity rationing achieve this objective efficiently. Energy taxation is only second best. Mitigation generates a substantial ''climate rent'' in the resource sector that can be converted to transfer incomes by taxes. (orig.)

  19. Linkages between forest soils and water quality and quantity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary; George G. Ice; C. Rhett Jackson

    2009-01-01

    The most sustainable and best quality fresh water sources in the world originate in forest ecosystems. The biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of forest soils are particularly well suited to delivering high quality water to streams, moderating stream hydrology, and providing diverse aquatic habitat. Forest soils feature litter layers and...

  20. The performance of the ATLAS initial detector layout for B-physics channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epp, B.; Ghete, V.M.; Kuhn, D.; Zhang, Y.J.

    2004-01-01

    At the start-up of LHC one expects parts of the ATLAS detector to be missing. This layout is called initial layout, whereas the fully staged detector is called complete layout. B-physics channels were simulated, reconstructed and analyzed using the software tools of ATLAS data challenge-1 (DC1). The performance of the detector with respect to quantities relevant to the analysis of the B s → D s π channel and the validation of the full chain generation-simulation-reconstruction-analysis were evaluated for the initial and complete layout. (author)

  1. Symbolic Estrangement: Evidence against a Strong Association between Numerical Symbols and the Quantities They Represent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ian M.; Ansari, Daniel; Beilock, Sian L.

    2012-01-01

    Are numerals estranged from a sense of the actual quantities they represent? We demonstrate that, irrespective of numerical size or distance, direct comparison of the relative quantities represented by symbolic and nonsymbolic formats leads to performance markedly worse than when comparing 2 nonsymbolic quantities (Experiment 1). Experiment 2…

  2. 48 CFR 245.7309-8 - Variations in quantity or weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Inventory 245.7309-8 Variations in quantity or weight. When property is sold on a “unit price” basis, the Contractor reserves the right to vary by up to 15 percent the quantity or weight listed in the Invitation and... price shall be adjusted in accordance with the unit price and on the basis of the quantity or weight...

  3. 40 CFR 273.8 - Applicability-household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. 273.8 Section 273.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....8 Applicability—household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. (a) Persons... universal wastes defined at § 273.9; and/or (2) Conditionally exempt small quantity generator wastes that...

  4. Exponential noise reduction in Lattice QCD: new tools for new physics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The numerical computations of many quantities of theoretical and phenomenological interest are plagued by statistical errors which increase exponentially with the distance of the sources in the relevant correlators. Notable examples are baryon masses and matrix elements, the hadronic vacuum polarization and the light-by-light scattering contributions to the muon g-2, and the form factors of semileptonic B decays. Reliable and precise determinations of these quantities are very difficult if not impractical with state-of-the-art standard Monte Carlo integration schemes. I will discuss a recent proposal for factorizing the fermion determinant in lattice QCD that leads to a local action in the gauge field and in the auxiliary boson fields. Once combined with the corresponding factorization of the quark propagator, it paves the way for multi-level Monte Carlo integration in the presence of fermions opening new perspectives in lattice QCD and in its capability to unveil new physics. Exploratory results on the impac...

  5. A tensorial description of particle perception in black-hole physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbado, Luis C.; Barceló, Carlos; Garay, Luis J.; Jannes, G.

    2016-09-01

    In quantum field theory in curved backgrounds, one typically distinguishes between objective, tensorial quantities such as the renormalized stress-energy tensor (RSET) and subjective, nontensorial quantities such as Bogoliubov coefficients which encode perception effects associated with the specific trajectory of a detector. In this work, we propose a way to treat both objective and subjective notions on an equal tensorial footing. For that purpose, we define a new tensor which we will call the perception renormalized stress-energy tensor (PeRSET). The PeRSET is defined as the subtraction of the RSET corresponding to two different vacuum states. Based on this tensor, we can define perceived energy densities and fluxes. The PeRSET helps us to have a more organized and systematic understanding of various results in the literature regarding quantum field theory in black hole spacetimes. We illustrate the physics encoded in this tensor by working out various examples of special relevance.

  6. Soft physics with a supercollider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, B.

    1984-01-01

    I discuss a set of possible, more or less adventurous, physics scenarios for the soft physics of a supercollider of 10-20 TeV cms energy. I also present extrapolations of the sizes of different quantities to these immense energies. One should always note that whether we like it or not, some 95-99% of the cross-section is soft physics at all energies. (orig.)

  7. Forest Biomass Energy Resources in China: Quantity and Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most important renewable and sustainable energy sources, the forest biomass energy resource has always been the focus of attention of scholars and policy makers. However, its potential is still uncertain in China, especially with respect to its spatial distribution. In this paper, the quantity and distribution of Chinese forest biomass energy resources are explored based mainly on forestry statistics data rather than forest resource inventory data used by most previous studies. The results show that the forest biomass energy resource in China was 169 million tons in 2010, of which wood felling and bucking residue (WFBR,wood processing residue (WPR, bamboo processing residue, fuel wood and firewood used by farmers accounted for 38%, 37%, 6%, 4% and 15%, respectively. The highest resource was located in East China, accounting for nearly 39.0% of the national amount, followed by the Southwest and South China regions, which accounted for 17.4% and 16.3%, respectively. At the provincial scale, Shandong has the highest distribution, accounting for 11.9% of total resources, followed by Guangxi and Fujian accounting for 10.3% and 10.2%, respectively. The actual wood-processing residue (AWPR estimated from the actual production of different wood products (considering the wood transferred between regions showed apparent differences from the local wood processing residue (LWPR, which assumes that no wood has been transferredbetween regions. Due to the large contribution of WPR to total forestry bioenergy resources, the estimation of AWPR will provide a more accurate evaluation of the total amount and the spatial distribution of forest biomass energy resources in China.

  8. Technology development for evaluation of operational quantities in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Si Young; Lee, T. Y.; Kim, B. H.

    2003-03-01

    Korean government recently published a national regulation on the internal exposure monitoring and dose evaluation (internal dosimetry) based on the most recent ICRP recommendation 60 and subsequent publications, which supercede the former ICRP recommendation 26 and publication 30, on which the internal dosimetry practice in Korea had been based so far. Consequently, this project, according to the demand from both government and nuclear industry, had been launched to develop a user-friendly computer code on internal dosimetry adopting the most up to date ICRP biokinetic and dosimetric model to resolve the difficulties and problems faced to nuclear industry and to develop related technology. The reliability of this code, named as BiDAS, as a result of several benchmark calculations for self assurance appeared to be excellent comparing with the foreign computer code. This computer code is expected to be successfully utilized in nuclear industry and related fields in complying with the national regulation on internal dosimetry program started from late 2003. Reference low level gamma(γ) radiation field for calibration of environmental radiation(γ) monitor and reference neutron field for calibration of n monitoring equipment have been established and characterized. International cross comparison of these reference radiation fields have been performed and radiation response of various radiation monitoring instrument has been tested by using these reference radiation fields. A technology which can directly measure the radiation quality factor and tissue absorbed dose has been established to evaluate the neutron dose in terms of operational quantity in the unknown mixed n-γ radiation field. Spherical and cylindrical TEPC systems have been designed and manufactured and a portable TEPC system to measure the neutron quality and dose in the real work field has been developed and tested in accelerator laboratory

  9. WEB TECHNOLOGIES USED TO FORECAST FUTURE WASTE QUANTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriu LUPU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors propose a modality of prognosis of the quantities of waste generated in a certain period. The proposition was finalized by achieving a model of prognosis present on a site hosted by a Web server. The software solve the problem for the general case, depending on the input data after analysis. After analyzing input data sets are used with one, two or three components (trend, seasonality and residual variable. According to the input data the adjustment model regarding the description of the analyzed phenomenon (additive and multiplying is chosen. If the chronogram of the analyzed phenomenon indicates an oscillating evolution, of sinusoidal nature, the additive model (+ is chosen, otherwise the multiplying model (  is chosen. The seasonal component is estimated and the deseasonalized chronological series is determined. The seasonality is determined by: the procedure of arithmetical means, the procedure of moving averages and the procedure of analytical tendency. The adjustment function is specified regarding the tendency of the phenomenon and its parameters are estimated. The significance of the adjustment function is verified specifying the significance threshold with which it may be accepted as significant. The estimation of the parameters of the adjustment function is made on the basis of the application of the method of least squares. The values of the phenomenon on two or three trimesters/ months are estimated for the processed data (by using time series with two or three steps ahead. Several types of waste specified by the value of the meter for waste from the database may be accepted. The model proposed makes decisions and justifies if the data prognosticated is accepted or not. All information from the input data to the final data is stored in a MySQL database.

