WorldWideScience

Sample records for relevant energy flows

  1. Multiphase, multicomponent simulations and experiments of reactive flow, relevant for combining geologic CO2 sequestration with geothermal energy capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, Martin O.

    2011-11-01

    Understanding the fluid dynamics of supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) in brine- filled porous media is important for predictions of CO2 flow and brine displacement during geologic CO2 sequestration and during geothermal energy capture using sequestered CO2 as the subsurface heat extraction fluid. We investigate multiphase fluid flow in porous media employing particle image velocimetry experiments and lattice-Boltzmann fluid flow simulations at the pore scale. In particular, we are interested in the motion of a drop (representing a CO2 bubble) through an orifice in a plate, representing a simplified porous medium. In addition, we study single-phase/multicomponent reactive transport experimentally by injecting water with dissolved CO2 into rocks/sediments typically considered for CO2 sequestration to investigate how resultant fluid-mineral reactions modify permeability fields. Finally, we investigate numerically subsurface CO2 and heat transport at the geologic formation scale.

  2. Astrophysical relevance of γ transition energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauscher, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The relevant γ energy range is explicitly identified where additional γ strength must be located to have an impact on astrophysically relevant reactions. It is shown that folding the energy dependences of the transmission coefficients and the level density leads to maximal contributions for γ energies of 2≤E γ ≤4 unless quantum selection rules allow isolated states to contribute. Under this condition, electric dipole transitions dominate. These findings allow us to more accurately judge the relevance of modifications of the γ strength for astrophysics

  3. Flow energy conversion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargsyan, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    A cost-effective hydropower system called here Flow Energy Converter was developed, patented, manufactured and tested for water pumping, electricity generation and other purposes especially useful for the rural communities. The system consists of water-driven turbine with plane-surface blades, power transmission means and pump and/or generator. Working sample of the Flow Energy Converter was designed and manufactured at the Institute of Radio Physics and Electronics

  4. The Flow of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Znidarsic, F.; Robertson, G. A.

    In this paper, the flow of energy in materials is presented as mechanical waves with a distinct velocity or speed of transition. This speed of transition came about through the observations of cold fusion experiments, i.e., Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) and superconductor gravity experiments, both assumed speculative by mainstream science. In consideration of superconductor junctions, the LENR experiments have a similar speed of transition, which seems to imply that the reactions in the LENR experiment are discrete quantized reactions (energy - burst vs. continuous). Here an attempt is made to quantify this new condition as it applies to electrons; toward the progression of quantized energy flows (discrete energy burst) as a new source of clean energy and force mechanisms (i.e, propulsion).

  5. A Review Relevant to Turbomachinery Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. Johnston

    1998-01-01

    “buoyancy” currents in cases where density gradients occur. Turbulence modification involves reduction (stabilization or increase (destabilization of turbulent Reynolds stresses by Coriolis forces; effects which areof special importance for the understanding and prediction of flows in radial and mixed flow pump and compressor rotors. Stabilization/destabilization effects are discussed by a selective review of the basic research literature on flows in straight, radial, rotating channels and diffusers.

  6. ECAL Energy Flow Calibration

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    My talk will be covering my work as a whole over the course of the semester. The focus will be on using energy flow calibration in ECAL to check the precision of the corrections made by the light monitoring system used to account for transparency loss within ECAL crystals due to radiation damage over time.

  7. Industrial energy-flow management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampret, Marko; Bukovec, Venceslav; Paternost, Andrej; Krizman, Srecko; Lojk, Vito; Golobic, Iztok

    2007-01-01

    Deregulation of the energy market has created new opportunities for the development of new energy-management methods based on energy assets, risk management, energy efficiency and sustainable development. Industrial energy-flow management in pharmaceutical systems, with a responsible approach to sustainable development, is a complex task. For this reason, an energy-information centre, with over 14,000 online measured data/nodes, was implemented. This paper presents the energy-flow rate, exergy-flow rate and cost-flow rate diagrams, with emphasis on cost-flow rate per energy unit or exergy unit of complex pharmaceutical systems

  8. Towards increased policy relevance in energy modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Ramesohl, Stephan; Boyd, Gale

    2003-07-29

    Historically, most energy models were reasonably equipped to assess the impact of a subsidy or change in taxation, but are often insufficient to assess the impact of more innovative policy instruments. We evaluate the models used to assess future energy use, focusing on industrial energy use. We explore approaches to engineering-economic analysis that could help improve the realism and policy relevance of engineering-economic modeling frameworks. We also explore solutions to strengthen the policy usefulness of engineering-economic analysis that can be built from a framework of multi-disciplinary cooperation. We focus on the so-called ''engineering-economic'' (or ''bottom-up'') models, as they include the amount of detail that is commonly needed to model policy scenarios. We identify research priorities for the modeling framework, technology representation in models, policy evaluation and modeling of decision-making behavior.

  9. Constitutional relevance of atomic energy law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettow, S.

    1980-01-01

    In a decision publicized on December 20, 1979 the German Federal Constitutional Court rejected a claim of unconstitutionality in connection with the licensing procedure of the Muelheim-Kaerlich Nuclear Power Station currently under construction. This constitutes confirmation, by the 1st Department of the Court, of a decision in 1978 by the 2nd Department about the Kalkar fast breeder power plant, in which the peaceful utilization of nuclear energy had been found to be constitutional. However, the new decision by the Federal Constitutional Court particularly emphasizes the constitutional relevance of the rules of procedure under the Atomic Energy Act and their function with respect to the protection of civil rights. (orig.) [de

  10. 2007 Estimated International Energy Flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C A; Belles, R D; Simon, A J

    2011-03-10

    An energy flow chart or 'atlas' for 136 countries has been constructed from data maintained by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and estimates of energy use patterns for the year 2007. Approximately 490 exajoules (460 quadrillion BTU) of primary energy are used in aggregate by these countries each year. While the basic structure of the energy system is consistent from country to country, patterns of resource use and consumption vary. Energy can be visualized as it flows from resources (i.e. coal, petroleum, natural gas) through transformations such as electricity generation to end uses (i.e. residential, commercial, industrial, transportation). These flow patterns are visualized in this atlas of 136 country-level energy flow charts.

  11. Fluid mechanics relevant to flow through pretreatment of cellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault-Léger, Véronique; Lynd, Lee R

    2014-04-01

    The present study investigates fluid mechanical properties of cellulosic feedstocks relevant to flow through (FT) pretreatment for biological conversion of cellulosic biomass. The results inform identifying conditions for which FT pretreatment can be implemented in a practical context. Measurements of pressure drop across packed beds, viscous compaction and water absorption are reported for milled and not milled sugarcane bagasse, switchgrass and poplar, and important factors impacting viscous flow are deduced. Using biomass knife-milled to pass through a 2mm sieve, the observed pressure drop was highest for bagasse, intermediate for switchgrass and lowest for poplar. The highest pressure drop was associated with the presence of more fine particles, greater viscous compaction and the degree of water absorption. Using bagasse without particle size reduction, the instability of the reactor during pretreatment above 140kg/m(3) sets an upper bound on the allowable concentration for continuous stable flow. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Energy banking flowing well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, John Edward

    2003-01-01

    Russia and LNG are themes for the coming year. Despite many hot spots globally, these two topics have been huge drivers of our business in the past year and we believe will continue to be so for the coming future. We will also briefly touch on the environment, as this is a topic gaining significant attention and investment by all stakeholders in the industry. During 2003, energy bankers have been busy, although perhaps not as busy as several years ago. While there have been some notable deals in the M and A, capital markets, and lending parts of the business, overall business has been slower than a few years ago. However, Energy bankers are busier than their colleagues in other sectors, and the outlook is favourable. Particularly, energy lending activities should remain robust

  13. Macroscale hydrologic modeling of ecologically relevant flow metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Seth J.; Luce, Charles H.; Hamlet, Alan F.; Isaak, Daniel J.; Neville, Helen M.

    2010-09-01

    Stream hydrology strongly affects the structure of aquatic communities. Changes to air temperature and precipitation driven by increased greenhouse gas concentrations are shifting timing and volume of streamflows potentially affecting these communities. The variable infiltration capacity (VIC) macroscale hydrologic model has been employed at regional scales to describe and forecast hydrologic changes but has been calibrated and applied mainly to large rivers. An important question is how well VIC runoff simulations serve to answer questions about hydrologic changes in smaller streams, which are important habitat for many fish species. To answer this question, we aggregated gridded VIC outputs within the drainage basins of 55 streamflow gages in the Pacific Northwest United States and compared modeled hydrographs and summary metrics to observations. For most streams, several ecologically relevant aspects of the hydrologic regime were accurately modeled, including center of flow timing, mean annual and summer flows and frequency of winter floods. Frequencies of high and low flows in the summer were not well predicted, however. Predictions were worse for sites with strong groundwater influence, and some sites showed errors that may result from limitations in the forcing climate data. Higher resolution (1/16th degree) modeling provided small improvements over lower resolution (1/8th degree). Despite some limitations, the VIC model appears capable of representing several ecologically relevant hydrologic characteristics in streams, making it a useful tool for understanding the effects of hydrology in delimiting species distributions and predicting the potential effects of climate shifts on aquatic organisms.

  14. Energy flows of the biosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorshkov, V.G.

    1980-01-01

    Mankind consumes more than 90% of the animal production of the world. The locking of a significant part of the biosphere energy flow onto the anthropogenic chain leads to the dislodging of natural forms of organisms of the biosphere, change of its functioning and self-regulation. For the maintenance of stable existence of a small set of cultivated plants and domestic animals not forming the complete set indispensable for reaction to the change of natural conditions, man is compelled to follow the path of auxiliary investments of energy and to compensate for the destruction of closed circulations of food substances by the flow of fertilizers extracted from natural deposits. Energy assessments show the lack of realism of many projects for increasing the global energy flow in the anthropogenic channel by increasing the full flow of energy of the biosphere. To obtain the net production of the contemporary plowed field in hotbed on the basis of hydroponics there is required 2 x 10/sup 14/ watts of additional energy. To provide for the inflow of such an amount of energy (and also vast volumes of fresh water) presents extremely complicated problems. According to the author's calculations, in a provisional conversion of all production of green plants, all gas and petroleum and edible food with an efficiency equal to 1%, it is possible to provide food reserves equal to one annual harvest of the plowed fields of the world of 2 x 10/sup 9/ tons.

  15. Interface tracking simulations of bubbly flows in PWR relevant geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Jun, E-mail: jfang3@ncsu.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Rasquin, Michel, E-mail: michel.rasquin@colorado.edu [Aerospace Engineering Department, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Bolotnov, Igor A., E-mail: igor_bolotnov@ncsu.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Simulations were performed for turbulent bubbly flows in PWR subchannel geometry. • Liquid turbulence is fully resolved by direct numerical simulation approach. • Bubble behavior is captured using level-set interface tracking method. • Time-averaged single- and two-phase turbulent flow statistical quantities are obtained. - Abstract: The advances in high performance computing (HPC) have allowed direct numerical simulation (DNS) approach coupled with interface tracking methods (ITM) to perform high fidelity simulations of turbulent bubbly flows in various complex geometries. In this work, we have chosen the geometry of the pressurized water reactor (PWR) core subchannel to perform a set of interface tracking simulations (ITS) with fully resolved liquid turbulence. The presented research utilizes a massively parallel finite-element based code, PHASTA, for the subchannel geometry simulations of bubbly flow turbulence. The main objective for this research is to demonstrate the ITS capabilities in gaining new insight into bubble/turbulence interactions and assisting the development of improved closure laws for multiphase computational fluid dynamics (M-CFD). Both single- and two-phase turbulent flows were studied within a single PWR subchannel. The analysis of numerical results includes the mean gas and liquid velocity profiles, void fraction distribution and turbulent kinetic energy profiles. Two sets of flow rates and bubble sizes were used in the simulations. The chosen flow rates corresponded to the Reynolds numbers of 29,079 and 80,775 based on channel hydraulic diameter (D{sub h}) and mean velocity. The finite element unstructured grids utilized for these simulations include 53.8 million and 1.11 billion elements, respectively. This has allowed to fully resolve all the turbulence scales and the deformable interfaces of individual bubbles. For the two-phase flow simulations, a 1% bubble volume fraction was used which resulted in 17 bubbles in

  16. Fluid flow nozzle energy harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Walkemeyer, Phillip; Winn, Tyler; Tosi, Luis Phillipe; Colonius, Tim

    2015-04-01

    Power generation schemes that could be used downhole in an oil well to produce about 1 Watt average power with long-life (decades) are actively being developed. A variety of proposed energy harvesting schemes could be used to extract energy from this environment but each of these has their own limitations that limit their practical use. Since vibrating piezoelectric structures are solid state and can be driven below their fatigue limit, harvesters based on these structures are capable of operating for very long lifetimes (decades); thereby, possibly overcoming a principle limitation of existing technology based on rotating turbo-machinery. An initial survey [1] identified that spline nozzle configurations can be used to excite a vibrating piezoelectric structure in such a way as to convert the abundant flow energy into useful amounts of electrical power. This paper presents current flow energy harvesting designs and experimental results of specific spline nozzle/ bimorph design configurations which have generated suitable power per nozzle at or above well production analogous flow rates. Theoretical models for non-dimensional analysis and constitutive electromechanical model are also presented in this paper to optimize the flow harvesting system.

  17. Basics and principles of particle image velocimetry (PIV) for mapping biogenic and biologically relevant flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stamhuis, Eize J.

    2006-01-01

    Particle image velocimetry (PIV) has proven to be a very useful technique in mapping animal-generated flows or flow patterns relevant to biota. Here, theoretical background is provided and experimental details of 2-dimensional digital PIV are explained for mapping flow produced by or relevant to

  18. IEK-3 report 2011. Climate-relevant energy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    IEK-3 is one of nine sub-institutes within the Institute of Energy and Climate Research at Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH. IEK-3 aims to conduct research of social, ecological and economic relevance and thus generate groundbreaking results on an international level. This quality of work is achieved through basic research in close coordination with technical development work in relevant scientific and technical fields of expertise. Special significance is attached here to international cooperations with partners from research and industry. By implementing research results in innovative products, procedures and processes in cooperation with industry, IEK-3 hopes to help bridge the gap between science and technology. Cooperation with universities, universities of applied sciences, training departments and training centers is designed to promote opportunities for further education and training. With a staff of approximately 100, IEK-3 concentrates on the basic topics of electrochemistry and process engineering for fuel cells. In an integrated approach, the four key areas worked on in the institute - direct methanol fuel cells, high-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells, solid oxide fuel cells and fuel processing systems - are accompanied by systems analysis and theoretical investigations, basic modeling and simulations, and by experimental and theoretical systems evaluations. The information generated in these areas is used to design and verify functional systems. In addition, particular attention is given to the development, configuration and application of special measuring techniques for the structural analysis of membrane electrode assemblies, for flow simulation and visualization, and for the characterization of stacks. The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack pictured comprises 36 cells, each with an active cell area of 360 cm{sup 2}. The nominal power at a mean cell voltage of 800 mV is approximately 5.5 kW. The stack is operated on natural gas, which is

  19. Relevant energy scale of color confinement from lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Arata; Suganuma, Hideo

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new lattice framework to extract the relevant gluonic energy scale of QCD phenomena which is based on a 'cut' on link variables in momentum space. This framework is expected to be broadly applicable to all lattice QCD calculations. Using this framework, we quantitatively determine the relevant energy scale of color confinement, through the analyses of the quark-antiquark potential and meson masses. The relevant energy scale of color confinement is found to be below 1.5 GeV in the Landau gauge. In fact, the string tension is almost unchanged even after cutting off the high-momentum gluon component above 1.5 GeV. When the relevant low-energy region is cut, the quark-antiquark potential is approximately reduced to a Coulomb-like potential, and each meson becomes a quasifree quark pair. As an analytical model calculation, we also investigate the dependence of the Richardson potential on the cut, and find the consistent behavior with the lattice result.

  20. Malaysia commercial energy flow: status and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridzuan Abdul Mutalib; Maragatham Kumar; Nik Arlina Nik Ali; Abi Muttaqin Jalal Bayar; Aisya Raihan Abdul Kadir; Muhammed Zulfakar Zolkaffly; Azlinda Aziz; Jamal Khaer Ibrahim

    2008-08-01

    With further growth of Malaysia economy, future development of the energy sector in Malaysia is vital to ensure targeted growth. Commercial Energy continues to play a major role in ensuring a balanced energy mix for power generation due to a potential increase in energy demand from various sectors, especially the industrial sector. This paper presents the status and structure of Malaysia Commercial Energy Flow, which gives an overview of the flow of all types of energy sources from primary energy supply to final energy use, and also the potential for nuclear power in electricity generation in Malaysia. (Author)

  1. Elucidating Dynamical Processes Relevant to Flow Encountering Abrupt Topography (FLEAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Encountering Abrupt Topography (FLEAT) Bo Qiu Dept of Oceanography, University of Hawaii at Manoa 1000 Pope Rd. Honolulu, HI 96822 phone: (808) 956...c) to explore relevant dynamics by using both simplified models and OGCM output with realistic topography and surface boundary conditions...scale abyssal circulation, we propose to use the Hallberg Isopycnal Model (HIM). The HIM allows sloping isopycnals to interact with bottom topography

  2. The value relevance of direct cash flows under international financial reporting standards

    OpenAIRE

    Clacher, I; de Ricquebourg, AD; Hodgson, A

    2013-01-01

    This study examines if there has been a change in the value relevance of direct cash flow components since the adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) in Australia. Our results show that for both industrial and extractive firms direct cash flow statements are value relevant under Australian Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (AGAAP) and remain so after the adoption of IFRS. In addition, for industrial firms there is a significant increase in the value relevance of...

  3. Flow Energy Piezoelectric Bimorph Nozzle Harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Walkemeyer, Phillip E. (Inventor); Hall, Jeffrey L. (Inventor); Lee, Hyeong Jae (Inventor); Colonius, Tim (Inventor); Tosi, Phillipe (Inventor); Kim, Namhyo (Inventor); Sun, Kai (Inventor); Corbett, Thomas Gary (Inventor); Arrazola, Alvaro Jose (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A flow energy harvesting device having a harvester pipe includes a flow inlet that receives flow from a primary pipe, a flow outlet that returns the flow into the primary pipe, and a flow diverter within the harvester pipe having an inlet section coupled to the flow inlet, a flow constriction section coupled to the inlet section and positioned at a midpoint of the harvester pipe and having a spline shape with a substantially reduced flow opening size at a constriction point along the spline shape, and an outlet section coupled to the constriction section. The harvester pipe may further include a piezoelectric structure extending from the inlet section through the constriction section and point such that the fluid flow past the constriction point results in oscillatory pressure amplitude inducing vibrations in the piezoelectric structure sufficient to cause a direct piezoelectric effect and to generate electrical power for harvesting.

  4. Beam Flutter and Energy Harvesting in Internal Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Luis Phillipe; Colonius, Tim; Sherrit, Stewart; Lee, Hyeong Jae

    2017-11-01

    Aeroelastic flutter, largely studied for causing engineering failures, has more recently been used as a means of extracting energy from the flow. Particularly, flutter of a cantilever or an elastically mounted plate in a converging-diverging flow passage has shown promise as an energy harvesting concept for internal flow applications. The instability onset is observed as a function of throat velocity, internal wall geometry, fluid and structure material properties. To enable these devices, our work explores features of the fluid-structure coupled dynamics as a function of relevant nondimensional parameters. The flutter boundary is examined through stability analysis of a reduced order model, and corroborated with numerical simulations at low Reynolds number. Experiments for an energy harvester design are qualitatively compared to results from analytical and numerical work, suggesting a robust limit cycle ensues due to a subcritical Hopf bifurcation. Bosch Corporation.

  5. An evaluation of the hydrologic relevance of lateral flow in snow at hillslope and catchment scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Eiriksson; Michael Whitson; Charles H. Luce; Hans Peter Marshall; John Bradford; Shawn G. Benner; Thomas Black; Hank Hetrick; James P. McNamara

    2013-01-01

    Lateral downslope flow in snow during snowmelt and rain-on-snow (ROS) events is a well-known phenomenon, yet its relevance to water redistribution at hillslope and catchment scales is not well understood. We used dye tracers, geophysical methods, and hydrometric measurements to describe the snow properties that promote lateral flow, assess the relative velocities of...

  6. Field Flows of Dark Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahn, Robert N.; de Putter, Roland; Linder, Eric V.

    2008-07-08

    Scalar field dark energy evolving from a long radiation- or matter-dominated epoch has characteristic dynamics. While slow-roll approximations are invalid, a well defined field expansion captures the key aspects of the dark energy evolution during much of the matter-dominated epoch. Since this behavior is determined, it is not faithfully represented if priors for dynamical quantities are chosen at random. We demonstrate these features for both thawing and freezing fields, and for some modified gravity models, and unify several special cases in the literature.

  7. Net Income, Book Value and Cash Flows: The Value Relevance in Jordanian Economic Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DHIAA SHAMKI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the value relevance of financial statements variables namely net income, book value and cash flows simultaneously relative to Jordanian services and industrial firms for the period from 2000 to 2009. The main findings of this paper are three- dimensional. First, net income is value relevant, while book value and cash flows are irrelevant. Second, net income is more value relevant than book value and cash flows in both sectors. Third, this value relevance is greater in services sector than in industrial sector. The study shows that net income assist more in explaining market values in Jordanian services and industrial firms. Since research on the value relevance of these variables has neglected Jordan (and the Middle Eastern region, the study tries to fill this practical gap. The study is the first in Jordan that examines the value relevance of net income, book value and cash flows simultaneously and compares this value relevance according to Amman Stock Exchange sectors in one study in Jordan.

  8. Energy, entropy, and the flow of nature

    CERN Document Server

    Sherman, Thomas F

    2018-01-01

    A fresh and unified exploration of the laws that govern natural change, examining the historical roots and meaning of the concepts of energy and entropy. All natural processes--mechanical, thermal, chemical, electrical, and biological--are viewed as a flow across free energy gradients that interact with one another.

  9. California energy flow in 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, I.Y.; Briggs, C.K.

    1995-04-01

    Energy consumption in the state of California decreased about 3% in 1993 reflecting continuation of the recession that was manifest in a moribund construction industry and a high state unemployment that ran counter to national recovery trends. Residential/commercial use decreased slightly reflecting a mild winter in the populous southern portion of the state, a decrease that was offset to some extent by an increase in the state population. Industrial consumption of purchased energy declined substantially as did production of self-generated electricity for in-house use. Consumption in the transportation sector decreased slightly. The amount of power transmitted by the utilities was at 1992 levels; however a smaller proportion was produced by the utilities themselves. Generation of electricity by nonutilities, primarily cogenerators and small power producers, was the largest of any state in the US. The growth in the number of private power producers combined with increased amounts of electricity sold to the public utilities set the stage for the sweeping proposals before the California Public Utility Commission to permit direct sales from the nonutilities to retail customers. California production of both oil and natural gas declined; however, to meet demand only the imports of natural gas increased. A break in the decade-long drought during the 1992--1993 season resulted in a substantial increase in the amount of hydroelectricity generated during the year. Geothermal energy`s contribution increased substantially because of the development of new resources by small power producers. Decline in steam production continued at The Geysers, the state`s largest field, principally owned and managed by a public utility. Increases in windpower constituted 1--1/2% of the total electric supply--up slightly from 1992. Several solar photo voltaic demonstration plants were in operation, but their contribution remained small.

  10. California energy flow in 1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, C. K.; Borg, I. Y.

    1981-03-01

    Energy use in California during 1979 differed significantly from 1978. Overall use of natural gas in the state increased substantially (14.3%) due principally to greater use for electrical power production; 4% more gas was used for electrical power generation in 1979 than in 1978 and 21% more than in 1977. Use of fuel oil for electrical generation remained at the 1978 level but below the high 1977 level, which reflected substitution of oil for hydroelectric power during the 1976 to 1977 drought. Together, oil and gas accounted for 80% of the fuels used to generate electricity. Crude-oil imports principally from Indonesia fell substantially; however, use of Alaskan North Slope oil increased so that the net increase in crude oil use was up about 4%. The transportation end-use sector consumed about as much as in 1978 despite shortages in early 1979 associated with the Iranian revolution. While sales fell slightly, sales of high-sulfur residual oils (Bunker C) increased markedly. Transportation represents 38% of total energy consumption in California.

  11. Energy flow in photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Thomas; Dridi, Kim

    2000-01-01

    Theoretical and numerical investigations of energy flow in photonic crystal waveguides made of line defects and branching points are presented. It is shown that vortices of energy flow may occur, and the net energy flow along: the line defect is described via the effective propagation velocity....... Single-mode and multimode operations are studied, and dispersion relations are computed for different waveguide widths. Both strong positive, strong negative, and zero dispersion an possible. It is shown that geometric parameters such as the nature of the lattice, the line defect orientation, the defect...... width, and the branching-point geometry have a significant influence on the electrodynamics. These are important issues for the fabrication of photonic crystal structures....

  12. A Galloping Energy Harvester with Attached Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denissenko, Petr; Khovanov, Igor; Tucker-Harvey, Sam

    2017-11-01

    Aeroelastic energy harvesters are a promising technology for the operation of wireless sensors and microelectromechanical systems, as well as providing the possibility of harvesting wind energy in applications were conventional wind turbines are ineffective, such as in highly turbulent flows, or unreliable, such as in harsh environmental conditions. The development of aeroelastic energy harvesters to date has focused on the flutter of airfoils, the galloping of prismatic structures, and the vortex induced vibrations. We present a novel type of galloping energy harvester with the flow becoming attached when the oscillation amplitude is high enough. With the flow attached, the harvester blade acts closer to an aerofoil than a bluff body, which results in a higher efficiency. The dynamics of a prototype device has been characterised experimentally with the use of a motion tracking system. The flow structure in the vicinity of the device has been studied using smoke visualisation and PIV measurements. A lumped parameter mathematical model has been developed and related to the experimental results.

  13. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting in Internal Fluid Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong Jae Lee

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We consider piezoelectric flow energy harvesting in an internal flow environment with the ultimate goal powering systems such as sensors in deep oil well applications. Fluid motion is coupled to structural vibration via a cantilever beam placed in a converging-diverging flow channel. Two designs were considered for the electromechanical coupling: first; the cantilever itself is a piezoelectric bimorph; second; the cantilever is mounted on a pair of flextensional actuators. We experimentally investigated varying the geometry of the flow passage and the flow rate. Experimental results revealed that the power generated from both designs was similar; producing as much as 20 mW at a flow rate of 20 L/min. The bimorph designs were prone to failure at the extremes of flow rates tested. Finite element analysis (FEA showed fatigue failure was imminent due to stress concentrations near the bimorph’s clamped region; and that robustness could be improved with a stepped-joint mounting design. A similar FEA model showed the flextensional-based harvester had a resonant frequency of around 375 Hz and an electromechanical coupling of 0.23 between the cantilever and flextensional actuators in a vacuum. These values; along with the power levels demonstrated; are significant steps toward building a system design that can eventually deliver power in the Watts range to devices down within a well.

