WorldWideScience

Sample records for relevant experimental studies

  1. Scale-up considerations relevant to experimental studies of nuclear waste-package behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, D.G.; Peters, R.D.

    1986-04-01

    Results from a study that investigated whether testing large-scale nuclear waste-package assemblages was technically warranted are reported. It was recognized that the majority of the investigations for predicting waste-package performance to date have relied primarily on laboratory-scale experimentation. However, methods for the successful extrapolation of the results from such experiments, both geometrically and over time, to actual repository conditions have not been well defined. Because a well-developed scaling technology exists in the chemical-engineering discipline, it was presupposed that much of this technology could be applicable to the prediction of waste-package performance. A review of existing literature documented numerous examples where a consideration of scaling technology was important. It was concluded that much of the existing scale-up technology is applicable to the prediction of waste-package performance for both size and time extrapolations and that conducting scale-up studies may be technically merited. However, the applicability for investigating the complex chemical interactions needs further development. It was recognized that the complexity of the system, and the long time periods involved, renders a completely theoretical approach to performance prediction almost hopeless. However, a theoretical and experimental study was defined for investigating heat and fluid flow. It was concluded that conducting scale-up modeling and experimentation for waste-package performance predictions is possible using existing technology. A sequential series of scaling studies, both theoretical and experimental, will be required to formulate size and time extrapolations of waste-package performance

  2. Theoretical and experimental studies relevant to interpretation of auroral emissions. Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keffer, C.E.

    1992-06-01

    The results obtained in the second year of a three year collaborative effort with MSFC are summarized. A succession of experimental studies was completed to determine the effects of the natural and induced space vehicle environment on the measurement of auroral images from space-based platforms. In addition, a global model which incorporates both auroral and dayglow emission sources is being developed to allow interpretation of measured auroral emissions. A description of work completed on these two tasks is presented

  3. An experimental and theoretical study of reaction steps relevant to the methanol-to-hydrocarbons reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svelle, Stian

    2004-07-01

    The primary objective of the present work is to obtain new insight into the reaction mechanism of the zeolite catalyzed methanol-to-hydrocarbons (MTH) reaction. It was decided to use both experimental and computational techniques to reach this goal. An investigation of the n-butene + methanol system was therefore initiated. Over time, it became apparent that it was possible to determine the rate for the methylation of n-butene by methanol. The ethene and propene systems were therefore reexamined in order to collect kinetic information also for those cases. With the development of user-friendly quantum chemistry programs such as the Gaussian suite of programs, the possibility of applying quantum chemical methods to many types of problems has become readily available even for non-experts. When performing mechanistic studies, there is quite often a considerable synergy effect when combining experimental and computational approaches. The methylation reactions mentioned above turned out to be an issue well suited for quantum chemical investigations. The incentive for examining the halomethane reactivity was the clear analogy to the MTH reaction system. Alkene dimerization was also a reaction readily examined with quantum chemistry. As discussed in the introduction of this thesis, polymethylbenzenes, or their cationic counterparts, are suspected to be key intermediates in the MTH reaction. It was therefore decided to investigate the intrinsic reactivity of these species in the gas-phase by employing sophisticated mass spectrometric (MS) techniques in collaboration with the MS group at the Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo The data thus obtained will also be compared with results from an ongoing computational study on gas phase polymethylbenzenium reactivity. 6 papers presenting various studies are included. The titles are: 1) A Theoretical Investigation of the Methylation of Alkenes with Methanol over Acidic Zeolites. 2) A Theoretical Investigation of the

  4. An experimental and theoretical study of reaction steps relevant to the methanol-to-hydrocarbons reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svelle, Stian

    2004-07-01

    The primary objective of the present work is to obtain new insight into the reaction mechanism of the zeolite catalyzed methanol-to-hydrocarbons (MTH) reaction. It was decided to use both experimental and computational techniques to reach this goal. An investigation of the n-butene + methanol system was therefore initiated. Over time, it became apparent that it was possible to determine the rate for the methylation of n-butene by methanol. The ethene and propene systems were therefore reexamined in order to collect kinetic information also for those cases. With the development of user-friendly quantum chemistry programs such as the Gaussian suite of programs, the possibility of applying quantum chemical methods to many types of problems has become readily available even for non-experts. When performing mechanistic studies, there is quite often a considerable synergy effect when combining experimental and computational approaches. The methylation reactions mentioned above turned out to be an issue well suited for quantum chemical investigations. The incentive for examining the halomethane reactivity was the clear analogy to the MTH reaction system. Alkene dimerization was also a reaction readily examined with quantum chemistry. As discussed in the introduction of this thesis, polymethylbenzenes, or their cationic counterparts, are suspected to be key intermediates in the MTH reaction. It was therefore decided to investigate the intrinsic reactivity of these species in the gas-phase by employing sophisticated mass spectrometric (MS) techniques in collaboration with the MS group at the Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo The data thus obtained will also be compared with results from an ongoing computational study on gas phase polymethylbenzenium reactivity. 6 papers presenting various studies are included. The titles are: 1) A Theoretical Investigation of the Methylation of Alkenes with Methanol over Acidic Zeolites. 2) A Theoretical Investigation of the

  5. Studies in nuclear structure relevant to Astrophysics: theoretical and experimental efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha Sarkar, Maitreyee

    2016-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical investigations in the region around doubly magic neutron rich 132 Sn nucleus have recently revealed many intriguing issues concerning some newer aspects of nuclear structure in such exotic environments. These nuclei lie on or close to the path of the astrophysical r-process flow. A glimpse of the implication of these studies on the r-process nucleosynthesis will be discussed. Presently, the Nuclear Physics group in Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics is working for installation of a high-current, low energy Accelerator as the primary component of the Facility for Research in low Energy Nuclear Astrophysics (FRENA), a national facility, at Kolkata. Planning for future experiments has been undertaken for successful utilization of this facility. Implantation technique has been found to be one of the most effective methods to produce isotopically pure targets. We have prepared a few isotopically pure targets using this technique. Being the slowest process of the CNO cycle, study of the 14 N(p, γ) 15 O(Q = 7297 keV) capture reaction is of high astrophysical interest. From an experiment utilizing one of the newly prepared 14 N implanted targets, a preliminary estimate of the lifetime of 6792 keV state in 15 O has been obtained, using Doppler shift attenuation method (DSAM). The sensitivity of the results with respect to the uncertainties in various input quantities has been tested. This endeavour will be helpful to design a better experiment to extract more precise lifetime for this important state

  6. Experimental Study of Plasma-Surface Interaction and Material Damage Relevant to ITER Type I Elms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhlai, V.A.; Bandura, A.N.; Byrka, O.V. and others; Landman, I.; Neklyudov, I.M.

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents experimental investigations of main features of plasma surface interaction and energy transfer to the material surface in dependence on plasma heat loads. The experiments were performed with QSPA repetitive plasma pulses of the duration of 0.25 ms and the energy density up to 2.5 MJ/m 2 . Surface morphology of the targets exposed to QSPA plasma screams is analyzed. Relative contribution of the Lorentz force and plasma pressure gradient to the resulting surface profile is discussed. development of cracking on the tungsten surface and swelling of the surface are found to be in strong dependence on initial temperature of the target

  7. Prospects for new information relevant to radiation protection from studies of experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClellan, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    The theory underlying radiation protection was developed from studies of people, laboratory animals, tissues, cells and macromolecules. Data on people were obtained from opportunistic studies of individuals previously exposed to radiation. Rarely has it been possible to conduct prospective studies of people exposed to known quantities of radiation, which sharply restricts the nature of questions that they can address. In contrast, studies using laboratory animals and simpler biological systems can be designed to address specific questions, using controlled exposure conditions. In-vitro research with macromolecules, cells and tissues leads to understanding normal and disease processes in isolated biological components. Studies of the intact animals provide opportunities to study in vivo interactive mechanisms observed in vitro and their role in development of radiation-induced diseases such as cancer. In the future, studies of intact animals should prove increasingly valuable in linking new knowledge at the subanimal level with the more fragmentary information obtained from direct observations on people. This will provide insight into important issues such as (a) effects of low-level radiation exposures, (b) mechanism of cancer induction at high versus low radiation doses, and (c) influence of factors such as nutrition and exposure to chemicals on radiation-induced cancer. This presentation describes strategies for conducting and integrating results of research using macromolecules, cells, tissues, laboratory animals and people to improve our understanding of radiation-induced cancer. It will also emphasize the problems encountered in studies at all levels of biological organization when the disease is observed in low excess incidence long after exposure to the toxicant

  8. Experimental Animal Models of Pancreatic Carcinogenesis for Prevention Studies and Their Relevance to Human Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Nakagama

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is difficult to cure, so its prevention is very important. For this purpose, animal model studies are necessary to develop effective methods. Injection of N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropylamine (BOP into Syrian golden hamsters is known to induce pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, the histology of which is similar to human tumors. Moreover, K-ras activation by point mutations and p16 inactivation by aberrant methylation of 5’ CpG islands or by homozygous deletions have been frequently observed in common in both the hamster and humans. Thus, this chemical carcinogenesis model has an advantage of histopathological and genetic similarity to human pancreatic cancer, and it is useful to study promotive and suppressive factors. Syrian golden hamsters are in a hyperlipidemic state even under normal dietary conditions, and a ligand of peroxizome proliferator-activated receptor gamma was found to improve the hyperlipidemia and suppress pancreatic carcinogenesis. Chronic inflammation is a known important risk factor, and selective inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 also have protective effects against pancreatic cancer development. Anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperlipidemic agents can thus be considered candidate chemopreventive agents deserving more attention.

  9. Experimental Animal Models of Pancreatic Carcinogenesis for Prevention Studies and Their Relevance to Human Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Mami; Hori, Mika; Mutoh, Michihiro; Wakabayashi, Keiji; Nakagama, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is difficult to cure, so its prevention is very important. For this purpose, animal model studies are necessary to develop effective methods. Injection of N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine (BOP) into Syrian golden hamsters is known to induce pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, the histology of which is similar to human tumors. Moreover, K-ras activation by point mutations and p16 inactivation by aberrant methylation of 5′ CpG islands or by homozygous deletions have been frequently observed in common in both the hamster and humans. Thus, this chemical carcinogenesis model has an advantage of histopathological and genetic similarity to human pancreatic cancer, and it is useful to study promotive and suppressive factors. Syrian golden hamsters are in a hyperlipidemic state even under normal dietary conditions, and a ligand of peroxizome proliferator-activated receptor gamma was found to improve the hyperlipidemia and suppress pancreatic carcinogenesis. Chronic inflammation is a known important risk factor, and selective inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 also have protective effects against pancreatic cancer development. Anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperlipidemic agents can thus be considered candidate chemopreventive agents deserving more attention

  10. Experimental Animal Models of Pancreatic Carcinogenesis for Prevention Studies and Their Relevance to Human Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Mami, E-mail: mtakahas@ncc.go.jp; Hori, Mika; Mutoh, Michihiro [Division of Cancer Development System, Carcinogenesis Research Group, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 1-1, Tsukiji 5-chome, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Wakabayashi, Keiji [Graduate School of Nutritional and Environmental Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Yada 52-1, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan); Nakagama, Hitoshi [Division of Cancer Development System, Carcinogenesis Research Group, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 1-1, Tsukiji 5-chome, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan)

    2011-02-09

    Pancreatic cancer is difficult to cure, so its prevention is very important. For this purpose, animal model studies are necessary to develop effective methods. Injection of N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine (BOP) into Syrian golden hamsters is known to induce pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, the histology of which is similar to human tumors. Moreover, K-ras activation by point mutations and p16 inactivation by aberrant methylation of 5′ CpG islands or by homozygous deletions have been frequently observed in common in both the hamster and humans. Thus, this chemical carcinogenesis model has an advantage of histopathological and genetic similarity to human pancreatic cancer, and it is useful to study promotive and suppressive factors. Syrian golden hamsters are in a hyperlipidemic state even under normal dietary conditions, and a ligand of peroxizome proliferator-activated receptor gamma was found to improve the hyperlipidemia and suppress pancreatic carcinogenesis. Chronic inflammation is a known important risk factor, and selective inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 also have protective effects against pancreatic cancer development. Anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperlipidemic agents can thus be considered candidate chemopreventive agents deserving more attention.

  11. Relevance of workplace social mixing during influenza pandemics: an experimental modelling study of workplace cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpka, T; Eriksson, H; Holm, E; Strömgren, M; Ekberg, J; Spreco, A; Dahlström, Ö

    2016-07-01

    Workplaces are one of the most important regular meeting places in society. The aim of this study was to use simulation experiments to examine the impact of different workplace cultures on influenza dissemination during pandemics. The impact is investigated by experiments with defined social-mixing patterns at workplaces using semi-virtual models based on authentic sociodemographic and geographical data from a North European community (population 136 000). A simulated pandemic outbreak was found to affect 33% of the total population in the community with the reference academic-creative workplace culture; virus transmission at the workplace accounted for 10·6% of the cases. A model with a prevailing industrial-administrative workplace culture generated 11% lower incidence than the reference model, while the model with a self-employed workplace culture (also corresponding to a hypothetical scenario with all workplaces closed) produced 20% fewer cases. The model representing an academic-creative workplace culture with restricted workplace interaction generated 12% lower cumulative incidence compared to the reference model. The results display important theoretical associations between workplace social-mixing cultures and community-level incidence rates during influenza pandemics. Social interaction patterns at workplaces should be taken into consideration when analysing virus transmission patterns during influenza pandemics.

  12. Experimental and modelling studies of iodine oxide formation and aerosol behaviour relevant to nuclear reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, S.; Auvinen, A.; Ammar, Y.; Bosland, L.; Clément, B.; Funke, F.; Glowa, G.; Kärkelä, T.; Powers, D.A.; Tietze, S.; Weber, G.; Zhang, S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Radiolytic reactions can influence iodine volatility following a nuclear accident. • Kinetic models have been developed based on atmospheric chemistry studies. • Properties of iodine oxide aerosols produced by radiation have been measured. • Decomposition of iodine oxides by the action of heat or radiation has been observed. - Abstract: Plant assessments have shown that iodine contributes significantly to the source term for a range of accident scenarios. Iodine has a complex chemistry that determines its chemical form and, consequently, its volatility in the containment. If volatile iodine species are formed by reactions in the containment, they will be subject to radiolytic reactions in the atmosphere, resulting in the conversion of the gaseous species into involatile iodine oxides, which may deposit on surfaces or re-dissolve in water pools. The concentration of airborne iodine in the containment will, therefore, be determined by the balance between the reactions contributing to the formation and destruction of volatile species, as well as by the physico-chemical properties of the iodine oxide aerosols which will influence their longevity in the atmosphere. This paper summarises the work that has been done in the framework of the EC SARNET (Severe Accident Research Network) to develop a greater understanding of the reactions of gaseous iodine species in irradiated air/steam atmospheres, and the nature and behaviour of the reaction products. This work has mainly been focussed on investigating the nature and behaviour of iodine oxide aerosols, but earlier work by members of the SARNET group on gaseous reaction rates is also discussed to place the more recent work into context

  13. Experimental studies of keV energy neutron-induced reactions relevant to astrophysics and nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shima, T.; Kii, T.; Kikuchi, T.; Okazaki, F.; Kobayashi, T.; Baba, T.; Nagai, Y. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Faculty of Science; Igashira, M.

    1997-03-01

    Nuclear reactions induced by keV energy neutrons provide a plenty of informations for studies of both astrophysics and nuclear physics. In this paper we will show our experimental studies of neutron- induced reactions of light nuclei in the keV energy region by means of a pulsed keV neutron beam and high-sensitivity detectors. Also we will discuss astrophysical and nuclear-physical consequences by using the obtained results. (author)

  14. Recent experimental results on ICF target implosions by Z-pinch radiation sources and their relevance to ICF ignition studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehlhorn, T A; Bailey, J E; Bennett, G; Chandler, G A; Cooper, G; Cuneo, M E; Golovkin, I; Hanson, D L; Leeper, R J; MacFarlane, J J; Mancini, R C; Matzen, M K; Nash, T J; Olson, C L; Porter, J L; Ruiz, C L; Schroen, D G; Slutz, S A; Varnum, W; Vesey, R A

    2003-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions absorbing up to 35 kJ of x-rays from a ∼220 eV dynamic hohlraum on the Z accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories have produced thermonuclear D-D neutron yields of (2.6±1.3) x 10 10 . Argon spectra confirm a hot fuel with T e ∼ 1 keV and n e ∼ (1-2) x 10 23 cm -3 . Higher performance implosions will require radiation symmetry control improvements. Capsule implosions in a ∼70 eV double-Z-pinch-driven secondary hohlraum have been radiographed by 6.7 keV x-rays produced by the Z-beamlet laser (ZBL), demonstrating a drive symmetry of about 3% and control of P 2 radiation asymmetries to ±2%. Hemispherical capsule implosions have also been radiographed in Z in preparation for future experiments in fast ignition physics. Z-pinch-driven inertial fusion energy concepts are being developed. The refurbished Z machine (ZR) will begin providing scaling information on capsule and Z-pinch in 2006. The addition of a short pulse capability to ZBL will enable research into fast ignition physics in the combination of ZR and ZBL-petawatt. ZR could provide a test bed to study NIF-relevant double-shell ignition concepts using dynamic hohlraums and advanced symmetry control techniques in the double-pinch hohlraum backlit by ZBL

  15. Recent experimental results on ICF target implosions by Z-pinch radiation sources and their relevance to ICF ignition studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, James E.; Chandler, Gordon Andrew; Vesey, Roger Alan; Hanson, David Lester; Olson, Craig Lee; Nash, Thomas J.; Matzen, Maurice Keith; Ruiz, Carlos L.; Porter, John Larry Jr.; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Varnum, William S.; Bennett, Guy R.; Cooper, Gary Wayne; Schroen, Diana Grace; Slutz, Stephen A.; MacFarlane, Joseph John; Leeper, Ramon Joe; Golovkin, I.E.; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Mancini, Roberto Claudio

    2003-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions absorbing up to 35 kJ of x-rays from a ∼220 eV dynamic hohlraum on the Z accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories have produced thermonuclear D-D neutron yields of (2.6 ± 1.3) x 10 10 . Argon spectra confirm a hot fuel with Te ∼ 1 keV and n e ∼ (1-2) x 10 23 cm -3 . Higher performance implosions will require radiation symmetry control improvements. Capsule implosions in a ∼70 eV double-Z-pinch-driven secondary hohlraum have been radiographed by 6.7 keV x-rays produced by the Z-beamlet laser (ZBL), demonstrating a drive symmetry of about 3% and control of P 2 radiation asymmetries to ±2%. Hemispherical capsule implosions have also been radiographed in Z in preparation for future experiments in fast ignition physics. Z-pinch-driven inertial fusion energy concepts are being developed. The refurbished Z machine (ZR) will begin providing scaling information on capsule and Z-pinch in 2006. The addition of a short pulse capability to ZBL will enable research into fast ignition physics in the combination of ZR and ZBL-petawatt. ZR could provide a test bed to study NIF-relevant double-shell ignition concepts using dynamic hohlraums and advanced symmetry control techniques in the double-pinch hohlraum backlit by ZBL.

  16. MRI in the early stage of spinal cord injury: does it have clinical relevance? An experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannmann, T.T.; Freund, M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: An experimental technique for producing a ventral spinal trauma which imitates a slipped intervertebral disc or a fractured vertebra was evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging and histology. The results were evaluated with respect to their clinical importance. Materials and Methods: A total of 69 Wistar rats were used for this study. An inflatable angioplasty balloon device was placed dorsally or ventrally to the spinal cord in order to produce a spinal trauma. 30 rats were used to compare neurological pathologies between ventral and dorsal trauma. 30 animals underwent graded ventral spinal cord compression. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed and the results were compared to histology. Results: Using this technique, the balloon device can be placed ventrally to the spinal cord. The compression time had a direct effect on changes on magnetic resonance images and edema in histology, but a longer compression time did not produce increased bleeding. The T2-weighted MRI scans showed hyperintense changes immediately after spinal compression. Therefore, they are the appropriate way for diagnosing acute spinal injuries. Although the T1-weighted MRI scans did not change after spinal compression, they are important for diagnosing epidural hematomas. (orig.)

  17. Experimental studies of relevance on zirconium nitrate raffinate sludge for its disposal as well as zirconium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brahmananda Reddy, G.; Narasimha Murty, B.; Ravindra, H.R.

    2013-01-01

    One of the many routes of production of nuclear grade zirconium dioxide involve separation of zirconium and hafnium by solvent extraction of zirconium nitrate using tri-n-butyl phosphate followed by precipitation of zirconium with ammonia and finally calcination of the so obtained hydrated zirconia at elevated temperature. The zirconium feed solution as is generated from digestion of zirconium washed dried frit (produced by the caustic fusion of zircon sand which is one of the beach sand heavy minerals) in nitric acid contain considerable amount of sludge material and after solvent extraction this whole sludge material rests with raffinate. This sludge material has a scope to contain considerable amounts of zirconium along with other metal ions such as hafnium, aluminium, iron, etc. besides nitric acid and it constitutes one of the important solid wastes that needs to be disposed suitably. One of the disposal means of this sludge material is to use it as a land fill for which two important criteria are to be viz the pH of 10% solid waste solution should be near to neutral pH and the loss on ignition at 550℃ on dry basis of the sludge to be below 20%. In order to study the implications of presence of varying amounts of zirconium nitrate in the sludge on the pH of 10% solution of the sludge various synthetic zirconium nitrate solid waste were prepared using the sludge material generated at the laboratory during the analysis of zirconium washed dried frit. Presence of zirconium in the sludge is expected to decrease the overall pH of the 10% solution of the sludge because zirconium is prone to hydrolyze especially locally when zirconium ion comes into contact with water according to the chemical equation Zr 4+ H 2 O → ZrO 2+ + 2H + . From this equation, it is clear that for every one mole of zirconium ions two moles of hydrogen ions are produced. This is verified experimentally using the synthetically prepared sludge materials with varying amounts of zirconium

  18. Simple and efficient machine learning frameworks for identifying protein-protein interaction relevant articles and experimental methods used to study the interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shashank; Liu, Feifan; Yu, Hong

    2011-10-03

    Protein-protein interaction (PPI) is an important biomedical phenomenon. Automatically detecting PPI-relevant articles and identifying methods that are used to study PPI are important text mining tasks. In this study, we have explored domain independent features to develop two open source machine learning frameworks. One performs binary classification to determine whether the given article is PPI relevant or not, named "Simple Classifier", and the other one maps the PPI relevant articles with corresponding interaction method nodes in a standardized PSI-MI (Proteomics Standards Initiative-Molecular Interactions) ontology, named "OntoNorm". We evaluated our system in the context of BioCreative challenge competition using the standardized data set. Our systems are amongst the top systems reported by the organizers, attaining 60.8% F1-score for identifying relevant documents, and 52.3% F1-score for mapping articles to interaction method ontology. Our results show that domain-independent machine learning frameworks can perform competitively well at the tasks of detecting PPI relevant articles and identifying the methods that were used to study the interaction in such articles. Simple Classifier is available at http://sourceforge.net/p/simpleclassify/home/ and OntoNorm at http://sourceforge.net/p/ontonorm/home/.

  19. Experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowser, K.E.; Stansbury, P.S.; Poston, J.W.; Deus, S.F.; Chen, W.L.; Roswell, R.L.; Goans, R.E.; Cantrell, J.H. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Spectral fluence measurements in an adult phantom are reported. A NaI(Tl) probe was used in various locations within the phantom and pulse-height spectra were obtained for seven beam configurations and three generating potentials. Some typical spectra results are presented. A comparison of calculated dose to experimental measurements is presented

  20. Relevance of physical fitness levels and exercise-related beliefs for self-reported and experimental pain in fibromyalgia: an explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Saskia T; van Wijck, Albert J M; Geenen, Rinie; Snijders, Tom J; van der Meulen, Wout J T M; Jacobs, Johannes W G; Veldhuijzen, Dieuwke Swaantje

    2011-09-01

    It has been suggested that low physical fitness is a contributor to pain in fibromyalgia and that exercise-related beliefs play a role in the persistence of this association. Yet the association between physical fitness and pain is hardly explored in detail. The aim of this exploratory study in patients with fibromyalgia was to investigate the association of physical fitness levels with self-reported and experimental pain as well as with pain catastrophizing and activity-avoidance beliefs. Physical fitness of 18 patients with fibromyalgia was examined using maximal ergocycling and the 6-minute walking test (6MWT). Pain intensity was assessed using self-report scales and quantitative sensory testing. A reduced walking distance on the 6MWT was correlated with more severe self-reported pain on the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (r = -0.52, P physically fit and experienced more severe pain. The results demonstrate some associations between physical fitness and pain in fibromyalgia and point to the importance of activity avoidance. Although the causal directionality of the associations needs substantiation in clinical research, the findings support the notion that low fitness and activity-avoidance beliefs should be targeted while treating pain in fibromyalgia.

  1. Experimental study of divertor plasma-facing components damage under a combination of pulsed and quasi-stationary heat loads relevant to expected transient events at ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimov, N S; Podkovyrov, V L; Kovalenko, D V; Zhitlukhin, A M; Barsuk, V A; Mazul, I V; Giniyatulin, R N; Kuznetsov, V Ye; Riccardi, B; Loarte, A; Merola, M; Koidan, V S; Linke, J; Landman, I S; Pestchanyi, S E; Bazylev, B N

    2011-01-01

    This paper concerns the experimental study of damage of ITER divertor plasma-facing components (PFCs) under a combination of pulsed plasma heat loads (representative of controlled ITER type I edge-localized modes (ELMs)) and quasi-stationary heat loads (representative of the high heat flux (HHF) thermal fatigue expected during ITER normal operations and slow transient events). The PFC's tungsten armor damage under pulsed plasma exposure was driven by (i) the melt layer motion, which leads to bridges formation between neighboring tiles and (ii) the W brittle failure giving rise to a stable crack pattern on the exposed surface. The crack width reaches a saturation value that does not exceed some tens of micrometers after several hundreds of ELM-like pulses. HHF thermal fatigue tests have shown (i) a peeling-off of the re-solidified material due to its brittle failure and (ii) a significant widening (up to 10 times) of the cracks and the formation of additional cracks.

  2. The Personal Relevance of the Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanSickle, Ronald L.

    1990-01-01

    Conceptualizes a personal-relevance framework derived from Ronald L. VanSickle's five areas of life integrated with four general motivating goals from Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Richard and Patricia Schmuck's social motivation theory. Illustrates ways to apply the personal relevance framework to make social studies more relevant to…

  3. Relevance and reliability of experimental data in human health risk assessment of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltenhäuser, Johanna; Kneuer, Carsten; Marx-Stoelting, Philip; Niemann, Lars; Schubert, Jens; Stein, Bernd; Solecki, Roland

    2017-08-01

    Evaluation of data relevance, reliability and contribution to uncertainty is crucial in regulatory health risk assessment if robust conclusions are to be drawn. Whether a specific study is used as key study, as additional information or not accepted depends in part on the criteria according to which its relevance and reliability are judged. In addition to GLP-compliant regulatory studies following OECD Test Guidelines, data from peer-reviewed scientific literature have to be evaluated in regulatory risk assessment of pesticide active substances. Publications should be taken into account if they are of acceptable relevance and reliability. Their contribution to the overall weight of evidence is influenced by factors including test organism, study design and statistical methods, as well as test item identification, documentation and reporting of results. Various reports make recommendations for improving the quality of risk assessments and different criteria catalogues have been published to support evaluation of data relevance and reliability. Their intention was to guide transparent decision making on the integration of the respective information into the regulatory process. This article describes an approach to assess the relevance and reliability of experimental data from guideline-compliant studies as well as from non-guideline studies published in the scientific literature in the specific context of uncertainty and risk assessment of pesticides. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 16 CFR 1702.9 - Relevant experimental data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., weight, sex and nutritional state of animals; (iii) Dosage level(s) and number of animals tested per... determined LD50 values. (4) In view of the fact that LD50 values in themselves do not necessarily reflect a... published work is submitted. (6) Acute toxicity studies submitted with petitions should have at least a...

  5. Long Pentraxin 3: Experimental and Clinical Relevance in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizia Bonacina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pentraxin 3 (PTX3 is an essential component of the humoral arm of innate immunity and belongs, together with the C-reactive protein (CRP and other acute phase proteins, to the pentraxins' superfamily: soluble, multifunctional, pattern recognition proteins. Pentraxins share a common C-terminal pentraxin domain, which in the case of PTX3 is coupled to an unrelated long N-terminal domain. PTX3 in humans, like CRP, correlates with surrogate markers of atherosclerosis and is independently associated with the risk of developing vascular events. Studies addressing the potential physiopathological role of CRP in the cardiovascular system were so far inconclusive and have been limited by the fact that the sequence and regulation have not been conserved during evolution between mouse and man. On the contrary, the conservation of sequence, gene organization, and regulation of PTX3 supports the translation of animal model findings in humans. While PTX3 deficiency is associated with increased inflammation, cardiac damage, and atherosclerosis, the overexpression limits carotid restenosis after angioplasty. These observations point to a cardiovascular protective effect of PTX3 potentially associated with the ability of tuning inflammation and favor the hypothesis that the increased levels of PTX3 in subjects with cardiovascular diseases may reflect a protective physiological mechanism, which correlates with the immunoinflammatory response observed in several cardiovascular disorders.

  6. Identifying Relevant Studies in Software Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, He; Ali Babar, Muhammad; Tell, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Context: Systematic literature review (SLR) has become an important research methodology in software engineering since the introduction of evidence-based software engineering (EBSE) in 2004. One critical step in applying this methodology is to design and execute appropriate and effective search....... Objective: The main objective of the research reported in this paper is to improve the search step of undertaking SLRs in software engineering (SE) by devising and evaluating systematic and practical approaches to identifying relevant studies in SE. Method: We have systematically selected and analytically...

  7. Experimental Models of Vaginal Candidiasis and Their Relevance to Human Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Jack D.

    2016-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a high-incidence disease seriously affecting the quality of life of women worldwide, particularly in its chronic, recurrent forms (RVVC), and with no definitive cure or preventive measure. Experimental studies in currently used rat and mouse models of vaginal candidiasis have generated a large mass of data on pathogenicity determinants and inflammation and immune responses of potential importance for the control of human pathology. However, reflection is necessary about the relevance of these rodent models to RVVC. Here we examine the chemical, biochemical, and biological factors that determine or contrast the forms of the disease in rodent models and in women and highlight the differences between them. We also appeal for approaches to improve or replace the current models in order to enhance their relevance to human infection. PMID:26883592

  8. Top studies relevant to primary care practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Danielle; Kolber, Michael R; Korownyk, Christina; Lindblad, Adrienne J; Ramji, Jamil; Ton, Joey; Allan, G Michael

    2018-04-01

    To summarize 10 high-quality studies from 2017 that have strong relevance to primary care practice. Study selection involved routine literature surveillance by a group of primary care health professionals. This included screening abstracts of important journals and Evidence Alerts, as well as searching the American College of Physicians Journal Club. Topics of the 2017 articles include whether treating subclinical hypothyroidism improves outcomes or symptoms; whether evolocumab reduces cardiovascular disease as well as low-density lipoprotein levels; whether lifestyle interventions reduce medication use in patients with diabetes; whether vitamin D prevents cardiovascular disease, cancer, or upper respiratory tract infections; whether canagliflozin reduces clinical events in patients with diabetes; how corticosteroid injections affect knee osteoarthritis; whether drained abscesses benefit from antibiotic treatment; whether patients with diabetes benefit from bariatric surgery; whether exenatide reduces clinical events in patients with diabetes; and whether tympanostomy tubes affect outcomes in recurrent acute otitis media or chronic otitis media. We provide brief summaries, context where needed, and final recommendations for 10 studies with potential effects on primary care. We also briefly review 5 "runner-up" studies. Research from 2017 produced several high-quality studies in diabetes management. These have demonstrated benefit for alternative therapies and offered evidence not previously available. This year's selection of studies also provided information on a variety of conditions and therapies that are, or might become, more common in primary care settings. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  9. Creation of reliable relevance judgments in information retrieval systems evaluation experimentation through crowdsourcing: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samimi, Parnia; Ravana, Sri Devi

    2014-01-01

    Test collection is used to evaluate the information retrieval systems in laboratory-based evaluation experimentation. In a classic setting, generating relevance judgments involves human assessors and is a costly and time consuming task. Researchers and practitioners are still being challenged in performing reliable and low-cost evaluation of retrieval systems. Crowdsourcing as a novel method of data acquisition is broadly used in many research fields. It has been proven that crowdsourcing is an inexpensive and quick solution as well as a reliable alternative for creating relevance judgments. One of the crowdsourcing applications in IR is to judge relevancy of query document pair. In order to have a successful crowdsourcing experiment, the relevance judgment tasks should be designed precisely to emphasize quality control. This paper is intended to explore different factors that have an influence on the accuracy of relevance judgments accomplished by workers and how to intensify the reliability of judgments in crowdsourcing experiment.

  10. Measuring reinforcement learning and motivation constructs in experimental animals: relevance to the negative symptoms of schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markou, Athina; Salamone, John D.; Bussey, Timothy; Mar, Adam; Brunner, Daniela; Gilmour, Gary; Balsam, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The present review article summarizes and expands upon the discussions that were initiated during a meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS; http://cntrics.ucdavis.edu). A major goal of the CNTRICS meeting was to identify experimental procedures and measures that can be used in laboratory animals to assess psychological constructs that are related to the psychopathology of schizophrenia. The issues discussed in this review reflect the deliberations of the Motivation Working Group of the CNTRICS meeting, which included most of the authors of this article as well as additional participants. After receiving task nominations from the general research community, this working group was asked to identify experimental procedures in laboratory animals that can assess aspects of reinforcement learning and motivation that may be relevant for research on the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, as well as other disorders characterized by deficits in reinforcement learning and motivation. The tasks described here that assess reinforcement learning are the Autoshaping Task, Probabilistic Reward Learning Tasks, and the Response Bias Probabilistic Reward Task. The tasks described here that assess motivation are Outcome Devaluation and Contingency Degradation Tasks and Effort-Based Tasks. In addition to describing such methods and procedures, the present article provides a working vocabulary for research and theory in this field, as well as an industry perspective about how such tasks may be used in drug discovery. It is hoped that this review can aid investigators who are conducting research in this complex area, promote translational studies by highlighting shared research goals and fostering a common vocabulary across basic and clinical fields, and facilitate the development of medications for the treatment of symptoms mediated by reinforcement learning and motivational deficits. PMID:23994273

  11. Measuring reinforcement learning and motivation constructs in experimental animals: relevance to the negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markou, Athina; Salamone, John D; Bussey, Timothy J; Mar, Adam C; Brunner, Daniela; Gilmour, Gary; Balsam, Peter

    2013-11-01

    The present review article summarizes and expands upon the discussions that were initiated during a meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS; http://cntrics.ucdavis.edu) meeting. A major goal of the CNTRICS meeting was to identify experimental procedures and measures that can be used in laboratory animals to assess psychological constructs that are related to the psychopathology of schizophrenia. The issues discussed in this review reflect the deliberations of the Motivation Working Group of the CNTRICS meeting, which included most of the authors of this article as well as additional participants. After receiving task nominations from the general research community, this working group was asked to identify experimental procedures in laboratory animals that can assess aspects of reinforcement learning and motivation that may be relevant for research on the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, as well as other disorders characterized by deficits in reinforcement learning and motivation. The tasks described here that assess reinforcement learning are the Autoshaping Task, Probabilistic Reward Learning Tasks, and the Response Bias Probabilistic Reward Task. The tasks described here that assess motivation are Outcome Devaluation and Contingency Degradation Tasks and Effort-Based Tasks. In addition to describing such methods and procedures, the present article provides a working vocabulary for research and theory in this field, as well as an industry perspective about how such tasks may be used in drug discovery. It is hoped that this review can aid investigators who are conducting research in this complex area, promote translational studies by highlighting shared research goals and fostering a common vocabulary across basic and clinical fields, and facilitate the development of medications for the treatment of symptoms mediated by reinforcement learning and motivational deficits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  12. Review of relevant studies of isolated systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.H.; Lundsager, P.

    2001-01-01

    The report presents the results of a review of studies relating to integration of wind energy in isolated power supply systems, based on a systematic literature survey. The purpose of the study is to develop a methodology consisting of a set of guidelinesfor wind energy projects in isolated energy...... systems and a set of tools and models that are operational on an engineering level. The review is based on a literature search in the ETDE Energy Database with a main search covering the period 7/88 to 6/97 andsupplemented by partial update periods. A few newer references have been included in the review...... have been organised according to the following keywords: methods & guides, economics, concept ofapplication, system solutions, case studies, financial programmes, dedicated software tools. None of the found references presents methods or tools that contradict the philosophy of Risø's methodology...

  13. Current Needs for the Experimental Investigation of the CHF Phenomenon Relevant to LWR Core Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Corre, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The current achievements and needs toward the investigation, understanding and mechanistic prediction of the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) event, under PWR and BWR core conditions, are addressed in this paper. It is shown that, even when using advanced 3-D CFD simulation tools, the current approach to CHF mechanistic modeling has serious limitations. This is mainly due to the lack of information regarding the relevant two-phase flow pattern(s) (in particular near the heated wall) and associated mechanisms (at the meso and micro-scale) leading to the CHF event. Areas of current experimental needs are identified in order to address these shortcomings. In addition, the use of 1-D and 3-D numerical tools to mechanistically predict the CHF is discussed. It is shown that 3-D two-phase CFD codes may not be superior to 1-D codes without proper consideration of relevant constitutive relations. (author)

  14. clinical and experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Tornow, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Posterior capsule opacity (PCO) is a frequent complication in extracapsular cataract extraction in conjunction with an intraocular lens implant. Different studies have shown that a reduction in PCO frequency can be achieved via a number of factors. Lens design is a significant criterion in this process. In this study, two multifocal intraocular lenses (MIOLs) were compared. The design of these lenses differed due to their varying optical principles. They are the refractive MIOL A...

  15. Topology of the interactions pattern in pharmaceutically relevant polymorphs of methylxanthines (caffeine, theobromine, and theophiline): combined experimental (¹H-¹⁴N nuclear quadrupole double resonance) and computational (DFT and Hirshfeld-based) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latosińska, Jolanta Natalia; Latosińska, Magdalena; Olejniczak, Grzegorz A; Seliger, Janez; Žagar, Veselko

    2014-09-22

    Three anhydrous methylxanthines: caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine; 1,3,7-trimethyl-1H-purine-2,6-(3H,7H)-dione) and its two metabolites theophylline (1,3-dimethylxanthine; 1,3-dimethyl-7H-purine-2,6-dione) and theobromine (3,7-dimethyl-xanthine; 3,7-dimethyl-7H-purine-2,6-dione), which reveal multifaceted therapeutic potential, have been studied experimentally in solid state by (1)H-(14)N NMR-NQR (nuclear magnetic resonance-nuclear quadrupole resonance) double resonance (NQDR). For each compound the complete NQR spectrum consisting of 12 lines was recorded. The multiplicity of NQR lines indicates the presence of a stable β form of anhydrous caffeine at 233 K and stable form II of anhydrous theobromine at 213 K. The assignment of signals detected in NQR experiment to particular nitrogen atoms was made on the basis of quantum chemistry calculations performed for monomer, cluster, and solid at the DFT/GGA/BLYP/DPD level. The shifts due to crystal packing interactions were evaluated, and the multiplets detected by NQR were assigned to N(9) in theobromine and N(1) and N(9) in caffeine. The ordering theobromine > theophylline > caffeine site and theophylline theobromine theobromine) to π···π stacking (caffeine). Substantial differences in the intermolecular interactions in stable forms of methylxanthines differing in methylation (site or number) were analyzed within the Hirshfeld surface-based approach. The analysis of local environment of the nitrogen nucleus permitted drawing some conclusions on the nature of the interactions required for effective processes of recognition and binding of a given methylxanthine to A1-A(2A) receptor (target for caffeine in the brain). Although the interactions responsible for linking neighboring methylxanthines molecules in crystals and methylxanthines with targets in the human organism can differ significantly, the knowledge of the topology of interactions provides reliable preliminary information about the nature of this binding.

  16. An ERP Study on Self-Relevant Object Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakoshi, Makoto; Nomura, Michio; Ohira, Hideki

    2007-01-01

    We performed an event-related potential study to investigate the self-relevance effect in object recognition. Three stimulus categories were prepared: SELF (participant's own objects), FAMILIAR (disposable and public objects, defined as objects with less-self-relevant familiarity), and UNFAMILIAR (others' objects). The participants' task was to…

  17. Assessing the relevance of ecotoxicological studies for regulatory decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudén, Christina; Adams, Julie; Ågerstrand, Marlene; Brock, Theo Cm; Poulsen, Veronique; Schlekat, Christian E; Wheeler, James R; Henry, Tala R

    2017-07-01

    Regulatory policies in many parts of the world recognize either the utility of or the mandate that all available studies be considered in environmental or ecological hazard and risk assessment (ERA) of chemicals, including studies from the peer-reviewed literature. Consequently, a vast array of different studies and data types need to be considered. The first steps in the evaluation process involve determining whether the study is relevant to the ERA and sufficiently reliable. Relevance evaluation is typically performed using existing guidance but involves application of "expert judgment" by risk assessors. In the present paper, we review published guidance for relevance evaluation and, on the basis of the practical experience within the group of authors, we identify additional aspects and further develop already proposed aspects that should be considered when conducting a relevance assessment for ecotoxicological studies. From a regulatory point of view, the overarching key aspect of relevance concerns the ability to directly or indirectly use the study in ERA with the purpose of addressing specific protection goals and ultimately regulatory decision making. Because ERA schemes are based on the appropriate linking of exposure and effect estimates, important features of ecotoxicological studies relate to exposure relevance and biological relevance. Exposure relevance addresses the representativeness of the test substance, environmental exposure media, and exposure regime. Biological relevance deals with the environmental significance of the test organism and the endpoints selected, the ecological realism of the test conditions simulated in the study, as well as a mechanistic link of treatment-related effects for endpoints to the protection goal identified in the ERA. In addition, uncertainties associated with relevance should be considered in the assessment. A systematic and transparent assessment of relevance is needed for regulatory decision making. The relevance

  18. Experimental studies of electron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, E.H.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis discusses the main results of recent experimental studies of electron capture in asymmetric collisions. Most of the results have been published, but the thesis also contains yet unpublished data, or data presented only in unrefereed conference proceedings. The thesis aims at giving a coherent discussion of the understanding of the experimental results, based first on simple qualitative considerations and subsequently on quantitative comparisons with the best theoretical calculations currently available. (Auth.)

  19. [Experimental studies of micromotor headpieces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaev, V F; Repin, V A

    1982-01-01

    Experimental studies of handpieces for micromotors have been performed to make more precise their operating parameters. The special stand has been used for the measurements of the following data: head temperature, power losses in handpieces at no-load, and operating power required for machining by means of spherical burrs. The experimental results made it possible to specify more exactly the range of handpiece rotational speeds and to select optimum loads under reliability testing.

  20. Role of tissue engineered collagen based tridimensional implant on the healing response of the experimentally induced large Achilles tendon defect model in rabbits: a long term study with high clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meimandi-Parizi, Abdolhamid; Oryan, Ahmad; Moshiri, Ali

    2013-05-14

    Tendon injury is one of the orthopedic conditions poses with a significant clinical challenge to both the surgeons and patients. The major limitations to manage these injuries are poor healing response and development of peritendinous adhesions in the injured area. This study investigated the effectiveness of a novel collagen implant on tendon healing in rabbits. Seventy five mature White New-Zealand rabbits were divided into treated (n = 55) and control (n = 20) groups. The left Achilles tendon was completely transected and 2 cm excised. The defects of the treated animals were filled with collagen implants and repaired with sutures, but in control rabbits the defects were sutured similarly but the gap was left untreated. Changes in the injured and normal contralateral tendons were assessed weekly by measuring the diameter, temperature and bioelectrical characteristics of the injured area. Clinical examination was done and scored. Among the treated animals, small pilot groups were euthanized at 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40 and 60 (n = 5 at each time interval) and the remainder (n = 20) and the control animals at 120 days post injury (DPI). The lesions of all animals were examined at macroscopic and microscopic levels and the dry matter content, water delivery and water uptake characteristics of the lesions and normal contralateral tendons of both groups were analyzed at 120 DPI. This novel collagen implant was biodegradable, biocompatible and possibly could be considered as a substitute for auto and allografts in clinical practice in near future.

  1. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY IN NATURAL CONVECTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    The study of thermal and ventilation parameters, obtained in a transient, laminar solar chimney of reduced dimensions, (1 < m <3) m with a square collector (side = 2m) is presented. Experimental measurements has been made to determine the temperature of the absorber and the fluid in the collector, it is shown that at the ...

  2. EBTS: DESIGN AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PIKIN, A.; ALESSI, J.; BEEBE, E.; KPONOU, A.; PRELEC, K.; KUZNETSOV, G.; TIUNOV, M.

    2000-01-01

    Experimental study of the BNL Electron Beam Test Stand (EBTS), which is a prototype of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), is currently underway. The basic physics and engineering aspects of a high current EBIS implemented in EBTS are outlined and construction of its main systems is presented. Efficient transmission of a 10 A electron beam through the ion trap has been achieved. Experimental results on generation of multiply charged ions with both continuous gas and external ion injection confirm stable operation of the ion trap

  3. Relevance of experimental animal studies to the human experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Animal experiments are being used to examine a number of physical and biological factors that influence risk estimations though not usually in coordination with epidemiologists. It is clear that the different mechanisms involved in different types of tumors are reflected in the diversity of dose-response relationships. The forms of the dose-response relationships are influenced by both the initial events and their expression. Evidence is accumulating that many initiated cells do not get expressed as overt cancers and host factors may play a major role in the expression of potential tumor cells. There is a need for information about the relationship of the natural incidence and susceptibility to radiation induction for more tumor types. Such experiments will help answer the question of which risk estimate models are appropriate for different tumor types and can be carried out on animals. Perhaps because of the importance of host factors risk estimates as a percentage of the natural incidence appear to be similar for human beings and mice for a small number of tumor types. The elucidation of the mechanisms involved in different tissues while a slow business remains an important role of animal experiments

  4. Radiation transformation studies: are they relevant to radiation protection problems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seymour, C.B.; Mothersill, C.

    1988-01-01

    Because of the difficulties of studying radio-carcinogenesis in humans, several in vitro systems are utilised. These cell transformation systems are reviewed, with particular emphasis on their relevance to human radiological protection problems. Most available systems use rodent fibroblasts. These are discussed in detail. Attention is drawn to certain artefacts which can cause problems with interpretation of such data. The relevance of these systems is questionable because of species differences, particularly concerning life span and because most human tumours are derived from epithelial cells. New epithelial culture systems and three-dimensional tissue culture methods becoming available are discussed in the light of their potential for addressing radiation protection problems. (author)

  5. Study of the reactor relevance of the NET design concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, P.; Worraker, W.J.

    1987-08-01

    The objective of the study was to explore the reactor relevance of NET, i.e. whether the technologies and design principles proposed for NET can be directly extrapolated to a demonstration power reactor (DEMO). The main areas of study were those near to the plasma, namely the divertor, first wall and tritium breeding blanket. Other aspects which were investigated were tritium permeation and recovery, reactor maintenance, afterheat and effects of disruptions. The principal results of the study are briefly presented; the details of the work are given in fourteen appendices. These appendices were selected for INIS and indexed separately. The overall conclusion of the study is that the NET design is only partly relevant to the design requirements of a DEMO reactor. (U.K.)

  6. Fuel performance under normal PWR conditions: A review of relevant experimental results and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, M.; Lemaignan, C.

    1992-06-01

    Experiments conducted at Grenoble (CEA/DRN) over the past 20 years in the field of nuclear fuel behaviour are reviewed. Of particular concern is the need to achieve a comprehensive understanding of and subsequently overcome the limitations associated with high burnup and load-following conditions (pellet-cladding interaction (PCI), fission gas release (FGR), water-side corrosion). A general view is given of the organization of research work as well as some experimental details (irradiation, postirradiation examination — PIE). Based on various experimental programmes (Cyrano, Medicis, Anemone, Furet, Tango, Contact, Cansar, Hatac, Flog, Decor), the main contributions of the thermomechanical behaviour of a PWR fuel rod are described: thermal conductivity, in-pile densification, swelling, fission gas release in steady state and moderate transient conditions, gap thermal conductance, formation of primary and secondary ridges under PCI conditions. Specific programmes (Gdgrif, Thermox, Grimox) are devoted to the behaviour of particular fuels (gadolinia-bearing fuel, MOX fuel). Moreover, microstructure-based studies have been undertaken on fission gas release (fine analysis of the bubble population inside irradiated fuel samples), and on cladding behaviour (PCI related studies on stress-corrosion cracking (SCO, irradiation effects on zircaloy microstructure).

  7. Experimental studies of minienvironment types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissler, W.; Schneider, H.

    1994-01-01

    Various minienvironment types are available offering different features at quite different costs. MEISSNER+WURST performed in its JESSI project experimental tests to examine the isolation capabilities and the recovery time of minienvironments and the influence of manual handling and maintenance on the minienvironment cleanliness. An isolation factor up to 1 million was measured in the experiments. The Custom Tailored Minienvironment has the best protection against external and internal particle sources. Critical points in the design and the installation of minienvironments were identified. The results of air flow visualization studies were confirmed by airflow simulations. The result of the studies allow a classification of minienvironment types according to their cleanliness achievements

  8. The relevance of cytokines in the radiation-induced lung reaction. Experimental basis and clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruebe, C.E.; Ruebe, C.; Rodemann, H.P.

    2004-01-01

    Methods: published data on radiation-induced cytokine expression from experimental and clinical studies are reviewed. Results and conclusion: the major pro-inflammatory cytokines in the radiation response of the lung include tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 (IL-1), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) appears to be of particular importance in the development of lung fibrosis. First approaches with radioprotective agents and gene therapy to modify radiation-induced cytokine expression have been investigated for prevention of late effects of irradiation lung damage in animal experiments. Preliminary data of clinical studies suggest that elevated plasma TGF-β-levels during radiotherapy may predict the development of symptomatic radiation pneumonitis. The biological impacts of endogenous radiation-induced cytokine production by tumor cells in respect of tumor behavior, potential damage to normal tissue, and clinical status of the host still need to be determined more precisely. (orig.)

  9. Experimental study of neoclassical currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarnstorff, M.C.; Prager, S.C.

    1985-05-01

    A detailed experimental study is presented of the bootstrap and Pfirsch-Schlueter currents that are predicted by neoclassical transport theory. In a toroidal octupole, on magnetic surfaces within the separatrix, the observed parallel plasma currents are in excellent quantitative agreement with neoclassical theory with regard to the spatial structure (along a magnetic surface), collisionality dependence and toroidal magnetic field dependence. On magnetic surfaces outside the separatrix, the ion portion of the parallel current is in agreement with neoclassical theory but the electron parallel current is observed to obtain a unidirectional component which deviates from and exceeds the theoretical prediction

  10. Early-Life Effects on Adult Physical Activity: Concepts, Relevance, and Experimental Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Theodore; Cadney, Marcell D; Waterland, Robert A

    Locomotion is a defining characteristic of animal life and plays a crucial role in most behaviors. Locomotion involves physical activity, which can have far-reaching effects on physiology and neurobiology, both acutely and chronically. In human populations and in laboratory rodents, higher levels of physical activity are generally associated with positive health outcomes, although excessive exercise can have adverse consequences. Whether and how such relationships occur in wild animals is unknown. Behavioral variation among individuals arises from genetic and environmental factors and their interactions as well as from developmental programming (persistent effects of early-life environment). Although tremendous progress has been made in identifying genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in behavior, early-life effects are not well understood. Early-life effects can in some cases persist across multiple generations following a single exposure and, in principle, may constrain or facilitate the rate of evolution at multiple levels of biological organization. Understanding the mechanisms of such transgenerational effects (e.g., exposure to stress hormones in utero, inherited epigenetic alterations) may prove crucial to explaining unexpected and/or sex-specific responses to selection as well as limits to adaptation. One area receiving increased attention is early-life effects on adult physical activity. Correlational data from epidemiological studies suggest that early-life nutritional stress can (adversely) affect adult human activity levels and associated physiological traits (e.g., body composition, metabolic health). The few existing studies of laboratory rodents demonstrate that both maternal and early-life exercise can affect adult levels of physical activity and related phenotypes. Going forward, rodents offer many opportunities for experimental studies of (multigenerational) early-life effects, including studies that use maternal

  11. Experimental Study on radiation myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Itsuo; Matsushima, Hideno; Yamada, Teruyo

    1979-01-01

    Experimental radiation myelopathy was carried out useing rats. This studies were done refering the effect to skin, the body weight, the status of the paralysis and the capillary densities of the cervical cords. The quadriplegia was seen on the animals which were irradiated over 4000 rad. The vacuoal degeneration was observed on the cervical cords which were irradiated over 4000 rad. The capillary densities of gray matter and white matter decreased finally in proportions to the irradiation dose. The vacuoal degeneration was recognized on the cervical cord in which the capillary density decreased to under 70 per cent of normal density. Decrease of the capillary density is seemed to be the one of the cause of the paralysis. (author)

  12. Surgical Anatomy and Microvascular Surgical Technique Relevant to Experimental Renal Transplant in Rat Employing Aortic and Inferior Venacaval Conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Badri Man; Haylor, John

    2017-11-15

    Rat models of renal transplant are used to investigate immunologic processes and responses to therapeutic agents before their translation into routine clinical practice. In this study, we have described details of rat surgical anatomy and our experiences with the microvascular surgical technique relevant to renal transplant by employing donor inferior vena cava and aortic conduits. For this study, 175 rats (151 Lewis and 24 Fisher) were used to establish the Fisher-Lewis rat model of chronic allograft injury at our institution. Anatomic and technical details were recorded during the period of training and establishment of the model. A final group of 12 transplanted rats were studied for an average duration of 51 weeks for the Lewis-to-Lewis isografts (5 rats) and 42 weeks for the Fisher-to-Lewis allografts (7 rats). Functional measurements and histology confirmed the diagnosis of chronic allograft injury. Mastering the anatomic details and microvascular surgical techniques can lead to the successful establishment of an experimental renal transplant model.

  13. Experimental study of virtual impactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yule, T.J.; Broniarck, C.G.

    1979-01-01

    Virtual impactors are currently being used in a number of instruments to separate an aerosol into different size ranges. The virtual impactor is a variation of the standard impactor in which the impaction surface is replaced by an orifice into which particles can pass and be collected or counted. We have made an experimental study of the collection characteristics of virtual impactors. The parameters varied included: acceleration nozzle-to-collection probe distance, the ratio of the collection probe-to-acceleration nozzle diameters, and the ratio of collection probe-to-inlet flows. Measurements were also made with different collection probe geometries. It was found that it is possible to parameterize much of the data by introduction of the Stokes number and an effective minor flow collection efficiency. One disadvantage of the virtual impactor is that in the transition region particles are collected on the inside walls of the collection probe near the probe tip. The amount that is collected is a sensitive function of the probe geometry

  14. Inverted annular flow experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jarlais, G.; Ishii, M.

    1985-04-01

    Steady-state inverted annular flow of Freon 113 in up flow was established in a transparent test section. Using a special inlet configuration consisting of long aspect-ratio liquid nozzles coaxially centered within a heated quartz tube, idealized inverted annular flow initial geometry (cylindrical liquid core surrounded by coaxial annulus of gas) could be established. Inlet liquid and gas flowrates, liquid subcooling, and gas density (using various gas species) were measured and varied systematically. The hydrodynamic behavior of the liquid core, and the subsequent downstream break-up of this core into slugs, ligaments and/or droplets of various sizes, was observed. In general, for low inlet liquid velocities it was observed that after the initial formation of roll waves on the liquid core surface, an agitated region of high surface area, with attendant high momentum and energy transfers, occurs. This agitated region appears to propagate downsteam in a quasi-periodic pattern. Increased inlet liquid flow rates, and high gas annulus flow rates tend to diminish the significance of this agitated region. Observed inverted annular flow (and subsequent downstream flow pattern) hydrodynamic behavior is reported, and comparisons are drawn to data generated by previous experimenters studying post-CHF flow

  15. Experimental rigs for MHD studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkataramani, N.; Jayakumar, R.; Iyer, D.R.; Dixit, N.S.

    1976-01-01

    An MHD experimental rig is a miniature MHD installation consisting of basic equipments necessary for specific investigations. Some of the experimental rigs used in the investigations being carried out at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India) are dealt with. The experiments included diagnostics and evaluation of materials in seeded combustion plasmas and argon plasmas. The design specifications, schematics and some of the results of the investigations are also mentioned. (author)

  16. THE RELEVANCE OF SOCIO-LEGAL STUDIES IN LEGAL SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Imanuel W. Nalle

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Some law schools in Indonesia reject socio-legal studies with epistemological arguments that puts jurisprudence as sui generis. Rejection is based argument that jurisprudence is a normative science. In fact socio-legal studies in the development of jurisprudence outside Indonesia has long existed and contributed to the legal reform. Socio-legal studies also significant for legal reform. It is caused by the existence of non doctrinal aspect in law making and implementation of the law. Therefore the position and relevance of socio-legal research is not related to the benefits that provided for the development of national law or jurisprudence. Beberapa fakultas hukum di Indonesia menolak penelitian sosio-legal dengan argumentasi epistemologis yang menempatkan ilmu hukum sebagai sui generis. Penolakan tersebut didasarkan argumentasi bahwa ilmu hukum adalah ilmu yang bersifat normatif. Kenyataannya studi sosio-legal dalam perkembangan ilmu hukum di luar Indonesia telah lama eksis dan berperan dalam pembaharuan hukum. Selain itu, studi sosiolegal juga berperan dalam pembaharuan hukum. Hal ini disebabkan adanya aspek-aspek nondoktrinal yang berperan dalam pembentukan hukum dan implementasi hukum di masyarakat. Oleh karena itu kedudukan dan relevansi penelitian sosio-legal pada ada tidaknya manfaat yang diberikan bagi perkembangan hukum nasional ataupun ilmu hukum.

  17. THE RELEVANCE OF SOCIO-LEGAL STUDIES IN LEGAL SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Imanuel W. Nalle

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Some law schools in Indonesia reject socio-legal studies with epistemological arguments that puts jurisprudence as sui generis. Rejection is based argument that jurisprudence is a normative science. In fact socio-legal studies in the development of jurisprudence outside Indonesia has long existed and contributed to the legal reform. Socio-legal studies also significant for legal reform. It is caused by the existence of non doctrinal aspect in law making and implementation of the law. Therefore the position and relevance of socio-legal research is not related to the benefits that provided for the development of national law or jurisprudence.   Beberapa fakultas hukum di Indonesia menolak penelitian sosio-legal dengan argumentasi epistemologis yang menempatkan ilmu hukum sebagai sui generis. Penolakan tersebut didasarkan argumentasi bahwa ilmu hukum adalah ilmu yang bersifat normatif. Kenyataannya studi sosio-legal dalam perkembangan ilmu hukum di luar Indonesia telah lama eksis dan berperan dalam pembaharuan hukum. Selain itu, studi sosiolegal juga berperan dalam pembaharuan hukum. Hal ini disebabkan adanya aspek-aspek nondoktrinal yang berperan dalam pembentukan hukum dan implementasi hukum di masyarakat. Oleh karena itu kedudukan dan relevansi penelitian sosio-legal pada ada tidaknya manfaat yang diberikan bagi perkembangan hukum nasional ataupun ilmu hukum.

  18. The relevance of animal experimental results for the assessment of radiation genetic risks in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, G.