  10. Influence of adhesive bonding on quantity of emissions VOCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Čech

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the influence of urea-formaldehyde glue and veneered bolstering on technological operation veneering on quantity of emission VOCs (volatile organic compounds.The so-called Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC are among the largest pollution sources of both the internal and external environments.VOC is defined as emission of any organic compound or a mixture thereof, with the exception of methane, whereby the compound exerts the pressure of 0.01 kPa or more at the temperature of 20 °C (293.15 K and reaches the corresponding volatility under the specific conditions of its use and can undergo photochemical reactions with nitrogen oxides when exposed to solar radiation.The effects of VOC upon environment can be described by equation:VOC + NOx + UV radiation + heat = tropospheric ozone (O3.In this work there were tested background working environment in various parts of multi-storeyed press, next was judged emissive charge of veneered device and used glue. We used surface material such as chipboard. We used urea-formaldehyde glue KRONOCOL U300 on technological operation veneering.The VOC emissions from the wooden surfaces with or without finishing were tested in the Equipment for VOC Measuring with a small-space chamber. This equipment was installed in and made available by the Institute of Furniture, Design and Habitation. The small-space chamber is suitable for testing small parts of wood products. The device equipped with small-chamber satisfies all conditions mandated in the standard ENV 13 419 DIN -V-ENV 13 419 ”Determination of the emissions of Volatile organic compounds”.The VOC emissions were collected in columns with sorbent Tenax TA. We analyzed the columns with the VOC emissions by: the gas chromatography in conjunction with mass spectrometer and Direct Thermal Desorption.

  11. Calculation of uncertainties in influence quantities in biological essays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Morel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the need of showing the reliability of results from biological essays, such as in health and environmental areas, laboratories have been implementing quality systems, particularly ABNT NBR ISO/IEC 17025 (ABNT, 2001, which include as one of the requirements, the calculation of uncertainty in essays results. It is of common knowledge that estimating uncertainty in essays using organisms, such as animal and vegetal species, is difficult, preventing from meeting that requirement in the standard. The paper shows the calculation of uncertainties in influences quantities in these essays as a tool to allow validating the measuring process, by using the essays performed by Rhodia Environmental Impact Analysis Laboratory and IPEN Ecotoxicology Laboratory as examples.Devido à necessidade de demonstrar a confiabilidade dos resultados de ensaios biológicos como, por exemplo, nas áreas de saúde e ambiental, laboratórios vêm implementando sistemas da qualidade, em especial a ABNT NBR ISO/IEC 17025 (ABNT, 2001 que inclui como um dos requisitos o cálculo da incerteza dos resultados dos ensaios. É reconhecidamente difícil de estimar a incerteza de ensaios que utilizam organismos, como com espécies animais e vegetais o que impede, consequentemente, o atendimento deste requisito da norma. O trabalho apresenta o cálculo de incerteza das grandezas de influências nestes ensaios como uma ferramenta que permite validar o processo de medição, utilizando como exemplos aqueles realizados pelos Laboratórios de Análise de Impacto Ambiental da Rhodia e de Ecologia e Ecotoxicologia do IPEN.

  12. Influence of Cattle Trails on Runoff Quantity and Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jim J; Curtis, Tony; Chanasyk, David S; Willms, Walter D

    2017-03-01

    Cattle trails in grazed pastures close to rivers may adversely affect surface water quality of the adjacent river by directing runoff to it. The objective of this 3-yr study (2013-2015) in southern Alberta, Canada, was to determine if cattle trails significantly increased the risk of runoff and contaminants (sediment, nutrients) compared with the adjacent grazed pasture (control). A portable rainfall simulator was used to generate artificial rainfall (140 mm h) and runoff. The runoff properties measured were time to runoff and initial abstraction (infiltration), total runoff depth and average runoff rates, as well as concentrations and mass loads of sediment, N, and P fractions. Cattle trails significantly ( ≤ 0.10) decreased time to runoff and initial abstraction (26-32%) in the 2 yr measured and increased total runoff depth, runoff coefficients, and average runoff rates (21-51%) in 2 of 3 yr. Concentrations of sediment, N, and P fractions in runoff were not significantly greater for cattle trails than for control areas. However, mass loads of total suspended solids (57-85% increase), NH-N (31-90%), and dissolved reactive P (DRP) (30-92%) were significantly greater because of increased runoff volumes. Overall, runoff quantity and loads of sediment, NH-N, and DRP were greater for cattle trails compared with the adjacent grazed pasture, and hydrologic connection with cattle-access sites on the riverbank suggests that this could adversely affect water quality in the adjacent river. Extrapolation of the study results should be tempered by the specific conditions represented by this rainfall simulation study. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  13. From physical symmetries to emergent gauge symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barceló, Carlos; Carballo-Rubio, Raúl; Di Filippo, Francesco; Garay, Luis J.

    2016-01-01

    Gauge symmetries indicate redundancies in the description of the relevant degrees of freedom of a given field theory and restrict the nature of observable quantities. One of the problems faced by emergent theories of relativistic fields is to understand how gauge symmetries can show up in systems that contain no trace of these symmetries at a more fundamental level. In this paper we start a systematic study aimed to establish a satisfactory mathematical and physical picture of this issue, dealing first with abelian field theories. We discuss how the trivialization, due to the decoupling and lack of excitation of some degrees of freedom, of the Noether currents associated with physical symmetries leads to emergent gauge symmetries in specific situations. An example of a relativistic field theory of a vector field is worked out in detail in order to make explicit how this mechanism works and to clarify the physics behind it. The interplay of these ideas with well-known results of importance to the emergent gravity program, such as the Weinberg-Witten theorem, are discussed.

  14. Shippingport: A relevant decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crimi, F.P.

    1988-01-01

    Because of Shippingport's low electrical power rating (72 MWe), there has been some misunderstanding on the relevancy of the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP) to a modern 1175 MWe commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR) power station. This paper provides a comparison of the major components of the reactor plant of the 72 MWe Shippingport Atomic Power Station and an 1175 MWe nuclear plant and the relevancy of the Shippingport decommissioning as a demonstration project for the nuclear industry. For the purpose of this comparison, Portland General Electric Company's 1175 MWe Trojan Nuclear Plant at Rainier, Oregon, has been used as the reference nuclear power plant. 2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  15. Simultaneous modelling of multi-purpose/multi-stop activity patterns and quantities consumed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, John R.; Smith, Nariida C.; Xu, Blake

    Whereas for commuting travel there is a one-to-one correspondence between commuters and jobs, and for commodity flows a one-to-one correspondence between the size of orders and the shipping cost of the commodities, the situation is much more complex for retail/service travel. A typical shopper may make a single trip or multi-stop tour to buy/consume a quite diverse set of commodities/services at different locations in quite variable quantities. At the same time, the general pattern of the tour is clearly dependent on the activities and goods available at potential stops. These interdependencies have been alluded to in the literature, especially by spatial economists. However, until some preliminary work by the first author, there has been no attempt to formally include these interdependencies in a general model. This paper presents a framework for achieving this goal by developing an evolutionary set of models starting from the simplest forms available. From the above, it is clear that such interdependency models will inevitably have high dimensionality and combinatorial complexity. This rules out a simultaneous treatment of all the events using an individual choice approach. If an individual choice approach is to be applied in a tractable manner, the set of interdependent events needs to be segmented into several subsets, with simultaneity recognised within each subset, but a mere sequential progression occurring between subsets. In this paper, full event interdependencies are retained at the expense of modelling market segments of consumers rather than a sample of representative individuals. We couple the travel and consumption events in the only feasible way, by modelling the tours as discrete entities, in conjunction with the amount of each commodity consumed per stop on each such tour in terms of the continuous quantities of microeconomics. This is performed both under a budget/income constraint from microeconomics and a time budget constraint from time

  16. Relevant criteria for testing the quality of turbulence models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Sten Tronæs; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Sørensen, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    Seeking relevant criteria for testing the quality of turbulence models, the scale of turbulence and the gust factor have been estimated from data and compared with predictions from first-order models of these two quantities. It is found that the mean of the measured length scales is approx. 10......% smaller than the IEC model, for wind turbine hub height levels. The mean is only marginally dependent on trends in time series. It is also found that the coefficient of variation of the measured length scales is about 50%. 3sec and 10sec pre-averaging of wind speed data are relevant for MW-size wind...... turbines when seeking wind characteristics that correspond to one blade and the entire rotor, respectively. For heights exceeding 50-60m the gust factor increases with wind speed. For heights larger the 60-80m, present assumptions on the value of the gust factor are significantly conservative, both for 3...