  14. Piezoelectric energy harvesting in internal fluid flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeong Jae; Sherrit, Stewart; Tosi, Luis Phillipe; Walkemeyer, Phillip; Colonius, Tim

    2015-10-14

    We consider piezoelectric flow energy harvesting in an internal flow environment with the ultimate goal powering systems such as sensors in deep oil well applications. Fluid motion is coupled to structural vibration via a cantilever beam placed in a converging-diverging flow channel. Two designs were considered for the electromechanical coupling: first; the cantilever itself is a piezoelectric bimorph; second; the cantilever is mounted on a pair of flextensional actuators. We experimentally investigated varying the geometry of the flow passage and the flow rate. Experimental results revealed that the power generated from both designs was similar; producing as much as 20 mW at a flow rate of 20 L/min. The bimorph designs were prone to failure at the extremes of flow rates tested. Finite element analysis (FEA) showed fatigue failure was imminent due to stress concentrations near the bimorph's clamped region; and that robustness could be improved with a stepped-joint mounting design. A similar FEA model showed the flextensional-based harvester had a resonant frequency of around 375 Hz and an electromechanical coupling of 0.23 between the cantilever and flextensional actuators in a vacuum. These values; along with the power levels demonstrated; are significant steps toward building a system design that can eventually deliver power in the Watts range to devices down within a well.

  15. Energy flow around a moving dislocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, H; Kirchner, H O K

    2009-01-01

    A dislocation moving in a lattice emits lattice waves. We study the energy flow accompanying the lattice wave emission in a molecular dynamics situation. About two thirds of the static free energy are emitted as lattice waves from the moving dislocation. Work done by the region around the dislocation helps to initiate the motion from the unstable equilibrium state under a small applied stress, or to compensate the energy emitted as lattice waves when the dislocation makes a long distance motion under a larger stress.

  16. Essays on the relevance and use of dirty surplus accounting flows in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Y.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis intends to add empirical evidence to a recently heavily debated regulatory issue, the necessity of promoting a clean surplus income statement. I document the magnitude, and assess the relevance of dirty surplus accounting flows in European member states. In particular, this thesis

  17. Energy and material flows of megacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Christopher A; Stewart, Iain; Facchini, Angelo; Cersosimo, Igor; Mele, Renata; Chen, Bin; Uda, Mariko; Kansal, Arun; Chiu, Anthony; Kim, Kwi-Gon; Dubeux, Carolina; Lebre La Rovere, Emilio; Cunha, Bruno; Pincetl, Stephanie; Keirstead, James; Barles, Sabine; Pusaka, Semerdanta; Gunawan, Juniati; Adegbile, Michael; Nazariha, Mehrdad; Hoque, Shamsul; Marcotullio, Peter J; González Otharán, Florencia; Genena, Tarek; Ibrahim, Nadine; Farooqui, Rizwan; Cervantes, Gemma; Sahin, Ahmet Duran

    2015-05-12

    Understanding the drivers of energy and material flows of cities is important for addressing global environmental challenges. Accessing, sharing, and managing energy and material resources is particularly critical for megacities, which face enormous social stresses because of their sheer size and complexity. Here we quantify the energy and material flows through the world's 27 megacities with populations greater than 10 million people as of 2010. Collectively the resource flows through megacities are largely consistent with scaling laws established in the emerging science of cities. Correlations are established for electricity consumption, heating and industrial fuel use, ground transportation energy use, water consumption, waste generation, and steel production in terms of heating-degree-days, urban form, economic activity, and population growth. The results help identify megacities exhibiting high and low levels of consumption and those making efficient use of resources. The correlation between per capita electricity use and urbanized area per capita is shown to be a consequence of gross building floor area per capita, which is found to increase for lower-density cities. Many of the megacities are growing rapidly in population but are growing even faster in terms of gross domestic product (GDP) and energy use. In the decade from 2001-2011, electricity use and ground transportation fuel use in megacities grew at approximately half the rate of GDP growth.

  18. Redistribution of Kinetic Energy in Turbulent Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Pumir

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In statistically homogeneous turbulent flows, pressure forces provide the main mechanism to redistribute kinetic energy among fluid elements, without net contribution to the overall energy budget. This holds true in both two-dimensional (2D and three-dimensional (3D flows, which show fundamentally different physics. As we demonstrate here, pressure forces act on fluid elements very differently in these two cases. We find in numerical simulations that in 3D pressure forces strongly accelerate the fastest fluid elements, and that in 2D this effect is absent. In 3D turbulence, our findings put forward a mechanism for a possibly singular buildup of energy, and thus may shed new light on the smoothness problem of the solution of the Navier-Stokes equation in 3D.

  19. Energy Transfer Kinetics and Dynamics of Relevance to Iodine Lasers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heaven, Michael C

    2001-01-01

    ...). Energy transfer between I(2 P(1/2)) and 02(X) has been studied in detail. Rate constants for electronic energy transfer and nuclear spin relaxation were measured over the temperature range from 150-300K...

  20. Energy flow during disruptions in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paley, J.I.; Andrew, P.; Cowley, S.C.; Fundamenski, W.; Huber, A.

    2005-01-01

    Disruptions place severe limitations on the materials selected for plasma facing components in fusion devices. In a disruption, the plasma stored thermal and magnetic energy is dissipated leading to predicted power loadings in the current quench of up to 10 MW m -2 in JET. In the thermal quench very high power loads of up to 10 G Wm -2 would be expected if all the power flowed to the steady state strike points, however this is not observed. In this paper the energy balance associated with both events is investigated. The magnetic energy is found to balance well with radiated energy. Circumstantial evidence for limiter interaction during the thermal quench of plasmas in divertor configuration is presented and a possible mechanism for limiter interaction in disruptions resulting from the collapse of an internal transport barrier is discussed

  1. Energy flow and mineral cycling mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, L.E.

    1977-01-01

    Analysis of energy flow patterns and mineral cycling mechanisms provides a first step in identifying major transport pathways away from waste management areas. A preliminary food web pattern is described using results from ongoing and completed food habit studies. Biota possessing the greatest potential for introducing radionuclides into food chains leading to man include deer, rabbits, hares, waterfowl, honeybees and upland game birds and are discussed separately

  2. Flow energy piezoelectric bimorph nozzle harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Walkemeyer, Phillip; Hasenoehrl, Jennifer; Hall, Jeffrey L.; Colonius, Tim; Tosi, Luis Phillipe; Arrazola, Alvaro; Kim, Namhyo; Sun, Kai; Corbett, Gary

    2014-04-01

    There is a need for a long-life power generation scheme that could be used downhole in an oil well to produce 1 Watt average power. There are a variety of existing or proposed energy harvesting schemes that could be used in this environment but each of these has its own limitations. The vibrating piezoelectric structure is in principle capable of operating for very long lifetimes (decades) thereby possibly overcoming a principle limitation of existing technology based on rotating turbo-machinery. In order to determine the feasibility of using piezoelectrics to produce suitable flow energy harvesting, we surveyed experimentally a variety of nozzle configurations that could be used to excite a vibrating piezoelectric structure in such a way as to enable conversion of flow energy into useful amounts of electrical power. These included reed structures, spring mass-structures, drag and lift bluff bodies and a variety of nozzles with varying flow profiles. Although not an exhaustive survey we identified a spline nozzle/piezoelectric bimorph system that experimentally produced up to 3.4 mW per bimorph. This paper will discuss these results and present our initial analyses of the device using dimensional analysis and constitutive electromechanical modeling. The analysis suggests that an order-of-magnitude improvement in power generation from the current design is possible.

  3. Regional characteristics relevant to advanced technology cogeneration development. [industrial energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manvi, R.

    1981-01-01

    To assist DOE in establishing research and development funding priorities in the area of advanced energy conversion technoloy, researchers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory studied those specific factors within various regions of the country that may influence cogeneration with advanced energy conversion systems. Regional characteristics of advanced technology cogeneration possibilities are discussed, with primary emphasis given to coal derived fuels. Factors considered for the study were regional industry concentration, purchased fuel and electricity prices, environmental constraints, and other data of interest to industrial cogeneration.

  4. Bioinspired catalytic materials for energy-relevant conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artero, Vincent

    2017-09-01

    The structure of active sites of enzymes involved in bioenergetic processes can inspire design of active, stable and cost-effective catalysts for renewable-energy technologies. For these materials to reach maturity, the benefits of bioinspired systems must be combined with practical technological requirements.

  5. Irreversible energy flow in forced Vlasov dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Plunk, Gabriel G.

    2014-10-01

    © EDP Sciences, Società Italiana di Fisica, Springer-Verlag. The recent paper of Plunk [G.G. Plunk, Phys. Plasmas 20, 032304 (2013)] considered the forced linear Vlasov equation as a model for the quasi-steady state of a single stable plasma wavenumber interacting with a bath of turbulent fluctuations. This approach gives some insight into possible energy flows without solving for nonlinear dynamics. The central result of the present work is that the forced linear Vlasov equation exhibits asymptotically zero (irreversible) dissipation to all orders under a detuning of the forcing frequency and the characteristic frequency associated with particle streaming. We first prove this by direct calculation, tracking energy flow in terms of certain exact conservation laws of the linear (collisionless) Vlasov equation. Then we analyze the steady-state solutions in detail using a weakly collisional Hermite-moment formulation, and compare with numerical solution. This leads to a detailed description of the Hermite energy spectrum, and a proof of no dissipation at all orders, complementing the collisionless Vlasov result.

  6. Irreversible energy flow in forced Vlasov dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Plunk, Gabriel G.; Parker, Joseph T.

    2014-01-01

    © EDP Sciences, Società Italiana di Fisica, Springer-Verlag. The recent paper of Plunk [G.G. Plunk, Phys. Plasmas 20, 032304 (2013)] considered the forced linear Vlasov equation as a model for the quasi-steady state of a single stable plasma wavenumber interacting with a bath of turbulent fluctuations. This approach gives some insight into possible energy flows without solving for nonlinear dynamics. The central result of the present work is that the forced linear Vlasov equation exhibits asymptotically zero (irreversible) dissipation to all orders under a detuning of the forcing frequency and the characteristic frequency associated with particle streaming. We first prove this by direct calculation, tracking energy flow in terms of certain exact conservation laws of the linear (collisionless) Vlasov equation. Then we analyze the steady-state solutions in detail using a weakly collisional Hermite-moment formulation, and compare with numerical solution. This leads to a detailed description of the Hermite energy spectrum, and a proof of no dissipation at all orders, complementing the collisionless Vlasov result.

  7. Hands-on-Entropy, Energy Balance with Biological Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Entropy changes underlie the physics that dominates biological interactions. Indeed, introductory biology courses often begin with an exploration of the qualities of water that are important to living systems. However, one idea that is not explicitly addressed in most introductory physics or biology textbooks is important contribution of the entropy in driving fundamental biological processes towards equilibrium. From diffusion to cell-membrane formation, to electrostatic binding in protein folding, to the functioning of nerve cells, entropic effects often act to counterbalance deterministic forces such as electrostatic attraction and in so doing, allow for effective molecular signaling. A small group of biology, biophysics and computer science faculty have worked together for the past five years to develop curricular modules (based on SCALEUP pedagogy). This has enabled students to create models of stochastic and deterministic processes. Our students are first-year engineering and science students in the calculus-based physics course and they are not expected to know biology beyond the high-school level. In our class, they learn to reduce complex biological processes and structures in order model them mathematically to account for both deterministic and probabilistic processes. The students test these models in simulations and in laboratory experiments that are biologically relevant such as diffusion, ionic transport, and ligand-receptor binding. Moreover, the students confront random forces and traditional forces in problems, simulations, and in laboratory exploration throughout the year-long course as they move from traditional kinematics through thermodynamics to electrostatic interactions. This talk will present a number of these exercises, with particular focus on the hands-on experiments done by the students, and will give examples of the tangible material that our students work with throughout the two-semester sequence of their course on introductory

  8. Relevance of axionlike particles for very-high-energy astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Angelis, Alessandro; Galanti, Giorgio; Roncadelli, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Several extensions of the standard model and, in particular, superstring theories suggest the existence of axionlike particles (ALPs), which are very light spin-zero bosons with a two-photon coupling. As a consequence, photon-ALP oscillations occur in the presence of an external magnetic field, and ALPs can lead to observable effects on the measured photon spectrum of astrophysical sources. An intriguing situation arises when blazars are observed in the very-high-energy (VHE) band--namely, above 100 GeV--as it is the case with the presently operating Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes H.E.S.S, Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov telescope, Collaboration of Australia and Nippon for a Gamma Ray Observatory in the Outback III, and VERITAS. The extragalactic background light produced by galaxies during cosmic evolution gives rise to a source dimming which becomes important in the VHE band and increases with energy, since hard photons from a blazar scatter off soft extragalactic background light photons thereby disappearing into e + e - pairs. This dimming can be considerably reduced by photon-ALP oscillations, and since they are energy independent the resulting blazar spectra become harder than expected. We consider throughout a scenario first proposed by De Angelis, Roncadelli, and Mansutti in which the above strategy is implemented with photon-ALP oscillations triggered by large-scale magnetic fields, and we systematically investigate its implications for VHE blazars. We find that for ALPs lighter than 5·10 -10 eV the photon survival probability is larger than predicted by conventional physics above a few hundred GeV. Specifically, a boost factor of 10 can easily occur for sources at large distance and large energy, e.g. at 8 TeV for the blazar 1ES 0347-121 at redshift z=0.188. This is a clear-cut prediction which can be tested with the planned Cherenkov Telescope Array and the High Altitude Water Cherenkov Experiment (HAWC) water Cherenkov

  9. Dark Energy Domination In The Virgocentric Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Gene; Chernin, A. D.; Karachentsev, I. D.; Teerikorpi, P.; Valtonen, M.; Dolgachev, V. P.; Domozhilova, L. M.

    2011-04-01

    Dark energy (DE) was first observationally detected at large Gpc distances. If it is a vacuum energy formulated as Einstein's cosmological constant, Λ, DE should also have dynamical effects at much smaller scales. Previously, we found its effects on much smaller Mpc scales in our Local Group (LG) as well as in other nearby groups. We used new HST observations of member 3D distances from the group centers and Doppler shifts. We find each group's gravity dominates a bound central system of galaxies but DE antigravity results in a radial recession increasing with distance from the group center of the outer members. Here we focus on the much larger (but still cosmologically local) Virgo Cluster and systems around it using new observations of velocities and distances. We propose an analytic model whose key parameter is the zero-gravity radius (ZGR) from the cluster center where gravity and DE antigravity balance. DE brings regularity to the Virgocentric flow. Beyond Virgo's 10 Mpc ZGR, the flow curves to approach a linear global Hubble law at larger distances. The Virgo cluster and its outer flow are similar to the Local Group and its local outflow with a scaling factor of about 10; the ZGR for Virgo is 10 times larger than that of the LG. The similarity of the two systems on the scales of 1 to 30 Mpc suggests that a quasi-stationary bound central component and an expanding outflow applies to a wide range of groups and clusters due to small scale action of DE as well as gravity. Chernin, et al 2009 Astronomy and Astrophysics 507, 1271 http://arxiv.org/abs/1006.0066 http://arxiv.org/abs/1006.0555

  10. Form and function in hillslope hydrology: in situ imaging and characterization of flow-relevant structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Jackisch

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the identification and characterization of rapid subsurface flow structures through pedo- and geo-physical measurements and irrigation experiments at the point, plot and hillslope scale. Our investigation of flow-relevant structures and hydrological responses refers to the general interplay of form and function, respectively. To obtain a holistic picture of the subsurface, a large set of different laboratory, exploratory and experimental methods was used at the different scales. For exploration these methods included drilled soil core profiles, in situ measurements of infiltration capacity and saturated hydraulic conductivity, and laboratory analyses of soil water retention and saturated hydraulic conductivity. The irrigation experiments at the plot scale were monitored through a combination of dye tracer, salt tracer, soil moisture dynamics, and 3-D time-lapse ground penetrating radar (GPR methods. At the hillslope scale the subsurface was explored by a 3-D GPR survey. A natural storm event and an irrigation experiment were monitored by a dense network of soil moisture observations and a cascade of 2-D time-lapse GPR trenches. We show that the shift between activated and non-activated state of the flow paths is needed to distinguish structures from overall heterogeneity. Pedo-physical analyses of point-scale samples are the basis for sub-scale structure inference. At the plot and hillslope scale 3-D and 2-D time-lapse GPR applications are successfully employed as non-invasive means to image subsurface response patterns and to identify flow-relevant paths. Tracer recovery and soil water responses from irrigation experiments deliver a consistent estimate of response velocities. The combined observation of form and function under active conditions provides the means to localize and characterize the structures (this study and the hydrological processes (companion study Angermann et al., 2017, this issue.

  11. Form and function in hillslope hydrology: in situ imaging and characterization of flow-relevant structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackisch, Conrad; Angermann, Lisa; Allroggen, Niklas; Sprenger, Matthias; Blume, Theresa; Tronicke, Jens; Zehe, Erwin

    2017-07-01

    The study deals with the identification and characterization of rapid subsurface flow structures through pedo- and geo-physical measurements and irrigation experiments at the point, plot and hillslope scale. Our investigation of flow-relevant structures and hydrological responses refers to the general interplay of form and function, respectively. To obtain a holistic picture of the subsurface, a large set of different laboratory, exploratory and experimental methods was used at the different scales. For exploration these methods included drilled soil core profiles, in situ measurements of infiltration capacity and saturated hydraulic conductivity, and laboratory analyses of soil water retention and saturated hydraulic conductivity. The irrigation experiments at the plot scale were monitored through a combination of dye tracer, salt tracer, soil moisture dynamics, and 3-D time-lapse ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods. At the hillslope scale the subsurface was explored by a 3-D GPR survey. A natural storm event and an irrigation experiment were monitored by a dense network of soil moisture observations and a cascade of 2-D time-lapse GPR trenches. We show that the shift between activated and non-activated state of the flow paths is needed to distinguish structures from overall heterogeneity. Pedo-physical analyses of point-scale samples are the basis for sub-scale structure inference. At the plot and hillslope scale 3-D and 2-D time-lapse GPR applications are successfully employed as non-invasive means to image subsurface response patterns and to identify flow-relevant paths. Tracer recovery and soil water responses from irrigation experiments deliver a consistent estimate of response velocities. The combined observation of form and function under active conditions provides the means to localize and characterize the structures (this study) and the hydrological processes (companion study Angermann et al., 2017, this issue).

  12. Energy flow modeling and optimal operation analysis of the micro energy grid based on energy hub

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Tengfei; Wu, Junyong; Hao, Liangliang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Design a novel architecture for energy hub integrating power hub, cooling hub and heating hub. • The micro energy grid based on energy hub is introduced and its advantages are discussed. • Propose a generic modeling method for the energy flow of micro energy grid. • Propose an optimal operation model for micro energy grid with considering demand response. • The roles of renewable energy, energy storage devices and demand response are discussed separately. - Abstract: The energy security and environmental problems impel people to explore a more efficient, environment friendly and economical energy utilization pattern. In this paper, the coordinated operation and optimal dispatch strategies for multiple energy system are studied at the whole Micro Energy Grid level. To augment the operation flexibility of energy hub, the innovation sub-energy hub structure including power hub, heating hub and cooling hub is put forward. Basing on it, a generic energy hub architecture integrating renewable energy, combined cooling heating and power, and energy storage devices is developed. Moreover, a generic modeling method for the energy flow of micro energy grid is proposed. To minimize the daily operation cost, a day-ahead dynamic optimal operation model is formulated as a mixed integer linear programming optimization problem with considering the demand response. Case studies are undertaken on a community Micro Energy Grid in four different scenarios on a typical summer day and the roles of renewable energy, energy storage devices and demand response are discussed separately. Numerical simulation results indicate that the proposed energy flow modeling and optimal operation method are universal and effective over the entire energy dispatching horizon.

  13. Deuterons and flow: At intermediate AGS energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahana, D.E.; Pang, Y.; Kahana, S.H.

    1996-06-01

    A quantitative model, based on hadronic physics and Monte Carlo cascading is applied to heavy ion collisions at BNL-AGS and BEVALAC energies. The model was found to be in excellent agreement with particle spectra where data previously existed, for Si beams, and was able to successfully predict the spectra where data was initially absent, for Au beams. For Si + Au collisions baryon densities of three or four times the normal nuclear matter density (ρ 0 ) are seen in the theory, while for Au + Au collisions, matter at densities up to 10 ρ 0 is anticipated. The possibility that unusual states of matter may be created in the Au beams and potential signatures for its observation, in particular deuterons and collective flow, are considered

  14. One-dimensional energy flow model for poroelastic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Soo; Kang, Yeon June

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a one-dimensional energy flow model to investigate the energy behavior for poroelastic media coupled with acoustical media. The proposed energy flow model is expressed by an independent energy governing equation that is classified into each wave component propagating in poroelastic media. The energy governing equation is derived using the General Energetic Method (GEM). To facilitate a comparison with the classical solution based on the conventional displacement-base formulation, approximate solutions of energy density and intensity are obtained. Furthermore, the limitations and usability of the proposed energy flow model for poroelastic media are described.

  15. The relevance of rooftops: Analyzing the microscale surface energy balance in the Chicago region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Radhika

    Spatial structure in climate variables often exist over very short length scales within an urban area, and this structure is a result of various site-specific features. In order to analyze the seasonal and diurnal energy flows that take place at a microclimatic surface, this work develops a semi-empirical energy balance model. For this, radiation fluxes and meteorological measurements are determined by direct observation; sensible heat and latent heat fluxes by parameterizations; and the heat storage flux by a 1-D mechanistic model that allows analysis of the temperature profile and heat storage within an underlying slab. Two sites receive detailed study: an anthropogenic site, being a University of Chicago building rooftop, and a natural site, outside Chicago in the open country. Two identical sets of instruments record measurements contemporaneously from these locations during June-November 2007, the entire period for which analyses are carried out. The study yields seasonal trends in surface temperature, surface-to-air temperature contrast and net radiation. At both sites, a temporal hysteresis between net radiation and heat storage flux indicates that surplus energy absorbed during daylight is released to the atmosphere later in the evening. The surface energy balance model responds well to site specific features for both locations. An analysis of the surface energy balance shows that the flux of sensible heat is the largest non-radiative contributor to the roof's surface cooling, while the flux of latent heat (also referred to as evaporative cooling) is the largest heat sink for the soil layer. In the latter part of the study, the surface energy balance model is upgraded by adding the capability to compute changes in surface temperature and non-radiative fluxes for any specified set of thermal and reflective roof properties. The results of this analysis allow an examination of the relationship between the roof temperature, the heat flux entering the building

  16. Flow Cells for Scalable Energy Conversion and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-26

    This project is a response to current flow systems that are V-aqueous and not cost effective. It will hopefully enable high energy/ power density flow cells through rational materials and system design.

  17. Bootstrapping the energy flow in the beginning of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, R.; Fedonkin, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper suggests that the energy flow on which all living structures depend only started up slowly, the low-energy, initial phase starting up a second, slightly more energetic phase, and so on. In this way, the build up of the energy flow follows a bootstrapping process similar to that found in

  18. Bootstrapping the energy flow in the beginning of life.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, R.; Fedonkin, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper suggests that the energy flow on which all living structures depend only started up slowly, the low-energy, initial phase starting up a second, slightly more energetic phase, and so on. In this way, the build up of the energy flow follows a bootstrapping process similar to that found in

  19. Asymmetric energy flow in liquid alkylbenzenes: A computational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitner, David M.; Pandey, Hari Datt

    2015-01-01

    Ultrafast IR-Raman experiments on substituted benzenes [B. C. Pein et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 117, 10898–10904 (2013)] reveal that energy can flow more efficiently in one direction along a molecule than in others. We carry out a computational study of energy flow in the three alkyl benzenes, toluene, isopropylbenzene, and t-butylbenzene, studied in these experiments, and find an asymmetry in the flow of vibrational energy between the two chemical groups of the molecule due to quantum mechanical vibrational relaxation bottlenecks, which give rise to a preferred direction of energy flow. We compare energy flow computed for all modes of the three alkylbenzenes over the relaxation time into the liquid with energy flow through the subset of modes monitored in the time-resolved Raman experiments and find qualitatively similar results when using the subset compared to all the modes

  20. Global flow of glasma in high energy nuclear collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Guangyao; Fries, Rainer J., E-mail: rjfries@comp.tamu.edu

    2013-06-25

    We discuss the energy flow of the classical gluon fields created in collisions of heavy nuclei at collider energies. We show how the Yang–Mills analog of Faraday's Law and Gauss' Law predicts the initial gluon flux tubes to expand or bend. The resulting transverse and longitudinal structure of the Poynting vector field has a rich phenomenology. Besides the well-known radial and elliptic flow in transverse direction, classical quantum chromodynamics predicts a rapidity-odd transverse flow that tilts the fireball for non-central collisions, and it implies a characteristic flow pattern for collisions of non-symmetric systems A+B. The rapidity-odd transverse flow translates into a directed particle flow v{sub 1} which has been observed at RHIC and LHC. The global flow fields in heavy ion collisions could be a powerful check for the validity of classical Yang–Mills dynamics in high energy collisions.

  1. Electromagnetic energy flow lines as possible paths of photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidovic, M [Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Belgrade, Bulevar Kralja Aleksandra 73, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Sanz, A S; Miret-Artes, S [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones CientIficas, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Arsenovic, D; Bozic, M [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia)], E-mail: milena@grf.bg.ac.yu, E-mail: asanz@imaff.cfmac.csic.es, E-mail: arsenovic@phy.bg.ac.yu, E-mail: bozic@phy.bg.ac.yu, E-mail: s.miret@imaff.cfmac.csic.es

    2009-07-15

    Motivated by recent experiments where interference patterns behind a grating are obtained by accumulating single photon events, we provide here an electromagnetic energy flow-line description to explain the emergence of such patterns. We find and discuss an analogy between the equation describing these energy flow lines and the equation of Bohmian trajectories used to describe the motion of massive particles.