    1981-01-01

    No suitable data are available from man for the quantitative assessment of genetic radiation risk. Therefore, the results from experiments on animals must be utilized. Two hypotheses are presented here in drawing analogical conclusions from one species to another. Although the extrapolation of results from animal experiments remains an open question, the use of experimental results from mice seems to be justified for an assessment of the genetic radiation risk in man. (orig.) [de

  19. Time-Domain Simulations of Transient Species in Experimentally Relevant Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueltschi, Tyler W.; Fischer, Sean A.; Apra, Edoardo; Tarnovsky, Alexander N.; Govind, Niranjan; El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2016-02-04

    Simulating the spectroscopic properties of short-lived thermal and photochemical reaction intermediates and products is a challenging task, as these species often feature atypical molecular and electronic structures. The complex environments in which such species typically reside in practice add further complexity to the problem. Herein, we tackle this problem in silico using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations, employing iso-CHBr3, namely H(Br)C-Br-Br, as a prototypical system. This species was chosen because it features both a non-conventional C-Br-Br bonding pattern, as well as a strong dependence of its spectral features on the local environment in which it resides, as illustrated in recent experimental reports. The spectroscopic properties of iso-CHBr3 were measured by several groups that captured this transient intermediate in the photochemistry of CHBr3 in the gas phase, in rare gas matrices at 5K, and in solution under ambient laboratory conditions. We simulate the UV-Vis and IR spectra of iso-CHBr3 in all three media, including a Ne cluster (64 atoms) and a methylcyclohexane cage (14 solvent molecules) representative of the matrix isolated and solvated species. We exclusively perform fully quantum mechanical static and dynamic simulations. By comparing our condensed phase simulations to their experimental analogues, we stress the importance of (i) conformational sampling, even at cryogenic temperatures, and (ii) using a fully quantum mechanical description of both solute and bath to properly account for the experimental observables.

  20. Experimental Equipment for Physics Studies in the Aagesta Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernander, G; Blomberg, P E; Dubois, P O

    1967-03-15

    Comprehensive physics measurements were carried out in connection with the start up of the Agesta reactor. For this purpose special experimental equipment was constructed and installed in the reactor. Parts of this were indispensable and/or time-saving for the reactivity control during the core build-up period and during the first criticality studies. This report gives mainly a detailed description of the experimental equipment used, but also the relevant physics background and the experience gained during the performance.

  1. The GEKKO XII-HIPER (High Intensity Plasma Experimental Research) system relevant to ignition targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyanaga, N.; Nakatsuka, M.; Azechi, H.

    2001-01-01

    To test high gain targets surrogated in the planar geometry, we have constructed a new experimental system (HIPER) which provides the high ablation pressure with a uniform irradiance profile. These performances were achieved by bundling twelve beams of the existing GEKKO XII into a F/3 focus cone. The partially coherent light is introduced for the beam smoothing of a green foot pulse consisting of three beams, and the three-directional smoothing by spectral dispersion is utilized for residual nine beams delivering a blue main drive pulse. The detail of design concept and results of initial activation of this system are reported. (author)

  2. Systematic reviews: guidance relevant for studies of older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkin, Susan D; Harrison, Jennifer K; Wilkinson, Tim; Dodds, Richard M; Ioannidis, John P A

    2017-09-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are increasingly common. This article aims to provide guidance for people conducting systematic reviews relevant to the healthcare of older people. An awareness of these issues will also help people reading systematic reviews to determine whether the results will influence their clinical practice. It is essential that systematic reviews are performed by a team which includes the required technical and clinical expertise. Those performing reviews for the first time should ensure they have appropriate training and support. They must be planned and performed in a transparent and methodologically robust way: guidelines are available. The protocol should be written-and if possible published-before starting the review. Geriatricians will be interested in a table of baseline characteristics, which will help to determine if the studied samples or populations are similar to their patients. Reviews of studies of older people should consider how they will manage issues such as different age cut-offs; non-specific presentations; multiple predictors and outcomes; potential biases and confounders. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses may provide evidence to improve older people's care, or determine where new evidence is required. Newer methodologies, such as meta-analyses of individual level data, network meta-analyses and umbrella reviews, and realist synthesis, may improve the reliability and clinical utility of systematic reviews. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.

  3. Surface Propensity of Atmospherically Relevant Amino Acids Studied by XPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Alexandra; Gomes, Anderson Herbert de Abreu; Araújo, Oscar Cardoso; de Brito, Arnaldo Naves; Björneholm, Olle

    2017-04-27

    Amino acids constitute an important fraction of the water-soluble organic nitrogen (WSON) compounds in aerosols and are involved in many processes in the atmosphere. In this work, we applied X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to study aqueous solutions of four amino acids, glycine, alanine, valine, and methionine, in their zwitterionic forms. We found that amino acids with hydrophilic side chains and smaller size, GLY and ALA, tend to stay in the bulk of the liquid, while the hydrophobic and bigger amino acids, VAL and MET, are found to concentrate more on the surface. We found experimental evidence that the amino acids have preferential orientation relative to the surface, with the hydrophobic side chain being closer to the surface than the hydrophilic carboxylate group. The observed amino acid surface propensity has implications in atmospheric science as the surface interactions play a central role in cloud droplet formation, and they should be considered in climate models.

  4. Studies of autoionizing states relevant to dielectronic recombination. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, T.F.

    1985-01-01

    Dielectronic recombinaation, the inverse of autoionization, is a process leading to significant power loss in CTR plasmas. Although it is known that dielectronic recombination proceeds via autoionization Rydberg states, few data exist on autoionizing states and how they are affected by conditions found in a CTR plasma. Under this research program we have been using a novel laser excitation technique developed at SRI to study autoionizing states and the perturbing effects of electric fields found in CTR plasmas. We describe experimental investigations of the spectroscopy of autoionizing Rydberg states, the energy analysis of electrons ejected from autoionizing states, autoionizing in electric fields, and the autoionization induced by an electric field. 33 refs., 16 figs

  5. Experimental and theoretical data on ion-molecule-reactions relevant for plasma modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansel, A.; Praxmarer, C.; Lindinger, W.

    1995-01-01

    Despite the fact that the rate coefficients of hundreds of ion-molecule-reactions have been published in the literature, much more data are required for the purpose of plasma modelling. Many ion molecule reactions have rate coefficients, k, as large as the collisional limiting value, k c , i.e. the rate coefficients k c at which ion-neutral collision complexes are formed are close to the actual rate coefficients observed. In the case of the interaction of an ion with a non polar molecule, k c , is determined by the Langevin limiting value k L being typically 10 -9 cm 3 s -1 . However, when ions react with polar molecules k c is predicted by the average dipole orientation (ADO) theory. These classical theories yield accurate rate coefficients at thermal and elevated temperatures for practically all proton transfer as well as for many charge transfer and hydrogen abstraction reactions. The agreement between experimental and calculated values is usually better than ±20% and in the case of proton transfer reactions the agreement seems to be even better as recent investigations have shown. Even the interaction of the permanent ion dipole with non polar and polar neutrals can be taken into account to predict reaction rate coefficients as has been shown very recently in reactions of the highly polar ion ArH 3 + with various neutrals

  6. Spectroscopic Studies of Molecular Systems relevant in Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaro, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    In the Astrobiology context, the study of the physico-chemical interactions involving "building blocks of life" in plausible prebiotic and space-like conditions is fundamental to shed light on the processes that led to emergence of life on Earth as well as to molecular chemical evolution in space. In this PhD Thesis, such issues have been addressed both experimentally and computationally by employing vibrational spectroscopy, which has shown to be an effective tool to investigate the variety of intermolecular interactions that play a key role in self-assembling mechanisms of nucleic acid components and their binding to mineral surfaces. In particular, in order to dissect the contributions of the different interactions to the overall spectroscopic signals and shed light on the intricate experimental data, feasible computational protocols have been developed for the characterization of the spectroscopic properties of such complex systems. This study has been carried out through a multi-step strategy, starting the investigation from the spectroscopic properties of the isolated nucleobases, then studying the perturbation induced by the interaction with another molecule (molecular dimers), towards condensed phases like the molecular solid, up to the case of nucleic acid components adsorbed on minerals. A proper modeling of these weakly bound molecular systems has required, firstly, a validation of dispersion-corrected Density Functional Theory methods for simulating anharmonic vibrational properties. The isolated nucleobases and some of their dimers have been used as benchmark set for identifying a general, reliable and effective computational procedure based on fully anharmonic quantum mechanical computations of the vibrational wavenumbers and infrared intensities within the generalized second order vibrational perturbation theory (GVPT2) approach, combined with the cost-effective dispersion-corrected density functional B3LYP-D3, in conjunction with basis sets of

  7. Experimental studies on cancer chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-08-01

    The further development of the chemotherapy of cancer in the experimental and clinical fields necessitates a profound knowledge of its chemical, biochemical and pharmacological fundamentals and the mechanism of physiological and pathological growth processes. The 'Arbeitsgemeinschaft Zytostatika' includes chemists, biochemists, pharmacologists, molecular biologists, physicians and immunologists of various scientific institutes and clinics in the Federal Republic of Germany and in West Berlin. It is their aim to carry out basic research as well as clinical-orientated research in the field of the chemotherapy of cancer. In the 15 years of cooperation, fundamental knowledge was gained, especially in the field of the cytotoxic specificity and cancerotoxic selectivity of alkylating cytostatics. New cytostatics with a greater oncostatic selectivity and an altered spectrum of activity were tested and greater knowledge was won on the molecular-biological prerequisites of a rational drug design. (orig.) [de

  8. Experimental studies of morphology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitton, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    This contribution is a resume of the approximately eight years of experimental investigation of ion beam-induced modification of metal surfaces. The aim, from the beginning, was to make a detailed series of experiments with well defined controllable parameters in an attempt to establish the mechanism responsible for the production of the topographical features observed so frequently on ion-bombarded surfaces of metals. Typically, for the initial system, 40 keV argon ions directed on to copper, the sputtering yield is fairly constant from normal angle of incidence to about 30 0 , rising fairly smoothly to a maximum at 80 0 , then dropping rapidly to zero at around 82 0 . A very strong grain orientation effect was observed in the early experiments. (Auth.)

  9. Experimental studies of nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jianjun; Zhou Xiaohong; Zhang Yuhu

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear astrophysics is an interdisciplinary subject combining micro-scale nuclear physics and macro-scale astrophysics. Its main aims are to understand the origin and evolution of the elements in the universe, the time scale of stellar evolution, the stellar environment and sites, the energy generation of stars from thermonuclear processes and its impact on stellar evolution and the mechanisms driving astrophysical phenomena, and the structure and property of compact stars. This paper presents the significance and current research status of nuclear astrophysics; we introduce some fundamental concepts, the nuclear physics input parameters required by certain astrophysics models, and some widely-used experimental approaches in nuclear astrophysics research. The potential and feasibility of research in this field using China’s current and planned large-scale scientific facilities are analyzed briefly. Finally, the prospects of the establishing a deep underground science and engineering laboratory in China are envisaged. (authors)

  10. A step-by-step guide to systematically identify all relevant animal studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenaars, Marlies; Hooijmans, Carlijn R; van Veggel, Nieky; ter Riet, Gerben; Leeflang, Mariska; Hooft, Lotty; van der Wilt, Gert Jan; Tillema, Alice; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel

    2012-01-01

    Before starting a new animal experiment, thorough analysis of previously performed experiments is essential from a scientific as well as from an ethical point of view. The method that is most suitable to carry out such a thorough analysis of the literature is a systematic review (SR). An essential first step in an SR is to search and find all potentially relevant studies. It is important to include all available evidence in an SR to minimize bias and reduce hampered interpretation of experimental outcomes. Despite the recent development of search filters to find animal studies in PubMed and EMBASE, searching for all available animal studies remains a challenge. Available guidelines from the clinical field cannot be copied directly to the situation within animal research, and although there are plenty of books and courses on searching the literature, there is no compact guide available to search and find relevant animal studies. Therefore, in order to facilitate a structured, thorough and transparent search for animal studies (in both preclinical and fundamental science), an easy-to-use, step-by-step guide was prepared and optimized using feedback from scientists in the field of animal experimentation. The step-by-step guide will assist scientists in performing a comprehensive literature search and, consequently, improve the scientific quality of the resulting review and prevent unnecessary animal use in the future. PMID:22037056

  11. Fisetin, a dietary flavonoid, ameliorates experimental colitis in mice: Relevance of NF-κB signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Bidya Dhar; Kumar, Jerald Mahesh; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2016-02-01

    Fisetin, a dietary flavonoid, is commonly found in many fruits and vegetables. Although studies indicate that fisetin has an anti-inflammatory property, little is known about its effects on intestinal inflammation. The present study investigated the effects of the fisetin on dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced murine colitis, an animal model that resembles human inflammatory bowel disease. Fisetin treatment to DSS-exposed mice significantly reduced the severity of colitis and alleviated the macroscopic and microscopic signs of the disease. Moreover, fisetin reduced the levels of myeloperoxidase activity, the production of proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and the expressions of COX-2 and iNOS in the colon tissues. Further studies revealed that fisetin suppressed the activation of NF-κB (p65) by inhibiting IκBα phosphorylation and NF-κB (p65)-DNA binding activity and attenuated the phosphorylation of Akt and the p38, but not ERK and JNK MAPKs in the colon tissues of DSS-exposed mice. In addition, DSS-induced decline in reduced glutathione (GSH) and the increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly restored by oral fisetin. Furthermore, the results from in vitro studies showed that fisetin significantly reduced the pro-inflammatory cytokine and mediator release and suppressed the degradation and phosphorylation of IκBα with subsequent nuclear translocation of NF-κB (p65) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse primary peritoneal macrophages. These results suggest that fisetin exerts anti-inflammatory activity via inhibition of Akt, p38 MAPK and NF-κB signaling in the colon tissues of DSS-exposed mice. Thus, fisetin may be a promising candidate as pharmaceuticals or nutraceuticals in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Measurements of relevant parameters in the formation of clathrate hydrates by a novel experimental apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arca, S.; Di Profio, P.; Germani, R.; Savelli, G. [Perugia Univ., CEMIN, Perugia (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry

    2008-07-01

    There is a growing interest in understanding the thermodynamics and kinetics of clathrate hydrate formation. This paper presented a study that involved the design, construction, calibration, and testing of a new apparatus that could obtain as many parameters as possible in a single formation batch and that could measure unexplored clathrate hydrate parameters. The apparatus was capable of measuring equilibrium phases involving gaseous components. The paper described the conceptual design as well as the chamber, pressure line, temperature control, liquid addition line, and conductometric probe. The paper also discussed data acquisition, stirring, measurement examples, and internal illumination and video monitoring. It was concluded that refining measurements, particularly those concerning kinetic characterizations, is important in order to clarify several uncertain kinetic behaviors of clathrate hydrates. 6 refs., 16 figs.

  13. Studies Relevent to Catalytic Activation Co & other small Molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, Peter C

    2005-02-22

    Detailed annual and triannual reports describing the progress accomplished during the tenure of this grant were filed with the Program Manager for Catalysis at the Office of Basic Energy Sciences. To avoid unnecessary duplication, the present report will provide a brief overview of the research areas that were sponsored by this grant and list the resulting publications and theses based on this DOE supported research. The scientific personnel participating in (and trained by) this grant's research are also listed. Research carried out under this DOE grant was largely concerned with the mechanisms of the homogeneous catalytic and photocatalytic activation of small molecules such as carbon monoxide, dihydrogen and various hydrocarbons. Much of the more recent effort has focused on the dynamics and mechanisms of reactions relevant to substrate carbonylations by homogeneous organometallic catalysts. A wide range of modern investigative techniques were employed, including quantitative fast reaction methodologies such as time-resolved optical (TRO) and time-resolved infrared (TRIR) spectroscopy and stopped flow kinetics. Although somewhat diverse, this research falls within the scope of the long-term objective of applying quantitative techniques to elucidate the dynamics and understand the principles of mechanisms relevant to the selective and efficient catalytic conversions of fundamental feedstocks to higher value materials.

  14. Cellular recovery kinetic studies relevant to combined-modality research and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dethlefsen, L.A.

    1979-01-01

    The relevance of cellular recovery kinetics to combined-modality therapy is evaluated within the framework of an idealized experimental flow chart and published adriamycin data. Within this context, limitations for both experimental design and data interpretations are discussed. The effects of adriamycin have been documented extensively at the molecular and cellular level and its interactions with x-irradiation have been studied, both in vitro and in vivo. The limited in vivo results suggest that the end results of a given protocol correlate with cellular recovery kinetics; however, definitive experiments simply have not been done. For example, no one has used single-dose drug and irradiation data to predict the outcome and then confirm or refute the prediction even in a relatively simple 2-dose drug + 2-dose drug + 2-dose x-ray protocol. Thus, at this time, the extent of the correlations between cellular recovery kinetics and clinical response for either normal or malignant tissues is not known and the possible relevance of such studies cannot be discounted

  15. Experimental studies of neutrino oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Kajita, Takaaki

    2016-01-01

    The 2015 Nobel Prize in physics has been awarded to Takaaki Kajita and Arthur McDonald "for the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have mass". Takaaki Kajita of Tokyo University is a Japanese physicist, known for neutrino experiments at the Kamiokande and its successor, Super-Kamiokande. This volume of collected works of Kajita on neutrino oscillations provides a good glimpse into as well as a record of the rise and the role of Asian research in the frontiers of neutrino physics. Japan is now a major force in the study of the 3 families of neutrinos. Much remains to be done to clarify the Dirac vs. Majorana nature of the neutrino, and the cosmological implications of the neutrino. The collected works of Kajita and his Super-Kamiokande group will leave an indelible foot-print in the history of big and better science.

  16. Experimental study of ozone synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garamoon, A A; Elakshar, F F; Nossair, A M; Kotp, E F

    2002-01-01

    A silent discharge ozonizer has been constructed with a design that enables the study of ozone concentration behaviour as a function of different parameters when oxygen used as a working gas. The behaviour of ozone concentration as a function of discharge current density has four characteristic regions. The concentration is enhanced by more than threefold whenever gas pressure is reduced by a factor of two. The flow rate of the working gas is a more effective parameter on ozone concentration than the gas pressure. When the flow rate is kept constant, and the pressure is decreased by 100%, the ozone concentration increases by only 10%. On the other hand, when the flow rate is decreased by 13%, the ozone concentration increases by 200%, whenever the gas pressure is kept constant. The concentration is nearly doubled when the gap space is increased by four times under the same conditions. The length of the discharge region, the thickness and the dielectric constant of the insulating materials are found to have a considerable effect on the generated ozone concentration. Also, the ozone concentration is ten times less when air is used instead of oxygen as a working gas. A maximum efficiency of 185 g/kWh, is obtained for the present system

  17. Combined Teaching Method: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikova, Iryna V.

    2016-01-01

    The search for the best approach to business education has led educators and researchers to seek many different teaching strategies, ranging from the traditional teaching methods to various experimental approaches such as active learning techniques. The aim of this experimental study was to compare the effects of the traditional and combined…

  18. Self-relevant beauty evaluation: Evidence from an event-related potentials study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fanchang; Zhang, Yan; Tian, Yuan; Fan, Cuiying; Zhou, Zongkui

    2015-03-01

    This study examines the electrophysiological correlates of beauty evaluation when participants performed the self-reference task. About 13 (7 men, 6 women) undergraduates participated in the experiment using event-related potentials. Results showed that the response to self-relevant information was faster compared to other-relevant information and no significant differences for self-relevant relative to mother-relevant information were observed. Both physical and interior beauty words for self-relevant information showed an enhanced late positive component as compared to other-relevant information. Physical beauty for self-relevant information yielded a larger late positive component in contrast to mother-relevant information but not for interior beauty. This study indicates that beauty is specific to the person who judges it though an individual and one's mother may hold similar views of interior beauty.

  19. Experimental studies of the quantum chromodynamics phase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-05-06

    BES) ... Experimental studies of the QCD phase diagram at the STAR experiment .... However, the observed difference between v2 of particles and antiparticles could .... The grey band at the right corresponds to systematic.

  20. A retrospective study of relevant diagnostic procedures in vulvodynia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina Damsted; Kristensen, Ellids; Lundvall, Lene

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify objective clinical signs of vulvodynia and determine specific diagnostic tests for vulvodynia in women referred to a vulvar outpatient clinic for vulval complaints. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study was performed of the medical records of 201 consecutive Danish patients s...

  1. The Relevance of (South African) Renaissance Studies | Wright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first is that in South Africa the humanities in general, and Renaissance Studies in particular, are stymied by a lack of strategic thinking from those in the academy. The second is that the humanities, and Renaissance Studies, and Shakespeare, are valid and needed in this country, possibly as never before. Shakespeare ...

  2. Study on the relevance of some of the description methods for plateau-honed surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousfi, M; Mezghani, S; Demirci, I; El Mansori, M

    2014-01-01

    Much work has been undertaken in recent years into the determination of a complete parametric description of plateau-honed surfaces with the intention of making a link between the process conditions, the surface topography and the required functional performances. Different advanced techniques (plateau/valleys decomposition using the normalized Abbott–Firestone curve or morphological operators, multiscale decomposition using continuous wavelets transform, etc) were proposed and applied in different studies. This paper re-examines the current state of developments and addresses a discussion on the relevance of the different proposed parameters and characterization methods for plateau-honed surfaces by considering the control loop manufacturing-characterization-function. The relevance of appropriate characterization is demonstrated through two experimental studies. They consider the effect of the most plateau honing process variables (the abrasive grit size and abrasive indentation velocity in finish-honing and the plateau-honing stage duration and pressure) on cylinder liner surface textures and hydrodynamic friction of the ring-pack system. (paper)

  3. A preliminary study on the relevancy of sustainable building design ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This preliminary study aims to explore the relationship between sustainable building design paradigms and commercial property depreciation, to assist in the understanding of sustainable building design impact towards commercial building value and rental de employs the qualitative method and analyses valuers' current ...

  4. Hepatic encephalopathy: experimental studies on the pathogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. de Knegt (Robert)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractAims of this thesis: 1. To study, in rabbits, the suitability of experimental acute liver failure and acute hyperammonemia simulating acute liver failure for the study of hepatic encephalopathy and ammonia toxicity. 2. To study glutamate neurotransmission in rabbits with acute liver

  5. Professor Zalman Makhover. A relevant contributor to early tropopause studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antuna, Juan C. [Camagueey Lidar Station, Camagueey (Cuba); Anel, Juan A. [CESAM, Univ. de Aveiro, Campus Univ. de Santiago, Aveiro (Portugal); EPhysLab, Facultade de Ciencias de Ourense, Univ. de Vigo, Ourense (Spain); Sterin, Alexander [Russian Research Inst. for Hydrometeorological Information - World Data Center, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Gimeno, Luis [EPhysLab, Facultade de Ciencias de Ourense, Univ. de Vigo, Ourense (Spain)

    2009-12-15

    We present an assessment of the work of Zalman Meerovich Makhover (1922-99), a leading expert on tropopause studies in the former USSR. Although a much-respected scientist among his peers, his work remains unknown, possibly as a result of much of never having been translated into English. His most important contributions were on the subject of the spatial and temporal structure of the altitude and temperature of the tropopause, as well as its variability over a range of different time scales from annual to daily. We describe the determination of the seasonal features of the tropopause and note his achievements in determining the roles of synoptic conditions and the annual cycle on tropopause characteristics. Recent tropopause research has confirmed much of his earlier work and provided important results for, among other things, stratospheretroposphere exchange processes, climate change indicator studies, and the climatology of aircraft exhaust traces. The legacy of Makhover includes his own research on tropopause phenomena, as well as a synthesis of the numerous studies conducted by former Soviet and other researchers. Here we provide a brief biography, citation data, as well as graphical material taken from his monographs and papers. (orig.)

  6. Experimental design of a waste glass study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piepel, G.F.; Redgate, P.E.; Hrma, P.

    1995-04-01

    A Composition Variation Study (CVS) is being performed to support a future high-level waste glass plant at Hanford. A total of 147 glasses, covering a broad region of compositions melting at approximately 1150 degrees C, were tested in five statistically designed experimental phases. This paper focuses on the goals, strategies, and techniques used in designing the five phases. The overall strategy was to investigate glass compositions on the boundary and interior of an experimental region defined by single- component, multiple-component, and property constraints. Statistical optimal experimental design techniques were used to cover various subregions of the experimental region in each phase. Empirical mixture models for glass properties (as functions of glass composition) from previous phases wee used in designing subsequent CVS phases

  7. Study of relevant parameters of GEM-based detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Croci, Gabriele; Sauli, Fabio; Ragazzi, S

    2007-01-01

    The Gas Electron Multiplier consist of a thin Kapton insulating (50 $\\mu$m) foil copper-clad on both sides and perforated by a high density, regular matrix of holes (around 100 per square millimeter). Typically the distance between holes (pitch) is 140 $\\mu$m and diameters of about 70 $\\mu$m. The mesh is realised by conventional photolitographic methods as used for the fabrication of multi-layer board. Upon application of a potential difference between the GEM electrodes, a high dipole field develops in the holes focusing the field lines between the drift electrode and the readout element. Electron drift along the channel and the charge is amplified by a factor that depends on the field density and the length of the channel. Owing to their excellent position resolution and rate capability GEM-based detector are very suitable to be used in different applications: from the high energy physics to the medical field. The GEM temporal and rate gain stability was studied and it was discovered that the gain variation...

  8. Towards studies of organizational behaviour with greater local relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter B. Smith

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Theories of organizational behaviour mostly originated in North America. In testing their applicability elsewhere, attention must be given to differences in local environments and inthe values of local employees. Within Latin America, the prevalence of high collectivism and power distance are particularly important. Employees’ attachment to their organization has been shown to differ within collectivistic cultures. The argument is illustrated by two Latin American studies. Firstly, the ways in which managers handle work events within Mexico, Colombia, Brazil, Chile and Argentina are compared. Secondly, cross-national work problems of employees from these countries are surveyed. The results emphasize the need to take account of variability within the region, and the need to use measures that capture locally important issues. -- Las teorías del comportamiento organizacional se han originado principalmente en Américadel Norte. Al probar su aplicabilidad en otras regiones culturales, debe prestarse atención a las diferencias en los ambientes y en los valores de los empleados locales. Dentro de Latinoamérica, la prevalencia de altos niveles de colectivismo y distancia al poder es particularmenteimportante. En ese sentido, se ha demostrado que el apego de los empleados hacia su organización difiere dentro de las culturas colectivistas. El argumento se ilustra por dosestudios latinoamericanos. En el primero, se compara la forma en que los gerentes manejan los eventos laborales dentro de México, Colombia, Brasil, Chile y Argentina. En el segundo,se examinan los problemas laborales transnacionales de los empleados de estos países. Los resultados enfatizan la necesidad de utilizar medidas que capturen aspectos localmente importantes.

  9. Experimental radiation carcinogenesis is studies at NIRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sado, Toshihiko

    1992-01-01

    Experimental radiation carcinogenesis studies conducted during the past decade at NIRS are briefly reviewed. They include the following: 1) Age dependency of susceptibility to radiation carcinogenesis. 2) Radiation-induced myeloid leukemia. 3) Mechanism of fractionated X-irradiation (FX) induced thymic lymphomas. 4) Significance of radiation-induced immunosuppression in radiation carcinogenesis in vivo. 5) Other ongoing studies. (author)

  10. Experimental investigations relevant for hydrogen and fission product issues raised by the Fukushima accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Gupta

    2015-02-01

    with the operation of passive safety systems in phenomena oriented and coupled effects experiments. In the present paper, potential hydrogen and fission product issues raised by the Fukushima accident are discussed. The discussion focuses on hydrogen and fission product behavior inside nuclear power plant containments under severe accident conditions. The relevant experimental investigations conducted in the technical scale containment THAI (thermal hydraulics, hydrogen, aerosols, and iodine test facility (9.2 m high, 3.2 m in diameter, and 60 m3 volume are discussed in the light of the Fukushima accident.

  11. Experimental study on rapid embankment construction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Hideaki; Egawa, Kikuji; Hyodo, Kazuya; Kannoto, Yasuo; Sekimoto, Tsuyoshi; Kobayashi, Kokichi.

    1982-01-01

    In the construction of a thermal or nuclear power plant in a coastal area, shorter embankment construction period has come to be called for recently. This tendency is remarkable where construction period is limited due to meteorological or sea conditions. To meet this requirement, the authors have been conducting basic experimental studies on two methods for the rapid execution of embankment construction, that is, Steel Plate Cellular Bulkhead Embedding Method and Ship Hull Caisson Method. This paper presents an outline of the results of the experimental study on these two methods. (author)

  12. Conditional conservatism and value relevance of financial reporting: A study in view of converging accounting standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, Maximiliaan Willem Pierre; Iatridis, George Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between conditional conservatism and value relevance in the EU and US. Specifically, it investigates whether this relationship differs under US GAAP and IFRS compliance. In addition, this study examines the trend in value relevance, conditional conservatism and

  13. A combined experimental and theoretical study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A combined theoretical and experimental study was also performed, which demonstrated that the clus- ters 1–3 with ... silica gel TLC plates (MERCK TLC Plates). The NMR .... tronic μ3-Se and maintains the same number of clus- ter valance ...

  14. Experimental study of collective processes in REB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanov, L Yu; Sominskij, G G [St. Petersburg Technical University (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The role of collective processes at relativistic electron beam formation and transportation was studied experimentally by using new low-disturbing techniques. In particular, local mirror-like enhancements of the external magnetic field were introduced and their influence of the beam space charge oscillations was investigated. The amplitude-frequency characteristics of the space charge oscillations in different parts of the drift channel were measured by a set of high-frequency probes. On the base of the collected experimental data two possible mechanisms of development of the beam space charge oscillations are discussed: the two-stream instability and the diocotron instability. (J.U.). 2 figs., 4 refs.

  15. Experimental study of the natural circulation phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabundjian, Gaiane; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de; Umbehaun, Pedro E.; Torres, Walmir M.; Castro, Alfredo Jose Alvim de; Belchior Junior, Antonio; Rocha, Ricardo Takeshi Vieira da; Damy, Osvaldo Luiz de Almeida; Torres, Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the natural circulation in experimental loops and extend the results to nuclear facilities. New generation of compact nuclear power plants use the natural circulation as cooling and residual heat removal systems in case of accidents or shutdown. Lately the interest in this phenomenon, by scientific community, has increased. The experimental loop, described in this paper, was assembled at Escola Politecnica - USP at the Chemical Engineering Department. It is the goal to generate information to help with the understanding of the one and two phase natural circulation phenomena. Some experiments were performed with different levels of heat power and different flow of the cooling water at the secondary circuit. The data generated from these experiments are going to be used to validate some computational thermal hydraulic codes. Experimental results for one and two phase regimes are presented as well as the proposed model to simulate the flow regimes with the RELAP5 code. (author)

  16. Experimental studies of generalized parton distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabuss, E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Generalized parton distributions (GPD) provide a new way to study the nucleon structure. Experimentally they can be accessed using hard exclusive processes such as deeply virtual Compton scattering and meson production. First insights to GPDs were already obtained from measurements at DESY, JLAB and CERN, while new ambitious studies are planned at the upgraded JLAB at 12 GeV and at CERN. Here, some emphasis will be put onto the planned COMPASS II programme. (author)

  17. Experimental and computational study of thaumasite structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholtzová, Eva, E-mail: Eva.Scholtzova@savba.sk [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 845 36 Bratislava (Slovakia); Kucková, Lenka; Kožíšek, Jozef [Department of Physical Chemistry, Institute of Physical Chemistry and Chemical Physics, Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Radlinského 9, 812 37 Bratislava (Slovakia); Pálková, Helena [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 845 36 Bratislava (Slovakia); Tunega, Daniel [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 845 36 Bratislava (Slovakia); Institute for Soil Science, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Peter-Jordanstrasse 82, A-1190 Wien (Austria)

    2014-05-01

    The structure of thaumasite has been studied experimentally by means of a single crystal X-ray diffraction and FTIR methods, and theoretically using density functional theory (DFT) method. Very good agreement was achieved between calculated and experimental structural parameters. In addition, calculations offered the refinement of the positions of the hydrogen atoms. The detailed analysis of the hydrogen bonds existing in the thaumasite structure has been performed. Several types of hydrogen bonds have been classified. The water molecules coordinating Ca{sup 2+} cation act as proton donors in moderate O-H···O hydrogen bonds formed with CO₃⁻²and SO₄⁻² anions. The multiple O-H···O hydrogen bonds exist among water molecules themselves. Finally, relatively weak hydrogen bonds form water molecules with the OH groups from the coordination sphere of the Si(OH)₆⁻² anion. Further, calculated vibrational spectrum allowed complete assignment of all vibrational modes which are not available from the experimental spectrum that has a complex structure with overlapped bands, especially below 1500 cm⁻¹. Highlights: • The thaumasite structure was studied experimentally and using DFT method. • We used DFT method for the refinement of the positions of hydrogen atoms. • A detailed analysis of the hydrogen bonds was done. • A complete assignment of all bands to particular types of vibrations was done.

  18. Experimental study of structural response to earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clough, R.W.; Bertero, V.V.; Bouwkamp, J.G.; Popov, E.P.

    1975-01-01

    The objectives, methods, and some of the principal results obtained from experimental studies of the behavior of structures subjected to earthquakes are described. Although such investigations are being conducted in many laboratories throughout the world, the information presented deals specifically with projects being carried out at the Earthquake Engineering Research Center (EERC) of the University of California, Berkeley. A primary purpose of these investigations is to obtain detailed information on the inelastic response mechanisms in typical structural systems so that the experimentally observed performance can be compared with computer generated analytical predictions. Only by such comparisons can the mathematical models used in dynamic nonlinear analyses be verified and improved. Two experimental procedures for investigating earthquake structural response are discussed: the earthquake simulator facility which subjects the base of the test structure to acceleration histories similar to those recorded in actual earthquakes, and systems of hydraulic rams which impose specified displacement histories on the test components, equivalent to motions developed in structures subjected to actual'quakes. The general concept and performance of the 20ft square EERC earthquake simulator is described, and the testing of a two story concrete frame building is outlined. Correlation of the experimental results with analytical predictions demonstrates that satisfactory agreement can be obtained only if the mathematical model incorporates a stiffness deterioration mechanism which simulates the cracking and other damage suffered by the structure

  19. Experimental Analysis of the Input Variables’ Relevance to Forecast Next Day’s Aggregated Electric Demand Using Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo García

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to the built in intelligence (deployment of new intelligent devices and sensors in places where historically they were not present, the Smart Grid and Microgrid paradigms are able to take advantage from aggregated load forecasting, which opens the door for the implementation of new algorithms to seize this information for optimization and advanced planning. Therefore, accuracy in load forecasts will potentially have a big impact on key operation factors for the future Smart Grid/Microgrid-based energy network like user satisfaction and resource saving, and new methods to achieve an efficient prediction in future energy landscapes (very different from the centralized, big area networks studied so far. This paper proposes different improved models to forecast next day’s aggregated load using artificial neural networks, taking into account the variables that are most relevant for the aggregated. In particular, seven models based on the multilayer perceptron will be proposed, progressively adding input variables after analyzing the influence of climate factors on aggregated load. The results section presents the forecast from the proposed models, obtained from real data.

  20. Experimental studies of nonlinear beam dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caussyn, D.D.; Ball, M.; Brabson, B.; Collins, J.; Curtis, S.A.; Derenchuck, V.; DuPlantis, D.; East, G.; Ellison, M.; Ellison, T.; Friesel, D.; Hamilton, B.; Jones, W.P.; Lamble, W.; Lee, S.Y.; Li, D.; Minty, M.G.; Sloan, T.; Xu, G.; Chao, A.W.; Ng, K.Y.; Tepikian, S.

    1992-01-01

    The nonlinear beam dynamics of transverse betatron oscillations were studied experimentally at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility cooler ring. Motion in one dimension was measured for betatron tunes near the third, fourth, fifth, and seventh integer resonances. This motion is described by coupling between the transverse modes of motion and nonlinear field errors. The Hamiltonian for nonlinear particle motion near the third- and fourth-integer-resonance conditions has been deduced

  1. Magneto-Rheological Damper - An Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lozoya-Santos , Jorge De-Jesus; Morales-Menéndez , Rubén; Ramirez-Mendoza , Ricardo; Tudon-Martınez , Juan ,; Sename , Olivier; Dugard , Luc

    2012-01-01

    International audience; A Magneto-Rheological (MR) damper is evaluated under exhaustive experimental scenarios, generating a complete database. The obtained database includes classical tests and new proposals emphasizing the frequency contents. It also includes the impact of the electric current fluctuations. The variety of the performed experiments allows to study the MR damper force dynamics. A brief description of the damper behavior and a categorization of experiments based on driving con...

  2. Experimental Setups for Single Event Effect Studies

    OpenAIRE

    N. H. Medina; V. A. P. Aguiar; N. Added; F. Aguirre; E. L. A. Macchione; S. G. Alberton; M. A. G. Silveira; J. Benfica; F. Vargas; B. Porcher

    2016-01-01

    Experimental setups are being prepared to test and to qualify electronic devices regarding their tolerance to Single Event Effect (SEE). A multiple test setup and a new beam line developed especially for SEE studies at the São Paulo 8 UD Pelletron accelerator were prepared. This accelerator produces proton beams and heavy ion beams up to 107Ag. A Super conducting Linear accelerator, which is under construction, may fulfill all of the European Space Agency requirements to qualify electronic...

  3. Theoretical and experimental studies of elementary particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodek, A.; Ferbel, T.; Melissinos, A.C.; Olsen, S.L.; Slattery, P.; Tipton, P.; Das, A.; Hagen, C.R.; Rajeev, S.G.; Okubo, S.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses: Fixed target experimentation at Fermilab; the D-zero collider experiment at Fermilab; deep inelastic lepton nucleon scattering; non-accelerator experiments and non-linear QED; the AMY experiment at TRISTAN and other activities at KEK; the collider detector at Fermilab; laser switched linac; preparations for experiments at the SSC; search for massive stable particles; and the Advanced Study Institute on techniques and concepts of high energy physics

  4. Clinical relevance of studies on the accuracy of visual inspection for detecting caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimenez, Thais; Piovesan, Chaiana; Braga, Mariana M

    2015-01-01

    Although visual inspection is the most commonly used method for caries detection, and consequently the most investigated, studies have not been concerned about the clinical relevance of this procedure. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review in order to perform a critical evaluation considering...... the clinical relevance and methodological quality of studies on the accuracy of visual inspection for assessing caries lesions. Two independent reviewers searched several databases through July 2013 to identify papers/articles published in English. Other sources were checked to identify unpublished literature...... to clinical relevance and the methodological quality of the studies were evaluated. 96 of the 5,578 articles initially identified met the inclusion criteria. In general, most studies failed in considering some clinically relevant aspects: only 1 included study validated activity status of lesions, no study...

  5. Experimental studies of gravitation and feebler forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowsik, R.

    1993-01-01

    The theoretical motivations and the experimental context pertaining to the recent experimental studies of the Weak equivalence Principle and the open-quotes Fifth Forceclose quotes are reviewed briefly. With such a backdrop, the innovative design and the technical details of the several new experiments in this area are presented with a special emphasis on the experiments underway at Gauribidanur, situated on the Deccan Plateau. These experiments jointly rule out the existence of any new forces coupling to baryon or lepton number with a coupling greater than about 10 -4 of gravitation per a.m.u. at ranges of about 0.5m and longer. In a few years the author hopes to test the weak equivalence principle with sensitivity exceeding 10 -13

  6. Experimental study of natural circulation circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos, Wanderley F.; Su, Jian, E-mail: wlemos@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br, E-mail: sujian@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (LASME/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Simulacao e Metodos Numericos; Faccini, Jose L.H., E-mail: faccini@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (LTE/IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Termo-Hidraulica Experimental

    2011-07-01

    This work presents an experimental study about fluid flows behavior in natural circulation, under conditions of single-phase flow. The experiment was performed through experimental thermal-hydraulic circuit built at IEN. This test equipment has performance similar to passive system of residual heat removal present in Advanced Pressurized Water Reactors (APWR). This experimental study aims to observing and analyzing the natural circulation phenomenon, using this experimental circuit that was dimensioned and built based on concepts of similarity and scale. This philosophy allows the analysis of natural circulation behavior in single-phase flow conditions proportionally to the functioning real conditions of a nuclear reactor. The experiment was performed through procedures to initialization of hydraulic feeding of primary and secondary circuits and electrical energizing of resistors installed inside heater. Power controller has availability to adjust values of electrical power to feeding resistors, in order to portray several conditions of energy decay of nuclear reactor in a steady state. Data acquisition system allows the measurement and monitoring of the evolution of the temperature in various points through thermocouples installed in strategic points along hydraulic circuit. The behavior of the natural circulation phenomenon was monitored by graphical interface on computer screen, showing the temperature evolutions of measuring points and results stored in digital spreadsheets. The results stored in digital spreadsheets allowed the getting of data to graphic construction and discussion about natural circulation phenomenon. Finally, the calculus of Reynolds number allowed the establishment for a correlation of friction in function of geometric scales of length, heights and cross section of tubing, considering a natural circulation flow throughout in the region of hot leg. (author)

  7. Experimental study of natural circulation circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, Wanderley F.; Su, Jian; Faccini, Jose L.H.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents an experimental study about fluid flows behavior in natural circulation, under conditions of single-phase flow. The experiment was performed through experimental thermal-hydraulic circuit built at IEN. This test equipment has performance similar to passive system of residual heat removal present in Advanced Pressurized Water Reactors (APWR). This experimental study aims to observing and analyzing the natural circulation phenomenon, using this experimental circuit that was dimensioned and built based on concepts of similarity and scale. This philosophy allows the analysis of natural circulation behavior in single-phase flow conditions proportionally to the functioning real conditions of a nuclear reactor. The experiment was performed through procedures to initialization of hydraulic feeding of primary and secondary circuits and electrical energizing of resistors installed inside heater. Power controller has availability to adjust values of electrical power to feeding resistors, in order to portray several conditions of energy decay of nuclear reactor in a steady state. Data acquisition system allows the measurement and monitoring of the evolution of the temperature in various points through thermocouples installed in strategic points along hydraulic circuit. The behavior of the natural circulation phenomenon was monitored by graphical interface on computer screen, showing the temperature evolutions of measuring points and results stored in digital spreadsheets. The results stored in digital spreadsheets allowed the getting of data to graphic construction and discussion about natural circulation phenomenon. Finally, the calculus of Reynolds number allowed the establishment for a correlation of friction in function of geometric scales of length, heights and cross section of tubing, considering a natural circulation flow throughout in the region of hot leg. (author)

  8. Electro-Analytical Study of Material Interfaces Relevant for Chemical Mechanical Planarization and Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Michael C.

    galvanic corrosions in chemically controlled low-pressure CMP. The CMP specific functions of the slurry components are characterized in the tribo-electro-analytical approach by using voltammetry, open circuit potential (OCP) measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in the presence as well as in the absence of surface abrasion, both with and without the inclusion of colloidal silica (SiO2) abrasives. The results are used to understand the reaction mechanisms responsible for supporting material removal and corrosion suppression. The project carried out in the area of Li ion batteries (LIBs) uses electro-analytical techniques to probe electrolyte characteristics as well as electrode material performance. The investigation concentrates on optimizing a tactically chosen set of electrolyte compositions for low-to-moderate temperature applications of lithium titanium oxide (LTO), a relatively new anode material for such batteries. For this application, mixtures of non-aqueous carbonate based solvents are studied in combination with lithium perchlorate. The temperature dependent conductivities of the electrolytes are rigorously measured and analyzed using EIS. The experimental considerations and the working principle of this EIS based approach are carefully examined and standardized in the course of this study. These experiments also investigate the effects of temperature variations (below room temperature) on the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation characteristics of LTO in the given electrolytes. This dissertation is organized as follows: Each experimental system and its relevance for practical applications are briefly introduced in each chapter. The experimental approach and the motivation for carrying out the investigation are also noted in that context. The experimental details specific to the particular study are described. This is followed by the results and their discussion, and subsequently, by the specific conclusions drawn from the given

  9. Microwave generation for magnetic fusion energy applications: Task A -- Experimental and numerical study of microwave sources for ECRH incorporating depressed collectors and with ITER-relevant parameters, and Task B -- Theory and modeling of high frequency, high power gyrotron operation. Final report, July 15, 1994--July 14, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    A proof-of-principle short pulse (∼ 100 ns) experiment has successfully demonstrated operation of a sheet-beam FEL amplifier with output power of 250 kW at 86 Ghz and with 24 dB saturated gain and ∼ 3% efficiency. Gain in the linear region was 30 dB. Measured performance parameters were in good agreement with predictions of a multi-mode, time dependence code. Also, a code has been developed to design depressed collectors which will enhance efficiency of ECRH sources (both FELs and gyrotrons). Extensive analytical and theoretical work in support of high power gyrotron development at Varian and MIT, and in support of ITER has been carried out. Specific studies are described. The effect of beam quality on the operation of the 145 GHz gyrotrons at MIT has been characterized using experimentally measured beam velocity distribution functions. The observed performance of these devices is consistent with a 10% RMS perpendicular velocity spread. An extensive study of mode competition in the 110 GHZ experiments at Varian and MIT has been carried out. Design criteria for the suppression of parasitic modes have been given for these experiments. The issues of mode competition and beam quality in the proposed 170 GHz megawatt gyrotrons for ITER have been investigated. Designs of cavities which eliminate unwanted modes have been made, and their sensitivity to beam quality studied. The constraints of lower power density and absence of mode competition coupled with the anticipated beam quality restrict efficiency. Efficiency can be improved by increasing the power density in the wall, improving beam quality, or perhaps by using a more advanced cavity. Studies of the causes of velocity spread in MIG guns have been initiated. Further, the effect of beam cavity misalignment on mode competition has been addressed

  10. Fluorene: An extended experimental thermodynamic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte, Manuel J.S.; Pinto, Sónia P.; Lobo Ferreira, Ana I.M.C.; Amaral, Luísa M.P.F.; Freitas, Vera L.S.; Ribeiro da Silva, Maria D.M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Experimental results of an extended thermodynamic study on fluorene are presented. ► Enthalpy of combustion and vapor pressures of liquid and crystalline phase were measured. ► Enthalpy of sublimation was derived from three different experimental methods. ► New values of enthalpies of sublimation and of formation of fluorene are recommended. - Abstract: This work reports new experimental thermodynamic results on fluorene. Vapor pressures of both crystalline and liquid phases were measured using a pressure gauge (capacitance diaphragm manometer) and Knudsen effusion methods over a wide temperature range (292.20 to 412.16) K yielding accurate determination of enthalpy and entropy of sublimation and of vaporization. The enthalpy of sublimation was also determined using Calvet microcalorimetry. The enthalpy of fusion was derived from vapor pressure results and from d.s.c. experiments. Static bomb calorimetry was used to determine the enthalpy of combustion of fluorene from which the standard enthalpy of formation in the crystalline phase was calculated. The enthalpy of formation in the gaseous phase was calculated combining the result derived for the crystalline phase with the enthalpy of sublimation.

  11. Experimental percolation studies of random networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinerman, A.; Weddell, J.

    2017-06-01

    This report establishes an experimental method of studying electrically percolating networks at a higher resolution than previously implemented. This method measures the current across a conductive sheet as a function of time as elliptical pores are cut into the sheet. This is done utilizing a Universal Laser System X2-600 100 W CO2 laser system with a 76 × 46 cm2 field and 394 dpc (dots/cm) resolution. This laser can cut a random system of elliptical pores into a conductive sheet with a potential voltage applied across it and measures the current versus time. This allows for experimental verification of a percolation threshold as a function of the ellipse's aspect ratio (minor/major diameter). We show that as an ellipse's aspect ratio approaches zero, the percolation threshold approaches one. The benefit of this method is that it can experimentally measure the effect of removing small pores, as well as pores with complex geometries, such as an asterisk from a conductive sheet.

  12. Wines: water inelastic neutron scattering experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risch, P.; Ait Abderrahim, H.; D'hondt, P.; Malabu, E.

    1997-01-01

    An intercomparison of calculated fast neutron flux (E > 1 MeV) traverse through a very thick water zone obtained using both S N , (DORT) and Monte-Carlo (TRIPOLI and MCBEND) codes in combination with different cross-sections libraries (based on ENDF/B-III, IV, V and VI), showed small discrepancies either between S N , and Monte-Carlo results or even between S N , or Monte-Carlo results when we consider different cross-sections libraries except for S N , calculation when using P 0 , cross-sections. In order to validate our calculations we looked for experimental data. Unfortunately no experiment, dedicated for the fast neutron transport in large thickness of water, was found in the literature. Therefore SCK-CEN and EDF decided to launch the WINES experiment which is dedicated to study this phenomenon. WINES sands for Water Inelastic Neutron scattering Experimental Study. The aim of this experiment is to provide-experimental data for validation of neutron transport codes and nuclear cross-sections libraries used for LWR surveillance dosimetry analysis. The experimental device is made of 1 m 3 cubic plexiglass container filled with demineralized water. At one face of this cube, a 235 U neutron fission source system is screwed. The source device is made of a 235 U (93 % weight enriched) 18.55 x 16 cm 2 plate cladded with aluminium which is inserted in neutron beam emerging from the graphite gas-cooled BR1 reactor. Fission chambers ( 238 U(n,f), 232 Th(n,f), 237 Np(n,f) and 235 U(n,f)) are used to measure the flux traverses on the central axis of the water cube perpendicular to the fission sources. In this paper we will compare the experimental data to the calculated results using the S N , transport code DORT with the P 3 , ELXSIR library, based on ENDF/B-V, and the P 7 -BUGLE-93 library, based on ENDF/B-VI as well as the Monte-Carlo transport code TRIPOLI with a cross-section library based on ENDF/B IV and ENDF/B-VI. (authors)

  13. Transfer of elements relevant to nuclear fuel cycle from soil to boreal plants and animals in experimental meso- and microcosms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuovinen, Tiina S., E-mail: tiina.tuovinen@uef.fi [Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Kasurinen, Anne; Häikiö, Elina [Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Tervahauta, Arja [Department of Biology, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box FI-70211, Kuopio (Finland); Makkonen, Sari; Holopainen, Toini; Juutilainen, Jukka [Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2016-01-01

    Uranium (U), cobalt (Co), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), thorium (Th) and zinc (Zn) occur naturally in soil but their radioactive isotopes can also be released into the environment during the nuclear fuel cycle. The transfer of these elements was studied in three different trophic levels in experimental mesocosms containing downy birch (Betula pubescens), narrow buckler fern (Dryopteris carthusiana) and Scandinavian small-reed (Calamagrostis purpurea ssp. Phragmitoides) as producers, snails (Arianta arbostorum) as herbivores, and earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) as decomposers. To determine more precisely whether the element uptake of snails is mainly via their food (birch leaves) or both via soil and food, a separate microcosm experiment was also performed. The element uptake of snails did not generally depend on the presence of soil, indicating that the main uptake route was food, except for U, where soil contact was important for uptake when soil U concentration was high. Transfer of elements from soil to plants was not linear, i.e. it was not correctly described by constant concentration ratios (CR) commonly applied in radioecological modeling. Similar nonlinear transfer was found for the invertebrate animals included in this study: elements other than U were taken up more efficiently when element concentration in soil or food was low. - Highlights: • We studied transfer of elements in boreal food chain using meso- and microcosms. • Elements related to nuclear fuel cycle and mining were examined. • Higher uptake at lower soil concentrations was observed for primary producers. • Snails took up elements mainly from food but for U also soil was an element source. • Non-linear transfer of essential elements was observed for herbivore and decomposer.

  14. Radiosensitization by SAHA in Experimental Colorectal Carcinoma Models-In Vivo Effects and Relevance of Histone Acetylation Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folkvord, Sigurd; Ree, Anne Hansen; Furre, Torbjorn; Halvorsen, Thomas; Flatmark, Kjersti

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Histone deacetylase inhibitors are being evaluated as antitumor agents in ongoing clinical trials, and promising preclinical results, combined with favorable toxicity profiles, have rendered the drugs as interesting candidates for combination with other treatment modalities, such as radiotherapy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the radiosensitizing properties of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and the possible requirement of histone hyperacetylation at radiation exposure. Methods and materials: Radiosensitization by SAHA was assessed in a colorectal carcinoma cell line and in two colorectal xenograft models by analysis of clonogenic survival and tumor growth delay, respectively. Histone acetylation status at radiation exposure was evaluated by Western blot. Results: In vitro, radiosensitization was demonstrated when cells were preincubated with SAHA, and, in the xenografts, tumor growth was delayed when the mice were treated with fractionated radiation combined with daily SAHA injections compared with radiation alone. Surprisingly, the SAHA-dependent growth delay was still present when radiation was delivered at restored baseline acetylation levels compared with maximal histone hyperacetylation. Conclusion: SAHA was an effective radiosensitizer in experimental colorectal carcinoma models, suggesting that histone deacetylase inhibition might constitute a valuable supplement to current multimodal treatment strategies in rectal cancer. The presence of histone hyperacetylation at radiation was not required to obtain an increased radiation response, questioning the validity of using histone hyperacetylation as a molecular marker for radiosensitivity.

  15. Experimental Study of Dust Grain Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, James F; Venturini, Catherine C.; Comfort, Richard H.; Mian, Abbas M.

    1999-01-01

    The results of an experimental study of the charging mechanisms of micron size dust grains are presented. Individual dust grains are electrodynamically suspended and exposed to an electron beam of known energy and flux, and to far ultraviolet radiation of known wavelength and intensity. Changes in the charge-to-mass ratio of the grain are directly measured as a function of incident beam (electron and/or photon), grain size and composition. Comparisons of our results to theoretical models that predict the grain response are presented.

  16. An experimental study of dislocation loop nucleation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bounaud, J.Y.; Leteurtre, J.

    1975-01-01

    The nucleation of dislocation loops is experimentally studied by observing the demixion of the Burgers vectors of dislocation loops nucleated in copper whiskers irradiated in flexion by fission fragments at room temperature. The demixion of Burgers vectors is observed by the dimensional effects of dislocation loops: after irradiation, the applied stress is removed; the whisker shows a residual strain that is due to loops because, after an annealing treatment to evaporate dislocation loops, each whisker recovers its initial straight shape. Everywhere along the whisker, the radius of curvature is measured and plotted vs the max. applied stress. Estimations of the interstitial and vacancy dislocation loop nuclei are derived [fr

  17. Clinical and experimental studies on radiation proctitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honke, Yoshifumi

    1988-01-01

    Clinical and experimental studies were performed to clarify the mechanism of developing radiation proctitis. The results were as follows; (1) In the clinical study with 38 uterine cervix cancer patients, who received radiotherapy, diarrhea was observed in 44.7% at the acute stage, while rectal bleeding in 36.7% about 1 year after radiation. However, no clinical correlation was observed between diarrhea and rectal bleeding. (2) Colon fiberscopic examination revealed little change at the acute stage. However, erosion, ulcer and remarkable redness were found at the late stage. By the magnified fiberscope, unit degeneration was found in 72.8% at the acute stage. (3) Concerning the histopathological changes, edema and inflammatory change were observed immediately after irradiation. Fibrosis was observed in 83.3% at the late stage. (4) The number of the immunoglobulin containing cells decreased by radiation. However, its recovered as time passed after radiation. (5) In experimental study with rats by microangiography, there were ramarkable changes of the small vessels, such as bending, tortuosity and capillary hyperplasia at the acute stage. However, these changes returned to normal soon. At the late stage, decreased number of blood vessels were observed. The above results indicated that rectal bleeding after exposure to radiation are developed by secondary circulation abnormality caused by fibrosis of the perivascular tissues. (author) 52 refs

  18. Salton and Buckley’s Landmark Research in Experimental Text Information Retrieval. A Review of: Salton, G., & Buckley, C. (1990. Improving retrieval performance by relevance feedback. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 41(4, 288–297.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine F. Marton

    2011-01-01

    using both positive and negative weights based on whether the terms are coming from relevant or non-relevant documents. Yet, no new terms are actually added with negative weights; the contribution of non-relevant document terms is to modify the weighting of new terms coming from relevant documents. . . . The probabilistic model . . . is based on the distribution of query terms in relevant and non-relevant documents, This is expressed as a term weight, with the rank of each retrieved document then being the sum of the term weights for terms contained in the document that match query terms. (pp. 1-2Second, while the vector space model “has an inherent relationship between term reweighting and query expansion” (p. 2, the probabilistic model does not. Thus, query expansion is optional, but given its usefulness, various schemes have been proposed for expanding queries using terms from retrieved relevant documents.In the Salton and Buckley study 3 versions of each of the two relevance feedback methods were utilized, with two different levels of query expansion, and run on 6 different test collections. More specifically, they queried test collections that ranged in size from small to large, and that represented different domains of knowledge, including medicine and engineering with 72 experimental runs in total.Salton and Buckley examined 3 variants of the vector space model, the second and third of which were based on the first. The first model was the classic Rocchio algorithm (1971, which uses reduced document weights to modify the queries. The second model was the “Ide regular” algorithm, which reweights both relevant and non-relevant query terms (Ide, 1971. And the third model was the “Ide dec-hi” algorithm, which reweights all identified relevant items but only one retrieved nonrelevant item, the one retrieved first in the initial set of search results (Ide & Salton, 1971.As well, 3 variants of the probabilistic model developed by S.E. Robertson (Robertson

  19. A Study of Novice Science Teachers' Conceptualizations of Culturally Relevant Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Elizabeth Horst

    This qualitative study examined new science teachers' conceptualization of culturally relevant pedagogy (CRP). The study followed six novice science teachers from their preservice teaching placements into their first jobs as instructors of record, observing in their classrooms and interviewing them about their use of CRP. The study sought to understand (1) how the participating teachers conceptualize CRP in science, and (2) what challenges the teachers faced in trying to implement CRP. Findings suggest that the teachers conceptualized CRP in ways that were consistent with Enyedy, Danish and Fields' (2011) interpretations of relevance: relevance of authentic purpose, relevance of content and/or context, and relevance of practices. The teachers, however, translated those interpretations of relevance into their conceptualizations and classroom practice in a variety of ways. While they encountered difficulties in conceptualizing and practicing CRP, they also made productive moves in their practice and evidenced positive elements in their conceptualizations of CRP. In order to address the challenges these teachers faced in implementing CRP, I suggest an approach to teacher preparation in CRP that builds upon the understandings and productive moves the teachers evidenced in this study.

  20. Experimental study of rf pulsed heating

    CERN Document Server

    Laurent, L; Nantista, C; Dolgashev, V; Higashi, Y; Aicheler, M; Tantawi, S; Wuensch, W

    2011-01-01

    Cyclic thermal stresses produced by rf pulsed heating can be the limiting factor on the attainable reliable gradients for room temperature linear accelerators. This is especially true for structures that have complicated features for wakefield damping. These limits could be pushed higher by using special types of copper, copper alloys, or other conducting metals in constructing partial or complete accelerator structures. Here we present an experimental study aimed at determining the potential of these materials for tolerating cyclic thermal fatigue due to rf magnetic fields. A special cavity that has no electric field on the surface was employed in these studies. The cavity shape concentrates the magnetic field on one flat surface where the test material is placed. The materials tested in this study have included oxygen free electronic grade copper, copper zirconium, copper chromium, hot isostatically pressed copper, single crystal copper, electroplated copper, Glidcop (R), copper silver, and silver plated co...