  17. Dramatic lives and relevant becomings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ann-Karina; Miller, Jody

    2012-01-01

    of marginality into positions of relevance. The analysis builds on empirical data from Copenhagen, Denmark, gained through ethnographic fieldwork with the participation of 20 female informants aged 13–22. The theoretical contribution proposes viewing conflicts as multi-linear, multi-causal and non...

  18. Regularization in Matrix Relevance Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, Petra; Bunte, Kerstin; Stiekema, Han; Hammer, Barbara; Villmann, Thomas; Biehl, Michael

    A In this paper, we present a regularization technique to extend recently proposed matrix learning schemes in learning vector quantization (LVQ). These learning algorithms extend the concept of adaptive distance measures in LVQ to the use of relevance matrices. In general, metric learning can

  19. Introduction to Medical Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    The lecture will first briefly review physical discoveries and tools developed for physics which later found applications in medicine, and then it will illustrate the most relevant of these applications: magnetic resonance imaging, computerized tomography, single photon emission computerized tomography, positron emission tomography, and conventional and advanced radiation therapy. Prerequisite knowledge: none

  20. Fundamentals in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diserbo, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The author proposes an overview of the main notions related to nuclear physics. He first addresses the atom and the nucleus: brief history, their constituents, energetic aspects for electrons and nucleus. The second part deals with radioactivity: definitions, time law and conservation law, natural and artificial radio-elements, α, β and γ radiations. Nuclear reactions (fission and fusion) are then presented as well as their application to nuclear reactor operation. The next part concerns interactions between radiations and matter, more precisely between charged particles and matter, neutrons and matter, X rays or γ rays and matter. The last chapter presents the various quantities used to characterise a source, the radiation field and the physical action, and quantities and units used in radiobiology and in radiation protection

  1. The physics of powerlifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radenković, Lazar; Nešić, Ljubiša

    2018-05-01

    The main contribution of this paper is didactic adaptation of the biomechanical analysis of the three main lifts in powerlifting (squat, bench press, deadlift). We used simple models that can easily be understood by undergraduate college students to estimate the values of various physical quantities during powerlifting. Specifically, we showed how plate choice affects the bench press and estimated spine loads and torques at hip and knee during lifting. Theoretical calculations showed good agreement with experimental data, proving that the models are valid.

  2. Medical physics 2013. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treuer, Harald

    2013-01-01

    The proceedings of the medical physics conference 2013 include abstract of lectures and poster sessions concerning the following issues: Tele-therapy - application systems, nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, neuromodulation, hearing and technical support, basic dosimetry, NMR imaging -CEST (chemical exchange saturation transfer), medical robotics, magnetic particle imaging, audiology, radiation protection, phase contrast - innovative concepts, particle therapy, brachytherapy, computerized tomography, quantity assurance, hybrid imaging techniques, diffusion and lung NMR imaging, image processing - visualization, cardiac and abdominal NMR imaging.

  3. Changes in sleep quantity and efficiency in professional rugby union players during home based training and match-play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles, A; Mclellan, C; Hing, W; Carloss, N; Lovell, D

    2014-11-04

    Adequate sleep is paramount to athlete recovery and performance, however little is know about the typical sleep patterns of professional rugby union players during home based training and match-play in the competitive season. The aim of the present study was to monitor changes in sleep quantity and efficiency of elite male rugby union players over a twelve night period, which included training and two competitive matches. A total of ten elite male rugby union players from a selected team, participated in the study. Athletes sleep quantity and efficiency was monitored over a twelve night period using the Bodymedia sensewear units (BSU). There was a significant difference in sleep quantity (pwake over the twelve night period. Sleep efficiency is defined as a percentage score calculated by incorporating movement and physiological measures over the sleep duration as determined by the BSU. Also there was no significant difference between sleep parameters on the game nights. The findings show players have significantly (p<0.05) reduced sleep following a home game, which is of concern considering the established negative influence of sleep deprivation on cognitive and physical performance. This data may assist coaching, medical and performance staff to develop and implement team and individualised sleep monitoring regimes to optimise training and on-field performance.

  4. Effect of XCOM photoelectric cross-sections on dosimetric quantities calculated with EGSnrc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobeila, F.; Seuntjens, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    The EGSnrc Monte-Carlo code system incorporates improved low energy photon physics such as atomic relaxations and the implementation of bound Compton cross-sections using the impulse approximation. The total cross-section for photoelectric absorption however, still relies on the data by Storm and Israel (S and I). Yet, low energy applications such as brachytherapy (e.g. 125 I) require up-to-date low-energy photoelectric cross-section data. In this paper, we study the dosimetric effects of a simple implementation of NIST XCOM-based photoelectric cross-sections in EGSnrc. This is done by calculating mass energy-absorption coefficients, absorbed dose from point sources, kilovoltage x-ray beams and ion chamber response. In the EGS code system, the PEGS4 routine reads the photoelectric and pair cross-sections for elements from a file (pgspepr.dat) and provides numerical fits for compounds which will be used by EGSnrc. We updated the photoelectric cross-sections of the pgspepr.dat file with the XCOM total photoelectric absorption cross-sections from NIST. After validation of this new implementation, we studied its effects on a number of dosimetrically relevant quantities. Firstly, we calculated mass energy-absorption coefficients by scoring energy transferred in a thin slab of water and air using the DOSRZnrc user code. Secondly, we calculated inverse-square corrected absorbed dose distributions from point sources in water by using an internally developed user code, KERNELph. Thirdly, we studied the differences in free-air ion chamber response calculations. Ion chamber response is defined as the dose to the cavity of an ionization chamber, D gas , positioned with its effective point of measurement at a reference point divided by air-kerma measured free-in-air at the same point. The ion chamber response was calculated using monoenergetic photon beams of energy 10 keV to 200 keV. The comparison of the Storm and Israel photoelectric cross-sections with the XCOM cross

  5. Growth Hormone's Effect on Adipose Tissue: Quality versus Quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Darlene E; List, Edward O

    2017-07-26

    Obesity is an excessive accumulation or expansion of adipose tissue (AT) due to an increase in either the size and/or number of its characteristic cell type, the adipocyte. As one of the most significant public health problems of our time, obesity and its associated metabolic complications have demanded that attention be given to finding effective therapeutic options aimed at reducing adiposity or the metabolic dysfunction associated with its accumulation. Growth hormone (GH) has therapeutic potential due to its potent lipolytic effect and resultant ability to reduce AT mass while preserving lean body mass. However, AT and its resident adipocytes are significantly more dynamic and elaborate than once thought and require one not to use the reduction in absolute mass as a readout of efficacy alone. Paradoxically, therapies that reduce GH action may ultimately prove to be healthier, in part because GH also possesses potent anti-insulin activities along with concerns that GH may promote the growth of certain cancers. This review will briefly summarize some of the newer complexities of AT relevant to GH action and describe the current understanding of how GH influences this tissue using data from both humans and mice. We will conclude by considering the therapeutic use of GH or GH antagonists in obesity, as well as important gaps in knowledge regarding GH and AT.

  6. The Improved Relevance Voxel Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganz, Melanie; Sabuncu, Mert; Van Leemput, Koen

    The concept of sparse Bayesian learning has received much attention in the machine learning literature as a means of achieving parsimonious representations of features used in regression and classification. It is an important family of algorithms for sparse signal recovery and compressed sensing....... Hence in its current form it is reminiscent of a greedy forward feature selection algorithm. In this report, we aim to solve the problems of the original RVoxM algorithm in the spirit of [7] (FastRVM).We call the new algorithm Improved Relevance Voxel Machine (IRVoxM). Our contributions...... and enables basis selection from overcomplete dictionaries. One of the trailblazers of Bayesian learning is MacKay who already worked on the topic in his PhD thesis in 1992 [1]. Later on Tipping and Bishop developed the concept of sparse Bayesian learning [2, 3] and Tipping published the Relevance Vector...