  2. Novel simplified hourly energy flow models for photovoltaic power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatib, Tamer; Elmenreich, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed an energy flow model for standalone PV system using MATLAB line code. • We developed an energy flow model for hybrid PV/wind system using MATLAB line code. • We developed an energy flow model for hybrid PV/diesel system using MATLAB line code. - Abstract: This paper presents simplified energy flow models for photovoltaic (PV) power systems using MATLAB. Three types of PV power system are taken into consideration namely standalone PV systems, hybrid PV/wind systems and hybrid PV/diesel systems. The logic of the energy flow for each PV power system is discussed first and then the MATLAB line codes for these models are provided and explained. The results prove the accuracy of the proposed models. Such models help modeling and sizing PV systems

  3. Energy flow theory of nonlinear dynamical systems with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Xing, Jing Tang

    2015-01-01

    This monograph develops a generalised energy flow theory to investigate non-linear dynamical systems governed by ordinary differential equations in phase space and often met in various science and engineering fields. Important nonlinear phenomena such as, stabilities, periodical orbits, bifurcations and chaos are tack-led and the corresponding energy flow behaviors are revealed using the proposed energy flow approach. As examples, the common interested nonlinear dynamical systems, such as, Duffing’s oscillator, Van der Pol’s equation, Lorenz attractor, Rössler one and SD oscillator, etc, are discussed. This monograph lights a new energy flow research direction for nonlinear dynamics. A generalised Matlab code with User Manuel is provided for readers to conduct the energy flow analysis of their nonlinear dynamical systems. Throughout the monograph the author continuously returns to some examples in each chapter to illustrate the applications of the discussed theory and approaches. The book can be used as ...

  4. Resting Pd/Pa and haemodynamic relevance of coronary stenosis as evaluated by fractional flow reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Giuseppe; Verdoia, Monica; Barbieri, Lucia; Marino, Paolo; Suryapranata, Harry

    2018-03-01

    Fractional flow reserve (FFR) currently represents the gold standard in the evaluation of the haemodynamic relevance of coronary stenoses. However, both intracoronary and intravenous adenosine may be tolerated poorly by some patients. Therefore, considerable interest had been focused in the last few years on new adenosine-free indexes to define the haemodynamic relevance of coronary stenoses. So far, few data have been reported on resting Pd/Pa and its correlation with FFR as evaluated with high-dose intracoronary adenosine administration, which is the aim of the current study. FFR was assessed in 120 patients with 137 intermediate lesions during cardiac catheterization by a pressure-recording guidewire (PrimeWire). FFR was calculated as the ratio of the distal coronary pressure to the aortic pressure at hyperaemia. Intracoronary doses of adenosine were administered up to 720 μg as intracoronary boli. Exclusion criteria were as follows: (a) allergy to adenosine; (b) baseline bradycardia (heart rate values and increased the percentage of patients showing an FFR less than 0.80. Resting Pd/Pa showed good accuracy in the identification of patients with significant FFR values (value in the prediction of a positive FFR value. A value up to 0.88 was associated with a 100% positive predictive value, whereas a value of at least 0.95 was associated with a 95% negative predictive value. This study showed that in intermediate lesions, resting Pd/Pa was related linearly to FFR. We identified 0.93 as the best cut-off value in the prediction of haemodynamically significant coronary stenosis as evaluated by FFR. However, cut-off values of 0.88 and 0.95 could provide the maximal predictive positive and negative values, suggesting the additional use of FFR only in patients with resting values within this range.

  5. MANA YANG LEBIH MEMILIKI VALUE-RELEVANT: NET INCOME ATAU CASH FLOWS (Studi Terhadap Siklus Hidup Organisasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juniarti Juniarti

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to examine the relative value-relevant of net income and cash flow measures in different life cycle stages. Corporate life cycle consists of four stages: start up, growth, mature, and decline stage. Firms in different life cycle stages have different characteristics, and therefore in each life cycle stages the usefulness of accounting measures also different. Net incomes are predicted to be more value relevant in mature stages, while cash flows are expected to be more value relevant in stages characterized by start up, growth, and decline stages. The results prove that in the growth stage, the analysis supports the hypothesis that cash flows are more value relevant than net income. However, in the mature stage, the analysis results reject the hypothesis. This research do not analyze for the start up stage and decline stage, because of the limitation of the sample data. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji manakah yang lebih memiliki value-relevant pengukuran laba atau arus kas pada masing-masing siklus hidup perusahaan. Siklus hidup perusahaan umumnya terbagi dalam tahap start-up, growth, mature dan decline. Karakteristik perusahaan berbeda untuk setiap tahap siklus hidup tersebut, karena itu kegunaan pengukuran akuntansi juga akan berbeda. Laba diperkirakan lebih memiliki value-relevant pada tahap mature, sementara arus kas diekspektasikan lebih memiliki value-relevant ketika perusahaan berada pada tahap start-up, growth dan decline. Penelitian ini membuktikan bahwa pada tahap growth, hasil pengujian yang dilakukan mendukung hipotesis bahwa cash flow lebih memiliki value relevant dibanding laba. Tetapi, untuk tahap mature, hipotesis yang diajukan tidak berhasil dibuktikan. Penelitian ini tidak dapat melakukan pengujian untuk tahap start-up dan decline, dikarenakan data sampel untuk kedua tahap tersebut tidak mencukupi untuk dilakukan pengujian. Kata kunci: siklus hidup organisasi, value-relevant

  6. Free energy option and its relevance to improve domestic energy demands in southern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Eterigho Emetere

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to seek an energy option that would benefit the growing energy demands. Domestic energy demands in southern Nigeria had increased greatly due to failing power programs and seasonal migrations. The fossil fuel option is gradually fading away due to environmental pollution and recent dynamic cost. The renewable energy option had been celebrated with little success in the coastal area of southern Nigeria. At the moment, the renewable energy option is very expensive with little guarantee on its efficiency with time. The data set used for this study was obtained from the Davis weather installation in Covenant University. The free energy option was considered. The cost and its environmental implication for domestic use were comparatively discussed alongside other energy options — using the Life cycle cost analysis. It was found out that free energy option is more affordable and efficient for domestic use.

  7. Development of German energy consumption: A deterministic study of energy-relevant customer groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumert, M.

    1994-01-01

    A detailed study of the characteristic features of group-specific energy consumption was conducted (identification of the factors determining energy consumption of the productive sector, private households and private mobility demand). The question of who shall determine energy consumption in the future is analysed. This question is answered in a demand-specific study of consumption patterns and -effects. (orig./UA) [de

  8. Heat transfer and fluid flow research relevant to India's nuclear power program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, S.K.; Venkatraj, V.

    1988-01-01

    The Indian Nuclear Power Programme envisages three important stages viz., installation of thermal reactors, fast reactors and utilization of Thorium. By the year 2000 AD, it is proposed to have an installed total capacity of nuclear power of about 10,000 MWe. Starting from the present installed capacity of 1330 MWe, the additional contribution will be mainly made by thermal power reactors of the Pressurized Heavy Water type (PHWR). Apart from the reactors presently under construction about 12 numbers of 235 MWe units are planned to be constructed, which will be based on the standardized design of the reactors at Narora Atomic Power Project (NAPP). In addition, 10 units of 500 MWe capacity each, the design for which is currently under progress, will also be installed. The design, construction and operating agency is the Nuclear Power Board (NPB), while the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) is responsible for the research and development work required. In addition to the programme on thermal power reactors, a thermal research reactor (DHRUVA) of 100 MWth capacity has been designed, constructed and has been commissioned. Some of the important heat transfer and fluid flow research problems relevant to the Indian nuclear power and research reactors are discussed in this paper

  9. Effect of material flows on energy intensity in process industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Liru; Aye, Lu [International Technologies Center (IDTC), Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Lu, Zhongwu [Institute of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Zhang, Peihong [Department of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Shenyang Architecture University, Shenyang 110168 (China)

    2006-09-15

    Many energy-intensive process industries have complex material flows, which have a strong effect on the overall energy intensity of the final product (OEIF). This problem, however, has only been recognised qualitatively due to the lack of quantitative analysis methods. This paper presents an in-depth quantitative analysis of the effect of material flows on energy intensity in process industries. Based on the concept of a standard material flow diagram (SMFD), as used in steel manufacturing, the SMFD for a generic process industry was first developed. Then material flow scenarios were addressed in a practical material flow diagram (PMFD) using the characteristics of practical process industries. The effect of each material flow deviating from a SMFD on the OEIF was analysed. The steps involved in analysing the effect of material flows in a PMFD on its energy intensity are also discussed in detail. Finally, using 1999 statistical data from the Chinese Zhenzhou alumina refinery plant, the PMFD and SMFD for this plant were constructed as a case study. The effect of material flows on the overall energy intensity of alumina (OEIA) was thus analysed quantitatively. To decrease OEIA, the process variations which decrease the product ratios could be employed in all except in multi-supplied fraction cases. In these cases, the fractions from the stream with lower energy intensities should be increased. (author)

  10. Relevancy of the Massive Open Online Course (MOOC about Sustainable Energy for Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maija Aksela

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable energy is one of the biggest global challenges today. This paper discusses how we can promote adolescents’ learning of sustainable energy with the help of an international massive open online course (MOOC. The aim of this case study is to understand: (i What do the adolescents find relevant in the MOOC course about sustainable energy? and (ii What are the opportunities and challenges of the MOOC for the adolescents to learn sustainable energy? In our study, 80 voluntary adolescents around the world, who were at least 15 year old, took part in two surveys. The themes of our MOOC course were, e.g., sustainable growth, solar power, wind power, biofuel production and smart power generation. This 38 work-hour, free of charge, online course includes an introduction video, interviews of specialists, lecture videos, reading materials of the newest research and multiple choice questions on the topics. Research data was classified by using content analysis. The study indicates that adolescents feel that both the MOOC course and sustainable energy as a subject are relevant to them. Their decision to take part in an online course was mostly influenced by individual relevance and partly influenced by both societal and vocational relevance, according to the relevancy theory used. The MOOC was experienced to be relevant for the three following reasons: (i good content (e.g., energy production and implementation of the course; (ii the course makes it possible to study in a new way; and (iii the course is personally useful. The characteristics of the MOOC, such as being available anywhere and anytime, free access, and online learning, bringing out a flexible, new way of learning and thus promoting Education for Sustainable Development (ESD in the context of sustainable energy at school level around the world. This MOOC provided the school students with choice-based learning and expanded their learning opportunities in understanding sustainable

  11. Stability of boundary layer flow based on energy gradient theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Hua-Shu; Xu, Wenqian; Khoo, Boo Cheong

    2018-05-01

    The flow of the laminar boundary layer on a flat plate is studied with the simulation of Navier-Stokes equations. The mechanisms of flow instability at external edge of the boundary layer and near the wall are analyzed using the energy gradient theory. The simulation results show that there is an overshoot on the velocity profile at the external edge of the boundary layer. At this overshoot, the energy gradient function is very large which results in instability according to the energy gradient theory. It is found that the transverse gradient of the total mechanical energy is responsible for the instability at the external edge of the boundary layer, which induces the entrainment of external flow into the boundary layer. Within the boundary layer, there is a maximum of the energy gradient function near the wall, which leads to intensive flow instability near the wall and contributes to the generation of turbulence.

  12. Radial, sideward and elliptic flow at AGS energies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the sideward flow, the elliptic flow and the radial transverse mass distribution of protons data at. AGS energies. In order to ... data on both sideward and elliptic flow, NL3 model is better at 2 A¡GeV, while NL23 model is at 4–8. A¡GeV. ... port approach RBUU which is based on a coupled set of covariant transport equations for.

  13. Energy flow and thermal comfort in buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Dreau, Jerome

    and experimentally. This thesis addressed mainly the cooling case. From the steady-state numerical analysis and the full-scale experiments, it has been observed that the difference between the two types of terminals is mainly due to changes in the ventilation losses (or gains). At low air-change rates (below 0.5 ACH...... been evaluated both theoretically and numerically, and no discomfort has been observed for normal cooling needs. Besides this comparative study of different terminals, the relation between cooling system and internal convective flow has also been investigated experimentally. The comparison...... with existing models pointed out the specificity of existing correlations and the limitation of their range of application. Because of differences in the air jet trajectory, existing correlations tend to overestimate the convective flow, especially at the ceiling. Two approaches have thus been tested to better...

  14. A mean flow acoustic engine capable of wind energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Daming; Xu Ya; Chen Haijun; Wu, Ke; Liu Kaikai; Yu Yan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A mean flow acoustic engine for wind energy harvesting is designed and manufactured. ► Stable standing wave acoustic field is established at specific flow velocity. ► Experimental and computational results reveal the acoustic field characteristics. ► Acoustic field has monofrequency characteristic and remarkable energy density. - Abstract: Based on the mean flow induced acoustic oscillation effect, a mean flow acoustic engine (MFAE) converts wind energy and fluid energy in pipeline into acoustic energy which can be used to drive thermoacoustic refrigerators and generators without any mechanical moving parts. With natural wind simulated by a centrifugal air fan, a MFAE with a cross-junction configuration was designed and manufactured for experimental study. Stable standing wave acoustic fields were established in specific ranges of air flow velocity. Experimental and computational results reveal the acoustic field distribution in the engine and show the effect of the mean flow velocity and the Strouhal number on the acoustic field characteristics. With a mean flow velocity of 50.52 m/s and a mean pressure of 106.19 kPa, the maximum pressure amplitude of 6.20 kPa was achieved, which was about 5.8% of the mean pressure. It has laid a good foundation for driving power generation devices and thermoacoustic refrigerators by a MFAE.

  15. Low energy consumption vortex wave flow membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Dong, Weilong; Hu, Xiaohong; Sun, Tianyu; Wang, Tao; Sun, Youshan

    2017-11-01

    In order to reduce the energy consumption and membrane fouling of the conventional membrane bioreactor (MBR), a kind of low energy consumption vortex wave flow MBR was exploited based on the combination of biofilm process and membrane filtration process, as well as the vortex wave flow technique. The experimental results showed that the vortex wave flow state in the membrane module could be formed when the Reynolds number (Re) of liquid was adjusted between 450 and 1,050, and the membrane flux declined more slowly in the vortex wave flow state than those in the laminar flow state and turbulent flow state. The MBR system was used to treat domestic wastewater under the condition of vortex wave flow state for 30 days. The results showed that the removal efficiency for CODcr and NH 3 -N was 82% and 98% respectively, and the permeate quality met the requirement of 'Water quality standard for urban miscellaneous water consumption (GB/T 18920-2002)'. Analysis of the energy consumption of the MBR showed that the average energy consumption was 1.90 ± 0.55 kWh/m 3 (permeate), which was only two thirds of conventional MBR energy consumption.

  16. Energy distribution and transfer in flowing hydrogen microwave plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis is an experimental investigation of the physical and chemical properties of a hydrogen discharge in a flowing microwave plasma system. The plasma system is the mechanisms utilized in an electrothermal propulsion concept to convert electromagnetic energy into the kinetic energy of flowing hydrogen gas. The plasmas are generated inside a 20-cm ID resonant cavity at a driving frequency of 2.45 GHz. The flowing gas is contained in a coaxially positioned 22-mm ID quartz discharge tube. The physical and chemical properties are examined for absorbed powers of 20-100 W, pressures of 0.5-10 torr, and flow rates of 0-10,000 μ-moles/sec. A calorimetry system enclosing the plasma system to accurately measure the energy inputs and outputs has been developed. The rate of energy that is transferred to the hydrogen gas as it flows through the plasma system is determined as a function of absorbed power, pressure, and flow rate to +/-1.8 W from an energy balance around the system. The percentage of power that is transferred to the gas is found to increase with increasing flow rate, decrease with increasing pressure, and to be independent of absorbed power

  17. Exploratory studies of flowing liquid metal divertor options for fusion-relevant magnetic fields in the MTOR facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, A.Y.; Abdou, M.A.; Morley, N.; Sketchley, T.; Woolley, R.; Burris, J.; Kaita, R.; Fogarty, P.; Huang, H.; Lao, X.; Narula, M.; Smolentsev, S.; Ulrickson, M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on experimental findings on liquid metal (LM) free surface flows crossing complex magnetic fields. The experiments involve jet and film flows using GaInSn and are conducted at the UCLA MTOR facility. The goal of this study is to understand the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) features associated with such a free surface flow in a fusion-relevant magnetic field environment, and determine what LM free surface flow option is most suitable for lithium divertor particle pumping and surface heat removal applications in a near-term experimental plasma device, such as NSTX. Experimental findings indicate that a steady transverse magnetic field, even with gradients typical of NSTX outer divertor conditions, stabilizes a LM jet flow--reducing turbulent disturbances and delaying jet breakup. Important insights into the MHD behavior of liquid metal films under NSTX-like environments are also presented. It is possible to establish an uphill liquid metal film flow on a conducting substrate, although the MHD drag experienced by the flow could be strong and cause the flow to pile-up under simulated NSTX magnetic field conditions. The magnetic field changes the turbulent film flow so that wave structures range from 2D column-type surface disturbances at regions of high magnetic field, to ordinary hydrodynamic turbulence wave structures at regions of low field strength at the outboard. Plans for future work are also presented

  18. Analysis of changing hidden energy flow in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thi Anh Tuyet; Ishihara, Keiichi N.

    2006-01-01

    The energy consumption in production process is changing especially in developing countries by substituting technology. Input-output analysis for energy flows has been developing and is one of the best solutions for investigating macroscopic exchanges of both economy and energy. Since each element in the Leontief inverse contains both direct and indirect effects of any change in final demand, to separate those direct and indirect effects, the power series expansion is available. In this work, the changes of embodied energy intensity in Vietnam from 1996 to 2000 were analyzed using the structural decomposition and its power series expansion. By illustrating the change of causal relationship between direct energy consumption and embodied energy consumption, the change of hidden energy flow, which indicates how the changing embodied energy builds up the change of direct energy consumption in every sector, can be seen. In the case study, the rice processing sector, which is one of the important food processing sectors in Vietnam, is focused. By drawing a diagrammatic map for the change of hidden energy flow, it is clarified that in the case of raising embodied energy intensity, cultivation sector and trade and repaired service sector are the main contributors, and, on the contrary, in the case of reducing embodied energy intensity, paper pulp sector is the main contributor

  19. Energy access in rural Togo: the relevance of the energy kiosk solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galichon, Ines; Payen, Luc

    2017-03-01

    Solar home systems (SHS) represent today a viable and scalable solution to meet basic energy needs (lighting, mobile phone charging) - the first step of the energy ladder - but are much more limited when it comes to offering productive use of energy. Productive use of energy is however crucial to develop valuable economic activities in off-grid villages. Solar kiosk and mini-grids are two potential solutions to meet these productive energy needs. The main difference lies in the distribution network, which requires both investment and maintenance and thus is expensive. As an example, a $500/customer connection translates into a monthly grid fee equivalent to the monthly cost of a standard solar home system (which includes energy). It is likely that households consumption alone won't be sufficient to ensure the economic profitability of a mini-grid, if the mini-grid developer does not benefit from any public subsidy. Moreover, though mini-grids are usually developed for larger systems, in some cases solar kiosks have the same order of magnitude of installed power capacity as mini-grids (i.e. Ekocenter vs. Powergen RE). In the context of off-grid rural village with very limited energy consumption, start-ups or entrepreneurial projects might prefer to bet on the least capital intensive concept. With a lower nominal CAPEX and more diverse sources of revenues compared to mini-grids, solar kiosks appear as an easier solution to provide access to productive use of energy in the short term. The flexibility of their revenue sources is today a massive advantage of the model. Yet flexibility might also be a weakness as it hinders the firm from choosing a long term position, which is necessary to build a scaled up business model and company. Solar kiosks can progressively evolve in the mid-term towards an independent power producer model; but it can also leverage its last-mile customer proximity to offer a larger array of non-energy products and services. For example, a kiosk

  20. A new energy transfer model for turbulent free shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, William W.-W.

    1992-01-01

    A new model for the energy transfer mechanism in the large-scale turbulent kinetic energy equation is proposed. An estimate of the characteristic length scale of the energy containing large structures is obtained from the wavelength associated with the structures predicted by a weakly nonlinear analysis for turbulent free shear flows. With the inclusion of the proposed energy transfer model, the weakly nonlinear wave models for the turbulent large-scale structures are self-contained and are likely to be independent flow geometries. The model is tested against a plane mixing layer. Reasonably good agreement is achieved. Finally, it is shown by using the Liapunov function method, the balance between the production and the drainage of the kinetic energy of the turbulent large-scale structures is asymptotically stable as their amplitude saturates. The saturation of the wave amplitude provides an alternative indicator for flow self-similarity.

  1. Sleep Management on Multiple Machines for Energy and Flow Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Sze-Hang; Lam, Tak-Wah; Lee, Lap Kei

    2011-01-01

    In large data centers, determining the right number of operating machines is often non-trivial, especially when the workload is unpredictable. Using too many machines would waste energy, while using too few would affect the performance. This paper extends the traditional study of online flow-time...... scheduling on multiple machines to take sleep management and energy into consideration. Specifically, we study online algorithms that can determine dynamically when and which subset of machines should wake up (or sleep), and how jobs are dispatched and scheduled. We consider schedules whose objective...... is to minimize the sum of flow time and energy, and obtain O(1)-competitive algorithms for two settings: one assumes machines running at a fixed speed, and the other allows dynamic speed scaling to further optimize energy usage. Like the previous work on the tradeoff between flow time and energy, the analysis...

  2. Putting rural energy access projects into perspective: What lessons are relevant?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vleuten, Frank van der; Stam, Nienke; Plas, Robert-Jan van der

    2013-01-01

    As the Secretary General of the United Nations and the president of the World Bank are calling upon countries to commit themselves to universal access to modern energy services by 2030, and international players such as the International Energy Agency, the EU, and ESMAP are building scenarios how to accomplish this, this article demonstrates the non-linear dynamics of scaling up rural energy access, drawing among others from over 70 energy access projects implemented by the EASE network of national energy and development NGOs in eight countries and on experiences combining microfinance and (clean) energy access. The article shows that scaling up rural energy access demands careful tuning of support to the business models of rural entrepreneurs, in which development finance has only a limited role to play. The article argues for market development approaches that take a programmatic approach, change their intervention model as the market matures, and build on smart use of the limited sector capacity. The ultimate challenge is how to down-tune ambitions and spending power of the development community to match the absorption capacity of rural markets and the reality of entrepreneurs on the ground. - Highlights: • Practitioner's experiences and lessons, based on over 70 implemented projects. • Relevant for “Sustainable Energy for All” high-level initiative. • Match high international ambitions with low capacity of rural energy markets

  3. Modelling low energy electron and positron tracks in biologically relevant media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, F.; Munoz, A.; Almeida, D.; Ferreira da Silva, F.; Limao-Vieira, P.; Fuss, M.C.; Sanz, A.G.; Garcia, G.

    2013-01-01

    This colloquium describes an approach to incorporate into radiation damage models the effect of low and intermediate energy (0-100 eV) electrons and positrons, slowing down in biologically relevant materials (water and representative biomolecules). The core of the modelling procedure is a C++ computing programme named 'Low Energy Particle Track Simulation (LEPTS)', which is compatible with available general purpose Monte Carlo packages. Input parameters are carefully selected from theoretical and experimental cross section data and energy loss distribution functions. Data sources used for this purpose are reviewed showing examples of electron and positron cross section and energy loss data for interactions with different media of increasing complexity: atoms, molecules, clusters and condense matter. Finally, we show how such a model can be used to develop an effective dosimetric tool at the molecular level (i.e. nanodosimetry). Recent experimental developments to study the fragmentation induced in biologically material by charge transfer from neutrals and negative ions are also included. (authors)

  4. A biomass energy flow chart for Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senelwa, K.A.; Hall, D.O.

    1993-01-01

    Terrestrial (above ground) biomass production and its utilization in Kenya was analyzed for the 1980s. Total biomass energy production was estimated at 2574 x 10 6 GJ per year, most of which (86.7%) is produced on land classified as agricultural. Of the total production, agriculture and forrestry operations resulted in the harvesting of 1138 x 10 6 GJ (44.2% of total production), half of which (602 x 10 6 GJ) was harvested for use as fuel. Only 80 x 10 6 GJ was harvested for food and 63 x 10 6 GJ for industrial (agricultural and forestry) plus other miscellaneous purposes. About 85% of Kenya's energy is from biomass, with a per capita consumption of 18.6 GJ (0.44 toe, tonne oil equivalent) compared to less than 0.1 toe of commercial energy. Use of the biomass resource was found to be extensive involving bulk harvesting but with low utilization efficiencies; as a result the overall losses were quite high. Only 534 x 10 6 GJ (46.9% of harvested biomass) was useful energy. 480 x 10 6 GJ was left unused, as residues and dung, all which was either burnt or left to decompose in the fields. 124 x 10 6 GJ was lost during charcoal manufacture. Intensified use of the harvested biomass at higher efficiencies in order to minimize wastes would decrease the stress on the biomass resource base. (Author)

  5. Energy fluxes and spectra for turbulent and laminar flows

    KAUST Repository

    Verma, Mahendra K.

    2017-05-14

    Two well-known turbulence models to describe the inertial and dissipative ranges simultaneously are by Pao~[Phys. Fluids {\\\\bf 8}, 1063 (1965)] and Pope~[{\\\\em Turbulent Flows.} Cambridge University Press, 2000]. In this paper, we compute energy spectrum $E(k)$ and energy flux $\\\\Pi(k)$ using spectral simulations on grids up to $4096^3$, and show consistency between the numerical results and predictions by the aforementioned models. We also construct a model for laminar flows that predicts $E(k)$ and $\\\\Pi(k)$ to be of the form $\\\\exp(-k)$, and verify the model predictions using numerical simulations. The shell-to-shell energy transfers for the turbulent flows are {\\\\em forward and local} for both inertial and dissipative range, but those for the laminar flows are {\\\\em forward and nonlocal}.

  6. Optimal energy growth in a stably stratified shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Sharath; Roy, Anubhab; Bale, Rahul; Iyer, Krithika; Govindarajan, Rama

    2018-02-01

    Transient growth of perturbations by a linear non-modal evolution is studied here in a stably stratified bounded Couette flow. The density stratification is linear. Classical inviscid stability theory states that a parallel shear flow is stable to exponentially growing disturbances if the Richardson number (Ri) is greater than 1/4 everywhere in the flow. Experiments and numerical simulations at higher Ri show however that algebraically growing disturbances can lead to transient amplification. The complexity of a stably stratified shear flow stems from its ability to combine this transient amplification with propagating internal gravity waves (IGWs). The optimal perturbations associated with maximum energy amplification are numerically obtained at intermediate Reynolds numbers. It is shown that in this wall-bounded flow, the three-dimensional optimal perturbations are oblique, unlike in unstratified flow. A partitioning of energy into kinetic and potential helps in understanding the exchange of energies and how it modifies the transient growth. We show that the apportionment between potential and kinetic energy depends, in an interesting manner, on the Richardson number, and on time, as the transient growth proceeds from an optimal perturbation. The oft-quoted stabilizing role of stratification is also probed in the non-diffusive limit in the context of disturbance energy amplification.