  1. Transversal Traits in Science Education Research Relevant for Teaching and Research: A Meta-Interpretative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, J. Bernardino; Silva, Antonio Alberto; Cravino, Jose P.; Costa, Nilza; Marques, Luis; Campos, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    This study is a meta-interpretative analysis that focuses on research conducted and published by other researchers. Concepts central to this study include global practical relevance, curriculum design, and formative situation. We analyzed 35 studies selected from 374 published studies in the years 2000 and 2001 in three journals referenced in the…

  2. Laparoscopic ureterocalicostomy in pigs - experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando de Oliveira Caldas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluated laparoscopic ureterocalicostomy as treatment of experimental ureteropelvic junction (UPJ obstruction in pigs. Ten male Large White pigs weighting approximately 28.4 (±1.43 kg were used in the current study. The UPJ obstruction was created laparoscopically by double-clipping of the left ureter. After 14 days the animals underwent laparoscopic ureterocalicostomy f The animals were sacrificed for subsequent retrograde pyelography in order to assess the anastomotic patency on the 28th day. The laparoscopic procedure for experimental obstruction of UPJ was successfully performed in all animals, as well as the laparoscopic ureterocalicostomy. There was intestinal iatrogenic injury in one animal. Satisfactory UPJ patency was noted in 75% of the animals. There was no stenosis of the proximal anastomosis between the ureter and the lower pole of the kidney in 37.5%, mild stenosis in 37.5% and severe stenosis in 25% of the animals. The laparoscopic approach for reestablishment he urinary flow by ureterocalicostomy was feasible in the porcine model. The ascending pyelography revealed satisfactory results of the laparoscopic ureterocalicostomy

  3. Experimental study of unsteady thermally stratified flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Jun; Chung, Myung Kyoon

    1985-01-01

    Unsteady thermally stratified flow caused by two-dimensional surface discharge of warm water into a oblong channel was investigated. Experimental study was focused on the rapidly developing thermal diffusion at small Richardson number. The basic objectives were to study the interfacial mixing between a flowing layer of warm water and an underlying body of cold water and to accumulate experimental data to test computational turbulence models. Mean velocity field measurements were carried out by using NMR-CT(Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Computerized Tomography). It detects quantitative flow image of any desired section in any direction of flow in short time. Results show that at small Richardson number warm layer rapidly penetrates into the cold layer because of strong turbulent mixing and instability between the two layers. It is found that the transfer of heat across the interface is more vigorous than that of momentum. It is also proved that the NMR-CT technique is a very valuable tool to measure unsteady three dimensional flow field. (Author)

  4. Vascularized nerve grafts: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donzelli, Renato; Capone, Crescenzo; Sgulò, Francesco Giovanni; Mariniello, Giuseppe; Maiuri, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to define an experimental model in order to promote the functional recovery of the nerves using grafts with vascular support (Vascular Nerve Grafts - VNG). The aim of this study is to define, on an experimental model in normal recipient bed, whether the functional recovery with VNG is superior to that obtained non-vascularized graft (NNG). Twenty male rabbits, which underwent dissection of sciatic nerve, were later treated by reinnervation through an autograft. In 10 animals the reconstruction of sciatic nerve was realized with VNG; in 10 control animals the reconstruction of sciatic nerve was realized with NNG. The VNG group showed a better axonal organization and a significantly higher number of regenerated axons in the early phases (after 30 days) than the NNG group, whereas the difference in the axonal number at day 90 was less significant; besides, the axon diameter and the myelin thickness were not significantly improved by VNG group. Our data suggests that the use of VNG leads to a faster regeneration process and a better functional recovery, although the final results are comparable to those of the NNG. VNG improve the quality of the axonal regeneration (axonal diameter and Schwann cells), although the increase in the axonal number is not significant and does not improve the long-term functional outcome.

  5. Can analysis of Platichthys flesus otoliths provide relevant data on historical metal pollution in estuaries? Experimental and in situ approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selleslagh, Jonathan; Echard, Aurélie; Pécheyran, Christophe; Baudrimont, Magalie; Lobry, Jérémy; Daverat, Françoise

    2016-01-01

    otoliths were complex, the concentrations were correlated with those in the water. Analysis of flounder specimens collected from 2007 to 2014 in the Gironde estuary (SW France) showed interannual variability in Pb concentrations, with higher values for fish otoliths from 2007 to 2010 than those from 2012 to 2014. This trend indicated a decrease in Pb in the Gironde estuary over the last decade, which is consistent with the results of other surveys on bivalves. Our study demonstrates that it is possible to use otolith microchemistry as a tool in assessing and retracing long-term metal pollution in estuarine systems. - Highlights: • Platichthys flesus was exposed to a cocktail of metals at realistic environmental concentrations. • Bioaccumulation of metals in tissue and otolith was linked to exposure level. • Cartography of metal in fish otolith was realized for the first time. • Otolith microchemistry of P. flesus was suggested as relevant tool to assess and retrace metal pollution. • Otoliths of P. flesus specimens collected from 2007 to 2014 in the Gironde estuary were analyzed

  6. Can analysis of Platichthys flesus otoliths provide relevant data on historical metal pollution in estuaries? Experimental and in situ approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selleslagh, Jonathan, E-mail: Jonathan.Selleslagh@u-bordeaux.fr [Université de Bordeaux, CNRS, UMR EPOC 5805, Station Marine d' Arcachon, place du docteur Peyneau, 33120 Arcachon (France); Echard, Aurélie [IRSTEA Centre de Bordeaux, unité EABX, 50 avenue de Verdun, 33612 Cestas (France); Pécheyran, Christophe [Université de Pau et des pays de l' Adour, CNRS, LCABIE-IPREM UMR 5254, 64053 Pau (France); Baudrimont, Magalie [Université de Bordeaux, CNRS, UMR EPOC 5805, Station Marine d' Arcachon, place du docteur Peyneau, 33120 Arcachon (France); Lobry, Jérémy; Daverat, Françoise [IRSTEA Centre de Bordeaux, unité EABX, 50 avenue de Verdun, 33612 Cestas (France)

    2016-07-01

    otoliths were complex, the concentrations were correlated with those in the water. Analysis of flounder specimens collected from 2007 to 2014 in the Gironde estuary (SW France) showed interannual variability in Pb concentrations, with higher values for fish otoliths from 2007 to 2010 than those from 2012 to 2014. This trend indicated a decrease in Pb in the Gironde estuary over the last decade, which is consistent with the results of other surveys on bivalves. Our study demonstrates that it is possible to use otolith microchemistry as a tool in assessing and retracing long-term metal pollution in estuarine systems. - Highlights: • Platichthys flesus was exposed to a cocktail of metals at realistic environmental concentrations. • Bioaccumulation of metals in tissue and otolith was linked to exposure level. • Cartography of metal in fish otolith was realized for the first time. • Otolith microchemistry of P. flesus was suggested as relevant tool to assess and retrace metal pollution. • Otoliths of P. flesus specimens collected from 2007 to 2014 in the Gironde estuary were analyzed.

  7. Experimental studies of the magnetized friction force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedotov, A. V.; Litvinenko, V. N.; Gaalnander, B.; Lofnes, T.; Ziemann, V.; Sidorin, A.; Smirnov, A.

    2006-01-01

    High-energy electron cooling, presently considered as an essential tool for several applications in high-energy and nuclear physics, requires an accurate description of the friction force which ions experience by passing through an electron beam. Present low-energy electron coolers can be used for a detailed study of the friction force. In addition, parameters of a low-energy cooler can be chosen in a manner to reproduce regimes expected in future high-energy operation. Here, we report a set of dedicated experiments in CELSIUS aimed at a detailed study of the magnetized friction force. Some results of the accurate comparison of experimental data with the friction force formulas are presented

  8. Granular Silo collapse: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Eric; Gutierriez, Gustavo; Boltenhagen, Philippe; Lanuza, Jose

    2008-03-01

    We present an experimental work that develop some basic insight into the pre-buckling behavior and the buckling transition toward plastic collapse of a granular silo. We study different patterns of deformation generated on thin paper cylindrical shells during granular discharge. We study the collapse threshold for different bed height, flow rates and grain sizes. We compare the patterns that appear during the discharge of spherical beads, with those obtained in the axially compressed cylindrical shells. When the height of the granular column is close to the collapse threshold, we describe a ladder like pattern that rises around the cylinder surface in a spiral path of diamond shaped localizations, and develops into a plastic collapsing fold that grows around the collapsing silo.

  9. Experimental study on low pressure flow instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Shengyao; Wu Xinxin; Wu Shaorong; Bo Jinhai; Zhang Youjie

    1997-05-01

    The experiment was performed on the test loop (HRTL-5), which simulates the geometry and system design of the 5 MW reactor. The flow behavior for a wide range of inlet subcooling, in which the flow undergoes from single phase to two phase, is described in a natural circulation system at low pressure (p = 0.1, 0.24 MPa). Several kinds of flow instability, e.g. subcooled boiling instability, subcooled boiling induced flashing instability, pure flashing instability as well as flashing coupled density wave instability and high frequency flow oscillation, are investigated. The mechanism of flashing and flashing concerned flow instability, which has never been studied well in this field, is especially interpreted. The experimental results show that, firstly, for a low pressure natural circulation system the two phase flow is unstable in most of inlet subcooling conditions, the two phase stable flow can only be reached at very low inlet subcooling; secondly, at high inlet subcooling the flow instability is dominated by subcooled boiling in the heated section, and at middle inlet subcooling is dominated by void flashing in the adiabatic long riser; thirdly, in two phase stable flow region the condition for boiling out of the core, namely, single phase flow in the heated section, two phase flow in the riser due to vapor flashing, can be realized. The experimental results are very important for the design and accident analysis of the vessel and swimming pool type natural circulation nuclear heating reactor. (7 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.)

  10. The clinical relevance and newsworthiness of NIHR HTA-funded research: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, D; Young, A; Iserman, E; Maeso, R; Turner, S; Haynes, R B; Milne, R

    2014-05-07

    To assess the clinical relevance and newsworthiness of the UK National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Programme funded reports. Retrospective cohort study. The cohort included 311 NIHR HTA Programme funded reports publishing in HTA in the period 1 January 2007-31 December 2012. The McMaster Online Rating of Evidence (MORE) system independently identified the clinical relevance and newsworthiness of NIHR HTA publications and non-NIHR HTA publications. The MORE system involves over 4000 physicians rating publications on a scale of relevance (the extent to which articles are relevant to practice) and a scale of newsworthiness (the extent to which articles contain news or something clinicians are unlikely to know). The proportion of reports published in HTA meeting MORE inclusion criteria and mean average relevance and newsworthiness ratings were calculated and compared with publications from the same studies publishing outside HTA and non-NIHR HTA funded publications. 286/311 (92.0%) of NIHR HTA reports were assessed by MORE, of which 192 (67.1%) passed MORE criteria. The average clinical relevance rating for NIHR HTA reports was 5.48, statistically higher than the 5.32 rating for non-NIHR HTA publications (mean difference=0.16, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.29, p=0.01). Average newsworthiness ratings were similar between NIHR HTA reports and non-NIHR HTA publications (4.75 and 4.70, respectively; mean difference=0.05, 95% CI -0.18 to 0.07, p=0.402). NIHR HTA-funded original research reports were statistically higher for newsworthiness than reviews (5.05 compared with 4.64) (mean difference=0.41, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.64, p=0.001). Funding research of clinical relevance is important in maximising the value of research investment. The NIHR HTA Programme is successful in funding projects that generate outputs of clinical relevance.

  11. Metabolic Desynchronization in Critical Conditions: Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Livanov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To conduct an experimental study of the impact of the time of administration of succinic acid preparations on central nervous system (CNS function and gas exchange while simulating metabolic therapy for severe poisoning by ethyl alcohol. The study was performed on 74 male albino rats weighing 140—180 g. Acute severe and very severe intoxication was simulated, by intraabdominally administering 30% ethanol to the rats. Cytoflavin was used to simulate experimental therapy. The rate of gas exchange was estimated by the oxygen uptake determined by the closed chamber method in a Regnault apparatus (Germany. Spontaneous bioelectrical activity was recorded in the frontooccipital lead by the routine procedure. External pain stimulation and rhythmical photostimulation were employed to evaluate cerebral responsiveness. Heterodirectional EEG changes in the «early» and «late» administration of succinate were not followed by the similar alterations of gas exchange: oxygen consumption in both the «early» and «late» administration of succinate remained significantly lower than in the control animals. With the late administration of succinate to the animals with mixed (toxic and hypoxic coma, the so-called discrepancy between the noticeably increased energy production and brutally diminished metabolism occurred. It may be just the pathological mechanism that was the basis for higher mortality in the late succinate administration group. The findings and their analysis make it possible to advance a hypothesis that succinate may cause metabolic desynchronization if activation of metabolic processes takes place under severe tissue respiratory tissue depression. In these cases, there is a severe damage to tissue and chiefly the brain. This manifests itself as EEG epileptiform activity splashes preceding the animals’ death. Therefore, resuscitation aimed at restoring the transport of oxygen and its involvement in tissue energy processes should

  12. Do means-end chains exist? Experimental tests of their hierarchicity, automatic spreading activation, directionality, and self-relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2004-01-01

    , bidirectionality, and self-relevance. The predictions were tested in altogether six experiments, using the same basic methodology. Two sessions were held with each participant. In a pilot session, a set of conventional MEC representations was elicited from each participant using the laddering technique. From......Despite its popularity in consumer research, means-end chain (MEC) theory suffers from problems of unconfirmed validity. Theoretically, MECs can be cast as associative networks with a three-layered structure that should exhibit four properties: hierarchicity, automatic spreading activation...

  13. Contribution to the experimental study of the hydraulic jump in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to study experimentally the hydraulic jump evolving in a symmetric trapezoidal channel with a positive slope, requires the use of an experimental protocol, and to find experimental relations linking the characteristics of the formed projection. The experimental study investigated the variation of the ...

  14. Pulmonary emphysema induced by methylphenidate: experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapello, Gabriel Victor Guimarães; Antoniolli, Andréia; Pereira, Daniel Martins; Facco, Gilberto; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo Manuel; Pazetti, Rogério

    2015-01-01

    Methylphenidate is the most widely used drug for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, it has important side effects, such as abdominal pain, insomnia, anorexia and loss of appetite, and also some cases of early severe emphysema after drug abuse have been reported. Our aim was to investigate the development of pulmonary emphysema in rats that were subjected to different doses of methylphenidate. Experimental study carried out at the laboratory of a public university. Eighteen male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (0.9% saline solution); MP 0.8 (methylphenidate, 0.8 mg/kg); MP 1.2 (methylphenidate, 1.2 mg/kg). After 90 days of daily gavage, the animals were sacrificed and lung tissue samples were prepared for analysis on the mean alveolar diameter (Lm). The Lm was greater in MP 0.8 (47.91 ± 3.13; P pulmonary emphysema.

  15. Experimental Study of Factors Affecting Soil Erodibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionov, G. A.; Bushueva, O. G.; Gorobets, A. V.; Dobrovolskaya, N. G.; Kiryukhina, Z. P.; Krasnov, S. F.; Litvin, L. F.; Maksimova, I. A.; Sudnitsyn, I. I.

    2018-03-01

    The effect of different factors and preparation conditions of monofraction samples from the arable horizon of leached chernozem on soil erodibility and its relationship with soil tensile strength (STS) has been studied. The exposure of samples at 38°C reduces their erodibility by two orders of magnitude. The drying of samples, on the contrary, increases their erodibility. It has been shown that erodibility decreases during the experiment. It has been found that the inoculation of soil with yeast cultures ( Naganishia albida, Lipomyces tetrasporus) reliably increases the STS value in 1.5-1.9 times. The sterile soil is eroded more intensively than the unsterile soil: at 4.9 and 0.3 g/(m2 s), respectively. The drying of soil followed by wetting to the initial water content (30%) has no significant effect on the STS value in almost all experimental treatments.

  16. Experimental study of crossing angle collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T.; Rice, D.; Rubin, D.; Sagan, D.; Tigner, M.

    1993-01-01

    The non-linear coupling due to the beam-beam interaction with crossing angle has been studied. The major effect of a small (∼12mrad) crossing angle is to excite 5Q x ±Q s =integer coupling resonance family on large amplitude particles, which results in bad lifetime. On the CESR, a small crossing angle (∼2.4mr) was created at the IP and a reasonable beam-beam tune-shift was achieved. The decay rate of the beam is measured as a function of horizontal tune with and without crossing angle. The theoretical analysis, simulation and experimental measurements have a good agreement. The resonance strength as a function of crossing angle is also measured

  17. Experimental and theoretical study of reflux condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakke, Knut

    1997-12-31

    This thesis studies the separation of gas mixtures in a reflux condenser. also called a dephlegmator. Reflux condensation is separation of a gas mixture, in reflux flow with condensing liquid, under continuous heat removal. A numerical model of a dephlegmator for binary mixtures was developed. The model may readily be extended to multi-component mixtures, as the solution method is based on a matrix solver. Separation of a binary mixture in a reflux condenser test rig is demonstrated. The test facility contains a single-tube test section that was designed and built as part of the project. Test mixtures of propane and n-butane were used, and a total of 15 experiments are reported. Limited degree of separation was achieved due to limited heat transfer area and narrow boiling point range of the test mixture. The numerical model reproduces the experimental data within reasonable accuracy. Deviation between calculated and measured properties is less than 6% of the measured temperature and less than 5% of the measured flow rate. The model is based on mechanistic models of physical processes and is not calibrated or tuned to fit the experimental data. The numerical model is applied to a number of separation processes. These case studies show that the required heat transfer area increases rapidly with increments in top product composition (light component). Flooding limits the amount of reflux liquid. The dephlegmator is suitable for separation of feed mixtures that are rich in light components. The gliding temperature in the dephlegmation process enables utilization of top product as refrigerant, with subsequent energy saving as a result. 61 refs., 50 figs., 34 tabs.

  18. An experimental study of mixed convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saez, Manuel

    1998-01-01

    The aim of our study is to establish a reliable data base for improving thermal-hydraulic codes, in the field of turbulent flows with buoyancy forces. The flow considered is mixed convection in the Reynolds and Richardson number range: Re=10"3 to 6*10"4 and Ri=10"-"4 to 1. Experiments are carried out in an upward turbulent flow between vertical parallel plates at different wall temperatures. Part 1 gives a detailed data base of turbulent mixed flow of free and forced convection. Part II presents the installation and the calibration system intended for probes calibration. Part III describes the measurement technique (constant-temperature probe and cold-wire probe) and the method for measuring the position of the hot-wire anemometer from the wall surface. The measurement accuracy is within 0.001 mm in the present system. Part IV relates the development of a method for near wall measurements. This correction procedure for hot-wire anemometer close to wall has been derived on the basis of a two-dimensional numerical study. The method permits to obtain a quantitative correction of the wall influence on hot-wires and takes into account the velocity profile and the effects the wall material has on the heat loss. Part V presents the experimental data obtained in the channel in forced and mixed convection. Results obtained in the forced convection regime serve as a verification of the measurement technique close to the wall and give the conditions at the entrance of the test section. The effects of the buoyancy force on the mean velocity and temperature profiles are confirmed. The buoyancy strongly affects the flow structure and deforms the distribution of mean velocity. The velocity profiles are asymmetric. The second section of part V gives an approach of analytical wall functions with buoyancy forces, on the basis of the experimental data obtained in the test section. (author) [fr

  19. Experimental study of canvas characterization for paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelis, Bruno; Dooms, Ann; Munteanu, Adrian; Cornelis, Jan; Schelkens, Peter

    2010-02-01

    The work described here fits in the context of a larger project on the objective and relevant characterization of paintings and painting canvas through the analysis of multimodal digital images. We captured, amongst others, X-ray images of different canvas types, characterized by a variety of textures and weave patterns (fine and rougher texture; single thread and multiple threads per weave), including raw canvas as well as canvas processed with different primers. In this paper, we study how to characterize the canvas by extracting global features such as average thread width, average distance between successive threads (i.e. thread density) and the spatial distribution of primers. These features are then used to construct a generic model of the canvas structure. Secondly, we investigate whether we can identify different pieces of canvas coming from the same bolt. This is an important element for dating, authentication and identification of restorations. Both the global characteristics mentioned earlier and some local properties (such as deviations from the average pattern model) are used to compare the "fingerprint" of different pieces of cloth coming from the same or different bolts.

  20. Experimental and analytical studies of high heat flux components for fusion experimental reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Masanori

    1993-03-01

    In this report, the experimental and analytical results concerning the development of plasma facing components of ITER are described. With respect to developing high heat removal structures for the divertor plates, an externally-finned swirl tube was developed based on the results of critical heat flux (CHF) experiments on various tube structures. As the result, the burnout heat flux, which also indicates incident CHF, of 41 ± 1 MW/m 2 was achieved in the externally-finned swirl tube. The applicability of existing CHF correlations based on uniform heating conditions was evaluated by comparing the CHF experimental data with the smooth and the externally-finned tubes under one-sided heating condition. As the results, experimentally determined CHF data for straight tube show good agreement, for the externally-finned tube, no existing correlations are available for prediction of the CHF. With respect to the evaluation of the bonds between carbon-based material and heat sink metal, results of brazing tests were compared with the analytical results by three dimensional model with temperature-dependent thermal and mechanical properties. Analytical results showed that residual stresses from brazing can be estimated by the analytical three directional stress values instead of the equivalent stress value applied. In the analytical study on the separatrix sweeping for effectively reducing surface heat fluxes on the divertor plate, thermal response of the divertor plate has been analyzed under ITER relevant heat flux conditions and has been tested. As the result, it has been demonstrated that application of the sweeping technique is very effective for improvement in the power handling capability of the divertor plate and that the divertor mock-up has withstood a large number of additional cyclic heat loads. (J.P.N.) 62 refs

  1. Perceptions of unfairness in price increases: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Feder Mayer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This experimental study investigates antecedents and consequences of perceptions of price unfairness in a price increase situation. The proposed theoretical model states that consumer dependence on the service provider as well as the relevance the consumer attributes to the service (for the consumer's life will affect his/her degree of (a unfairness price perception, (b anger, and (c intention to complain and retaliate. The results support all the hypotheses specified in the model. The findings not only indicate that some situations of unfairness price perception lead to stronger emotions and more dramatic reactions from consumers, but also allow us to predict which situations of perceived unfairness offer greater risks and have greater potential for conflict.

  2. Experimental study of rf pulsed heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Laurent

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic thermal stresses produced by rf pulsed heating can be the limiting factor on the attainable reliable gradients for room temperature linear accelerators. This is especially true for structures that have complicated features for wakefield damping. These limits could be pushed higher by using special types of copper, copper alloys, or other conducting metals in constructing partial or complete accelerator structures. Here we present an experimental study aimed at determining the potential of these materials for tolerating cyclic thermal fatigue due to rf magnetic fields. A special cavity that has no electric field on the surface was employed in these studies. The cavity shape concentrates the magnetic field on one flat surface where the test material is placed. The materials tested in this study have included oxygen free electronic grade copper, copper zirconium, copper chromium, hot isostatically pressed copper, single crystal copper, electroplated copper, Glidcop®, copper silver, and silver plated copper. The samples were exposed to different machining and heat treatment processes prior to rf processing. Each sample was tested to a peak pulsed heating temperature of approximately 110°C and remained at this temperature for approximately 10×10^{6} rf pulses. In general, the results showed the possibility of pushing the gradient limits due to pulsed heating fatigue by the use of copper zirconium and copper chromium alloys.

  3. Hot forming of composite prepreg : Experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Xavier; Duthille, Bertrand; Bechtel, Stephane; le Pinru, Louis; Campagne, Benjamin; Destombes, Gautier; Deshors, Antoine; Marchand, Christophe; Azzouzi, Khalid El; Moro, Tanguy

    2017-10-01

    The hot forming of thermoset prepreg consists in bending an uncured composite part by applying a mechanical constrain on the hot laminate. Most of the time, the mold is inserted in a vacuum box and the mechanical constrain is applied on the composite laminate by a single membrane or a double-membrane. But the performance improvement products resulted in forming increasingly complex parts with advanced materials having a less formability. These new complex parts require a finer comprehension of the process and an optimization of the key parameters to get acceptable quality. In this work, an experimental study has been carried out to identify the process conditions that do not lead to unacceptable defaults: undulations of fibers. In the present study, downward-bending has been evaluated with an original light mechanical forming concept, for a given stacking sequence. The influence of the part's temperature and the part's bending speed are investigated. To carry this study out, a hot forming test bench has been designed and manufactured to have a precise supervision of the process conditions. It is able to bend parts of 1500 mm length x 600 mm width x 20 mm thick.

  4. Theoretical and experimental studies of elementary physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodek, A.; Ferbel, T.; Melissinos, A.C.; Slattery, P.; Tipton, P.; Das, A.; Hagen, C.R.; Rajeev, S.G.; Okubo, S.; Orr, L.

    1993-01-01

    The various components of the high-energy physics research program at the University of Rochester are presented. (I)Fixed-target experimentation at FNAL includes studies of direct photon production by p and π on H, Be, and Cu, and hybrid mesons and other physics issues in Coulomb excitation at high energies. (II)The status of the GEM (Gammas, Electrons, and Muons) Experiment at the SSC is given. (III)The D-Zero experiment at FNAL is reviewed. (IV)Deep inelastic lepton--nucleon scattering experiments are summarized: electron scattering experiments at SLAC, FNAL neutrino quad triplet runs, FNAL neutrino sign selected experiments, and SDC cosmic ray test and test beam calibration. (V)Studies of nonlinear QED at SLAC concentrated on a study of QED at critical field strength in intense laser--high-energy electron collisions. (VI)Development work on the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) emphasized the CDF silicon vertex detector, the end plug calorimeter, and the SDC tile/fiber calorimetry. (VII)The theoretical physics effort is sketched

  5. Experimental study on transient boiling heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visentini, R.

    2012-01-01

    Boiling phenomena can be found in the everyday life, thus a lot of studies are devoted to them, especially in steady state conditions. Transient boiling is less known but still interesting as it is involved in the nuclear safety prevention. In this context, the present work was supported by the French Institute of Nuclear Safety (IRSN). In fact, the IRSN wanted to clarify what happens during a Reactivity-initiated Accident (RIA). This accident occurs when the bars that control the nuclear reactions break down and a high power peak is passed from the nuclear fuel bar to the surrounding fluid. The temperature of the nuclear fuel bar wall increases and the fluid vaporises instantaneously. Previous studies on a fuel bar or on a metal tube heated by Joule effect were done in the past in order to understand the rapid boiling phenomena during a RIA. However, the measurements were not really accurate because the measurement techniques were not able to follow rapid phenomena. The main goal of this work was to create an experimental facility able to simulate the RIA boiling conditions but at small scale in order to better understand the boiling characteristics when the heated-wall temperature increases rapidly. Moreover, the experimental set-up was meant to be able to produce less-rapid transients as well, in order to give information on transient boiling in general. The facility was built at the Fluid-Mechanics Institute of Toulouse. The core consists of a metal half-cylinder heated by Joule effect, placed in a half-annulus section. The inner half cylinder is made of a 50 microns thick stainless steel foil. Its diameter is 8 mm, and its length 200 mm. The outer part is a 34 mm internal diameter glass half cylinder. The semi-annular section is filled with a coolant, named HFE7000. The configuration allows to work in similarity conditions. The heated part can be place inside a loop in order to study the flow effect. The fluid temperature influence is taken into account as

  6. Deliberate practice theory: perceived relevance, effort, and inherent enjoyment of music practice: study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyllegard, Randy; Bories, Tamara L

    2009-10-01

    This study, based on the theory of deliberate practice, examined the practice relevance, effort, and inherent enjoyment aspects of the theory. 25 college undergraduates practiced playing a melody on an electronic keyboard for three 20-min. practice sessions. Following each session, the perceived relevance of the practice for improving performance of the melody, the effort needed to learn the melody, and the inherent enjoyment of the practice were each rated on 10-point scales. Findings were consistent with theory and similar to previous studies also involving music practice and other tasks.

  7. Quasi-experimental study designs series-paper 11: supporting the production and use of health systems research syntheses that draw on quasi-experimental study designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavis, John N; Bärnighausen, Till; El-Jardali, Fadi

    2017-09-01

    To describe the infrastructure available to support the production of policy-relevant health systems research syntheses, particularly those incorporating quasi-experimental evidence, and the tools available to support the use of these syntheses. Literature review. The general challenges associated with the available infrastructure include their sporadic nature or limited coverage of issues and countries, whereas the specific ones related to policy-relevant syntheses of quasi-experimental evidence include the lack of mechanism to register synthesis titles and scoping review protocols, the limited number of groups preparing user-friendly summaries, and the difficulty of finding quasi-experimental studies for inclusion in rapid syntheses and research syntheses more generally. Although some new tools have emerged in recent years, such as guidance workbooks and citizen briefs and panels, challenges related to using available tools to support the use of policy-relevant syntheses of quasi-experimental evidence arise from such studies potentially being harder for policymakers and stakeholders to commission and understand. Policymakers, stakeholders, and researchers need to expand the coverage and institutionalize the use of the available infrastructure and tools to support the use of health system research syntheses containing quasi-experimental evidence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A constitutive model for the thermo-mechanical behaviour of fusion-relevant pebble beds and its application to the simulation of HELICA mock-up experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vella, G.; Maio, P.A. Di; Giammusso, R.; Tincani, A.; Orco, G. Dell

    2006-01-01

    Within the framework of the activities promoted by European Fusion Development Agreement on the technology of the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed Test Blanket Module to be irradiated in one of the ITER equatorial ports, attention has been focused on the theoretical modelling of the thermo-mechanical constitutive behaviour of both beryllium and lithiated ceramics pebble beds, that are envisaged to act respectively as neutron multiplier and tritium breeder. The thermo-mechanical behaviour of the pebble beds and their nuclear performances in terms of tritium production depend on the reactor relevant conditions (heat flux and neutron wall load), the pebble sizes and the breeder cell geometries (bed thickness, pebble packing factor, bed overall thermal conductivity). ENEA-Brasimone and the Department of Nuclear Engineering (DIN) of the Palermo University have performed intense research activities intended to investigate fusion-relevant pebble bed thermo-mechanical behaviour by adopting both experimental and theoretical approaches. In particular, ENEA has carried out several experimental campaigns on small scale mock-ups tested in out-of-pile conditions, while DIN has developed a proper constitutive model that has been implemented on commercial FEM code, for the prediction of the thermal and mechanical performances of fusion-relevant pebble beds and for the comparison with the experimental results of the ENEA tests. In that framework, HELICA mock-up has been set-up and tested to investigate the behaviour of pebble bed in reactor-relevant geometries, providing useful data sets to be numerically reproduced by means of the DIN constitutive model, contributing to its assessment. The paper presents the constitutive model developed and the main experimental results of two test campaigns on HELICA mock-up carried out at HE-FUS 3 facility of ENEA Brasimone, the geometry of the mock-up, the adopted thermal and mechanical boundary conditions and the test operating conditions. The most

  9. GA(2)LEN skin test study II: clinical relevance of inhalant allergen sensitizations in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burbach, G J; Heinzerling, L M; Edenharter, G

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skin prick testing is the standard for diagnosing IgE-mediated allergies. A positive skin prick reaction, however, does not always correlate with clinical symptoms. A large database from a Global Asthma and Allergy European Network (GA(2)LEN) study with data on clinical relevance was ...... the clinical relevance of positive skin prick tests and calls for further studies, which may, ultimately, help increase the positive predictive value of allergy testing.......BACKGROUND: Skin prick testing is the standard for diagnosing IgE-mediated allergies. A positive skin prick reaction, however, does not always correlate with clinical symptoms. A large database from a Global Asthma and Allergy European Network (GA(2)LEN) study with data on clinical relevance...... was used to determine the clinical relevance of sensitizations against the 18 most frequent inhalant allergens in Europe. The study population consisted of patients referred to one of the 17 allergy centres in 14 European countries (n = 3034, median age = 33 years). The aim of the study was to assess...

  10. Clinically relevant potential drug-drug interactions among outpatients: A nationwide database study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazbar, Janja; Locatelli, Igor; Horvat, Nejc; Kos, Mitja

    2018-06-01

    Adverse drug events due to drug-drug interactions (DDIs) represent a considerable public health burden, also in Slovenia. A better understanding of the most frequently occurring potential DDIs may enable safer pharmacotherapy and minimize drug-related problems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and predictors of potential DDIs among outpatients in Slovenia. An analysis of potential DDIs was performed using health claims data on prescription drugs from a nationwide database. The Lexi-Interact Module was used as the reference source of interactions. The influence of patient-specific predictors on the risk of potential clinically relevant DDIs was evaluated using logistic regression model. The study population included 1,179,803 outpatients who received 15,811,979 prescriptions. The total number of potential DDI cases identified was 3,974,994, of which 15.6% were potentially clinically relevant. Altogether, 9.3% (N = 191,213) of the total population in Slovenia is exposed to clinically relevant potential DDIs, and the proportion is higher among women and the elderly. After adjustment for cofactors, higher number of medications and older age are associated with higher odds of clinically relevant potential DDIs. The burden of DDIs is highest with drug combinations that increase risk of bleeding, enhance CNS depression or anticholinergic effects or cause cardiovascular complications. The current study revealed that 1 in 10 individuals in the total Slovenian population is exposed to clinically relevant potential DDIs yearly. Taking into account the literature based conservative estimate that approximately 1% of potential DDIs result in negative health outcomes, roughly 1800 individuals in Slovenia experience an adverse health outcome each year as a result of clinically relevant potential interactions alone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Attentional bias in snus users: an experimental study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Aune Mentzoni

    Full Text Available The use of nicotine in the form of "snus" is substantial and increasing in some geographic areas, in particular among young people. It has previously been suggested that addictions may operate through a mechanism of attentional bias, in which stimuli representative of the dependent substance increase in salience, thus increasing the addictive behavior. However, this hypothesis has not been tested for the case of snus. The current experiment used a modified Stroop task and a dot-probe task to investigate whether 40 snus users show an attentional bias towards snus-relevant stimuli, compared to 40 non-snus users. There were no significant differences between the two groups on reaction times or accuracy on either Stroop or dot-probe task, thus failing to show an attentional bias towards snus-relevant stimuli for snus users. This could imply that other mechanisms may contribute to maintenance of snus use than for other addictions. However, this is the first experimental study investigating attentional bias in snus users, and more research is warranted.

  12. Wire Array Z-pinches on Sphinx Machine: Experimental Results and Relevant Points of Microsecond Implosion Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamy, H.; Hamann, F.; Lassalle, F.; Bayol, F.; Mangeant, C.; Morell, A.; Huet, D.; Bedoch, J. P.; Chittenden, J. P.; Lebedev, S. V.; Jennings, C. A.; Bland, S. N.

    2006-01-01

    Centre d'Etudes de Gramat (France) has developed an efficient long implosion time (800 ns) Aluminum plasma radiation source (PRS). Based on the LTD technology, the SPHINX facility is developed as a 1-3MJ, 1μs rise time, 4-10 MA current driver. In this paper, it was used in 1MJ, 4MA configuration to drive Aluminum nested wire arrays Z-pinches with K-shell yield up to 20 kJ and a FWHM of the x-ray pulse of about 50 ns. We present latest SPHINX experiments and some of the main physic issues of the microsecond regime. Experimental setup and results are described with the aim of giving trends that have been obtained. The main features of microsecond implosion of wire arrays can be analyzed thanks to same methods and theories as used for faster Z-pinches. The effect of load polarity was examined. The stability of the implosion , one of the critical point of microsecond wire arrays due to the load dimensions imposed by the time scale, is tackled. A simple scaling from 100 ns Z-pinch results to 800 ns ones gives good results and the use of nested arrays improves dramatically the implosion quality and the Kshell yield of the load. However, additional effects such as the impact of the return current can geometry on the implosion have to be taken into account on our loads. Axial inhomogeneity of the implosion the origin of which is not yet well understood occurs in some shots and impacts the radiation output. The shape of the radiative pulse is discussed and compared with the homogeneity of the implosion. Numerical 2D R-Z and R-θ simulations are used to highlight some experimental results and understand the plasma conditions during these microsecond wire arrays implosions.

  13. An experimental investigation of stimulated Brillouin scattering in laser-produced plasmas relevant to inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, K.S.

    1993-01-01

    Despite the apparent simplicity of controlled fusion, there are many phenomena which have prevented its achievement. One phenomenon is laser-plasma instabilities. An investigation of one such instability, stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), is reported here. SBS is a parametric process whereby an electromagnetic wave (the parent wave) decays into another electromagnetic wave and an ion acoustic wave (the daughter waves). SBS impedes controlled fusion since it can scatter much or all of the incident laser light, resulting in poor drive symmetry and inefficient laser-plasma coupling. It is widely believed that SBS becomes convectively unstable--that is, it grows as it traverses the plasma. Though it has yet to be definitively tested, convective theory is often invoked to explain experimental observations, even when one or more of the theory's assumptions are violated. In contrast, the experiments reported here not only obeyed the assumptions of the theory, but were also conducted in plasmas with peak densities well below quarter-critical density. This prevented other competing or coexisting phenomena from occurring, thereby providing clearly interpretable results. These are the first SBS experiments that were designed to be both a clear test of linear convective theory and pertinent to controlled fusion research. A crucial part of this series of experiments was the development of a new instrument, the Multiple Angle Time Resolving Spectrometer (MATRS). MATRS has the unique capability of both spectrally and temporally resolving absolute levels of scattered light at many angles simultaneously, and is the first of its kind used in laser-plasma experiments. A detailed comparison of the theoretical predictions and the experimental observations is made

  14. Wire Array Z-pinches on Sphinx Machine: Experimental Results and Relevant Points of Microsecond Implosion Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calamy, H.; Hamann, F.; Lassalle, F.; Bayol, F.; Mangeant, C.; Morell, A.; Huet, D.; Bedoch, J.P.; Chittenden, J.P.; Lebedev, S.V.; Jennings, C.A.; Bland, S.N.

    2006-01-01

    Centre d'Etudes de Gramat (France) has developed an efficient long implosion time (800 ns) Aluminum plasma radiation source (PRS). Based on the LTD technology, the SPHINX facility is developed as a 1-3MJ, 1μs rise time, 4-10 MA current driver. In this paper, it was used in 1MJ, 4MA configuration to drive Aluminum nested wire arrays Z-pinches with K-shell yield up to 20 kJ and a FWHM of the x-ray pulse of about 50 ns. We present latest SPHINX experiments and some of the main physic issues of the microsecond regime. Experimental setup and results are described with the aim of giving trends that have been obtained. The main features of microsecond implosion of wire arrays can be analyzed thanks to same methods and theories as used for faster Z-pinches. The effect of load polarity was examined. The stability of the implosion , one of the critical point of microsecond wire arrays due to the load dimensions imposed by the time scale, is tackled. A simple scaling from 100 ns Z-pinch results to 800 ns ones gives good results and the use of nested arrays improves dramatically the implosion quality and the Kshell yield of the load. However, additional effects such as the impact of the return current can geometry on the implosion have to be taken into account on our loads. Axial inhomogeneity of the implosion the origin of which is not yet well understood occurs in some shots and impacts the radiation output. The shape of the radiative pulse is discussed and compared with the homogeneity of the implosion. Numerical 2D R-Z and R-θ simulations are used to highlight some experimental results and understand the plasma conditions during these microsecond wire arrays implosions

  15. Experimental study of finite Larmor radius effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struve, K.W.

    1980-08-01

    Linear Z-pinches in Ar, Kr, Xe, N 2 , and He are experimentally studied in regimes where strong finite Larmor radius effects could provide a significant stabilizing effect. Scaling arguments show that for deuterium such a pinch has an electron line density of order 2 x 10 15 /cm. For higher Z plasmas a higher line density is allowed, the exact value of which depends on the average ion charge. The pinch is formed by puffing gas axially through the cathode towards the anode of an evacuated pinch chamber. When the gas reaches the anode, the pinch bank is fired. The pinch current rises in 2 to 3 μsec to a maximum of 100 to 200 kA. The pinch bank capacitance is 900 μF, and the external inductance is 100 nH. Additionally, the bank is fused to increase dI/dt. The primary diagnostics are a framing camera, a spatially resolved Mach-Zehnder interferometer, and X-ray absorption

  16. Experimental Study on Revetec Engine Cam Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasim, Maisara Mohyeldin; Chui, Lee Giok; Anwar, Khirul Azhar bin

    2012-01-01

    In Revetec engine (three-lobed) cam replaces the crankshaft to convert the reciprocating motion of the engine piston, to a rotating motion in the drive line. Since the cam controls the piston movement, the cam profile has a great effect on engine performance. In this paper an experimental study was done to a (three- lobed) cam with Cycloidal motion profile but with different ratios between the base circle radius of the cam and the radius of the roller follower. DEWESoft was used to find the displacement and the vibration of the piston, and compare the actual results from the test with the theoretical results from the cam profile equation. The results showed that there is a periods of miss contact between the follower and the cam when the ratio between the base circle radius of the cam and the radius of the roller follower is less than a certain value, and also increasing of vibration. The suggested ratio between the cam and follower radius is to be more than 2:1.

  17. Experimental study of vapor bubble dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquini, Maria-Elena

    2015-01-01

    The object of this thesis is an experimental study of vapor bubble dynamics in sub-cooled nucleate boiling. The test section is locally heated by focusing a laser beam: heat fluxes from 1 e4 to 1.5 e6 W/m 2 and water temperature between 100 and 88 C have been considered. Three boiling regimes have been observed. Under saturated conditions and with low heat fluxes a developed nucleate boiling regime has been observed. Under higher sub-cooling and still with low heat fluxes an equilibrium regime has been observed in which the liquid flowrate evaporating at the bubble base is compensated by the vapor condensing flowrate at bubble top. A third regime have been observed at high heat fluxes for all water conditions: it is characterized by the formation of a large dry spot on the heated surface that keeps the nucleation site dry after bubble detachment. The condensation phase starts after bubble detachment. Bubble equivalent radius at detachment varies between 1 and 2.5 mm. Bubble properties have been measured and non-dimensional groups have been used to characterize bubble dynamics. Capillary waves have been observed on the bubble surface thanks to high-speed images acquisition. Two main phenomena have been proposed to explain capillary waves effects on bubble condensation: increasing of the phases interface area and decreasing of vapor bubble translation velocity, because of the increased drag force on the deformed bubble. (author) [fr

  18. Experimental studies of fiber concrete creep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korneeva Irina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of two-stage experimental studies of the strength and deformation characteristics of fibrous concrete reinforced with steel fiber. In the experiments we used steel fiber with bent ends, which practically does not form "hedgehogs", which allows to achieve an even distribution of the fiber by volume. At the first stage, the cube and prismatic strength, deformability at central compression, a number of special characteristics are determined: water absorption, frost resistance, abrasion; the optimal percentage of fiber reinforcement and the maximum size of the coarse aggregate fraction were selected. Fiber reinforcement led to an increase in the strength of concrete at compression by 1,35 times and an increase in the tensile strength at bending by 3,4 times. At the second stage, the creep of fibrous concrete and plain concrete of similar composition at different stress levels was researched. Creep curves are plotted. It is shown that the use of fiber reinforcement leads to a decrease in creep strain by 21 to 30 percent, depending on the stress level.

  19. A study of ruthenium complexes of some biologically relevant a-N ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 112; Issue 3. A study of ruthenium complexes of some biologically relevant ∙ -N-heterocyclic ... Author Affiliations. P Sengupta1 S Ghosh1. Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Calcutta 700 032, India ...

  20. Cerebral activation studies by PET and fMRT, clinical relevance?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, T.

    1997-01-01

    Cerebral activation studies by PET and fMRT will gain increasing clinical relevance for functional neuroanatomy (reading, speaking), localisation of largely unknown cortical functions (vestibular cortex), imaging of subjective complaints of functional impairments (pain, smell, memory), and documentation of neurological rehabilitation at neuronal level (regeneration, compensation, substitution, learning). (orig.) [de

  1. Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Atmosphereic Inorganic Chlorine Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Stanley P.; Friedl, Randall R.

    1993-01-01

    Over the last five years substantial progress has been made in defining the realm of new chlorine chemistry in the polar stratosphere. Application of existing experimental techniques to potentially important chlorine-containing compounds has yielded quantitative kinetic and spectroscopic data as well as qualitative mechanistic insights into the relevant reactions.

  2. Experimental study of a spark-gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruzzone, H.; Moreno, C.; Vieytes, R.

    1990-01-01

    Some experimental results concerning to the resistance of an atmospheric pressure spark-gap, operating in the self breakdown regime are presented. The influence of the energy discharging through the gap on this resistance is discussed. (Author)

  3. Evapotranspiration studies for protective barriers: Experimental plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, S.O.; Waugh, W.J.

    1989-11-01

    This document describes a general theory and experimental plans for predicting evapotranspiration in support of the Protective Barrier Program. Evapotranspiration is the combined loss of water from plants and soil surfaces to the atmosphere. 45 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  4. Experimental study of the pile EL3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1958-01-01

    The results of two months' experiments, carried out at low power following the first divergence (4. July 1957) are presented. These experiments dealt with the following points: comparison of experimental and calculated values of the critical size; effects due to the introduction of absorbing materials into the principal experimental facilities, flux distribution measurements especially in these facilities, calibration of safety, control and compensating rods, determination of the average life of the neutrons. (author) [fr

  5. Experimental Study of Lunar and SNC Magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Malcolm J.

    1998-01-01

    The research described in this progress report involved the study of petrological, geochemical and volcanic processes that occur on the Moon and the SNC parent body, generally accepted to be Mars. The link between these studies is that they focus on two terrestrial-type parent bodies somewhat smaller than earth, and the fact that they focus on the role of volatiles in magmatic processes and on processes of magma evolution on these planets. The work on the lunar volcanic glasses has resulted in some exciting new discoveries over the years of this grant. We discovered small metal blebs initially in the Al5 green glass, and determined the significant importance of this metal in fixing the oxidation state of the parent magma (Fogel and Rutherford, 1995). More recently, we discovered a variety of metal blebs in the Al7 orange glass. Some of these Fe-Ni metal blebs were in the glass; others were in olivine phenocrysts. The importance of these metal spheres is that they fix the oxidation state of the parent magma during the eruption, and also indicate changes during the eruption (Weitz et al., 1997) They also yield important information about the composition of the gas phase present, the gas which drove the lunar fire-fountaining. One of the more exciting and controversial findings in our research over the past year has been the possible fractionation of H from D during shock (experimental) of hornblende bearing samples (Minitti et al., 1997). This research is directed at explaining some of the low H2O and high D/H observed in hydrous phases in the SNC meteorites.

  6. Experimental and computational studies of nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajjha, Ravikanth S.

    The goals of this dissertation were (i) to experimentally investigate the fluid dynamic and heat transfer performance of nanofluids in a circular tube, (ii) to study the influence of temperature and particle volumetric concentration of nanofluids on thermophysical properties, heat transfer and pumping power, (iii) to measure the rheological properties of various nanofluids and (iv) to investigate using a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) technique the performance of nanofluids in the flat tube of a radiator. Nanofluids are a new class of fluids prepared by dispersing nanoparticles with average sizes of less than 100 nm in traditional heat transfer fluids such as water, oil, ethylene glycol and propylene glycol. In cold regions of the world, the choice of base fluid for heat transfer applications is an ethylene glycol or propylene glycol mixed with water in different proportions. In the present research, a 60% ethylene glycol (EG) or propylene glycol (PG) and 40% water (W) by mass fluid mixture (60:40 EG/W or 60:40 PG/W) was used as a base fluid, which provides freeze protection to a very low level of temperature. Experiments were conducted to measure the convective heat transfer coefficient and pressure loss of nanofluids flowing in a circular tube in the fully developed turbulent regime. The experimental measurements were carried out for aluminum oxide (Al2O3), copper oxide (CuO) and silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanoparticles dispersed in 60:40 EG/W base fluid. Experiments revealed that the heat transfer coefficient of nanofluids showed an increase with the particle volumetric concentration. Pressure loss was also observed to increase with the nanoparticle volumetric concentration. New correlations for the Nusselt number and the friction factor were developed. The effects of temperature and particle volumetric concentration on different thermophysical properties (e.g. viscosity, thermal conductivity, specific heat and density) and subsequently on the Prandtl number

  7. Why we should use simpler models if the data allow this: relevance for ANOVA designs in experimental biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazic Stanley E

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of variance (ANOVA is a common statistical technique in physiological research, and often one or more of the independent/predictor variables such as dose, time, or age, can be treated as a continuous, rather than a categorical variable during analysis – even if subjects were randomly assigned to treatment groups. While this is not common, there are a number of advantages of such an approach, including greater statistical power due to increased precision, a simpler and more informative interpretation of the results, greater parsimony, and transformation of the predictor variable is possible. Results An example is given from an experiment where rats were randomly assigned to receive either 0, 60, 180, or 240 mg/L of fluoxetine in their drinking water, with performance on the forced swim test as the outcome measure. Dose was treated as either a categorical or continuous variable during analysis, with the latter analysis leading to a more powerful test (p = 0.021 vs. p = 0.159. This will be true in general, and the reasons for this are discussed. Conclusion There are many advantages to treating variables as continuous numeric variables if the data allow this, and this should be employed more often in experimental biology. Failure to use the optimal analysis runs the risk of missing significant effects or relationships.

  8. Experimental microangiographic study in normal rabbit liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yoon Gyoo; Park, Jong Yeon; Han, Kook Sang; Moon, Ki Ho; Choi, Chang Ho; Han, Koon Taek; Lee, Suck Hong; Kim, Byung Soo

    1994-01-01

    Microangiography is an experimental radiologic technique for evaluation of the morphology and the function of small vessels. The purpose of this study is to introduce a good microangiographic technique and to present the microangiographic appearance of normal hepatic vascular pattern. Five white rabbits weighing 2.5-2.9Kg were objected. Polyethylene catheters were inserted in portal vein and then in IVC. Heparin mixed normal saline (2cc/1000cc) was infused through portal vein and blood was drained to IVC. Barium suspension was infused via the catheter placed in portal vein until the liver surface showed satisfactory finding in barium filling. The liver was removed and this preparation was fixed in 10% formaline for 7 days. After fixation, the liver was sectioned on 1-2mm thickness. The slices were radiographed on high resolution plate using Faxitron. H-E staining of liver tissue was also done. The microbrium was well distributed in all small vessels without filling defect. And we could find the hexagonal shaped classic liver lobule, in which the central vein was located at central portion and portal vein at periphery. The enlargement was showed numerous sinusoids, but there was less dye in the central portion of lobule, but the central vein was well filled by microbarium. The peripheral portion of lobule was well filled with microbarium. So, we could find diamond shaped liver acinus, in which central vein was located at priperal portion and the center of liver acinus was terminal portal vein that growed out from a small portal space. The three acini made the complex acinus and acinar agglomerate was composed of three or four complex acini. It is considered that the liver acinus pattern of Rapparport is more acceptable on microangiography than the classic concept of hepatic lobule

  9. Experimental study and modelling of transient boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudin, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    A failure in the control system of the power of a nuclear reactor can lead to a Reactivity Initiated Accident in a nuclear power plant. Then, a power peak occurs in some fuel rods, high enough to lead to the coolant film boiling. It leads to an important increase of the temperature of the rod. The possible risk of the clad failure is a matter of interest for the Institut de Radioprotection et de Securite Nucleaire. The transient boiling heat transfer is not yet understood and modelled. An experimental set-up has been built at the Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse (IMFT). Subcooled HFE-7000 flows vertically upward in a semi annulus test section. The inner half cylinder simulates the clad and is made of a stainless steel foil, heated by Joule effect. Its temperature is measured by an infrared camera, coupled with a high speed camera for the visualization of the flow topology. The whole boiling curve is studied in steady state and transient regimes: convection, onset of boiling, nucleate boiling, critical heat flux, film boiling and rewetting. The steady state heat transfers are well modelled by literature correlations. Models are suggested for the transient heat flux: the convection and nucleate boiling evolutions are self-similar during a power step. This observation allows to model more complex evolutions, as temperature ramps. The transient Hsu model well represents the onset of nucleate boiling. When the intensity of the power step increases, the film boiling begins at the same temperature but with an increasing heat flux. For power ramps, the critical heat flux decreases while the corresponding temperature increases with the heating rate. When the wall is heated, the film boiling heat transfer is higher than in steady state but it is not understood. A two-fluid model well simulates the cooling film boiling and the rewetting. (author)

  10. Water-clay interactions. Experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaucher, Eric

    1998-01-01

    Clay minerals contribute to the chemical composition of soil and sediment groundwaters via surface and dissolution/precipitation reactions. The understanding of those processes is still today fragmentary. In this context, our experimental purpose is to identify the contribution of each reaction in the chemical composition of water in a water/clay System. Kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite are the reference clays. After a fine mineralogical study, the exchange equilibria between K + and H + are characterised. Different exchange sites are identified and the exchange capacities and selectivity coefficients are quantified. Then, mixtures of the three clays are equilibrated with acidic and basic (I≤10 -2 M) solutions at 25 deg. C, 60 deg. C, 80 deg. C, during 320 days. The System evolution is observed by chemical analysis of the solutions and mineralogical analysis by TEM. We show that montmorillonite is unstable compared to the kaolinite/amorphous silica assemblage for solutions of pH<7. Aqueous silica is probably controlled by the kinetics of dissolution of the montmorillonite in moderate pH media. In more acidic solutions, amorphous silica precipitates. Al is under control of 'kaolinite' neo-formations. The use of the selectivity coefficients in a numerical simulation shows that K + concentration depends on exchange reactions. The pH has a more complicated evolution, which is not completely understood. This evolution depends on both exchange equilibria and organic acid occurrence. In this type of experiments, we have demonstrated that the equilibrium equations between smectite and kaolinite are inexact. The problem of the thermodynamic nature of clays remains and is not resolved by these solubility experiments. (author) [fr

  11. Theoretical studies of oxides relevant to the combustion of fossil fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Jason Michael

    : adsorption isotherms, Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, entropy and desorption free energy. It was found that, when the maximum loading was compared to the regeneration costs, IRMOF-10 had the best performance, followed by IRMOF-8 then IRMOF-1. During the combustion of coal, not only is CO2 produced, but also the trace elements of arsenic and selenium escape into the environment though this process. Both arsenic and selenium are known to have a harmful effects on the environment and human health. Arsenic is also known to poison the catalytic converter used in selective catalytic reduction of NOx . These trace elements have been found on fly ash or in the hot flue gases released into the atmosphere. In flue gases they most often exist as oxides. There have been many experimental and a few theoretical studies on the monomeric oxides, AsOx and SeOx, where x = 1, 2, or 3. However, little is known concerning the corresponding dimeric oxides, As2Ox and Se2Ox, where x = 3 or 5, though these compounds are expected from their similarities to nitrogen and sulfur chemistry, respectively. From an experimental perspective, they are very challenging to study due to the high temperatures, complex environments and low concentrations needed for a direct study of the form and structures of the dimeric oxides. From a theoretical perspective, they can be challenging to study due to their multireference character and the need for both dynamic and non-dynamic electron correlation due to bonds forming and breaking during isomerization. However, high level multireference ab initio methods which account for both dynamic and non-dynamic electron correlation can be used. In the work contained in this thesis, GVVPT2 and CR-CC(2,3) were used to study the relative stabilities of all relevant isomers and transition states of As2Ox and Se2Ox. The structures used where generated through DFT using the B3LYP functional. Not only were plausible stationary points located for all species, it was further confirmed

  12. Solar pond conception - experimental and theoretical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt, Huseyin [Zonguldak Karaelmas Univ., Technical Education Faculty, Karabuk (Turkey); Halici, Fethi [Sakarya Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Adapazari (Turkey); Binark, A. Korhan [Marmara Univ., Technical Education Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2000-07-01

    A one dimensional transient mathematical model for predicting the thermal performance of the salt gradient solar pond is developed and presented. In this paper, the natural solar ponds and different artificial solar pond systems found in the literature are introduced. Necessary modifications are made on the experimental stand located in Istanbul Technical University, the experimental stand is introduced and natural phenomena produced in the pond by the different solar pond variations under natural conditions are observed. In the theoretical work based on a one dimensional unsteady state heat conduction model with internal heat generation, the energy and mass balance equations for the upper convective zone, the non-convective zone and the lower convective zone, all of which form the solar pond, are written in terms of differential equations. These equations are solved analytically and numerically. The results obtained from the analysis are compared with the experimental results. The temperature and the concentration profiles are separately presented in the figures. (Author)

  13. Relevant factors for tacit knowledge transfer within organizations: an exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos,Bernardo; Joia,Luiz Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge and management of such knowledge have been studied for some time now in the field of Management. However, in the 1990s, with the growth in the economy based on intangible assets, companies needed more than an unstructured approach to corporate knowledge management to succeed in this new competitive environment. Therefore, this article aims to identify, in an exploratory way, the relevant factors for tacit knowledge transfer within a major Brazilian oil company trough a case study. T...

  14. Biomass thermochemical gasification: Experimental studies and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay

    The overall goals of this research were to study the biomass thermochemical gasification using experimental and modeling techniques, and to evaluate the cost of industrial gas production and combined heat and power generation. This dissertation includes an extensive review of progresses in biomass thermochemical gasification. Product gases from biomass gasification can be converted to biopower, biofuels and chemicals. However, for its viable commercial applications, the study summarizes the technical challenges in the gasification and downstream processing of product gas. Corn stover and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), a non-fermentable byproduct of ethanol production, were used as the biomass feedstocks. One of the objectives was to determine selected physical and chemical properties of corn stover related to thermochemical conversion. The parameters of the reaction kinetics for weight loss were obtained. The next objective was to investigate the effects of temperature, steam to biomass ratio and equivalence ratio on gas composition and efficiencies. DDGS gasification was performed on a lab-scale fluidized-bed gasifier with steam and air as fluidizing and oxidizing agents. Increasing the temperature resulted in increases in hydrogen and methane contents and efficiencies. A model was developed to simulate the performance of a lab-scale gasifier using Aspen Plus(TM) software. Mass balance, energy balance and minimization of Gibbs free energy were applied for the gasification to determine the product gas composition. The final objective was to optimize the process by maximizing the net energy efficiency, and to estimate the cost of industrial gas, and combined heat and power (CHP) at a biomass feedrate of 2000 kg/h. The selling price of gas was estimated to be 11.49/GJ for corn stover, and 13.08/GJ for DDGS. For CHP generation, the electrical and net efficiencies were 37 and 86%, respectively for corn stover, and 34 and 78%, respectively for DDGS. For

  15. Experimental Study of a Thermoelectric Generation System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Junpeng; Gao, Junling; Chen, Min

    2011-01-01

    . System-level simulation is carried out using a quasi-one-dimensional numerical model that enables direct comparison with experimental results. The results of both experiment and simulation will provide a foundation to improve and optimize complex thermoelectric generation systems....

  16. Experimental methods to study tokamak plasma stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Navarro, A.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental devices to measure external instability modes with small pick-up coils to detect poloidal magnetic field fluctuations, and internal modes with soft-X-ray detectors are discussed. The characteristics of these devices are calculated for a small tokamak (R 0 = 30 cm, a = 10 cm, I 0 50 KA). (author)

  17. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF MAGNETIC FLUID SEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Bashtovoi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Dependences of critical pressure drop, being held by magnetic fluid seal, on time in a static state and shaft rotation velocity in dynamics have been experimentally determined. The significant influence of particles’ redistribution in magnetic fluid on static parameters of magnetic fluid seal has been established.

  18. Blast mitigation experimental and numerical studies

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Presents experimental methods of material and structural response to dynamic blast loads Includes computational analysis of material and structural response to dynamic blast loads Offers mitigation measures for structures in various environments Relates lab experiments to larger field tests Features more than 150 illustrations

  19. Auctioning incentive contracts: an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onderstal, S.; van de Meerendonk, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this note, we experimentally examine the relative performance of price-only auctions and multi-attribute auctions. We do so in procurement settings where the buyer can give the winning bidder incentives to exert effort on non-price dimensions after the auction. Both auctions theoretically

  20. Exploring the Relevance of Search Engines: An Overview of Google as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Beltrán-Alfonso

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The huge amount of data on the Internet and the diverse list of strategies used to try to link this information with relevant searches through Linked Data have generated a revolution in data treatment and its representation. Nevertheless, the conventional search engines like Google are kept as strategies with good reception to do search processes. The following article presents a study of the development and evolution of search engines, more specifically, to analyze the relevance of findings based on the number of results displayed in paging systems with Google as a case study. Finally, it is intended to contribute to indexing criteria in search results, based on an approach to Semantic Web as a stage in the evolution of the Web.

  1. Method to deterministically study photonic nanostructures in different experimental instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husken, B.H.; Woldering, L.A.; Blum, Christian; Tjerkstra, R.W.; Vos, Willem L.

    2009-01-01

    We describe an experimental method to recover a single, deterministically fabricated nanostructure in various experimental instruments without the use of artificially fabricated markers, with the aim to study photonic structures. Therefore, a detailed map of the spatial surroundings of the

  2. Experimental studies of Steel Corrugated Constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarev Yuriy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this particular article is to assess existing calculations of steel corrugated constructions. Steel Corrugated Construction is a perspective type of constructions, which is exhibiting numerous advantages in comparison with one that currently applied in automobile and railroad networks (reinforced concrete water-throughput pipes, reinforced concrete frame bridges. The evaluation of experimental data on models of constructions of this particular type has been carried out in order to improve calculations of Steel Corrugated Constructions.