  7. Form factors and related quantities in clothed-particle representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shebeko Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We show new applications of the notion of clothed particles in quantum field theory. Its realization by means of the clothing procedure put forward by Greenberg and Schweber allows one to express the total Hamiltonian H and other generators of the Poincaré group for a given system of interacting fields through the creation (annihilation operators for the so-called clothed particles with physical (observed properties. Here such a clothed particle representation is used to calculate the matrix elements (shortly, form factors of the corresponding Nöther current operators sandwiched between the H eigenstates. Our calculations are performed with help of an iterative technique suggested by us earlier when constructing the NN → πNN transition operators. As an illustration, we outline some application of our approach in the spinor quantum electrodynamics.

  8. Neutrino Oscillation Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayser, Boris

    2014-01-01

    To complement the neutrino-physics lectures given at the 2011 International School on Astro Particle Physics devoted to Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics (ISAPP 2011; Varenna, Italy), at the 2011 European School of High Energy Physics (ESHEP 2011; Cheila Gradistei, Romania), and, in modified form, at other summer schools, we present here a written description of the physics of neutrino oscillation. This description is centered on a new way of deriving the oscillation probability. We also provide a brief guide to references relevant to topics other than neutrino oscillation that were covered in the lectures

  9. Neutrino Oscillation Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayser, Boris [Fermilab (United States)

    2014-07-01

    To complement the neutrino-physics lectures given at the 2011 International School on Astro Particle Physics devoted to Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics (ISAPP 2011; Varenna, Italy), at the 2011 European School of High Energy Physics (ESHEP 2011; Cheila Gradistei, Romania), and, in modified form, at other summer schools, we present here a written description of the physics of neutrino oscillation. This description is centered on a new way of deriving the oscillation probability. We also provide a brief guide to references relevant to topics other than neutrino oscillation that were covered in the lectures.

  10. The principle of finiteness – a guideline for physical laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sternlieb, Abraham

    2013-01-01

    I propose a new principle in physics-the principle of finiteness (FP). It stems from the definition of physics as a science that deals with measurable dimensional physical quantities. Since measurement results including their errors, are always finite, FP postulates that the mathematical formulation of legitimate laws in physics should prevent exactly zero or infinite solutions. I propose finiteness as a postulate, as opposed to a statement whose validity has to be corroborated by, or derived theoretically or experimentally from other facts, theories or principles. Some consequences of FP are discussed, first in general, and then more specifically in the fields of special relativity, quantum mechanics, and quantum gravity. The corrected Lorentz transformations include an additional translation term depending on the minimum length epsilon. The relativistic gamma is replaced by a corrected gamma, that is finite for v=c. To comply with FP, physical laws should include the relevant extremum finite values in their mathematical formulation. An important prediction of FP is that there is a maximum attainable relativistic mass/energy which is the same for all subatomic particles, meaning that there is a maximum theoretical value for cosmic rays energy. The Generalized Uncertainty Principle required by Quantum Gravity is actually a necessary consequence of FP at Planck's scale. Therefore, FP may possibly contribute to the axiomatic foundation of Quantum Gravity.

  11. Physicochemical characterization of allergens: quantity, identity, purity, aggregation and conformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppelman, Stef J; Luykx, Dion M A M; de Jongh, Harmen H J; Veldhuizen, Willem Jan

    2009-01-01

    Allergens and allergoids can be characterized by means of physicochemical methods, resulting in a description of the protein on different structural levels. Several techniques are available and their suitability depends on the composition of the particular sample. Current European legislation on allergen products demands characterization of final products in particular focusing on identity, degree of modification (for allergoids) and stability of the composition. Structural parameters of allergens may be used to investigate the stability of an allergen product. The challenge is to identify and optimize techniques that allow determination of protein structure in the context of a formulated pharmaceutical product. As the majority of the products currently marketed are formulated with aluminium hydroxide or aluminium phosphate as a depot, most of the methods and techniques used for protein characterization in solution are not applicable. An additional hurdle is that allergen products are based on natural extracts, comprising a mixture of proteins, both allergens and non-allergens, sometimes in the presence of other uncharacterized components from the raw material. This paper describes which methods are suitable for the different stages of allergen product manufacturing, and how these relate to the current regulatory requirements. Some of the techniques are demonstrated using a model allergen, cod parvalbumin, and a chemically modified form thereof. We conclude that a variety of methods is available for characterization of proteins in solution, and that a limited number of techniques appear to be suitable for modified allergens (allergoids). Adaptation of existing methods, e.g. mass spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy may be helpful to obtain protein parameters of allergens in a formulated allergen product. By choosing a combination of techniques, including those additional to physicochemical approaches, relevant parameters of allergens in formulated allergen

  12. Structural determination of nanomolar quantities of neuroactive peptides by nuclear magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matei, Elena

    The specificity of the conotoxin is one of the attributes that make them a valuable diagnostic tool in the characterization of neuronal mechanisms, or therapeutic agents in medicine. It appears that Nature has provided us with a pharmaceutical tool in the form of Conus peptides. Further studies will only enhance our understanding, and use, of these molecules in medicine and science. The study of three-dimensional structure in relation to the function of cone snail peptides is an area of increasing interest. The venom of a single cone snail can contain as many as 300 different chemical components. Individual cone snail venom components, or conopeptides, can have powerful neurological effects. For many interesting species, not enough venom collected from the natural origin is available for experimental investigations. After a laborious separation procedure, only nanomole quantities of these native conopeptides are able to be obtained. Therefore, several experimental applications, such as NMR spectroscopy, are difficult to carry out using traditional methods. The research was focused on using nanoNMR spectroscopy as an alternative method to the conventional NMR spectroscopy method in order to analyze small quantities of novel peptides with unknown three-dimensional conformational arrangement. The experimental results obtained using the HR-MAS NMR technique, in addition to the use of a 3mm gHCN (with 1.7mm inserts) NMR probes, proved the capability of conformational analysis of different types of natural products at sample levels down to nanomole range. Understanding the interaction between agonist or antagonist ligands and their target receptors, at a molecular level, offer promise for the development of pharmacological therapeutics for the central nervous system. Conopeptides are of great interest as ligands in neuroscience and are valuable leads in drug design, based on their specificity and potency for therapeutically relevant receptors and ion channels. For

  13. Memory for multiple cache locations and prey quantities in a food-hoarding songbird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola eArmstrong

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Most animals can discriminate between pairs of numbers that are each less than four without training. However, North Island robins (Petroica longipes, a food hoarding songbird endemic to New Zealand, can discriminate between quantities of items as high as eight without training. Here we investigate whether robins are capable of other complex quantity discrimination tasks. We test whether their ability to discriminate between small quantities declines with 1. the number of cache sites containing prey rewards and 2. the length of time separating cache creation and retrieval (retention interval. Results showed that subjects generally performed above chance expectations. They were equally able to discriminate between different combinations of prey quantities that were hidden from view in 2, 3 and 4 cache sites from between 1, 10 and 60 seconds. Overall results indicate that North Island robins can process complex quantity information involving more than two discrete quantities of items for up to one minute long retention intervals without training.

  14. Surface modes in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sernelius, Bo E

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic surface modes are present at all surfaces and interfaces between material of different dielectric properties. These modes have very important effects on numerous physical quantities: adhesion, capillary force, step formation and crystal growth, the Casimir effect etc. They cause surface tension and wetting and they give rise to forces which are important e.g. for the stability of colloids.This book is a useful and elegant approach to the topic, showing how the concept of electromagnetic modes can be developed as a unifying theme for a range of condensed matter physics. The

  15. Health physics documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stablein, G.

    1980-01-01

    When dealing with radioactive material the health physicist receives innumerable papers and documents within the fields of researching, prosecuting, organizing and justifying radiation protection. Some of these papers are requested by the health physicist and some are required by law. The scope, quantity and deposit periods of the health physics documentation at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center are presented and rationalizing methods discussed. The aim of this documentation should be the application of physics to accident prevention, i.e. documentation should protect those concerned and not the health physicist. (H.K.)