  7. Direct observation of vibrational energy flow in cytochrome c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Naoki; Mizuno, Misao; Mizutani, Yasuhisa

    2011-11-10

    Vibrational energy flow in ferric cytochrome c has been examined by picosecond time-resolved anti-Stokes ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) measurements. By taking advantage of the extremely short nonradiative excited state lifetime of heme in the protein (energy of 20000-25000 cm(-1) was optically deposited selectively at the heme site. Subsequent energy relaxation in the protein moiety was investigated by monitoring the anti-Stokes UVRR intensities of the Trp59 residue, which is a single tryptophan residue involved in the protein that is located close to the heme group. It was found from temporal changes of the anti-Stokes UVRR intensities that the energy flow from the heme to Trp59 and the energy release from Trp59 took place with the time constants of 1-3 and ~8 ps, respectively. These data are consistent with the time constants for the vibrational relaxation of the heme and heating of water reported for hemeproteins. The kinetics of the energy flow were not affected by the amount of excess energy deposited at the heme group. These results demonstrate that the present technique is a powerful tool for studying the vibrational energy flow in proteins.

  8. High energy density redox flow device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Carter, William Craig; Duduta, Mihai; Limthongkul, Pimpa

    2014-05-13

    Redox flow devices are described including a positive electrode current collector, a negative electrode current collector, and an ion-permeable membrane separating said positive and negative current collectors, positioned and arranged to define a positive electroactive zone and a negative electroactive zone; wherein at least one of said positive and negative electroactive zone comprises a flowable semi-solid composition comprising ion storage compound particles capable of taking up or releasing said ions during operation of the cell, and wherein the ion storage compound particles have a polydisperse size distribution in which the finest particles present in at least 5 vol % of the total volume, is at least a factor of 5 smaller than the largest particles present in at least 5 vol % of the total volume.

  9. Exploring liquid metal plasma facing component (PFC) concepts-Liquid metal film flow behavior under fusion relevant magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narula, M.; Abdou, M.A.; Ying, A.; Morley, N.B.; Ni, M.; Miraghaie, R.; Burris, J.

    2006-01-01

    The use of fast moving liquid metal streams or 'liquid walls' as a plasma contact surface is a very attractive option and has been looked upon with considerable interest over the past several years, both by the plasma physics and fusion engineering programs. Flowing liquid walls provide an ever replenishing contact surface to the plasma, leading to very effective particle pumping and surface heat flux removal. A key feasibility issue for flowing liquid metal plasma facing component (PFC) systems, pertains to their magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) behavior under the spatially varying magnetic field environment, typical of a fusion device. MHD forces hinder the development of a smooth and controllable liquid metal flow needed for PFC applications. The present study builds up on the ongoing research effort at UCLA, directed towards providing qualitative and quantitative data on liquid metal free surface flow behavior under fusion relevant magnetic fields

  10. INDRA-GSI: Collective flow from Fermi to relativistic energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukasik, J.; Trautmann, W.; Begemann-Blaich, M.L.; Bittiger, R.; Gourio, D.; Le Fevre, A.; Lynen, U.; Mueller, W.F.J.; Orth, H.; Sfienti, C.; Schwarz, C.; Turzo, K. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Auger, G.; Bouriquet, B.; Chbihi, A.; Frankland, J.D.; Hudan, S.; Lopez, O. [GANIL, CEA et IN2P3-CNRS, 14 - Caen (France); Borderie, B.; Galichet, E.; Lavaud, F.; Plagnol, E. [Paris-11 Univ., Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS, 91 - Orsay (France); Bellaize, N.; Bocage, F.; Bougault, R.; Durand, D.; Hurst, B.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E. [Caen Univ., LPC (IN2P3-CNRS/ENSI), 14 - Caen (France); Charvet, J.L.; Dayras, R.; Legrain, R.; Nalpas, L.; Volant, C. [CEA Saclay, Dept. d' Astrophysique, de Physique des Particules, de Physique Nucleaire et de l' Instrumentation Associee (DAPNIA/SPhN), 91- Gif sur Yvette (France); Guinet, D.; Lautesse, P. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS et Universite, 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Rosato, E.; Vigilante, M. [INFN, Univ. Federico II, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche e Sezione, Napoli (Italy); Saija, A. [Universita and INFN I, Dipartimento di Fisica dell' , Catania (Italy); Trzcinski, A.; Zwieglinski, B. [A. Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw (Poland); Lukasik, J. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland); Galichet, E. [Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-07-01

    Directed flow for the {sup 197}Au + {sup 197}Au reactions at incident energies between 40 and 150 A*MeV has been measured using the 4{pi} multi-detector INDRA at the GSI facility. In particular, the bombarding energy at which the elliptic flow switches from in-plane to out-of-plane enhancement has been determined to be around 100 A*MeV in good agreement with the result obtained by the FOPI Collaboration. The new data allows also to extend the experimental excitation function of v{sub 2} to lower energies. (authors)

  11. INDRA-GSI: Collective flow from Fermi to relativistic energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukasik, J.; Trautmann, W.; Begemann-Blaich, M.L.; Bittiger, R.; Gourio, D.; Le Fevre, A.; Lynen, U.; Mueller, W.F.J.; Orth, H.; Sfienti, C.; Schwarz, C.; Turzo, K.; Auger, G.; Bouriquet, B.; Chbihi, A.; Frankland, J.D.; Hudan, S.; Lopez, O.; Borderie, B.; Galichet, E.; Lavaud, F.; Plagnol, E.; Bellaize, N.; Bocage, F.; Bougault, R.; Durand, D.; Hurst, B.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Charvet, J.L.; Dayras, R.; Legrain, R.; Nalpas, L.; Volant, C.; Guinet, D.; Lautesse, P.; Rosato, E.; Vigilante, M.; Saija, A.; Trzcinski, A.; Zwieglinski, B.; Lukasik, J.; Galichet, E.

    2003-01-01

    Directed flow for the 197 Au + 197 Au reactions at incident energies between 40 and 150 A*MeV has been measured using the 4π multi-detector INDRA at the GSI facility. In particular, the bombarding energy at which the elliptic flow switches from in-plane to out-of-plane enhancement has been determined to be around 100 A*MeV in good agreement with the result obtained by the FOPI Collaboration. The new data allows also to extend the experimental excitation function of v 2 to lower energies. (authors)

  12. Dynamic flow-through approaches for metal fractionation in environmentally relevant solid samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald; Chomchoei, Roongrat

    2005-01-01

    generations of flow-injection analysis. Special attention is also paid to a novel, robust, non-invasive approach for on-site continuous sampling of soil solutions, capitalizing on flow-through microdialysis, which presents itself as an appealing complementary approach to the conventional lysimeter experiments...

  13. The map of energy flow in HVAC systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Lombard, Luis; Ortiz, Jose; Maestre, Ismael R.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Discussion of the four stages in the 'HVAC systems energy chain'. → Examination of HVAC systems as energy conversion devices. → Analysis of HVAC Sankey diagrams. → Discussion of HVAC loads and HVAC energy losses. -- Abstract: Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems are the most energy consuming building services representing approximately half of the final energy use in the building sector and between one tenth and one fifth of the energy consumption in developed countries. Despite their significant energy use, there is a lack of a consistent and homogeneous framework to efficiently guide research and energy policies, mainly due to the complexity and variety of HVAC systems but also to insufficient rigour in their energy analysis. This paper reviews energy related aspects of HVAC systems with the aim of establishing a common ground for the analysis of their energy efficiency. The paper focuses on the map of energy flow to deliver thermal comfort: the HVAC energy chain. Our approach deals first with thermal comfort as the final service delivered to building occupants. Secondly, conditioned spaces are examined as the systems where useful heat (or coolth) is degraded to provide comfort. This is followed by the analysis of HVAC systems as complex energy conversion devices where energy carriers are transformed into useful heat and coolth, and finally, the impact of HVAC energy consumption on energy resources is discussed.

  14. Energy flow in angularly dispersive optical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, M.; Dibble, W. E.; Glasgow, S. A.; Peatross, J.

    2001-01-01

    Light-pulse propagation in angularly dispersive systems is explored in the context of a center-of-mass definition of energy arrival time. In this context the time of travel is given by a superposition of group delays weighted by the spectral content of the pulse. With this description the time of travel from one point to the next for a pulse is found to be completely determined by the spectral content, independent of the state of chirp. The effect of sensor orientation on arrival time is also considered. [copyright] 2001 Optical Society of America

  15. Dark energy and the quietness of the local Hubble flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axenides, M.; Perivolaropoulos, L.

    2002-01-01

    The linearity and quietness of the local ( X (t 0 ) of dark energy obeying the time independent equation of state p X =wρ X . We find that dark energy can indeed cool the LHF. However the dark energy parameter values required to make the predicted velocity dispersion consistent with the observed value v rms ≅40 km/s have been ruled out by other observational tests constraining the dark energy parameters w and Ω X . Therefore despite the claims of recent qualitative studies, dark energy with time independent equation of state cannot by itself explain the quietness and linearity of the local Hubble flow

  16. Highly selective deuteration of pharmaceutically relevant nitrogen-containing heterocycles: a flow chemistry approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ötvös, Sándor B; Mándity, István M; Fülöp, Ferenc

    2011-08-01

    A simple and efficient flow-based technique is reported for the catalytic deuteration of several model nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds which are important building blocks of pharmacologically active materials. A continuous flow reactor was used in combination with on-demand pressure-controlled electrolytic D(2) production. The D(2) source was D(2)O, the consumption of which was very low. The experimental set-up allows the fine-tuning of pressure, temperature, and flow rate so as to determine the optimal conditions for the deuteration reactions. The described procedure lacks most of the drawbacks of the conventional batch deuteration techniques, and additionally is highly selective and reproducible.

  17. Initial angular momentum and flow in high energy nuclear collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Rainer J.; Chen, Guangyao; Somanathan, Sidharth

    2018-03-01

    We study the transfer of angular momentum in high energy nuclear collisions from the colliding nuclei to the region around midrapidity, using the classical approximation of the color glass condensate (CGC) picture. We find that the angular momentum shortly after the collision (up to times ˜1 /Qs , where Qs is the saturation scale) is carried by the "β -type" flow of the initial classical gluon field, introduced by some of us earlier. βi˜μ1∇iμ2-μ2∇iμ1 (i =1 ,2 ) describes the rapidity-odd transverse energy flow and emerges from Gauss's law for gluon fields. Here μ1 and μ2 are the averaged color charge fluctuation densities in the two nuclei, respectively. Interestingly, strong coupling calculations using anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory (AdS/CFT) techniques also find an energy flow term featuring this particular combination of nuclear densities. In classical CGC the order of magnitude of the initial angular momentum per rapidity in the reaction plane, at a time 1 /Qs , is |d L2/d η |≈ RAQs-3ɛ¯0/2 at midrapidity, where RA is the nuclear radius, and ɛ¯0 is the average initial energy density. This result emerges as a cancellation between a vortex of energy flow in the reaction plane aligned with the total angular momentum, and energy shear flow opposed to it. We discuss in detail the process of matching classical Yang-Mills results to fluid dynamics. We will argue that dissipative corrections should not be discarded to ensure that macroscopic conservation laws, e.g., for angular momentum, hold. Viscous fluid dynamics tends to dissipate the shear flow contribution that carries angular momentum in boost-invariant fluid systems. This leads to small residual angular momentum around midrapidity at late times for collisions at high energies.

  18. Progress in lattice Boltzmann methods for magnetohydrodynamic flows relevant to fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattison, M.J.; Premnath, K.N.; Morley, N.B.; Abdou, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, an approach to simulating magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows based on the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is presented. The dynamics of the flow are simulated using a so-called multiple relaxation time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE), in which a source term is included for the Lorentz force. The evolution of the magnetic induction is represented by introducing a vector distribution function and then solving an appropriate lattice kinetic equation for this function. The solution of both distribution functions are obtained through a simple, explicit, and computationally efficient stream-and-collide procedure. The use of the MRT collision term enhances the numerical stability over that of a single relaxation time approach. To apply the methodology to solving practical problems, a new extrapolation-based method for imposing magnetic boundary conditions is introduced and a technique for simulating steady-state flows with low magnetic Prandtl number is developed. In order to resolve thin layers near the walls arising in the presence of high magnetic fields, a non-uniform gridding strategy is introduced through an interpolated-streaming step applied to both distribution functions. These advances are particularly important for applications in fusion engineering where liquid metal flows with low magnetic Prandtl numbers and high Hartmann numbers are introduced. A number of MHD benchmark problems, under various physical and geometrical conditions are presented, including 3-D MHD lid driven cavity flow, high Hartmann number flows and turbulent MHD flows, with good agreement with prior data. Due to the local nature of the method, the LBM also demonstrated excellent performance on parallel machines, with almost linear scaling up to 128 processors for a MHD flow problem

  19. Radiation energy devaluation in diffusion combusting flows of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhanlall, Deodat; Munda, Josiah L.; Jiang, Peixue

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: CFD (Computational fluid dynamics) is used to evaluate the thermodynamic second-law effects of thermal radiation in turbulent diffusion natural gas flames. Radiative heat transfer processes in gas and at solid walls are identified as important causes of energy devaluation in the combusting flows. The thermodynamic role of thermal radiation cannot be neglected when compared to that of heat conduction and convection, mass diffusion, chemical reactions, and viscous dissipation. An energy devaluation number is also defined, with which the optimum fuel–air equivalence for combusting flows can be determined. The optimum fuel–air equivalence ratio for a natural gas flame is determined to be 0.7. The CFD model is validated against experimental measurements. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic effects of thermal radiation in combusting flows analyzed. • General equation for second-law analyses of combusting flows extended. • Optimum fuel–air equivalence ratio determined for natural gas flame

  20. Setup of a Biomedical Facility to Study Physiologically Relevant Flow-Structure Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdi, Faraz; Sheng, Jian

    2013-11-01

    The design and implementation of a closed loop biomedical facility to study arterial flows is presented. The facility has a test section of 25 inches, and is capable of generating both steady and pulsatile flows via a centrifugal and a dual piston pump respectively. The Reynolds and Womersley numbers occurring in major blood vessels can be matched. The working fluid is a solution of NaI that allows refractive index matching with both rigid glass and compliant polymer models to facilitate tomographic PIV and holographic PIV. The combination of these two techniques allows us to study both large scale flow features as well as flows very close to the wall. The polymer models can be made with different modulus of elasticity and can be pre-stressed using a 5-axis stage. Radially asymmetric patches can also be pre-fabricated and incorporated in the tube during the manufacturing process to simulate plaque formation in arteries. These tubes are doped with tracer particles allowing for the measurement of wall deformation. Preliminary flow data over rigid and compliant walls is presented. One of the aims of this study is to characterize the changes in flow as the compliancy of blood vessels change due to age or disease, and explore the fluid interactions with an evolving surface boundary.

  1. Natural Regulation of Energy Flow in a Green Quantum Photocell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arp, Trevor B; Barlas, Yafis; Aji, Vivek; Gabor, Nathaniel M

    2016-12-14

    Manipulating the flow of energy in nanoscale and molecular photonic devices is of both fundamental interest and central importance for applications in light energy harvesting optoelectronics. Under erratic solar irradiance conditions, unregulated power fluctuations in a light-harvesting photocell lead to inefficient energy storage in conventional solar cells and potentially fatal oxidative damage in photosynthesis. Here, we compare the theoretical minimum energy fluctuations in nanoscale quantum heat engine photocells that incorporate one or two photon-absorbing channels and show that fluctuations are naturally suppressed in the two-channel photocell. This intrinsic suppression acts as a passive regulation mechanism that enables the efficient conversion of varying incident solar power into a steady output for absorption over a broad range of the solar spectrum on Earth. Remarkably, absorption in the green portion of the spectrum provides no inherent regulatory benefit, indicating that green light should be rejected in a photocell whose primary role is the regulation of energy flow.

  2. Energy transformation and flow topology in an elbow draft tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefan D.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents a computational study of energy transformation in two geometrical configurations of Kaplan turbine elbow draft tube. Pressure recovery, hydraulic efficiency and loss coefficient are evaluated for a series of flow rates and swirl numbers corresponding to operating regimes of the turbine. These integral characteristics are then correlated with local flow field properties identified by extraction of topological features. Main focus is to find the reasons for hydraulic efficiency drop of the elbow draft tube.

  3. The electron energy distribution function of noble gases with flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karditsas, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    The treatment of the Boltzmann equation by several investigators, for the determination of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) in noble gases was restricted to static discharges. It is of great interest to magnetoplasmadynamic power generation to develop the Boltzmann equation to account for the effect of the bulk fluid flow on the EEDF. The two term expansion of the Boltzmann equation, as given, results in additional terms introduced to the equations due to the bulk fluid flow, with velocity u

  4. Smart grids, information flows and emerging domestic energy practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, Joeri; Spaargaren, Gert; Vliet, Bas J.M. van; Horst, Hilje M. van der

    2014-01-01

    Smart energy grids and smart meters are commonly expected to promote more sustainable ways of living. This paper presents a conceptual framework for analysing the different ways in which smart grid developments shape – and are shaped by – the everyday lives of residents. Drawing upon theories of social practices and the concept of informational governance, the framework discerns three categories of ‘information flows’: flows between household-members, flows between households and energy service providers, and flows between local and distant households. Based on interviews with Dutch stakeholders and observations at workshops we examine, for all three information flows, the changes in domestic energy practices and the social relations they help to create. The analysis reveals that new information flows may not produce more sustainable practices in linear and predictable ways. Instead, changes are contextual and emergent. Second, new possibilities for information sharing between households open up a terrain for new practices. Third, information flows affect social relationships in ways as illustrated by the debates on consumer privacy in the Netherlands. An exclusive focus on privacy, however, deviates attention from opportunities for information disclosure by energy providers, and from the significance of transparency issues in redefining relationships both within and between households. - Highlights: • Smart grids generate three key new information flows that affect social relations. • Practice theory can reveal the ways in which households handle/govern information. • Householders show ambivalence about the workings of the different information flows. • Policies should account for the ‘bright’ as well as the ‘dark’ sides of information

  5. Epistemic uncertainty propagation in energy flows between structural vibrating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Menghui; Du, Xiaoping; Qiu, Zhiping; Wang, Chong

    2016-03-01

    A dimension-wise method for predicting fuzzy energy flows between structural vibrating systems coupled by joints with epistemic uncertainties is established. Based on its Legendre polynomial approximation at α=0, both the minimum and maximum point vectors of the energy flow of interest are calculated dimension by dimension within the space spanned by the interval parameters determined by fuzzy those at α=0 and the resulted interval bounds are used to assemble the concerned fuzzy energy flows. Besides the proposed method, vertex method as well as two current methods is also applied. Comparisons among results by different methods are accomplished by two numerical examples and the accuracy of all methods is simultaneously verified by Monte Carlo simulation.

  6. Linking material and energy flow analyses and social theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiller, Frank [The Open University, Faculty of Maths, Computing and Technology, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    The paper explores the potential of Habermas' theory of communicative action to alter the social reflexivity of material and energy flow analysis. With his social macro theory Habermas has provided an alternative, critical justification for social theory that can be distinguished from economic libertarianism and from political liberalism. Implicitly, most flow approaches draw from these theoretical traditions rather than from discourse theory. There are several types of material and energy flow analyses. While these concepts basically share a system theoretical view, they lack a specific interdisciplinary perspective that ties the fundamental insight of flows to disciplinary scientific development. Instead of simply expanding micro-models to the social macro-dimension social theory suggests infusing the very notion of flows to the progress of disciplines. With regard to the functional integration of society, material and energy flow analyses can rely on the paradigm of ecological economics and at the same time progress the debate between strong and weak sustainability within the paradigm. However, placing economics at the centre of their functional analyses may still ignore the broader social integration of society, depending on their pre-analytic outline of research and the methods used. (author)

  7. Linking material and energy flow analyses and social theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiller, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The paper explores the potential of Habermas' theory of communicative action to alter the social reflexivity of material and energy flow analysis. With his social macro theory Habermas has provided an alternative, critical justification for social theory that can be distinguished from economic libertarianism and from political liberalism. Implicitly, most flow approaches draw from these theoretical traditions rather than from discourse theory. There are several types of material and energy flow analyses. While these concepts basically share a system theoretical view, they lack a specific interdisciplinary perspective that ties the fundamental insight of flows to disciplinary scientific development. Instead of simply expanding micro-models to the social macro-dimension social theory suggests infusing the very notion of flows to the progress of disciplines. With regard to the functional integration of society, material and energy flow analyses can rely on the paradigm of ecological economics and at the same time progress the debate between strong and weak sustainability within the paradigm. However, placing economics at the centre of their functional analyses may still ignore the broader social integration of society, depending on their pre-analytic outline of research and the methods used. (author)

  8. Scaling of anisotropy flows in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Y.G.; Yan, T.Z.; Cai, X.Z.; Chen, J.G.; Fang, D.Q.; Guo, W.; Liu, G.H.; Ma, C.W.; Ma, E.J.; Shen, W.Q.; Shi, Y.; Su, Q.M.; Tian, W.D.; Wang, H.W.; Wang, K.

    2007-01-01

    Anisotropic flows (v 1 , v 2 and v 4 ) of light nuclear clusters are studied by a nucleonic transport model in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions. The number-of-nucleon scalings of the directed flow (v 1 ) and elliptic flow (v 2 ) are demonstrated for light nuclear clusters. Moreover, the ratios of v 4 /v 2 2 of nuclear clusters show a constant value of 1/2 regardless of the transverse momentum. The above phenomena can be understood by the coalescence mechanism in nucleonic level and are worthy to be explored in experiments

  9. Sex differences of human cortical blood flow and energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aanerud, Joel; Borghammer, Per; Rodell, Anders; Jónsdottir, Kristjana Y; Gjedde, Albert

    2017-07-01

    Brain energy metabolism is held to reflect energy demanding processes in neuropil related to the density and activity of synapses. There is recent evidence that men have higher density of synapses in temporal cortex than women. One consequence of these differences would be different rates of cortical energy turnover and blood flow in men and women. To test the hypotheses that rates of oxygen consumption (CMRO 2 ) and cerebral blood flow are higher in men than in women in regions of cerebral cortex, and that the differences persist with aging, we used positron emission tomography to determine cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen as functions of age in healthy volunteers of both sexes. Cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen did not change with age for either sex and there were no differences of mean values of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen between men and women in cerebral cortex. Women had significant decreases of cerebral blood flow as function of age in frontal and parietal lobes. Young women had significantly higher cerebral blood flow than men in frontal and temporal lobes, but these differences had disappeared at age 65. The absent sex difference of cerebral energy turnover suggests that the known differences of synaptic density between the sexes are counteracted by opposite differences of individual synaptic activity.

  10. Relevance of deep-subsurface microbiology for underground gas storage and geothermal energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gniese, Claudia; Bombach, Petra; Rakoczy, Jana; Hoth, Nils; Schlömann, Michael; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Krüger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This chapter gives the reader an introduction into the microbiology of deep geological systems with a special focus on potential geobiotechnological applications and respective risk assessments. It has been known for decades that microbial activity is responsible for the degradation or conversion of hydrocarbons in oil, gas, and coal reservoirs. These processes occur in the absence of oxygen, a typical characteristic of such deep ecosystems. The understanding of the responsible microbial processes and their environmental regulation is not only of great scientific interest. It also has substantial economic and social relevance, inasmuch as these processes directly or indirectly affect the quantity and quality of the stored oil or gas. As outlined in the following chapter, in addition to the conventional hydrocarbons, new interest in such deep subsurface systems is rising for different technological developments. These are introduced together with related geomicrobiological topics. The capture and long-termed storage of large amounts of carbon dioxide, carbon capture and storage (CCS), for example, in depleted oil and gas reservoirs, is considered to be an important options to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and global warming. On the other hand, the increasing contribution of energy from natural and renewable sources, such as wind, solar, geothermal energy, or biogas production leads to an increasing interest in underground storage of renewable energies. Energy carriers, that is, biogas, methane, or hydrogen, are often produced in a nonconstant manner and renewable energy may be produced at some distance from the place where it is needed. Therefore, storing the energy after its conversion to methane or hydrogen in porous reservoirs or salt caverns is extensively discussed. All these developments create new research fields and challenges for microbiologists and geobiotechnologists. As a basis for respective future work, we introduce the three major topics, that is

  11. Relevant parameters in the micro silica selection for the self-flowing ultra-low cement castables production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studart, A.R.; Pandolfelli, V.C.; Rodrigues, J.A.; Vendrasco, S.L.

    1997-01-01

    Self-flowing ultra-low cement castables typically contain a large fraction of the particles, usually fume silica, which increase their flowability and mechanical strength at low temperatures. Fume silicas available in the market differ mainly from their amount of impurities. It is assumed that the content of soluble alkali and free carbon containing in this raw-material affects strongly the processing of self-flowing castable. In this work high alumina castables with gap-sized particle size distribution were prepared to evaluate their flowability, workability and mechanical strength for each sort of fume silica studied. It was observed that the amount of impurities affects both deflocculation and setting time of the castables and their cold and hot mechanical strength. Considerations regarding the physical and chemical characteristics relevant for selecting fume silicas for the production of self-flowing castables are presented and discussed. (author)

  12. Energy Based Clutter Filtering for Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Jensen, Jonas; Ewertsen, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    for obtaining vector flow measurements, since the spectra overlaps at high beam-to-flow angles. In this work a distinct approach is proposed, where the energy of the velocity spectrum is used to differentiate among the two signals. The energy based method is applied by limiting the amplitude of the velocity...... spectrum function to a predetermined threshold. The effect of the clutter filtering is evaluated on a plane wave (PW) scan sequence in combination with transverse oscillation (TO) and directional beamforming (DB) for velocity estimation. The performance of the filter is assessed by comparison...

  13. The Redox Flow System for solar photovoltaic energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odonnell, P.; Gahn, R. F.; Pfeiffer, W.

    1976-01-01

    The interfacing of a Solar Photovoltaic System and a Redox Flow System for storage was workable. The Redox Flow System, which utilizes the oxidation-reduction capability of two redox couples, in this case iron and titanium, for its storage capacity, gave a relatively constant output regardless of solar activity so that a load could be run continually day and night utilizing the sun's energy. One portion of the system was connected to a bank of solar cells to electrochemically charge the solutions, while a separate part of the system was used to electrochemically discharge the stored energy.