  3. Experimental studies on natural circulation in molten salt loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, A.K.; Borgohain, A.; Maheshwari, N.K.; Vijayan, P.K.

    2015-01-01

    Molten salts are increasingly getting attention as a coolant and storage medium in solar thermal power plants and as a liquid fuel, blanket and coolant in Molten Salt Reactors (MSR’s). Two different test facilities named Molten Salt Natural Circulation Loop (MSNCL) and Molten Active Fluoride salt Loop (MAFL) have been setup for thermal hydraulics, instrument development and material related studies relevant to MSR and solar power plants. The working medium for MSNCL is a molten nitrate salt which is a mixture of NaNO 3 and KNO 3 in 60:40 ratio and proposed as one of the coolant option for molten salt based reactor and coolant as well as storage medium for solar thermal power application. On the other hand, the working medium for MAFL is a eutectic mixture of LiF and ThF 4 and proposed as a blanket salt for Indian Molten Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR). Steady state natural circulation experiments at different power level have been performed in the MSNCL. Transient studies for startup of natural circulation, loss of heat sink, heater trip and step change in heater power have also been carried out in the same. A 1D code LeBENC, developed in-house to simulate the natural circulation characteristics in closed loops, has been validated with the experimental data obtained from MSNCL. Further, LeBENC has been used for Pretest analysis of MAFL. This paper deals with the description of both the loops and experimental studies carried out in MSNCL. Validation of LeBENC along with the pretest analysis of MAFL using the same are also reported in this paper. (author)

  4. Exploratory studies of flowing liquid metal divertor options for fusion-relevant magnetic fields in the MTOR facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, A.Y.; Abdou, M.A.; Morley, N.; Sketchley, T.; Woolley, R.; Burris, J.; Kaita, R.; Fogarty, P.; Huang, H.; Lao, X.; Narula, M.; Smolentsev, S.; Ulrickson, M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on experimental findings on liquid metal (LM) free surface flows crossing complex magnetic fields. The experiments involve jet and film flows using GaInSn and are conducted at the UCLA MTOR facility. The goal of this study is to understand the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) features associated with such a free surface flow in a fusion-relevant magnetic field environment, and determine what LM free surface flow option is most suitable for lithium divertor particle pumping and surface heat removal applications in a near-term experimental plasma device, such as NSTX. Experimental findings indicate that a steady transverse magnetic field, even with gradients typical of NSTX outer divertor conditions, stabilizes a LM jet flow--reducing turbulent disturbances and delaying jet breakup. Important insights into the MHD behavior of liquid metal films under NSTX-like environments are also presented. It is possible to establish an uphill liquid metal film flow on a conducting substrate, although the MHD drag experienced by the flow could be strong and cause the flow to pile-up under simulated NSTX magnetic field conditions. The magnetic field changes the turbulent film flow so that wave structures range from 2D column-type surface disturbances at regions of high magnetic field, to ordinary hydrodynamic turbulence wave structures at regions of low field strength at the outboard. Plans for future work are also presented

  5. Time-resolved and steady-state studies of biologically and chemically relevant systems using laser, absorption, and fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Charles Ashley [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2014-12-20

    In Chapter 2 several experimental and data analysis methods used in this thesis are described. In Chapter 3 steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine the concentration of the efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs), pheophorbide a and pyropheophorbide a, in the feces of animals and it was found that their levels far exceed those reported to be inhibitory to efflux pumps. In Chapter 4 the solvation dynamics of 6-Propionyl-2-(N,Ndimethyl) aminonaphthalene (PRODAN) was studied in reverse micelles. The two fluorescent states of PRODAN solvate on different time scales and as such care must be exercised in solvation dynamic studies involving it and its analogs. In Chapter 5 we studied the experimental and theoretical solvation dynamics of coumarin 153 (C153) in wild-type (WT) and modified myoglobins. Based on the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence studies, we have concluded that it is important to thoroughly characterize the structure of a protein and probe system before comparing the theoretical and experimental results. In Chapter 6 the photophysical and spectral properties of a derivative of the medically relevant compound curcumin called cyclocurcumin was studied. Based on NMR, fluorescence, and absorption studies, the ground- and excited-states of cyclocurcumin are complicated by the existence of multiple structural isomers. In Chapter 7 the hydrolysis of cellulose by a pure form of cellulase in an ionic liquid, HEMA, and its aqueous mixtures at various temperatures were studied with the goal of increasing the cellulose to glucose conversion for biofuel production. It was found that HEMA imparts an additional stability to cellulase and can allow for faster conversion of cellulose to glucose using a pre-treatment step in comparison to only buffer.

  6. Experimental studies of coaxial plasma gun current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, D.W.

    1988-01-01

    In this investigation of a coaxial plasma gun, plasma sheath currents and related behavior are examined. Plasma behavior in the gun affects gun characteristics. Plasma gun applications are determined by the plasma behavior. The AFWL PUFF capacitor bank (72 μF, 29 nH, 120 kV) drives the plasma gun using a deuterium fill gas. The gas breakdown site is isolated from the dielectric/vacuum interface in the AFWL system. Two gas values deliver gas in the system. The first delivers gas from the gun breech and the second optional valve delivers gas to the gun muzzle. Currents and voltages are measured by Rogowski coils, B probes and capacitive voltage probes. A O-D slug model is used to predict the current, inductance, gun voltage and plasma sheath velocity. The slug model assumes the sheath transits the gun with all mass in the sheath. In the snowplow mode, the plasma sheath is thin with a sharp current rise and drop. Our system operated in a transition mode between the snowplow and deflagration modes with early snowplow behavior and late deflagration behavior. Neutrons are produced in a plasma pinch at the gun muzzle, indicating snowplow behavior. The slug theory models overall gun behavior to experimental accuracy. Experimental results are compared to four theories for plasma sheath velocities: the Alfven collisionally limited model, the Rosenbluth model, the Fishbine saturated model and a single particle drift model. Experimental velocities vary from 10 5 to 10 6 m/s. Only the single particle drift and the slug model calculations are of the right magnitude (8 x 10 5 m/s). The Fishbine and the Rosenbluth models predict slower velocities (2 x 10 5 m/s). The Alfven model is not applicable to this system

  7. Experimental Study of Cavitation in Laminar Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Croci , Kilian; Ravelet , Florent; ROBINET , Jean-Christophe; Danlos , Amélie

    2017-01-01

    An experimental setup has been especially developed in order to observe cavitation in laminar flows. Experiments have been carried out with a silicon oil of viscosity υ = 100cSt passing through a Venturi-type geometry with 18°/8° convergent/divergent angles respectively. The range of Reynolds numbers at the inlet section is between 350 and 1000. Two dynamic regimes are identified. They are characterized by two critical Reynolds numbers, induced by major hydrodynamic changes in the flow, in ad...

  8. Experimental studies of spallation on thin target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borne, F.; Crespin, S.; Drake, D.; Frehaut, J.; Ledoux, X.; Lochard, J.P.; Martinez, E.; Patin, Y.; Petibon, E.; Pras, Ph.; Boudard, A.; Legrain, R.; Leray, S.; Terrien, Y.; Bouyer, P.; Brochard, F.; Duchazeaubeneix, J.C.; Durand, J.M.; Meigo, S.I.; Milleret, G.; Thun, J.; Whittal, D.M.; Wlazlo, W.; Lebrun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lecolley, F.R.; Lefebvres, F.; Louvel, M.; Varignon, C.; Menard, S.; Stugge, L.; Hanappe, F.

    2000-01-01

    Angular distribution of spallation neutrons induced by protons (0.8, 1.2 and 1.6 GeV) and deuterons (0.8 and 1.6 GeV beams on various thin targets have been measured at SATURNE (CEA Saclay/France) with two complementary experimental techniques: the time-of-flight measurement with tagged incident protons for low energy neutrons (2-400 MeV) and the use of a hydrogen converter associated are analysed, interpreted and finally compared with theoretical previsions of simulation codes using the TIERCE system including the intranuclear cascade codes of BERTINI and CUGNON. (authors)

  9. Experimental study of the nucleon spin structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litmaath, M.F.

    1996-05-07

    After introducing the theoretical framework, which includes DIS, the Quark Parton Model (QPM) and QCD, we describe the implementation of the experiment. The SMC uses a beam of 190 GeV naturally polarized muons, scattering off nucleons in a large cryogenic target containing protons or deuterons that are polarized through Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP). The target material is located in two cells in a row, with opposite polarizations. Every 5 hours the polarizations of both cells are reversed. The target polarization is measured by an NMR system. The polarization of the beam is measured in a polarimeter, located downstream of the main experimental setup. (orig.).

  10. Experimental study of the nucleon spin structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litmaath, M.F.

    1996-01-01

    After introducing the theoretical framework, which includes DIS, the Quark Parton Model (QPM) and QCD, we describe the implementation of the experiment. The SMC uses a beam of 190 GeV naturally polarized muons, scattering off nucleons in a large cryogenic target containing protons or deuterons that are polarized through Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP). The target material is located in two cells in a row, with opposite polarizations. Every 5 hours the polarizations of both cells are reversed. The target polarization is measured by an NMR system. The polarization of the beam is measured in a polarimeter, located downstream of the main experimental setup. (orig.)

  11. Feasibility study of the AOSTA experimental campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carta M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of the nuclear waste is one of the most important nuclear issues. The high radiotoxicity of the spent fuel is due to plutonium and some minor actinides (MAs such as neptunium, americium and curium, above all. One way to reduce their hazard is to destroy by fission MAs in appropriate nuclear reactors. To allow the MAs destruction an important effort have been done on the nuclear data due to the poor knowledge in this field. In the framework of one of the NEA Expert Group on Integral Experiments for Minor Actinide Management an analysis of the feasibility of MAs irradiation campaign in the TAPIRO fast research reactor is carried out. This paper provides preliminary results obtained by calculations modelling the irradiation, in different TAPIRO irradiation channels, of some CEA samples coming from the French experimental campaign OSMOSE, loaded with different contents of MAs, in order to access, through particular peak spectrometry, to their capture cross section. On the basis of neutron transport calculation results, obtained by both deterministic and Monte Carlo methods, an estimate of the irradiated samples counting levels from the AOSTA (Activation of OSMOSE Samples in TAPIRO experimental campaign is provided.

  12. Experimental thermochemical study of the monochloronitrobenzene isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V.; Lobo Ferreira, Ana I.M.C.; Moreno, Ana Rita G.

    2009-01-01

    The standard (p 0 = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation of 2-, 3-, and 4-chloronitrobenzene isomers, in the crystalline state, at T = 298.15 K, were derived from the standard (p 0 = 0.1 MPa) massic energies of combustion, in oxygen, at T = 298.15 K, measured by rotating bomb combustion calorimetry. The standard molar enthalpies of sublimation of the isomers, at T = 298.15 K, were obtained by high temperature Calvet microcalorimetry. From the determined experimental data, the values of the gaseous standard (p 0 = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation for the three monochloronitrobenzene isomers were derived. The gas-phase enthalpies of formation were also estimated by the empirical scheme developed by Cox showing that for meta- and para-chloronitrobenzene the estimated values are in close agreement with the experimental ones whereas, in the case of ortho-chloronitrobenzene it is shown that a different enthalpic interaction increment is needed, when the substituents in the adjacent carbon ring atoms are a chlorine atom and a nitro group

  13. The relevance of a rules-based maize marketing policy: An experimental case study of Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, K.; Jayne, T.S.; Moller, L.C.

    2008-01-01

    Strategic interaction between public and private actors is increasingly recognized as an important determinant of agricultural market performance in Africa and elsewhere. Trust and consultation tend to positively affect private activity while uncertainty of government behavior impedes it. This paper

  14. Recent results from experimental studies on laser-plasma coupling in a shock ignition relevant regime

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koester, P.; Antonelli, L.; Atzeni, S.; Badziak, J.; Baffigi, F.; Batani, D.; Cecchetti, C.A.; Chodukowski, T.; Consoli, F.; Cristoforetti, G.; De Angelis, R.; Folpini, G.; Gizzi, L.A.; Kalinowska, Z.; Krouský, Eduard; Kuchařík, M.; Labate, L.; Levato, T.; Liška, R.; Malka, G.; Maheut, Y.; Marocchino, A.; Nicolai, P.; O´Dell, T.; Parys, P.; Pisarczyk, T.; Rączka, P.; Renner, Oldřich; Rhee, Y.-J.; Ribeyre, X.; Richetta, M.; Rosinski, M.; Ryc, L.; Skála, Jiří; Schiavi, A.; Schurtz, G.; Šmíd, Michal; Spindloe, C.; Ullschmied, Jiří; Wolowski, J.; Zaras, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 12 (2013), , "124045-1"-"124045-8" ISSN 0741-3335 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC528; GA MŠk LM2010014 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 284464 - LASERLAB-EUROPE Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389021 Keywords : laser-produced plasma s * inertial confinement fusion * shock ignition * X-ray imaging spectroscopy * ion diagnostics * interferometry * shock breakout chron Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.386, year: 2013

  15. The Netherlands XTC Toxicity (NeXT) study: objectives and methods of a study investigating causality, course, and clinical relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Win, Maartje M. L.; Jager, Gerry; Vervaeke, Hylke K. E.; Schilt, Thelma; Reneman, Liesbeth; Booij, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C.; den Heeten, Gerard J.; Ramsey, Nick F.; Korf, Dirk J.; van den Brink, Wim

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the objectives and methods of The Netherlands XTC Toxicity (NeXT) study focussing on the causality, course, and clinical relevance of ecstasy neurotoxicity. Previous studies suggest that ecstasy (3,4 methylene-dioxymethamphetamine, MDMA, XTC) is toxic toward brain serotonin

  16. Theoretical and experimental studies of elementary physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodek, A.; Ferbel, T.; Melissinos, A.C.; Olsen, S.; Slattery, P.; Tipton, P.; Das, A.; Hagen, C.R.; Rajeev, S.G.; Okubo, S.

    1992-01-01

    The experimental high energy physics program is directed toward the execution of experiments that probe the basic constituents of matter and the forces between them. These experiments are carried out at national and international accelerator facilities. At the current time, we are primarily concentrating on the following projects: Direct photon production in hadronic reactions (Fermilab E706); Production of hybrid mesons in the nuclear Coulomb field; The D-Zero experiment at the Tevatron collider; Deep inelastic neutrino- and electron-nucleon scattering at FNAL and SLAC; Nonlinear QED at critical field strengths at SLAC; The Experiments at KEK (AMY, 17keV neutrino); The CDF experiment at the Tevatron collider; and SSC-related detector R ampersand D on scintillating tile- and diamond-based calorimetry and microstrip tracking detectors

  17. Theoretical and experimental studies of elementary physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodek, A.; Ferbel, T.; Melissinos, A.C.; Olsen, S.; Slattery, P.; Tipton, P.; Das, A.; Hagen, C.R.; Rajeev, S.G.; Okubo, S.

    1992-05-01

    The experimental high energy physics program is directed toward the execution of experiments that probe the basic constituents of matter and the forces between them. These experiments are carried out at national and international accelerator facilities. At the current time, we are primarily concentrating on the following projects: Direct photon production in hadronic reactions; production of hybrid mesons in the nuclear Coulomb field; the D-Zero experiment at the Tevatron collider; deep inelastic neutrino- and electron-nucleon scattering at FNAL and SLAC; nonlinear QED at critical field strengths at SLAC; the experiments at KEK (AMY, 17keV neutrino); the CDF experiment at the Tevatron collider; and SSC-related detector R ampersand D on scintillating tile- and diamond-based calorimetry and microstrip tracking detectors

  18. A Review of Concepts from Policy Studies Relevant for the Analysis of EFA in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Lall, Marie

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to give an introduction to the central concepts and the literature of Policy Studies in education. The first part of the paper addresses the questions of what policy is. How is it made and why is it relevant? It looks in particular at the role of the state and the Policy cycle framework which is an analytical tool that helps to analyse how policy is made and later implemented. The second part then focuses on the central concepts. The two main paradigms of education policy stud...

  19. Wind‐gust parametrizations at heights relevant for wind energy: a study based on mast observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suomi, I.; Vihma, T.; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    2013-01-01

    Wind gusts are traditionally observed and reported at the reference height of 10 m and most gust parametrization methods have been developed only for this height. In many practical applications, e.g. in wind energy, the relevant heights are, however, up to a few hundred metres. In this study, mean...... speed, which is parametrized on the basis of the surface friction velocity, the Obukhov length and height and the boundary‐layer height. The new gust parametrization method outperformed the two older methods: the effects of surface roughness, stability and the height above the surface were well...

  20. Positron mobility measurements and their relevance to defect and impurity studies in semiconductors and insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beling, C.D.; Simpson, R.I.; Stewart, M.G.; Wang, Y.Y.; Fung, S.; Wai, J.C.H.; Sun, T.N.

    1987-01-01

    Positron mobility measurements and their relevance to the study of defects and impurities in semiconductors and insulators are discussed. Since the short lifetime of the positron in condensed matter renders conventional mobility techniques unsuitable, positron mobility measurements rely on the observation of annihilation photons and of vacuum emission. Measurements utilising Doppler shift, angular correlation, profile shift and diffusion to surfaces are surveyed. New methods which observe the electric field drift of positrons by lifetime spectroscopy or vacuum emission are discussed. Lifetime measurements in Fe doped InP give a positron mobility, μ + = (15 ± 5) cm 2 V -1 s -1 at 77 K. (author)

  1. Economic principles in communication: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jaegher, Kris; Rosenkranz, Stephanie; Weitzel, Utz

    2014-12-21

    This paper experimentally investigates how economic principles affect communication. In a simple sender-receiver game with common interests over payoffs, the sender can send a signal without a pre-given meaning in an infrequent or frequent state of the world. When the signal is costly, several theories (focal point theory, the intuitive criterion, evolutionary game theory) predict an efficient separating equilibrium, where the signal is sent in the infrequent state of the world (also referred to as Horn׳s rule). To analyze whether Horn׳s rule applies, and if so, which theory best explains it, we develop and test variants of the sender-receiver game where the theories generate discriminatory hypotheses. In costly signaling variants, our participants follow Horn׳s rule most of the time, in a manner that is best explained by focal point theory. In costless signaling variants, evolutionary game theory best explains our results. Here participants coordinate significantly more (less) often on a separating equilibrium where the signal is sent in the frequent state if they are primed to associate the absence of a signal with the infrequent (frequent) state of the world. We also find indications that a similar priming effect applies to costly signals. Thus, while the frequency with which participants follow Horn׳s rule in costly signaling variants is best explained by Horn׳s rule, the priming effect shows that some of our participants׳ behavior is best explained by evolutionary game theory even when signals are costly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Patient safety challenges in a case study hospital--of relevance for transfusion processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aase, Karina; Høyland, Sindre; Olsen, Espen; Wiig, Siri; Nilsen, Stein Tore

    2008-10-01

    The paper reports results from a research project with the objective of studying patient safety, and relates the finding to safety issues within transfusion medicine. The background is an increased focus on undesired events related to diagnosis, medication, and patient treatment in general in the healthcare sector. The study is designed as a case study within a regional Norwegian hospital conducting specialised health care services. The study includes multiple methods such as interviews, document analysis, analysis of error reports, and a questionnaire survey. Results show that the challenges for improved patient safety, based on employees' perceptions, are hospital management support, reporting of accidents/incidents, and collaboration across hospital units. Several of these generic safety challenges are also found to be of relevance for a hospital's transfusion service. Positive patient safety factors are identified as teamwork within hospital units, a non-punitive response to errors, and unit manager's actions promoting safety.

  3. Experimental study of oxidative DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, Steffen; Deng, Xin-Sheng; Tuo, Jingsheng

    1998-01-01

    Animal experiments allow the study of oxidative DNA damage in target organs and the elucidation of dose-response relationships of carcinogenic and other harmful chemicals and conditions as well as the study of interactions of several factors. So far the effects of more than 50 different chemical ...

  4. Lithium hydride hydrolysis: experimental and kinetic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charton, S.; Maupoix, C.; Brevet, A.; Delaunay, F.; Heintz, O.; Saviot, L.

    2006-01-01

    In this work has been studied the contribution of various analyses techniques in the framework, on the one hand of revealing the mechanisms implied in lithium hydride hydrolysis, and on the other hand of studying the kinetics of hydrogen production. Among the methods recently investigated, Raman spectroscopy, XPS and SIMS seem to be particularly attractive. (O.M.)

  5. Theoretical & Experimental Studies of Elementary Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarland, Kevin [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    2012-10-04

    Abstract High energy physics has been one of the signature research programs at the University of Rochester for over 60 years. The group has made leading contributions to experimental discoveries at accelerators and in cosmic rays and has played major roles in developing the theoretical framework that gives us our ``standard model'' of fundamental interactions today. This award from the Department of Energy funded a major portion of that research for more than 20 years. During this time, highlights of the supported work included the discovery of the top quark at the Fermilab Tevatron, the completion of a broad program of physics measurements that verified the electroweak unified theory, the measurement of three generations of neutrino flavor oscillations, and the first observation of a ``Higgs like'' boson at the Large Hadron Collider. The work has resulted in more than 2000 publications over the period of the grant. The principal investigators supported on this grant have been recognized as leaders in the field of elementary particle physics by their peers through numerous awards and leadership positions. Most notable among them is the APS W.K.H. Panofsky Prize awarded to Arie Bodek in 2004, the J.J. Sakurai Prizes awarded to Susumu Okubo and C. Richard Hagen in 2005 and 2010, respectively, the Wigner medal awarded to Susumu Okubo in 2006, and five principal investigators (Das, Demina, McFarland, Orr, Tipton) who received Department of Energy Outstanding Junior Investigator awards during the period of this grant. The University of Rochester Department of Physics and Astronomy, which houses the research group, provides primary salary support for the faculty and has waived most tuition costs for graduate students during the period of this grant. The group also benefits significantly from technical support and infrastructure available at the University which supports the work. The research work of the group has provided educational opportunities

  6. A curated database of cyanobacterial strains relevant for modern taxonomy and phylogenetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Vitor; Morais, João; Vasconcelos, Vitor M

    2017-04-25

    The dataset herein described lays the groundwork for an online database of relevant cyanobacterial strains, named CyanoType (http://lege.ciimar.up.pt/cyanotype). It is a database that includes categorized cyanobacterial strains useful for taxonomic, phylogenetic or genomic purposes, with associated information obtained by means of a literature-based curation. The dataset lists 371 strains and represents the first version of the database (CyanoType v.1). Information for each strain includes strain synonymy and/or co-identity, strain categorization, habitat, accession numbers for molecular data, taxonomy and nomenclature notes according to three different classification schemes, hierarchical automatic classification, phylogenetic placement according to a selection of relevant studies (including this), and important bibliographic references. The database will be updated periodically, namely by adding new strains meeting the criteria for inclusion and by revising and adding up-to-date metadata for strains already listed. A global 16S rDNA-based phylogeny is provided in order to assist users when choosing the appropriate strains for their studies.

  7. Electron microscopy of human peripheral nerves of clinical relevance to the practice of nerve blocks. A structural and ultrastructural review based on original experimental and laboratory data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, M A; Arriazu, R; Collier, C B; Sala-Blanch, X; Izquierdo, L; de Andrés, J

    2013-12-01

    The goal is to describe the ultrastructure of normal human peripheral nerves, and to highlight key aspects that are relevant to the practice of peripheral nerve block anaesthesia. Using samples of sciatic nerve obtained from patients, and dural sac, nerve root cuff and brachial plexus dissected from fresh human cadavers, an analysis of the structure of peripheral nerve axons and distribution of fascicles and topographic composition of the layers that cover the nerve is presented. Myelinated and unmyelinated axons, fascicles, epineurium, perineurium and endoneurium obtained from patients and fresh cadavers were studied by light microscopy using immunohistochemical techniques, and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Structure of perineurium and intrafascicular capillaries, and its implications in blood-nerve barrier were revised. Each of the anatomical elements is analyzed individually with regard to its relevance to clinical practice to regional anaesthesia. Routine practice of regional anaesthetic techniques and ultrasound identification of nerve structures has led to conceptions, which repercussions may be relevant in future applications of these techniques. In this regard, the ultrastructural and histological perspective accomplished through findings of this study aims at enlightening arising questions within the field of regional anaesthesia. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Experimental Study on Gastric Juice Secretion by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    管理平台

    2012-05-29

    May 29, 2012 ... Study on stomach physiological functions by ... mechanism of regulating gastric electrical activity and gastric juice secretion might become true by the .... samples was used in comparism among these different groups.

  9. Lab-on-a-brane: A novel physiologically relevant planar arterial model to study transendothelial transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhwani, Karim Ismail

    The tremendous quality of life impact notwithstanding, cardiovascular diseases and Cancer add up to over US$ 700bn each year in financial costs alone. Aging and population growth are expected to further expand the problem space while drug research and development remain expensive. However, preclinical costs can be substantially mitigated by substituting animal models with in vitro devices that accurately model human cardiovascular transport. Here we present a novel physiologically relevant lab-on-a-brane that simulates in vivo pressure, flow, strain, and shear waveforms associated with normal and pathological conditions in large and small blood vessels for studying molecular transport across the endothelial monolayer. The device builds upon previously demonstrated integrated microfluidic loop design by: (a) introducing nanoscale pores in the substrate membrane to enable transmembrane molecular transport, (b) transforming the substrate membrane into a nanofibrous matrix for 3D smooth muscle cell (SMC) tissue culture, (c) integrating electrospinning fabrication methods, (d) engineering an invertible sandwich cell culture device architecture, and (e) devising a healthy co-culture mechanism for human arterial endothelial cell (HAEC) monolayer and multiple layers of human smooth muscle cells (HSMC) to accurately mimic arterial anatomy. Structural and mechanical characterization was conducted using confocal microscopy, SEM, stress/strain analysis, and infrared spectroscopy. Transport was characterized using FITC-Dextran hydraulic permeability protocol. Structure and transport characterization successfully demonstrate device viability as a physiologically relevant arterial mimic for testing transendothelial transport. Thus, our lab-on-a-brane provides a highly effective and efficient, yet considerably inexpensive, physiologically relevant alternative for pharmacokinetic evaluation; possibly reducing animals used in pre-clinical testing, clinical trials cost from false

  10. The neural correlates of implicit self-relevant processing in low self-esteem: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Guan, Lili; Dedovic, Katarina; Qi, Mingming; Zhang, Qinglin

    2012-08-30

    Previous neuroimaging studies have shown that implicit and explicit processing of self-relevant (schematic) material elicit activity in many of the same brain regions. Electrophysiological studies on the neural processing of explicit self-relevant cues have generally supported the view that P300 is an index of attention to self-relevant stimuli; however, there has been no study to date investigating the temporal course of implicit self-relevant processing. The current study seeks to investigate the time course involved in implicit self-processing by comparing processing of self-relevant with non-self-relevant words while subjects are making a judgment about color of the words in an implicit attention task. Sixteen low self-esteem participants were examined using event-related potentials technology (ERP). We hypothesized that this implicit attention task would involve P2 component rather than the P300 component. Indeed, P2 component has been associated with perceptual analysis and attentional allocation and may be more likely to occur in unconscious conditions such as this task. Results showed that latency of P2 component, which indexes the time required for perceptual analysis, was more prolonged in processing self-relevant words compared to processing non-self-relevant words. Our results suggested that the judgment of the color of the word interfered with automatic processing of self-relevant information and resulted in less efficient processing of self-relevant word. Together with previous ERP studies examining processing of explicit self-relevant cues, these findings suggest that the explicit and the implicit processing of self-relevant information would not elicit the same ERP components. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Conceptual design studies of experimental and demonstration fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Since 1973 the FINTOR Group has been involved in conceptual design studies of TOKAMAK-type fusion reactors to precede the construction of a prototype power reactor plant. FINTOR-1 was the first conceptual design aimed at investigating the main physics and engineering constraints on a minimum-size (both dimensions and thermal power) tokamak experimental reactor. The required plasma energy confinement time as evaluated by various power balance models was compared with the values resulting from different transport models. For the reference design, an energy confinement time ten times smaller than neoclassical was assumed. This also implied a rather high (thermally stable) working temperature (above 20 keV) for the reactor. Other relevant points of the design were: circular plasma cross section, single-null axisymmetric divertor; lithium breeder, stainless steel structures, helium coolant; modular blanket and shield structure; copper-stabilized, superconducting Nb-Ti toroidal field and divertor coils; vertical field and transformer coils inside the toroidal coils; vacuum-tight containment vessel. Solutions involving air and iron transformer cores were compared. These assumptions led to a minimum size reactor with a thermal power of about 100MW and rather large dimensions (major radius of about 9m) similar to those of full-scale power reactors considered in other conceptual studies. The FINTOR-1 analysis was completed by the end of 1976. In 1977 a conceptual design of a Demonstration Power Reactor Plant (FINTOR-D) was started. In this study the main working assumptions differing from those of FINTOR-1 are: non-circular plasma cross section; plasma confinement compatible with trapped ion instabilities; cold (gas) blanket sufficient for wall protection (no divertor); wall loading between 1-3MW/m 2 and thermal power of a few GW. (author)

  12. Experimental studies of actinides in molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reavis, J.G.

    1985-06-01

    This review stresses techniques used in studies of molten salts containing multigram amounts of actinides exhibiting intense alpha activity but little or no penetrating gamma radiation. The preponderance of studies have used halides because oxygen-containing actinide compounds (other than oxides) are generally unstable at high temperatures. Topics discussed here include special enclosures, materials problems, preparation and purification of actinide elements and compounds, and measurements of various properties of the molten volts. Property measurements discussed are phase relationships, vapor pressure, density, viscosity, absorption spectra, electromotive force, and conductance. 188 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs

  13. Experimental studies of actinides in molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reavis, J.G.

    1985-06-01

    This review stresses techniques used in studies of molten salts containing multigram amounts of actinides exhibiting intense alpha activity but little or no penetrating gamma radiation. The preponderance of studies have used halides because oxygen-containing actinide compounds (other than oxides) are generally unstable at high temperatures. Topics discussed here include special enclosures, materials problems, preparation and purification of actinide elements and compounds, and measurements of various properties of the molten volts. Property measurements discussed are phase relationships, vapor pressure, density, viscosity, absorption spectra, electromotive force, and conductance. 188 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Litigation and audit quality; two experimental studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, M. van

    1998-01-01

    This study examines the effect of litigation risk on auditors' willingness to yield to management pressure and to omit audit steps of the audit program in case of budget pressure. The results show that litigation risk has a significant impact on audit quality.

  15. Experimental Study of Flow Through Carotid Aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoomi, Faezeh; Mejia-Alvarez, Ricardo

    2017-11-01

    There is evidence that traditional endovascular techniques like coiling are not effective for treatment of wide-neck cerebral aneurysms. Flow Diverter Stents (FDS) have emerged as promising devices for treating complex aneurysms since they enable treatment of aneurysms that were considered untreatable before. Recent studies suggest a number of associated risks with FDS, including in-stent thrombosis, perianeurysmal edema, delayed hemorrhage, and perforator occlusions. Chong et al. simulated hemodynamic behavior using patient-specific data. From their study, it is possible to infer that the standard deviation of energy loss could be a good predictor for intervention success. The aim of this study is to investigate the flow in models of cerebral aneurysms before and after FDS insertion using PIV. These models will be based on actual clinical studies and will be fabricated with advanced additive manufacturing techniques. These data will then be used to explore flow parameters that could inform the likelihood of post-intervention aneurysm rupture, and help determine FDS designs that better suit any particular patient before its procedure.

  16. Time to Criterion: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lorin W.

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the magnitude of individual differences in time-to-criterion and the stability of these differences. Time-to-criterion was defined in two ways: the amount of elapsed time required to attain the criterion level and the amount of on-task time required to attain the criterion level. Ninety students were…

  17. Edge Plasma Physics Issues for the Fusion Advanced Studies Torus (FAST) in Reactor Relevant Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddaluno, G.; Pericoli Ridolfini, V.; Apicella, M.L.; Calabro, G.; Crisanti, F.; Cucchiaro, A.; Ramogida, G.; Zagorski, R.

    2008-01-01

    The issue of First wall materials and compatibility with ITER /DEMO relevant plasmas is among the RD missions for possible new European plasma fusion devices that the FAST project will address. FAST can operate with ITER relevant values of P/R (up to 22 MW/m, against the ITER 24 MW/m, inclusive of the α particles power), thanks to its compactness; thus it can investigate the physics of large heat loads on divertor plates. The FAST divertor will be made of bulk W tiles, for basic operations, but also fully toroidal divertor targets made of liquid lithium (L-Li) are foreseen. To have reliable predictions of the thermal loads on the divertor plates and of the core plasma purity a number of numerical self-consistent simulations have been made for the H-mode and steady-state scenario by using the code COREDIV. This code, already validated in the past on experimental data (namely JET, FTU, Textor), is able to describe self-consistently the core and edge plasma in a tokamak device by imposing the continuity of energy and particle fluxes and of particle densities and temperatures at the separatrix. In the present work the results of such calculations will be illustrated, including heat loads on the divertor. The overall picture shows that, marginally in the intermediate and, necessarily in the high density H-mode scenarios ( e >=2 and 5·10 20 m -3 respectively), impurity seeding should be foreseen with W as target material: however, only a small amount of Ar (0.03% atomic concentration), not affecting the core purity, is sufficient to maintain the divertor peak loads below 18 MW/m 2 , that represents the safety limit for the W mono block technology, presently accepted for the ITER divertor tiles. Li always needs additional impurities for decreasing divertor heat loads, the Z eff value being ≤ than 1.8. At low plasma densities (but ≥ 1.3·10 20 m -3 ), typical of steady state regimes, W by alone is effective in dissipating the input power by radiative losses, without

  18. Experimental study of highly viscous impinging jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomon, M. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1998-12-01

    The objective of this research is to study the behavior of highly viscous gravity-driven jets filling a container. Matters of interest are the formation of voids in the fluid pool during the filling process and the unstable behavior of the fluid in the landing region which manifests itself as an oscillating motion. The working fluids used in this research are intended to simulate the flow behavior of molten glass. Qualitative and quantitative results are obtained in a parametric study. The fraction of voids present in the fluid pool after the filling of the container is measured for different parameter values of viscosity and mass flow rate. Likewise, frequencies of the oscillating jet are measured. Results are inconclusive with regard to a correlation between parameter settings and void fractions. As for frequencies, power law correlations are established.

  19. Experimental study of highly viscous impinging jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomon, M.

    1998-12-01

    The objective of this research is to study the behavior of highly viscous gravity-driven jets filling a container. Matters of interest are the formation of voids in the fluid pool during the filling process and the unstable behavior of the fluid in the landing region which manifests itself as an oscillating motion. The working fluids used in this research are intended to simulate the flow behavior of molten glass. Qualitative and quantitative results are obtained in a parametric study. The fraction of voids present in the fluid pool after the filling of the container is measured for different parameter values of viscosity and mass flow rate. Likewise, frequencies of the oscillating jet are measured. Results are inconclusive with regard to a correlation between parameter settings and void fractions. As for frequencies, power law correlations are established

  20. Experimental Study of Flow in a Bifurcation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresconi, Frank; Prasad, Ajay

    2003-11-01

    An instability known as the Dean vortex occurs in curved pipes with a longitudinal pressure gradient. A similar effect is manifest in the flow in a converging or diverging bifurcation, such as those found in the human respiratory airways. The goal of this study is to characterize secondary flows in a bifurcation. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) experiments were performed in a clear, plastic model. Results show the strength and migration of secondary vortices. Primary velocity features are also presented along with dispersion patterns from dye visualization. Unsteadiness, associated with a hairpin vortex, was also found at higher Re. This work can be used to assess the dispersion of particles in the lung. Medical delivery systems and pollution effect studies would profit from such an understanding.

  1. Brain processing of task-relevant and task-irrelevant emotional words: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Villar, Alberto J; Triñanes, Yolanda; Zurrón, Montserrat; Carrillo-de-la-Peña, María T

    2014-09-01

    Although there is evidence for preferential perceptual processing of written emotional information, the effects of attentional manipulations and the time course of affective processing require further clarification. In this study, we attempted to investigate how the emotional content of words modulates cerebral functioning (event-related potentials, ERPs) and behavior (reaction times, RTs) when the content is task-irrelevant (emotional Stroop Task, EST) or task-relevant (emotional categorization task, ECT), in a sample of healthy middle-aged women. In the EST, the RTs were longer for emotional words than for neutral words, and in the ECT, they were longer for neutral and negative words than for positive words. A principal components analysis of the ERPs identified various temporospatial factors that were differentially modified by emotional content. P2 was the first emotion-sensitive component, with enhanced factor scores for negative nouns across tasks. The N2 and late positive complex had enhanced factor scores for emotional relative to neutral information only in the ECT. The results reinforce the idea that written emotional information has a preferential processing route, both when it is task-irrelevant (producing behavioral interference) and when it is task-relevant (facilitating the categorization). After early automatic processing of the emotional content, late ERPs become more emotionally modulated as the level of attention to the valence increases.

  2. Using music to study the evolution of cognitive mechanisms relevant to language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Aniruddh D

    2017-02-01

    This article argues that music can be used in cross-species research to study the evolution of cognitive mechanisms relevant to spoken language. This is because music and language share certain cognitive processing mechanisms and because music offers specific advantages for cross-species research. Music has relatively simple building blocks (tones without semantic properties), yet these building blocks are combined into rich hierarchical structures that engage complex cognitive processing. I illustrate this point with regard to the processing of musical harmonic structure. Because the processing of musical harmonic structure has been shown to interact with linguistic syntactic processing in humans, it is of interest to know if other species can acquire implicit knowledge of harmonic structure through extended exposure to music during development (vs. through explicit training). I suggest that domestic dogs would be a good species to study in addressing this question.

  3. A 5 year prospective study of patient-relevant outcomes after total knee replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsdotter, A-K; Toksvig-Larsen, S; Roos, E M

    2008-01-01

    men, mean age 71 (51-86) assigned for TKR at the Department of Orthopaedics at Lund University Hospital were included in the study. The self-administered questionnaires Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and SF-36 were mailed preoperatively and 6 months, 12 months and at 5 years......OBJECTIVE: To prospectively describe self-reported outcomes up to 5 years after total knee replacement (TKR) in Osteoarthritis (OA) and to study which patient-relevant factors may predict outcomes for pain and physical function (PF). METHODS: 102 consecutive patients with knee OA, 63 women and 39...... postoperatively. RESULTS: Response rate at 5 years was 86%. At 6 months significant improvement was seen in all KOOS and SF-36 scores (P

  4. Research on Hygiene Based on Fieldwork and Experimental Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    Several experimental studies on hygiene have recently been performed and fieldwork studies are also important and essential tools. However, the implementation of experimental studies is insufficient compared with that of fieldwork studies on hygiene. Here, we show our well-balanced implementation of both fieldwork and experimental studies of toxic-element-mediated diseases including skin cancer and hearing loss. Since the pollution of drinking well water by toxic elements induces various diseases including skin cancer, we performed both fieldwork and experimental studies to determine the levels of toxic elements and the mechanisms behind the development of toxic-element-related diseases and to develop a novel remediation system. Our fieldwork studies in several countries including Bangladesh, Vietnam and Malaysia demonstrated that drinking well water was polluted with high concentrations of several toxic elements including arsenic, barium, iron and manganese. Our experimental studies using the data from our fieldwork studies demonstrated that these toxic elements caused skin cancer and hearing loss. Further experimental studies resulted in the development of a novel remediation system that adsorbs toxic elements from polluted drinking water. A well-balanced implementation of both fieldwork and experimental studies is important for the prediction, prevention and therapy of toxic-element-mediated diseases.

  5. The Experimental Study to Support IVR Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, L.; Lu, W.; Hu, T.

    2015-01-01

    For alleviating the severe accident damage in nuclear power plant, In-vessel retention (IVR) is used on the severe accident management strategy in light water reactor. The criterion of IVR effectiveness is the safety margin, the value that between the melt pool heat flux and the critical heat flux on the lower head, matching the design requirements. For enhance the safety margin, the melt pool heat flux and the critical heat flux should be investigated. In the molten pool, the heat transfer behavior of metal layer is the focus problem because of the thermal focus effect. Therefore, the HELM was built to study the heat transfer correlations under the IVR conditions. The Globe–Dropkin correlation and Chu-Churchill correlation has been widely used to calculate the heat flux in the metal layer. However, the Rayleigh number (Ra) for the developed Power Plant has been shown to exceed the valid range for the G–D correlation. At the same time, other studies have shown that most correlations are far from the G–D correlation. Therefore, HELM verified the G–D correlations under the high Ra condition. The relationship between axial and radial heat transfer in the metal layer will also been studied. The behaviors of CHF varying with angular positions and the concentrations of coolant chemistry are investigated by the FIRM facility. FIRM is built to embody some key factors that influence the CHF: the heater block is 30o arc of circle with full-scale radius, and is made of the copper block covered by a thin carbon steel layer. The test section can be positioned in three tilted angles. Also, the effect of coolant chemistry will be examined by the mixed solution of water, deionized water, boric acid and tri-sodium phosphate. (author)

  6. Experimental study of isovector spin sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandre Deur; Peter Bosted; Volker Burkert; Donald Crabb; Kahanawita Dharmawardane; Gail Dodge; Tony Forest; Keith Griffioen; Sebastian Kuhn; Ralph Minehart; Yelena Prok

    2008-01-01

    We present the Bjorken integral extracted from Jefferson Lab experiment EG1b for 0.05 2 . The integral is fit to extract the twist-4 element f 2 p-n which is large and negative. Systematic studies of this higher twist analysis establish its legitimacy at Q 2 around 1 GeV 2 . We also extracted the isovector part of the generalized forward spin polarizability γ 0 . Although this quantity provides a robust test of Chiral Perturbation Theory, our data disagree with the calculations

  7. Experimental study of relative, turbulent diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, J.; Ott, Søren; Andersen, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose is to study relative turbulent diffusion under controlled, reproducible conditions in the laboratory in order to estimate the constant C in Richardson-Obukhov's law. We get C #approx# 0.4 -- 0.6. We furthermore measure the distance-neighbourfunction, which is the probability density...... system with two computers each equipped with a frame grabber card. In the search for the best experimentalmethods we have revised the concept of local homogeneity and derived a law for the velocity--acceleration structure function. A second by-product of this effort is a relatively simple derivation...

  8. Experimental and modelling studies of infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giudici, M.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation describes a study of infiltration in the unsaturated soil with the objective of estimating the recharge to a phreatic aquifer. The study area is at the border of the city of Milan (Northern Italy), which draws water for both domestic and industrial purposes from ground water resources located beneath the urban area. The rate of water pumping from the aquifer system has been varying during the XX century, depending upon the number of inhabitants and the development of industrial activities. This caused variations with time of the depth of the water table below the ground surface and in turn some emergencies: the two most prominent episodes correspond to the middle '70s, when the water table in the city centre was about 30 m below the undisturbed natural conditions, and to the last decade, when the water table has raised at a rate of approximately 1 m/year and caused infiltrations in deep constructions (garages and building foundations, the underground railways, etc.). We have developed four ground water flow models at different scales, which share some characteristics: they are based on quasi-3D approximation (horizontal flow in the aquifers and vertical flow in the aquitards), conservative finite-differences schemes for regular grid with square cells in the horizontal plane and are implemented with proprietary computer codes. Among the problems that were studied for the development of these models, I recall some numerical problems, related to the behaviour of the phreatic aquifer under conditions of strong exploitation. Model calibration and validation for ModMil has been performed with a two-stage process, i.e., using some of the available data for model calibration and the remaining data for model validation. The application of geophysical exploration techniques, in particular seismic and geo-electrical prospecting, has been very useful to complete the data and information on the hydro-geological structure obtained from stratigraphic logs

  9. Experimental study of isovector spin sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deur, A.; Bosted, P.; Burkert, V.; Crabb, D.; Minehart, R.; Prok, Y.; Dharmawardane, V.; Dodge, G. E.; Kuhn, S. E.; Forest, T. A.; Griffioen, K. A.

    2008-01-01

    We present the Bjorken integral extracted from Jefferson Lab experiment EG1b for 0.05 2 2 . The integral is fit to extract the twist-4 element f 2 p-n which appears to be relatively large and negative. Systematic studies of this higher twist analysis establish its legitimacy at Q 2 around 1 GeV 2 . We also performed an isospin decomposition of the generalized forward spin polarizability γ 0 . Although its isovector part provides a reliable test of the calculation techniques of chiral perturbation theory, our data disagree with the calculations.

  10. Theoretical and experimental study of thermoacoustic engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspet, Richard; Bass, Henry E.; Arnott, W. P.

    1992-12-01

    A three year study of thermoacoustic engines operating as prime movers and refrigerators was completed. The major thrust of this effort was the use and theoretical description of ceramic honeycomb structures as the active element in thermoacoustic engines. An air-filled demonstration prime mover was constructed and demonstrated at Acoustical Society of America and IEE meetings. A helium-filled test prime mover was designed and built an is being employed in studies of the threshold of oscillation as a function of temperature difference and pressure. In addition, acoustically based theories of the thermoacoustic engine have been developed and tested for a parallel plate stack at the Naval Postgraduate School and for a honeycomb stack at the University of Mississippi. Most of this work is described in detail in the attached publications. In this report we will give an overview of the research completed to date and its relationship to work performed at the Naval Postgraduate School and to future work at the University of Mississippi.

  11. Field experimentation in isotope-aided studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, F.

    1990-01-01

    Isotopic-aided studies involve the application of isotopically labelled fertilizer as tracers for the quantitative and precise determination of the fate of specific nutrient elements in the soil/plant system. The planning of isotopic-aided studies requires a different approach from that followed in the design of normal fertilizer trials because of the cost and supply of isotopically labelled materials, the use of highly specialized equipment and the need for skillful trained staff in the use of isotope techniques both in the field/greenhouse and the laboratory. This report is intended to highlight the main points to be considered while applying those techniques in the field or greenhouse. It has been well established that nuclear techniques are a powerful tool in agricultural research. One should take advantage of the use of such techniques if the following criteria are met: The isotope method is the only way to solve a particular question or to obtain a specific piece of information. There are other methods available for such a purpose but the nuclear method provides a direct and quick means to obtain the needed information resulting in higher economic return

  12. Study Gaps Relevant to Use of Complementary Medicine in Patients With Leukemia: A Review Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Context A review of the literature of recent decades has shown that few studies have been conducted on the effects of various types of complementary medicine on patients with leukemia. Therefore, the present study aimed to find research gaps in the use of different types of complementary medicine in patients with leukemia to be applied in future studies. Evidence Acquisition The present study was a review-type design based on a review of the literature on different types of complementary medicine in patients with leukemia, up to 2015. The search was conducted through electronic databases and search engines. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 8 studies which had been conducted on the use of complementary medicine in patients with leukemia were selected for the identification of gaps. Results The overall results showed that few studies have been conducted on the use of exercise, massage therapy, music therapy, acupressure, and healing touch in patients with leukemia, and these subjects are potential research areas for many different studies. However, no studies have been carried out on the effects of acupuncture, relaxation, and yoga on these patients. Conclusions The results of this review showed that the number of studies on the use of complementary medicine in leukemia patients is very limited (especially in Iran, and it can be the subject of numerous studies in the future.

  13. Experimental techniques for cement hydration studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Luttge

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cement hydration kinetics is a complex problem of dissolution, nucleation and growth that is still not well understood, particularly in a quantitative way. While cement systems are unique in certain aspects they are also comparable to natural mineral systems. Therefore, geochemistry and particularly the study of mineral dissolution and growth may be able to provide insight and methods that can be utilized in cement hydration research. Here, we review mainly what is not known or what is currently used and applied in a problematic way. Examples are the typical Avrami approach, the application of Transition State Theory (TST to overall reaction kinetics and the problem of reactive surface area. Finally, we suggest an integrated approach that combines vertical scanning interferometry (VSI with other sophisticated analytical techniques such as atomic force microscopy (AFM and theoretical model calculations based on a stochastic treatment.

  14. Experimental study of diffuse auroral precipitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouaia, K.

    1983-01-01

    First chapter is devoted to low energy electron precipitation in the evening sector of the auroral magnetosphere, during quiet and disturbed magnetic periods. Four subjects are studied in detail: the latitude distribution of the varied auroral forms and their relations to external magnetosphere; the time coefficients related to precipitations, the form and the dynamic of the diffuse precipitation equatorial frontier; the precipitation effect on the ionosphere concentration. The last part of the chapter shows that the plasma convection in the magnetosphere, associated to wave-particle interactions near the equatorial accounts for the principal characteristics of the evening sector diffuse electronic precipitations. The second chapter deals with subauroral precipitations of low energy ions, after the magnetospheric substorms, in the high latitude regions of the morning sector [fr

  15. Experimental study on the adiabatic shear bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Affouard, J.

    1984-07-01

    Four martensitic steels (Z50CDV5 steel, 28CND8 steel, 35NCDV16 steel and 4340 steel) with different hardness between 190 and 600 Hsub(B) (Brinell hardness), have been studied by means of dynamic compressive tests on split Hopkinson pressure bar. Microscopic observations show that the fracture are associated to the development of adiabatic shear bands (except 4340 steel with 190 Hsub(B) hardness). By means of tests for which the deformation is stopped at predetermined levels, the measurement of shear and hardness inside the band and the matrix indicates the chronology of this phenomenon: first the localization of shear, followed by the formation of adiabatic shear band and ultimatly crack initiation and propagation. These results correlated with few simulations by finite elements have permitted to suggest two mecanisms of deformation leading to the formation of adiabatic shear bands in this specific test [fr

  16. Mortar alteration: experimental study and ancient analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassineux, Francois

    1987-01-01

    As the durability of cemented matrices is a matter of great importance in numerous domains, notably for the long term reliability of surface storages of radioactive wastes, the objective of this research thesis is to define mechanisms of evolution of cemented matrices when in contact with diluted aqueous solutions. The author notably studied the influence of the lixiviation mode on the evolution of two mortars having different compositions (pH, CO 2 pressure, system containment, and cement mineralogical nature appear to be the main governing parameters), the alteration (dissolution is the prevailing process in the interaction between cemented matrices and a diluted solution such as rain water), and ancient binders (archaeological binders containing mineral phases such as hydrated calcium silicates or hydro-grossulars). The obtained results lead to the definition of alteration mechanisms in modern cements, and highlight factors governing the durability of these materials when submitted to meteoric alteration [fr

  17. Experimental Study of Liquid Fuel Spray Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westlye, Fredrik Ree

    the specific physical quantities needed in CFD validation of these types of flames. This work is a testament to that fact. The first part of this thesis is an extensive study of optical combustion diagnostics applied to complex transient sprayflames in a high temperature and pressure environment...... by the Danish Council for Strategic Research. Other supporters of the project have been MAN Diesel & Turbo A/S, DTU Mechanical Engineering, DTU Chemical Engineering, Sandia National Laboratories USA, Norwegian University of Science & Technology (NTNU) and University of Nottingham, Malaysia Campus.......The physiochemical properties and electromagnetic interactions in flames, of which various optical combustion diagnostics are based, have been reviewed. Key diagnostics have been presented with practical examples of their application which, together with a comprehensive review of fuel spray flames, form...

  18. Preliminary experimental studies of waste coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, S.; Jin, Y.G.; Yu, X.X.; Worrall, R. [CSIRO, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). Advanced Coal Technology

    2013-07-01

    Coal mining is one of Australia's most important industries. It was estimated that coal washery rejects from black coal mining was approximately 1.82 billion tonnes from 1960 to 2009 in Australia, and is projected to produce another one billion tonnes by 2018 at the current production rate. To ensure sustainability of the Australian coal industry, we have explored a new potential pathway to create value from the coal waste through production of liquid fuels or power generation using produced syngas from waste coal gasification. Consequently, environmental and community impacts of the solid waste could be minimized. However, the development of an effective waste coal gasification process is a key to the new pathway. An Australian mine site with a large reserve of waste coal was selected for the study, where raw waste coal samples including coarse rejects and tailings were collected. After investigating the initial raw waste coal samples, float/sink testing was conducted to achieve a desired ash target for laboratory-scale steam gasification testing and performance evaluation. The preliminary gasification test results show that carbon conversions of waste coal gradually increase as the reaction proceeds, which indicates that waste coal can be gasified by a steam gasification process. However, the carbon conversion rates are relatively low, only reaching to 20-30%. Furthermore, the reactivity of waste coal samples with a variety of ash contents under N{sub 2}/air atmosphere have been studied by a home-made thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) apparatus that can make the sample reach the reaction temperature instantly.

  19. Experimental and clinical studies with intraoperative radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sindelar, W.F.; Kinsella, T.; Tepper, J.; Travis, E.L.; Rosenberg, S.A.; Glatstein, E.

    1983-01-01

    Studies of normal tissue tolerance to intraoperative radiotherapy were done upon 65 dogs subjected to laparotomy and 11 million electron volt electron irradiation in doses ranging from zero to 5,000 rads. Results of studies indicated that intact aorta and vena cava tolerate up to 5,000 rads without loss of structural integrity. Ureteral fibrosis and stenosis develop at doses of 3,000 rads or more. Arterial anastomoses heal after doses of 4,500 rads, but fibrosis can lead to occlusion. Intestinal suture lines heal after doses of 4,500 rads. Bile duct fibrosis and stenosis develop at doses of 2,000 rads or more. Biliary-enteric anastomoses fail to heal at any dose level. A clinical trial of intraoperative radiotherapy combined with radical surgery was performed upon 20 patients with advanced malignant tumors which were considered unlikely to be cured by conventional therapies and which included carcinomas of the stomach, carcinomas of the pancreas, carcinomas involving the hilus of the liver, retroperitoneal sarcomas and osteosarcomas of the pelvis. All patients underwent resection of gross tumor, followed by intraoperative irradiation of the tumor bed and regional nodal basins. Some patients received additional postoperative external beam radiotherapy. Treatment mortality for combined operation and radiotherapy occurred in four of 20 patients. Postoperative complications occurred in four of the 16 surviving patients. Local tumor control was achieved in 11 of the 16 surviving patients, with an over-all median follow-up period of 18 months. The clinical trial suggested that intraoperative radiotherapy is a feasible adjunct to resection in locally advanced tumors, that the resulting mortality and morbidity is similar to that expected from operation alone and that local tumor control may be improved

  20. Experimental studies of rotating exchange flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabe, B.; Smeed, D. A.; Dalziel, S. B.; Lane-Serff, G. F.

    2007-02-01

    Ocean basins are connected by straits and passages, geometrically limiting important heat and salt exchanges which in turn influence the global thermohaline circulation and climate. Such exchange can be modeled in an idealized way by taking into consideration the density-driven two-layer flow along a strait under the influence of rotation. We use a laboratory model of a lock exchange between two reservoirs of different density through a flat-bottom channel with a horizontal narrows, set up on two different platforms: a 1 m diameter turntable, where density interface position was measured by dye attenuation, and the 14 m diameter turntable at Coriolis/LEGI (Grenoble, France), where correlation imaging velocimetry, a particle imaging technique, allowed us to obtain for the first time detailed measurements of the velocity fields in these flows. The influence of rotation is studied by varying a parameter, Bu, a type of Burger number given by the ratio of the Rossby radius to the channel width at the narrows. In addition, a two-layer version of the Miami Isopycnic Coordinate Model (MICOM) is used, to study the cases with low Burger number. Results from experiments by Dalziel [1988. Two-layer hydraulics: maximal exchange flows. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, see also people/sd103/papers/1988/Thesis_Dalziel.pdf>] are also included for comparison. Time-mean exchange fluxes for any Bu are in close agreement with the inviscid zero-potential vorticity theory of Dalziel [1990. Rotating two-layer sill flows. In: Pratt, L.J. (Ed.), The Physical Oceanography of Sea Straits. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, pp. 343-371] and Whitehead et al. [1974. Rotating hydraulics of strait and sill flows. Geophysical Fluid Dynamics 6, 101-125], who found that fluxes for Bu>1 mainly vary with channel width, similar to non-rotating flow, but for Bu1 a steady, two-layer flow was observed that persisted across the channel at the narrows

  1. Experimental and clinical studies on CT lymphography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Yuzo; Kono, Michio

    1982-01-01

    Indirect lymphography using computed tomographic apparatus (CT Lymphography) was attempted in 15 dogs with newly devised contrast medium for the opacification of hilar and mediastinal lymphnodes. Clinical application was performed in 2 cases of lung cancer. Newly devised contrast material is an emulsion, which consists of oily contrast medium, non-ionic surfactant and glucose solution. The contrast medium was injected percutaneously into subdiaphragmatic space, or into bronchial walls by bronchofiberscopic technique. CT was able to demonstrate the opacified hilar and mediastinal nodes much more in number than demonstrated in conventional radiograms. It was true in 6 to 11 cases when injected into subdiaphragmatic spaces, and in 2 of 4 cases with an injection into bronchial walls. In clinical studies, CT revealed opacification of mediastinal nodes in one case of lung cancer. Although the procedure is still inferior to the demonstrability of routine indirect lymphography for the evaluation of the fine structure of each node, it showed no remarkable side effects. As the satisfactory method of opacifying hilar and mediastinal nodes has not yet been established, our method is thought to be of value in applying for detection of the metastatic lymphnodes. (author)

  2. Experimental study of acoustic vibration in BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Kosuke; Someya, Satoshi; Okamoto, Koji

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the power uprate of Boiling Water Reactors have been conducted at several existing power plants as a way to improve plant economy. In one of the power uprated plants (117.8% uprates) in the United States, the steam dryer breakages due to fatigue fracture occurred. It is conceivable that the increased steam flow passing through the branches caused a self-induced vibration with the propagation of sound wave into the steam-dome. The resonance among the structure, flow and the pressure fluctuation resulted in the breakages. To understand the basic mechanism of the resonance, previous researches were done by a point measurement of the pressure and by a phase averaged measurement of the flow, while it was difficult to detect the interaction among them by the conventional method. In this study, Dynamic Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) System was applied to investigate the effect of sound on natural convection and forced convection. Dynamic PIV system is the newest entrant to the field of fluid flow measurement. Its paramount advantage is the instantaneous global evaluation of conditions over plane extended across the whole velocity field. Also, to evaluate the coupling between the acoustic wave and structure (simulated as tuning fork vibrator in this experiment), in the resonance frequency of tuning fork vibrator, fluid behavior and the motion of tuning fork vibrator are measured simultaneously. (author)

  3. Experimental thermochemical study of two chlorodinitroaniline isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V.; Ribeiro da Silva, Maria D.M.C.; Santos, Ana Filipa L.O.M.; Ferreira, Ana I.M.C. Lobo; Galvao, Tiago L.P.

    2010-01-01

    The standard (p 0 =0.1MPa) molar enthalpies of formation of 2-chloro-4,6-dinitroaniline and 4-chloro-2,6-dinitroaniline, in the gaseous phase, at T = 298.15 K, were derived from the combination of the values of the standard molar enthalpies of formation, in the crystalline phase, and of the standard molar enthalpies of sublimation, at the same temperature. The standard molar enthalpies of formation, in the crystalline phase, were derived from the standard massic energies of combustion, in oxygen, measured by rotating-bomb combustion calorimetry. The standard molar enthalpies of sublimation were calculated, by the application of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, to the vapour pressures at several temperatures, measured by Knudsen effusion technique. The values of the standard molar enthalpies of formation of 2-chloro-4,6-dinitroaniline and 4-chloro-2,6-dinitroaniline, in the gaseous phase, at T = 298.15 K, are discussed in terms of enthalpic increments, and the enthalpy of isomerization between the two compounds is compared with the same parameter for two isomers of chloronitroaniline, studied in previous works.