  16. Measuring nanocurie quantities of tritium bred in metallic lithium and lithium oxide samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertone, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    The LBM program requires that nanocurie quantities of tritium, bred in both lithium oxide pellets and lithium samples, be measured with an uncertainty not exceeding + or - 6%. Two methods of accurately measuring nanocurie quantities of tritium bred in LBM lithium oxide pellets and one method of accurately measuring nanocurie quantities of tritium bred in lithium samples are described. Potential errors associated with these tritium measurement techniques are also discussed

  17. Quantity-split strategy under two-contractor competitive procurement environment

    OpenAIRE

    Boger, Dan C.; Liao, Shu S.

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the various market scenarios that provide bid price manipulation opportunities under the dual source competition environment. Two different quantity-split strategies were developed one for the case when one of the suppliers does not have the capacity to produce the majority of the annual quantity requirement and the other for the case when neither contractor is interested in using low prices to capture the larger share of annual quantity. Keywords: Dual sourcing, Quantit...

  18. Self-relevant beauty evaluation: Evidence from an event-related potentials study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fanchang; Zhang, Yan; Tian, Yuan; Fan, Cuiying; Zhou, Zongkui

    2015-03-01

    This study examines the electrophysiological correlates of beauty evaluation when participants performed the self-reference task. About 13 (7 men, 6 women) undergraduates participated in the experiment using event-related potentials. Results showed that the response to self-relevant information was faster compared to other-relevant information and no significant differences for self-relevant relative to mother-relevant information were observed. Both physical and interior beauty words for self-relevant information showed an enhanced late positive component as compared to other-relevant information. Physical beauty for self-relevant information yielded a larger late positive component in contrast to mother-relevant information but not for interior beauty. This study indicates that beauty is specific to the person who judges it though an individual and one's mother may hold similar views of interior beauty.

  19. Relationships between interplanetary quantities and the global auroral electrojet index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meloni, A.; Wolfe, A.; Lanzerotti, L.J.

    1982-01-01

    We have studied, using linear cross correlation and multilinear regression analyses, statistical relations between the magnetospheric auroral electrojet intensity index AE and various parameters characterizing the interplanetary plasma and magnetic field. We also consider the recently proposed epsilon parameter as an independent variable. The analyses were carried out separately for twenty-eight days in mid 1975 and for each of five individual magnetic storm intervals that have been previously discussed extensively in the literature. We find that when the interplanetary data set is not distinguished as to the direction of the north-south component B/sub z/, the interplanetary electric field -VB/sub z/ carried to the front of the magnetosphere correlates with AE substantially better than does epsilon. Considering only data during which B/sub z/ is negative gives a slightly better correlation of epsilon with AE than of the electric field with AE. The correlations are valid for the specific storm periods as well as for the unrestricted twenty-eight days of data. Our results suggest that the physical processes involved in energy transfer to the nightside magnetosphere depend upon the direction of the north-south component of the interplanetary magnetic field: the interplanetary electric field plays an important role during northward B/sub z/ and the epsilon parameter and the electric field both provide an indication of energy transfer and substorm activity during southward B/sub z/

  20. Lie-Mei symmetry and conserved quantities of the Rosenberg problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiao-Wei; Li Yuan-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    The Rosenberg problem is a typical but not too complicated problem of nonholonomic mechanical systems. The Lie—Mei symmetry and the conserved quantities of the Rosenberg problem are studied. For the Rosenberg problem, the Lie and the Mei symmetries for the equation are obtained, the conserved quantities are deduced from them and then the definition and the criterion for the Lie—Mei symmetry of the Rosenberg problem are derived. Finally, the Hojman conserved quantity and the Mei conserved quantity are deduced from the Lie—Mei symmetry. (general)

  1. Lie-Mei symmetry and conserved quantities of the Rosenberg problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Wei; Li, Yuan-Cheng

    2011-07-01

    The Rosenberg problem is a typical but not too complicated problem of nonholonomic mechanical systems. The Lie—Mei symmetry and the conserved quantities of the Rosenberg problem are studied. For the Rosenberg problem, the Lie and the Mei symmetries for the equation are obtained, the conserved quantities are deduced from them and then the definition and the criterion for the Lie—Mei symmetry of the Rosenberg problem are derived. Finally, the Hojman conserved quantity and the Mei conserved quantity are deduced from the Lie—Mei symmetry.

  2. 76 FR 82320 - Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-288] Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. [[Page 82321

  3. [Pärtel Lippus. The acoustic features and perception of the Estonian quantity system] / Stefan Werner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Werner, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Pärtel Lippus. The acoustic features and perception of the Estonian quantity system. Tartu : Tartu University Press, 2011. (Dissertationes philologiae estonicae Universitatis Tartuensis ; 29)

  4. On the Output-Inflation Relationship When Price and Quantity Adjustments are Costly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danziger, Leif; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup

    A vast literature analyzes the real effects of price-adjustment costs assuming that quantity adjustments are costless. In this paper, we analyze whether the presence of quantity-adjustments costs, which presumably are significant, change the traditional results on the impact of inflation....... In particular, recent findings suggest that quantity-adjustment costs may remove the linkage between output and inflation. We show that this is not the case when inflation is anticipated. On the contrary, quantity-adjustment costs may significantly amplify the consequences of price-adjustment costs...

  5. Quantity assessment of waste in the dismantlement of liquid waste treatment plant and its actual state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Takafumi; Mitsuhashi, Ishi; Matsumoto, Tetsuo; Morishima, Kayoko; Tanzawa, Tomio

    2016-01-01

    From the progress of decommissioning project work of Tokyo City University Atomic Energy Research Institute, this paper reports the comparison between the actual amount of the waste generated during dismantlement work at liquid waste treatment facilities and the assessment quantity before starting the dismantlement. The quantity assessment was made on the basis of the installation license application, design specifications, drawings, records, history of use, site investigation results, etc. Since this quantity assessment did not take into account the dismantling contents of reservoir concrete, the assessed quantity of non-radioactive waste (NR waste) did not match the sum of actual NR waste. However, if an actually generated quantity of concrete of radioactive waste was added to the quantity assessment as NR waste, the quantity of actually generated NR waste and that of assessed NR waste were nearly consistent, which verified the validity of this assessment. This method is considered to be able to be utilized in the future quantity assessment of decommissioning work and the like. On the other hand, it was found that the number of drums that were actually stored tended to increase more than the estimated number of drum conversion. In old buildings, it is necessary to take into account the generation of waste other than radioactive materials in the quantity assessment stage and dismantlement stage. (A.O.)

  6. [Relativity among starch quantity, polysaccharides content and total alkaloid content of Dendrobium loddigesii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hua; Teng, Jianbei; Cai, Yi; Liang, Jie; Zhu, Yilin; Wei, Tao

    2011-12-01

    To find out the relativity among starch quantity, polysaccharides content and total alkaloid content of Dendrobium loddigesii. Microscopy-counting process was applied to starch quantity statistics, sulfuric acid-anthrone colorimetry was used to assay polysaccharides content and bromocresol green colorimetry was used to assay alkaloid content. Pearson product moment correlation analysis, Kendall's rank correlation analysis and Spearman's concordance coefficient analysis were applied to study their relativity. Extremely significant positive correlation was found between starch quantity and polysaccharides content, and significant negative correlation between alkaloid content and starch quantity was discovered, as well was between alkaloid content and polysaccharides content.

  7. Assessing the Effects of Data Compression in Simulations Using Physically Motivated Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Laney

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines whether lossy compression can be used effectively in physics simulations as a possible strategy to combat the expected data-movement bottleneck in future high performance computing architectures. We show that, for the codes and simulations we tested, compression levels of 3–5X can be applied without causing significant changes to important physical quantities. Rather than applying signal processing error metrics, we utilize physics-based metrics appropriate for each code to assess the impact of compression. We evaluate three different simulation codes: a Lagrangian shock-hydrodynamics code, an Eulerian higher-order hydrodynamics turbulence modeling code, and an Eulerian coupled laser-plasma interaction code. We compress relevant quantities after each time-step to approximate the effects of tightly coupled compression and study the compression rates to estimate memory and disk-bandwidth reduction. We find that the error characteristics of compression algorithms must be carefully considered in the context of the underlying physics being modeled.