  14. Flow dynamics and energy efficiency of flow in the left ventricle during myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Vivek; Low, Adriel Jia Jun; Annamalai, Sarayu Parimal; Sampath, Smita; Poh, Kian Keong; Totman, Teresa; Mazlan, Muhammad; Croft, Grace; Richards, A Mark; de Kleijn, Dominique P V; Chin, Chih-Liang; Yap, Choon Hwai

    2017-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death worldwide, where myocardial infarction (MI) is a major category. After infarction, the heart has difficulty providing sufficient energy for circulation, and thus, understanding the heart's energy efficiency is important. We induced MI in a porcine animal model via circumflex ligation and acquired multiple-slice cine magnetic resonance (MR) images in a longitudinal manner-before infarction, and 1 week (acute) and 4 weeks (chronic) after infarction. Computational fluid dynamic simulations were performed based on MR images to obtain detailed fluid dynamics and energy dynamics of the left ventricles. Results showed that energy efficiency flow through the heart decreased at the acute time point. Since the heart was observed to experience changes in heart rate, stroke volume and chamber size over the two post-infarction time points, simulations were performed to test the effect of each of the three parameters. Increasing heart rate and stroke volume were found to significantly decrease flow energy efficiency, but the effect of chamber size was inconsistent. Strong complex interplay was observed between the three parameters, necessitating the use of non-dimensional parameterization to characterize flow energy efficiency. The ratio of Reynolds to Strouhal number, which is a form of Womersley number, was found to be the most effective non-dimensional parameter to represent energy efficiency of flow in the heart. We believe that this non-dimensional number can be computed for clinical cases via ultrasound and hypothesize that it can serve as a biomarker for clinical evaluations.

  15. Wind‐gust parametrizations at heights relevant for wind energy: a study based on mast observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suomi, I.; Vihma, T.; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    2013-01-01

    Wind gusts are traditionally observed and reported at the reference height of 10 m and most gust parametrization methods have been developed only for this height. In many practical applications, e.g. in wind energy, the relevant heights are, however, up to a few hundred metres. In this study, mean...... speed, which is parametrized on the basis of the surface friction velocity, the Obukhov length and height and the boundary‐layer height. The new gust parametrization method outperformed the two older methods: the effects of surface roughness, stability and the height above the surface were well...

  16. Energy for climate in Europe. An assessment of energy policies with climate-relevance. The LinkS Project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruud, Audun; Knudsen, Joergen K.; Jacobsen, Gerd B.

    2011-07-01

    The LinkS project aims at providing a better linkage between perspectives and projections for global climate policy development and regional energy systems, by linking relevant modelling tools. The present report provides a specific focus on energy policy measures within the EY with climate relevance. The EU has in recent years aimed at reinforcing the linkage between the climate and energy policies, both at strategic and operational levels. The EU has pledged itself to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with 8 percent by 2008-12 as compared to the 1990 level, and by 20 percent by 2020 as compared to the as compared to the 2005 level. The EU-27 reduced it GHG emissions with 11,3 percent in 1990-2008. The 2020-target, however, will require stronger efforts and energy is a key sector: The EU has decided that 20 percent of the energy must be renewable, and that the energy usage in 2020 is to be 20 per sent more efficient than in 2005. A number of policy strategies, measures and legislation are formulated to fulfil these targets. In order to highlight the potential of these measures, this report specifically addresses the drivers and limitations given the existing decision-making structures in the EU. The methodology employed is mainly qualitative, based on document analysis and a review of secondary literature. Climate-change mitigation is in principle based on supra-national decision-making, but unanimity among all Eu Member States is still required in critical issues related to the energy sector. In addition, the national follow-up of the targets constitutes a particular challenge. This is here illustrated by the cases of Denmark and Norway. Energy policy is also substantially characterised by several conflicting interests between the Member States, resulting in diverging policy priorities. It is, therefore, an open question whether the EU will succeed in fulfilling its 20/20/20 percent targets by 2020, and will be the actual role of energy within the climate

  17. Analysis of energy flow during playground surface impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Peter L; Wilson, Suzanne J; Chalmers, David J; Wilson, Barry D; Eager, David; McIntosh, Andrew S

    2013-10-01

    The amount of energy dissipated away from or returned to a child falling onto a surface will influence fracture risk but is not considered in current standards for playground impact-attenuating surfaces. A two-mass rheological computer simulation was used to model energy flow within the wrist and surface during hand impact with playground surfaces, and the potential of this approach to provide insights into such impacts and predict injury risk examined. Acceleration data collected on-site from typical playground surfaces and previously obtained data from children performing an exercise involving freefalling with a fully extended arm provided input. The model identified differences in energy flow properties between playground surfaces and two potentially harmful surface characteristics: more energy was absorbed by (work done on) the wrist during both impact and rebound on rubber surfaces than on bark, and rubber surfaces started to rebound (return energy to the wrist) while the upper limb was still moving downward. Energy flow analysis thus provides information on playground surface characteristics and the impact process, and has the potential to identify fracture risks, inform the development of safer impact-attenuating surfaces, and contribute to development of new energy-based arm fracture injury criteria and tests for use in conjunction with current methods.

  18. Review of relevant studies of isolated systems[Integration of wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, L.H.; Lundsager, P.

    2000-12-01

    The report presents the results of a review of studies relating to integration of wind energy in isolated power supply systems, based on a systematic literature survey. The purpose of the study is to develop a methodology consisting of a set of guidelines for wind energy projects in isolated energy systems and a set of tools and models that are operational on an engineering level. The review is based on a literature search in the ETDE Energy Database with a main search covering the period 7/88 to 6/97 and supplemented by partial update periods. A few newer references have been included in the review, most notably the IEC/PAS 62111 specification. The amount of wind energy literature related to the subject is excessively large, and a complete review in which every relevant abstract is identified and examined is not feasible within the framework of this (or probably any other) study. The review results have been organised according to the following keywords: methods & guides, economics, concept of application, system solutions, case studies, financial programmes, dedicated software tools. None of the found references presents methods or tools that contradict the philosophy of Risoe's methodology as it is described in the report. It is therefore concluded that Risoe's methodology makes a good platform for further development. (au)

  19. Absolute cross sections measurement for the 12C + 12C system at astrophysically relevant energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barron-Palos, L.; Aguilera, E.F.; Aspiazu, J.; Huerta, A.; Martinez-Quiroz, E.; Monroy, R.; Moreno, E.; Murillo, G.; Ortiz, M.E.; Policroniades, R.; Varela, A.; Chavez, E.

    2006-01-01

    The 12 C + 12 C fusion reaction has been studied in the center-of-mass energy range of 2.25 to 6.01 MeV. Through the detection of gamma rays from the first excited states of the residual nuclei 20 Ne, 23 Na and 23 Mg, absolute cross sections for the 12 C( 12 C,-bar α), 12 C( 12 C,-bar p) and 12 C( 12 C,-bar n) reactions have been obtained. In this new measurement, the energy dependence of the S-factor is found to increase as the energy decreases below 3 MeV in the center of mass. This tendency was observed in previous measurements by Mazarakis et al., and has since then become a subject of controversy. In this work, where the cross sections are measured at even lower energies, we confirm the rise in the S-factor toward the energy region relevant for star evolution and nucleosynthesis calculations (E c.m. =1-3 MeV)

  20. Energy Cascade Analysis: from Subscale Eddies to Mean Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheikh, Mohamad Ibrahim; Wonnell, Louis; Chen, James

    2017-11-01

    Understanding the energy transfer between eddies and mean flow can provide insights into the energy cascade process. Much work has been done to investigate the energy cascade at the level of the smallest eddies using different numerical techniques derived from the Navier-Stokes equations. These methodologies, however, prove to be computationally inefficient when producing energy spectra for a wide range of length scales. In this regard, Morphing Continuum Theory (MCT) resolves the length-scales issues by assuming the fluid continuum to be composed of inner structures that play the role of subscale eddies. The current study show- cases the capabilities of MCT in capturing the dynamics of energy cascade at the level of subscale eddies, through a supersonic turbulent flow of Mach 2.93 over an 8× compression ramp. Analysis of the results using statistical averaging procedure shows the existence of a statistical coupling of the internal and translational kinetic energy fluctuations with the corresponding rotational kinetic energy of the subscale eddies, indicating a multiscale transfer of energy. The results show that MCT gives a new characterization of the energy cascade within compressible turbulence without the use of excessive computational resources. This material is based upon work supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Award Number FA9550-17-1-0154.

  1. Relevance of free cash flow as a measure of generating value for owners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bešlić Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the new economy or knowledge economy the main goal of any company should be directed towards the achievement of the business in the interest of the owners, or generating the value for owners. In dynamic business environment, an effective performance measurement system is key determinant of successful implementation of corporate strategy, growth and survival of the company. Modern performance measures should provide an accurate assessment of the intrinsic value of the company, as well as the value for the owners (shareholders. The essence is maximizing the immanent or guaranteed value of the company. The immanent value is the value of a company based on internal evaluation (assessment discounted cash flows or expected cash flow in the future by the management team. Corporate managers in Serbia are facing the challenge of increasingly efficient capital markets and the competition in the future, which requires the implementation of a value oriented corporate governance, therefore this paper presents FCF (Free Cash Flow methodology of valuation. Free cash flow (FCF is the amount of cash available for owners of the company after the necessary investments in fixed assets and working capital to maintain the current scope of activities and support to planning.

  2. The Value Relevance of Dirty Surplus Accounting Flows in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Y.; Buijink, W.F.J.; Eken Ra, R.C.W.

    2003-01-01

    Recently the Dutch financial reporting standard setters have taken steps to make dirty surplus accounting flows more visible to parties outside firms, either by eliminating their possibility or by requiring comprehensive income type statements. These steps are presumably based on the idea that dirty

  3. Hydrogen-Bromine Flow Battery: Hydrogen Bromine Flow Batteries for Grid Scale Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-10-01

    GRIDS Project: LBNL is designing a flow battery for grid storage that relies on a hydrogen-bromine chemistry which could be more efficient, last longer and cost less than today’s lead-acid batteries. Flow batteries are fundamentally different from traditional lead-acid batteries because the chemical reactants that provide their energy are stored in external tanks instead of inside the battery. A flow battery can provide more energy because all that is required to increase its storage capacity is to increase the size of the external tanks. The hydrogen-bromine reactants used by LBNL in its flow battery are inexpensive, long lasting, and provide power quickly. The cost of the design could be well below $100 per kilowatt hour, which would rival conventional grid-scale battery technologies.

  4. Natural Regulation of Energy Flow in a Green Quantum Photocell

    OpenAIRE

    Arp, Trevor B.; Barlas, Yafis; Aji, Vivek; Gabor, Nathaniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Manipulating the flow of energy in nanoscale and molecular photonic devices is of both fundamental interest and central importance for applications in light harvesting optoelectronics. Under erratic solar irradiance conditions, unregulated power fluctuations in a light harvesting photocell lead to inefficient energy storage in conventional solar cells and potentially fatal oxidative damage in photosynthesis. Here, we show that regulation against these fluctuations arises naturally within a tw...

  5. Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles under Environmentally Relevant Conditions Using Asymmetrical Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AF4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Hee Jang

    Full Text Available The development of methods to monitor manufactured nanomaterials in the environment is one of the crucial areas for the assessment of their risk. More specifically, particle size analysis is a key element, because many properties of nanomaterial are size dependent. The sizing of nanomaterials in real environments is challenging due to their heterogeneity and reactivity with other environmental components. In this study, the fractionation and characterization of a mixture of polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated silver nanoparticles (PVP-AgNPs of three different sizes were investigated using asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4 coupled with UV-Vis spectrophotometry. In particular, the effects of electrolyte composition and natural organic matter (NOM on the particle size and stability were evaluated. The fractogram peaks (i.e., stability of three different AgNPs decreased in the presence of both 10 mM NaCl and 10 mM CaCl2, while increased with increasing concentration of humic acid (HA. In addition, the hydrodynamic diameters of AgNPs in both electrolytes slightly increased with an increase of HA concentration, suggesting the adsorption (coating of HA onto the particle surface. It is also interesting to note that an increase in the particle size depended on the types of electrolyte, which could be explained by the conformational characteristics of the adsorbed HA layers. Consistent these results, AgNPs suspended in lake water containing relatively high concentration of organic carbon (TOC showed higher particle stability and larger particle size (i.e., by approximately 4 nm than those in river water. In conclusion, the application of AF4 coupled with highly sensitive detectors could be a powerful method to characterize nanoparticles in natural waters.

  6. Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles under Environmentally Relevant Conditions Using Asymmetrical Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AF4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Min-Hee; Lee, Seungho; Hwang, Yu Sik

    2015-01-01

    The development of methods to monitor manufactured nanomaterials in the environment is one of the crucial areas for the assessment of their risk. More specifically, particle size analysis is a key element, because many properties of nanomaterial are size dependent. The sizing of nanomaterials in real environments is challenging due to their heterogeneity and reactivity with other environmental components. In this study, the fractionation and characterization of a mixture of polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated silver nanoparticles (PVP-AgNPs) of three different sizes were investigated using asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled with UV-Vis spectrophotometry. In particular, the effects of electrolyte composition and natural organic matter (NOM) on the particle size and stability were evaluated. The fractogram peaks (i.e., stability) of three different AgNPs decreased in the presence of both 10 mM NaCl and 10mM CaCl2, while increased with increasing concentration of humic acid (HA). In addition, the hydrodynamic diameters of AgNPs in both electrolytes slightly increased with an increase of HA concentration, suggesting the adsorption (coating) of HA onto the particle surface. It is also interesting to note that an increase in the particle size depended on the types of electrolyte, which could be explained by the conformational characteristics of the adsorbed HA layers. Consistent these results, AgNPs suspended in lake water containing relatively high concentration of organic carbon (TOC) showed higher particle stability and larger particle size (i.e., by approximately 4nm) than those in river water. In conclusion, the application of AF4 coupled with highly sensitive detectors could be a powerful method to characterize nanoparticles in natural waters. PMID:26575993

  7. Energy-Water Nexus Relevant to Baseload Electricity Source Including Mini/Micro Hydropower Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, M.; Tanabe, S.; Yamada, M.

    2014-12-01

    Water, food and energy is three sacred treasures that are necessary for human beings. However, recent factors such as population growth and rapid increase in energy consumption have generated conflicting cases between water and energy. For example, there exist conflicts caused by enhanced energy use, such as between hydropower generation and riverine ecosystems and service water, between shale gas and ground water, between geothermal and hot spring water. This study aims to provide quantitative guidelines necessary for capacity building among various stakeholders to minimize water-energy conflicts in enhancing energy use. Among various kinds of renewable energy sources, we target baseload sources, especially focusing on renewable energy of which installation is required socially not only to reduce CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions but to stimulate local economy. Such renewable energy sources include micro/mini hydropower and geothermal. Three municipalities in Japan, Beppu City, Obama City and Otsuchi Town are selected as primary sites of this study. Based on the calculated potential supply and demand of micro/mini hydropower generation in Beppu City, for example, we estimate the electricity of tens through hundreds of households is covered by installing new micro/mini hydropower generation plants along each river. However, the result is based on the existing infrastructures such as roads and electric lines. This means that more potentials are expected if the local society chooses options that enhance the infrastructures to increase micro/mini hydropower generation plants. In addition, further capacity building in the local society is necessary. In Japan, for example, regulations by the river law and irrigation right restrict new entry by actors to the river. Possible influences to riverine ecosystems in installing new micro/mini hydropower generation plants should also be well taken into account. Deregulation of the existing laws relevant to rivers and

  8. Minimum Energy Dissipation under Cocurrent Flow in Packed Beds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Akramov, T.A.; Stavárek, Petr; Jiřičný, Vladimír; Staněk, Vladimír

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 18 (2011), s. 10824-10832 ISSN 0888-5885 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/09/0880 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : energy dissipation * current flow * packed bed Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.237, year: 2011

  9. Energy fluxes and spectra for turbulent and laminar flows

    KAUST Repository

    Verma, Mahendra K.; Kumar, Abhishek; Kumar, Praveen; Barman, Satyajit; Chatterjee, Anando G.; Samtaney, Ravi

    2017-01-01

    spectrum $E(k)$ and energy flux $\\Pi(k)$ using spectral simulations on grids up to $4096^3$, and show consistency between the numerical results and predictions by the aforementioned models. We also construct a model for laminar flows that predicts $E(k

  10. Energy Demodulation Algorithm for Flow Velocity Measurement of Oil-Gas-Water Three-Phase Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingwei Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow velocity measurement was an important research of oil-gas-water three-phase flow parameter measurements. In order to satisfy the increasing demands for flow detection technology, the paper presented a gas-liquid phase flow velocity measurement method which was based on energy demodulation algorithm combing with time delay estimation technology. First, a gas-liquid phase separation method of oil-gas-water three-phase flow based on energy demodulation algorithm and blind signal separation technology was proposed. The separation of oil-gas-water three-phase signals which were sampled by conductance sensor performed well, so the gas-phase signal and the liquid-phase signal were obtained. Second, we used the time delay estimation technology to get the delay time of gas-phase signals and liquid-phase signals, respectively, and the gas-phase velocity and the liquid-phase velocity were derived. At last, the experiment was performed at oil-gas-water three-phase flow loop, and the results indicated that the measurement errors met the need of velocity measurement. So it provided a feasible method for gas-liquid phase velocity measurement of the oil-gas-water three-phase flow.

  11. The scope of environmental impact statements for biofuelled energy plants in Sweden and its environmental relevance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruhn-Tysk, S.

    2001-03-01

    This thesis aims to evaluate how the Swedish environmental impact assessment (EIA) system works in practice and to analyse the environmental relevance of the scoping process during the ElA process. As a case study, environmental impact statements (EISs) for bio fuelled energy plants have been reviewed in order to illustrate the scope of the statements and hence evaluate how the ElA system works and analyses what environmental aspects that are prioritised by ElA actors. Based on the review results, the scope of the EISs indicates that the Swedish ElA system did not work as intended during the studied period since not even the legal requirements were fulfilled in many of the EISs. In addition, international EIA practice does not seem to have influenced the Swedish practice of ElA at that time. The EISs also show that EIA actors apply narrow system boundaries, i.e. they focus only on the activities of the energy plant that are explicitly linked to the energy plant location and its immediate vicinity. Moreover, these narrow system boundaries exclude important aspects of an energy plant, like resource extraction and global and long-term effects. Many of the energy plants have been planned and developed partly due to a Government Bill, in which a development of the Swedish energy system was proposed in order to achieve a sustainable development of Sweden. However, a sustainable development requires that effects on present as well as future generations are focused on as well. Therefore, an ElA process and a decision-making process, which prioritises local and short-term effects, often do not promote the societal goals of sustainable development. In order to promote the goals of sustainable development, the perspectives of ElA actors have to widen to include global and future, long-term effects.

  12. Demonstrating electromagnetic control of free-surface, liquid-metal flows relevant to fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvasta, M. G.; Kolemen, E.; Fisher, A. E.; Ji, H.

    2018-01-01

    Plasma-facing components (PFC’s) made from solid materials may not be able to withstand the large heat and particle fluxes that will be produced within next-generation fusion reactors. To address the shortcomings of solid PFC’s, a variety of liquid-metal (LM) PFC concepts have been proposed. Many of the suggested LM-PFC designs rely on electromagnetic restraint (Lorentz force) to keep free-surface, liquid-metal flows adhered to the interior surfaces of a fusion reactor. However, there is very little, if any, experimental data demonstrating that free-surface, LM-PFC’s can actually be electromagnetically controlled. Therefore, in this study, electrical currents were injected into a free-surface liquid-metal that was flowing through a uniform magnetic field. The resultant Lorentz force generated within the liquid-metal affected the velocity and depth of the flow in a controllable manner that closely matched theoretical predictions. These results show the promise of electromagnetic control for LM-PFC’s and suggest that electromagnetic control could be further developed to adjust liquid-metal nozzle output, prevent splashing within a tokamak, and alter heat transfer properties for a wide-range of liquid-metal systems.

  13. Pulsatile blood flow, shear force, energy dissipation and Murray's Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengtsson Hans-Uno

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Murray's Law states that, when a parent blood vessel branches into daughter vessels, the cube of the radius of the parent vessel is equal to the sum of the cubes of the radii of daughter blood vessels. Murray derived this law by defining a cost function that is the sum of the energy cost of the blood in a vessel and the energy cost of pumping blood through the vessel. The cost is minimized when vessel radii are consistent with Murray's Law. This law has also been derived from the hypothesis that the shear force of moving blood on the inner walls of vessels is constant throughout the vascular system. However, this derivation, like Murray's earlier derivation, is based on the assumption of constant blood flow. Methods To determine the implications of the constant shear force hypothesis and to extend Murray's energy cost minimization to the pulsatile arterial system, a model of pulsatile flow in an elastic tube is analyzed. A new and exact solution for flow velocity, blood flow rate and shear force is derived. Results For medium and small arteries with pulsatile flow, Murray's energy minimization leads to Murray's Law. Furthermore, the hypothesis that the maximum shear force during the cycle of pulsatile flow is constant throughout the arterial system implies that Murray's Law is approximately true. The approximation is good for all but the largest vessels (aorta and its major branches of the arterial system. Conclusion A cellular mechanism that senses shear force at the inner wall of a blood vessel and triggers remodeling that increases the circumference of the wall when a shear force threshold is exceeded would result in the observed scaling of vessel radii described by Murray's Law.

  14. Control of energy flow in residential buildings; Energieflussregelung in Wohngebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Martin

    2011-07-01

    Energy systems in residential buildings are changing from monovalent, combustion based systems to multivalent systems containing technologies such as solar collectors, pellet boilers, heat pumps, CHP and multiple storages. Multivalent heat and electricity generation and additional storages raise the number of possible control signals in the system. This creates additional degrees of freedom regarding the choice of the energy converter and the instant of time for energy conversion. New functionality of controllers such as prioritisation of energy producers, optimization of electric self consumption and control of storages and energy feed-in are required. Within the scope of this thesis, new approaches for demand-driven optimal control of energy flows in multivalent building energy systems are developed and evaluated. The approaches are evaluated by means of system energy costs and operating emissions. For parametrisation of the controllers an easily understandable operating concept is developed. The energy flow controllers are implemented as a multi agent system (MAS) and a nonlinear model predictive controller (MPC). Proper functionality and stability are demonstrated in simulations of two example energy systems. In both example systems the MPC controller achieves less energy costs and operating emissions due to system wide global optimization and the more detailed system model within the controller. The multi agent approach turns out to perform better for systems with a huge number of components, e.g. in home automation and energy management systems. Due to the good performance of the reference control strategies, a significant reduction of energy costs and operating emissions is only possible with limitations. Systems for heat generation show only an especially low potential for optimization because of marginal variation ins heat production costs. The adaptation of the operation mode to user priorities, changing utilization characteristics and dynamic energy

  15. The Use of Energy in Malaysia: Tracing Energy Flows from Primary Source to End Use

    OpenAIRE

    Chinhao Chong; Weidou Ni; Linwei Ma; Pei Liu; Zheng Li

    2015-01-01

    Malaysia is a rapidly developing country in Southeast Asia that aims to achieve high-income country status by 2020; its economic growth is highly dependent on its abundant energy resources, especially natural gas and crude oil. In this paper, a complete picture of Malaysia’s energy use from primary source to end use is presented by mapping a Sankey diagram of Malaysia’s energy flows, together with ongoing trends analysis of the main factors influencing the energy flows. The results indicate t...

  16. Management of Energy Flows in Low-temperature Separation Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trishyn F.A.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available . The aim of this work is to study the effect of medium and low power ultrasound on the crystallization and separation processes. A thesis about the importance of using thermal energy converters in separation units has been suggested. The prospects of desalination freezing units and ways of their improvement have been justified. Based on the system analysis, the energy flows in an ice recycling facility have been considered. For the first time, the overall energy efficiency estimation technique based on the hypothesis of direct and reverse energy flows has been proposed. The new results on the effect of ultrasonic fields on the separation and crystallization process have been obtained. It has been proved that the use of ultrasonic field is effective in controlling the energy flows during block freezing. It has been established that the salt content in the ice block is reduced by 2-3 times. The relationship between the ice block separation kinetics and the power and frequency has been determined. The similarity theory methods have been used to summarize the experimental data obtained. The criterion models have been presented to calculate the block porosity and the filtration rate. It has been established that the Euler wavenumber modified by the authors successfully generalizes the databases of the experimental findings. Using the numerical simulation methods, the thermal field in the block which depends on its porosity has been established. The results of the simulation have been presented in the form of a nomogram.

  17. Study on the association between earnings management and value relevance based on the reporting method used for operating cash flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Mironiuc

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the association between earnings management and value relevance of accounting information, for a number of 556 observations from a sample of 65 companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange during a 10 year period: 2006-2015. Sampled companies are classified according to the method used for the reporting of operating cash flows. Findings confirm that entities using the indirect method have a higher level of discretionary accruals and are more tempted to opportunistically increase their earnings. As far as value relevance is concerned, results show that participants on the Romanian capital market place more weight on the information reported by entities experiencing higher levels of discretionary accruals.

  18. Energy flow of electric dipole radiation in between parallel mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhangjin; Arnoldus, Henk F.

    2017-11-01

    We have studied the energy flow patterns of the radiation emitted by an electric dipole located in between parallel mirrors. It appears that the field lines of the Poynting vector (the flow lines of energy) can have very intricate structures, including many singularities and vortices. The flow line patterns depend on the distance between the mirrors, the distance of the dipole to one of the mirrors and the angle of oscillation of the dipole moment with respect to the normal of the mirror surfaces. Already for the simplest case of a dipole moment oscillating perpendicular to the mirrors, singularities appear at regular intervals along the direction of propagation (parallel to the mirrors). For a parallel dipole, vortices appear in the neighbourhood of the dipole. For a dipole oscillating under a finite angle with the surface normal, the radiating tends to swirl around the dipole before travelling off parallel to the mirrors. For relatively large mirror separations, vortices appear in the pattern. When the dipole is off-centred with respect to the midway point between the mirrors, the flow line structure becomes even more complicated, with numerous vortices in the pattern, and tiny loops near the dipole. We have also investigated the locations of the vortices and singularities, and these can be found without any specific knowledge about the flow lines. This provides an independent means of studying the propagation of dipole radiation between mirrors.