  4. Experimental Studies of Electrothermal Plasma Gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diab, F.B.A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to study the capillary plasma discharge dynamics and characteristics. The capillary plasma device is a new technology for producing high density plasma after ablating the capillary wall using a pulsed electric power. An Electrothermal Plasma Gun (ETG) is composed of a capillary discharge tube made of Teflon operated with simple RLC circuit. The device called Electrothermal Gun (ETG) which is composed of 4 capacitors (70 μF, 10 kV, 1.28 μH) connected in parallel to a plasma source by means of one high power supply. The gun was operated in open air at discharge energies between 35 J - 3.5 kJ according to charging voltage. The work presented in this thesis covers the following items, 1- Measurements of the basic parameters and characterizations of the pretest results of the electrical circuits and capillary plasma discharge using Rogowski coil, voltage probe and Photomultiplier. 2- Material processing including (physics of the surface modifications, the morphology of the surface by using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) at different conditions, compositions of the materials by using X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), Micro hardness test and material particle deposition.

  5. Experimental study of high beta toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellman, A.G.

    1983-09-01

    Experiments on the Wisconsin Levitated Toroidal Octupole have produced a wide range of stable high β plasmas with β significantly above single fluid MHD theory predictions. A stable β approx. 8% plasma, twice the fluid limit, is obtained with 5 rho/sub i/ approx. L/sub n/ and tau/sub β/ approx. = 6000 tau/sub Alfven/ = 600 μsec. The enhanced stability is explained with a kinetic treatment that includes the effect of finite ion gyroradius which couples the ballooning mode to an ion drift wave. In a more collisional, large gyroradius (2 rho/sub i/ approx. L/sub n/) regime, a stable β approx. 35% plasma is obtained with a decay time of 1000 Alfven times. Measurement of the equilibrium magnetic field in this regime indicates that the diamagnetic current density is five times smaller than predicted by ideal MHD, probably due to ion gyroviscosity. Particle transport is anomalous and ranges from agreement with the classical diffusion rate at the highest beta, lowest field plasma (B/sub P/ = 200 G), to thirteen times the classical rate in a β=11%, high field plasma (B/sub P/ = 860 G) where the level of enhancement increase with magnetic field. Fluctuations in density, electrostatic potential, and magnetic field have been studied in plasmas with β from 0.1% to 40%

  6. Experimental study of flow through compressor Cascade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyam Panchal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research work is to study the behaviour of flow at the inlet, within the blade passage and at the exit of a compressor cascade. For this purpose, a cascade with six numbers of aerofoil blades was designed and constructed. The cascade was fitted on the cascade test tunnel. Out of six blades two were instrumented for measuring the pressure distribution on the pressure and suction surface. The blades had a parabolic camber line, with a maximum camber position at 40% of the chord from the leading edge of the blade. The profile of the blade was C4, height of the blade was 160 mm, chord length was 80 mm, camber angle was 45° and stagger angle was 30°. Similarly, the length of the cascade was 300 mm, span was 160 mm, pitch was 60 mm, the actual chord of the cascade was 80 mm, the axial chord of the cascade was 70 mm, the stagger angle of the cascade was 30° and the pitch-chord ratio was 0.75. The data was taken and analyzed at −500% of the axial chord before the cascade, −25% of the axial chord before the leading edge, 25%, 50%, 75% and 150% of the axial chord from the leading edge of the blade. The readings were taken from the cascade wall to the mid span position along the pitch wise direction. The angle of incidence was also changed during the experiment and varied from i=−50°, −30°, −10° to 5°.

  7. Markets and Morals: An Experimental Survey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Julio J.; Lacetera, Nicola; Macis, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Most societies prohibit some market transactions based on moral concerns, even when the exchanges would benefit the parties involved and would not create negative externalities. A prominent example is given by payments for human organs for transplantation, banned virtually everywhere despite long waiting lists and many deaths of patients who cannot find a donor. Recent research, however, has shown that individuals significantly increase their stated support for a regulated market for human organs when provided with information about the organ shortage and the potential beneficial effects a price mechanism. In this study we focused on payments for human organs and on another “repugnant” transaction, indoor prostitution, to address two questions: (A) Does providing general information on the welfare properties of prices and markets modify attitudes toward repugnant trades? (B) Does additional knowledge on the benefits of a price mechanism in a specific context affect attitudes toward price-based transactions in another context? By answering these questions, we can assess whether eliciting a market-oriented approach may lead to a relaxation of moral opposition to markets, and whether there is a cross-effect of information, in particular for morally controversial activities that, although different, share a reference to the “commercialization” of the human body. Relying on an online survey experiment with 5,324 U.S. residents, we found no effect of general information about market efficiency, consistent with morally controversial markets being accepted only when they are seen as a solution to a specific problem. We also found some cross-effects of information about a transaction on the acceptance of the other; however, the responses were mediated by the gender and (to a lesser extent) religiosity of the respondent—in particular, women exposed to information about legalizing prostitution reduced their stated support for regulated organ payments. We relate

  8. Markets and morals: an experimental survey study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio J Elias

    Full Text Available Most societies prohibit some market transactions based on moral concerns, even when the exchanges would benefit the parties involved and would not create negative externalities. A prominent example is given by payments for human organs for transplantation, banned virtually everywhere despite long waiting lists and many deaths of patients who cannot find a donor. Recent research, however, has shown that individuals significantly increase their stated support for a regulated market for human organs when provided with information about the organ shortage and the potential beneficial effects a price mechanism. In this study we focused on payments for human organs and on another "repugnant" transaction, indoor prostitution, to address two questions: (A Does providing general information on the welfare properties of prices and markets modify attitudes toward repugnant trades? (B Does additional knowledge on the benefits of a price mechanism in a specific context affect attitudes toward price-based transactions in another context? By answering these questions, we can assess whether eliciting a market-oriented approach may lead to a relaxation of moral opposition to markets, and whether there is a cross-effect of information, in particular for morally controversial activities that, although different, share a reference to the "commercialization" of the human body. Relying on an online survey experiment with 5,324 U.S. residents, we found no effect of general information about market efficiency, consistent with morally controversial markets being accepted only when they are seen as a solution to a specific problem. We also found some cross-effects of information about a transaction on the acceptance of the other; however, the responses were mediated by the gender and (to a lesser extent religiosity of the respondent--in particular, women exposed to information about legalizing prostitution reduced their stated support for regulated organ payments. We

  9. Markets and morals: an experimental survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Julio J; Lacetera, Nicola; Macis, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Most societies prohibit some market transactions based on moral concerns, even when the exchanges would benefit the parties involved and would not create negative externalities. A prominent example is given by payments for human organs for transplantation, banned virtually everywhere despite long waiting lists and many deaths of patients who cannot find a donor. Recent research, however, has shown that individuals significantly increase their stated support for a regulated market for human organs when provided with information about the organ shortage and the potential beneficial effects a price mechanism. In this study we focused on payments for human organs and on another "repugnant" transaction, indoor prostitution, to address two questions: (A) Does providing general information on the welfare properties of prices and markets modify attitudes toward repugnant trades? (B) Does additional knowledge on the benefits of a price mechanism in a specific context affect attitudes toward price-based transactions in another context? By answering these questions, we can assess whether eliciting a market-oriented approach may lead to a relaxation of moral opposition to markets, and whether there is a cross-effect of information, in particular for morally controversial activities that, although different, share a reference to the "commercialization" of the human body. Relying on an online survey experiment with 5,324 U.S. residents, we found no effect of general information about market efficiency, consistent with morally controversial markets being accepted only when they are seen as a solution to a specific problem. We also found some cross-effects of information about a transaction on the acceptance of the other; however, the responses were mediated by the gender and (to a lesser extent) religiosity of the respondent--in particular, women exposed to information about legalizing prostitution reduced their stated support for regulated organ payments. We relate these

  10. Experimental facilities for gas-cooled reactor safety studies. Task group on Advanced Reactor Experimental Facilities (TAREF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, the NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) completed a study on Nuclear Safety Research in OECD Countries: Support Facilities for Existing and Advanced Reactors (SFEAR) which focused on facilities suitable for current and advanced water reactor systems. In a subsequent collective opinion on the subject, the CSNI recommended to conduct a similar exercise for Generation IV reactor designs, aiming to develop a strategy for ' better preparing the CSNI to play a role in the planned extension of safety research beyond the needs set by current operating reactors'. In that context, the CSNI established the Task Group on Advanced Reactor Experimental Facilities (TAREF) in 2008 with the objective of providing an overview of facilities suitable for performing safety research relevant to gas-cooled reactors and sodium fast reactors. This report addresses gas-cooled reactors; a similar report covering sodium fast reactors is under preparation. The findings of the TAREF are expected to trigger internationally funded CSNI projects on relevant safety issues at the key facilities identified. Such CSNI-sponsored projects constitute a means for efficiently obtaining the necessary data through internationally co-ordinated research. This report provides an overview of experimental facilities that can be used to carry out nuclear safety research for gas-cooled reactors and identifies priorities for organizing international co-operative programmes at selected facilities. The information has been collected and analysed by a Task Group on Advanced Reactor Experimental Facilities (TAREF) as part of an ongoing initiative of the NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) which aims to define and to implement a strategy for the efficient utilisation of facilities and resources for Generation IV reactor systems. (author)

  11. An experimental study on pump clogging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isono, M; Nohmi, M; Uchida, H; Kawai, M; Kudo, H; Kawahara, T; Miyagawa, K; Saito, S

    2014-01-01

    For sewage pump that various foreign substance is flowed into, anti-clogging performance is a factor as important as pump efficiency in order to avoid clogging trouble by foreign substance. Many investigations about pump inner flow and pump efficiency estimation have been carried out conventionally in order to realize coexistence with anti-clogging performance and pump performance. And these results have been reflected in construction of the running water section design method. As a index of anti-clogging performance, ''impeller passage diameter'' which is diameter of spherical solid that can pass through the pump is used widely. And there are various type of the sewage pump which have large impeller passage diameter. However real cause of clog is not a solid, and it is fibrous material such as towel and clothes, vinyl and paper diaper. In most case these material accumulate in the pump, so that clog is occurred. In this study, for the purpose of quantification of anti-clogging performance against fibrous materials, the factor that affect to clogging of pump was investigated by pump model test using a string. The test is done based on Taguchi method. In this test, type of the pump model, diameter of the string, material of the string, length of the string and flow rate are selected for the factor, and the effect that they have on the clogging of the pump was investigated. As a result of this test, it was made clear that length of the string has a strong influence on the clogging of the pump. And from the result of this test, evaluation method of anti-clogging performance of the pump against fibrous material by using string was considered. According to the result of above test based on Taguchi method, it was assumed that quantification of anti-clogging performance against fibrous materials is possible by flowing plural strings into the pump and calculating the probability of passing. Plurality sewage pumps of different types were evaluated based

  12. New developments in measurements technology relevant to the studies of deep geological repositories in bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, N.; Ramirez, A.L.

    1980-01-01

    This report presents new developments in measurement technology relevant to the studies of deep geological repositories for nuclear waste disposal during all phases of development, i.e., site selection, site characterization, construction, operation, and decommission. Emphasis has been placed on geophysics and geotechnics with special attention to those techniques applicable to bedded salt. The techniques are grouped into sections as follows: tectonic environment, state of stress, subsurface structures, fractures, stress changes, deformation, thermal properties, fluid transport properties, and other approaches. Several areas that merit further research and developments are identified. These areas are: in situ thermal measurement techniques, fracture detection and characterization, in situ stress measurements, and creep behavior. The available instrumentations should generally be improved to have better resolution and accuracy, enhanced instrument survivability, and reliability for extended time periods in a hostile environment

  13. Laboratory Studies of Ethane Ice Relevant to Outer Solar System Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Marla H.; Hudson, Reggie; Raines, Lily

    2009-01-01

    Oort Cloud comets, as well as TNOs Makemake (2045 FYg), Quaoar, and Pluto, are known to contain ethane. However, even though this molecule is found on several outer Solar System objects relatively little information is available about its amorphous and crystalline phases. In new experiments, we have prepared ethane ices at temperatures applicable to the outer Solar System, and have heated and ion-irradiated these ices to study phase changes and ethane's radiation chemistry using mid-IR spectroscopy (2.2 - 16.6 microns). Included in our work is the meta-stable phase that exists at 35 - 55 K. These results, including newly obtained optical constants, are relevant to ground-based observational campaigns, the New Horizons mission, and supporting laboratory work. An improved understanding of solid-phase ethane may contribute to future searches for this and other hydrocarbons in the outer Solar System.

  14. Organisationally relevant variables and Keyes's Mental Health Continuum Scale: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deo J.W. Strümpfer

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In an exploratory study on a sample of convenience (n = 165, 11 self-report variables with presumed organisational  relevance were  related,  as  predictors,  to  the  three  subscores  and  summed  score of  the Keyes  (2005a, 2005b; 2007 Mental Health Continuum  scale  (long  form. Keyes's  scale was administered five to seven days after the first set of scales. The predictor scores were reduced to three factorial scores, labelled positive orientation, negative orientation and positive striving. When classified thus, the predictor variables showed significant and meaningful relationships with some or all of the Keyes subscores and the total score, although few reached medium effect sizes.

  15. Lexical Studies of Filipino Person Descriptors: Adding Personality-Relevant Social and Physical Attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperio, Shellah Myra; Church, A Timothy; Katigbak, Marcia S; Reyes, Jose Alberto S

    2008-06-01

    Lexical studies have focused on traits. In the Filipino language, we investigated whether additional dimensions can be identified when personality-relevant terms for social roles, statuses, and effects, plus physical attributes, are included. Filipino students (N = 496) rated themselves on 268 such terms, plus 253 markers of trait and evaluative dimensions. We identified 10 dimensions of social and physical attributes-Prominence, Uselessness, Attractiveness, Respectability, Uniqueness, Destructiveness, Presentableness, Strength, Dangerousness, and Charisma. Most of these dimensions did not correspond in a one-to-one manner to Filipino or alternative trait models (Big Five, HEXACO, ML7). However, considerable redundancy was observed between the social and physical attribute dimensions and trait and evaluative dimensions. Thus, social and physical attributes communicate information about personality traits, and vice-versa.

  16. Lexical Studies of Filipino Person Descriptors: Adding Personality-Relevant Social and Physical Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperio, Shellah Myra; Church, A. Timothy; Katigbak, Marcia S.; Reyes, Jose Alberto S.

    2009-01-01

    Lexical studies have focused on traits. In the Filipino language, we investigated whether additional dimensions can be identified when personality-relevant terms for social roles, statuses, and effects, plus physical attributes, are included. Filipino students (N = 496) rated themselves on 268 such terms, plus 253 markers of trait and evaluative dimensions. We identified 10 dimensions of social and physical attributes—Prominence, Uselessness, Attractiveness, Respectability, Uniqueness, Destructiveness, Presentableness, Strength, Dangerousness, and Charisma. Most of these dimensions did not correspond in a one-to-one manner to Filipino or alternative trait models (Big Five, HEXACO, ML7). However, considerable redundancy was observed between the social and physical attribute dimensions and trait and evaluative dimensions. Thus, social and physical attributes communicate information about personality traits, and vice-versa. PMID:19779603

  17. New developments in measurements technology relevant to the studies of deep geological repositories in bedded salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, N. H.; Ramirez, A. L.

    1980-10-01

    Developments in measurement technology are presented which are relevant to the studies of deep geological repositories for nuclear waste disposal during all phases of development, i.e., site selection, site characterization, construction, operation, and decommission. Emphasis was placed on geophysics and geotechnics with special attention to those techniques applicable to bedded salt. The techniques are grouped into sections as follows: tectonic environment, state of stress, subsurface structures, fractures, stress changes, deformation, thermal properties, fluid transport properties, and other approaches. Several areas that merit further research and developments are identified. These areas are: in situ thermal measurement techniques, fracture detection and characterization, in situ stress measurements, and creep behavior. The available instrumentations should generally be improved to have better resolution and accuracy, enhanced instrument survivability, and reliability for extended time periods in a hostile environment.

  18. Self-referential and anxiety-relevant information processing in subclinical social anxiety: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Anna; Kaufmann, Carolin; Redlich, Ronny; Hermann, Andrea; Stark, Rudolf; Stevens, Stephan; Hermann, Christiane

    2013-03-01

    The fear of negative evaluation is one of the hallmark features of social anxiety. Behavioral evidence thus far largely supports cognitive models which postulate that information processing biases in the face of socially relevant information are a key factor underlying this widespread phobia. So far only one neuroimaging study has explicitly focused on the fear of negative evaluation in social anxiety where the brain responses of social phobics were compared to healthy participants during the processing of self-referential relative to other-referential criticism, praise or neutral information. Only self-referential criticism led to stronger activations in emotion-relevant regions of the brain, such as the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortices (mPFC), in the social phobics. The objective of the current study was to determine whether these findings could be extended to subclinical social anxiety. In doing so, the specificity of this self-referential bias was also examined by including both social and non-social (physical illness-related) threat information as well as a highly health anxious control group in the experimental paradigm. The fMRI findings indicated that the processing of emotional stimuli was accompanied by activations in the amygdala and the ventral mPFC, while self-referential processing was associated with activity in regions such as the mPFC, posterior cingulate and temporal poles. Despite the validation of the paradigm, the results revealed that the previously reported behavioral and brain biases associated with social phobia could not be unequivocally extended to subclinical social anxiety. The divergence between the findings is explored in detail with reference to paradigm differences and conceptual issues.

  19. Theoretical and Experimental Studies in Accelerator Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenzweig, James [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2017-03-08

    . We note also that PBPL graduates remain as close elaborators for the program after leaving UCLA. The UCLA PBPL program is a foremost developer of on-campus facilities, such as the Neptune and Pegasus Laboratories, providing a uniquely strong environment for student-based research. In addition, the PBPL is a strong user of off-campus national lab facilities, such as SLAC FACET and NLCTA, and the BNL ATF. UCLA has also vigorously participated in the development of these facilities. The dual emphases on off- and on-campus opportunities permit the PBPL to address in an agile way a wide selection of cutting-edge research topics. The topics embraced by this proposal illustrate this program aspect well. These include: GV/m dielectric wakefield acceleration/coherent Cerenkov radiation experiments at FACET (E-201) and the ATF; synergistic laser-excited dielectric accelerator and light source development; plasma wakefield (PWFA) experiments on “Trojan horse” ionization injection (FACET E-210), quasi-nonlinear PWFA at BNL and the production at Neptune high transformer ratio plasma wakes; the inauguration of a new type of RF photoinjector termed “hybrid” at UCLA, and application to PWFA; space-charge dominated beam and cathode/near cathode physics; the study of advanced IFEL systems, for very high energy gain and utilization of novel OAM modes; the physcis of inverse Compton scattering (ICS), with applications to e+ production and γγ colliders; electron diffraction; and advanced beam diagnostics using coherent imaging techniques. These subjects are addressed under the leadership of PBPL director Prof. James Rosenzweig in Task A, and Prof. Pietro Musumeci in Task J, which was initiated following his OHEP Outstanding Junior Investigator award.

  20. The class inclusion question: a case study in applying pragmatics to the experimental study of cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politzer, Guy

    2016-01-01

    For more than 70 years, Piaget's class-inclusion task (given, e.g., five asters and three tulips, the child is asked whether "there are more asters or more flowers") has been the object of experimental investigation. Inclusion is of considerable importance for cognitive science as it is a key concept for logical operations and knowledge representation. It is shown that the question can be characterised by a kind of privative ambiguity which is at the source of the younger children's answer, "more asters". A relevance-theoretic explanation of children's interpretation of the question and of the subsequent responses is expounded. This account can explain the effect of all the factors that are known to influence performance (e.g., role of collections, counting, typicality, qualification, syntax, etc.), a review of which is presented. It is further tested experimentally. The development of performance is explained on the basis of the way children disambiguate the question. This study exemplifies the two ways in which pragmatic analysis is pertinent to the study of children's (as well as adults') reasoning and judgement, namely in explaining and predicting participants' comprehension of the statements and questions, and in taking into account attribution processes that occur in the experimental setting.

  1. Injury Based on Its Study in Experimental Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mendes-Braz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review focuses on the numerous experimental models used to study the complexity of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury. Although experimental models of hepatic I/R injury represent a compromise between the clinical reality and experimental simplification, the clinical transfer of experimental results is problematic because of anatomical and physiological differences and the inevitable simplification of experimental work. In this review, the strengths and limitations of the various models of hepatic I/R are discussed. Several strategies to protect the liver from I/R injury have been developed in animal models and, some of these, might find their way into clinical practice. We also attempt to highlight the fact that the mechanisms responsible for hepatic I/R injury depend on the experimental model used, and therefore the therapeutic strategies also differ according to the model used. Thus, the choice of model must therefore be adapted to the clinical question being answered.

  2. Flow past an axially aligned spinning cylinder: Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlucci, Pasquale; Buckley, Liam; Mehmedagic, Igbal; Carlucci, Donald; Thangam, Siva

    2017-11-01

    Experimental investigation of flow past a spinning cylinder is presented in the context of its application and relevance to flow past projectiles. A subsonic wind tunnel is used to perform experiments on the flow past a spinning cylinder that is mounted on a forward sting and oriented such that its axis of rotation is aligned with the mean flow. The experiments cover a Reynolds number of range of up to 45000 and rotation numbers of up to 2 (based on cylinder diameter). Time-averaged mean flow and turbulence profiles in the wake flow are presented with and without spin along with comparison to published experimental data. Funded in part by the U. S. Army ARDEC, Picatinny Arsenal, NJ.

  3. Experimental studies on an indigenous coconut shell based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Experimental studies are carried out to characterize an indigenous, coconut shell based, activated carbon suitable for storage of natural gas. Properties such as BET surface area, micropore volume, average pore diameter and pore size distribution are obtained by using suitable instruments and techniques. An experimental ...

  4. Experimental studies on caisson-type porous seawalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shutang; Chwang, A. T.

    2002-08-01

    This paper presents experimental studies on the reflection characteristics of caisson-type porous seawalls under designed wave conditions. The results of physical model experiments are plotted and discussed. Comparisons between experimental results and analytical predictions are also made and the agreement is found to be very good.

  5. The experimental study of seed dispersal by fish (ichthyochory)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollux, B.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    1.The last few years have seen an increased interest in the experimental study of seed dispersal by fish (ichthyochory). This paper reviews such experiments, aiming to determine what functional aspects of ichthyochory have been investigated, what experimental designs have been used and what the

  6. Experimental study of ion heating and acceleration during magnetic reconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, S.C.

    2000-01-28

    This dissertation reports an experimental study of ion heating and acceleration during magnetic reconnection, which is the annihilation and topological rearrangement of magnetic flux in a conductive plasma. Reconnection is invoked often to explain particle heating and acceleration in both laboratory and naturally occurring plasmas. However, a simultaneous account of reconnection and its associated energy conversion has been elusive due to the extreme inaccessibility of reconnection events, e.g. in the solar corona, the Earth's magnetosphere, or in fusion research plasmas. Experiments for this work were conducted on MRX (Magnetic Reconnection Experiment), which creates a plasma environment allowing the reconnection process to be isolated, reproduced, and diagnosed in detail. Key findings of this work are the identification of local ion heating during magnetic reconnection and the determination that non-classical effects must provide the heating mechanism. Measured ion flows are sub-Alfvenic and can provide only slight viscous heating, and classical ion-electron interactions can be neglected due to the very long energy equipartition time. The plasma resistivity in the reconnection layer is seen to be enhanced over the classical value, and the ion heating is observed to scale with the enhancement factor, suggesting a relationship between the magnetic energy dissipation mechanism and the ion heating mechanism. The observation of non-classical ion heating during reconnection has significant implications for understanding the role played by non-classical dissipation mechanisms in generating fast reconnection. The findings are relevant for many areas of space and laboratory plasma research, a prime example being the currently unsolved problem of solar coronal heating. In the process of performing this work, local measurements of ion temperature and flows in a well-characterized reconnection layer were obtained for the first time in either laboratory or observational

  7. Experimental study of ion heating and acceleration during magnetic reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, S.C.

    2000-01-01

    This dissertation reports an experimental study of ion heating and acceleration during magnetic reconnection, which is the annihilation and topological rearrangement of magnetic flux in a conductive plasma. Reconnection is invoked often to explain particle heating and acceleration in both laboratory and naturally occurring plasmas. However, a simultaneous account of reconnection and its associated energy conversion has been elusive due to the extreme inaccessibility of reconnection events, e.g. in the solar corona, the Earth's magnetosphere, or in fusion research plasmas. Experiments for this work were conducted on MRX (Magnetic Reconnection Experiment), which creates a plasma environment allowing the reconnection process to be isolated, reproduced, and diagnosed in detail. Key findings of this work are the identification of local ion heating during magnetic reconnection and the determination that non-classical effects must provide the heating mechanism. Measured ion flows are sub-Alfvenic and can provide only slight viscous heating, and classical ion-electron interactions can be neglected due to the very long energy equipartition time. The plasma resistivity in the reconnection layer is seen to be enhanced over the classical value, and the ion heating is observed to scale with the enhancement factor, suggesting a relationship between the magnetic energy dissipation mechanism and the ion heating mechanism. The observation of non-classical ion heating during reconnection has significant implications for understanding the role played by non-classical dissipation mechanisms in generating fast reconnection. The findings are relevant for many areas of space and laboratory plasma research, a prime example being the currently unsolved problem of solar coronal heating. In the process of performing this work, local measurements of ion temperature and flows in a well-characterized reconnection layer were obtained for the first time in either laboratory or observational

  8. Experimental study of decomposition of aqueous nitrosyl thiocyanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayson, Mark S; Mackie, John C; Kennedy, Eric M; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z

    2011-08-15

    This study has examined the kinetics of the decomposition of nitrosyl thiocyanate (ONSCN) by stopped flow UV-vis spectrophotometry, with the reaction products identified and quantified by infrared spectroscopy, membrane inlet mass spectrometry, ion chromatography, and CN(-) ion selective electrode. The reaction results in the formation of nitric oxide and thiocyanogen, the latter decomposing to sulfate and hydrogen cyanide in aqueous solution. The rate of consumption of ONSCN depends strongly on the concentration of SCN(-) ions and is inhibited by nitric oxide. We have developed a reaction mechanism that comprises three parallel pathways for the decomposition of ONSCN. At high thiocyanate concentrations, two reaction pathways operate including a second order reaction to generate NO and (SCN)(2) and a reversible reaction between ONSCN and SCN(-) producing NO and (SCN)(2)(-), with the rate limiting step corresponding to the consumption of (SCN)(2)(-) by reaction with ONSCN. The third reaction pathway, which becomes significant at low thiocyanate concentrations, involves formation of a previously unreported species, ONOSCN, via a reaction between ONSCN and HOSCN, the latter constituting an intermediate in the hydrolysis of (SCN)(2). ONOSCN contributes to the formation of NO via homolysis of the O-NO bond and subsequent dimerization and hydrolysis of OSCN. Fitting the chemical reactions of the model to the experimental measurements, which covered a wide range of reactant concentrations, afforded estimation of all relevant kinetic parameters and provided an excellent match. The reaction mechanism developed in this contribution may be applied to predict the rates of NO formation from ONSCN during the synthesis of azo dyes, the gassing of explosive emulsions, or nitrosation reactions occurring in the human body. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  9. The Power of Phase I Studies to Detect Clinical Relevant QTc Prolongation: A Resampling Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Ferber

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentration-effect (CE models applied to early clinical QT data from healthy subjects are described in the latest E14 Q&A document as promising analysis to characterise QTc prolongation. The challenges faced if one attempts to replace a TQT study by thorough ECG assessments in Phase I based on CE models are the assurance to obtain sufficient power and the establishment of a substitute for the positive control to show assay sensitivity providing protection against false negatives. To demonstrate that CE models in small studies can reliably predict the absence of an effect on QTc, we investigated the role of some key design features in the power of the analysis. Specifically, the form of the CE model, inclusion of subjects on placebo, and sparse sampling on the performance and power of this analysis were investigated. In this study, the simulations conducted by subsampling subjects from 3 different TQT studies showed that CE model with a treatment effect can be used to exclude small QTc effects. The number of placebo subjects was also shown to increase the power to detect an inactive drug preventing false positives while an effect can be underestimated if time points around tmax are missed.

  10. Theoretical studies of field-reversed configurations (FRCs) and experimental study of the FRC during translation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemon, R.E.; Armstrong, W.T.; Chrien, R.E.; Klingner, P.L.; Linford, R.K.; McKenna, K.F.; Rej, D.J.; Schwarzmeier, J.L.; Sgro, A.; Sherwood, E.G.

    1984-08-01

    Theoretical studies of FRC stability and tranport are summarized. Finite Larmor radius theories are shown to be unreliable for explaining the experimentally observed stability to tilting. Control of the n=2 rotational instability has been demonstrated in 2-dimensional hybrid-code simulations, and the stability appears to be described within MHD if the nearly square equilibria that result from quadrupole fields are taken into account. Simulations of the lower-hybrid-drift instability in parameter regimes relevant to experiments show good agreement with a nonlocal theory of the instability. A 1.5-dimensional transport code shows agreement with the energy confinement time but disagreement with the flux loss time observed in FRX-C. The process of FRC translation in which the plasma is formed, translated into a dc solenoid, and trapped by magnetic mirrors has been studied in the FRX-C/T experiment.

  11. Theoretical studies of field-reversed configurations (FRCs) and experimental study of the FRC during translation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemon, R.E.; Armstrong, W.T.; Chrien, R.E.

    1984-08-01

    Theoretical studies of FRC stability and tranport are summarized. Finite Larmor radius theories are shown to be unreliable for explaining the experimentally observed stability to tilting. Control of the n=2 rotational instability has been demonstrated in 2-dimensional hybrid-code simulations, and the stability appears to be described within MHD if the nearly square equilibria that result from quadrupole fields are taken into account. Simulations of the lower-hybrid-drift instability in parameter regimes relevant to experiments show good agreement with a nonlocal theory of the instability. A 1.5-dimensional transport code shows agreement with the energy confinement time but disagreement with the flux loss time observed in FRX-C. The process of FRC translation in which the plasma is formed, translated into a dc solenoid, and trapped by magnetic mirrors has been studied in the FRX-C/T experiment

  12. Guidance on assessing the methodological and reporting quality of toxicologically relevant studies: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Gbeminiyi O; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Wright, Robert A; Lalu, Manoj Mathew; Patlewicz, Grace; Becker, Richard A; DeGeorge, George L; Fergusson, Dean; Hartung, Thomas; Lewis, R Jeffrey; Stephens, Martin L

    2016-01-01

    Assessments of methodological and reporting quality are critical to adequately judging the credibility of a study's conclusions and to gauging its potential reproducibility. To aid those seeking to assess the methodological or reporting quality of studies relevant to toxicology, we conducted a scoping review of the available guidance with respect to four types of studies: in vivo and in vitro, (quantitative) structure-activity relationships ([Q]SARs), physico-chemical, and human observational studies. Our aims were to identify the available guidance in this diverse literature, briefly summarize each document, and distill the common elements of these documents for each study type. In general, we found considerable guidance for in vivo and human studies, but only one paper addressed in vitro studies exclusively. The guidance for (Q)SAR studies and physico-chemical studies was scant but authoritative. There was substantial overlap across guidance documents in the proposed criteria for both methodological and reporting quality. Some guidance documents address toxicology research directly, whereas others address preclinical research generally or clinical research and therefore may not be fully applicable to the toxicology context without some translation. Another challenge is the degree to which assessments of methodological quality in toxicology should focus on risk of bias - as in clinical medicine and healthcare - or be broadened to include other quality measures, such as confirming the identity of test substances prior to exposure. Our review is intended primarily for those in toxicology and risk assessment seeking an entry point into the extensive and diverse literature on methodological and reporting quality applicable to their work. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. The relevance of polymeric synthetic membranes in topical formulation assessment and drug diffusion study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shiow-Fern; Rouse, Jennifer J; Sanderson, Francis D; Eccleston, Gillian M

    2012-03-01

    Synthetic membranes are composed of thin sheets of polymeric macromolecules that can control the passage of components through them. Generally, synthetic membranes used in drug diffusion studies have one of two functions: skin simulation or quality control. Synthetic membranes for skin simulation, such as the silicone-based membranes polydimethylsiloxane and Carbosil, are generally hydrophobic and rate limiting, imitating the stratum corneum. In contrast, synthetic membranes for quality control, such as cellulose esters and polysulfone, are required to act as a support rather than a barrier. These synthetic membranes also often contain pores; hence, they are called porous membranes. The significance of Franz diffusion studies and synthetic membranes in quality control studies involves an understanding of the fundamentals of synthetic membranes. This article provides a general overview of synthetic membranes, including a brief background of the history and the common applications of synthetic membranes. This review then explores the types of synthetic membranes, the transport mechanisms across them, and their relevance in choosing a synthetic membrane in Franz diffusion cell studies for formulation assessment purposes.

  14. Review of relevant studies of isolated systems[Integration of wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, L.H.; Lundsager, P.

    2000-12-01

    The report presents the results of a review of studies relating to integration of wind energy in isolated power supply systems, based on a systematic literature survey. The purpose of the study is to develop a methodology consisting of a set of guidelines for wind energy projects in isolated energy systems and a set of tools and models that are operational on an engineering level. The review is based on a literature search in the ETDE Energy Database with a main search covering the period 7/88 to 6/97 and supplemented by partial update periods. A few newer references have been included in the review, most notably the IEC/PAS 62111 specification. The amount of wind energy literature related to the subject is excessively large, and a complete review in which every relevant abstract is identified and examined is not feasible within the framework of this (or probably any other) study. The review results have been organised according to the following keywords: methods & guides, economics, concept of application, system solutions, case studies, financial programmes, dedicated software tools. None of the found references presents methods or tools that contradict the philosophy of Risoe's methodology as it is described in the report. It is therefore concluded that Risoe's methodology makes a good platform for further development. (au)

  15. Study of TXRF experimental system by Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Ana Cristina M.; Leitao, Roberta G.; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Conti, Claudio C.

    2011-01-01

    The Total-Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) technique offers unique possibilities to study the concentrations of a wide range of trace elements in various types of samples. Besides that, the TXRF technique is widely used to study the trace elements in biological, medical and environmental samples due to its multielemental character as well as simplicity of sample preparation and quantification methods used. In general the TXRF experimental setup is not simple and might require substantial experimental efforts. On the other hand, in recent years, experimental TXRF portable systems have been developed. It has motivated us to develop our own TXRF portable system. In this work we presented a first step in order to optimize a TXRF experimental setup using Monte Carlo simulation by MCNP code. The results found show that the Monte Carlo simulation method can be used to investigate the development of a TXRF experimental system before its assembly. (author)

  16. Studies of heat transfer having relevance to nuclear reactor containment cooling by buoyancy-driven air flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, J. D.; Li, J.; Wang, J. [The Univ., of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    Two separate effects experiments concerned with buoyancy-influenced convective heat transfer in vertical passages which have relevance to the problem of nuclear reactor containment cooling by means of buoyancy-driven airflow are described. A feature of each is that local values of heat transfer coefficient are determined on surfaces maintained at uniform temperature. Experimental results are presented which highlight the need for buoyancy-induced impairment of turbulent convective heat transfer to be accounted for in the design of such passive cooling systems. A strategy is presented for predicting the heat removal by combined convective and radiative heat transfer from a full scale nuclear reactor containment shell using such experimental results.

  17. SMART-1 highlights and relevant studies on early bombardment and geological processes on rocky planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foing, B H; Koschny, D; Frew, D; Almeida, M; Zender, J; Heather, D; Peters, S; Racca, G D; Marini, A; Stagnaro, L; Josset, J L; Beauvivre, S; Grande, M; Kellett, B; Huovelin, J; Nathues, A; Mall, U; Ehrenfreund, P; McCannon, P

    2008-01-01

    We present results from SMART-1 science and technology payload, in the context of the Nobel symposium on 'Physics of Planetary Systems'. SMART-1 is Europe' first lunar mission (Foing et al 2000 LPSC XXXI Abstract 1677 (CDROM); Foing et al 2001 Earth, Moon Planets 85-86 523-31; Marini et al 2002 Adv. Space Res. 30 1895-900; Racca et al 2001 Earth Moon Planets 85-86 379-95, Racca et al 2002 Planet Space Sci. 50 1323-37) demonstrating technologies for future science and exploration missions, and providing advances in our understanding of lunar origin and evolution, and general planetary questions. The mission also contributes a step in developing an international program of lunar exploration. The spacecraft, launched on 27 September 2003 as an Ariane 5 Auxiliary passenger to geostationary transfer orbit (GTO), performed a 14-month long cruise using a tiny thrust of electric propulsion alone, reached lunar capture in November 2004, and lunar science orbit in March 2005. SMART-1 carried 7 hardware experiments (Foing et al 2003 Adv. Space Res. 31 2323, Foing et al 2005 LPI/LPSC XXXVI 2404 (CDROM)) performing 10 investigations, including 3 remote-sensing instruments, used during the cruise, the mission' nominal six-months and one-year extension in lunar science orbit. Three remote sensing instruments, D-CIXS, SIR and AMIE, have returned data that are relevant to a broad range of lunar studies. The mission provided regional and global x-ray measurements of the Moon, global high-spectral resolution NIR spectrometry, high spatial resolution colour imaging of selected regions. The South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA) and other impact basins have been prime targets for studies using the SMART-1 suite of instruments. Combined, these should aid a large number of science studies, from bulk crustal composition and theories of lunar origin/evolution, the global and local crustal composition, to the search for cold traps at the lunar poles and the mapping of potential lunar resources. We

  18. Genome-wide association studies in bladder cancer: first results and potential relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Grotenhuis, Anne J; Vermeulen, Sita H; Wu, Xifeng

    2009-09-01

    The role of genetic susceptibility in the development of urinary bladder cancer is unclear, as it is in many other types of cancer. Since 2007, however, an innovative research approach (i.e. genome-wide association studies or GWASs) has led to the identification of numerous genomic loci that harbor susceptibility factors for one or more cancer sites. All GWASs have been published in high-impact journals and the strengths of the design are acknowledged by all experts, but there is criticism about the relevance of the results. Late 2008, the first GWAS in bladder cancer was published. In this review, the principles of GWASs are explained, as well as their strengths and limitations. The study in bladder cancer among 4000 cases and 38,000 controls identified three new susceptibility loci at 8q24, 3q28, and 5p15 that increase the risk of bladder cancer by 22, 19, and 16%, respectively. The results of two other GWASs in bladder cancer are expected to appear this year. Joint analysis of the three studies will probably identify additional susceptibility loci. The results of bladder cancer GWASs may point the way to yet unknown disease mechanisms. So far, the findings are not sufficiently discriminative for risk predictions to be used in clinical care or public health.

  19. Atomic spectroscopy on fusion relevant ions and studies of light impurities in the JET tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunklev, M.

    1999-03-01

    The spectrum and energy levels of C IV and the 3l-4l system of the Mg-like ions in the iron group elements have been investigated. This has led to several hundred identified transitions, many of them previously unknown. Using the Charge Exchange Diagnostic system at JET, ion temperatures, rotation velocities and densities have been derived from visible spectroscopic measurements on fully ionised light impurities, such as He, C, N and Ne. The existence of plume contribution from beam produced hydrogen-like ions has been proven beyond any doubt to affect the deduction of the active charge exchange signal of He II. In the case of C VI the plume signal was estimated to be at least a factor of five lower than the active charge exchange signal. Line integrated passive charge exchange emission between neutral background atoms and fully stripped impurity ions has been investigated and modelled. When the synthetic spectrum is fitted into the experimentally detected spectra the neutral background density can be deduced. The importance of including background atoms (H, D and T) as charge exchange donors, not only in state 2s, but also in state 1s, has shown to be crucial in high temperature shots. Transport of light impurities has been studied with gas puff injections into steady state H-mode plasmas. The results suggest that light impurities are transported as described by the neo-classical Pfirsch-Schlueter regime at the edge, whilst in the centre, sawtoothing, preferably to Banana transport, is mixing the plasma and increases the measured values on the diffusion. For the peaking of impurities in a steady state plasma an anomalous treatment was more in agreement with the experimental data. Certain confinement information, previously predicted theoretically as a part of the peaking equation, has been experimentally verified

  20. Bioinformatics tools for the analysis of NMR metabolomics studies focused on the identification of clinically relevant biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchades-Carrasco, Leonor; Palomino-Schätzlein, Martina; Pérez-Rambla, Clara; Pineda-Lucena, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    Metabolomics, a systems biology approach focused on the global study of the metabolome, offers a tremendous potential in the analysis of clinical samples. Among other applications, metabolomics enables mapping of biochemical alterations involved in the pathogenesis of diseases, and offers the opportunity to noninvasively identify diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers that could translate into early therapeutic interventions. Particularly, metabolomics by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) has the ability to simultaneously detect and structurally characterize an abundance of metabolic components, even when their identities are unknown. Analysis of the data generated using this experimental approach requires the application of statistical and bioinformatics tools for the correct interpretation of the results. This review focuses on the different steps involved in the metabolomics characterization of biofluids for clinical applications, ranging from the design of the study to the biological interpretation of the results. Particular emphasis is devoted to the specific procedures required for the processing and interpretation of NMR data with a focus on the identification of clinically relevant biomarkers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Is there a prognostic relevance of electrophysiological studies in bundle branch block patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogossian, Harilaos; Frommeyer, Gerrit; Göbbert, Kornelius; Hasan, Fuad; Nguyen, Quy Suu; Ninios, Ilias; Mijic, Dejan; Bandorski, Dirk; Hoeltgen, Reinhard; Seyfarth, Melchior; Lemke, Bernd; Eckardt, Lars; Zarse, Markus

    2017-08-01

    The present European guidelines suggest a diagnostic electrophysiological (EP) study to determine indication for cardiac pacing in patients with bundle branch block and unexplained syncope. We evaluated the prognostic relevance of an EP study for mortality and the development of permanent complete atrioventricular (AV) block in patients with symptomatic bifascicular block and first-degree AV block. The HV interval is a poor prognostic marker to predict the development of permanent AV block in patients with symptomatic bifascicular block (BFB) and AV block I°. Thirty consecutive patients (mean age, 74.8 ± 8.6 years; 25 males) with symptomatic BFB and first-degree AV block underwent an EP study before device implantation, according to current guidelines. For 53 ± 31 months, patients underwent yearly follow-up screening for syncope or higher-degree AV block. Thirty patients presented with prolonged HV interval during the EP study (mean, 82.2 ± 20.1 ms; range, 57-142 ms), classified into 3 groups: group 1, 70 to ≤100 ms (mean, 80 ± 8 ms; range, 70-97 ms; n = 18), and group 3, >100 ms (mean, 119 ± 14 ms; range, 107-142 ms; n = 5). According to the guidelines, patients in groups 2 and 3 received a pacemaker. The length of the HV interval was not associated with the later development of third-degree AV block or with increased mortality. Our present study suggests that an indication for pacemaker implantation based solely on a diagnostic EP study with prolongation of the HV interval is not justified. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Experimental and theoretical studies of bombardment induced surface morphology changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, G.; Nobes, M.J.; Williams, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    In this review results of experimental and theoretical studies of solid surface morphology changes due to ion bombardment are discussed. An attempt is undertaken to classify the observed specific features of a structure, generated by ion bombardment [ru

  3. Studies on pathogenesis and treatment of experimental immune complex glomerulonephrtis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleuren, Gerard Johannes Maria

    1976-01-01

    Chapter 1. In this thesis an investigation into pathogenetic mechanisms of epimembranous immune complex depostion in the glomeruli was described. For this study we used two related models of experimental immune complex glemerulonephritis: the heterologous and the autologous immune complex

  4. Experimental studies of occupation times in turbulent flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, J.; Ott, Søren; Pécseli, H.L.

    2003-01-01

    The motion of passively convected particles in turbulent flows is studied experimentally in approximately homogeneous and isotropic turbulent flows, generated in water by two moving grids. The simultaneous trajectories of many small passively convected, neutrally buoyant, polystyrene particles...

  5. Biofouling in forward osmosis systems: An experimental and numerical study

    KAUST Repository

    Bucs, Szilard; Valladares Linares, Rodrigo; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.; Picioreanu, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates with numerical simulations supported by experimental data the impact of biofouling on membrane performance in a cross-flow forward osmosis (FO) system. The two-dimensional numerical model couples liquid flow with solute

  6. An experimental and modeling study of n-octanol combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, Liming; Uygun, Yasar; Togbé , Casimir; Pitsch, Heinz G.; Olivier, Herbert; Dagaut, P.; Sarathy, Mani

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the first investigation on the combustion chemistry of n-octanol, a long chain alcohol. Ignition delay times were determined experimentally in a high-pressure shock tube, and stable species concentration profiles were obtained

  7. Selected, annotated bibliography of studies relevant to the isolation of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyder, L.K.; Fore, C.S.; Vaughan, N.D.; Faust, R.A.

    1980-09-01

    This annotated bibliography of 705 references represents the first in a series to be published by the Ecological Sciences Information Center containing scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information relevant to nuclear waste isolation. Most references discuss deep geologic disposal, with fewer studies of deep seabed disposal; space disposal is also included. The publication covers both domestic and foreign literature for the period 1954 to 1980. Major chapters selected are Chemical and Physical Aspects; Container Design and Performance; Disposal Site; Envirnmental Transport; General Studies and Reviews; Geology, Hydrology and Site Resources; Regulatory and Economic Aspects; Repository Design and Engineering; Transportation Technology; Waste Production; and Waste Treatment. Specialized data fields have been incorporated to improve the ease and accuracy of locating pertinent references. Specific radionuclides for which data are presented are listed in the Measured Radionuclides field, and specific parameters which affect the migration of these radionuclides are presented in the Measured Parameters field. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author, corporate affiliation, or title of the document. When the author is not given, the corporate affiliation appears first. If these two levels of authorship are not given, the title of the document is used as the identifying level. Indexes are provided for author(s), keywords, subject category, title, geographic location, measured parameters, measured radionuclides, and publication description

  8. A Case Study: Are Traditional Face-To-Face Lectures Still Relevant When Teaching Engineering Courses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LillAnne Jackson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this rapidly changing age, with virtually all information available on the Internet including courses, students may not find any reason to physically attend the lectures. In spite of the many benefits the online lectures and materials bring to teaching, this drift from the traditional (norm face-to-face lectures is also creating further barriers, such as difficulty in communicating and building personal relationships, between students and instructor. In this paper we carry out a study that presents and analyzes factors that motivate students to attend a (1 face-to-face instruction in-class versus an (2 online class. This study is based on an anonymous and voluntary survey that was conducted in the School of Engineering at University of Victoria, BC, Canada. This paper presents and shares the detailed results and analysis of this survey that also includes some interesting and useful comments from the students. Based on the results, analysis and comments the paper suggests methodologies of how to improve face-to-face in-class instructions to make them more relevant to the current global information age.

  9. More Realistic Face Model Surface Improves Relevance of Pediatric In-Vitro Aerosol Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirav, Israel; Halamish, Asaf; Gorenberg, Miguel; Omar, Hamza; Newhouse, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    Various hard face models are commonly used to evaluate the efficiency of aerosol face masks. Softer more realistic "face" surface materials, like skin, deform upon mask application and should provide more relevant in-vitro tests. Studies that simultaneously take into consideration many of the factors characteristic of the in vivo face are lacking. These include airways, various application forces, comparison of various devices, comparison with a hard-surface model and use of a more representative model face based on large numbers of actual faces. To compare mask to "face" seal and aerosol delivery of two pediatric masks using a soft vs. a hard, appropriately representative, pediatric face model under various applied forces. Two identical face models and upper airways replicas were constructed, the only difference being the suppleness and compressibility of the surface layer of the "face." Integrity of the seal and aerosol delivery of two different masks [AeroChamber (AC) and SootherMask (SM)] were compared using a breath simulator, filter collection and realistic applied forces. The soft "face" significantly increased the delivery efficiency and the sealing characteristics of both masks. Aerosol delivery with the soft "face" was significantly greater for the SM compared to the AC (pmasks was observed with the hard "face." The material and pliability of the model "face" surface has a significant influence on both the seal and delivery efficiency of face masks. This finding should be taken into account during in-vitro aerosol studies.

  10. Selected, annotated bibliography of studies relevant to the isolation of nuclear wastes. [705 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyder, L.K.; Fore, C.S.; Vaughan, N.D.; Faust, R.A.

    1980-09-01

    This annotated bibliography of 705 references represents the first in a series to be published by the Ecological Sciences Information Center containing scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information relevant to nuclear waste isolation. Most references discuss deep geologic disposal, with fewer studies of deep seabed disposal; space disposal is also included. The publication covers both domestic and foreign literature for the period 1954 to 1980. Major chapters selected are Chemical and Physical Aspects; Container Design and Performance; Disposal Site; Envirnmental Transport; General Studies and Reviews; Geology, Hydrology and Site Resources; Regulatory and Economic Aspects; Repository Design and Engineering; Transportation Technology; Waste Production; and Waste Treatment. Specialized data fields have been incorporated to improve the ease and accuracy of locating pertinent references. Specific radionuclides for which data are presented are listed in the Measured Radionuclides field, and specific parameters which affect the migration of these radionuclides are presented in the Measured Parameters field. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author, corporate affiliation, or title of the document. When the author is not given, the corporate affiliation appears first. If these two levels of authorship are not given, the title of the document is used as the identifying level. Indexes are provided for author(s), keywords, subject category, title, geographic location, measured parameters, measured radionuclides, and publication description.

  11. Experimental Study on the Langlee Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavelle, John; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report concerns the experimental study of the 1:20 scale model of the Langlee Wave Energy Converter (WEC) carried out at Aalborg University’s wave basin during the summer of 2010.......This report concerns the experimental study of the 1:20 scale model of the Langlee Wave Energy Converter (WEC) carried out at Aalborg University’s wave basin during the summer of 2010....

  12. Experimental Studies of Hydrocarbon Flame Phenomena: Enabling Combustion Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-30

    flames," Physics of Fluids , vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 1447-54, 1995. [8] K. Lyons, " Toward an understanding of the stabilization mechanisms of lifted...Experimental Studies of Hydrocarbon Flame Phenomena: Enabling Combustion Control This report summarizes the research accomplished in the project...34Experimental Studies of Hydrocarbon Flame Phenomena: Enabling Combustion Control". The main areas of activity are: a) electrostatic flame and flow

  13. Perspectives of Employees with Intellectual Disabilities on Themes Relevant to Their Job Satisfaction. An Explorative Study using Photovoice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, A.; Janssen, C.G.C.; Kef, S.; Meininger, H.P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study explored the perspectives of people with intellectual disabilities on themes relevant to their job satisfaction in integrated and sheltered employment. Method: The photovoice method was used. Nine participants with moderate to mild intellectual disabilities, working in

  14. Clinical relevance of comorbidity in anxiety disorders : A report from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeijer-Sevink, Mieke Klein; Batelaan, Neeltje M.; van Megen, Harold J. G. M.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Cath, Danielle C.; van den Hout, Marcel A.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.

    Background: To study the clinical relevance of type of comorbidity and number of comorbid disorders in anxiety disorders. Four groups were compared according to sociodemographic-, vulnerability- and clinical factors: single anxiety disorder, anxiety-anxiety comorbidity, anxiety-depressive

  15. Clinical relevance of comorbidity in anxiety disorders: A report from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Hofmeijer-Sevink, M.; Batelaan, N.M.; van Megen, H.J.G.M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Cath, D.C.; van Hout, M.A.; van Balkom, A.J.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To study the clinical relevance of type of comorbidity and number of comorbid disorders in anxiety disorders. Four groups were compared according to sociodemographic-, vulnerability- and clinical factors: single anxiety disorder, anxiety-anxiety comorbidity, anxiety-depressive

  16. Decision-relevant evaluation of climate models: A case study of chill hours in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, K. A.; Jones, A. D.; Kerr, A. C.

    2017-12-01

    The past decade has seen a proliferation of different climate datasets with over 60 climate models currently in use. Comparative evaluation and validation of models can assist practitioners chose the most appropriate models for adaptation planning. However, such assessments are usually conducted for `climate metrics' such as seasonal temperature, while sectoral decisions are often based on `decision-relevant outcome metrics' such as growing degree days or chill hours. Since climate models predict different metrics with varying skill, the goal of this research is to conduct a bottom-up evaluation of model skill for `outcome-based' metrics. Using chill hours (number of hours in winter months where temperature is lesser than 45 deg F) in Fresno, CA as a case, we assess how well different GCMs predict the historical mean and slope of chill hours, and whether and to what extent projections differ based on model selection. We then compare our results with other climate-based evaluations of the region, to identify similarities and differences. For the model skill evaluation, historically observed chill hours were compared with simulations from 27 GCMs (and multiple ensembles). Model skill scores were generated based on a statistical hypothesis test of the comparative assessment. Future projections from RCP 8.5 runs were evaluated, and a simple bias correction was also conducted. Our analysis indicates that model skill in predicting chill hour slope is dependent on its skill in predicting mean chill hours, which results from the non-linear nature of the chill metric. However, there was no clear relationship between the models that performed well for the chill hour metric and those that performed well in other temperature-based evaluations (such winter minimum temperature or diurnal temperature range). Further, contrary to conclusions from other studies, we also found that the multi-model mean or large ensemble mean results may not always be most appropriate for this

  17. Conditional net survival: Relevant prognostic information for colorectal cancer survivors. A French population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouillard, Antoine; Bouvier, Anne-Marie; Rollot, Fabien; Faivre, Jean; Jooste, Valérie; Lepage, Côme

    2015-07-01

    Traditionally, survival estimates have been reported as survival from the time of diagnosis. A patient's probability of survival changes according to time elapsed since the diagnosis and this is known as conditional survival. The aim was to estimate 5-year net conditional survival in patients with colorectal cancer in a well-defined French population at yearly intervals up to 5 years. Our study included 18,300 colorectal cancers diagnosed between 1976 and 2008 and registered in the population-based digestive cancer registry of Burgundy (France). We calculated conditional 5-year net survival, using the Pohar Perme estimator, for every additional year survived after diagnosis from 1 to 5 years. The initial 5-year net survival estimates varied between 89% for stage I and 9% for advanced stage cancer. The corresponding 5-year net survival for patients alive after 5 years was 95% and 75%. Stage II and III patients who survived 5 years had a similar probability of surviving 5 more years, respectively 87% and 84%. For survivors after the first year following diagnosis, five-year conditional net survival was similar regardless of age class and period of diagnosis. For colorectal cancer survivors, conditional net survival provides relevant and complementary prognostic information for patients and clinicians. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Glass polymorphism in glycerol–water mixtures: II. Experimental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachler, Johannes; Fuentes-Landete, Violeta; Jahn, David A.; Wong, Jessina; Giovambattista, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    We report a detailed experimental study of (i) pressure-induced transformations in glycerol–water mixtures at T = 77 K and P = 0–1.8 GPa, and (ii) heating-induced transformations of glycerol–water mixtures recovered at 1 atm and T = 77 K. Our samples are prepared by cooling the solutions at ambient pressure at various cooling rates (100 K s–1–10 K h–1) and for the whole range of glycerol mole fractions, χ g. Depending on concentration and cooling rates, cooling leads to samples containing amorphous ice (χ g ≥ 0.20), ice (χ g ≤ 0.32), and/or “distorted ice” (0 HDA). PIA of ice domains within the glycerol–water mixtures is shown to be possible only up to χ g ≈ 0.32 (T = 77 K). This is rather surprising since it has been known that at χ g HDA upon compression. Upon heating samples recovered at 1 atm, we observe a rich phase behavior. Differential scanning calorimetry indicates that only at χ g ≤ 0.15, the water domains within the sample exhibit polyamorphism, i.e., the HDA-to-LDA (low-density amorphous ice) transformation. At 0.15 HDA domains. All samples (χ g ≤ 0.38) show: the crystallization of amorphous ice domains, followed by the glass transition of the vitrified glycerol–water domains and, finally, the melting of ice at high temperatures. Our work exemplifies the complex “phase” behavior of glassy binary mixtures due to phase-separation (ice formation) and polyamorphism, and the relevance of sample preparation, concentration as well as cooling rates. The presence of the distorted ice (called “interphase” by us) also explains the debated “drift anomaly” upon melting. These results are compatible with the high-pressure study by Suzuki and Mishima indicating disappearance of polyamorphism at P ≈ 0.03–0.05 GPa at χ g ≈ 0.12–0.15 [J. Chem. Phys., 2014, 141, 094505]. PMID:27044677

  19. Identifying and exploiting trait-relevant tissues with multiple functional annotations in genome-wide association studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shujun

    2018-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified many disease associated loci, the majority of which have unknown biological functions. Understanding the mechanism underlying trait associations requires identifying trait-relevant tissues and investigating associations in a trait-specific fashion. Here, we extend the widely used linear mixed model to incorporate multiple SNP functional annotations from omics studies with GWAS summary statistics to facilitate the identification of trait-relevant tissues, with which to further construct powerful association tests. Specifically, we rely on a generalized estimating equation based algorithm for parameter inference, a mixture modeling framework for trait-tissue relevance classification, and a weighted sequence kernel association test constructed based on the identified trait-relevant tissues for powerful association analysis. We refer to our analytic procedure as the Scalable Multiple Annotation integration for trait-Relevant Tissue identification and usage (SMART). With extensive simulations, we show how our method can make use of multiple complementary annotations to improve the accuracy for identifying trait-relevant tissues. In addition, our procedure allows us to make use of the inferred trait-relevant tissues, for the first time, to construct more powerful SNP set tests. We apply our method for an in-depth analysis of 43 traits from 28 GWASs using tissue-specific annotations in 105 tissues derived from ENCODE and Roadmap. Our results reveal new trait-tissue relevance, pinpoint important annotations that are informative of trait-tissue relationship, and illustrate how we can use the inferred trait-relevant tissues to construct more powerful association tests in the Wellcome trust case control consortium study. PMID:29377896

  20. Identifying and exploiting trait-relevant tissues with multiple functional annotations in genome-wide association studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingjie Hao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWASs have identified many disease associated loci, the majority of which have unknown biological functions. Understanding the mechanism underlying trait associations requires identifying trait-relevant tissues and investigating associations in a trait-specific fashion. Here, we extend the widely used linear mixed model to incorporate multiple SNP functional annotations from omics studies with GWAS summary statistics to facilitate the identification of trait-relevant tissues, with which to further construct powerful association tests. Specifically, we rely on a generalized estimating equation based algorithm for parameter inference, a mixture modeling framework for trait-tissue relevance classification, and a weighted sequence kernel association test constructed based on the identified trait-relevant tissues for powerful association analysis. We refer to our analytic procedure as the Scalable Multiple Annotation integration for trait-Relevant Tissue identification and usage (SMART. With extensive simulations, we show how our method can make use of multiple complementary annotations to improve the accuracy for identifying trait-relevant tissues. In addition, our procedure allows us to make use of the inferred trait-relevant tissues, for the first time, to construct more powerful SNP set tests. We apply our method for an in-depth analysis of 43 traits from 28 GWASs using tissue-specific annotations in 105 tissues derived from ENCODE and Roadmap. Our results reveal new trait-tissue relevance, pinpoint important annotations that are informative of trait-tissue relationship, and illustrate how we can use the inferred trait-relevant tissues to construct more powerful association tests in the Wellcome trust case control consortium study.

  1. Experimental study on the characteristics of semiconductor opening switch

    CERN Document Server

    Su Jian Cang; Ding Yong Zhong; Song Zhi Min; Ding Zhen Jie; Liu Guo Zhi

    2002-01-01

    An experimental set-up is developed to measure the characteristics of semiconductor opening switch (SOS). The parameters, such as interruption impedance, current int eruption time, voltage gain, pulse duration and energy transfer efficiency, are studied experimentally. The experimental results show that forward pumping time and reverse pumping time are important parameters for semiconductor opening switches. The influences of forward pumping time and reverse pumping time on interruption time, voltage gain, and energy transfer efficiency are obtained. In the interruption process, the impedance variation is divided into three phases: that is rapid increasing phase, slow change phase and completely interruption phase

  2. Using an experimental model for the study of therapeutic touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Daniella Soares; Marta, Ilda Estéfani Ribeiro; Cárnio, Evelin Capellari; de Quadros, Andreza Urba; Cunha, Thiago Mattar; de Carvalho, Emilia Campos

    2013-02-01

    to verify whether the Paw Edema Model can be used in investigations about the effects of Therapeutic Touch on inflammation by measuring the variables pain, edema and neutrophil migration. this is a pilot and experimental study, involving ten male mice of the same genetic strain and divided into experimental and control group, submitted to the chemical induction of local inflammation in the right back paw. The experimental group received a daily administration of Therapeutic Touch for 15 minutes during three days. the data showed statistically significant differences in the nociceptive threshold and in the paw circumference of the animals from the experimental group on the second day of the experiment. the experiment model involving animals can contribute to study the effects of Therapeutic Touch on inflammation, and adjustments are suggested in the treatment duration, number of sessions and experiment duration.