  8. Optimization in Fuzzy Economic Order Quantity (FEOQ Model with Deteriorating Inventory and Units Lost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monalisha Pattnaik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: This model presents the effect of deteriorating items in fuzzy optimal instantaneous replenishment for finite planning horizon. Accounting for holding cost per unit per unit time and ordering cost per order have traditionally been the case of modeling inventory systems in fuzzy environment. These imprecise parameters defined on a bounded interval on the axis of real numbers and the physical characteristics of stocked items dictate the nature of inventory policies implemented to manage and control in the production system.   Methods: The modified fuzzy EOQ (FEOQ model is introduced, it assumes that a percentage of the on-hand inventory is wasted due to deterioration and considered as an enhancement to EOQ model to determine the optimal replenishment quantity so that the net profit is maximized. In theoretical analysis, the necessary and sufficient conditions of the existence and uniqueness of the optimal solutions are proved and further the concavity of the fuzzy net profit function is established. Computational algorithm using the software LINGO 13.0 version is developed to find the optimal solution.   Results and conclusions: The results of the numerical analysis enable decision-makers to quantify the effect of units lost due to deterioration on optimizing the fuzzy net profit for the retailer. Finally, sensitivity analyses of the optimal solution with respect the major parameters are also carried out. Furthermore fuzzy decision making is shown to be superior then crisp decision making in terms of profit maximization. 

  9. MATERNAL ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION PRODUCING FETAL ALCOHOL SPECTRUM DISORDERS (FASD): QUANTITY, FREQUENCY, AND TIMING OF DRINKING

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A.; Blankenship, Jason; Marais, Anna-Susan; Gossage, J. Phillip; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Joubert, Belinda; Cloete, Marise; Barnard, Ronel; De Vries, Marlene; Hasken, Julie; Robinson, Luther K.; Adnams, Colleen M.; Buckley, David; Manning, Melanie; Parry, Charles; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Tabachnick, Barbara; Seedat, Soraya

    2013-01-01

    Background Concise, accurate measures of maternal prenatal alcohol use are needed to better understand fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Methods Measures of drinking by mothers of children with specific FASD diagnoses and mothers of randomly-selected controls are compared and also correlated with physical and cognitive/behavioral outcomes. Results Measures of maternal alcohol use can differentiate maternal drinking associated with FASD from that of controls and some from mothers of alcohol-exposed normals. Six variables that combine quantity and frequency concepts distinguish mothers of FASD children from normal controls. Alcohol use variables, when applied to each trimester and three months prior to pregnancy, provide insight on critical timing of exposure as well. Measures of drinking, especially bingeing, correlate significantly with increased child dysmorphology and negative cognitive/behavioral outcomes in children, especially low non-verbal IQ, poor attention, and behavioral problems. Logistic regression links (palcohol consumption both within and between diagnostic groupings of mothers bearing children diagnosed within the FASD continuum. Drinking measures are empirically identified and correlated with specific child outcomes. Alcohol use, especially heavy use, should be avoided throughout pregnancy. PMID:23932841

  10. Quantities of Interest in Jet Stirred Reactor Oxidation of a High-Octane Gasoline

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Bingjie

    2017-03-28

    This work examines the oxidation of a well-characterized, high-octane-number FACE (fuel for advanced combustion engines) F gasoline. Oxidation experiments were performed in a jet-stirred reactor (JSR) for FACE F gasoline under the following conditions: pressure, 10 bar; temperature, 530-1250 K; residence time, 0.7s; equivalence ratios, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0. Detailed species profiles were achieved by identification and quantification from gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). Four surrogates, with physical and chemical properties that mimic the real fuel properties, were used for simulations, with a detailed gasoline surrogate kinetic model. Fuel and species profiles were well-captured and-predicted by comparisons between experimental results and surrogate simulations. Further analysis was performed using a quantities of interest (QoI) approach to show the differences between experimental and simulation results and to evaluate the gasoline surrogate kinetic model. Analysis of the multicomponent surrogate kinetic model indicated that iso-octane and alkyl aromatic oxidation reactions had impact on species profiles in the high-temperature region;. however, the main production and consumption channels were related to smaller molecule reactions. The results presented here offer new insights into the oxidation chemistry of complex gasoline fuels and provide suggestions for the future development of surrogate kinetic models.

  11. Mediating Relationship of Differential Products in Understanding Integration in Introductory Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Nathaniel; Heckler, Andrew F.

    2018-01-01

    In the context of introductory physics, we study student conceptual understanding of differentials, differential products, and integrals and possible pathways to understanding these quantities. We developed a multiple choice conceptual assessment employing a variety of physical contexts probing physical understanding of these three quantities and…

  12. Microdosing: Concept, application and relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Tewari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of microdose pharmacokinetic studies as an essential tool in drug development is still to catch on. While this approach promises potential cost savings and a quantum leap in efficiencies of the drug development process, major hurdles still need to be overcome before the technique becomes commonplace and part of routine practice. Clear regulations in Europe and the USA have had an enabling effect. The lack of enabling provisions for microdosing studies in Indian regulation, despite low risk and manifest relevance for the local drug development industry, is inconsistent with the country′s aspirations to be among the leaders in pharmaceutical research.

  13. A Review of distribution and quantity of lingering subsurface oil from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Zachary; Michel, Jacqueline

    2018-01-01

    Remaining lingering subsurface oil residues from the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) are, at present, patchily distributed across the geologically complex and spatially extensive shorelines of Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska. We review and synthesize previous literature describing the causal geomorphic and physical mechanisms for persistence of oil in the intertidal subsurface sediments of these areas. We also summarize previous sampling and modeling efforts, and refine previously presented models with additional data to characterize the present-day linear and areal spatial extent, and quantity of lingering subsurface oil. In the weeks after the spill in March of 1989, approximately 17,750 t of oil were stranded along impacted shorelines, and by October of 1992, only 2% of the mass of spilled oil was estimated to remain in intertidal areas. We estimate that lingering subsurface residues, generally between 5 and 20 cm thick and sequestered below 10-20 cm of clean sediment, are present over 30 ha of intertidal area, along 11.4 km of shoreline, and represent approximately 227 t or 0.6% of the total mass of spilled oil. These residues are typically located in finer-grained sand and gravel sediments, often under an armor of cobble- or boulder-sized clasts, in areas with limited groundwater flow and porosity. Persistence of these residues is correlated with heavy initial oil loading together with localized sheltering from physical disturbance such as wave energy within the beach face. While no longer generally bioavailable and increasingly chemically weathered, present removal rates for these remaining subsurface oil residues have slowed to nearly zero. The only remaining plausible removal mechanisms will operate over time scales of decades.

  14. Determination of Quality and Quantity for Primary Schoolyards in Artvin City Center By Using Geographical Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Arslan Muhacir

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Rapid increase in concretion rate and a related decrease in the amount of public-green areas per capita have become an important issue for people living in cities. Children that are stuck in between tall buildings and have longing for play are the most affected ones from this issue. Adequateness of schoolyards both in quality and quantity is very important for physical and mental development of children especially for those attending primary schools and spending the most of their time in schoolyards. This importance has revealed not only the issue of increasing the quality of school buildings but also the necessity of better outdoor spaces for schools in order to have more successful education period. Moreover, some criterions such as distance, density and population should be taken into account when determining education areas in local zoning legislation. Even though it is assumed that every city has optimal social, topographical and other similar features for application of planning principles, these are not applicable for many cities such as Artvin due to its rugged land formation and irregular urbanization. The main objective of this study was to evaluate schoolyards in Artvin by stating their current status in Artvin both in quality and quantity aspects, since both have important effects on child’s physical and mental development.

  15. From Heavy-Ion Collisions to Compact Stars: Equation of State and Relevance of the System Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Mogliacci

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we start by presenting state-of-the-art methods allowing us to compute moments related to the globally conserved baryon number, by means of first principle resummed perturbative frameworks. We focus on such quantities for they convey important properties of the finite temperature and density equation of state, being particularly sensitive to changes in the degrees of freedom across the quark-hadron phase transition. We thus present various number susceptibilities along with the corresponding results as obtained by lattice quantum chromodynamics collaborations, and comment on their comparison. Next, omitting the importance of coupling corrections and considering a zero-density toy model for the sake of argument, we focus on corrections due to the small size of heavy-ion collision systems, by means of spatial compactifications. Briefly motivating the relevance of finite size effects in heavy-ion physics, in opposition to the compact star physics, we present a few preliminary thermodynamic results together with the speed of sound for certain finite size relativistic quantum systems at very high temperature.