  19. Architected squirt-flow materials for energy dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Tal; Kurzeja, Patrick; Bertoldi, Katia

    2017-12-01

    In the present study we explore material architectures that lead to enhanced dissipation properties by taking advantage of squirt-flow - a local flow mechanism triggered by heterogeneities at the pore level. While squirt-flow is a known dominant source of dissipation and seismic attenuation in fluid saturated geological materials, we study its untapped potential to be incorporated in highly deformable elastic materials with embedded fluid-filled cavities for future engineering applications. An analytical investigation, that isolates the squirt-flow mechanism from other potential dissipation mechanisms and considers an idealized setting, predicts high theoretical levels of dissipation achievable by squirt-flow and establishes a set of guidelines for optimal dissipation design. Particular architectures are then investigated via numerical simulations showing that a careful design of the internal voids can lead to an increase of dissipation levels by an order of magnitude, compared with equivalent homogeneous void distributions. Therefore, we suggest squirt-flow as a promising mechanism to be incorporated in future architected materials to effectively and reversibly dissipate energy.

  20. Use of Neutron Beams for Materials Research Relevant to the Nuclear Energy Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-10-01

    Nuclear technologies such as fission and fusion reactors, including associated waste storage and disposal, rely on the availability of not only nuclear fuels but also advanced structural materials. In 2010–2013, the IAEA organized and implemented the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Development, Characterization and Testing of Materials of Relevance to Nuclear Energy Sector Using Neutron Beams. A total of 19 institutions from 18 Member States (Argentina, Australia, Brazil, China, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Republic of Korea, Romania, Russian Federation (two institutions), South Africa, Switzerland and United States of America) cooperated with the main objective to address the use of various neutron beam techniques for characterization, testing and qualification of materials and components produced or under development for applications in the nuclear energy sector. This CRP aimed to bring stakeholders and end users of research reactors and accelerator based neutron sources together for the enhanced use of available facilities and development of new infrastructures for applied materials research. Work envisioned under this CRP was related to the optimization and validation of neutron beam techniques, including facility and instrument modifications/optimizations as well as improved data acquisition, processing and analysis systems. Particular emphasis was placed on variable environments during material characterization and testing as required by some applications such as intensive irradiation load, high temperature and high pressure conditions, and the presence of strong magnetic fields. Targeted neutron beam techniques were neutron diffraction, small angle neutron scattering and digital neutron radiography/tomography. This publication is a compilation of the main results and findings of the CRP, and the CD-ROM accompanying this publication contains 19 reports with additional relevant technical details

  1. Eight energy and material flow characteristics of urban ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xuemei

    2016-11-01

    Recent decades have seen an expanding literature exploring urban energy and material flows, loosely branded as urban metabolism analysis. However, this has occurred largely in parallel to the mainstream studies of cities as ecosystems. This paper aims to conceptually bridge these two distinctive fields of research, by (a) identifying the common aspects between them; (b) identifying key characteristics of urban ecosystems that can be derived from energy and material flow analysis, namely energy and material budget and pathways; flow intensity; energy and material efficiency; rate of resource depletion, accumulation and transformation; self-sufficiency or external dependency; intra-system heterogeneity; intersystem and temporal variation; and regulating mechanism and governing capacity. I argue that significant ecological insight can be, or has the potential to be, drawn from the rich and rapidly growing empirical findings of urban metabolism studies to understand the behaviour of cities as human-dominated, complex systems. A closer intellectual linkage and cross pollination between urban metabolism and urban ecosystem studies will advance our scientific understanding and better inform urban policy and management practices.

  2. The Water-Energy-Food Nexus: Advancing Innovative, Policy-Relevant Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crootof, A.; Albrecht, T.; Scott, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    The water-energy-food (WEF) nexus is rapidly expanding in scholarly literature and policy settings as a novel way to address complex Anthropocene challenges. The nexus approach aims to identify tradeoffs and synergies of water, energy, and food systems, internalize social and environmental impacts, and guide development of cross-sectoral policies. However, a primary limitation of the nexus approach is the absence - or gaps and inconsistent use - of adequate methods to advance an innovative and policy-relevant nexus approach. This paper presents an analytical framework to identify robust nexus methods that align with nexus thinking and highlights innovative nexus methods at the frontier. The current state of nexus methods was assessed with a systematic review of 245 journal articles and book chapters. This review revealed (a) use of specific and reproducible methods for nexus assessment is uncommon - less than one-third of the reviewed studies present explicit methods; (b) nexus methods frequently fall short of capturing interactions among water, energy, and food - the very concept they purport to address; (c) assessments strongly favor quantitative approaches - 70% use primarily quantitative tools; (d) use of social science methods is limited (26%); and (e) many nexus methods are confined to disciplinary silos - only about one-quarter combine methods from diverse disciplines and less than one-fifth utilize both quantitative and qualitative approaches. Despite some pitfalls of current nexus methods, there are a host of studies that offer innovative approaches to help quantify nexus linkages and interactions among sectors, conceptualize dynamic feedbacks, and support mixed method approaches to better understand WEF systems. Applying our analytical framework to all 245 studies, we identify, and analyze herein, seventeen studies that implement innovative multi-method and cross-scalar tools to demonstrate promising advances toward improved nexus assessment. This paper

  3. High energy density Z-pinch plasmas using flow stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shumlak, U., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Golingo, R. P., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Nelson, B. A., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Bowers, C. A., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Doty, S. A., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Forbes, E. G., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Hughes, M. C., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Kim, B., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Knecht, S. D., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Lambert, K. K., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Lowrie, W., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Ross, M. P., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Weed, J. R., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu [Aerospace and Energetics Research Program, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, 98195-2250 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The ZaP Flow Z-Pinch research project[1] at the University of Washington investigates the effect of sheared flows on MHD instabilities. Axially flowing Z-pinch plasmas are produced that are 100 cm long with a 1 cm radius. The plasma remains quiescent for many radial Alfvén times and axial flow times. The quiescent periods are characterized by low magnetic mode activity measured at several locations along the plasma column and by stationary visible plasma emission. Plasma evolution is modeled with high-resolution simulation codes – Mach2, WARPX, NIMROD, and HiFi. Plasma flow profiles are experimentally measured with a multi-chord ion Doppler spectrometer. A sheared flow profile is observed to be coincident with the quiescent period, and is consistent with classical plasma viscosity. Equilibrium is determined by diagnostic measurements: interferometry for density; spectroscopy for ion temperature, plasma flow, and density[2]; Thomson scattering for electron temperature; Zeeman splitting for internal magnetic field measurements[3]; and fast framing photography for global structure. Wall stabilization has been investigated computationally and experimentally by removing 70% of the surrounding conducting wall to demonstrate no change in stability behavior.[4] Experimental evidence suggests that the plasma lifetime is only limited by plasma supply and current waveform. The flow Z-pinch concept provides an approach to achieve high energy density plasmas,[5] which are large, easy to diagnose, and persist for extended durations. A new experiment, ZaP-HD, has been built to investigate this approach by separating the flow Z-pinch formation from the radial compression using a triaxial-electrode configuration. This innovation allows more detailed investigations of the sheared flow stabilizing effect, and it allows compression to much higher densities than previously achieved on ZaP by reducing the linear density and increasing the pinch current. Experimental results and

  4. Turbulent kinetic energy spectrum in very anisothermal flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serra, Sylvain; Toutant, Adrien; Bataille, Françoise; Zhou, Ye

    2012-01-01

    In this Letter, we find that the Kolmogorov scaling law is no longer valid when the flow is submitted to strong dilatational effects caused by high temperature gradients. As a result, in addition to the nonlinear time scale, there is a much shorter “temperature gradients” time scale. We propose a model that estimates the time scale of the triple decorrelation incorporating the influences of the temperature gradient. The model agrees with the results from the thermal large-eddy simulations of different Reynolds numbers and temperature gradients. This Letter provides a better understanding of the very anisothermal turbulent flow. -- Highlights: ► Turbulent flows subject to high temperature gradients are considered. ► The new “temperature gradients” time scale is determined. ► A generalized energy spectrum is developed to incorporate the effects of temperature gradient.

  5. Sex differences of human cortical blood flow and energy metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanerud, Joel; Borghammer, Per; Rodell, Anders

    2017-01-01

    cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen as functions of age in healthy volunteers of both sexes. Cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen did not change with age for either sex and there were no differences of mean values of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen between men and women in cerebral...... cortex. Women had significant decreases of cerebral blood flow as function of age in frontal and parietal lobes. Young women had significantly higher cerebral blood flow than men in frontal and temporal lobes, but these differences had disappeared at age 65. The absent sex difference of cerebral energy...... turnover suggests that the known differences of synaptic density between the sexes are counteracted by opposite differences of individual synaptic activity....

  6. Heat transfer and flow in solar energy and bioenergy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ben

    The demand for clean and environmentally benign energy resources has been a great concern in the last two decades. To alleviate the associated environmental problems, reduction of the use of fossil fuels by developing more cost-effective renewable energy technologies becomes more and more significant. Among various types of renewable energy sources, solar energy and bioenergy take a great proportion. This dissertation focuses on the heat transfer and flow in solar energy and bioenergy systems, specifically for Thermal Energy Storage (TES) systems in Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants and open-channel algal culture raceways for biofuel production. The first part of this dissertation is the discussion about mathematical modeling, numerical simulation and experimental investigation of solar TES system. First of all, in order to accurately and efficiently simulate the conjugate heat transfer between Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) and filler material in four different solid-fluid TES configurations, formulas of an e?ective heat transfer coe?cient were theoretically developed and presented by extending the validity of Lumped Capacitance Method (LCM) to large Biot number, as well as verifications/validations to this simplified model. Secondly, to provide design guidelines for TES system in CSP plant using Phase Change Materials (PCM), a general storage tank volume sizing strategy and an energy storage startup strategy were proposed using the enthalpy-based 1D transient model. Then experimental investigations were conducted to explore a novel thermal storage material. The thermal storage performances were also compared between this novel storage material and concrete at a temperature range from 400 °C to 500 °C. It is recommended to apply this novel thermal storage material to replace concrete at high operating temperatures in sensible heat TES systems. The second part of this dissertation mainly focuses on the numerical and experimental study of an open-channel algae

  7. Energy needs, tasks and resources in the Sahel: Relevance to woodstoves programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecelski, E

    1983-01-01

    This article reviews the wood fuels situation in the Sahel and the findings of various needs assessment methodologies, especially as these are relevant to the numerous programmes to introduce improved cooking technologies in the region. Most people in West Africa, especially in poor and rural areas, rely primarily on wood fuels and crop wastes for energy needs, with devastating environmental consequences. Most wood is used in cooking. The quantity of fuel used depends on the type of fireplace, utensils used, how and when food is prepared, food preparation methods, types of fuels, how fuelwood is collected, and special customs surrounding the family fire - all of which are intimately associated with the economic, cultural and social fabric of Sahelian societies. Conventional fuel consumption and resource surveys have yielded useful information about quantitative energy needs in the Sahel, but increasingly sociocultural studies are being used to ensure that stove designs will meet the needs of the end-user. Economic analysis is also necessary to establish the dimensions of wood scarcity, to assess the financial attractiveness to consumers of alternative fuels and stoves, and in evaluating the costs and benefits to society of proposed national woodstoves programmes.

  8. Energy and ancillary service dispatch through dynamic optimal power flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, A.L.; Costa, A. Simoes

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an approach based on dynamic optimal power flow (DOPF) to clear both energy and spinning reserve day-ahead markets. A competitive environment is assumed, where agents can offer active power for both demand supply and ancillary services. The DOPF jointly determines the optimal solutions for both energy dispatch and reserve allocation. A non-linear representation for the electrical network is employed, which is able to take transmission losses and power flow limits into account. An attractive feature of the proposed approach is that the final optimal solution will automatically meet physical constraints such as generating limits and ramp rate restrictions. In addition, the proposed framework allows the definition of multiple zones in the network for each time interval, in order to ensure a more adequate distribution of reserves throughout the power system. (author)

  9. Lithium-Based High Energy Density Flow Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); West, William C. (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement a lithium-based high energy density flow battery. In one embodiment, a lithium-based high energy density flow battery includes a first anodic conductive solution that includes a lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex dissolved in a solvent, a second cathodic conductive solution that includes a cathodic complex dissolved in a solvent, a solid lithium ion conductor disposed so as to separate the first solution from the second solution, such that the first conductive solution, the second conductive solution, and the solid lithium ionic conductor define a circuit, where when the circuit is closed, lithium from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex in the first conductive solution dissociates from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex, migrates through the solid lithium ionic conductor, and associates with the cathodic complex of the second conductive solution, and a current is generated.

  10. Free surface profiles in river flows: Can standard energy-based gradually-varied flow computations be pursued?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantero, Francisco; Castro-Orgaz, Oscar; Garcia-Marín, Amanda; Ayuso, José Luis; Dey, Subhasish

    2015-10-01

    Is the energy equation for gradually-varied flow the best approximation for the free surface profile computations in river flows? Determination of flood inundation in rivers and natural waterways is based on the hydraulic computation of flow profiles. This is usually done using energy-based gradually-varied flow models, like HEC-RAS, that adopts a vertical division method for discharge prediction in compound channel sections. However, this discharge prediction method is not so accurate in the context of advancements over the last three decades. This paper firstly presents a study of the impact of discharge prediction on the gradually-varied flow computations by comparing thirteen different methods for compound channels, where both energy and momentum equations are applied. The discharge, velocity distribution coefficients, specific energy, momentum and flow profiles are determined. After the study of gradually-varied flow predictions, a new theory is developed to produce higher-order energy and momentum equations for rapidly-varied flow in compound channels. These generalized equations enable to describe the flow profiles with more generality than the gradually-varied flow computations. As an outcome, results of gradually-varied flow provide realistic conclusions for computations of flow in compound channels, showing that momentum-based models are in general more accurate; whereas the new theory developed for rapidly-varied flow opens a new research direction, so far not investigated in flows through compound channels.

  11. Piezoelectric energy harvesting from flow-induced vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D-A; Ko, H-H

    2010-01-01

    A new piezoelectric energy harvester for harnessing energy from flow-induced vibration is developed. It converts flow energy into electrical energy by piezoelectric conversion with oscillation of a piezoelectric film. A finite element model is developed in order to estimate the generated voltage of the piezoelectric laminate subjected to a distributed load. Prototypes of the energy harvester are fabricated and tested. Experimental results show that an open circuit output voltage of 2.2 V pp and an instantaneous output power of 0.2 µW are generated when the excitation pressure oscillates with an amplitude of 1.196 kPa and a frequency of about 26 Hz. The solution of the generated voltage based on the finite element model agrees well with the experiments. Based on the finite element model, the effects of the piezoelectric film dimensions, the fluid pressure applied to the harvester and types of piezoelectric layer on the output voltage of the harvester can be investigated.

  12. Energy Flows in Low-Entropy Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. Chaisson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nature’s many complex systems—physical, biological, and cultural—are islands of low-entropy order within increasingly disordered seas of surrounding, high-entropy chaos. Energy is a principal facilitator of the rising complexity of all such systems in the expanding Universe, including galaxies, stars, planets, life, society, and machines. A large amount of empirical evidence—relating neither entropy nor information, rather energy—suggests that an underlying simplicity guides the emergence and growth of complexity among many known, highly varied systems in the 14-billion-year-old Universe, from big bang to humankind. Energy flows are as centrally important to life and society as they are to stars and galaxies. In particular, the quantity energy rate density—the rate of energy flow per unit mass—can be used to explicate in a consistent, uniform, and unifying way a huge collection of diverse complex systems observed throughout Nature. Operationally, those systems able to utilize optimal amounts of energy tend to survive and those that cannot are non-randomly eliminated.

  13. Energy from sea wave thrust and flow of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, S.R.

    1996-01-01

    The area adjacent to the tidal rivers, irrigational canal, drain and also the seashore may be energized harnessing the energy from the flow/wave thrust by simply converting it into unidirectional rotating force to drive the generator for power generation. The existing plants are big in size and also fixed in place. A plant which will be a small/portable type is described. 7 refs., figs

  14. Numerical simulations of counterstreaming plasmas and their relevance to interhemispheric flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N.; Schunk, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    The collisionless expansion of ccounterstreaming plasmas has been studied by solving the self-consistent set of Vlasov and Poisson equations in one dimension. The motivation for the study is to elucidate some of the basic physical processes which may occur during the initial refilling of depleted flux tubes after a magnetic storm. The simulation geometry consisted of two high-density H + -O + -electron plasmas (conjugate ionospheres) separated by a low density H + -electron plasma (equatorial plasmasphere). The temporal evolution of the expandinng plasmas and the electrostatic potential in the region between the two sources hass the following characteristics. The initially minor H + ions rapidly flow out of the source regions, creating counterstreaming density shock fronts which propagate at the Sagdeev Mach number for ion acoustic shocks (Mapprox.1.6). However, the shocks are preceded by suprathermal forerunner ions, which are the first to fill the ''equatorial'' region. When the counterstreaming ion acoustic shocks collide, the density in the equatorial region becomes nearly a constant, twice the value of the density in the individual shocks. The electrostatic potential distribution from the source plasmas to the midpoint of the expansion region displays an interesting feature. A potential hill forms near the midpoint after the arrival of the main density shock fronts. This localized potential hill plays an important role in the thermalization of the ion streams and may occur in the equatorial plasmasphere after magnetic storms. The numerical simulations indicate that the ion beams in the counterstreaming plasmas are remarkably stable with respect to the ion acoustic instability, which is in agreement with the linear instability theory

  15. Tracing China's energy flow and carbon dioxide flow based on Sankey diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feiyin; Wang, Pengtao; Xu, Xiaomeng; Dong, Lihui; Xue, Honglai; Fu, Shuai [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing Key Laboratory for Precise Mining of Intergrown Energy and Resources, Beijing (China); China University of Mining and Technology, Faculty of Resources and Safety Engineering, Beijing (China); Ji, Yingxu [State Grid Jibei Electric Power Company Limited, Langfang Power Supply Company, Langfang (China)

    2017-10-15

    China has promised to optimize its energy structure and reduce its CO{sub 2} emission in the 13th Five-Year Plan. To track the energy structure, the conversions, efficiencies, end consumptions of total energy and coal and the whole CO{sub 2} emission status, the energy flow, coal flow and CO{sub 2} flow in 2015 were, respectively, drawn at the national level based on Sankey diagrams. Besides, each provincial fossil fuel structure, CO{sub 2} structure and CO{sub 2} intensity were calculated and plotted. It is mainly found that China's energy structure consisted of 69.2% of coal, 19.9% of oil, 6.3% of natural gas and 4.7% of non-fossil energy, where 45.5% of energy was consumed by industry and 23.9% by losses and statistical difference; coal was distributed to industry (55.6%), etc., with a utilization rate of 70.1%; and CO{sub 2} were derived from coal (84.7%), oil (11.1%) and natural gas (4.2%), of which 39.0% was released through the process of thermal power generation and 19.4% by industry. The structures of fossil fuels and their CO{sub 2} emissions together with the evolution of CO{sub 2} intensity at the provincial level and the regional level were also given. Besides, two pieces of policy implications were proposed to provide the government with reference. (orig.)

  16. Acceleration of coupled granular flow and fluid flow simulations in pebble bed energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanheng; Ji, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fast simulation of coupled pebble flow and coolant flow in PBR systems is studied. ► Dimension reduction based on axisymmetric geometry shows significant speedup. ► Relaxation of coupling frequency is investigated and an optimal range is determined. ► A total of 80% efficiency increase is achieved by the two fast strategies. ► Fast strategies can be applied to simulating other general fluidized bed systems. -- Abstract: Fast and accurate approaches to simulating the coupled particle flow and fluid flow are of importance to the analysis of large particle-fluid systems. This is especially needed when one tries to simulate pebble flow and coolant flow in Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) energy systems on a routine basis. As one of the Generation IV designs, the PBR design is a promising nuclear energy system with high fuel performance and inherent safety. A typical PBR core can be modeled as a particle-fluid system with strong interactions among pebbles, coolants and reactor walls. In previous works, the coupled Discrete Element Method (DEM)-Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach has been investigated and applied to modeling PBR systems. However, the DEM-CFD approach is computationally expensive due to large amounts of pebbles in PBR systems. This greatly restricts the PBR analysis for the real time prediction and inclusion of more physics. In this work, based on the symmetry of the PBR geometry and the slow motion characteristics of the pebble flow, two acceleration strategies are proposed. First, a simplified 3D-DEM/2D-CFD approach is proposed to speed up the DEM-CFD simulation without loss of accuracy. Pebble flow is simulated by a full 3D DEM, while the coolant flow field is calculated with a 2D CFD simulation by averaging variables along the annular direction in the cylindrical and annular geometries. Second, based on the slow motion of pebble flow, the impact of the coupling frequency on the computation accuracy and efficiency is

  17. Acceleration of coupled granular flow and fluid flow simulations in pebble bed energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yanheng, E-mail: liy19@rpi.edu [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY (United States); Ji, Wei, E-mail: jiw2@rpi.edu [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Fast simulation of coupled pebble flow and coolant flow in PBR systems is studied. ► Dimension reduction based on axisymmetric geometry shows significant speedup. ► Relaxation of coupling frequency is investigated and an optimal range is determined. ► A total of 80% efficiency increase is achieved by the two fast strategies. ► Fast strategies can be applied to simulating other general fluidized bed systems. -- Abstract: Fast and accurate approaches to simulating the coupled particle flow and fluid flow are of importance to the analysis of large particle-fluid systems. This is especially needed when one tries to simulate pebble flow and coolant flow in Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) energy systems on a routine basis. As one of the Generation IV designs, the PBR design is a promising nuclear energy system with high fuel performance and inherent safety. A typical PBR core can be modeled as a particle-fluid system with strong interactions among pebbles, coolants and reactor walls. In previous works, the coupled Discrete Element Method (DEM)-Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach has been investigated and applied to modeling PBR systems. However, the DEM-CFD approach is computationally expensive due to large amounts of pebbles in PBR systems. This greatly restricts the PBR analysis for the real time prediction and inclusion of more physics. In this work, based on the symmetry of the PBR geometry and the slow motion characteristics of the pebble flow, two acceleration strategies are proposed. First, a simplified 3D-DEM/2D-CFD approach is proposed to speed up the DEM-CFD simulation without loss of accuracy. Pebble flow is simulated by a full 3D DEM, while the coolant flow field is calculated with a 2D CFD simulation by averaging variables along the annular direction in the cylindrical and annular geometries. Second, based on the slow motion of pebble flow, the impact of the coupling frequency on the computation accuracy and efficiency is

  18. Energy recovery from air flow in underground railway systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrone, B.; Mariani, A. [Seconda Univ. degli studi di Napoli, Aversa (Italy). Dept. of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering; Costanzo, M.L. [Tecnosistem spa, Napoli (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    The 20-20-20 energy policy of the European Union commits members to reduce carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions by 20 per cent by 2020, and stipulates that 20 per cent of final-use energy is to be supplied by renewable energy sources. This paper proposed the concept of recovering energy from underground trains by using the air flow inside tunnels to drive energy conversion systems such as turbines to generate electricity. Underground trains use much of their power to overcome the aerodynamic resistance moving the air in front of the train, creating a piston effect when travelling inside tunnels at relatively low speed. Numerical simulations were used in this study to determine how much electricity could be produced. A one-dimensional numerical analysis of a specific subway train track was used to evaluate the air flow magnitude inside the tunnel. Once the air flow features were detected, the potential electricity production was evaluated by considering the characteristics of a Wells turbine. Two types of 3-dimensional models of the tunnel and train were presented. One considered a long straight tunnel with a train running in it, and a small portion of a bypass tunnel. The other considered a large part of an opposite tunnel connected to the main one through the by-pass tunnel. Both the 3D models revealed a maximum flow rate of 2.5 x 105 m{sup 3}/h, while the 1D model showed an air flow of 1.5 x 105 m{sup 3}/h. The difference was due primarily to the presence of fans in the 1D Model and different modelling assumptions. It was concluded that one single Wells type turbine placed in a by-pass tunnel can produce 32.6 kWh per day, or about 10 MWh per year, resulting in a CO{sub 2} savings of about 5.5 tons per year. 8 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  19. Energy density, stopping and flow in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorge, H.; von Keitz, A.; Mattiello, R.; Stoecker, H.; Greiner, W.

    1990-01-01

    The Lorentz invariant molecular dynamics approach (RQMD) is employed to investigate the space-time evolution of heavy ion collisions at energies (E kin = 10AGeV hor-ellipsis 200AGeV). The calculations for various nucleus nucleus reactions show a high degree of stopping power. The importance of secondary rescattering at these beam energies is demonstrated. The computed nucleon rapidity distributions are compared to available experimental data. It is demonstrated that nonlinear, collective effects like full stopping of target and projectile and matter flow could be expected for heavy projectiles only. For nuclear collisions in the Booster era at BNL and for the lead beam at CERN SPS the authors predict a stimulating future: then a nearly equilibrated, long lived (8 fm/c) macroscopic volume of very high energy density (> 1 GeV/fm 3 ) and baryon density (> 5 times ground state density) is produced

  20. Energy flow characteristics of vector X-Waves

    KAUST Repository

    Salem, Mohamed; Bagci, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    The vector form of X-Waves is obtained as a superposition of transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarized field components. It is shown that the signs of all components of the Poynting vector can be locally changed using carefully chosen complex amplitudes of the transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarization components. Negative energy flux density in the longitudinal direction can be observed in a bounded region around the centroid; in this region the local behavior of the wave field is similar to that of wave field with negative energy flow. This peculiar energy flux phenomenon is of essential importance for electromagnetic and optical traps and tweezers, where the location and momenta of microand nanoparticles are manipulated by changing the Poynting vector, and in detection of invisibility cloaks. © 2011 Optical Society of America.

  1. Variational energy principle for compressible, baroclinic flow. 2: Free-energy form of Hamilton's principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, L. A.

    1977-01-01

    The first and second variations are calculated for the irreducible form of Hamilton's Principle that involves the minimum number of dependent variables necessary to describe the kinetmatics and thermodynamics of inviscid, compressible, baroclinic flow in a specified gravitational field. The form of the second variation shows that, in the neighborhood of a stationary point that corresponds to physically stable flow, the action integral is a complex saddle surface in parameter space. There exists a form of Hamilton's Principle for which a direct solution of a flow problem is possible. This second form is related to the first by a Friedrichs transformation of the thermodynamic variables. This introduces an extra dependent variable, but the first and second variations are shown to have direct physical significance, namely they are equal to the free energy of fluctuations about the equilibrium flow that satisfies the equations of motion. If this equilibrium flow is physically stable, and if a very weak second order integral constraint on the correlation between the fluctuations of otherwise independent variables is satisfied, then the second variation of the action integral for this free energy form of Hamilton's Principle is positive-definite, so the action integral is a minimum, and can serve as the basis for a direct trail and error solution. The second order integral constraint states that the unavailable energy must be maximum at equilibrium, i.e. the fluctuations must be so correlated as to produce a second order decrease in the total unavailable energy.