  3. DETERMINATION OF RELEVANT FEATURES OF A SCALE MODEL FOR A 55 000 DWT BULK CARRIER NECESSARY TO STUDY THE SHIP MANEUVERABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALECU TOMA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study method of a ship behavior based on practical tests on scale models is widely used both leading scientists and engineers, architects and researchers in the naval field. In this paper we propose to determine the parameters of a ship handling characteristics relevant to study the 55,000 dwt bulk carrier using a scale model. Scientific background for practical experimentation of this techniques necessary to built a scale model ship consists in applying the principles of similarity or "similitude". The scale model achieved by applying the laws of similarity must allow, through approximations available in certain circumstances, finding relevant parameters needed to simplify and solve the Navier-Stokes equations. These parameters are necessary for modeling the interaction between hull of the real ship and the fluid motion.

  4. The relevance and role of homestays in medical education: a scoping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Bonnie Olivia; Moshabela, Mosa; Owen, Jenni; Gaede, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    The community-based medical education curriculum is growing in popularity as a strategy to bring universal health coverage to underserved communities by providing medical students with hands-on training in primary health care. Accommodation and immersion of medical students within the community will become increasingly important to the success of community-based curricula. In the context of tourism, homestays, where local families host guests, have shown to provide an immersive accommodation experience. By exploring homestays in the educational context, this scoping study investigates their role in providing an immersive pedagogical experience for medical students. A scoping review was performed using the online databases ScienceDirect and the Duke University Library Database, which searches Academic Search Complete, JSTOR, LexisNexis Academic, Web of Science, Proquest, PubMed and WorldCat. Using the inclusion term 'homestays' and excluding the term 'tourism', 181 results were returned. AClose assessment using inclusion criteria narrowed this to 14 relevant articles. There is very little published research specific to the experience of medical students in community homestays, indicating a gap in the literature. However, the existing educational outcomes suggest homestays may have the potential to serve a significant role in medical education, especially as a component of decentralised or community-based programmes. The literature reveals that educational homestays influence language learning, cultural immersion, and the development of professional skills for health science careers. These outcomes relate to the level of engagement between students and hosts, including the catalytic role of community liaisons. Homestays offer a unique depth of experience that has the potential to enrich the education of participating students, and require further research, particularly in the context of distributed and decentralised training platforms for medical and health sciences

  5. TASK RELEVANCE IN THE DESIGN OF ONLINE PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT FOR TEACHERS OF ELLs: A Q Methodology Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda J. COLLINS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Online professional development (oPD for teachers should focus on designing web-based learning opportunities that help practicing educators solve the tough problems of practice when working in their schools. Technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge can be integrated in the design of online professional development modules to enhance task relevance for maximum learning and transformation. The purpose of this study was to learn which tasks in an online professional development module were ranked by in-service educators as relevant to their work with English language learners (ELLs. Using Q methodology, the researcher asked participants to rank the relevancy of 36 online tasks from an online professional development module designed and developed at an American university. Participants used a -5 to 5 forced distribution to rank online activities from “Least relevant to my work with ELLs” to “Most relevant to my work with ELLs” followed by a semi-structured interview to explain their decisions. After data analysis, two factors emerged, indicating that participants’ perceptions on task relevance differed by professional roles and educational settings. The participants also favored didactic online tasks over interactive tasks. The findings from the oPD participants’ responses have the potential to serve as the basis for future online professional development design and for planning other relevant activities to be applied to the e-learning environment.

  6. A comprehensive experimental and modeling study of isobutene oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Chong-Wen

    2016-03-17

    Isobutene is an important intermediate in the pyrolysis and oxidation of higher-order branched alkanes, and it is also a component of commercial gasolines. To better understand its combustion characteristics, a series of ignition delay time (IDT) and laminar flame speed (LFS) measurements have been performed. In addition, flow reactor speciation data recorded for the pyrolysis and oxidation of isobutene is also reported. Predictions of an updated kinetic model described herein are compared with each of these data sets, as well as with existing jet-stirred reactor (JSR) species measurements. IDTs of isobutene oxidation were measured in four different shock tubes and in two rapid compression machines (RCMs) under conditions of relevance to practical combustors. The combination of shock tube and RCM data greatly expands the range of available validation data for isobutene oxidation models to pressures of 50 atm and temperatures in the range 666–1715 K. Isobutene flame speeds were measured experimentally at 1 atm and at unburned gas temperatures of 298–398 K over a wide range of equivalence ratios. For the flame speed results, there was good agreement between different facilities and the current model in the fuel-rich region. Ab initio chemical kinetics calculations were carried out to calculate rate constants for important reactions such as H-atom abstraction by hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl radicals and the decomposition of 2-methylallyl radicals. A comprehensive chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed to describe the combustion of isobutene and is validated by comparison to the presently considered experimental measurements. Important reactions, highlighted via flux and sensitivity analyses, include: (a) hydrogen atom abstraction from isobutene by hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl radicals, and molecular oxygen; (b) radical–radical recombination reactions, including 2-methylallyl radical self-recombination, the recombination of 2-methylallyl radicals with

  7. Non-spatial pre-training in the water maze as a clinically relevant model for evaluating learning and memory in experimental TBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Amy K; Brayer, Samuel W; Hurwitz, Max; Niyonkuru, Christian; Zou, Huichao; Failla, Michelle; Arenth, Patricia; Manole, Mioara D; Skidmore, Elizabeth; Thiels, Edda

    2013-11-01

    Explicit and implicit learning and memory networks exist where each network can facilitate or inhibit cognition. Clinical evidence suggests that implicit networks are relatively preserved after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Non-spatial pre-training (NSPT) in the Morris Water Maze (MWM) provides the necessary behavioral components to complete the task, while limiting the formation of spatial maps. Our study utilized NSPT in the MWM to assess implicit and explicit learning and memory system deficits in the controlled cortical impact (CCI) model of TBI. 76 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided: CCI vs. sham surgery, NSPT vs. No-NSPT, and cued vs. non-cued groups. NSPT occurred for 4d prior to surgery (dynamic hidden platform location, extra-maze cues covered, static pool entry point). Acquisition (d14-18), Probe/Visible Platform (d19), and Reversal (d20-21) trials were conducted with or without extra-maze cues. Novel time allocation and search strategy selection metrics were utilized. Results indicated implicit and explicit learning/memory networks are distinguishable in the MWM. In the cued condition, NSPT reduced thigmotaxis, improved place learning, and largely eliminated the apparent injury-induced deficits typically observed between untrained CCI and sham rats. However, among NSPT groups, incorporation of cues into search strategy selection for CCI rats was relatively impaired compared to shams. Non-cued condition performance showed sham/NSPT and CCI/NSPT rats perform similarly, suggesting implicit memory networks are largely intact 2weeks after CCI. Place learning differences between CCI/NSPT and sham/NSPT rats more accurately reflect spatial deficits in our CCI model compared to untrained controls. These data suggest NSPT as a clinically relevant construct for evaluating potential neurorestorative and neuroprotective therapies. These findings also support development of non-spatial cognitive training paradigms for evaluating rehabilitation relevant

  8. Experimental studies of processes with vibrationally excited hydrogen molecules that are important for tokamak edge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadez, I.; Markelj, S.; Rupnik, Z.; Pelicon, P.

    2006-01-01

    We are currently conducting a series of different laboratory experimental studies of processes involving vibrationally excited hydrogen molecules that are relevant to fusion edge plasma. A general overview of our activities is presented together with results of studies of hydrogen recombination on surfaces. This includes vibrational spectroscopy of molecules formed by recombination on metal surfaces exposed to the partially dissociated hydrogen gas and recombination after hydrogen permeation through metal membrane. The goal of these studies is to provide numerical parameters needed for edge plasma modelling and better understanding of plasma wall interaction processes. (author)

  9. $^{206}$ Po sources for production and release studies relevant for high power spallation targets

    CERN Multimedia

    The knowledge of the evaporation behaviour of Po is of essential importance for several scientific and technological applications, like accelerator driven systems (ADS) or the LIEBE project at CERN-ISOLDE. Fundamental investigations on the experimental conditions for the formation of volatile Po species as well as on the chemical composition of the volatile compounds are necessary for a safe operation of such facilities. $^{206}$Po, a mainly $\\gamma$- ray-emitting Po isotope with a half-life of 8.8 d, is best suited for model studies, due to the lower radiation hazard compared to the longer-lived $\\alpha$-emitting isotopes $^{208-210}$Po as well as the easy-to-measure $\\gamma$-ray emission. We propose the production of $^{206}$Po samples in several matrices via the implantation of its precursor $^{210}$Fr into selected metal foils at CERN-ISOLDE. Using these samples, experiments will be carried out at PSI studying the volatilization of Po from different matrices under varying chemical conditions.

  10. A new dietary model to study colorectal carcinogenesis: experimental design, food preparation, and experimental findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozen, P; Liberman, V; Lubin, F; Angel, S; Owen, R; Trostler, N; Shkolnik, T; Kritchevsky, D

    1996-01-01

    Experimental dietary studies of human colorectal carcinogenesis are usually based on the AIN-76A diet, which is dissimilar to human food in source, preparation, and content. The aims of this study were to examine the feasibility of preparing and feeding rats the diet of a specific human population at risk for colorectal neoplasia and to determine whether changes in the colonic morphology and metabolic contents would differ from those resulting from a standard rat diet. The mean daily food intake composition of a previously evaluated adenoma patient case-control study was used for the "human adenoma" (HA) experimental diet. Foods were prepared as for usual human consumption and processed by dehydration to the physical characteristics of an animal diet. Sixty-four female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized and fed ad libitum the HA or the AIN-76A diet. Every eight weeks, eight rats from each group were sacrificed, and the colons and contents were examined. Analysis of the prepared food showed no significant deleterious changes; food intake and weight gain were similar in both groups. Compared with the controls, the colonic contents of rats fed the HA diet contained significantly less calcium, concentrations of neutral sterols, total lipids, and cholic and deoxycholic acids were increased, and there were no colonic histological changes other than significant epithelial hyperproliferation. This initial study demonstrated that the HA diet can be successfully processed for feeding to experimental animals and is acceptable and adequate for growth but induces significant metabolic and hyperproliferative changes in the rat colon. This dietary model may be useful for studies of human food, narrowing the gap between animal experimentation and human nutritional research.

  11. Natural analogues: studies of geological processes relevant to radioactive waste disposal in deep geological repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russel, A.W. [Bedrock Geosciences, Auenstein (Switzerland); Reijonen, H.M. [Saanio and Rickkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland); McKinley, I.G. [MCM Consulting, Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland)

    2015-06-15

    The geological disposal of radioactive wastes is generally accepted to be the most practicable approach to handling the waste inventory built up from over 70 years accumulation of power production, research-medical-industrial and military wastes. Here, a brief overview of the approach to geological disposal is presented along with some information on repository design and the assessment of repository post-closure safety. One of the significant challenges for repository safety assessment is how to extrapolate the likely long-term (i.e. ten thousand to a million years) behaviour of the repository from the necessarily short term data from analytical laboratories and underground rock laboratories currently available. One approach, common to all fields of the geosciences, but also in such diverse fields as philosophy, biology, linguistics, law, etc., is to utilise the analogue argumentation methodology. For the specific case of radioactive waste management, the term 'natural analogue' has taken on a particular meaning associated with providing supporting arguments for a repository safety assessment. This approach is discussed here with a brief overview of how the study of natural (and, in particular, geological) systems can provide supporting information on the likely long-term evolution of a deep geological waste repository. The overall approach is discussed and some relevant examples are presented, including the use of uranium ore bodies to assess waste form stability, the investigation of native metals to define the longevity of waste containers and how natural clays can provide information on the stability of waste tunnel backfill material. (authors)

  12. Polypharmacy as a Risk Factor for Clinically Relevant Sarcopenia: Results From the Berlin Aging Study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Maximilian; Spira, Dominik; Demuth, Ilja; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Norman, Kristina

    2017-12-12

    Sarcopenia affects more than 10% of older adults. Next to age-associated physiologic changes, diseases like diabetes or inflammatory, neurological, malignant and endocrine disorders may contribute to the development of sarcopenia. Likewise, polypharmacy, i.e., multiple drug use, is common among older adults. Although the two conditions frequently co-occur, the association of polypharmacy with sarcopenia has not yet been examined. We investigated the association of polypharmacy and sarcopenia in a large cohort of community-dwelling older adults (60-84 years). Thousand five hundred and two participants from the Berlin Aging Study II were included. Polypharmacy was defined as concurrent use of 5 or more drugs (prescription and nonprescription). Body composition was assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and appendicular lean mass (ALM) was calculated as sum of the four limbs' lean mass. Sarcopenia was defined as low ALM-to-body mass index (BMI)-ratio using validated sex-specific cutoffs. Mean age was 68.7 ± 3.7 years, 50.7% were female. The median (interquartile range) number of drugs was 2 (1-4); 21.1% of subjects reported regular use of ≥5 drugs. Subjects with polypharmacy were more often sarcopenic according to the applied ALM/BMI-cutoffs (16.3% vs 6.9%, p sarcopenia (odds ratio = 2.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.33-3.75). Polypharmacy is associated with clinically relevant sarcopenia, as assessed by a low ALM/BMI. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Natural analogues: studies of geological processes relevant to radioactive waste disposal in deep geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russel, A.W.; Reijonen, H.M.; McKinley, I.G.

    2015-01-01

    The geological disposal of radioactive wastes is generally accepted to be the most practicable approach to handling the waste inventory built up from over 70 years accumulation of power production, research-medical-industrial and military wastes. Here, a brief overview of the approach to geological disposal is presented along with some information on repository design and the assessment of repository post-closure safety. One of the significant challenges for repository safety assessment is how to extrapolate the likely long-term (i.e. ten thousand to a million years) behaviour of the repository from the necessarily short term data from analytical laboratories and underground rock laboratories currently available. One approach, common to all fields of the geosciences, but also in such diverse fields as philosophy, biology, linguistics, law, etc., is to utilise the analogue argumentation methodology. For the specific case of radioactive waste management, the term 'natural analogue' has taken on a particular meaning associated with providing supporting arguments for a repository safety assessment. This approach is discussed here with a brief overview of how the study of natural (and, in particular, geological) systems can provide supporting information on the likely long-term evolution of a deep geological waste repository. The overall approach is discussed and some relevant examples are presented, including the use of uranium ore bodies to assess waste form stability, the investigation of native metals to define the longevity of waste containers and how natural clays can provide information on the stability of waste tunnel backfill material. (authors)

  14. Elaboration of a guide including relevant project and logistic information: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Tchaikowisky M. [Faculdade de Tecnologia e Ciencias (FTC), Itabuna, BA (Brazil); Bresci, Claudio T.; Franca, Carlos M.M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    For every mobilization of a new enterprise it is necessary to quickly obtain the greatest amount of relative information in regards to location and availability of infra-structure, logistics, and work site amenities. Among this information are reports elaborated for management of the enterprise, (organizational chart, work schedule, objectives, contacts, etc.) as well as geographic anomalies, social-economic and culture of the area to be developed such as territorial extension, land aspects, local population, roads and amenities (fuel stations ,restaurants and hotels), infra-structure of the cities (health, education, entertainment, housing, transport, etc.) and logistically the distance between cities the estimated travel time, ROW access maps and notable points, among other relevant information. With the idea of making this information available for everyone involved in the enterprise, it was elaborated for GASCAC Spread 2A a rapid guide containing all the information mentioned above and made it available for all the vehicles used to transport employees and visitors to the spread. With this, everyone quickly received the majority of information necessary in one place, in a practical, quick, and precise manner, since the information is always used and controlled by the same person. This study includes the model used in the gas pipeline GASCAC Spread 2A project and the methodology used to draft and update the information. Besides the above, a file in the GIS format was prepared containing all necessary planning, execution and tracking information for enterprise activities, from social communication to the execution of the works previously mentioned. Part of the GIS file information was uploaded to Google Earth so as to disclose the information to a greater group of people, bearing in mind that this program is free of charge and easy to use. (author)

  15. Rare Earth Element Partitioning in Lunar Minerals: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, E. C.; Rapp, J. F.; Draper, D. S.

    2016-01-01

    The partitioning behavior of rare earth elements (REE) between minerals and melts is widely used to interpret the petrogenesis and geologic context of terrestrial and extra-terrestrial samples. REE are important tools for modelling the evolution of the lunar interior. The ubiquitous negative Eu anomaly in lunar basalts is one of the main lines of evidence to support the lunar magma ocean (LMO) hypothesis, by which the plagioclase-rich lunar highlands were formed as a flotation crust during differentiation of a global-scale magma ocean. The separation of plagioclase from the mafic cumulates is thought to be the source of the Eu depletion, as Eu is very compatible in plagioclase. Lunar basalts and volcanic glasses are commonly depleted in light REEs (LREE), and more enriched in heavy REEs (HREE). However, there is very little experimental data available on REE partitioning between lunar minerals and melts. In order to interpret the source of these distinctive REE patterns, and to model lunar petrogenetic processes, REE partition coefficients (D) between lunar minerals and melts are needed at conditions relevant to lunar processes. New data on D(sub REE) for plagioclase, and pyroxenes are now available, but there is limited available data for olivine/melt D(sub REE), particularly at pressures higher than 1 bar, and in Fe-rich and reduced compositions - all conditions relevant to the lunar mantle. Based on terrestrial data, REE are highly incompatible in olivine (i.e. D much less than 1), however olivine is the predominant mineral in the lunar interior, so it is important to understand whether it is capable of storing even small amounts of REE, and how the REEs might be fractionatied, in order to understand the trace element budget of the lunar interior. This abstract presents results from high-pressure and temperature experiments investigating REE partitioning between olivine and melt in a composition relevant to lunar magmatism.

  16. Our experimental study of physiological modifications of densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamarque, J.L.; Bruel, J.M.; Dondelinger, R.; Vendrell, B.; Pelissier, O.; Rouanet, J.P.; Michel, J.L.; Bengana, H.; Levy, P.; Bruno, C.; Balmes, M.; Lopez, P.; Triby, X.

    1979-01-01

    Results of a comparative study performed with anatomical sections to identify the anatomical structures of the abdomen are presented. An experimental study consisted of an assay of a comparative study of densities performed on cadavers. An in vivo study consisted of a statistical study involving 278 cases of densitometric readings performed in hepatic, panreatic, renal parenchyma, splenic mesenchyma and several other tissues such as: fat, bones, muscles, spinal cord. (Auth.)

  17. Relevance of the studies of the OKLO natural nuclear reactors to the storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagemann, R.; Roth, E.

    1978-01-01

    The geological environment of the OKLO natural nuclear reactors is described along with the operating caracteristics of the reactors. Data relevant to the stability of most of the fission products and to the transuranium elements in the reaction zones are reviewed. (orig.) [de

  18. On Feature Relevance in Image-Based Prediction Models: An Empirical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konukoglu, E.; Ganz, Melanie; Van Leemput, Koen

    2013-01-01

    Determining disease-related variations of the anatomy and function is an important step in better understanding diseases and developing early diagnostic systems. In particular, image-based multivariate prediction models and the “relevant features” they produce are attracting attention from the co...

  19. What Shapes the Intention to Study Abroad? An Experimental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Knut; Moog, Petra

    2018-01-01

    In contrast to previous studies, this investigation aims to get deeper insights into the causes of the intention to study abroad by using an experimental approach. Although international experience is often considered as important, many students at German universities do not even consider abroad. Referring to the Theory of Rational Choice (RCT)…

  20. Infections in orthopaedic surgery : clinical and experimental studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogely, Henri Charles

    2000-01-01

    The diagnostic difficulties, variability in outcome and the heterogeinity of the problem of orthopaedic infections stimulated the author to a study of the literature, and several clinical and experimental studies. The diagnosis prosthesis-related infection can only be reached with an acceptable

  1. Pharmacological Experimental Study Of The Anti-Depressant Effect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacological Experimental Study Of The Anti-Depressant Effect Of Total Saikosaponins. Y Liu, C Cao, H Ding. Abstract. Background: Chai Hu has the hepato-protective, choleretic, anti-tussive, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, hypotensive, hypolipidemic, and anti-tumor pharmacological effects. In this study, the ...

  2. Studies of radionuclide availability and migration at the Nevada Test Site relevant to radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewhey, J.D.; Weed, H.C.; Coles, D.G.; Ramspott, L.D.; MacLean, S.C.

    1978-01-01

    The sorption distribution coefficient, K/sub d/, of a nuclide is defined as the concentration of a nuclide on a solid phase divided by its concentration in the liquid phase subsequent to equilibrium being attained. In the case of batch K/sub d/ measurements done in the laboratory, it is difficult to ascertain the extent of equilibration, and experiments may not reflect true K/sub d/ values. Kurt Wolfsberg of Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory has referred to laboratory K/sub d/ measurements as distribution ratios or R/sub d/'s. An R/sub d/ is obtained in the same manner as a K/sub d/ but does not imply equilibrium. The term R/sub d/ is used in this study. The results from the batch R/sub d/ studies are listed in tabular form. The standard deviation of the counting data for each R/sub d/ is given. The R/sub d/ values can be arranged according to the following inequalities: Pu > Cs, except for biotite; Cs > Sr, except for limestone; and Sr > Tc. The exceptions are considered significant for Pu vs Cs on biotite, but not for Cs vs Sr on limestone. The low R/sub d/ values for Tc indicate that within the limits of measurement it is not sorbed under the experimental conditions in this study. One possible cause for the negative values is preferential sorption of the sample on the walls of the sample container, so that the sample container sorbs less Tc than the blank container does

  3. The effect of ISM absorption on stellar activity measurements and its relevance for exoplanet studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, L.; Marcelja, S. E.; Staab, D.; Cubillos, P. E.; France, K.; Haswell, C. A.; Ingrassia, S.; Jenkins, J. S.; Koskinen, T.; Lanza, A. F.; Redfield, S.; Youngblood, A.; Pelzmann, G.

    2017-05-01

    Past ultraviolet and optical observations of stars hosting close-in Jupiter-mass planets have shown that some of these stars present an anomalously low chromospheric activity, significantly below the basal level. For the hot Jupiter planet host WASP-13, observations have shown that the apparent lack of activity is possibly caused by absorption from the intervening interstellar medium (ISM). Inspired by this result, we study the effect of ISM absorption on activity measurements (S and log R 'HK indices) for main-sequence late-type stars. To this end, we employ synthetic stellar photospheric spectra combined with varying amounts of chromospheric emission and ISM absorption. We present the effect of ISM absorption on activity measurements by varying several instrumental (spectral resolution), stellar (projected rotational velocity, effective temperature, and chromospheric emission flux), and ISM parameters (relative velocity between stellar and ISM Ca II lines, broadening b-parameter, and Ca II column density). We find that for relative velocities between the stellar and ISM lines smaller than 30-40 km s-1 and for ISM Ca II column densities log NCaII ⪆ 12, the ISM absorption has a significant influence on activity measurements. Direct measurements and three dimensional maps of the Galactic ISM absorption indicate that an ISM Ca II column density of log NCaII = 12 is typically reached by a distance of about 100 pc along most sight lines. In particular, for a Sun-like star lying at a distance greater than 100 pc, we expect a depression (bias) in the log R'HK value larger than 0.05-0.1 dex, about the same size as the typical measurement and calibration uncertainties on this parameter. This work shows that the bias introduced by ISM absorption must always be considered when measuring activity for stars lying beyond 100 pc. We also consider the effect of multiple ISM absorption components. We discuss the relevance of this result for exoplanet studies and revise the

  4. Stable isotope distribution in precipitation in Romania and its relevance for palaeoclimatic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perşoiu, Aurel; Nagavciuc, Viorica; Bădăluţă, Carmen

    2014-05-01

    A surge of recent studies in Romania have targeted various aspects of palaeoclimate (based on stable isotopes in ice, speleothems, tree rings), mineral water origin, wine and other juices provenance. However, while much needed, these studies lack a stable isotope in precipitation background, with only two LMWL's being published so far. In this paper we discuss the links between the stable isotopic composition of precipitation (δ18O and δ2H), climate (air temperature, precipitation amount and large scale circulation) and their relevance for the palaeocllimatic interpretation of stable isotope values in cave ice, cryogenic calcite and tree rings from different sites in Romania. Most of the precipitation in Romania is delivered by the Westerlies, bringing moisture from the North Atlantic; however, their influence is greatly reduced in the eastern half of the country where local evaporative sources play an important role in the precipitation balance. The SW is dominated by water masses from the Mediterranean Sea, while the SE corner clearly draws most of the moisture from the Black Sea and strongly depleted North Atlantic vapor masses. In 2012, Romania experienced the worst draught in 60 years, possibly due to a northward shift of the jest stream associated to blocking conditions in summer, which led to a more northern penetration of the Mediterranean-derived air masses, as well increased precipitation of re-evaporated waters. We have further analyzed cave drip water (δ18O and δ2H), cryogenic cave calcite (δ18O and δ13C) and tree rings (δ18O and δ13C) from selected sites across NW Romania, where the water isotopes in precipitation showed the best (and easiest to understand, given the climatic conditions in 2012) correlation with climatic parameters. Our results that 1) δ18O and δ2H in cave ice are a good proxy for late summer through early winter air temperature; 2) δ13C in cryogenic cave calcite are possible indicators of soil humidity and 3) δ18O in pine

  5. Social Studies Pedagogy for Latino/a Newcomer Youth: Toward a Theory of Culturally and Linguistically Relevant Citizenship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffee, Ashley Taylor

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how teachers in 4 urban newcomer high schools conceptualized and implemented social studies education for Latino/a newcomer youth through an emerging framework of culturally and linguistically relevant citizenship education. Through a multi-site, collective case study design, the perspectives and decision making of social…

  6. On the Physical Relevance of the Study of gamma* gamma -> pi pi at small t and large Q2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansberg, J.P.; /SLAC; Pire, B.; /Ecole Polytechnique, CPHT; Szymanowski, L.; /Warsaw, Inst. Nucl. Studies

    2010-08-26

    We discuss the relevance of a dedicated measurement of exclusive production of a pair of neutral pions in a hard {gamma}*{gamma} scattering at small momentum transfer. In this case, the virtuality of one photon provides us with a hard scale in the process, enabling us to perform a QCD calculation of this reaction rate using the concept of Transition Distribution Amplitudes (TDA). Those are related by sum rules to the pion axial form factor F{sub A}{sup {pi}} and, as a direct consequence, a cross-section measurement of this process at intense beam electron-positron colliders such as CLEO, KEK-B and PEP-II, or Super-B would provide us with a unique measurement of the neutral pion axial form factor F{sub A}{sup {pi}0} at small scale. We believe that our models for the photon to meson transition distribution amplitudes are sufficiently constrained to give reasonable orders of magnitude for the estimated cross sections. Cross sections are large enough for quantitative studies to be performed at high luminosity e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders. After verifying the scaling and the {phi} independence of the cross section, one should be able to measure these new hadronic matrix elements, and thus open a new gate to the understanding of the hadronic structure. In particular, we argued here that the study of {gamma}*{gamma} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} in the TDA regime could provide with a unique experimental measurement of the {pi}{sup 0} axial form factor.

  7. Experimental and theoretical study of magnetohydrodynamic ship models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cébron

    Full Text Available Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD ships represent a clear demonstration of the Lorentz force in fluids, which explains the number of students practicals or exercises described on the web. However, the related literature is rather specific and no complete comparison between theory and typical small scale experiments is currently available. This work provides, in a self-consistent framework, a detailed presentation of the relevant theoretical equations for small MHD ships and experimental measurements for future benchmarks. Theoretical results of the literature are adapted to these simple battery/magnets powered ships moving on salt water. Comparison between theory and experiments are performed to validate each theoretical step such as the Tafel and the Kohlrausch laws, or the predicted ship speed. A successful agreement is obtained without any adjustable parameter. Finally, based on these results, an optimal design is then deduced from the theory. Therefore this work provides a solid theoretical and experimental ground for small scale MHD ships, by presenting in detail several approximations and how they affect the boat efficiency. Moreover, the theory is general enough to be adapted to other contexts, such as large scale ships or industrial flow measurement techniques.

  8. Experimental and theoretical study of magnetohydrodynamic ship models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cébron, David; Viroulet, Sylvain; Vidal, Jérémie; Masson, Jean-Paul; Viroulet, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) ships represent a clear demonstration of the Lorentz force in fluids, which explains the number of students practicals or exercises described on the web. However, the related literature is rather specific and no complete comparison between theory and typical small scale experiments is currently available. This work provides, in a self-consistent framework, a detailed presentation of the relevant theoretical equations for small MHD ships and experimental measurements for future benchmarks. Theoretical results of the literature are adapted to these simple battery/magnets powered ships moving on salt water. Comparison between theory and experiments are performed to validate each theoretical step such as the Tafel and the Kohlrausch laws, or the predicted ship speed. A successful agreement is obtained without any adjustable parameter. Finally, based on these results, an optimal design is then deduced from the theory. Therefore this work provides a solid theoretical and experimental ground for small scale MHD ships, by presenting in detail several approximations and how they affect the boat efficiency. Moreover, the theory is general enough to be adapted to other contexts, such as large scale ships or industrial flow measurement techniques.

  9. Diffusion in liquids a theoretical and experimental study

    CERN Document Server

    Tyrrell, H J V

    1984-01-01

    Diffusion in Liquids: A Theoretical and Experimental Study aims to discuss the principles, applications, and advances in the field of diffusion, thermal diffusion, and thermal conduction in liquid systems. The book covers topics such as the principles of non-equilibrium thermodynamics; diffusion in binary and multicompetent systems; and experimental methods of studying diffusion processes in liquids. Also covered in the book are topics such as the theoretical interpretations of diffusion coefficients; hydrodynamic and kinetic theories; and diffusion in electrolyte systems. The text is recommen

  10. Analytical and Experimental Study of Residual Stresses in CFRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chin Chiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiber Bragg Grating sensors (FBGs have been utilized in various engineering and photoelectric fields because of their good environment tolerance. In this research, residual stresses of carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites (CFRP were studied using both experimental and analytical approach. The FBGs were embedded inside middle layers of CFRP to study the formation of residual stress during curing process. Finite element analysis was performed using ABAQUS software to simulate the CFRP curing process. Both experimental and simulation results showed that the residual stress appeared during cooling process and the residual stresses could be released when the CFRP was machined to a different shape.

  11. An experimental and modeling study of diethyl carbonate oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Nakamura, Hisashi; Curran, Henry J.; Polo-Có rdoba, Á ngel David; Pitz, William J.; Dagaut, P.; Togbé , Casimir; Sarathy, Mani; Mehl, Marco; Agudelo, John Ramiro; Bustamante, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Diethyl carbonate (DEC) is an attractive biofuel that can be used to displace petroleum-derived diesel fuel, thereby reducing CO2 and particulate emissions from diesel engines. A better understanding of DEC combustion characteristics is needed to facilitate its use in internal combustion engines. Toward this goal, ignition delay times for DEC were measured at conditions relevant to internal combustion engines using a rapid compression machine (RCM) and a shock tube. The experimental conditions investigated covered a wide range of temperatures (660-1300K), a pressure of 30bar, and equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 in air. To provide further understanding of the intermediates formed in DEC oxidation, species concentrations were measured in a jet-stirred reactor at 10atm over a temperature range of 500-1200K and at equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0. These experimental measurements were used to aid the development and validation of a chemical kinetic model for DEC.The experimental results for ignition in the RCM showed near negative temperature coefficient (NTC) behavior. Six-membered alkylperoxy radical (RO˙2) isomerizations are conventionally thought to initiate low-temperature branching reactions responsible for NTC behavior, but DEC has no such possible 6- and 7-membered ring isomerizations. However, its molecular structure allows for 5-, 8- and 9-membered ring RO˙2 isomerizations. To provide accurate rate constants for these ring structures, ab initio computations for RO˙2⇌Q˙OOH isomerization reactions were performed. These new RO˙2 isomerization rate constants have been implemented in a chemical kinetic model for DEC oxidation. The model simulations have been compared with ignition delay times measured in the RCM near the NTC region. Results of the simulation were also compared with experimental results for ignition in the high-temperature region and for species concentrations in the jet-stirred reactor. Chemical kinetic insights into the

  12. An experimental and modeling study of diethyl carbonate oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Nakamura, Hisashi

    2015-04-01

    Diethyl carbonate (DEC) is an attractive biofuel that can be used to displace petroleum-derived diesel fuel, thereby reducing CO2 and particulate emissions from diesel engines. A better understanding of DEC combustion characteristics is needed to facilitate its use in internal combustion engines. Toward this goal, ignition delay times for DEC were measured at conditions relevant to internal combustion engines using a rapid compression machine (RCM) and a shock tube. The experimental conditions investigated covered a wide range of temperatures (660-1300K), a pressure of 30bar, and equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 in air. To provide further understanding of the intermediates formed in DEC oxidation, species concentrations were measured in a jet-stirred reactor at 10atm over a temperature range of 500-1200K and at equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0. These experimental measurements were used to aid the development and validation of a chemical kinetic model for DEC.The experimental results for ignition in the RCM showed near negative temperature coefficient (NTC) behavior. Six-membered alkylperoxy radical (RO˙2) isomerizations are conventionally thought to initiate low-temperature branching reactions responsible for NTC behavior, but DEC has no such possible 6- and 7-membered ring isomerizations. However, its molecular structure allows for 5-, 8- and 9-membered ring RO˙2 isomerizations. To provide accurate rate constants for these ring structures, ab initio computations for RO˙2⇌Q˙OOH isomerization reactions were performed. These new RO˙2 isomerization rate constants have been implemented in a chemical kinetic model for DEC oxidation. The model simulations have been compared with ignition delay times measured in the RCM near the NTC region. Results of the simulation were also compared with experimental results for ignition in the high-temperature region and for species concentrations in the jet-stirred reactor. Chemical kinetic insights into the

  13. Experimental Setup For Study of Drop Deformation In Air Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basalaev Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental study for study of deformation of drops in air flow is considered. Experimental setup includes a module for obtaining the drops, an air flow system and measuring system. Module for formation of drops is in the form of vertically arranged dropper with capillary with the possibility of formation of fixed drops. Air flow supply system comprises an air pump coupled conduit through a regulating valve with a cylindrical pipe, installed coaxially with dropper. The measuring system includes the video camera located with possibility of visualization of drop and the Pitot gage for measurement of flow rate of air located in the output section of branch pipe. This experimental setup allows to provide reliable and informative results of the investigation of deformation of drops in the air flow.

  14. The reaction between iodine and organic coatings under severe PWR accident conditions. An experimental parameter study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellmann, S; Funke, F; Greger, G U; Bleier, A; Morell, W [Siemens AG, Power Generation Group, Erlangen (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    An extensive experimental parameter study was performed on the deposition and on the resuspension kinetics in the reaction system iodine/organically coated surfaces. Both reactions in the gas phase and in the liquid phase were investigated and kinetic rate constants suitable for modelling were derived. Previous experimental studies on the reaction of iodine with organic coated surfaces were mostly limited to temperatures below 100{sup o}C. Thus, this parameter study aims at filling a gap and providing kinetic data on heterogeneous reactions with organic surfaces in the accident-relevant temperature range of 100-160{sup o}C. Two types of laboratory experiments carried out at Siemens/KWU using coatings representative for German power plants (epoxy-tape paint), namely gas phase tests and liquid phase tests. (author) 6 figs., 6 tabs., 5 refs.

  15. Summary of experimental studies on biological effects of radionuclides in Chinese Nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Rusong

    1994-11-01

    The experimental studies on the biological effects with internal contamination of radionuclides (Such as Uranium, Plutonium, Tritium, Iodine, Radon and its products, etc.) in the Chinese nuclear industry were summarized systematically. In these studies some institutes in the nuclear industry system and other relevant units in China were involved. The review was carried out in both stochastic and deterministic effects, and focused on the dose-effect relationship. The research work showed that great progress for the experimental studies on biological effects with internal irradiation has been made in China. There is a definite characteristic in a certain extent. It makes contribution to develop the production of nuclear industry and the construction of national economy. Several constructive suggestions of prospects for the work in future were proposed and it will make an attention in the field of radiation protection at home and abroad

  16. Histological study of rat masseter muscle following experimental occlusal alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishide, N; Baba, S; Hori, N; Nishikawa, H

    2001-03-01

    It has been suggested that occlusal interference results in masticatory muscle dysfunction. In our previous study, occlusal interference reduced the rat masseter energy level during masticatory movements. The purpose of this study was to investigate the histological alterations of rat masseter muscles following experimental occlusal alteration with unilateral bite-raising. A total of eight male adult Wistar rats were equally divided into control and experimental groups. The experimental rats wore bite-raising splints on the unilateral upper molar. However, 4 weeks after the operation, the anterior deep masseter muscles were removed and then stained for succinic acid dehydrogenase (SDH), haematoxylin eosin (HE) and myofibrillar ATPase. Most of the muscle fibres in experimental rats remained intact, although partial histological changes were observed, such as extended connective tissue, appearance of inflammatory cells in the muscle fibres and existence of muscle fibres with central nuclei and central cores. Moreover, the fibre area-fibre frequency histograms of experimental muscle indicated a broad pattern than that of controls. These results indicated that occlusal interference caused histological changes in masseter muscles and that this may be related to the fact that the masseter energy level was reduced during masticatory movements in unilateral bite-raised rats.

  17. A curated database of cyanobacterial strains relevant for modern taxonomy and phylogenetic studies

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Vitor; Morais, Jo?o; Vasconcelos, Vitor M.

    2017-01-01

    The dataset herein described lays the groundwork for an online database of relevant cyanobacterial strains, named CyanoType (http://lege.ciimar.up.pt/cyanotype). It is a database that includes categorized cyanobacterial strains useful for taxonomic, phylogenetic or genomic purposes, with associated information obtained by means of a literature-based curation. The dataset lists 371 strains and represents the first version of the database (CyanoType v.1). Information for each strain includes st...

  18. Theoretical studies of field-reversed configurations (FRC) and experimental study of the FRC during translation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemon, R.E.; Armstrong, W.T.; Chrien, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Theoretical studies of FRC stability and transport are summarized. Finite Larmor radius theories are shown to be unreliable for explaining the experimentally observed stability to tilting. Control of the n=2 rotational instability has been demonstrated in two-dimensional hybrid code simulations, and the stability appears to be described within MHD if the nearly square equilibria that result from quadrupole fields are taken into account. Simulations of the lower hybrid drift instability in parameter regimes relevant to experiments show good agreement with a non-local theory of the instability. A 1.5-dimensional transport code shows agreement with the energy confinement time but disagreement with the flux loss time observed in FRX-C. The process of FRC translation in which the plasma is formed, translated into a DC solenoid and trapped by magnetic mirrors, has been studied in the FRX-C/T experiment. Efficient transfer of particles, energy and internal magnetic flux are observed with no enhancement of loss processes over in-situ FRC experiments. The axial velocity of the FRC can be estimated reasonably well with a simple model based on conservation of energy. Internal magnetic field probing during translation shows the expected structure of poloidal field and a complex distribution of generally weak toroidal fields. Measurements of radiated power indicate that radiation is a small fraction of the total plasma power loss (typically 8%). Translation has facilitated scaling studies of confinement over a wider range of parameters than were achieved by in-situ FRX-C experiments. For example, the variable xsub(s), the ratio of the separatrix radius to the metal wall radius, has been increased to about 0.7 by allowing the FRC to expand during translation. In all cases, particle confinement times agree within a factor of two with predictions by models that assume a lower hybrid drift resistivity. However, for the conditions studied there are indications that the experimental

  19. Experimental Study on a Rotor for WEPTOS Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Marchalot, Tanguy

    This report presents the results of an experimental study of the power conversion capabilities of one single rotor of the WEPTOS wave energy converter. The investigation focuses mainly on defining the optimal weight distribution in the rotor in order to improve the hydraulic performance through...

  20. Asymmetric modes in gyrotron tubes and their experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garin, P.; Jedar, E.; Jendrzejczak, G.; mourier, G.; Payen, F.; Teyssier, L.

    1989-01-01

    High power gyrotron tubes suffer from the competition between oscillations on different modes of the resonant cavity. Different techniques for mode selection are outlined and the advantages of non symmetric modes are indicated. Their experimental study is described on a 100 GHz-200 kW - 100 ms - TE34 gyrotron. Some possible extrapolations are briefly presented. (author). 6 refs.; 4 figs

  1. An experimental study on effect of process parameters in deep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of various deep drawing process parameters were determined by experimental study with the use of Taguchi fractional factorial design and analysis of variance for AA6111 Aluminum alloy. The optimum process parameters were determined based on their influence on the thickness variation at different regions ...

  2. Experimental study on the double barrier structure at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, H Y; Chua, S J [Centre for Optoelectronics, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore)

    1994-06-15

    An experimental study of AlAs / GaAs / AlAs double barrier structure is carried out. The double barrier and quantum well structure are grown by MBE. The peak-to-valley ratio 2.6 : 1 with peak current density of 1.6 kA/cm/sup 2 at room temperature have been achieved. (authors)

  3. Experimental study of the longitudinal instability for beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiser, M.; Wang, J.G.; Guo, W.M.; Wang, D.X.

    1990-01-01

    Theoretical model for beam longitudinal instability in a transport pipe with general wall impedance is considered. The result shows that a capacitive wall tends to stabilize the beam. The experimental study of the instability for a pure resistive-wall is presented, including the design parameters, setup and components for the experiment. 6 refs., 3 figs

  4. Future prospects of antiarrhythmic treatment based on experimental studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, M. J.

    1995-01-01

    Based on recent experimental studies, a number of speculations about future developments are made regarding the treatment of atrial fibrillation, the problem of proarrhythmia in patients with heart failure, and the treatment of ventricular tachycardia developing during the first 6 weeks following

  5. Base flow and exhaust plume interaction. Part 1 : Experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoones, M.M.J.; Bannink, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    An experimental study of the flow field along an axi-symmetric body with a single operating exhaust nozzle has been performed in the scope of an investigation on base flow-jet plume interactions. The structure of under-expanded jets in a co-flowing supersonic free stream was described using

  6. Capillary microreactors for lactic acid extraction: experimental and modelling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susanti, Susanti; Winkelman, Jozef; Schuur, Boelo; Heeres, Hero; Yue, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important biobased chemical and, among others, is used for the production of poly-lactic acid. Down-stream processing using state of the art technology is energy intensive and leads to the formation of large amounts of salts. In this presentation, experimental and modeling studies

  7. A new experimental study of charged K→3π decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikeev, V.; Bazilevskij, A.; Baehr, J.

    1998-01-01

    An experimental study was performed of the possibility to use an existing detector - the tagging station of the Tagged Neutrino Facility at IHEP, Serpukhov - for obtaining large statistics data on the decay K ± →π 0 π 0 π ± . After giving some motivation for this aim, preliminary results on Dalitz-plot slopes were presented

  8. Experimental and numerical study of an autonomous flap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernhammer, L.O.; Navalkar, S.T.; Sodja, J.; De Breuker, R.; Karpel, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental and numerical study of an autonomous load alleviation concept using trailing edge flaps. The flaps are autonomous units, which for instance can be used for gust load alleviation. The unit is self-powered and self-actuated through trailing edge tabs which are

  9. Computational and Experimental Studies on the Hetero-Diels-Alder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    Additionally, experimental studies carried out on the reactions of these enaminones 1 with sulphene were also found to be in ... reactions of simple enaminoketones with some dienophiles have been ... example, the only reported [4+2] cycloaddition reaction of .... (2a–c, 3a–c) are true ground state minima, verified by second.

  10. Syntactic Enhancement and Second Language Literacy: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Youngmin; Warschauer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This experimental study examined how the reading and writing development of sixth-grade L2 students was affected by syntactic enhancement. Visual-syntactic text formatting (VSTF) technology, which visualizes syntactic structures, was used to convert a textbook to the one with syntactic enhancement. The sample (n = 282), which was drawn from a…

  11. Results of Experimental Study on Flexitime and Family Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winett, Richard A.; Neale, Michael S.

    1980-01-01

    According to two small experimental studies of flexible working hours, federal workers with young children choose to arrive at and depart from work earlier, allowing them to increase the time spent with their families and to engage in recreational, educational, and household activities. (Author/SK)

  12. Can Facebook Make Students Remember? An Experimental Study from Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Adam

    2014-01-01

    This study experimentally manipulated the way students submit their assignments and tested the number of new words that are learned in each condition. The results showed that students who submitted their assignments through Facebook learned as much as those who submitted their assignment in a traditional way. In the light of these findings, we can…

  13. Experimental study of liquid evaporation rate from coniferous biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulba E.E.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of experimental studies of moisture evaporation from coniferous wood (spruce, pine are presented. The dependences of the mass evaporation rate on temperature and time are obtained. The calculation of the accommodation coefficient for the corresponding temperature ranges has been performed. The analysis of temperature regimes of drying of two typical coniferous wood species is carried out.

  14. Experimental study of spatial distribution of Ar glow discharge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, X.M.; Zhou, T.D.; Pai, S.T.

    1996-01-01

    The characteristics of the spatial distribution of Ar glow discharge plasma were experimentally investigated. By means of direct comparisons between theory and experiment, the effects of the variation of gap separation, gas pressure, and electrode radius on the spatial distributions of electron density and electric field were studied. Results indicate that the maximum electron density moves toward the cathode as the gap separation or gas pressure increases while variation of electrode radius produces little effect. Predictions from a theoretical model have been experimentally verified. General agreements between theory and experiment were found to be reasonably good except in the cathode region, where discrepancy exists. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  15. Experimental study of auxetic behavior of cellular structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chentsov, A. V.; Lisovenko, D. S.

    2018-04-01

    The uniaxial tension of two-dimensional auxetic cellular constructions is studied experimentally. Samples were made of nonauxetic polyethylene terephthalate (PET-A amorphous) and subjected to monotonous uniaxial tension until the last moment when they still remained plane. As a result of the experimental data analysis, comparison of the mechanical properties is given for a faultless sample and constructions in which one horizontal or vertical element in the central area of the sample was removed. It is shown that the lack of one horizontal element of the construction has little influence on the auxetic properties of these constructions unlike the structures with one vertical element being absent.

  16. An experimental study on cyclotron-Cherenkov radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C Y; Masuzaki, M; Yoshida, H; Toyosugi, N; Kamada, K; Ando, R [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). Department of Physics

    1997-12-31

    Dielectric-loaded cylindrical waveguide configurations with an injected electron beam in which the growth rate of the cyclotron-Cherenkov instability surpasses that of the Cherenkov instability were sought by numerical treatment, and one configuration of this kind was found. This configuration consists of a metallic core and an outer metallic cylinder with a dielectric liner on the inner surface. Based on the calculations, an experimental device was designed and assembled to investigate experimentally radiation due to the cyclotron-Cherenkov instability. Beam propagation in the dielectric-loaded coaxial waveguide and microwave radiation due to the cyclotron-Cherenkov instability and the Cherenkov instability were studied. (author). 6 figs., 10 refs.

  17. Experimental study on beam for composite CES structural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Tomoya

    2017-10-01

    Development study on Concrete Encase Steel (CES) composite structure system has been continuously conducted toward the practical use. CES structure is composed of steel and fiber reinforced concrete. In previous study, it was found that CES structure has good seismic performance from experimental study of columns, beam - column joints, shear walls and a two story two span frame. However, as fundamental study on CES beam could be lacking, it is necessary to understand the structural performance of CES beam. In this study, static loading tests of CES beams were conducted with experimental valuable of steel size, the presence or absence of slab and thickness of slab. And restoring characteristics, failure behavior, deformation behavior, and strength evaluation method of CES beam were investigated. As the results, it was found that CES beam showed stable hysteresis behavior. Furthermore it was found that the flexural strength of the CES beam could be evaluated by superposition strength theory.

  18. The Netherlands XTC Toxicity (NeXT) study: objectives and methods of a study investigating causality, course, and clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Win, Maartje M L; Jager, Gerry; Vervaeke, Hylke K E; Schilt, Thelma; Reneman, Liesbeth; Booij, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C; Den Heeten, Gerard J; Ramsey, Nick F; Korf, Dirk J; Van den Brink, Wim

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the objectives and methods of The Netherlands XTC Toxicity (NeXT) study focussing on the causality, course, and clinical relevance of ecstasy neurotoxicity. Previous studies suggest that ecstasy (3,4 methylene-dioxymethamphetamine, MDMA, XTC) is toxic toward brain serotonin axons, but most of these studies have serious methodological limitations. The current study is a combination of different approaches with three substudies: (1) a crosssectional substudy among heavy ecstasy users and controls with variation in drug use, which will provide information about potential neurotoxic consequences of ecstasy in relation to other drugs; (2) a prospective cohort substudy in ecstasy-naive subjects with high risk for future ecstasy use, which will provide information on the causality and short-term course of ecstasy use and potential neurotoxicity, and (3) a retrospective cohort substudy in lifetime ecstasy users and matched controls of an existing epidemiological sample that will provide information on long-term course and outcome of ecstasy use in the general population. Neurotoxicity is studied using (a) different imaging techniques (beta-CIT SPECT, 1H-MR spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging, perfusion weighted imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging), and (b) neuropsychological and psychiatric assessments of memory, depression, and personality. The combined results will lead to conclusions that can be used in prevention messages, clinical decision making, and the development of an (inter)national ecstasy policy.

  19. Experimental study of curved guide tubes for pellet injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combs, S.K.; Baylor, L.R.; Foust, C.R.; Gouge, M.J.; Jernigan, T.C.; Milora, S.L.

    1997-01-01

    The use of curved guide tubes for transporting frozen hydrogen pellets offers great flexibility for pellet injection into plasma devices. While this technique has been previously employed, an increased interest in its applicability has been generated with the recent ASDEX Upgrade experimental data for magnetic high-field side (HFS) pellet injection. In these innovative experiments, the pellet penetration appeared to be significantly deeper than for the standard magnetic low-field side injection scheme, along with corresponding greater fueling efficiencies. Thus, some of the major experimental fusion devices are planning experiments with HFS pellet injection. Because of the complex geometries of experimental fusion devices, installations with multiple curved guide tube sections will be required for HFS pellet injection. To more thoroughly understand and document the capability of curved guide tubes, an experimental study is under way at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In particular, configurations and pellet parameters applicable for the DIII-D tokamak and the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) were simulated in laboratory experiments. Initial test results with nominal 2.7- and 10-mm-diam deuterium pellets are presented and discussed

  20. Enhanced Field Emission Studies on Niobium Surfaces Relevant to High Field Superconducting Radio-Frequency Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Wang

    2002-01-01

    /m. To address concerns on the effect of natural air drying process on EFE, a comparative study was conducted on Nb and the results showed insignificant difference under the experimental conditions. Nb thin films deposited on Cu present a possible alternative to bulk Nb in superconducting cavities. The EFE performance of a preliminary energetically deposited Nb thin film sample are presented

  1. Enhanced Field Emission Studies on Niobium Surfaces Relevant to High Field Superconducting Radio-Frequency Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Tong [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2002-09-18

    address concerns on the effect of natural air drying process on EFE, a comparative study was conducted on Nb and the results showed insignificant difference under the experimental conditions. Nb thin films deposited on Cu present a possible alternative to bulk Nb in superconducting cavities. The EFE performance of a preliminary energetically deposited Nb thin film sample are presented.

  2. Mechanical properties of jennite: A theoretical and experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Juhyuk, E-mail: juhyuk.moon@stonybrook.edu [Civil Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stony Brook University, NY 11794 (United States); Yoon, Seyoon [School of Engineering, Kings College, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom); Monteiro, Paulo J.M. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    The objective of this study is to determine the mechanical properties of jennite. To date, several hypotheses have been proposed to predict the structural properties of jennite. For the first time as reported herein, the isothermal bulk modulus of jennite was measured experimentally. Synchrotron-based high-pressure x-ray diffraction experiments were performed to observe the variation of lattice parameters under pressure. First-principles calculations were applied to compare with the experimental results and predict additional structural properties. Accurately measured isothermal bulk modulus herein (K{sub 0} = 64(2) GPa) and the statistical assessment on experimental and theoretical results suggest reliable mechanical properties of shear and Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and elastic tensor coefficients. Determination of these fundamental structural properties is the first step toward greater understanding of calcium–silicate–hydrate, as well as provides a sound foundation for forthcoming atomic level simulations.

  3. 1,2-Propanediol. Comprehensive experimental and theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verevkin, Sergey P.; Emel'yanenko, Vladimir N.; Nell, Gernot

    2009-01-01

    The standard (p 0 =0.1MPa) molar enthalpy of formation at the temperature 298.15 K of the liquid 1,2-propanediol was measured using combustion calorimetry. Molar enthalpies of vaporization of isomeric 1,2-propanediols were obtained from the temperature dependence of the vapor pressure measured by the transpiration method. Thermochemical investigations of 1,2-ethanediol and 1,2-propanediol available in the literature were collected and combined with own experimental results. This collection together with the new experimental results reported here has helped to resolve contradictions in the available sublimation enthalpies data and to recommend consistent and reliable set of vaporization and formation enthalpies for both diols under study. Ab initio calculations of gaseous molar enthalpy of formation of 1,2-ethanediol and 1,2-propanediol have been performed using the G3MP2 method and results are in excellent agreement with the selected experimental data.

  4. Experimental study and modeling of a novel magnetorheological elastomer isolator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jian; Li, Weihua; Sun, Shuaishuai; Du, Haiping; Li, Yancheng; Li, Jianchun; Deng, H X

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports an experimental setup aiming at evaluating the performance of a newly designed magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) seismic isolator. As a further effort to explore the field-dependent stiffness/damping properties of the MRE isolator, a series of experimental testing were conducted. Based upon the analysis of the experimental responses and the characteristics of the MRE isolator, a new model that is capable of reproducing the unique MRE isolator dynamics behaviors is proposed. The validation results verify the model’s effectiveness to portray the MRE isolator. A study on the field-dependent parameters is then provided to make the model valid with fluctuating magnetic fields. To fully explore the mechanism of the proposed model, an investigation relating the dependence of the proposed model on every parameter is carried out. (technical note)

  5. Experimental asbestos studies in the UK: 1912-1950.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Morris

    2017-11-01

    The asbestos industry originated in the UK in the 1870s. By 1898, asbestos had many applications and was reported to be one of the four leading causes of severe occupational disease. In 1912, the UK government sponsored an experimental study that reported that exposure to asbestos produced no more than a modicum of pulmonary fibrosis in guinea pigs. In the 1930s, the newly established Medical Research Council, with assistance from industry, sponsored a study of the effects of exposing animals to asbestos by injection (intratracheal and subcutaneous) and by inhalation in the factory environment. Government reports, publications, and contemporary records obtained by legal discovery have been reviewed in the context of the stage of scientific development and the history of the times. Experimenters were engaged in a learning process during the 1912-1950 period, and their reports of the effects of asbestos were inconsistent. Pathologists who studied the effects of asbestos experimentally, at whole animal, tissue and cellular levels, advanced experimental methodology and mechanistic knowledge. In the hands of public relations experts, however, research was exploited to preserve an industry and perpetuate preventable diseases, a practice that continues to this day. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Numerical and experimental study of two turbulent opposed plane jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besbes, Sonia; Mhiri, Hatem [Laboratoire de Mecanique des Fluides et Thermique, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Monastir, Route de Ouardanine, Monastir (Tunisia); Le Palec, Georges; Bournot, Philippe [Institut de Mecanique de Marseille, UNIMECA, Technopole de Chateau-Gombert, 60 rue Joliot-Curie, 13453 Marseille (France)

    2003-09-01

    The turbulent interaction between two opposed plane jets separated by a distance H is experimentally studied by using a PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) method and numerically investigated by means of a finite volume code. Two turbulence models have been tested: the standard k-{epsilon} model and a second-order model. The validation of the numerical study was performed by comparing the results with experimental data obtained for the case of two interacting opposed jets at ambient temperature (isothermal case). The effect of the angle of inclination of the jets is studied. Conclusions of the validation are then used to study the interaction between two jets, one being maintained at ambient temperature whereas the other is heated. Results show that the stagnation point moves towards the heated jet. It is shown that the heating induces a stabilizing effect on the flow. (orig.)

  7. The Relevance of Cultural and Media Studies to Theatre and Television in Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hobart

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A critical approach to Balinese society presents a starkly different picturefrom the representations that Balinese usually tell themselves, whichare largely myths to disguise a painful reality. Bali no longer belongsto Balinese but to international capital, a process of alienation by whichBalinese energetically commoditize their culture while claiming theopposite. Even the frames of reference for discussing what is happeningare inadequate because they predate the rise of contemporary consumercapitalism and the mass media. That is why critical media and culturalstudies, disciplines designed precisely to address such phenomena, arepotentially so relevant for Indonesian intellectuals.

  8. Experimental study of modification of neutron spectrum using filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, H.; Matsubayashi, M.; Brenizer, J.S. Jr.; Lindsay, J.T.

    1996-01-01

    Filter effects for continuum thermal neutron beams were experimentally studied by means of an effective energy. Be, Bi and Pb were used as filter materials to examine the energy shift of the spectrum. It was found that the effective energy of a thermal neutron beam is easily lowered into a sub-thermal region (down to 10 meV) by use of a filter system without any cooling system. The effectiveness and its applicability will be discussed in this study. (orig.)

  9. Design study of blanket structure for tokamak experimental fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-11-01

    Design study of the blanket structure for JAERI Experimental Fusion Reactor (JXFR) has been carried out. Studied here were fabrication and testing of the blanket structure (blanket cells, blanket rings, piping and blanket modules), assembly and disassembly of the blanket module, and monitering and testing technique. Problems in design and fabrication of the blanket structure could be revealed. Research and development problems for the future were also disclosed. (author)

  10. Experimental and theoretical study of heterogeneous iron precipitation in silicon

    OpenAIRE

    Haarahiltunen, Antti; Väinölä, Hele; Anttila, O.; Yli-Koski, Marko

    2007-01-01

    Heterogeneous iron precipitation in silicon was studied experimentally by measuring the gettering efficiency of oxide precipitate density of 1×10exp10cm−3. The wafers were contaminated with varying iron concentrations, and the gettering efficiency was studied using isothermal annealing in the temperature range from 300 to 780°C. It was found that iron precipitation obeys the so called s-curve behavior: if iron precipitation occurs, nearly all iron is gettered. For example, after 30 min anneal...

  11. experimental study of cement grout: rheological behavior and sedimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Rosquoët , Frédéric; Alexis , Alain ,; Khelidj , Abdelhafid; Phelipot-Mardelé , Annabelle

    2002-01-01

    International audience; Three basic elements (cement, water and admixture) usually make up injectable cement grouts used for prestressed cable coating, repair and consolidation of masonry, soil grouting, etc... The present study was divided into two parts. First, in order to characterize rheologically fresh cement paste with W/C ratios (water/cement ratio) varying between 0.35 and 1, an experimental study was carried out and has revealed that the cement past behaves like a shear-thinning mate...

  12. Experimental and Analytical Studies of Solar System Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Donald S.

    2003-01-01

    The cosmochemistry research funded by this grant resulted in the publications given in the attached Publication List. The research focused in three areas: (1) Experimental studies of trace element partitioning. (2) Studies of the minor element chemistry and O isotopic compositions of MgAlO4 spinels from Ca-Al-Rich Inclusions in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites, and (3) The abundances and chemical fractionations of Th and U in chondritic meteorites.