  16. Terms and definitions in the field of radiological technique. Dose quantities and units. Begriffe und Benennungen in der radiologischen Technik. Dosisgroessen und Dosiseinheiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The standard gives the terms and definitions of concepts, dose quantities and units. The radiation field condition 'secondary electron equilibrium', which forms part of the definition of standard ion dose, is given more precisely. The term 'free in air' is used in its original meaning, i.e. characterization of measuring conditions excluding avoidable stray radiation, which deviates from DIN 6814, part 3/06.72. Dosemeters for measurement of standard ion dose of air kerma are calibrated 'free in air', but this calibration condition is not part of the quantity definition. The quantities standard ion dose or air kerma therefore can also be measured in any other material. The qunatitative relationships between standard ion dose and the quantities 'exposure' and air kerma, as given in the ICRU publication 33 'Quantities and Units' (1980), are explained. The standard introduces the SI units Gray (for energy dose), Sievert (for dose equivalent), and Becquerel (for the activity of a radioactive substance). As the change to the SI units conceals the approximated equality of the numerical values of the standrd ion dose of photon radiation in roentgen, of the energy dose for soft tissue in rad, and of the dose equivalent in rem, new definitions are given in accordance with ICRU 33 for the quantities specified dose rate, dose rate constant, and area exposure product. These definitions use the terms 'energy dose' and 'kerma'. The dose concepts applied in the field of radiation protection, especially ambient dose and individual dose, are defined as dose equivalents in compliance with the Radiation Protection Ordinance. The relevant sections present information on the conversion of standard ion dose values to the corresponding values of kerma, energy dose, or dose equivalent.

  17. Quantity judgments in the context of risk/reward decision making in striped field mice: first “count,” then hunt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteleeva, Sofia; Reznikova, Zhanna; Vygonyailova, Olga

    2013-01-01

    We simulated the situation of risky hunting in the striped field mouse Apodemus agrarius in order to examine whether these animals are able to make a choice between small and large quantities of live prey (ants). In the first (preliminary) experiment we investigated to what extent mice were interested in ants as a live prey and how their hunting activity depended on the quantity of these edible but rather aggressive insects. We placed mice one by one into arenas together with ant groups of different quantities, from 10 to 60. Surprisingly, animals, both wild-caught and laboratory-reared, displayed rather skilled predatory attacks: mice killed and ate from 0.37 ± 003 to 4 ± 0.5 ants per minute. However, there was a threshold number of ants in the arenas when rodents expressed signs of discomfort and started to panic, likely because ants bit them. This threshold corresponds to the dynamic density (about 400 individuals per m2 per min) in the vicinity of anthills and ants' routes in natural environment. In the second experiment mice had to choose between different quantities of ants placed in two transparent tunnels. Ants here served both as food items and as a source of danger. As far as we know, this is the first experimental paradigm based on evaluation of quantity judgments in the context of risk/reward decision making where the animals face a trade-off between the hedonistic value of the prey and the danger it presents. We found that when mice have to choose between 5 vs. 15, 5 vs. 30, and 10 vs. 30 ants, they always tend to prefer the smaller quantity, thus displaying the capacity for distinguishing more from less in order to ensure comfortable hunting. The results of this study are ecologically relevant as they reflect situations and challenges faced by free-living small rodents. PMID:23407476

  18. Price effects of changing quantities supplied at the integrated european fish market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max; Smit, Jos; Guillen, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    to be −1.1. This implies that price flexibilities previously estimated for single European countries underestimate price changes at the European level caused by quantity changes. Results indicate that changing quantities can increase revenues from individual species with large own-price flexibilities...

  19. 41 CFR 101-26.507-4 - Quantities in excess of the maximum order limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Quantities in excess of... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 26-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.5-GSA Procurement Programs § 101-26.507-4 Quantities in...

  20. On pure-strategy Nash equilibria in price-quantity games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, I.; Vermeulen, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the existence and characteristics of pure-strategy Nash equilibria in oligopoly models in which firms set both prices and quantities. Existence is proved for a broad and natural class of price-quantity games. With differentiated products, the equilibrium outcome is similar to

  1. 48 CFR 852.270-2 - Bread and bakery products-quantities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bread and bakery products... Bread and bakery products—quantities. As prescribed in 870.111-3, insert the following clause: Bread and Bakery Products—Quantities (JAN 2008) The bidder agrees to furnish up to 25 percent more or 25 percent...

  2. 29 CFR 780.814 - “Grown in commercial quantities.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT... “commercial” quantities, the trade understanding of what are “commercial” quantities of cotton would be...

  3. Non-Noether conserved quantity for differential equations of motion in the phase space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A non-Noether conserved quantity for the differential equations of motion of mechanical systems in the phase space is studied. The differential equations of motion of the systems are established and the determining equations of Lie symmetry are given. An existence theorem of non-Noether conserved quantity is obtained. An example is given to illustrate the application of the result.

  4. Are Quantity Surveyors Competent to Value for Civil Engineering Works? Evaluating QSs' Competencies and Militating Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olawumi, Timothy Oluwatosin; Ayegun, Olaleke Amos

    2016-01-01

    The role of the quantity surveyor is one that is often unclear amongst the general public. This study discussed the competencies of the quantity surveyor in measuring and managing civil engineering works and also carrying out the financial management for civil engineering construction projects; also outlined the various competencies and skills…

  5. Optimal trading quantity integration as a basis for optimal portfolio management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Žiković

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The author in this paper points out the reason behind calculating and using optimal trading quantity in conjunction with Markowitz’s Modern portfolio theory. In the opening part the author presents an example of calculating optimal weights using Markowitz’s Mean-Variance approach, followed by an explanation of basic logic behind optimal trading quantity. The use of optimal trading quantity is not limited to systems with Bernoulli outcome, but can also be used when trading shares, futures, options etc. Optimal trading quantity points out two often-overlooked axioms: (1 a system with negative mathematical expectancy can never be transformed in a system with positive mathematical expectancy, (2 by missing the optimal trading quantity an investor can turn a system with positive expectancy into a negative one. Optimal trading quantity is that quantity which maximizes geometric mean (growth function of a particular system. To determine the optimal trading quantity for simpler systems, with a very limited number of outcomes, a set of Kelly’s formulas is appropriate. In the conclusion the summary of the paper is presented.

  6. 40 CFR 355.12 - What quantities of extremely hazardous substances trigger emergency planning requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EMERGENCY PLANNING AND NOTIFICATION Emergency Planning Who Must Comply § 355.12 What quantities of extremely... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What quantities of extremely hazardous substances trigger emergency planning requirements? 355.12 Section 355.12 Protection of Environment...

  7. Variations of influence quantities in industrial irradiators and their effect on dosimetry performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, R.D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Many environmental factors, including irradiation temperature, post-irradiation storage temperature, dose rate, relative humidity, oxygen content and the energy spectrum may affect the response of dosimetry systems used in industrial radiation processing. Although the effects of individual influence quantities have been extensively studied, the variations of these influence quantities in production irradiators and the complex relationships between the effects of different influence quantities make it difficult to assess the overall effect on the measurement uncertainty. In the development of new dosimetry systems it is important to know the effect of each influence quantity and developers of new dosimetry systems should perform studies over a wide range of irradiation conditions. Analysis parameters and manufacturing specifications should be chosen to minimize the effect of influence quantities in the environments where the dosimeters will be used. Because of possible relationships between different influence quantities, care must be taken to ensure that the response function determined in the calibration of the dosimetry system is applicable for the conditions in which the dosimeters will be used. Reference standard dosimetry systems which have been thoroughly studied and have known relationships between dose response and influence quantities should be used to verify the calibration of routine dosimetry systems under the actual conditions of use. Better understanding of the variations in influence quantities in industrial irradiators may be obtained by modeling or direct measurements and may provide improvements in the calibration of routine dosimetry system and reduction of the overall measurement uncertainty. (author)

  8. 16 CFR 500.7 - Net quantity of contents, method of expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... expression. The net quantity of contents shall be expressed in terms of weight or mass, measure, numerical... consumers. The net quantity of contents statement shall be in terms of fluid measure if the commodity is liquid, or in terms of weight or mass if the commodity is solid, semi-solid, or viscous, or a mixture of...