  2. Kinetic energy budget for electroconvective flows near ion selective membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Karen; Mani, Ali

    2017-11-01

    Electroconvection occurs when ions are driven from a bulk fluid through an ion-selective surface. When the driving voltage is beyond a threshold, this process undergoes a hydrodynamic instability called electroconvection, which can become chaotic due to nonlinear coupling between ion-transport, fluid flow, and electrostatic forces. Electroconvection significantly enhances ion transport and plays an important role in a wide range of electrochemical applications. We investigate this phenomenon by considering a canonical geometry consisting of a symmetric binary electrolyte between an ion-selective membrane and a reservoir using 2D direct numerical simulation (DNS). Our simulations reveal that for most practical regimes, DNS of electroconvection is expensive. Thus, a plan towards development of reduced-order models is necessary to facilitate the adoption of analysis of this phenomenon in industry. Here we use DNS to analyze the kinetic energy budget to shed light into the mechanisms sustaining flow and mixing in electroconvective flows. Our analysis reveals the relative dominance of kinetic energy sources, dissipation, and transport mechanisms sustaining electroconvection at different distances from the interface and over a wide range of input parameters. Karen Wang was supported by the National Defense Science & Engineering Graduate Fellowship (NDSEG). Ali Mani was supported by the National Science Foundation Award.

  3. Long Term Fuel Sustainable Fission Energy Perspective Relevant for Combating Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, V.; Matijevic, M.; Pevec, D.; Crnobrnja, B.; Lale, D.

    2016-01-01

    In recent research we outlined climate relevant and immediately available proven light water nuclear strategy with a potential to contribute essentially and timely to reduction of carbon dioxide emission to the year 2065. We consider in this paper what is the perspective of fission energy after that year should its contribution be needed. Singling out two technologies with long term perspective which need no or small amounts of uranium, fast breeders and molten salt thorium reactors, we consider their main technical and safety characteristics. In both of these technologies it is essential to have starter nuclides as neither U238 nor Th232 are fissile. We investigated whether plutonium from spent fuel of light water reactors generated to the year 2065 would be present in quantities sufficient to continue operation on the same or similar level in both technologies. However in operational safety, proliferation risks, waste production, in our judgement we must give preference to thorium technology, if it would be ready in second half of the century.(author).

  4. Beam energy dependence of elliptic flow in heavy-ion collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otuka, Naohiko; Isse, Masatsugu; Ohnishi, Akira; Pradip Kumar Sahu; Nara, Yasushi

    2002-01-01

    We study radial flow and elliptic flow in relativistic heavy-ion collisions at energies from GSI-SIS to BNL-RHIC energies using hadronic cascade model JAM. The excitation function of radial flow shows the softening of hadronic matter from BNL-AGS to CERN-SPS energies. JAM model reproduces transverse mass spectra at BNL-AGS, CERN-SPS at BNL-RHIC energies as well as elliptic flow upto CERN-SPS. For elliptic flow at BNL-RHIC energy (√s=130 GeV), while JAM gives the enough flow at fragment region, it fails at mid rapidity. (author)

  5. Characteristics Air Flow in Room Chamber Test Refrigerator Household Energy Consumption with Inlet Flow Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanto, Edy; Idrus Alhamid, M.; Nasruddin; Budihardjo

    2018-03-01

    Room Chamber is the most important in making a good Testing Laboratory. In this study, the 2-D modeling conducted to assess the effect placed the inlet on designing a test chamber room energy consumption of household refrigerators. Where the geometry room chamber is rectangular and approaching the enclosure conditions. Inlet varied over the side parallel to the outlet and compared to the inlet where the bottom is made. The purpose of this study was to determine and define the characteristics of the airflow in the room chamber using CFD simulation. CFD method is used to obtain flow characteristics in detail, in the form of vector flow velocity and temperature distribution inside the chamber room. The result found that the position of the inlet parallel to the outlet causes air flow cannot move freely to the side of the floor, even flow of air moves up toward the outlet. While by making the inlet is below, the air can move freely from the bottom up to the side of the chamber room wall as well as to help uniform flow.

  6. Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Flows in Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chivaee, Hamid Sarlak

    This research is devoted to the Large Eddy Simulation (LES), and to lesser extent, wind tunnel measurements of turbulent flows in wind energy. It starts with an introduction to the LES technique associated with the solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, discretized using a finite......, should the mesh resolution, numerical discretization scheme, time averaging period, and domain size be chosen wisely. A thorough investigation of the wind turbine wake interactions is also conducted and the simulations are validated against available experimental data from external sources. The effect...... Reynolds numbers, and thereafter, the fully-developed infinite wind farm boundary later simulations are performed. Sources of inaccuracy in the simulations are investigated and it is found that high Reynolds number flows are more sensitive to the choice of the SGS model than their low Reynolds number...

  7. Hydro-energy production and water works face to face with environmental flow approach in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihailescu, Neculai; Varduca, Aurel; Popescu, Liviu N.; Varduca, Ioana Cristina

    2007-01-01

    In order to achieve an equilibrium between the requirements of 'environmental flow' and other needs like energy in this case studies are presented in the paper concerning: (i) Iron Gate Hydroelectric Complex on the lower Danube river and (ii) Dambovita river complex hydrotehnical works within and downstream Bucharest. For the first case the most relevant impacts are related with: (i) nutrient 'pump' particular properties; (ii) contamination of sediments with heavy metals and other associated pollutants; (iii) decrease of solid (suspended matter) loads - hydromorphological alterations; (iv) cutting the fish migration and other related issues. In the second case study the environmental flow issues practically do not exist. The case of Dambovita river downstream Bucharest faces increased organic loads, nitrates and especially hazardous substances contamination. (authors)

  8. The Use of Energy in Malaysia: Tracing Energy Flows from Primary Source to End Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinhao Chong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is a rapidly developing country in Southeast Asia that aims to achieve high-income country status by 2020; its economic growth is highly dependent on its abundant energy resources, especially natural gas and crude oil. In this paper, a complete picture of Malaysia’s energy use from primary source to end use is presented by mapping a Sankey diagram of Malaysia’s energy flows, together with ongoing trends analysis of the main factors influencing the energy flows. The results indicate that Malaysia’s energy use depends heavily on fossil fuels, including oil, gas and coal. In the past 30 years, Malaysia has successfully diversified its energy structure by introducing more natural gas and coal into its power generation. To sustainably feed the rapidly growing energy demand in end-use sectors with the challenge of global climate change, Malaysia must pay more attention to the development of renewable energy, green technology and energy conservation in the future.

  9. Functional Relevance of Coronary Artery Disease by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance and Cardiac Computed Tomography: Myocardial Perfusion and Fractional Flow Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Pontone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease (CAD is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality and it is responsible for an increasing resource burden. The identification of patients at high risk for adverse events is crucial to select those who will receive the greatest benefit from revascularization. To this aim, several non-invasive functional imaging modalities are usually used as gatekeeper to invasive coronary angiography, but the diagnostic yield of elective invasive coronary angiography remains unfortunately low. Stress myocardial perfusion imaging by cardiac magnetic resonance (stress-CMR has emerged as an accurate technique for diagnosis and prognostic stratification of the patients with known or suspected CAD thanks to high spatial and temporal resolution, absence of ionizing radiation, and the multiparametric value including the assessment of cardiac anatomy, function, and viability. On the other side, cardiac computed tomography (CCT has emerged as unique technique providing coronary arteries anatomy and more recently, due to the introduction of stress-CCT and noninvasive fractional flow reserve (FFR-CT, functional relevance of CAD in a single shot scan. The current review evaluates the technical aspects and clinical experience of stress-CMR and CCT in the evaluation of functional relevance of CAD discussing the strength and weakness of each approach.

  10. Energy dissipation statistics along the Lagrangian trajectories in three-dimensional turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jian-ping; Wang, Yong-bo; Qiu, Xiang; Xia, Yu-xian; Liu, Yu-lu

    2018-02-01

    Energy dissipation rate is relevant in the turbulent phenomenology theory, such as the classical Kolmogorov 1941 and 1962 refined similarity hypothesis. However, it is extremely difficult to retrieve experimentally or numerically. In this paper, the full energy dissipation, its proxy and the pseudo-energy dissipation rate along the Lagrangian trajectories in the three-dimensional turbulent flows are examined by using a state-of-art high resolution direct numerical simulation database with a Reynolds number Re λ = 400. It is found that the energy dissipation proxy ɛ P is more correlated with the full energy dissipation rate ɛ. The corresponding correlation coefficient ρ between the velocity gradient and e shows a Gaussian distribution. Furthermore, the coarse-grained dissipation rate is considered. The cross correlation ρ is found to be increased with the increasing of the scale τ. Finally, the hierarchical structure is extracted for the full energy dissipation rate, its proxy and the pseudo one. The results show a power-law behavior in the inertial range 10 ≤ τ/ τ η ≤ 100. The experimental scaling exponent of the full energy dissipation rate is found to be h L =0.69, agrees very well with the one found for the Eulerian velocity. The experimental values for ɛ P and ɛ S are around h L = 0.78, implying a more intermittent Lagrangian turbulence. Therefore, the intermittency parameter provided by ɛ P and ɛ S will be biased.

  11. Brain energy metabolism and blood flow differences in healthy aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanerud, Joel; Borghammer, Per; Chakravarty, M Mallar

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO(2)), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) are important indices of healthy aging of the brain. Although a frequent topic of study, changes of CBF and CMRO(2) during normal aging are still controversial, as some authors......, and in the temporal cortex. Because of the inverse relation between OEF and capillary oxygen tension, increased OEF can compromise oxygen delivery to neurons, with possible perturbation of energy turnover. The results establish a possible mechanism of progression from healthy to unhealthy brain aging, as the regions...

  12. Catchment organisation, free energy dynamics and network control on critical zone water flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehe, E.; Ehret, U.; Kleidon, A.; Jackisch, C.; Scherer, U.; Blume, T.

    2012-04-01

    as that these flow structures organize and dominate flows of water, dissolved matter and sediments during rainfall driven conditions at various scales: - Surface connected vertical flow structures of anecic worm burrows or soil cracks organize and dominated vertical flows at the plot scale - this is usually referred to as preferential flow; - Rill networks at the soil surface organise and dominate hillslope scale overland flow response and sediment yields; - Subsurface pipe networks at the bedrock interface organize and dominate hillslope scale lateral subsurface water and tracer flows; - The river net organizes and dominates flows of water, dissolved matter and sediments to the catchment outlet and finally across continental gradients to the sea. Fundamental progress with respect to the parameterization of hydrological models, subscale flow networks and to understand the adaptation of hydro-geo ecosystems to change could be achieved by discovering principles that govern the organization of catchments flow networks in particular at least during steady state conditions. This insight has inspired various scientists to suggest principles for organization of ecosystems, landscapes and flow networks; as Bejans constructural law, Minimum Energy Expenditure , Maximum Entropy Production. In line with these studies we suggest that a thermodynamic/energetic treatment of the catchment is might be a key for understanding the underlying principles that govern organisation of flow and transport. Our approach is to employ a) physically based hydrological model that address at least all the relevant hydrological processes in the critical zone in a coupled way, behavioural representations of the observed organisation of flow structures and textural elements, that are consistent with observations in two well investigated research catchments and have been tested against distributed observations of soil moisture and catchment scale discharge; to simulate the full concert of hydrological

  13. Darcy-Forchheimer flow of Maxwell nanofluid flow with nonlinear thermal radiation and activation energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sajid

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present article is about the study of Darcy-Forchheimer flow of Maxwell nanofluid over a linear stretching surface. Effects like variable thermal conductivity, activation energy, nonlinear thermal radiation is also incorporated for the analysis of heat and mass transfer. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs with convective boundary conditions are first converted into the nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs with the help of similarity transformation, and then the resulting nonlinear ODEs are solved with the help of shooting method and MATLAB built-in bvp4c solver. The impact of different physical parameters like Brownian motion, thermophoresis parameter, Reynolds number, magnetic parameter, nonlinear radiative heat flux, Prandtl number, Lewis number, reaction rate constant, activation energy and Biot number on Nusselt number, velocity, temperature and concentration profile has been discussed. It is viewed that both thermophoresis parameter and activation energy parameter has ascending effect on the concentration profile.

  14. The total flow concept for geothermal energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, A. L.

    1974-01-01

    A geothermal development project has been initiated at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) to emphasize development of methods for recovery and conversion of the energy in geothermal deposits of hot brines. Temperatures of these waters vary from 150 C to more than 300 C with dissolved solids content ranging from less than 0.1% to over 25% by weight. Of particular interest are the deposits of high-temperature/high-salinity brines, as well as less saline brines, known to occur in the Salton Trough of California. Development of this resource will depend on resolution of the technical problems of brine handling, scale and precipitation control, and corrosion/erosion resistant systems for efficient conversion of thermal to electrical energy. Research experience to date has shown these problems to be severe. Hence, the LLL program emphasizes development of an entirely different approach called the Total Flow concept.

  15. High energy electron disinfection of sewage wastewater in flow systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, T; Arai, H; Hosono, M; Tokunaga, O; Machi, S [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Kondoh, M; Minemura, T; Nakao, A; Seike, Y [Sumitomo Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1990-01-01

    The disinfection of effluent municipal wastewaters by high-energy electrons in flow systems was studied using an experimental apparatus which has the maximum treatment capacity of 10.8 m{sup 3}/h. An electron accelerator with an accelerating voltage of 2 MV was used. The electron beam current was controlled to deliver the desired doses ranging from 0.05 to 1 kGy. Treatment times were in the range from 0.0022 to 0.051 s. Preliminary experiments with batch system using Petri dish of 100 ml showed that the effectiveness of electron irradiation on inactivation of coliforms was not influenced significantly by factors such as pH, SS, COD, DO and irradiation temperature. The dose required to produce 99.9% kill in the total population presented in wastewater were markedly affected by the thickness of water exposure to electron irradiation; that is, 0.39, 0.4 and 0.44 kGy for the depth of 5, 6 and 7 mm, respectively. The data obtained after a suitable correction for the doses due to the depth dose distribution showed no deviation from an experimental survival curve. Experiments with flow system indicated no measureable effect of the flow rate of wastewaters on the efficiency of disinfection in the range from 0.5 to 3.5 m/s. (author).

  16. Inductive-energy power flow for X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, K.D.; Filios, P.G.; Gullickson, R.L.; Hebert, M.P.; Rowley, J.E.; Schneider, R.F.; Summa, W.J.; Vitkovski, I.M.

    1996-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) has been developing inductive energy storage (IES) technology for generating intense x-rays from electron beam-target interactions and from plasma radiating sources (PRS). Because of the complex interaction between the commutation of the current from the plasma and the stable dissipation of the energy in the load, DNA has supported several variations of power flow technology. Major variations include: (1) current interruption using a plasma opening switch (POS); (2) continuous current commutation through current-plasma motion against neutral, ionized, or magnetized medium [i.e., dense plasma focus-like (DPF) and plasma flow switch (PFS) technologies]; and, in addition, possible benefits of (3) directly driven complex PRS loads are being investigated. DNA programs include experimental and theoretical modeling and analysis with investigations (1) on Hawk and a Decade module in conjunction with the development of the bremsstrahlung sources (BRS), and (2) on Hawk, ACE-4 and Shiva-Star, as well as cooperative research on GIT-4 and GIT-8, in conjunction with PRS. (author). 1 tab., 12 figs., 17 refs

  17. Inductive-energy power flow for X-ray sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ware, K D; Filios, P G; Gullickson, R L; Hebert, M P; Rowley, J E; Schneider, R F; Summa, W J [Defense Nuclear Agency, Alexandria, VA (United States); Vitkovski, I M [Logicon RDA, Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) has been developing inductive energy storage (IES) technology for generating intense x-rays from electron beam-target interactions and from plasma radiating sources (PRS). Because of the complex interaction between the commutation of the current from the plasma and the stable dissipation of the energy in the load, DNA has supported several variations of power flow technology. Major variations include: (1) current interruption using a plasma opening switch (POS); (2) continuous current commutation through current-plasma motion against neutral, ionized, or magnetized medium [i.e., dense plasma focus-like (DPF) and plasma flow switch (PFS) technologies]; and, in addition, possible benefits of (3) directly driven complex PRS loads are being investigated. DNA programs include experimental and theoretical modeling and analysis with investigations (1) on Hawk and a Decade module in conjunction with the development of the bremsstrahlung sources (BRS), and (2) on Hawk, ACE-4 and Shiva-Star, as well as cooperative research on GIT-4 and GIT-8, in conjunction with PRS. (author). 1 tab., 12 figs., 17 refs.

  18. Planned upgrade to the coaxial plasma source facility for high heat flux plasma flows relevant to tokamak disruption simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caress, R.W.; Mayo, R.M.; Carter, T.A.

    1995-01-01

    Plasma disruptions in tokamaks remain serious obstacles to the demonstration of economical fusion power. In disruption simulation experiments, some important effects have not been taken into account. Present disruption simulation experimental data do not include effects of the high magnetic fields expected near the PFCs in a tokamak major disruption. In addition, temporal and spatial scales are much too short in present simulation devices to be of direct relevance to tokamak disruptions. To address some of these inadequacies, an experimental program is planned at North Carolina State University employing an upgrade to the Coaxial Plasma Source (CPS-1) magnetized coaxial plasma gun facility. The advantages of the CPS-1 plasma source over present disruption simulation devices include the ability to irradiate large material samples at extremely high areal energy densities, and the ability to perform these material studies in the presence of a high magnetic field. Other tokamak disruption relevant features of CPS-1U include a high ion temperature, high electron temperature, and long pulse length

  19. Electron attachment to oxygen, ozone and other compounds of atmospheric relevance as studied with ultra-high energy resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerk, T.D.; Matejcik, S.; Kiendler, A.; Cicman, P.; Senn, G.; Skalny, J.; Stampfli, P.; Illenberger, E.; Chu, Y.; Stamatovic, A.

    1996-01-01

    The processes of electron attachment to oxygen, ozone, ozone/oxygen cluster and oxygen cluster as well as other compounds of atmospheric relevance (CF 2 Cl 2 , CHCl 3 and CCl 3 Br) were studied with ultra-high energy resolution crossed beam technique

  20. Protection of business and industrial secrets under the Atomic Energy Act and the relevant ordinances governing licensing and supervisory procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, R.

    1988-01-01

    The article deals with problems concerning the protection of secret information in licensing and supervisory procedures under the Atomic Energy Act and the relevant ordinances. The extent of the secret protection of business and industrial secrets is regulated differently for both procedures. These legal provisions have to be interpreted with due consideration for third party interests in information. (WG) [de

  1. A biomass energy flow chart for Sierra Leone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoo-Gottfried, K.; Hall, D.O.

    1999-01-01

    Terrestrial above-ground biomass production and utilisation in Sierra Leone was analysed for the years 1984/5 to 1990/1. The total production of biomass energy was estimated at an annual average of 131 PJ (39% from agriculture, 51% from forestry and 10% from livestock). Of the 117 PJ produced from agricultural and forestry operations, 37 PJ was harvested as firewood and burnt (10.9 GJ or 0.72 t wood per capita per year, supplying 80% of the country's energy), 12 PJ was harvested for food, 66 PJ was unutilised crop and forestry residues, 3 PJ was harvested crop residues for use directly as fuel, and 2 PJ was harvested and used for industrial purposes and not for fuel. Livestock produced wastes with an energy content of 13 PJ of which only 0.1 PJ was collected and used for fuel. Thus 54 PJ (41%) of the 131 PJ of biomass energy produced annually was actually utilised while 49 PJ remained as unused agricultural residues and dung, and a further 27 PJ was unused forestry residues. The total amount of biomass (fuelwood, residues and dung) used directly to provide energy, mostly in households, was estimated at 40 PJ (11.8 GJ per capita per year of 0.79 t fuelwood equivalent). Direct biomass energy utilisation in agroindustry (0.4 PJ) was negligible in comparison. Two assessments of Sierra Leone's biomass standing stock and MAI (mean annual increment) were examined in order to assess the sustainability of various biomass use scenarios. Large differences were found between the MAI of the two assessments, making it difficult to predict sustainability of biomass production and use. The estimation of total standing stock varied between 227 and 366 Mt and the estimation of MAI varied between 15 and 70 Mt. Analysis of the availability and use of the biomass resource is crucial if biomass energy is to be used on a sustainable basis. A software package has been developed and is available to draft biomass flow charts but further work is needed to incorporate social and economic

  2. Energy Data Visualization Requires Additional Approaches to Continue to be Relevant in a World with Greater Low-Carbon Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant Wilson, I. A.

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis described in this article proposes that energy visualization diagrams commonly used need additional changes to continue to be relevant in a world with greater low-carbon generation. The diagrams that display national energy data are influenced by the properties of the type of energy being displayed, which in most cases has historically meant fossil fuels, nuclear fuels, or hydro. As many energy systems throughout the world increase their use of electricity from wind- or solar-based renewables, a more granular display of energy data in the time domain is required. This article also introduces the shared axes energy diagram that provides a simple and powerful way to compare the scale and seasonality of the demands and supplies of an energy system. This aims to complement, rather than replace existing diagrams, and has an additional benefit of promoting a whole systems approach to energy systems, as differing energy vectors, such as natural gas, transport fuels, and electricity, can all be displayed together. This, in particular, is useful to both policy makers and to industry, to build a visual foundation for a whole systems narrative, which provides a basis for discussion of the synergies and opportunities across and between different energy vectors and demands. The diagram’s ability to wrap a sense of scale around a whole energy system in a simple way is thought to explain its growing popularity.

  3. Energy data visualisation requires additional approaches to continue to be relevant in a world with greater low-carbon generation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Grant Wilson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis described in this article proposes that energy visualisation diagrams commonly used need additional changes to continue to be relevant in a world with greater low-carbon generation. The diagrams that display national energy data are influenced by the properties of the type of energy being displayed, which in most cases has historically meant fossil fuels, nuclear fuels or hydro. As many energy systems throughout the world increase their use of electricity from wind or solar based renewables, a more granular display of energy data in the time domain is required. This article also introduces the shared axes energy diagram that provides a simple and powerful way in which to compare the scale and seasonality of the demands and supplies of an energy system. This aims to complement rather than replace existing diagrams, and has an additional benefit of promoting a whole systems approach to energy systems, as differing energy vectors such as natural gas, transport fuels, and electricity can all be displayed together. This in particular, is useful to both policy makers and to industry, to build a visual foundation for a whole systems narrative, which provides a basis for discussion of the synergies and opportunities across and between different energy vectors and demands. The diagram’s ability to wrap a sense of scale around a whole energy system in a simple way is thought to explain its growing popularity.

  4. Energy Data Visualization Requires Additional Approaches to Continue to be Relevant in a World with Greater Low-Carbon Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant Wilson, I. A., E-mail: grant.wilson@sheffield.ac.uk [Environmental and Energy Engineering Group, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-31

    The hypothesis described in this article proposes that energy visualization diagrams commonly used need additional changes to continue to be relevant in a world with greater low-carbon generation. The diagrams that display national energy data are influenced by the properties of the type of energy being displayed, which in most cases has historically meant fossil fuels, nuclear fuels, or hydro. As many energy systems throughout the world increase their use of electricity from wind- or solar-based renewables, a more granular display of energy data in the time domain is required. This article also introduces the shared axes energy diagram that provides a simple and powerful way to compare the scale and seasonality of the demands and supplies of an energy system. This aims to complement, rather than replace existing diagrams, and has an additional benefit of promoting a whole systems approach to energy systems, as differing energy vectors, such as natural gas, transport fuels, and electricity, can all be displayed together. This, in particular, is useful to both policy makers and to industry, to build a visual foundation for a whole systems narrative, which provides a basis for discussion of the synergies and opportunities across and between different energy vectors and demands. The diagram’s ability to wrap a sense of scale around a whole energy system in a simple way is thought to explain its growing popularity.

  5. Energy flow in passive and active 3D cochlear model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yanli; Steele, Charles [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Puria, Sunil [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Energy flow in the cochlea is an important characteristic of the cochlear traveling wave, and many investigators, such as von Békésy and Lighthill, have discussed this phenomenon. Particularly after the discovery of the motility of the outer hair cells (OHCs), the nature of the power gain of the cochlea has been a fundamental research question. In the present work, direct three-dimensional (3D) calculations of the power on cross sections of the cochlea and on the basilar membrane are performed based on a box model of the mouse cochlea. The distributions of the fluid pressure and fluid velocity in the scala vestibuli are presented. The power output from the OHCs and the power loss due to fluid viscous damping are calculated along the length of the cochlea. This work provides a basis for theoretical calculations of the power gain of the OHCs from mechanical considerations.

  6. Energy flow in passive and active 3D cochlear model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yanli; Steele, Charles; Puria, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    Energy flow in the cochlea is an important characteristic of the cochlear traveling wave, and many investigators, such as von Békésy and Lighthill, have discussed this phenomenon. Particularly after the discovery of the motility of the outer hair cells (OHCs), the nature of the power gain of the cochlea has been a fundamental research question. In the present work, direct three-dimensional (3D) calculations of the power on cross sections of the cochlea and on the basilar membrane are performed based on a box model of the mouse cochlea. The distributions of the fluid pressure and fluid velocity in the scala vestibuli are presented. The power output from the OHCs and the power loss due to fluid viscous damping are calculated along the length of the cochlea. This work provides a basis for theoretical calculations of the power gain of the OHCs from mechanical considerations

  7. Optimal power flow management for distributed energy resources with batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazvinga, Henerica; Zhu, Bing; Xia, Xiaohua

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A PV-diesel-battery hybrid system is proposed. • Model minimizes fuel and battery wear costs. • Power flows are analysed in a 24-h period. • Results provide a practical platform for decision making. - Abstract: This paper presents an optimal energy management model of a solar photovoltaic-diesel-battery hybrid power supply system for off-grid applications. The aim is to meet the load demand completely while satisfying the system constraints. The proposed model minimizes fuel and battery wear costs and finds the optimal power flow, taking into account photovoltaic power availability, battery bank state of charge and load power demand. The optimal solutions are compared for cases when the objectives are weighted equally and when a larger weight is assigned to battery wear. A considerable increase in system operational cost is observed in the latter case owing to the increased usage of the diesel generator. The results are important for decision makers, as they depict the optimal decisions considered in the presence of trade-offs between conflicting objectives

  8. Raindrop Kinetic Energy Piezoelectric Harvesters and Relevant Interface Circuits: Review, Issues and Outlooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Gnee CHUA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As an ecological source of renewable energy, the available kinetic energy of rainfall is not trifling, especially in tropical countries at the equators. The research on the use of piezoelectric transducer to harvest raindrop kinetic energy is gaining more and more attention recently. This article reviews the state-of-the-art energy harvesting technology from the conversion of raindrop kinetic energy using piezoelectric transducers as well as its interface circuits for vibration-based energy harvesters. Performance of different types of piezoelectric harvesters in terms of power output, area power density and energy conversion efficiency are compared. Summaries of key problems and suggestions on the optimization of the performance of the piezoelectric harvesters are also provided for future works.