  13. Experimental Studies of the Transport Parameters of Warm Dense Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chouffani, Khalid [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States)

    2014-12-01

    There is a need to establish fundamental properties of matter and energy under extreme physical conditions. Although high energy density physics (HEDP) research spans a wide range of plasma conditions, there is one unifying regime that is of particular importance and complexity: that of warm dense matter, the transitional state between solid state condensed matter and energetic plasmas. Most laboratory experimental conditions, including inertial confinement implosion, fall into this regime. Because all aspects of laboratory-created high-energy-density plasmas transition through the warm dense matter regime, understanding the fundamental properties to determine how matter and energy interact in this regime is an important aspect of major research efforts in HEDP. Improved understanding of warm dense matter would have significant and wide-ranging impact on HEDP science, from helping to explain wire initiation studies on the Sandia Z machine to increasing the predictive power of inertial confinement fusion modeling. The central goal or objective of our proposed research is to experimentally determine the electrical resistivity, temperature, density, and average ionization state of a variety of materials in the warm dense matter regime, without the use of theoretical calculations. Since the lack of an accurate energy of state (EOS) model is primarily due to the lack of experimental data, we propose an experimental study of the transport coefficients of warm dense matter.

  14. An Experimental and numerical Study for squeezing flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Rungun; Lang, Ji; Wu, Qianhong; Vucbmss Team

    2017-11-01

    We report an experimental and numerical study to examine the transient squeezing flow driven by sudden external impacts. The phenomenon is widely observed in industrial applications, e.g. squeeze dampers, or in biological systems, i.e. joints lubrication. However, there is a lack of investigation that captures the transient flow feature during the process. An experimental setup was developed that contains a piston instrumented with a laser displacement sensor and a pressure transducer. The heavy piston was released from rest, creating a fast compaction on the thin fluid gap underneath. The motion of the piston and the fluid pressure build-up was recorded. For this dynamic process, a CFD simulation was performed which shows excellent agreement with the experimental data. Both the numerical and experimental results show that, the squeezing flow starts with the inviscid limit when the viscous fluid effect has no time to appear, and thereafter becomes a developing flow, in which the inviscid core flow region decreases and the viscous wall region increases until the entire fluid gap is filled with viscous fluid flow. The study presented herein, filling the gap in the literature, will have broad impacts in industrial and biomedical applications. This research was supported by the National Science Foundation under Award 1511096, and supported by the Seed Grant from The Villanova Center for the Advancement of Sustainability in Engineering (VCASE).

  15. Experimental and numerical studies in a vortex tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Chang Hyun; Kim, Chang Soo; Gowda, B. H. L Lakshmana; Jung, Ui Hyun

    2006-01-01

    The present investigation deals with the study of the internal flow phenomena of the counter-flow type vortex tube using experimental testing and numerical simulation. Visualization was carried out using the surface tracing method, injecting dye on the vortex tube wall using a needle. Vortex tube is made of acrylic to visualize the surface particle tracing and the input air pressure was varied from 0.1 MPa to 0.3 MPa. The experimentally visualized results on the tube show that there is an apparent sudden changing of the trajectory on the vortex tube wall which was observed in every experimental test case. This may indicate the stagnation position of the vortex flow. The visualized stagnation position moves towards the vortex generator with increase in cold flow ratio and input pressure. Three-dimensional computational study is also conducted to obtain more detailed flow information in the vortex tube. Calculated total pressure, static pressure and total temperature distributions in the vortex tube were in good agreement with the experimental data. The computational particle trace on the vortex tube wall is very similar to that observed in experiments

  16. Experimental study of elementary collection efficiency of aerosols by spray: Design of the experimental device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducret, D.; Vendel, J.; Garrec. S.L.

    1995-02-01

    The safety of a nuclear power plant containment building, in which pressure and temperature could increase because of a overheating reactor accident, can be achieved by spraying water drops. The spray reduces the pressure and the temperature levels by condensation of steam on cold water drops. The more stringent thermodynamic conditions are a pressure of 5.10{sup 5} Pa (due to steam emission) and a temperature of 413 K. Moreover its energy dissipation function, the spray leads to the washout of fission product particles emitted in the reactor building atmosphere. The present study includes a large program devoted to the evaluation of realistic washout rates. The aim of this work is to develop experiments in order to determine the collection efficiency of aerosols by a single drop. To do this, the experimental device has to be designed with fundamental criteria:-Thermodynamic conditions have to be representative of post-accident atmosphere. Thermodynamic equilibrium has to be attained between the water drops and the gaseous phase. Thermophoretic, diffusiophoretic and mechanical effects have to be studied independently. Operating conditions have to be homogenous and constant during each experiment. This paper presents the design of the experimental device. In practice, the consequences on the design of each of the criteria given previously and the necessity of being representative of the real conditions will be described.

  17. Experimental and Theoretical Studies in Hydrogen-Bonding Organocatalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Žabka

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chiral thioureas and squaramides are among the most prominent hydrogen-bond bifunctional organocatalysts now extensively used for various transformations, including aldol, Michael, Mannich and Diels-Alder reactions. More importantly, the experimental and computational study of the mode of activation has begun to attract considerable attention. Various experimental, spectroscopic and calculation methods are now frequently used, often as an integrated approach, to establish the reaction mechanism, the mode of activation or explain the stereochemical outcome of the reaction. This article comprises several case studies, sorted according to the method used in their study. The aim of this review is to give the investigators an overview of the methods currently utilized for mechanistic investigations in hydrogen-bonding organocatalysis.

  18. Experimental study of flame stability in biogas premix system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz G, Carlos A; Amell A Andres; Cardona Luis F

    2008-01-01

    Utilization of new renewable energy sources have had a special interest in last years looking for decrease the dependence of fossil fuels and the environmental impact generated for them. This work studies experimentally the flame stability of a simulated biogas with a volumetric composition of 60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide. The objective of this study is to obtain information about design and interchangeability of gases in premixed combustion systems that operate with different fuel gases. The critical velocity gradient was the stability criteria used. Utilization of this criteria and the experimental method followed, using a partial premixed burner, stability flame diagram of biogas studied had been obtained. Presence of carbon dioxide has a negative effect in flame stability, decreasing significantly the laminar flame speed and consequently, the stability range of biogas burners because of apparition of blow off.

  19. Perspectives of Employees with Intellectual Disabilities on Themes Relevant to Their Job Satisfaction. An Explorative Study Using Photovoice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerman, Alma; Janssen, Cees G. C.; Kef, Sabina; Meininger, Herman P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study explored the perspectives of people with intellectual disabilities on themes relevant to their job satisfaction in integrated and sheltered employment. Method: The photovoice method was used. Nine participants with moderate to mild intellectual disabilities, working in integrated and sheltered employment, took pictures of…

  20. Electron attachment to oxygen, ozone and other compounds of atmospheric relevance as studied with ultra-high energy resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerk, T.D.; Matejcik, S.; Kiendler, A.; Cicman, P.; Senn, G.; Skalny, J.; Stampfli, P.; Illenberger, E.; Chu, Y.; Stamatovic, A.

    1996-01-01

    The processes of electron attachment to oxygen, ozone, ozone/oxygen cluster and oxygen cluster as well as other compounds of atmospheric relevance (CF 2 Cl 2 , CHCl 3 and CCl 3 Br) were studied with ultra-high energy resolution crossed beam technique

  1. The Effects of Topic Familiarity, Author Expertise, and Content Relevance on Norwegian Students' Document Selection: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrudden, Matthew T.; Stenseth, Tonje; Bråten, Ivar; Strømsø, Helge I.

    2016-01-01

    This mixed methods study investigated the extent to which author expertise and content relevance were salient to secondary Norwegian students (N = 153) when they selected documents that pertained to more familiar and less familiar topics. Quantitative results indicated that author expertise was more salient for the less familiar topic (nuclear…

  2. The Effectiveness of Hypnosis Intervention for Labor: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beevi, Zuhrah; Low, Wah Yun; Hassan, Jamiyah

    2017-10-01

    Hypnosis has been shown to help pregnant women experience improved labor and postpartum periods. The present study compares the differences between experimental (n = 23) and control groups (n = 22) on specific variables measured both during labor and 24 hr postpartum. The participants in the experimental group received the hypnosis intervention at weeks 16, 20, 28, and 36 of pregnancy, while those in the control group received only routine antenatal care. The data collected at the labor stage describe the length of the labor stage, pain relief used during labor, the method of delivery, and the type of assisted vaginal delivery. Within 24 hr of delivery, data on neonatal birth weight, neonatal Apgar scores, and self-reported pain were obtained. The labor stage results showed no significant differences in the length of the second and third stages of labor. Although the participants in the experimental group reported higher pain levels immediately prior to, during, and immediately after delivery, their use of pethidine during labor was significantly lower than the control group participants. None of the experimental group participants opted for an epidural, and they had a greater number of assisted vaginal deliveries than the control group participants. The 24 hr postpartum results showed that the neonates of the experimental group participants had nonsignificantly higher Apgar scores than those of the women in the control group. Group differences in neonatal weight were not significant. The results of the present study indicate that hypnosis is useful for assisting pregnant women during labor and the postpartum period.

  3. Experimental study of Coal Pyrolysis 2.: Experimental characterisation of volatile matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugony, F.; Migliavacca, G.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper considerations about experiments conducted through T G-Ftir are reported, in order to study the gas composition coming from coal pyrolysis. In particular qualitative and semi-qualitative evaluation of hydrocarbon evolution rate, as CH4, C2H4 and C3H6 are reported. It has been observed a strict relation between the evolution rate of the listed compounds, the coal rank and their elementary composition. The reported data constitute a good support to the validation of the predictive models of coal devolatilization. To complete the study two papers will be published in the next months: one containing experimental data from pyrolysis process in a fixed bed reactor and another one concerning the NMR analysis of the produced char. [it

  4. Cross-Cultural Studies of Personality Traits and their Relevance to Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.

    2009-01-01

    Aims This article provides a brief review of recent cross-cultural research on personality traits at both individual and culture levels, highlighting the relevance of recent findings for psychiatry. Method In most cultures around the world, personality traits can be clearly summarized by the five broad dimensions of the Five-Factor Model (FFM), which makes it feasible to compare cultures on personality and psychopathology. Results Maturational patterns and sex differences in personality traits generally show cultural invariance, which generates the hypothesis that age of onset, clinical evolution, and sex differences in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders might follow similar universal patterns. The average personality profiles from 51 cultures show meaningful geographical distributions and associations with culture-level variables, but are clearly unrelated to national character stereotypes. Conclusions Aggregate personality scores can potentially be related to epidemiological data on psychiatric disorders, and dimensional personality models have implications for psychiatric diagnosis and treatment around the world. PMID:17128620

  5. Experimental and numerical studies of sheet electron beam propagation through a planar wiggler magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ze Xiang; Granatstein, V.L.; Destler, W.W.; Rodgers, J.; Cheng, S.; Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Levush, B.; Bidwell, S.W.

    1993-01-01

    Detailed experimental studies on sheet relativistic electron beam propagation through a long planar wiggler are reported and compared with numerical simulations. The planar wiggler has 56 periods with a period of 9.6 mm. Typically, the wiggler field peak amplitude is 5 kG. The experimental efforts have been focused on control of the deviation of the beam toward the side edge of the planar wiggler along the wide transverse direction. It is found that a suitably tapered magnetic field configuration at the wiggler entrance can considerably reduce the rate of the deviation. The effects of the following techniques on beam transport efficiency are also discussed: side focusing, beam transverse velocity tuning at the wiggler entrance, and beam spread limiting. High beam transport efficiency (almost 100%) of a 15 A beam has been obtained in some cases. The results are relevant to development of a free electron laser amplifier for application to stabilizing and heating of plasma in magnetic fusion research

  6. Deep Boreholes Seals Subjected to High P, T conditions – Preliminary Experimental Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Norskog, Katherine Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Maner, James Lavada [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-18

    The objective of this planned experimental work is to evaluate physio-chemical processes for ‘seal’ components and materials relevant to deep borehole disposal. These evaluations will encompass multi-laboratory efforts for the development of seals concepts and application of Thermal-Mechanical-Chemical (TMC) modeling work to assess barrier material interactions with subsurface fluids, their stability at high temperatures, and the implications of these processes to the evaluation of thermal limits. Deep borehole experimental work will constrain the Pressure, Temperature (P, T) conditions which “seal” material will experience in deep borehole crystalline rock repositories. The rocks of interest to this study include the silicic (granitic gneiss) end members. The experiments will systematically add components to capture discrete changes in both water and EBS component chemistries.

  7. Experimental Study of Impregnation Birch and Aspen Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Vladislavovich Grigorev

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study of wood impregnation was implemented by applying centrifugal methods. The impregnants were a 10% aqueous solution of potassium chloride and a 2% aqueous solution of borax. Birch (Betula pendula and aspen (Populus tremula wood samples in different moisture content were tested. The impregnation time in the centrifugal device were 30 seconds repeated 21 times, and the samples were measured after every 30 seconds. The experimental results were fitted to a nonlinear filtration law, which indicated that the centrifugal wood impregnation was dependent on wood species, wood moisture, rotational speed, and radius. Determination of rotational speed and centrifuge radius for impregnating aspen and birch at varying lengths and humidity under conditions of the nonlinear impregnant filtration law can be done using the example charts that were developed and presented in this study.

  8. Lung Morphological Changes in Closed Chest Injury (an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Golubev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study lung morphological changes in a closed chest injury model in laboratory animals. Material and methods. Experiments were carried out in 30 male albino nonbred rats weighing 350—380 g. Closed chest injury was simulated, by exposing the chest of anesthetized rats to a 300-g metal cylinder falling from a height of 30 cm. The observation periods were 1, 3, 6, and 24 hours. Results. The signs of evident perivenular edema that was uncharas-teristic to acute respiratory distress syndrome induced by other causes are an important peculiarity of lung morphological changes in this experimental model of closed chest injury. Conclusion. The experimental studies clarified the pattern of lung morphological changes in the early period after closed chest injury. Key words: closed chest injury, pulmonary edema.

  9. Experimental study of particulate fouling onto heat exchanger elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasa

    1994-01-01

    An experimental study of particulate fouling onto tubular heat exchanger surfaces was carried out using sodium sulfate particles. An experimental apparatus equipped with an aerosol generator has been used to examine the deposition of small particles under controlled conditions. Two sets of experiments were performed. Firstly, the deposition against time of solid particles onto single heat exchanger tube in cross-flow was studied. The effects of a number variables such as particle size, gas velocity and temperature on the deposition was analysed. Secondly, the deposition for the aerosol particles as they passed through a bank of finned tubes was examined. The deposition patterns on various tubes depended on local conditions (velocity and temperature) within the bank. It was found that the fouling resistance increases as aerosol flow rate decreases. The smaller particles showed higher fouling resistance. (author) [fr

  10. An Experimental Study of a Pulsed Electromagnetic Plasma Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Eskridge, Richard; Lee, Mike; Smith, James; Martin, Adam; Markusic, Tom E.; Cassibry, Jason T.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Experiments are being performed on the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) pulsed electromagnetic plasma accelerator (PEPA-0). Data produced from the experiments provide an opportunity to further understand the plasma dynamics in these thrusters via detailed computational modeling. The detailed and accurate understanding of the plasma dynamics in these devices holds the key towards extending their capabilities in a number of applications, including their applications as high power (greater than 1 MW) thrusters, and their use for producing high-velocity, uniform plasma jets for experimental purposes. For this study, the 2-D MHD modeling code, MACH2, is used to provide detailed interpretation of the experimental data. At the same time, a 0-D physics model of the plasma initial phase is developed to guide our 2-D modeling studies.

  11. A Combined Theoretical and Experimental Study for Silver Electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Anmin; Ren, Xuefeng; An, Maozhong; Zhang, Jinqiu; Yang, Peixia; Wang, Bo; Zhu, Yongming; Wang, Chong

    2014-01-01

    A novel method combined theoretical and experimental study for environmental friendly silver electroplating was introduced. Quantum chemical calculations and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations were employed for predicting the behaviour and function of the complexing agents. Electronic properties, orbital information, and single point energies of the 5,5-dimethylhydantoin (DMH), nicotinic acid (NA), as well as their silver(I)-complexes were provided by quantum chemical calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). Adsorption behaviors of the agents on copper and silver surfaces were investigated using MD simulations. Basing on the data of quantum chemical calculations and MD simulations, we believed that DMH and NA could be the promising complexing agents for silver electroplating. The experimental results, including of electrochemical measurement and silver electroplating, further confirmed the above prediction. This efficient and versatile method thus opens a new window to study or design complexing agents for generalized metal electroplating and will vigorously promote the level of this research region.

  12. A Combined Theoretical and Experimental Study for Silver Electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Anmin; Ren, Xuefeng; An, Maozhong; Zhang, Jinqiu; Yang, Peixia; Wang, Bo; Zhu, Yongming; Wang, Chong

    2014-01-01

    A novel method combined theoretical and experimental study for environmental friendly silver electroplating was introduced. Quantum chemical calculations and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations were employed for predicting the behaviour and function of the complexing agents. Electronic properties, orbital information, and single point energies of the 5,5-dimethylhydantoin (DMH), nicotinic acid (NA), as well as their silver(I)-complexes were provided by quantum chemical calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). Adsorption behaviors of the agents on copper and silver surfaces were investigated using MD simulations. Basing on the data of quantum chemical calculations and MD simulations, we believed that DMH and NA could be the promising complexing agents for silver electroplating. The experimental results, including of electrochemical measurement and silver electroplating, further confirmed the above prediction. This efficient and versatile method thus opens a new window to study or design complexing agents for generalized metal electroplating and will vigorously promote the level of this research region. PMID:24452389

  13. Experimental study of optical fibers influence on composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong-Mei; Liang, Da-Kai

    2010-03-01

    Bending strength and elasticity modulus of composite, with and without embedded optical fibers, were experimentally studied. Two kinds of laminates, which were denoted as group 1 and group 2, were fabricated from an orthogonal woven glass/epoxy prepreg. Since the normal stress value becomes the biggest at the surface of a beam, the optical fibers were embedded at the outmost layer and were all along the loading direction. Four types of materials, using each kind of laminated prepreg respectively, were manufactured. The embedded optical fibers for the 4 material types were 0, 10, 30 and 50 respectively. Three-point bending tests were carried out on the produced specimens to study the influence of embedded optical fiber on host composite. The experimental results indicated that the materials in group 2 were more sensitive to the embedded optical fibers.

  14. A theoretical and experimental study of microshield circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dib, Nihad I.; Drayton, Rhonda F.; Katehi, Linda P. B.

    1993-05-01

    The novel type of monolithic planar transmission line presently studied theoretically and experimentally operates without via-holes or ground-equalizing air bridges; it also radiates less than conventional coplanar waveguides and furnishes a wide range of impedances in virtue of its many design parameters. The space-domain integral equation method is used to analyze several discontinuities of the proposed line. It is shown that the proposed line discontinuities radiate less than the corresponding coplanar waveguide cases.

  15. Transformation induced plasticity in maraging steel: an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagayama, K.; Kitajima, Y.; Kigami, S.; Tanaka, K.

    2000-01-01

    The deformation behavior of a maraging TRIP (transformation induced plasticity) steel (MAVAL X12) is studied experimentally under a constant load. The existence of the back stress in the axial direction is directly proved by investigating the dilatation curves. Martensite-start lines are given under tensile, compressive and shear stresses. The evolution of TRIP strain and the maximum TRIP strain are determined. The alloy response during isothermal tensile test is explained in terms of influences both by the composite and transformation. (orig.)

  16. Studies of the experimental technologies of radiative opacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiyan; Yang Guohong; Ding Yaonan; Yang Jiamin; Li Jun; Zhang Wenhai; He Yingling; Wang Yaomei; Huang Haodong

    2004-12-01

    On the SHENGUANG-II laser facility, integrated experiment for opacity measurement was performed and related physical items were studies. In the experiment, some new-typed diagnosing device were also tested. The experiment includes three contents: (1) Investigation of the measurement technique of absorption spectra in the keV region; (2) Investigation of the measurement technique of dual point projection spectroscopy; (3) Investigation of the temperature and density parameters of the experimental samples. (authors)

  17. Experimental Study on Noise Characteristic of Centrifugal Compressor Surge

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Qichao; Zhao, Yuanyang; SHU, Yue; LI, Xiaosa; LI, Liansheng

    2016-01-01

    The centrifugal air compressor test rig is was designed and established. The experimental study was carried out on the surge characteristics of centrifugal compressor including the pressure in the pipe and the noise characteristics under different rotation speed. The tested results showed that both the suction pressure and discharge pressure fluctuation increase under surge condition and the amplitude of discharge pressure fluctuation is significantly higher than that of suction pressure. In ...

  18. Microneural anastomosis with fibrin glue : an experimental study.

    OpenAIRE

    Suri A; Mehta V; Sarkar C

    2002-01-01

    An experimental study was designed to compare the histological analysis of nerve anastomosis with 10-0 microsurgical sutures and fibrin adhesive. Wistar albino rats′ sciatic nerves were transected and repaired either with fibrin adhesive-Beriplast P (M/s Centeon-Cadila Health Care) or with 10-0 monofilament microsutures. Histological assessment was performed at 10, 20, 30, 60 and 90 days after surgery. Functional recovery of the sciatic nerves started at two months and was near normal ...

  19. Respecifying lab ethnography an ethnomethodological study of experimental physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sormani, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Respecifying Lab Ethnography delivers the first ethnomethodological study of current experimental physics in action, describing the disciplinary orientation of lab work and exploring the discipline in its social order, formal stringency and skilful performance - in situ and in vivo. In bringing together two major strands of ethnomethodological inquiry, reflexive ethnography and video analysis, which have hitherto existed in parallel, Respecifying Lab Ethnography introduces a practice-based video analysis. In doing so, the book recasts conventional distinctions to shed fresh light on methodolog

  20. Experimental study of hydrogen jet ignition and jet extinguishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierman, R.W.

    1979-04-01

    Two phases are described of an experimental study that investigated: (1) the ignition characteristics of hydrogen--sodium jets, (2) the formation of hydrogen in sodium--humid air atmospheres, and (3) the extinguishment characteristics of burning hydrogen--sodium jets. Test conditions were similar to those postulated for highly-improbable breeder reactor core melt-through accidents and included: jet temperature, jet velocity, jet hydrogen concentration, jet sodium concentration, atmospheric oxygen concentration, and atmospheric water vapor concentration

  1. Experimental study of possible therapy of the acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willborn, M.

    1981-01-01

    These experimental studies showed that the survival time of rats, irradiated in a whole-body irradiation with 3000 rad 60 Co-gamma, can be positively influenced by the administration of an antibiotic and also by glucocorticoids. Contrary to our expectations, the combined application of the glucocorticoid and the antibiotic did not increase the survival time of the animals with gastrointestinal syndromes compared with the exclusive administration of the antibiotic. The mineral corticoid aldosterone resulted to be ineffective. (orig.) [de

  2. Experimental studies of radiation carcinogenesis in the skin: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coggle, J.E.; Williams, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Dose and time response characteristics of cancer induction following a variety of modes and qualities of radiation exposure are reviewed in relation to rat and mouse skin studies. Despite interspecies differences, it is shown that all of the experimental data for radiogenic skin cancer, when expressed per unit area of skin, fall on a relatively narrow and well defined response curve, which is approximately two orders of magnitude more sensitive than the human skin cancer dose response. (UK)

  3. Elise: a new facility for unprecedented experimental nuclear fission studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taieb, J.; Belier, G.; Chatillon, A.; Granier, T.; Kelic, A.; Ricciardi, V.; Schmidt, K.H.; Voss, B.; Coste-Delclaux, M.; Diop, C.; Jouanne, C.; Schmitt, C.; Aiche, M.; Czajkowski, S.; Jurado, B.; Audouin, L.; Peyre, J.; Rosier, P.; Tassan-Got, L.; Bertoumieux, E.; Dore, D.; Dupont, E.; Letourneau, A.; Panebianco, S.

    2009-01-01

    A novel experimental program aiming to study the properties of fragments and neutrons emitted in the fission process has been initiated. The experiment will be held at the ELISe electron-ion collider to be constructed at GSI, Darmstadt in the framework of the FAIR extension of the facility. The experiment will take advantage of the inverse kinematics allowing, in particular, a total mass and charge resolution for all fission fragments. (authors)

  4. Experimental study on convective heat transfer with thin porous bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Yoshihisa; Kinoshita, Izumi; Furuya, Masahiro

    2001-01-01

    Experimental studies are made on the convective heat transfer of three types of thin porous bodies. Heat transfer performances, flow patterns and temperature profiles near the porous bodies are compared with each other. The heat transfer performance of porous bodies with the largest pore diameter is large. It became clear that the high heat transfer performance depends on an excellent heat transportation ability inside the pore and near the surface of the porous bodies. (author)

  5. Experimental and theoretical studies on the high pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So, Dong Sup

    1992-02-01

    A High Pressure Melt Ejection (HPME) is one of the most important phenomena relevant to Direct Containment Heating(DCH) which could lead to an early containment failure in a several accident of PWRs. Dispersal of core debris following a postulated high pressure failure of PWR reactor vessel has been investigated by experimental works and one-dimensional computer modeling to find the relation between the fraction of melt simulant retained in the cavity and the reactor vessel initial conditions as well as to examine the hydrodynamic processes in a reactor cavity geometry. Simulated HPME experiments have been performed with two small-scale (1/25-th and 1/41-st) transparent reactor cavity models of the Young-Gwang unit 1 and 2. Wood's metal and water have been used as melt sumulants while high pressure nitrogen and carbon dioxide have been used as driver gases to simulate the blowdown steam and gas from the breach of the reactor pressure vessel. The high speed movies of the transient tests showed that no fraction of the melt simulant exits the cavity model via the vertical cavity tunnel under its own momentum, and that the discharged simulant from the pressure vessel exits the reactor cavity model during the gas blowdown. The principal removal mechanism seemed to be a combined mechanism of film entrainment and particle levitation due to the driving force of the blowdown gas. Experimental data for the fraction of melt simulant retained in the cavity model (Y f ) during a postulated scenario of the HPME from PWR pressure vessels have been obtained as a function of various test parameters. These data have been used to develop a correlation for Y f that fits all the data (a total of 313 data points) within the standard deviation of 0.054 by means of dimensional analysis and nonlinear least squares optimization technique. The basic effects of important parameters used to describe the HPME accident sequence on the Y f are determined based on the correlation obtained here and

  6. Computational/experimental studies of isolated, single component droplet combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryer, Frederick L.

    1993-01-01

    Isolated droplet combustion processes have been the subject of extensive experimental and theoretical investigations for nearly 40 years. The gross features of droplet burning are qualitatively embodied by simple theories and are relatively well understood. However, there remain significant aspects of droplet burning, particularly its dynamics, for which additional basic knowledge is needed for thorough interpretations and quantitative explanations of transient phenomena. Spherically-symmetric droplet combustion, which can only be approximated under conditions of both low Reynolds and Grashof numbers, represents the simplest geometrical configuration in which to study the coupled chemical/transport processes inherent within non-premixed flames. The research summarized here, concerns recent results on isolated, single component, droplet combustion under microgravity conditions, a program pursued jointly with F.A. Williams of the University of California, San Diego. The overall program involves developing and applying experimental methods to study the burning of isolated, single component droplets, in various atmospheres, primarily at atmospheric pressure and below, in both drop towers and aboard space-based platforms such as the Space Shuttle or Space Station. Both computational methods and asymptotic methods, the latter pursued mainly at UCSD, are used in developing the experimental test matrix, in analyzing results, and for extending theoretical understanding. Methanol, and the normal alkanes, n-heptane, and n-decane, have been selected as test fuels to study time-dependent droplet burning phenomena. The following sections summarizes the Princeton efforts on this program, describe work in progress, and briefly delineate future research directions.

  7. Study about the relevance and the disclosure of biological assets of listed companies in BM&FBOVESPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Holtz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective this article is to verify that the information content of biological assets disclosed in the financial statements are relevant and, the secondary objective perform content analysis of the notes verifying the compliance of information supplied by entities with CPC 29. The study sample was composed of publicly traded stock companies listed on the BM & FBOVESPA with data for the year 2010 and 2011. The empirical tests were conducted applying relevance models, using observations of 347 active companies characterizing a study model pooled ordinary least squares – POLS, including companies that have reported biological assets into account specific .The companies that had values of biological assets posted have had analyzed explanatory notes referring to this account. The results provide empirical evidence that the information content of biological assets disclosed by companies is not relevant to the sample. In relation the content analysis of the notes was checked a partial compliance of the standard, there is a disparity in the information disclosure practices by the companies analyzed, as well as an omission of items required by the standard. Can be inferred that loss of the relevance has occurred, in part, by the poor quality of the notes, which may make it difficult for outside users in interpreting the information disclosed.

  8. Development and Experimental Validation of Large Eddy Simulation Techniques for the Prediction of Combustion-Dynamic Process in Syngas Combustion: Characterization of Autoignition, Flashback, and Flame-Liftoff at Gas-Turbine Relevant Operating Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihme, Matthias [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Driscoll, James [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-08-31

    The objective of this closely coordinated experimental and computational research effort is the development of simulation techniques for the prediction of combustion processes, relevant to the oxidation of syngas and high hydrogen content (HHC) fuels at gas-turbine relevant operating conditions. Specifically, the research goals are (i) the characterization of the sensitivity of syngas ignition processes to hydrodynamic processes and perturbations in temperature and mixture composition in rapid compression machines and ow-reactors and (ii) to conduct comprehensive experimental investigations in a swirl-stabilized gas turbine (GT) combustor under realistic high-pressure operating conditions in order (iii) to obtain fundamental understanding about mechanisms controlling unstable flame regimes in HHC-combustion.

  9. Spent Fuel Transportation Package Performance Study - Experimental Design Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, A. M.; Murphy, A. J.; Sprung, J. L.; Ammerman, D. J.; Lopez, C.

    2003-01-01

    Numerous studies of spent nuclear fuel transportation accident risks have been performed since the late seventies that considered shipping container design and performance. Based in part on these studies, NRC has concluded that the level of protection provided by spent nuclear fuel transportation package designs under accident conditions is adequate. [1] Furthermore, actual spent nuclear fuel transport experience showcase a safety record that is exceptional and unparalleled when compared to other hazardous materials transportation shipments. There has never been a known or suspected release of the radioactive contents from an NRC-certified spent nuclear fuel cask as a result of a transportation accident. In 1999 the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated a study, the Package Performance Study, to demonstrate the performance of spent fuel and spent fuel packages during severe transportation accidents. NRC is not studying or testing its current regulations, a s the rigorous regulatory accident conditions specified in 10 CFR Part 71 are adequate to ensure safe packaging and use. As part of this study, NRC currently plans on using detailed modeling followed by experimental testing to increase public confidence in the safety of spent nuclear fuel shipments. One of the aspects of this confirmatory research study is the commitment to solicit and consider public comment during the scoping phase and experimental design planning phase of this research

  10. The relevance of context in understanding health literacy skills: Findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Verna B; Sixsmith, Jane; Barry, Margaret M

    2017-10-01

    Conceptualizing health literacy as a relational concept, which involves how individuals interact with complex health and social systems, requires a greater understanding of the context of people's health experiences. To describe individuals' experiences of accessing, understanding, appraising and applying health information; explore the barriers and facilitators to using these skills; and to describe the experience of information exchange in health consultations. A longitudinal qualitative methodology with thematic analysis of interviews was used. Health literacy levels were assessed using the HLS-EU-47-Item Questionnaire. Findings are presented from the first round of data collection. Twenty-six participants purposefully selected from a CVD risk reduction programme at three separate time points. Four key themes identified: using health literacy capacities for managing health; psychological and structural factors that impact on these capacities; and the relationship quality with the health-care provider (HCP). Although limited health literacy was prevalent across the sample (65%), all individuals were very proactive in attempting to utilize health literacy skills. Findings emphasize the importance of contextual factors such as the quality of communication with the health-care provider, perceptions of control, attitudes to family medical history, navigating structural barriers and being supported in managing treatment and medication side-effects. Findings are relevant for health-care providers in order to enhance the patient-provider relationship and to ensure optimum health outcomes for all individuals regardless of health literacy levels. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Combustion behaviour of pulverised wood - Numerical and experimental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lixin Tao [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2002-05-01

    This report presents the experimental results achieved in an on-going project financed by STEM (Energimyndigheten) within the research program 'Gasification and combustion of solid fuels', during the first phase of the project (2001-03-05 to 2002-03-05). The project is a collaboration project between LTH and TPS on combined numerical modelling/experimental investigation on combustion of pulverised wood. Particularly TPS carry out the experimental investigation in a laboratory vertical furnace. During the project, the experimental rig has been developed. The experimental furnace has an inner diameter of 0.25 m and a height of 4 m. A pulverised wood flame is established using an axial burner that is installed on the top of the furnace. Experimental study on a selected pulverised wood with determined size distribution and anisotropy character has been carried out in this furnace. During the experiment, the wall temperatures of the furnace were continuously measured using 8 thermocouples of type K that are installed on the wall with a spacing about 0.5 m. The gas temperatures in the furnace were monitored using 5 fixed suction pyrometers that are placed along the centre of the furnace. At the bottom of the furnace, a fixed gas-sampling probe was installed. The flue gas concentrations were continuously monitored with on-line gas analysers. The extent of combustion was measured through the analysis of sampled gaseous products and condensable solid products. A movable liquid quench probe was used to carry out the gas and solid sampling through a number of sampling holes that are opened along the furnace wall. The quench liquor used is an alkaline water solution containing a small amount of a detergent to dissolve HCN and tar. The quench liquor and solid samples were separated and collected in a knockout pot. The gas was filtered and passed through two bubblers with acidic solution to collect NH{sub 3}. The gas concentrations were then analysed with on-line gas

  12. An experimental study on the characteristics of electromagnetic filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Geum Yong; Lim, Seung Cheol; Lee, Kun Jai

    1993-01-01

    The electromagnetic filter has been recognized as a technological replacement for the conventional filtration systems of the nuclear power plant coolant. But, as of now there are neither clear understandings of the phenomena occurring in the electromagnetic filter nor the general theoretical analyses. These facts make the application of the electromagnetic filter to the real systems a little risky, and therfore it has not been commercialized although it shows excellent performances in such situations as the plant abnormality, where the conventional filters usually fail. This experimental study of the low power electromagnetic filter aims at the clarification of the general characteristics under varying operational parameters. Since the detailed characteristics may differ from one electromagnetic filter to another, they are considered secondary. The impurities applied are the highly magnetic magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) and the diamagnetic cuprous oxide (Cu 2 O). The empirical equations are derived from the experimental data by the regressional analyses. They are classified of three types : Efficiencies vs. Time, Efficiencies vs. Load, and Load vs. Time. The characteristics of the electromagnetic filter observed in this experiment agreed well with other related works in many aspects. Especially in this study, some assumptions and discussions including the physical deposition are combined for the explanations of the filter characteristics found in our and other experimental works. (Author)

  13. Self-Radiolysis of Tritiated Water: Experimental Study and Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinze, Sylver; Stolz, Thibaut; Ducret, Didier; Colson, Jean-Claude

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive decay of tritium contained in tritiated water leads to the production of gaseous helium and, through self-radiolysis, to the formation of molecular hydrogen and oxygen. For safety management of tritiated water storage, it is essential to be able to predict pressure increase resulting from this phenomenon. The present study aims to identify the mechanisms that take place in self-radiolysis of chemically pure liquid tritiated water. The evolution of the concentration of hydrogen and oxygen in the gas phase of closed vessels containing tritiated water has been followed experimentally. Simulation of pure water radiolysis has been carried out using data from the literature. In order to fit experimental results, simulation should take into account gas phase recombination reaction between hydrogen and oxygen. A simplified system has been extracted from the complete chemical system used to simulate radiolysis. This system allows identifying the basic mechanisms that are responsible for tritiated water self-radiolysis

  14. Electrochemistry of chlorogenic acid: experimental and theoretical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namazian, Mansoor [Department of Chemistry, Yazd University, P.O. Box 89195-741, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: namazian@yazduni.ac.ir; Zare, Hamid R. [Department of Chemistry, Yazd University, P.O. Box 89195-741, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2005-08-10

    Cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and rotating disk electrode voltammetry as well as quantum chemical methods, are used for electrochemical study of chlorogenic acid, as an important biological molecule. The standard formal potential, diffusion coefficient, and heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant of chlorogenic acid in aqueous solution are investigated. Acidic dissociation constant of chlorogenic acid is also obtained. Quantum mechanical calculations on oxidation of chlorogenic acid in aqueous solution, using density functional theory are presented. The change of Gibbs free energy and entropy of oxidation of chlorogenic acid are calculated using thermochemistry calculations. The calculations in aqueous solution are carried out with the use of polarizable continuum solvation method. Theoretical standard electrode potential of chlorogenic acid is achieved to be 0.580 V versus standard calomel electrode (SCE) which is in agreement with the experimental value of 0.617 V obtained experimentally in this work. The difference is consistent with the values we previously reported for other quinone derivatives.

  15. Experimental study on reflooding in advanced tight lattice PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, K.; Kodama, J.; Teramae, T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is related to the experimental study on the feasibility of core cooling by re-flooding in a large break loss of coolant accident (LOCA) for the advanced tight lattice pressurized water reactor (PWR). The tight lattice core design should be adopted to improve the conversion ratio. Major one of the key questions of such tight lattice core is the cooling capability under the re-flood condition in a large break LOCA. Forced feed bottom re-flooding experiments have been performed by use of a 4x4 triangular array rod bundle. The rod gap is 0.5 mm, 1.0 mm, or 1.5 mm. The measured peak temperature is below around 1273 K even in case of 1.0/0.5 mm rod gap. And, the evaluation based on the experimental results of rod temperatures and core pressure drop also shows that the core cooling under re-flooding condition is feasible. (author)

  16. An experimental study about efficacy of the drain catheters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Bum Gyu; Nho, Joon Young; Woo, Hyo Cheol; Hwang, Woo Cheol; Park, Choong Ki; Yoon, Jong Sup [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-09-15

    Although percutaneous abscess drainage has become and accepted alternative from of therapy for selected patients with abscess, it is well known that there are several factors in the failure of adequate drainage such as pre- and post-procedural management, technique itself, various features of abscess, and selection and application of catheters. Among these factors, we made an experiment about drainage efficacy of commonly used various catheters with different viscosities of water-glycerin solution under the two different pressure gradients. The experimental values of flow rate were very lower than the calculated values. An efficacy of experimental value was 4-14%. Because the inner diameter of fittings and stopcocks was usually smaller than the inner diameter of catheters, these factors also affected the drain efficacy. Finally, we thought that it will be very helpful to the treatment of patient as well as to study about the catheter drainage, if the drain efficacy of individual catheters has been notified.

  17. Experimental study of hydronic panels system and its environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Nestor Fonseca [University of Liege Belgium, Thermodynamics Laboratory, Campus du Sart Tilman, Bat: B49 - P33, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica (Colombia)

    2011-01-15

    An experimental analysis of hydronic cooling or heating ceiling panels coupled to the building is present in this investigation as a part of the commissioning study of this system. Two test chambers are adapted in a way to reproduce the interaction of the system to the building (windows, internal thermal loads distribution, building structure and ventilation). A series of experimental tests were performed in which the main objective is to observe the influence of parameters such as the water mass flow rate, supply water temperature, thermal load distribution, window and ventilation system effects on the hydronic ceiling capacity and comfort conditions. Test results show that the influence of asymmetric surfaces temperatures inside the room, especially the window effect is not negligible. Then, it is clear that the cooling hydronic ceiling must be evaluated coupled to the building systems and structure. (author)

  18. Experimental study of hydronic panels system and its environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca Diaz, Nestor, E-mail: nestorfonseca5@hotmail.co [University of Liege Belgium, Thermodynamics Laboratory, Campus du Sart Tilman, Bat: B49 - P33, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica (Colombia)

    2011-01-15

    An experimental analysis of hydronic cooling or heating ceiling panels coupled to the building is present in this investigation as a part of the commissioning study of this system. Two test chambers are adapted in a way to reproduce the interaction of the system to the building (windows, internal thermal loads distribution, building structure and ventilation). A series of experimental tests were performed in which the main objective is to observe the influence of parameters such as the water mass flow rate, supply water temperature, thermal load distribution, window and ventilation system effects on the hydronic ceiling capacity and comfort conditions. Test results show that the influence of asymmetric surfaces temperatures inside the room, especially the window effect is not negligible. Then, it is clear that the cooling hydronic ceiling must be evaluated coupled to the building systems and structure.

  19. An experimental study on anti-electrostatic gauge rulers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, Renjie; Dai, Liping; Sun, Hong

    2013-01-01

    The process of oil filling will produce electrostatic phenomena which may cause fire accidents. There were no reports about research on the danger of static electricity generation in the process of gauging operation to date. This paper presents an experiment on charge transferring quantity of gauge rulers, and calculates the charge transferring quantity of an anti-electrostatic gauge ruler and a metal one, respectively. The results indicate that the charge transferring quantity can be more than 0.1 μC for a metal gauge ruler, while it is less than 0.1 μC for an antistatic gauge ruler. Therefore, this experimental research proves that using an anti-electrostatic gauge ruler is safer than using a metal one. This study also provides some theoretical and experimental evidence for making anti-electrostatic gauge rulers.

  20. Experimental Studies on Combustion Characteristics of Mixed Municipal Solid Waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Jiang; Zhonggang Pan; Shi Liu; Haigang Wang

    2003-01-01

    In our country, municipal solid wastes (MSW) are always burnt in their original forms and only a few pretreatments are taken. Therefore it is vital to study the combustion characteristics of mixed waste. In this paper,thermogravimetric analysis and a lab scale fluidized bed facility were used as experimental means. The data in two different experimental systems were introduced and compared. It took MSW 3~3.5 rain to burn out in FB, but in thermogravimetric analyzer, the time is 20~25 min. It can be concluded that, in general, the behavior of a mixture of waste in TGA can be expressed by simple combination of individual components of the waste mixtures.Only minor deviations from the rule were observed. Yet, in Fluidized Bed, it was found that, for some mixtures,there was interference among the components during fluidized bed combustion.

  1. Experimental animal studies of radon and cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.T.; Dagle, G.E.; Gies, R.A.; Smith, L.G.; Buschbom, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Cigarette-smoking is a dominant cause of lung cancer and confounds risk assessment of exposure to radon decay products. Evidence in humans on the interaction between cigarette-smoking and exposure to radon decay products, although limited, indicates a possible synergy. Experimental animal data, in addition to showing synergy, also show a decrease or no change in risk with added cigarette-smoke exposures. This article reviews previous animal data developed at Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) on mixed exposures to radon and cigarette smoke, and highlights new initiation-promotion-initiation (IPI) studies at PNL that were designed within the framework of a two-mutation carcinogenesis model. Also presented are the PNL exposure system, experimental protocols, dosimetry, and biological data observed to date in IPI animals

  2. Theoretical and experimental study of a thruster discharging a weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Dan; Gany, Alon

    2014-06-01

    An innovative concept for a rocket type thruster that can be beneficial for spacecraft trajectory corrections and station keeping was investigated both experimentally and theoretically. It may also be useful for divert and attitude control systems (DACS). The thruster is based on a combustion chamber discharging a weight through an exhaust tube. Calculations with granular double-base propellant and a solid ejected weight reveal that a specific impulse based on the propellant mass of well above 400 s can be obtained. An experimental thruster was built in order to demonstrate the new idea and validate the model. The thruster impulse was measured both directly with a load cell and indirectly by using a pressure transducer and high speed photography of the weight as it exits the tube, with both ways producing very similar total impulse measurement. The good correspondence between the computations and the measured data validates the model as a useful tool for studying and designing such a thruster.

  3. Design and Experimental Study on Spinning Solid Rocket Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Heng; Jiang, Chunlan; Wang, Zaicheng

    The study on spinning solid rocket motor (SRM) which used as power plant of twice throwing structure of aerial submunition was introduced. This kind of SRM which with the structure of tangential multi-nozzle consists of a combustion chamber, propellant charge, 4 tangential nozzles, ignition device, etc. Grain design, structure design and prediction of interior ballistic performance were described, and problem which need mainly considered in design were analyzed comprehensively. Finally, in order to research working performance of the SRM, measure pressure-time curve and its speed, static test and dynamic test were conducted respectively. And then calculated values and experimental data were compared and analyzed. The results indicate that the designed motor operates normally, and the stable performance of interior ballistic meet demands. And experimental results have the guidance meaning for the pre-research design of SRM.

  4. Experimental study on external condensation heat transfer characteristics of bellows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Dianyi; Hu Jiansheng

    2008-01-01

    Flow model and heat transfer of condensation flow outside of bellows have been theoretically and experimentally studied. The formula for calculation of condensation heat transfer coefficient was deduced, and corrected through experiment. The calculation results are accordant with the experimental ones, and the errors is less than 10%. The effect of bellows structure parameters and pipe diameter on the enhancement heat transfer has been investigated. It is found that in the steady flow region, the average condensation heat transfer coefficient in a bellows is 3 ∼ 5 times than that in a straight tube under the same conditions, and when considering the increasing in heat transfer area, the effectiveness of enhancement heat transfer is 5 ∼ 7 times than that in a straight tube. To facilitate the engineering design and application of bellows, the formula for the calculation of the average heat transfer coefficient of a fluid in a bellows was also given. (authors)

  5. Study of the mechanisms of heavy-ion induced desorption on accelerator-relevant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, Markus

    2008-01-01

    The ion beam loss induced desorption is a performance limitation for low charge state heavy ion accelerators. If charge exchanged projectile ions get lost onto the beam pipe, desorption of gas is stimulated resulting in a pressure increase inside of the synchrotron and thus, a dramatically reduction of the beam life time. To minimize the amount of desorbed gas an experimental program has been started to measure the desorption yields (released gas molecules per incident ion) of various materials and different projectile ions. The present work is a contribution to the understanding of the physical processes behind the ion beam loss induced desorption. The yield measurements by the pressure rise method have been combined for the rst time with in situ ion beam analysis technologies such as ERDA and RBS. With this unique method the desorption behavior of a sample can be correlated to its surface and bulk properties. The performed experiments with 1,4 MeV/u Xenon-Ions show that the ion induced desorption is mainly a surface effect. Sputtered oxide layers or impurities do not contribute to the desorbed gas significantly. Nevertheless bulk properties play an important role in the desorption strength. Pure metallic samples desorb less gas than isolating materials under swift heavy ion irradiation. From the experimental results it was possible to estimate the desorption yields of various materials under ion bombardment by means of an extended inelastic thermal-spike-model. The extension is the combination of the thermal-spike's temperature map with thermal desorption. Within this model the ion induced desorption can be regarded as the release of adsorbates from a transient overheated spot on the samples surface around the ion impact. Finally a copper substrate with a gold coated surface was developed and proposed as a suitable material for a beam loss collimator with minimum desorption to ensure the performance of GSI's SIS18 in high current beam operation. (orig.)

  6. An Experimental Study for Radiation Nephritis in Rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myung Jae [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-09-15

    Experimental radiation nephritis was produced in 15 rabbits by X-irradiation. About 2, 000gamma(tissue doses) were given to both kidneys of a rabbit in 5 days. Other tissues and organs except both kidneys were protected with 2 mm thickened lead plates. 5 weeks after the last irradiation, blood pictures, blood pressures, B.U.N., serum creatinine, Ca, Mg, Fe levels and serum erythropoietin activity of the irradiated rabbits were studied. After finishing above studies, rabbits were sacrificed and both kidneys were removed and examined histopathologically. Same laboratory and pathological studies were performed in 6 control rabbits. In this study, the author obtained following results. 1) Both kidneys of rabbits with experimental radiation nephritis showed marked histopathological changes, i.e.: renal tubules showed diffuse cloudy swelling, impacted intraluminal hyaline casts and focal precipitations of lime salts on the tubular epithelium. Diffuse interstitial fatty necrosis and various degrees of fibrotic infiltrations on the interstitium were also seen in association with focal lymphocytic infiltrations. Hyaline degenerations were observed on the glomeruli and small vessels. 2) Experimental radiation nephritis rabbits showed marked lowering in R.B.C. counts, decreased hemoglobin levels, low hematocrit values and leucopenia in comparison with those of control rabbits. (P<0.01). (Table 1 and 2). 3) Mild proteinuria were observed in experimental radiation nephritis in rabbits. 4) The levels of B.U.N. and serum creatinine increased in experimental radiation nephritis. (P<0.01). (Table 1, 3 and 4). 5) The levels of serum Ca and Mg Showed no statistical difference in comparison with those of control rabbits. (P>0.05). (Table 3 and 4). 6) No statistical correlations were observable between the levels of B.U.N. and Hb. values. (gamma=-0. 223). No close correlations (gamma=-0.338) were noticed between the levels of B.U.N. and serum iron levels. 7) Erythropoietin activity (R

  7. Experimental and numerical study of a printed circuit heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Minghui; Sun, Xiaodong; Christensen, Richard N.; Shi, Shanbin; Skavdahl, Isaac; Utgikar, Vivek; Sabharwall, Piyush

    2016-01-01

    temperature increase and the other for helium inlet temperature decrease, were experimentally carried out to assess the applicability of the dynamic model. Comparisons of the numerical results with the experimental data show that the dynamic model is successful in predicting the experimental transient scenarios. Although difference was observed between the numerical results and experimental data, the comparisons suggest that the numerical solutions are sufficiently accurate and conservative and that the applicability of the dynamic model proposed for predicting the steady-state and transient performance of the straight-channel PCHE has been confirmed. Furthermore, both the numerical and experimental studies provide insights into the dynamic performance of the PCHE.

  8. [Mood-congruent effect in self-relevant information processing: a study using an autobiographical memory recall task].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, M

    2000-10-01

    The pattern of the mood-congruent effect in an autobiographical memory recall task was investigated. Each subject was randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions: positive mood, negative mood (induced with music), and control groups (no specific mood). Subjects were then presented with a word at a time from a list of trait words, which were pleasant or unpleasant. They decided whether they could recall any of their autobiographical memories related to the word, and responded with "yes" or "no" buttons as rapidly and accurately as possible. After the task, they were given five minutes for an incidental free recall test. Results indicated that the mood-congruent effect was found regardless of whether there was an autobiographical memory related to the word or not in both positive and negative mood states. The effect of moods on self-relevant information processing was discussed.

  9. Experimental Study on the WavePiston Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Angelelli, E.

    This report presents the results of an experimental study of the power performance of the WavePiston wave energy converter. It focuses mainly on evaluating the power generating capabilities of the device and the effect of the following issues: Scaling ratios PTO loading Wave height and wave period...... dependency Oblique incoming waves Distance between plates During the study, the model supplied by the client, WavePiston, has been rigorously tested as all the anticipated tests have been done thoroughly and during all tests, good quality data has been obtained from all the sensors....

  10. Pulsed total dose damage effect experimental study on EPROM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Yinhong; Yao Zhibin; Zhang Fengqi; Guo Hongxia; Zhang Keying; Wang Yuanming; He Baoping

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, memory radiation effect study mainly focus on functionality measurement. Measurable parameters is few in china. According to the present situation, threshold voltage testing method was presented on floating gate EPROM memory. Experimental study of pulsed total dose effect on EPROM threshold voltage was carried out. Damage mechanism was analysed The experiment results showed that memory cell threshold voltage negative shift was caused by pulsed total dose, memory cell threshold voltage shift is basically coincident under steady bias supply and no bias supply. (authors)

  11. Game theory and experimental games the study of strategic interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Colman, Andrew M

    1982-01-01

    Game Theory and Experimental Games: The Study of Strategic Interaction is a critical survey of the essential ideas of game theory and the findings of empirical research on strategic interaction. Some experiments using lifelike simulations of familiar kinds of strategic interactions are presented, and applications of game theory to the study of voting, the theory of evolution, and moral philosophy are discussed.Comprised of 13 chapters, this volume begins with an informal definition of game theory and an outline of the types of social situations to which it applies. Games of skill, games of cha

  12. Experimental study and optimization of a solar still

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menguy, G; Chassagne, G; Sfeir, A; Saab, J

    1976-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study the influence of different parameters on the operation of a solar still for production of distilled water. These parameters are essentially classified in two categories: external parameters such as solar radiation, ambient temperatures and wind speed; internal parameters such as thermal insulation, water film thickness and the color of the side walls. The experiments were carried out on two identical stills. The effects of the different parameters were investigated by comparing the output of the two stills under different experimental conditions. This study resulted in the development of a simple inexpensive still which can readily be put in practical use in the area.

  13. [Experimental study on spectra of compressed air microwave plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Xi; Zhang, Gui-Xin; Wang, Qiang; Hou, Ling-Yun

    2013-03-01

    Using a microwave plasma generator, compressed air microwave plasma was excited under 1 - 5 atm pressures. Under different pressures and different incident microwave power, the emission spectra of compressed air microwave plasma were studied with a spectra measuring system. The results show that continuum is significant at atmospheric pressure and the characteristic will be weakened as the pressure increases. The band spectra intensity will be reduced with the falling of the incident microwave power and the band spectra were still significant. The experimental results are valuable to studying the characteristics of compressed air microwave plasma and the generating conditions of NO active groups.

  14. An experimental study of client-side Spotify peering behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, M.; Strowes, S.; Perkins, C.

    2011-01-01

    Spotify is a popular music-streaming service which has seen widespread use across Europe. While Spotify’s server-side behaviour has previously been studied, little is known about the client-side behaviour. In this paper, we describe an experimental study where we collect packet headers for Spotify traffic over multiple 24-hour time frames at a client host. Two distinct types of behaviour are observed, when tracks are being downloaded, and when the client is only serving requests from other pe...

  15. Experimental study on concrete cutting by CO2 laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutsumizu, Akira; Tomura, Hidemasa; Wakizaka, Tatsuya; Hishikawa, Kyoichi; Moriya, Masahiro

    1994-01-01

    Methods for dismantling nuclear reactor facilities must meet particularly exacting requirements imposed by heavily reinforced and radioactivated reactor shield walls. Conventional methods do not meet all such requirements, however. Intrigued by excellent characteristics of the laser cutting method relative to nuclear facility demolition, we carried out an experimental study to make a comprehensive evaluation of its characteristics, especially for deep cutting, with success in identifying main factors affecting the cutting depth of a laser and characterizing its cutting behavior. The study results indicate that a 50 kW class CO 2 laser has a potential to provide a practicable cutting speed and depth. (author)

  16. Experimental studies of the laser-controlled collective ion accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destler, W.W.; Rodgers, J.; Segalov, Z.

    1989-01-01

    Detailed experimental studies of a collective acceleration experiment in which a time-sequenced laser-generated ionization channel is used to control the propagation of an intense relativistic electron beamfront are presented. Ions trapped in the potential well at the beamfront are accelerated as the velocity of the beamfront is increased in a manner controlled by the time-dependent axial extent of the ionization channel. Beamfront propagation data for two different accelerating gradients are presented, together with results of ion acceleration studies for both gradients

  17. Theoretical and experimental study of mixed solvent electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, P.T.; O'Connell, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    In the original proposal to study mixed solvent electrolyte solutions, four major goals were formulated: fundamental modeling of mixed solvent electrolytes using numerically solved integral equation approximation theories; evaluation of intermolecular pair potential models by computer simulation of selected systems for comparison with experiment and the numerical integral equation studies; development of fundamentally based correlations for the thermodynamic properties of mixed solvent electrolyte solutions using analytically solvable statistical mechanical models; and extension of experimental database on mixed solvent electrolytes by performing vapor-liquid equilibrium measurements on selected systems. This paper discusses the progress on these goals

  18. Manipulation of pain catastrophizing: An experimental study of healthy participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel E Bialosky

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Joel E Bialosky1*, Adam T Hirsh2,3, Michael E Robinson2,3, Steven Z George1,3*1Department of Physical Therapy; 2Department of Clinical and Health Psychology; 3Center for Pain Research and Behavioral Health, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USAAbstract: Pain catastrophizing is associated with the pain experience; however, causation has not been established. Studies which specifically manipulate catastrophizing are necessary to establish causation. The present study enrolled 100 healthy individuals. Participants were randomly assigned to repeat a positive, neutral, or one of three catastrophizing statements during a cold pressor task (CPT. Outcome measures of pain tolerance and pain intensity were recorded. No change was noted in catastrophizing immediately following the CPT (F(1,84 = 0.10, p = 0.75, partial η2 < 0.01 independent of group assignment (F(4,84 = 0.78, p = 0.54, partial η2 = 0.04. Pain tolerance (F(4 = 0.67, p = 0.62, partial η2 = 0.03 and pain intensity (F(4 = 0.73, p = 0.58, partial η2 = 0.03 did not differ by group. This study suggests catastrophizing may be difficult to manipulate through experimental pain procedures and repetition of specific catastrophizing statements was not sufficient to change levels of catastrophizing. Additionally, pain tolerance and pain intensity did not differ by group assignment. This study has implications for future studies attempting to experimentally manipulate pain catastrophizing.Keywords: pain, catastrophizing, experimental, cold pressor task, pain catastrophizing scale

  19. An old test for new neurons: refining the Morris water maze to study the functional relevance of adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eGarthe

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Morris water maze represents the de-facto standard for testing hippocampal function in laboratory rodents. In the field of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, however, using this paradigm to assess the functional relevance of the new neurons yielded surprisingly inconsistent results. While some authors found aspects of water maze performance to be linked to adult neurogenesis, others obtained different results or could not demonstrate any effect of manipulating adult neurogenesis.In this review we discuss evidence that the large diversity of protocols and setups used is an important aspect in interpreting the differences in the results that have been obtained. Even simple parameters such as pool size, number and configuration of visual landmarks, or number of trials can become highly relevant for getting the new neurons involved at all. Sets of parameters are often chosen with implicit or explicit concepts in mind and these might lead to different views on the function of adult-generated neurons.We propose that the classical parameters usually used to measure spatial learning performance in the water maze might not be particularly well suited to sensitively and specifically detect the supposedly highly specific functional changes elicited by the experimental modulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. As adult neurogenesis is supposed to affect specific aspects of information processing only in the hippocampus, any claim for a functional relevance of the new neurons has to be based on hippocampus-specific parameters. We also placed a special emphasis on the fact that the DG facilitates the differentiation between contexts as opposed to just differentiating places.In conclusion, while the Morris water maze has proven to be one of the most effective testing paradigms to assess hippocampus-dependent spatial learning, new and more specific questions ask for new parameters. Therefore, the full potential of the water maze task remains to be tapped.

  20. Experimental Study of Axially Tension Cold Formed Steel Channel Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apriani, Widya; Lubis, Fadrizal; Angraini, Muthia

    2017-12-01

    Experimental testing is commonly used as one of the steps to determine the cause of the collapse of a building structure. The collapse of structures can be due to low quality materials. Although material samples have passed laboratory tests and the existing technical specifications have been met but there may be undetected defects and known material after failure. In this paper will be presented Experimental Testing of Axially Tension Cold Formed Steel Channel Members to determine the cause of the collapse of a building roof truss x in Pekanbaru. Test of tensile strength material cold formed channel sections was performed to obtain the main characteristics of Cold Formed steel material, namely ultimate tensile strength loads that can be held by members and the yield stress possessed by channel sections used in construction. Analysis of axially tension cold formed steel channel section presents in this paper was conducted through experimental study based on specificationsAnnualBook of ASTM Standards: Metal Test methods and Analitical Procedures, Section 3 (1991). The result of capacity loads experimental test was compared with design based on SNI 03-7971-2013standard of Indonesia for the design of cold formed steel structural members. The results of the yield stress of the material will be seen against the minimum allowable allowable stress range. After the test, the percentace of ultimate axial tension capacity theory has a result that is 16.46% larger than the ultimate axial tension capacity experimental. When compared with the load that must be borne 5.673 kN/m it can be concluded that 2 specimens do not meet. Yield stress of member has fulfilled requirement that wass bigger than 550 MPa. Based on the curve obtained ultimate axial tension capacity theory, results greater than experimental. The greatest voltage value (fu) is achieved under the same conditions as its yield stress. For this specimen with a melting voltage value fy = 571.5068 MPa has fulfilled the

  1. Environmental restoration disposal facility applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements study report. Revision 00

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeck, F.V.; Vedder, B.L.; Rugg, J.E.