  9. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products...

  10. A small quantity of sodium arsenite will kill large cull hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis M. Rushmore

    1956-01-01

    Although it is well known that sodium arsenite is an effective silvicide, forestry literature contains little information about the minimum quantities of this chemical that are required to kill large cull trees. Such information would be of value because if small quantities of a chemical will produce satisfactory results, small holes or frills in the tree will hold it...

  11. Environmental physics as a teaching concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeker, Egbert; Grondelle, Rienk van; Blankert, Piet

    2003-01-01

    Environmental physics is understood as the physics connected with analysing and mitigating environmental problems. It draws on most sub-disciplines of physics and provides a way of making physics relevant. In this paper the motivation of teaching environmental physics is discussed and examples of course content and supporting student work are given, based on work in the authors' department

  12. The false dichotomy of quality and quantity in the discourse around assessment in competency-based education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Cate, Olle

    2015-08-01

    Competency-based medical education stresses the attainment of competencies rather than the completion of fixed time in rotations. This sometimes leads to the interpretation that quantitative features of a program are of less importance, such as procedures practiced and weeks or months spent in clinical practice. An educational philosophy like "We don't require numbers of procedures completed but focus on competencies" suggests a dichotomy of either competency-based or time and procedures based education. The author argues that this dichotomy is not useful, and may even compromise education, as long as valid assessment of all relevant competencies is not possible or feasible. Requiring quantities of experiences of learners is not in contrast with competency-based education.

  13. Other relevant numerical modelling papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chartier, M.

    1989-01-01

    The ocean modelling is a rapidly evolving science and a large number of results have been published. Several categories of papers are of particular interest for this review: the papers published by the international atomic institutions, such as the NEA (for the CRESP or Subseabed Programs), the IAEA (for example the Safety Series, the Technical Report Series or the TECDOC), and the ICRP, and the papers concerned by more fundamental research, which are published in specific scientific literature. This paper aims to list some of the most relevant publications for the CRESP purposes. It means by no way to be exhaustive, but informative on the incontestable progress recently achieved in that field. One should note that some of these papers are so recent that their final version has not yet been published

  14. Industrial relevance of thermophilic Archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, Ksenia; Antranikian, Garabed

    2005-12-01

    The dramatic increase of newly isolated extremophilic microorganisms, analysis of their genomes and investigations of their enzymes by academic and industrial laboratories demonstrate the great potential of extremophiles in industrial (white) biotechnology. Enzymes derived from extremophiles (extremozymes) are superior to the traditional catalysts because they can perform industrial processes even under harsh conditions, under which conventional proteins are completely denatured. In particular, enzymes from thermophilic and hyperthermophilic Archaea have industrial relevance. Despite intensive investigations, our knowledge of the structure-function relationships of their enzymes is still limited. Information concerning the molecular properties of their enzymes and genes has to be obtained to be able to understand the mechanisms that are responsible for catalytic activity and stability at the boiling point of water.

  15. The Relevance of Hegel's Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W Burbidge

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Hegel defines his Logic as the science that thinks about thinking.nbsp; But when we interpret that work as outlining what happens when we reason we are vulnerable to Fregersquo;s charge of psychologism.nbsp; I use Hegelrsquo;s tripartite distinction among understanding, dialectical and speculative reason as operations of pure thought to suggest how thinking can work with objective concepts.nbsp; In the last analysis, however, our ability to move from the subjective contingency of representations and ideas to the pure concepts we think develops from mechanical memory, which separates sign from sense so hat we can focus simply on the latter.nbsp; By becoming aware of the connections that underlie our thinking processes we may be able to both move beyond the abstractions of symbolic logic and clarify what informal logicians call relevance.

  16. Calibration of personal dosemeters in terms of the ICRU operational quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.C.; Hertel, N.E.

    1992-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Units and Measurements (ICRU) has defined several new operational quantities for radiation protection purposes. The quantities to be used for personal monitoring are defined at depths in the human body. Because these quantities are impossible to measure directly, the ICRU has recommended that personal dosimeters should be calibrated under simplified conditions on an appropriate phantom, such as the ICRU sphere. The U.S. personal dosimetry accreditation programs make use of a 30 x 30 x 15 cm polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantom; therefore it is necessary to relate the response of dosimeters calibrated on this phantom to the ICRU operational quantities. Calculations of the conversion factors to compute dosimeter response in terms of the operational quantities have been performed using the code MCNP. These calculations have also been compared to experimental measurements using thermoluminescent (TLD) detectors. (author)

  17. Calibration of personal dosemeters in terms of the ICRU operational quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.C.; Hertel, N.E.

    1992-05-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Units and Measurements (ICRU) has defined several new operational quantities for radiation protection purposes. The quantities to be used for personal monitoring are defined at depths in the human body. Because these quantities are impossible to measure directly, the ICRU has recommended that personal dosemeters should be calibrated under simplified conditions on an appropriate phantom, such as the ICRU sphere. The US personal dosimetry accreditation programs make use of a 30 x 30 x 15 cm polymethymethacrylate (PMMA) phantom, therefore it is necessary to relate the response of dosemeters calibrated on this phantom to the ICRU operational quantities. Calculations of the conversion factors to compute dosemeter response in terms of the operational quantities have been performed using the code MCNP. These calculations have also been compared to experimental measurements using thermoluminescent (TLD) detectors

  18. The effectiveness of worksite physical activity programs on physical activity, physical fitness, and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proper, K.I.; Koning, M.; Beek, A.J. van der; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Bosscher, R.J.; Mechelen, W. van

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To critically review the literature with respect to the effectiveness of worksite physical activity programs on physical activity, physical fitness, and health. Data Sources: A search for relevant English-written papers published between 1980 and 2000 was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE,

  19. Understanding solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Holgate, Sharon Ann

    2009-01-01

    Where Sharon Ann Holgate has succeeded in this book is in packing it with examples of the application of solid state physics to technology. … All the basic elements of solid state physics are covered … . The range of materials is good, including as it does polymers and glasses as well as crystalline solids. In general, the style makes for easy reading. … Overall this book succeeds in showing the relevance of solid state physics to the modern world … .-Contemporary Physics, Vol. 52, No. 2, 2011I was indeed amused and inspired by the wonderful images throughout the book, carefully selected by th

  20. Using measurable dosimetric quantities to characterize the inter-structural tradeoff in inverse planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongcheng; Dong, Peng; Xing, Lei

    2017-08-01

    Traditional inverse planning relies on the use of weighting factors to balance the conflicting requirements of different structures. Manual trial-and-error determination of weighting factors has long been recognized as a time-consuming part of treatment planning. The purpose of this work is to develop an inverse planning framework that parameterizes the dosimetric tradeoff among the structures with physically meaningful quantities to simplify the search for clinically sensible plans. In this formalism, instead of using weighting factors, the permissible variation range of the prescription dose or dose volume histogram (DVH) of the involved structures are used to characterize the ‘importance’ of the structures. The inverse planning is then formulated into a convex feasibility problem, called the dosimetric variation-controlled model (DVCM), whose goal is to generate plans with dosimetric or DVH variations of the structures consistent with the pre-specified values. For simplicity, the dosimetric variation range for a structure is extracted from a library of previous cases which possess similar anatomy and prescription. A two-phase procedure (TPP) is designed to solve the model. The first phase identifies a physically feasible plan to satisfy the prescribed dosimetric variation, and the second phase automatically improves the plan in case there is room for further improvement. The proposed technique is applied to plan two prostate cases and two head-and-neck cases and the results are compared with those obtained using a conventional CVaR approach and with a moment-based optimization scheme. Our results show that the strategy is able to generate clinically sensible plans with little trial and error. In all cases, the TPP generates a very competitive plan as compared to those obtained using the alternative approaches. Particularly, in the planning of one of the head-and-neck cases, the TPP leads to a non-trivial improvement in the resultant dose distribution