    1995-10-01

    The Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) will be a landfill authorized under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) and will comply with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) substantive requirements. The facility will also comply with applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARAR), including portions of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations, Washington Administrative Code (WAC), and to-be-considered (TBC) elements such as U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders. In considering the requirements of CERCLA, a detailed analysis of various alternatives for ERDF was completed using the nine CERCLA criteria, National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), and public comments. The ERDF record of decision (ROD) selected an alternative that includes a RCRA-compliant double-lined trench for the disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes resulting from the remediation of operable units (OU) within the National Priorities List (NPL) sites in the 100, 200, and 300 Areas. Only wastes resulting from the remediation of Hanford NPL sites will be allowed in the ERDF. Of the various siting and design alternatives proposed for ERDF, the selected alternative provides the best combination of features by balancing the nine CERCLA criteria, ARAR compliance, environmentally protective site, and various stakeholder and public recommendations. The ERDF trench design, compliant with RCRA Subtitle C minimum technical requirements (MTR), will be double lined and equipped with a leachate collection system. This design provides a more reliable system to protect groundwater than other proposed alternatives. The ERDF is located on the Hanford Site Central Plateau, southeast of the 200 West Area

  2. [Observational studies in the era of evidence based medicine: short review on their relevance, taxonomy and designs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronteira, Ines

    2013-01-01

    In this review of the literature, we distinguish between experimental and observational studies, highlighting the importance that the later have gained in the era of evidence-based medicine. We further analyze the value of observational studies in light of experimental studies. We present a taxonomy for observational studies based on units of observation and measurement (cross-sectional or longitudinal). We distinguish between descriptive studies and analytical studies. Then, and given its specificity, we define and present a classification for ecological studies. We define and consider the advantages and disadvantages of cross-sectional, case control and cohort studies. We analyze the strength of the evidence given by each study design. We finished by examining what should guide the choice of a study design.

  3. Experimental and computational studies of electromagnetic cloaking at microwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohui

    An invisibility cloak is a device that can hide the target by enclosing it from the incident radiation. This intriguing device has attracted a lot of attention since it was first implemented at a microwave frequency in 2006. However, the problems of existing cloak designs prevent them from being widely applied in practice. In this dissertation, we try to remove or alleviate the three constraints for practical applications imposed by loosy cloaking media, high implementation complexity, and small size of hidden objects compared to the incident wavelength. To facilitate cloaking design and experimental characterization, several devices and relevant techniques for measuring the complex permittivity of dielectric materials at microwave frequencies are developed. In particular, a unique parallel plate waveguide chamber has been set up to automatically map the electromagnetic (EM) field distribution for wave propagation through the resonator arrays and cloaking structures. The total scattering cross section of the cloaking structures was derived based on the measured scattering field by using this apparatus. To overcome the adverse effects of lossy cloaking media, microwave cloaks composed of identical dielectric resonators made of low loss ceramic materials are designed and implemented. The effective permeability dispersion was provided by tailoring dielectric resonator filling fractions. The cloak performances had been verified by full-wave simulation of true multi-resonator structures and experimental measurements of the fabricated prototypes. With the aim to reduce the implementation complexity caused by metamaterials employment for cloaking, we proposed to design 2-D cylindrical cloaks and 3-D spherical cloaks by using multi-layer ordinary dielectric material (epsilon r>1) coating. Genetic algorithm was employed to optimize the dielectric profiles of the cloaking shells to provide the minimum scattering cross sections of the cloaked targets. The designed cloaks can

  4. PVTxy properties of CO2 mixtures relevant for CO2 capture, transport and storage: Review of available experimental data and theoretical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hailong; Jakobsen, Jana P.; Wilhelmsen, Oivind; Yan, Jinyue

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Accurate knowledge about the thermodynamic properties of CO 2 is essential in the design and operation of CCS systems. → Experimental data about the phase equilibrium and density of CO 2 -mixtures have been reviewed. → Equations of state have been reviewed too regarding CO 2 -mixtures. None has shown any clear advantage in CCS applications. → Identified knowledge gaps suggest to conducting more experiments and developing novel models. -- Abstract: The knowledge about pressure-volume-temperature-composition (PVTxy) properties plays an important role in the design and operation of many processes involved in CO 2 capture and storage (CCS) systems. A literature survey was conducted on both the available experimental data and the theoretical models associated with the thermodynamic properties of CO 2 mixtures within the operation window of CCS. Some gaps were identified between available experimental data and requirements of the system design and operation. The major concerns are: for the vapour-liquid equilibrium, there are no data about CO 2 /COS and few data about the CO 2 /N 2 O 4 mixture. For the volume property, there are no published experimental data for CO 2 /O 2 , CO 2 /CO, CO 2 /N 2 O 4 , CO 2 /COS and CO 2 /NH 3 and the liquid volume of CO 2 /H 2 . The experimental data available for multi-component CO 2 mixtures are also scarce. Many equations of state are available for thermodynamic calculations of CO 2 mixtures. The cubic equations of state have the simplest structure and are capable of giving reasonable results for the PVTxy properties. More complex equations of state such as Lee-Kesler, SAFT and GERG typically give better results for the volume property, but not necessarily for the vapour-liquid equilibrium. None of the equations of state evaluated in the literature show any clear advantage in CCS applications for the calculation of all PVTxy properties. A reference equation of state for CCS should, thus, be a future goal.

  5. Single-phase and two phase bubbly flow in a T connection: theoretical and experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hervieu, Eric

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this research thesis is to highlight the driving factors of the separation of phases of a bubbly flow in a T junction, and to develop a prediction model. In a first part, the author reports the rigorous formulation of equations averaged on the T volume. He shows that it's not possible to solve globally the problem with these equations. Then, he reports a bibliographical study on the modelling of a bubbly flow, and, based upon this study, highlights intrinsic characteristics of the flow, and explains its dynamic mechanisms. He reports the development of the theoretical model, and describes the experimental installation used to validate it. In the third part, he reports the study of the liquid-gas interaction, and presents the adopted approach: study of the behaviour of an isolated bubble within a single-phase flow. Experimentation is used to check theoretical predictions. Results are used to compute phase separation. The obtained results are again compared with experimental results to validate the global relevance of the model [fr

  6. Experimental studies of renal blood flow by digitized functional angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buersch, J.H.; Ochs, C.; Hahne, H.J.; Heintzen, P.H.

    1985-01-01

    New techniques of digital image processing have been experimentally tested for the assessment of renal blood flow. The underlying principle in functional angiography is the extraction of flow parameters. Basically, density-time variations of the contrast medium are analayzed from to each picture element of a 256x256 matrix. The real-time acquisition rate of images was 25/sec. For the calculation of angiographic flow a PDP 11/40 computer was used to interactively perform a time dependent segmentation of the renal arteries and the aorta. Subsequently, volume flow was calculated in relative units for the specific vascular segments under study. 15 control angiograms were made in 5 animals with cardiac output ranging between 0.8 to 2.2l/min. Unilateral renal blood flow was calculated as 24+-3.4% of pre-renal aortic flow without systematic side differences. Reproducibility from repeated flow measurements showed an SD of +-1.8% of the individual pre-renal aortic flow. Renal flow was also measured in 3 animals with an experimentally created 50% flow reduction of the left kidney. Angiographic flow in the left renal artery dropped to 12+-2% of pre-renal flow. The present experimental data suggest that digital angiography has sufficient diagnostic capabilities for the detection of abnormal renal blood flow. The technique may serve as a useful diagnostic adjunct to conventional angiography and has the potential of assisting in the evaluation of renal vascular hypertension. (orig.) [de

  7. Nonlocal Regularized Algebraic Reconstruction Techniques for MRI: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We attempt to revitalize researchers' interest in algebraic reconstruction techniques (ART by expanding their capabilities and demonstrating their potential in speeding up the process of MRI acquisition. Using a continuous-to-discrete model, we experimentally study the application of ART into MRI reconstruction which unifies previous nonuniform-fast-Fourier-transform- (NUFFT- based and gridding-based approaches. Under the framework of ART, we advocate the use of nonlocal regularization techniques which are leveraged from our previous research on modeling photographic images. It is experimentally shown that nonlocal regularization ART (NR-ART can often outperform their local counterparts in terms of both subjective and objective qualities of reconstructed images. On one real-world k-space data set, we find that nonlocal regularization can achieve satisfactory reconstruction from as few as one-third of samples. We also address an issue related to image reconstruction from real-world k-space data but overlooked in the open literature: the consistency of reconstructed images across different resolutions. A resolution-consistent extension of NR-ART is developed and shown to effectively suppress the artifacts arising from frequency extrapolation. Both source codes and experimental results of this work are made fully reproducible.

  8. Experimental study of self-leveling behavior in debris bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Bin; Harada, Tetsushi; Hirahara, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Tatsuya; Morita, Koji; Fukuda, Kenji; Yamano, Hidemasa; Suzuki, Tohru; Tobita, Yoshiharu

    2008-01-01

    After a core disruptive accident in a sodium-cooled fast reactor, core debris may settle on locations such as within the core-support structure or in the lower inlet plenum of the reactor vessel as debris beds, as a consequence of rapid quenching and fragmentation of core materials in subcooled sodium. The particle beds that are initially of varying depth have been observed to undergo a process of self-leveling when sodium boiling occurs within the beds. The boiling is believed to provide the driven force with debris needed to overcome resisting forces. Self-leveling ability has much effect on heat-removal capability of debris beds. In the present study, characteristics of self-leveling behaviors were investigated experimentally with simulant materials. Although the decay heat from fuel debris drives the coolant boiling in reactor accident conditions, the present experiments employed depressurization boiling of water to simulate axially increasing void distribution in a debris bed, which consists of solid particles of alumina or lead with different density. The particle size (from 0.5 mm to 6 mm in diameter) and shape (spherical or non-spherical particles) were also taken as experimental parameters. A rough criteria for self-leveling occurrence is proposed and compared with the experimental results. Characteristics of the self-leveling behaviors observed are analyzed and extrapolate to reactor accident conditions. (author)

  9. Experimental Method For Studying Habitual Behavior In Food Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naziha Kasraoui

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To investigate the process of habit formation in everyday life a sample of 126 participants students chooses an eating and drinking for three periods weeks. They completed the self-report habit each period and we have recorded their choices. All participants provided sufficient data for analysis and collected experimental data were examined over the study periods 3 weeks. Experimental analysis was used to examine the persistence of habit formation process in the behavior of participants. The game is carried out with 126 students and repeated for three periods. Using experimental laboratory data approach and economic analysis elasticity results show that into the presence of labor income and for 126 students of whom approximately 70 showed that habit formation process is persist in their behaviors along the three periods. The rest 30 of them who dont present habit formation in their behavior for the three periods did not materially affect our conclusion about the assumption of habit formation process. Participants to the game persistently spend too much in early periods they learn rapidly from their own experience to consume the same choice of meals and drinks. Their spending is closely linked to optimal consumption non conditional on earlier spending and they choose the same basket of goods in the future horizon which shows that theres a habit formation in the behaviors of participants.

  10. Stability of nanofluids: Molecular dynamic approach and experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farzaneh, H.; Behzadmehr, A.; Yaghoubi, M.; Samimi, A.; Sarvari, S.M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanofluid stability is investigated and discussed. • A molecular dynamic approach, considering different forces on the nanoparticles, is adopted. • Stability diagrams are presented for different thermo-fluid conditions. • An experimental investigation is carried out to confirm the theoretical approach. - Abstract: Nanofluids as volumetric absorbent in solar energy conversion devices or as working fluid in different heat exchangers have been proposed by various researchers. However, dispersion stability of nanofluids is an important issue that must be well addressed before any industrial applications. Conditions such as severe temperature gradient, high temperature of heat transfer fluid, nanoparticle mean diameters and types of nanoparticles and base fluid are among the most effective parameters on the stability of nanofluid. A molecular dynamic approach, considering kinetic energy of nanoparticles and DLVO potential energy between nanoparticles, is adopted to study the nanofluid stability for different nanofluids at different working conditions. Different forces such as Brownian, thermophoresis, drag and DLVO are considered to introduce the stability diagrams. The latter presents the conditions for which a nanofluid can be stable. In addition an experimental investigation is carried out to find a stable nanofluid and to show the validity of the theoretical approach. There is a good agreement between the experimental and theoretical results that confirms the validity of our theoretical approach.

  11. Experimental and theoretical study of Co sorption in clay montmorillonites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil Rebaza, A. V.; Montes, M. L.; Taylor, M. A.; Errico, L. A.; Alonso, R. E.

    2018-03-01

    Montmorillonite (MMT) clays are 2:1 layered structures which in natural state may allocate different hydrated cations such as M-nH2O (M = Na, Ca, Fe, etc) in its interlayer space. Depending on the capability for ion sorption, these materials are interesting for environmental remediation. In this work we experimentally study the Co sorption in a natural Na-MMT using UV-visible spectrometry and XRD on semi-oriented samples, and then analyze the sorption ability of this clay by means of ab initio calculation performed on pristine MMT. The structural properties of Na-MMT and Co-adsorbed MMT, and the hyperfine parameters at different atomic sites were analyzed and compared with the experimental ones for the first, and for the case of the hyperfine parameters, presented for the first time for the last. The theoretical predictions based on total energy considerations confirm that Co incorporation replacing Na is energetically favorable. Also, the basal spacing d001 experimentally obtained is well reproduced.

  12. Experimental study of the process of cutting of sugarcane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzolaa, Nelson; Garcia, Joyner

    2015-01-01

    Biomass densification has encouraged significant interest around the world as a technique for utilization of agro and forest residues as an energy source, and pellets/briquettes production has grown rapidly in last few years. The cutting process is one of the most important steps for biomass preparation prior densification. This stage helps to homogenize the raw material and therefore facilitate handling, feeding and filling in the briquetting equipment. The aim of this work was to study the behavior of sugarcane bagasse submitted to cutting, as a function of its moisture content, angle of the blade edge and cutting speed. The specific cutting energy and peak cutting force were measure using an experimental facility developed for this series of experiments. An analysis of the results of the full factorial experimental design using a statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed. The response surfaces and empirical models for the specific cutting energy and peak cutting force were obtained using statistical analysis system software. Low angle of the blade edge and low moisture content are, in this order, the most important experimental factors in determining a low specific cutting energy and a low peak cutting force respectively. The best cutting conditions are achieved for an angle of blade edge of 20.8° and a moisture content of 10% w. b. The results of this work could contribute to the optimal design of sugarcane bagasse pre-treatment systems. (full text)

  13. Development of a novel, physiologically relevant cytotoxicity model: Application to the study of chemotherapeutic damage to mesenchymal stromal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Jennifer E., E-mail: Jennifer2.May@uwe.ac.uk; Morse, H. Ruth, E-mail: Ruth.Morse@uwe.ac.uk; Xu, Jinsheng, E-mail: Jinsheng.Xu@uwe.ac.uk; Donaldson, Craig, E-mail: Craig.Donaldson@uwe.ac.uk

    2012-09-15

    There is an increasing need for development of physiologically relevant in-vitro models for testing toxicity, however determining toxic effects of agents which undergo extensive hepatic metabolism can be particularly challenging. If a source of such metabolic enzymes is inadequate within a model system, toxicity from prodrugs may be grossly underestimated. Conversely, the vast majority of agents are detoxified by the liver, consequently toxicity from such agents may be overestimated. In this study we describe the development of a novel in-vitro model, which could be adapted for any toxicology setting. The model utilises HepG2 liver spheroids as a source of metabolic enzymes, which have been shown to more closely resemble human liver than traditional monolayer cultures. A co-culture model has been developed enabling the effect of any metabolised agent on another cell type to be assessed. This has been optimised to enable the study of damaging effects of chemotherapy on mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), the supportive stem cells of the bone marrow. Several optimisation steps were undertaken, including determining optimal culture conditions, confirmation of hepatic P450 enzyme activity and ensuring physiologically relevant doses of chemotherapeutic agents were appropriate for use within the model. The developed model was subsequently validated using several chemotherapeutic agents, both prodrugs and active drugs, with resulting MSC damage closely resembling effects seen in patients following chemotherapy. Minimal modifications would enable this novel co-culture model to be utilised as a general toxicity model, contributing to the drive to reduce animal safety testing and enabling physiologically relevant in-vitro study. -- Highlights: ► An in vitro model was developed for study of drugs requiring hepatic metabolism ► HepG2 spheroids were utilised as a physiologically relevant source of liver enzymes ► The model was optimised to enable study of chemotherapeutic

  14. Development of a novel, physiologically relevant cytotoxicity model: Application to the study of chemotherapeutic damage to mesenchymal stromal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, Jennifer E.; Morse, H. Ruth; Xu, Jinsheng; Donaldson, Craig

    2012-01-01

    There is an increasing need for development of physiologically relevant in-vitro models for testing toxicity, however determining toxic effects of agents which undergo extensive hepatic metabolism can be particularly challenging. If a source of such metabolic enzymes is inadequate within a model system, toxicity from prodrugs may be grossly underestimated. Conversely, the vast majority of agents are detoxified by the liver, consequently toxicity from such agents may be overestimated. In this study we describe the development of a novel in-vitro model, which could be adapted for any toxicology setting. The model utilises HepG2 liver spheroids as a source of metabolic enzymes, which have been shown to more closely resemble human liver than traditional monolayer cultures. A co-culture model has been developed enabling the effect of any metabolised agent on another cell type to be assessed. This has been optimised to enable the study of damaging effects of chemotherapy on mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), the supportive stem cells of the bone marrow. Several optimisation steps were undertaken, including determining optimal culture conditions, confirmation of hepatic P450 enzyme activity and ensuring physiologically relevant doses of chemotherapeutic agents were appropriate for use within the model. The developed model was subsequently validated using several chemotherapeutic agents, both prodrugs and active drugs, with resulting MSC damage closely resembling effects seen in patients following chemotherapy. Minimal modifications would enable this novel co-culture model to be utilised as a general toxicity model, contributing to the drive to reduce animal safety testing and enabling physiologically relevant in-vitro study. -- Highlights: ► An in vitro model was developed for study of drugs requiring hepatic metabolism ► HepG2 spheroids were utilised as a physiologically relevant source of liver enzymes ► The model was optimised to enable study of chemotherapeutic

  15. The Experimental Study Of Effects Of Irradiation On Osseointegration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kwan Soo; Lee, Sang Rae; Hwang, Eui Hwan [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the Co-60 gamma irradiation on the osseointegration. 2.0 mm titanium alloy screw implants were placed in the tibial metaphysics of the rabbits, bilaterally. The mean length of the implants was 6.0 mm. The right tibia was irradiated with a single dose of 15 Gy from 6{sup 0C}o teletherapic machine at 5th postoperative day. The experimental group was irradiated tibia. The control group was non-irradiated tibia. To observe the phase of bone formation, the bone labeling by intramuscular injection of 20 mg/Kg of Tetracycline, Calcein, Alizarin red S, was performed. The rabbits were sacrificed on the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th week and the tibia including implants were taken, and then the specimens were examined by the microradiography, light microscopy, and fluorescent microscopy.The obtained results were as follows; 1. There were connective tissue between bone and titanium at 1st week, in both group. Especially, the many empty lacunae without nucleus and obscure cytoplasm in experimental group, were observed. 2. The osteons were observed at 4th week in control group, and at 6th week in experimental group. The bone formation in experimental group was retarded as compared to the control group. 3. In fluorescent microscopy, bone labelling band was observed as linear, arc or concentric shape. Occasionary interrupted labelling band was observed, which is demonstrated bone remodeling. 4. In microradiographic examination, the radiolucent image was found between bone and implant with widening of bone marrow spaces as compared to the control group.

  16. Relevance between the degree of industrial competition and fair value information: Study on the listed companies in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemin Zhuang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this article is to study whether there exists natural relationship between fair value and corporate external market. A series of special phenomenon in the application of fair value arouses our research interests, which present evidences on how competition affects the correlation of fair value information. Design/methodology/approach: this thesis chooses fair value changes gains and losses and calculate the ratio of DFVPSit as the alternative variable of the fair value. In order to effectively inspect the mutual influence between the degree of industry competition and the value relevance of fair value, and reduce the impact of multi-collinearity, we built a regression model on the hypothesis, which supposes that if other conditions are the same, the fair value information has greater value relevance if the degree of the industry competition is greater. To test the hypothesis, we use the comparison of the DFVPSit coefficient absolute value to judge the value relevance of fair value information, and the greater the absolute value is, the higher relevance between the changes in fair value per share profits and losses with the stock prices. Findings: The higher the degree of competition in the industry is, the more fair value information relevance is. Also, there are evidences representing that fair value information often presents negative correlation with the stock price. Originality/value: The main contribution of the article is to show that not only need we make the formulation and implementation of the high quality of fair value accounting standards to suit for both the national conditions and international practice, but also need we further to improve the company's external governance mechanism to promote fair value’s information correlation.

  17. Experimental study of pulsed heating of electromagnetic cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritzkau, D.P.; Menegat, A.; Siemann, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    An experiment to study the effects of pulsed heating in electromagnetic cavities will be performed. Pulsed heating is believed to be the limiting mechanism of high acceleration gradients at short wavelengths. A cylindrical cavity operated in the TE 011 mode at a frequency of 11.424 GHz will be used. A klystron will be used to supply a peak input power of 20 MW with a pulse length of 1.5 μs. The temperature response of the cavity will be measured by a second waveguide designed to excite a TE 012 mode in the cavity with a low-power CW signal at a frequency of 17.8 GHz. The relevant theory of pulsed heating will be discussed and the results from cold-testing the structure will be presented

  18. Spanish Verbs Visualization: A study and scalable experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana García Serrano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is presented a study on verbs in Spanish and it’s potential to display images from the Wikipedia (Wikimedia. It is designed and developed an Information Retrieval model based on linguistic structures of verbs and an environment that allows all subsequent scaling Spanish verbs. Adesse and EuroWordNet are the linguistic resources selected to bring the theoretical basis of the work. In the absence of an adequate corpus with relevant judgments to the problem, it has been recorded by the second author a subset of visual verbs sufficiently representative and enable to further work on this issue. Finally conclusions about visual verbs as well as the obtained results are provided

  19. Experimental fretting-wear studies of steam generator materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, N.J.; Chow, A.B.; Weckwerth, M.K.

    1994-01-01

    Flow-induced vibration of steam generator tubes results in fretting-wear damage due to impacting and rubbing of the tubes against their supports. This damage can be predicted by computing tube response to flow-induced excitation forces using analytical techniques, and then relating this response to resultant wear damage using experimentally-derived wear coefficients. Fretting-wear of steam generator materials has been studied experimentally at Chalk River Laboratories for two decades. Tests are conducted in machines that simulate steam generator environmental conditions and tube-to-support dynamic interactions. Different tube and support materials, tube-to-support clearances and tube support geometries have been studied. As well, the effect of environmental conditions, such as temperature, oxygen content, pH and chemistry control additive, have been investigated. Early studies showed that damage was related to contact force as long as other parameters, such as geometry and motion were held constant. Later studies have shown that damage is related to a parameter called work-rate, which combines both contact force and sliding distance. Results of short- and long-term fretting-wear tests for CANDU steam generator materials at realistic environmental conditions are presented. These results demonstrate that work-rate is appropriate correlating parameter for impact-sliding interaction

  20. Experimental studies of pion-nucleus interactions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes the work on experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear physics carried out at New Mexico State University in 1991 under a great from the US Department of Energy. Most of these studies have involved investigations of various pion-nucleus interactions. The work has been carried out both with the LAMPF accelerator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and with the cyclotron at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) near Zurich, Switzerland. Part of the experimental work involves measurements of new data on double-charge-exchange scattering, using facilities at LAMPF which we helped modify, and on pion absorption, using a new detector system at PSI that covers nearly the full solid-angle region which we helped construct. Other work involved preparation for future experiments using polarized nuclear targets and a new high-resolution spectrometer system for detecting π 0 mesons. We also presented several proposals for works to be done in future years, involving studies related to pi-mesonic atoms, fundamental pion-nucleon interactions, studies of the difference between charged and neutral pion interactions with the nucleon, studies of the isospin structure of pion-nucleus interactions, and pion scattering from polarized 3 He targets. This work is aimed at improving our understanding of the pion-nucleon interaction, of the pion-nucleus interaction mechanism, and of nuclear structure

  1. Ethnobotanical relevance in tribal life: A study on Warli tribe of Thane district, Maharashtra, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pereira, N.

    An ethnobotanical study of Warli tribe belonging to the Thane district of Maharashtra, India was conducted. Plants of social, religious, medicinal as well as domestic uses were studied. Totally 59 species of plants are documented. Of these, 23...

  2. Relevant factors for the impact of social media marketing strategies: Empirical study of the internet travel agency sector

    OpenAIRE

    Lebherz, Philipp Robert

    2011-01-01

    Projecte final de carrera fet en col.laboració amb Karlsruher Institut für Technologie English: Final proyect with the topic "relevant factors for the impact of social media marketing strategies - an empirical study of the internet travel agency sector" at Faculty of Informatics and the chair of management. Supervised by Ferran Sabaté and Antonio Cañabate. Student Philipp Lebherz.

  3. A South African study of consumers' perceptions of food labels and its relevance to their purchasing behaviour / R. Klein

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Riana

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION: This study had been motivated by the lack of existing data on South African consumers' perceptions of food labels and its relevance to purchasing behaviour. In order to gather this information it is important to understand consumers and their purchasing behaviour so that these could be translated into food label characteristics to implement consumer-oriented label development (Sijtsema et al., 2002:565). Consumers' purchasing behaviour is influenc...

  4. An experimental study on suspended sodium droplet combustion (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kenji

    2005-03-01

    As part of studies for phenomenological investigation of sodium droplet burning behavior, in our previous experimental studies for suspended single sodium droplet, behavior of ignition process and succeeding combustion, ignition delay time, and droplet temperature history had been investigated. In this study, combustion experiments of suspended sodium droplet were performed in upward dry air flow by expanding the range of free-stream velocity U of air flow into 400 cm/s with initial droplet temperature Ti=300, 350, and 400degC and initial droplet diameter 4 mm at first. Then, the combustion experiments were also performed by changing the initial droplet diameter from 2.3 to 4.4 mm with Ti=350 and 400degC and U=100 cm/s. From the experimental results, the effects of free-stream velocity, initial droplet temperature, and initial droplet diameter on the ignition/burning behavior and ignition delay time were examined. The obtained results are as follows: (1) Ignition phenomena of suspended droplet were observed for all examined experimental conditions up to 400 cm/s. The orange emission observed at the moment of ignition occurs simultaneously over whole droplet surface except the top region of it. (2) The feature of the dependence of ignition delay time on the free-stream velocity is independent of the initial droplet temperature. With the increase of the free-stream velocity, up to 300 cm/s the ignition delay time decreases with decreasing dependency, and then the dependency increases more. (3) The ignition delay time increases with the increase of initial droplet diameter. The dependency increases as the initial droplet diameter increases. The ignition delay time extrapolated toward zero diameters from the obtained results becomes to be essentially zero. (author)

  5. Persons with rheumatoid arthritis challenge the relevance of the health assessment questionnaire: a qualitative study of patient perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbevi, David; Essén, Anna; Forsberg, Helena Hvitfeldt

    2017-05-12

    The Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ) is widely used to measure functional ability in persons with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). The instrument was developed with limited involvement from persons with RA, and their perception of the instrument has not been studied in depth. The aim of this study was to explore how persons with RA experience the use of the HAQ in care. The study used secondary data analysis. Persons with RA participated in semi-structured interviews in previous research projects. Thirty-nine interviews were included based on data fit, and thematic analysis applied. The participants questioned the relevance of the HAQ but nevertheless experienced that the instrument had a profound effect on their understanding of health and how care is delivered. The analysis resulted in three themes: Problems with individual items, meaning of the summative score, and effects on care and health perceptions. To make the HAQ relevant to persons with RA, it needs to be revised or to include an option to select items most meaningful to the respondent. To ensure relevance, the HAQ update should preferably be co-created by researchers, clinicians and persons with RA.

  6. Nanoparticle dispersion in environmentally relevant culture media: a TiO2 case study and considerations for a general approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horst, Allison M.; Ji, Zhaoxia; Holden, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticle exposure in toxicity studies requires that nanoparticles are bioavailable by remaining highly dispersed in culture media. However, reported dispersion approaches are variable, mostly study-specific, and not transferable owing to their empirical basis. Furthermore, many published approaches employ proteinaceous dispersants in rich laboratory media, both of which represent end members in environmental scenarios. Here, a systematic approach was developed to disperse initially agglomerated TiO 2 nanoparticles (Aeroxide® TiO 2 P25, Evonik, NJ; primary particle size range 6.4–73.8 nm) in oligotrophic culture medium for environmentally relevant bacterial toxicity studies. Based on understanding particle–particle interactions in aqueous media and maintaining environmental relevance, the approach involves (1) quantifying the relationship between pH and zeta potential to determine the point of zero charge of select nanoparticles in water; (2) nominating, then testing and selecting, environmentally relevant stabilizing agents; and (3) dispersing via “condition and capture” whereby stock dry powder nanoparticles are sonicated in pre-conditioned (with base, or acid, plus stabilizing agent) water, then diluted into culture media. The “condition and capture” principle is transferable to other nanoparticle and media chemistries: simultaneously, mechanically and electrostatically, nanoparticles can be dispersed with surrounding stabilizers that coat and sterically hinder reagglomeration in the culture medium.

  7. Earnings persistence and value relevance with the adoption of IFRS: a study of companies in GLENIF countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos Brunozi Júnior

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The apparent expansion of IFRS internationally promoted literature interests in analyzing their impact on the earnings quality. In these associations, research indicated setbacks in empirical findings with these dilemmas more pronounced in studies of companies from developing countries. Therefore, in this study, we investigated, from the economic and institutional perspectives, if the IFRS affected the persistence and the value relevance of financial results of companies in GLENIF countries. To test these predictions, the survey included 563 companies from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru from 2003 to 2014. With the application of models of Easton and Harris (1991; Ohlson (1995, Sloan (1996; Burgstahler and Dichev (1997 and Pincus, Venkatachalam and Rajgopal (2007 employed the regression panel data. The results showed a partial acceptance of the hypothesis. The accounting data were more relevant after the implementation of IFRS, while only Argentina, Colombia and Mexico showed the most persistent financial results. In comments on the preliminary adoption of IFRS, the financial results of companies in the countries were more persistent in adopting for a longer period these standards, as opposed to the value relevance, there were no significant differences after IFRS. In summary, this study found that the IFRS alone are not institutional factors to fully improve the quality of accounting results in developing countries.

  8. Endogenous gas formation--an in vitro study with relevance to gas microemboli during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, Lena; Engström, Karl Gunnar

    2012-09-01

    Gas embolism is an identified problem during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Our aim was to analyze the potential influence from gas solubility based on simple physical laws, here called endogenous gas embolism. Gas solubility decreases at higher temperature and gas bubbles are presumably formed at CPB warming. An experimental model to measure gas release was designed. Medium (water or blood retrieved from mediastinal drains, 14.6 mL) was incubated and equilibrated with gas (air, 100% oxygen, or 5% carbon dioxide in air) at low temperature (10 degrees C or 23 degrees C). At warming to 37 degrees C, gas release was digitally measured. Also, the effect of fluid motion was evaluated. At warming, the medium became oversaturated with dissolved gas. When fluid motion was applied, gas was released to form bubbles. This was exemplified by a gas release of .45% (.31/.54, medians and quartile range, volume percent, p = .007) and 1.26% (1.14/ 1.33, p = .003) when blood was warmed from 23 degrees C or 10 degrees C to 37 degrees C, respectively (carbon dioxide 5% in air). Consistent findings were seen for water and with the other types of gas exposure. The theory of endogenous gas embolization was confirmed with gas being released at warming. The endogenous gas formation demonstrated a dynamic pattern with oversaturation and with rapid gas released at fluid motion. The gas release at warming was substantial, in particular when the results were extrapolated to full-scale CPB conditions. The interference from endogenous gas formation should be considered in parallel to external sources of gas microemboli. cardiopulmonary bypass, gas embolization, microemboli, gas solubility, temperature.

  9. Experimental study of dynamic stall on Darrieus wind turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochier, G.; Fraunie, P.; Beguier, C.; Paraschivoiu, I.

    1985-12-01

    An experimental study of periodic vortex phenomena was performed on a model of a two straight-bladed Darrieus wind turbine under controlled-rotation conditions in the IMST water tunnel. The main focus of interest was the tip-speed ratios at which dynamic stall appears. Observations of this phenomenon from dye emission and the formation of hydrogen bubbles were made in the form of photographs, film and video recordings. Velocity measurements were obtained using the Laser-Doppler Velocimeter and components of velocity fluctuations could be determined quantitatively.

  10. Experimental study of intensive electron beam scattering in melting channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balagura, V.S.; Kurilko, V.I.; Safronov, B.G.

    1988-01-01

    Multiple scattering of an intensive electron beam at 28 keV energy passing through a melting channel in iron targets is experimentally studied. The dependence of scattering on the melting current value is established. The material density in the channel on the basis of the binary collision method is evaluated. It is shown that these density values are of three orders less than the estimations made on the basis of the data on energy losses of electrons in the channel. 6 refs.; 4 figs

  11. Experimental study of buoyancy driven natural ventilation through horizontal openings

    OpenAIRE

    Heiselberg, Per; Li, Zhigang

    2007-01-01

    An experimental study of buoyancy driven natural ventilation through single-sided horizontal openings was performed in a full-scale laboratory test rig. Measurements were made for opening ratios L/D range from 0.027 to 4.455, where L and D are the length and the diameter of the opening, respectively. The bidirectional air flow rate was measured using constant injection tracer gas technique. Smoke visualizations showed that the air flow patterns are highly transient, unstable and complex, and ...

  12. Revisiting dibenzothiophene thermochemical data: Experimental and computational studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Vera L.S.; Gomes, Jose R.B.; Ribeiro da Silva, Maria D.M.C.

    2009-01-01

    Thermochemical data of dibenzothiophene were studied in the present work by experimental techniques and computational calculations. The standard (p 0 =0.1MPa) molar enthalpy of formation, at T = 298.15 K, in the gaseous phase, was determined from the enthalpy of combustion and sublimation, obtained by rotating bomb calorimetry in oxygen, and by Calvet microcalorimetry, respectively. This value was compared with estimated data from G3(MP2)//B3LYP computations and also with the other results available in the literature.

  13. Generating physical symptoms from visual cues: An experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Ogden, J; Zoukas, S

    2010-01-01

    This experimental study explored whether the physical symptoms of cold, pain and itchiness could be generated by visual cues, whether they varied in the ease with which they could be generated and whether they were related to negative affect. Participants were randomly allocated by group to watch one of three videos relating to cold (e.g. ice, snow, wind), pain (e.g. sporting injuries, tattoos) or itchiness (e.g. head lice, scratching). They then rated their self-reported symptoms of cold, pa...

  14. Experimental power reactor dc generator energy storage study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heck, F.M.; Smeltzer, G.S.; Myers, E.H.; Kilgore, L.

    1978-01-01

    This study covers the use of dc generators for meeting the Experimental Power Reactor Ohmic Heating Energy Storage Requirements. The dc generators satisfy these requirements which are the same as defined in WFPS-TME-038 which covered the use of ac generators and homopolar generators. The costs of the latter two systems have been revised to eliminate first-of-a-kind factors. The cost figures for dc generators indicate a need to develop larger machines in order to take advantage of the economy-of-scale that the large ac machines have. Each of the systems has its own favorable salient features on which to base a system selection

  15. An experimental study of steam explosions involving chemically reactive metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, D.H.; Armstrong, D.R.; Gunther, W.H.; Basu, S.

    1997-01-01

    An experimental study of molten zirconium-water explosions was conducted. A 1-kg mass of zirconium melt was dropped into a column of water. Explosions took place only when an external trigger was used. In the triggered tests, the extent of oxidation of the zirconium melt was very extensive. However, the explosion energetics estimated were found to be very small compared to the potential chemical energy available from the oxidation reaction. Zirconium is of particular interest, since it is a component of the core materials of the current nuclear power reactors. This paper describes the test apparatus and summarizes the results of four tests conducted using pure zirconium melt

  16. Experimental study of steam condensation regime map for simplified spargers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. S.; Yoon, Y. J.; Song, C. H.; Park, C. K.; Kang, H. S.; Jun, H. K.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to produce a condensation regime map for single-hole and 4-hole steam spargers using GIRLS facility. The regime map for a single-hole sparger was derived using parameters such as the frequency and magnitude of the dynamic pressure. For 4-hole sparager, the regime map was derived using the trends of sound and dynamic pressure. Using the single-hole and 4-hole data, a steam jet condensation regime map was suggested with respect to pool temperature and steam mass flux

  17. Experimental study on a cold neutron source of solid methylbenzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utsuro, M; Sugimoto, M; Fujita, Y [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.

    1975-10-01

    An experimental study to produce cold neutrons with low temperature solid mesitylene as cold moderator in liquid helium and liquid nitrogen cryostats is reported. Measured cold neutron spectra by using an electron linac and time-of-flight method shows that this material is a better cold moderator than light water ice, giving the cold neutron output not so much inferior to that of solid methane in the temperature range above about 20 K and in the neutron energy region above about 1 MeV.

  18. Experimental study of buoyancy driven natural ventilation through horizontal openings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Li, Zhigang

    2007-01-01

    An experimental study of buoyancy driven natural ventilation through single-sided horizontal openings was performed in a full-scale laboratory test rig. Measurements were made for opening ratios L/D range from 0.027 to 4.455, where L and D are the length and the diameter of the opening......, respectively. The bidirectional air flow rate was measured using constant injection tracer gas technique. Smoke visualizations showed that the air flow patterns are highly transient, unstable and complex, and that air flow rates oscillate with time. Correlations between the Froude number Fr and the L/D ratio...

  19. Experimental study of charmed baryons at SuperLEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulet, M.

    1991-01-01

    The possibility to study and detect the charmed baryons at SuperLEAR was examined. It was found that it is possible only if the search is restricted to the single charm baryons Λ c , Σ c , Ξ c . The experimental approach requires high luminosity and some complexity of the detection system. It has to be considered as a second generation jet target experiment in a range of p-bar momentum from 8 to 15 GeV/c. (R.P.) 12 refs., 2 figs

  20. Experimental and numerical study of pleated filters clogging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervais, Pierre-Colin

    2013-01-01

    Pleated filters are widely used in air treatments because of the advantageous effective surface to overall dimension ratio they offer. Their major drawback though resides in their reduced lifetime which still needs to be controlled. Indeed, when clogging, the pressure drop considerably increases, the filtration flow is then no longer maintained which might lead to the deterioration of the media. It is then crucial to characterize the evolution of the pressure drop under operating conditions in order to best design these equipments. Part of our work consisted in studying how the operating conditions influence the geometry of the deposit. To do so, we used Single- Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), a non-destructive imaging technique that keeps intact the particle structuring. The visualization of aerosol deposit at the beginning of the filtration process allows observing preferential particle deposition on the whole height of the pleat. A numerical approach was used to study the permeability of bimodal fibrous media and we experimentally studied the local velocity as well as the biphasic flow inside pleated filter media. Comparison between experiments and simulations allowed us to validate the Geodict code for a wide range of media properties and velocities. Regarding bimodal fibrous media, the fast data acquisition has allowed testing several existing models which resulted in classifying them in a unique way. If the experimental results on the initial deposition in pleated filters are encouraging, those related to beforehand clogging point to several improvements regarding the technique we used. (author) [fr

  1. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE PRODUCTION OF SOLAR HYDROGEN IN ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Bendaikha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen is a sustainable fuel option and one of the potential solutions for the current energy and environmental problems. In this study hydrogen is produced using a hydrogen generator with a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM electrolyser. An experimental study is done in the Center of Development of the Renewable Energy, Algiers, Algeria.The experimental device contains essentially a photovoltaic module, a PEM electrolyser, a gasometer and the devices of measures of characteristics of the PEM electrolyser as well as two pyranometers for the horizontal and diffuse global radiance registration. This system in pilots scale is permitted on the one hand, to measured and analyzed the characteristics: of the PEM electrolyser for two different pressures of working (Patm and P=3 bar, on the other hand, to study the volume of hydrogen produces in the time with different sources of electrical power (generator, photovoltaic module, fluorescent lamp, the efficiency for every case is calculated and compared. We present in this paper the variation of the solar hydrogen flow rate produced according to the global radiance and according to the time for a typical day’s of August.

  2. Experimental study of friction in aluminium bolted joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croccolo, D.; de Agostinis, M.; Vincenzi, N.

    2010-06-01

    This study aims at developing an experimental tool useful to define accurately the friction coefficients in bolted joints and, therefore, at relating precisely the tightening torque to the bolt preloading force in some special components used in front motorbike suspensions. The components under investigation are some clamped joints made of aluminium alloy. The preloading force is achieved by applying a torque wrench to the bolt head. Some specific specimens have been appropriately designed and realized in order to study the tribological aspects of the tightening phase. Experimental tests have been performed by applying the Design of Experiment (DOE) method in order to obtain a mathematical model for the friction coefficients. Three replicas of a full factorial DOE at two levels for each variable have been carried out. The levels include cast versus forged aluminium alloy, anodized versus spray-painted surface, lubricated versus unlubricated screw, and first tightening (fresh unspoiled surfaces) versus sixth tightening (spoiled surfaces). The study considers M8x1.25 8.8 galvanized screws.

  3. [An experimental study of the healing of velour grafts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, O

    1986-02-01

    An experimental study of implantation of velour grafts in the abdominal aorta or the external iliac artery of dogs was conducted with the object of evaluating the type of velour surface best fit for small-caliber artery implantation. Velour grafts measuring 4mm in diameter with differing velour surfaces were used as materials. Velour grafts now available on the market differ not only in velour surface but also in structure, notably in porosity and wall thickness. Hence each of the grafts used was reversed (i.e. inside out) and thus new grafts were prepared. These grafts were considered most suitable for making a comparative study of the effects of velour surface on healing. Macroscopic and histological findings revealed that each graft was good healing with the rate of patency as high as 84 percent. However, like Vasculour-D grafts, crimped grafts which preserve the crimp after implantation was significantly thicker at the internal valley than other grafts. Based on the findings of this experimental study non-crimped velour grafts were considered to be best fit for small-caliber artery implantation.

  4. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF INFORMAL NORMS OF URBAN COLORISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Alexandrowna Griber

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was informal social norms of urban culture. The paper contains the detailed description of the experimental situation and the main steps of the field research, focused on the observance of informal social norms in the sphere of urban coloristics. The experiment was conducted in three districts of Smolensk (Russia – Leninskiy, Zadneprovskiy and Promyshlennyy. Particular attention was paid to the analysis of the results of the field research, including evaluation of reaction of participants (residents of multi-storied houses, breakers of informal norms of urban coloristics (experimenters and casual experiment witnesses (neighbors and passersby. In addition, the accuracy of results “forecasting”, done before the beginning of the experiment, is analyzed. The research was conducted using the methodology of breaking experiment that is one of the most provocative ways of studying informal norms in sociology and social psychology. The experiment allowed to draw a number of important conclusions. It showed that urban coloristics is regulated by strict informal norms, that are not noticed by citizens until a violation occurs. The power of informal norms is significantly underestimated by citizens, and their break causes a negative reaction and protest. The most important contribution to the study of informal norms of urban culture was the comparison of the reaction degree by men and women, by the residents of different districts (central, residential or blue-collar neighborhoods, by different age groups.

  5. Experimental study of Coal Pyrolysis 1.: Review of the experimental information from the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugony, F.; Migliavacca, G.

    2007-01-01

    A brief analysis of some of the main experimental works published in the past decades about coal pyrolysis is here reported. In particular the results of some series of experiments are cited and reported in details, coming from the activity of some important international research teams; they supply a survey wide and complete enough of the different operating and experimental conditions proposed in this field. With the aim of giving a comparison benchmark for the original experimental data published in the companion paper of this series and in order to grant a good support to the validation of the predictive models of coal devolatilization [it

  6. Development of German energy consumption: A deterministic study of energy-relevant customer groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumert, M.

    1994-01-01

    A detailed study of the characteristic features of group-specific energy consumption was conducted (identification of the factors determining energy consumption of the productive sector, private households and private mobility demand). The question of who shall determine energy consumption in the future is analysed. This question is answered in a demand-specific study of consumption patterns and -effects. (orig./UA) [de

  7. Linguistically-Relevant Diachronic Study of Cultural Values in Early British Advertising Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochetova, Larisa A.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on linguistic data retrieved from early advertisements published in British newspapers between 1788 and 1900, the study seeks to map out a set of values and account for linguistic means used to codify them in the diachronic perspective. For the purposes of the study, the corpus of advertisements from random issues of British newspapers…

  8. The Vital Role of Pathology in Improving Reproducibility and Translational Relevance of Aging Studies in Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treuting, P M; Snyder, J M; Ikeno, Y; Schofield, P N; Ward, J M; Sundberg, J P

    2016-03-01

    Pathology is a discipline of medicine that adds great benefit to aging studies of rodents by integrating in vivo, biochemical, and molecular data. It is not possible to diagnose systemic illness, comorbidities, and proximate causes of death in aging studies without the morphologic context provided by histopathology. To date, many rodent aging studies do not utilize end points supported by systematic necropsy and histopathology, which leaves studies incomplete, contradictory, and difficult to interpret. As in traditional toxicity studies, if the effect of a drug, dietary treatment, or altered gene expression on aging is to be studied, systematic pathology analysis must be included to determine the causes of age-related illness, moribundity, and death. In this Commentary, the authors discuss the factors that should be considered in the design of aging studies in mice, with the inclusion of robust pathology practices modified after those developed by toxicologic and discovery research pathologists. Investigators in the field of aging must consider the use of histopathology in their rodent aging studies in this era of integrative and preclinical geriatric science (geroscience). © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. The utricular otoliths, lapilli, of teleosts: their morphology and relevance for species identification and systematics studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Assis

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the general morphology of the utricular otoliths, lapilli, of teleost fishes, proposes a terminology for their parts, identifies their two major morphological types, provides some examples of their use in species identification, and discusses their usefulness in studies of fish phylogeny and systematics.

  10. Experimental study of mass boiling in a porous medium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapin, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript presents a pore-scale experimental study of convective boiling heat transfer in a two-dimensional porous medium. The purpose is to deepen the understanding of thermohydraulics of porous media saturated with multiple fluid phases, in order to enhance management of severe accidents in nuclear reactors. Indeed, following a long-lasting failure in the cooling system of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) or a boiling water reactor (BWR) and despite the lowering of the control rods that stops the fission reaction, residual power due to radioactive decay keeps heating up the core. This induces water evaporation, which leads to the drying and degradation of the fuel rods. The resulting hot debris bed, comparable to a porous heat-generating medium, can be cooled down by reflooding, provided a water source is available. This process involves intense boiling mechanisms that must be modelled properly. The experimental study of boiling in porous media presented in this thesis focuses on the influence of different pore-scale boiling regimes on local heat transfer. The experimental setup is a model porous medium made of a bundle of heating cylinders randomly placed between two ceramic plates, one of which is transparent. Each cylinder is a resistance temperature detector (RTD) used to give temperature measurements as well as heat generation. Thermal measurements and high-speed image acquisition allow the effective heat exchanges to be characterized according to the observed local boiling regimes. This provides precious indications precious indications for the type of correlations used in the non-equilibrium macroscopic model used to model reflooding process. (author) [fr

  11. Atypical water lattices and their possible relevance to the amorphous ices: A density functional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anick, David J.

    2013-04-01

    Of the fifteen known crystalline forms of ice, eleven consist of a single topologically connected hydrogen bond network with four H-bonds at every O. The other four, Ices VI-VIII and XV, consist of two topologically connected networks, each with four H-bonds at every O. The networks interpenetrate but do not share H-bonds. This article presents two new periodic water lattice families whose topological connectivity is "atypical": they consist of many two-dimensional layers that share no H-bonds. Layers are held together only by dispersion forces. Within each layer there are still four H-bonds at each O. Called "Hexagonal Bilayer Water" (HBW) and "Pleated Sheet Water" (PSW), they have computed densities of about 1.1 g/mL and 1.3 g/mL respectively, and nearest neighbor O-coordination is 4.5 to 5.5 and 6 to 8 respectively. Using density functional theory (BLYP-D/TZVP), various proton ordered forms of HBW and PSW are optimized and categorized. There are simple pathways connecting Ice-Ih to HBW and HBW to PSW. Their computed properties suggest similarities to the high density and very high density amorphous ices (HDA and VHDA) respectively. It is unknown whether HDA, VHDA, and Low Density Amorphous Ice (LDA) are fully disordered glasses down to the molecular level, or whether there is some short-range local order. Based on estimated radial distribution functions (RDFs), one proton ordered form of HBW matches HDA best. The idea is explored that HDA could contain islands with this underlying structure, and likewise, that VHDA could contain regions of PSW. A "microlattice model version 1" (MLM1) is presented as a device to compare key experimental data on the amorphous ices with these atypical structures and with a microlattice form of Ice-XI for LDA. Resemblances are found with the amorphs' RDFs, densities, Raman spectra, and transition behaviors. There is not enough information in the static models to assign either a microlattice structure or a partial microlattice

  12. Atypical water lattices and their possible relevance to the amorphous ices: A density functional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anick, David J. [Laboratory for Water and Surface Studies, Department of Chemistry, Pearson Lab, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Of the fifteen known crystalline forms of ice, eleven consist of a single topologically connected hydrogen bond network with four H-bonds at every O. The other four, Ices VI–VIII and XV, consist of two topologically connected networks, each with four H-bonds at every O. The networks interpenetrate but do not share H-bonds. This article presents two new periodic water lattice families whose topological connectivity is “atypical”: they consist of many two-dimensional layers that share no H-bonds. Layers are held together only by dispersion forces. Within each layer there are still four H-bonds at each O. Called “Hexagonal Bilayer Water” (HBW) and “Pleated Sheet Water” (PSW), they have computed densities of about 1.1 g/mL and 1.3 g/mL respectively, and nearest neighbor O-coordination is 4.5 to 5.5 and 6 to 8 respectively. Using density functional theory (BLYP-D/TZVP), various proton ordered forms of HBW and PSW are optimized and categorized. There are simple pathways connecting Ice-Ih to HBW and HBW to PSW. Their computed properties suggest similarities to the high density and very high density amorphous ices (HDA and VHDA) respectively. It is unknown whether HDA, VHDA, and Low Density Amorphous Ice (LDA) are fully disordered glasses down to the molecular level, or whether there is some short-range local order. Based on estimated radial distribution functions (RDFs), one proton ordered form of HBW matches HDA best. The idea is explored that HDA could contain islands with this underlying structure, and likewise, that VHDA could contain regions of PSW. A “microlattice model version 1” (MLM1) is presented as a device to compare key experimental data on the amorphous ices with these atypical structures and with a microlattice form of Ice-XI for LDA. Resemblances are found with the amorphs’ RDFs, densities, Raman spectra, and transition behaviors. There is not enough information in the static models to assign either a microlattice structure or a partial

  13. Atypical water lattices and their possible relevance to the amorphous ices: A density functional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Anick

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Of the fifteen known crystalline forms of ice, eleven consist of a single topologically connected hydrogen bond network with four H-bonds at every O. The other four, Ices VI–VIII and XV, consist of two topologically connected networks, each with four H-bonds at every O. The networks interpenetrate but do not share H-bonds. This article presents two new periodic water lattice families whose topological connectivity is “atypical”: they consist of many two-dimensional layers that share no H-bonds. Layers are held together only by dispersion forces. Within each layer there are still four H-bonds at each O. Called “Hexagonal Bilayer Water” (HBW and “Pleated Sheet Water” (PSW, they have computed densities of about 1.1 g/mL and 1.3 g/mL respectively, and nearest neighbor O-coordination is 4.5 to 5.5 and 6 to 8 respectively. Using density functional theory (BLYP-D/TZVP, various proton ordered forms of HBW and PSW are optimized and categorized. There are simple pathways connecting Ice-Ih to HBW and HBW to PSW. Their computed properties suggest similarities to the high density and very high density amorphous ices (HDA and VHDA respectively. It is unknown whether HDA, VHDA, and Low Density Amorphous Ice (LDA are fully disordered glasses down to the molecular level, or whether there is some short-range local order. Based on estimated radial distribution functions (RDFs, one proton ordered form of HBW matches HDA best. The idea is explored that HDA could contain islands with this underlying structure, and likewise, that VHDA could contain regions of PSW. A “microlattice model version 1” (MLM1 is presented as a device to compare key experimental data on the amorphous ices with these atypical structures and with a microlattice form of Ice-XI for LDA. Resemblances are found with the amorphs’ RDFs, densities, Raman spectra, and transition behaviors. There is not enough information in the static models to assign either a microlattice structure

  14. Atypical water lattices and their possible relevance to the amorphous ices: A density functional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anick, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Of the fifteen known crystalline forms of ice, eleven consist of a single topologically connected hydrogen bond network with four H-bonds at every O. The other four, Ices VI–VIII and XV, consist of two topologically connected networks, each with four H-bonds at every O. The networks interpenetrate but do not share H-bonds. This article presents two new periodic water lattice families whose topological connectivity is “atypical”: they consist of many two-dimensional layers that share no H-bonds. Layers are held together only by dispersion forces. Within each layer there are still four H-bonds at each O. Called “Hexagonal Bilayer Water” (HBW) and “Pleated Sheet Water” (PSW), they have computed densities of about 1.1 g/mL and 1.3 g/mL respectively, and nearest neighbor O-coordination is 4.5 to 5.5 and 6 to 8 respectively. Using density functional theory (BLYP-D/TZVP), various proton ordered forms of HBW and PSW are optimized and categorized. There are simple pathways connecting Ice-Ih to HBW and HBW to PSW. Their computed properties suggest similarities to the high density and very high density amorphous ices (HDA and VHDA) respectively. It is unknown whether HDA, VHDA, and Low Density Amorphous Ice (LDA) are fully disordered glasses down to the molecular level, or whether there is some short-range local order. Based on estimated radial distribution functions (RDFs), one proton ordered form of HBW matches HDA best. The idea is explored that HDA could contain islands with this underlying structure, and likewise, that VHDA could contain regions of PSW. A “microlattice model version 1” (MLM1) is presented as a device to compare key experimental data on the amorphous ices with these atypical structures and with a microlattice form of Ice-XI for LDA. Resemblances are found with the amorphs’ RDFs, densities, Raman spectra, and transition behaviors. There is not enough information in the static models to assign either a microlattice structure or a partial

  15. Experimental studies of forensic odontology to aid in the identification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Susmita; Sharma, Preeti; Gupta, Nitin

    2010-07-01

    The importance of dental identification is on the increase year after year. With the passage of time, the role of forensic odontology has increased as very often teeth and dental restorations are the only means of identification. Forensic odontology has played a key role in identification of persons in mass disasters (aviation, earthquakes, Tsunamis), in crime investigations, in ethnic studies, and in identification of decomposed and disfigured bodies like that of drowned persons, fire victims, and victims of motor vehicle accidents. The various methods employed in forensic odontology include tooth prints, radiographs, photographic study, rugoscopy, cheiloscopy and molecular methods. Investigative methods applied in forensic odontology are reasonably reliable, yet the shortcomings must be accounted for to make it a more meaningful and relevant procedure. This paper gives an overview of the various experimental studies to aid in the identification processes, discussing their feasibilities and limitations in day-to-day practice.

  16. A study on the relevance and influence of the existing regulation and risk informed/performance based regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, B. J.; Koh, Y. J.; Kim, H. S.; Koh, S. H.; Kang, D. H.; Kang, T. W. [Cheju National Univ., Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    The goal of this study is to estimate the Relevance and Influence of the Existing Regulation and the RI-PBR to the institutionalization of the regulatory system. This study reviews the current regulatory system and the status of the RI-PBR implementation of the US NRC and Korea based upon SECY Papers, Risk Informed Regulation Implementation Plan (RIRIP) of the US NRC and other domestic studies. Also the recent trends of the individual technologies regarding the RI-PBR and RIA are summarized.

  17. Experimental study of mixed ferromagnetic spin glass systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirebeau, I.

    1987-01-01

    The mixed ferromagnetic spin glass systems are characterized by a distribution of positive and negative exchange interactions whose maximum occurs at a positive value. We have undertaken an experimental study of amorphous (Fe 1-x Mn x ) .75 PBA1, polycrystalline and monocrystalline Ni 1-x Mn x and Au 1-x Fe x alloys. By Moessbauer effect, magnetization and neutron scattering, we show that below a ''canting'' temperature T K , spin components transverse to the mean magnetization become frozen. Small angle neutron scattering studies with an applied field show a magnetic ''structure'' i.e. the intensity exhibits a maximum at a finite q value for temperatures below T K . This structure has been studied as a function of temperature, applied field and concentration using both small angle neutron scattering and 3 axis spectrometry where we separate the elastic from the inelastic components. Possible interpretations of this new structure will be given [fr

  18. Conceptual design study of fusion experimental reactor (FY86 FER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Yasushi; Iida, Hiromasa; Honda, Tsutomu.

    1987-08-01

    This report describes the study on safety for FER(Fusion Experimental Reactor) which has been designed as a next step machine to the JT-60. Though the final purpose of this study is to have an image of design base accident, maximum credible accident and to assess their risk or probability, etc., as FER plant system, the emphasis of this years study is placed on fuel-gas circulation system where the tritium inventory is maximum. This report consists of two chapters. The first chapter of this report summaries the FER system and describes FMEA(Failure Mode and Effect Analysis) and related accident progression sequence for FER plant system as a whole. The second chapter of this report is focused on fuel-gas circulation system including the purification, isotope separation system and storage system. Here, probability of risk is assessed by the probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) procedure based on FMEA, ETA and FTA. (author)

  19. Experimental study of ion-induced nucleation by radon decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, F.; Hopke, P.K.

    1993-01-01

    In the environment, the presence of ions from natural radioactivity may increase the rate of new particle formation through ion-induced nucleation. A thermal diffusion cloud chamber (TDCC) has been built to experimentally study ion-induced nucleation where the ions are produced by gaseous radioactive sources. The critical supersaturation values and nucleation rates for methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, and 1-butanol vapors on ions produced within the volume of the chamber by alpha decay of 222 Rn have been measured quantitatively at various radioactivity concentrations and supersaturations. The presence of ion tracks and the effect of an external electric field were also investigated. The alpha tracks and ion-induced nucleation formed by 222 Rn decay become visible at the critical supersaturation that is below the value needed for homogeneous nucleation. At this supersaturation, the nucleation rates increase substantially with increasing 222 Rn at low activity concentrations, but attain limiting values at higher concentrations. The experimental results indicate that the ionization by radon decay will promote ion-cluster formation and lower the free energy barriers. The formation of visible droplets is strongly dependent on the supersaturation. This study also confirms that the external electric field has a significant effect on the observed rates of nucleation

  20. Biofouling in forward osmosis systems: An experimental and numerical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucs, Szilárd S; Valladares Linares, Rodrigo; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S; Picioreanu, Cristian

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluates with numerical simulations supported by experimental data the impact of biofouling on membrane performance in a cross-flow forward osmosis (FO) system. The two-dimensional numerical model couples liquid flow with solute transport in the FO feed and draw channels, in the FO membrane support layer and in the biofilm developed on one or both sides of the membrane. The developed model was tested against experimental measurements at various osmotic pressure differences and in batch operation without and with the presence of biofilm on the membrane active layer. Numerical studies explored the effect of biofilm properties (thickness, hydraulic permeability and porosity), biofilm membrane surface coverage, and biofilm location on salt external concentration polarization and on the permeation flux. The numerical simulations revealed that (i) when biofouling occurs, external concentration polarization became important, (ii) the biofilm hydraulic permeability and membrane surface coverage have the highest impact on water flux, and (iii) the biofilm formed in the draw channel impacts the process performance more than when formed in the feed channel. The proposed mathematical model helps to understand the impact of biofouling in FO membrane systems and to develop possible strategies to reduce and control biofouling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.