  9. Ruthenium based redox flow battery for solar energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, Mohammed Harun; Roberts, Edward Pelham Lindfield; Bae, Chulheung; Saleem, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Undivided redox flow battery employing porous graphite felt electrodes was used. → Ruthenium acetylacetonate dissolved in acetonitrile was the electrolyte. → Charge/discharge conditions were determined for both 0.02 M and 0.1 M electrolytes. → Optimum power output of 0.180 W was also determined for 0.1 M electrolyte. → 55% voltage efficiency was obtained when battery was full of electrolytes. -- Abstract: The technical performance for the operation of a stand alone redox flow battery system for solar energy storage is presented. An undivided reactor configuration has been employed along with porous graphite felt electrodes and ruthenium acetylacetonate as electrolyte in acetonitrile solvent. Limiting current densities are determined for concentrations of 0.02 M and 0.1 M ruthenium acetylacetonate. Based on these, operating conditions for 0.02 M ruthenium acetylacetonate are determined as charging current density of 7 mA/cm 2 , charge electrolyte superficial velocity of 0.0072 cm/s (through the porous electrodes), discharge current density of 2 mA/cm 2 and discharge electrolyte superficial velocity of 0.0045 cm/s. An optimum power output of 35 mW is also obtained upon discharge at 2.1 mA/cm 2 . With an increase in the concentration of ruthenium species from 0.02 M to 0.1 M, the current densities and power output are higher by a factor of five approximately (at same superficial velocities) due to higher mass transport phenomenon. Moreover at 0.02 M concentration the voltage efficiency is better for battery full of electrolytes prior to charging (52.1%) in comparison to an empty battery (40.5%) due to better mass transport phenomenon. Voltage efficiencies are higher as expected at concentrations of 0.1 M ruthenium acetylacetonate (55% when battery is full of electrolytes and 48% when empty) showing that the all-ruthenium redox flow battery has some promise for future applications in solar energy storage. Some improvements for the

  10. Energy flow models for the estimation of technical losses in distribution network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au, Mau Teng; Tan, Chin Hooi

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents energy flow models developed to estimate technical losses in distribution network. Energy flow models applied in this paper is based on input energy and peak demand of distribution network, feeder length and peak demand, transformer loading capacity, and load factor. Two case studies, an urban distribution network and a rural distribution network are used to illustrate application of the energy flow models. Results on technical losses obtained for the two distribution networks are consistent and comparable to network of similar types and characteristics. Hence, the energy flow models are suitable for practical application.

  11. Simultaneous integrated optimal energy flow of electricity, gas, and heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabanpour-Haghighi, Amin; Seifi, Ali Reza

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Integration of electrical, natural gas, and district heating networks is studied. • Part-load performances of units are considered in modeling. • A modified teaching–learning based optimization is used to solve the problem. • Results show the advantages of the integrated optimization approach. - Abstract: In this paper, an integrated approach to optimize electrical, natural gas, and district heating networks simultaneously is studied. Several interdependencies between these infrastructures are considered in details including a nonlinear part-load performance for boilers and CHPs besides the valve-point effect for generators. A novel approach based on selecting an appropriate set of state-variables for the problem is proposed that eliminates the addition of any new variable to convert irregular equations into a regular set while the optimization problem is still solvable. As a large optimization problem, the optimal solution cannot be achieved by conventional mathematical techniques. Hence, it is better to use evolutionary algorithms instead. In this paper, the well-known modified teaching–learning based optimization algorithm is utilized to solve the multi-period optimal power flow problem of multi-carrier energy networks. The proposed scheme is implemented and applied to a typical multi-carrier energy network. Results are compared with some other conventional heuristic algorithms and the applicability and superiority of the proposed methodology is verified

  12. Microscopic energy flows in disordered Ising spin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agliari, E; Casartelli, M; Vezzani, A

    2010-01-01

    An efficient microcanonical dynamics has been recently introduced for Ising spin models embedded in a generic connected graph even in the presence of disorder, i.e. with the spin couplings chosen from a random distribution. Such a dynamics allows a coherent definition of local temperatures also when open boundaries are coupled to thermostats, imposing an energy flow. Within this framework, here we introduce a consistent definition for local energy currents and we study their dependence on the disorder. In the linear response regime, when the global gradient between thermostats is small, we also define local conductivities following a Fourier discretized picture. Then, we work out a linearized 'mean-field approximation', where local conductivities are supposed to depend on local couplings and temperatures only. We compare the approximated currents with the exact results of the nonlinear system, showing the reliability range of the mean-field approach, which proves very good at high temperatures and not so efficient in the critical region. In the numerical studies we focus on the disordered cylinder but our results could be extended to an arbitrary, disordered spin model on generic discrete structures

  13. Ecological concepts and strategies with relevance to energy-conscious spatial planning and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stremke, S.; Koh, J.

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable systems utilise renewable energy sources and recycle materials effectively. In theory, solar radiation provides abundant energy to sustain humanity. Our capacity to utilise available sources, however, is limited and competition for resources is expected to increase in the future. Spatial

  14. Cars and Kinetic Energy--Some Simple Physics with Real-World Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Raghuveer

    2012-01-01

    Understanding energy usage is crucial to understanding modern civilization, as well as many of the challenges it faces. Energy-related issues also offer real-world examples of important physical concepts, and as such have been the focus of several articles in "The Physics Teacher" in the past few decades (e.g., Refs. 1-5, noted further below).…

  15. Resource efficiency of urban sanitation systems. A comparative assessment using material and energy flow analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinzinger, Franziska

    2010-07-01

    Within the framework of sustainable development it is important to find ways of reducing natural resource consumption and to change towards closed-loop management. As in many other spheres increased resource efficiency has also become an important issue in sanitation. Particularly nutrient recovery for agriculture, increased energy-efficiency and saving of natural water resources, can make a contribution to more resource efficient sanitation systems. To assess the resource efficiency of alternative developments a systems perspective is required. The present study applies a combined cost, energy and material flow analysis (ceMFA) as a system analysis method to assess the resource efficiency of urban sanitation systems. This includes the discussion of relevant criteria and assessment methods. The main focus of this thesis is the comparative assessment of different systems, based on two case studies; Hamburg in Germany and Arba Minch in Ethiopia. A range of possible system developments including source separation (e.g. diversion of urine or blackwater) is defined and compared with the current situation as a reference system. The assessment is carried out using computer simulations based on model equations. The model equations not only integrate mass and nutrient flows, but also the energy and cost balances of the different systems. In order to assess the impact of different assumptions and calculation parameters, sensitivity analyses and parameter variations complete the calculations. Based on the simulations, following general conclusions can be drawn: None of the systems show an overall benefit with regard to all investigated criteria, namely nutrients, energy, water and costs. Yet, the results of the system analysis can be used as basis for decision making if a case-related weighting is introduced. The systems show varying potential for the recovery of nutrients from (source separated) wastewater flows. For the case study of Hamburg up to 29% of the mineral

  16. Sustainable development relevant comparison of the greenhouse gas emissions from the full energy chains of different energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van De Vate, J.F.

    1997-01-01

    It is emphasized that sustainable energy planning should account for the emissions of all greenhouse gases (GHGs) from the whole energy chain, hence accounting not only carbon dioxide as the greenhouse gas and not only for the emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels. Lowering greenhouse gas emissions from the worldwide energy use can be done most effectively by accounting in energy planning for the full-energy-chain (FENCH) emissions of all GHGs. Only energy sources with similar output can be compared. This study investigates electricity generating technologies, which are compared in terms their GHG emission factors to be expressed in CO 2 -equivalents per kW.h(e). Earlier IAEA expert meetings are reviewed. A general meeting made general recommendations about methods and input data bases for FENCH-GHG analysis. Two more recent meetings dealt with the energy chains of nuclear and hydropower. The site-specific character of the emission factors of these energy sources is discussed. Both electricity generators have emission factors in the range of 5-30 g CO 2 -equiv./kW.h(e), which is very low compared to the FENCH-GHG emission factors of fossil-fueled power generation and of most of the renewable power generators. (author)

  17. Continuous Hydrothermal Flow Synthesis of Functional Oxide Nanomaterials Used in Energy Conversion Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yu

    Continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis (CHFS) was used to prepare functional oxide nanoparticles. Materials synthesized include NiO, Y-doped ZrO2, Gd-doped CeO2, LaCrO3 and Ni-substituted CoFe2O4. These types of oxides can be applied in several energy conversion devices, e.g. as active materials...... as materials are continuously produced, and the technology can be scaled-up to an industrial-relevant production capacity. The thesis starts with investigating the most appropriate mixer design for a novel two-stage reactor by computational fluid dynamics modelling. On basis of the modelling results, a two......, dense continuous layers (

  18. Energy absorption buildup factors of human organs and tissues at energies and penetration depths relevant for radiotherapy and diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manohara, S. R.; Hanagodimath, S. M.; Gerward, Leif

    2011-01-01

    Energy absorption geometric progression (GP) fitting parameters and the corresponding buildup factors have been computed for human organs and tissues, such as adipose tissue, blood (whole), cortical bone, brain (grey/white matter), breast tissue, eye lens, lung tissue, skeletal muscle, ovary......, testis, soft tissue, and soft tissue (4-component), for the photon energy range 0.015-15 MeV and for penetration depths up to 40 mfp (mean free path). The chemical composition of human organs and tissues is seen to influence the energy absorption buildup factors. It is also found that the buildup factor...... of human organs and tissues changes significantly with the change of incident photon energy and effective atomic number, Zeff. These changes are due to the dominance of different photon interaction processes in different energy regions and different chemical compositions of human organs and tissues...

  19. Material and energy flows in rotary kiln-electric furnace smelting of ferronickel alloy with energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Peng; Li, Baokuan; Cheung, Sherman C.P.; Wu, Wenyuan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Establish the synergy relationship of material and energy in key RKEF processes. • Develop an analysis model to study energy saving with internal cycling of energy. • Analyze material and energy flow parameters and assess its associated synergy effect. • A methodology to evaluate the synergy and design indices of RKEF processes. - Abstract: An energy saving strategy with two energy saving measures has been proposed for reducing energy loss in the rotary kiln-electric furnace (RKEF) for the smelting of ferronickel alloy. One of the measures is to recover the waste heat of exhaust gas from the rotary kiln for preheating and dehydrating the wet laterite ores in the rotary dryer. Another measure is to recycle the furnace gas from the electric furnace into the rotary kiln as fuel. Based on the mass conservation and energy conservation laws, an analysis model of material and energy flows has been developed to understand the potential energy saving with the internal cycling of material and energy in the RKEF process. The analysis model not only considers the energy efficiency but also assess the synergy degree of system. Furthermore, the model also predicts the ratio of raw materials and the energy flow distribution to investigate residual heat and energy and analyze the effects of nickel content on energy flow. Finally, the evaluation methodology of synergy and the technic indices are also presented. Through the investigation of the synergy effect, the performance of the RKEF process can be evaluated and quantified for performance optimization in future.

  20. On-farm energy flow in grape orchards

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Karimi; Hossein Moghaddam

    2018-01-01

    Efficient use of energy is an important step toward enhancing the sustainability of agricultural systems. In this study, we evaluated the energy balance of grape orchards in Shahriar, Iran. We collected information of energy input and energy output in 120 grape orchards through face to face questionnaires. This information was further used to evaluate net energy, energy use efficiency, energy intensity, and energy productivity in these orchards. The total energy used in grape orchards was 317...

  1. Protection of safety-relevant information in distributed energy information systems; Schutz sicherheitsrelevanter Informationen in verteilten Energieinformationssystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beenken, Petra

    2010-07-01

    encryption systems and a corresponding separated and decentralized key management. The ENERTRUST security model allows people to identify their security relevant data and the need of protection of this data by reasoning. Moreover it allows people to make a definition of a suitable - that means a conflict free - protection measurement as an encryption system. Furthermore the security model mentions authentification operations for a secure key exchange and the model gives an opportunity to find out which subjects need an access to which energy data.

  2. New statistical methodology, mathematical models, and data bases relevant to the assessment of health impacts of energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginevan, M.E.; Collins, J.J.; Brown, C.D.; Carnes, B.A.; Curtiss, J.B.; Devine, N.

    1981-01-01

    The present research develops new statistical methodology, mathematical models, and data bases of relevance to the assessment of health impacts of energy technologies, and uses these to identify, quantify, and pedict adverse health effects of energy related pollutants. Efforts are in five related areas including: (1) evaluation and development of statistical procedures for the analysis of death rate data, disease incidence data, and large scale data sets; (2) development of dose response and demographic models useful in the prediction of the health effects of energy technologies; (3) application of our method and models to analyses of the health risks of energy production; (4) a reanalysis of the Tri-State leukemia survey data, focusing on the relationship between myelogenous leukemia risk and diagnostic x-ray exposure; and (5) investigation of human birth weights as a possible early warning system for the effects of environmental pollution

  3. Energy resources' utilization in organic and conventional vineyards: Energy flow, greenhouse gas emissions and biofuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavargiris, Stefanos E.; Mamolos, Andreas P.; Tsatsarelis, Constantinos A.; Nikolaidou, Anna E.; Kalburtji, Kiriaki L.

    2009-01-01

    An energy analysis, in conventional and organic vineyards, combined with ethanol production and greenhouse gas emissions, is useful in evaluating present situation and deciding best management strategies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the differences in the energy flow between organic and conventional vineyards in three locations, to calculate CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O-emissions based on the used fossil energy and to explore if wine industry wastes can be used to extract bioethanol. The data were collected through personal interviews with farmers during 2004-2005. Eighteen farmers, who owned vineyards about 1 ha each, were randomly selected to participate in this study [(3 conventional and 3 organic) x 3 locations]. The means averaged over all locations for fertilizer application, plant protection products application, transportation, harvesting, labor, machinery, fuels, plant protections products and tools energy inputs, total energy inputs, outputs (grapes), outputs (grapes + shoots), grape yield, man hour, pomace and ethanol from pomace were significantly higher in conventional than in organic vineyards, while the opposite occurred for the pruning. Means averaged over two farming systems for harvesting, tools energy inputs, energy outputs (grapes), grape yield, pomace and ethanol from pomace were significantly higher at location A, followed by location C and location B. Finally, for irrigation, the means averaged over the two farming systems were significantly lower at location C. Greenhouse gas emissions were significant lower in organic than in conventional vineyards. The results show a clear response of energy inputs to energy outputs that resulted from the farming system and location.

  4. The Energy Deposition Pattern as the Unconventional Strangelet Signature and its Relevance to the Castor Calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelis, A.L.S.; Bartke, J.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Wlodarczyk, Z.

    1998-07-01

    It has been shown, by GEANT simulations, that the energy deposition pattern in deep calorimeters could be the spectacular and unconventional signature of different kinds of stable and unstable strangelets. The CASTOR calorimeter is shown to be the appropriate tool for detection of strongly penetrating objects, such as strangelets possibly produced in the baryon-rich region in central Pb-Pb collisions at LHC energies. (author)

  5. Relevance of Clean Coal Technology for India’s Energy Security: A Policy Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Amit; Tiwari, Vineet; Vishwanathan, Saritha

    2017-07-01

    Climate change mitigation regimes are expected to impose constraints on the future use of fossil fuels in order to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In 2015, 41% of total final energy consumption and 64% of power generation in India came from coal. Although almost a sixth of the total coal based thermal power generation is now super critical pulverized coal technology, the average CO2 emissions from the Indian power sector are 0.82 kg-CO2/kWh, mainly driven by coal. India has large domestic coal reserves which give it adequate energy security. There is a need to find options that allow the continued use of coal while considering the need for GHG mitigation. This paper explores options of linking GHG emission mitigation and energy security from 2000 to 2050 using the AIM/Enduse model under Business-as-Usual scenario. Our simulation analysis suggests that advanced clean coal technologies options could provide promising solutions for reducing CO2 emissions by improving energy efficiencies. This paper concludes that integrating climate change security and energy security for India is possible with a large scale deployment of advanced coal combustion technologies in Indian energy systems along with other measures.

  6. Energy principle for excitations in plasmas with counterstreaming electron flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Atul; Shukla, Chandrasekhar; Das, Amita; Kaw, Predhiman

    2018-05-01

    A relativistic electron beam propagating through plasma induces a return electron current in the system. Such a system of interpenetrating forward and return electron current is susceptible to a host of instabilities. The physics of such instabilities underlies the conversion of the flow kinetic energy to the electromagnetic field energy. Keeping this in view, an energy principle analysis has been enunciated in this paper. Such analyses have been widely utilized earlier in the context of conducting fluids described by MHD model [I. B. Bernstein et al., Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 244(1236), 17-40 (1958)]. Lately, such an approach has been employed for the electrostatic two stream instability for the electron beam plasma system [C. N. Lashmore-Davies, Physics of Plasmas 14(9), 092101 (2007)]. In contrast, it has been shown here that even purely growing mode like Weibel/current filamentation instability for the electron beam plasma system is amenable to such a treatment. The treatment provides an understanding of the energetics associated with the growing mode. The growth rate expression has also been obtained from it. Furthermore, it has been conclusively demonstrated in this paper that for identical values of S4=∑αn0 αv0α 2/n0γ0 α, the growth rate is higher when the counterstreaming beams are symmetric (i.e. S3 = ∑αn0αv 0α/n0γ0α = 0) compared to the case when the two beams are asymmetric (i.e. when S3 is finite). Here, v 0α, n0α and γ0α are the equilibrium velocity, electron density and the relativistic factor for the electron species `α' respectively and n0 = ∑αn0α is the total electron density. Particle - In - Cell simulations have been employed to show that the saturated amplitude of the field energy is also higher in the symmetric case.

  7. NELCAS, an efficient and relevant tool to assess key environmental indicators for nuclear energy - 5334

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourg, S.; Poinssot, C.; Ouvrier, N.; Serp, J.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Nuclear energy is anticipated to be one of the possible energy sources which can allow the production of energy at high load with a high level of reliability without significant impact on the environment, specifically in terms of green-house gases. It could therefore promote the mitigation of the anticipated global climate change. However, nuclear energy is regularly questioned about its overall environmental impact and footprint, in particular after the Fukushima accident. However, very little information is available on the actual footprint of current and future nuclear systems. In order to bring insights on this issue, we developed a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) simulation tool NELCAS based on the French nuclear system which allows the calculation of representative key environmental indicators and potential impact indicators for the whole nuclear systems. Indicators were chosen based on their occurrence in literature. Calculations were performed while considering the whole fuel cycle from ore-mining to geological repository and for each of the plant, the contribution from their construction, their operation and their future cleaning and dismantling. Transports were also considered all along the fuel cycle. All the matters and energy fluxes were considered and normalized versus the electric production. Whenever it is possible, actual and recent data were collected. In particular we widely used the Transparency and Safety Annual reports issued for each fuel cycle plant in France. Finally, statistical influence of the severe accidents was also considered based on the recent Fukushima accident. This presentation will detail the methodology and the overall results obtained for the different indicators. A specific emphasis will be given on the relative benefice of the nuclear energy by comparison to other energy sources. (authors)

  8. The relevance of global energy governance for Arab countries: The case of Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, Kerstin; Zejli, Driss; Taenzler, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Global climate and energy governance have led to the creation of a wide range of international and regional institutions, initiatives and financial mechanisms dedicated to fostering renewable energies. Furthermore, a low-carbon economy has evolved in recent years. The objective of this paper is to assess the potential benefits and merits of these institutions, initiatives and mechanisms from the perspective of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The central questions are if and how these organizations, initiatives and finance mechanisms could support a country from MENA in its efforts to implement large-scale capacities for renewable energy production. For this purpose, Morocco was chosen as a case study. The findings in this paper indicate that the existing institutions and financial mechanisms do not sum up to a coordinated governance approach, although the main needs of a country or region appear to be addressed. The existing institutions and financial mechanisms vary significantly in their ability to support countries, especially those taking the lead in renewable energy implementation. - Research highlights: → A coordinated governance approach is missing for the encouragement of renewable energy application. → Existing institutions and financial mechanisms vary significantly in their ability to support countries. → Front runner countries, such as Morocco, may not find all of their needs adequately addressed.

  9. Energy flow and the “grassification” of desert shrublands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Julio L.

    2015-01-01

    In our directionally and continuously changing world, history still matters, and it does so in increasingly novel and important ways. Human adaptation to global change will rely heavily on robust baselines of historic environmental variability and detailed understanding of how both past and modern ecosystems have responded to both individual and multiple stressors. The question of global change has motivated an upsurge in paleoecological studies that span the late Quaternary and the modern era, and has inspired a growing consideration of time as a fundamental axis in ecology (1). A major challenge in developing pertinent ecological baselines remains how to fuse, into continuous time series, observations and experiments from living systems with paleoecological reconstructions from the same sites (2, 3). Tracing and disentangling complex responses to environmental stress from paleological to present-day communities is especially daunting; for example, how climate change; accelerated land use; and biological invasions are influencing the flows of water, nutrients, and energy. The paper by Terry and Rowe in PNAS (4) is a shining example of how modern ecology and paleoecology can be spliced together to decipher how ecological processes unfold over time scales inaccessible to direct observation or experimentation, and how they can be disrupted by human impacts.

  10. Energy policy framework developments in industrialised countries. Some observations on the relevancy for China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, J.C.; Boots, M.G.; Van den Heuij, H.J.F.P.; Van der Linden, N.H.; Van Sambeek, E.J.W.; Wals, A.F.

    2001-03-01

    Since more than two decades, the Chinese government is guiding a process of gradually introducing more market-oriented policies. China's imminent accession to the World Trade Organisation has speeded up this process. During the preparation of the 10th Five-Year Development Plan for the energy sector, the question arose as to whether recent developments in the energy sector in the industrialised countries, especially in Europe, may provide useful insights into the future policy options for the Chinese energy sector for further consideration. Therefore, ECN has been requested to provide a broad overview of recent major developments in the energy sectors of industrialised countries based on some specific questions outlined by the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of the State Development Planning Commission (SDPC). This report compiles contributions prepared by ECN - presented at a workshop on 10 November, 2000, in Beijing, hosted by ERI - and provides further references. China's impending accession to the WTO will further highlight the urgency of both long-term cost competitiveness of energy services and energy supply security. Social sustainability raises the issue that with phasing out less competitive or environmentally harmful sources of energy supply, many jobs in the affected energy subsectors -especially in China's coal industry - may hang in the balance. The challenge is how the macroeconomic benefits of rationalising the energy industries can be channelled into boosting alternative economic activities in adversely affected areas and how to raise the qualifications of the labour force that has become idle as a result of the energy supply transition. Environmental sustainability issues relate to ways to internalise local (and regional), and global external environmental costs and benefits into the decision-making processes in China. This might be achieved by market-oriented (pricing) or by command and control instruments (e.g. mandatory energy efficiency and

  11. The macro economic relevance of renewable energy sources for Switzerland; Volkswirtschaftliche Bedeutung erneuerbarer Energien fuer die Schweiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nathani, C.; Schmid, C.; Rieser, A.; Ruetter, H. [Ruetter und Partner, Rueschlikon (Switzerland); Bernath, K.; Felten, N. von [Ernst Basler und Partner, Zollikon (Switzerland); Walz, R.; Marscheider-Weidemann, F. [Fraunhofer Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    This study analyses the economic relevance of renewable energy in Switzerland. In 2010 the enterprises in the renewable energy sector generated a gross value added of 4.8 bn CHF (equalling 0.9% of Swiss GDP). Employment in this sector approximated 22,800 fulltime jobs (0.6% of total Swiss employment). Including supply chain companies, 1.5% of Swiss GDP and 1.2% of total employment can be related to the use of renewable energy. Exports of renewable energy related goods and services equalled 3.2 bn CHF. Since 2000 the Swiss renewable energy sector has experienced an above-average annual growth of more than 4%. Its potential development until the year 2020 was studied with two scenarios. In the policy scenario, that assumes additional policy measures for renewable energy promotion, direct value added of the renewable energy sector would amount to 6.4 bn CHF (+33%), direct employment would increase to 29,200 fulltime jobs (+28%, gross effects resp.). In the more conservative baseline scenario, growth would be much weaker, but still slightly stronger than anticipated for the average economy. (authors)

  12. Measurements of Overtopping Flow Time Series on the Wave Dragon, Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2009-01-01

    A study of overtopping flow series on the Wave Dragon prototype, a low crested device designed to maximise flow, in a real sea, is presented. This study aims to fill the gap in the literature on time series of flow overtopping low crested structures. By comparing to a simulated flow the character......A study of overtopping flow series on the Wave Dragon prototype, a low crested device designed to maximise flow, in a real sea, is presented. This study aims to fill the gap in the literature on time series of flow overtopping low crested structures. By comparing to a simulated flow...... the characteristics of the overtopping flow are discussed and the simulation algorithm is tested. Measured data is shown from a storm build up in October 2006, from theWave Dragon prototype situated in an inland sea in Northern Denmark. This wave energy converter extracts energy from the waves, by funnelling them...

  13. Control and distribution of electrical energy as mirrored by the relevant VDE regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, E [Metzenauer und Jung G.m.b.H., Wuppertal (Germany, F.R.)

    1977-01-01

    The essay deals with the regulations issued by the VDE in the fields of electrical energy distribution and control on national and international level. Starting from an interesting historical survey the author deals with VDE stipulations, introduces new control systems and explains the latest switching units.

  14. Relevance of behavioral and social models to the study of consumer energy decision making and behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, B.A.

    1980-11-01

    This report reviews social and behavioral science models and techniques for their possible use in understanding and predicting consumer energy decision making and behaviors. A number of models and techniques have been developed that address different aspects of the decision process, use different theoretical bases and approaches, and have been aimed at different audiences. Three major areas of discussion were selected: (1) models of adaptation to social change, (2) decision making and choice, and (3) diffusion of innovation. Within these three areas, the contributions of psychologists, sociologists, economists, marketing researchers, and others were reviewed. Five primary components of the models were identified and compared. The components are: (1) situational characteristics, (2) product characteristics, (3) individual characteristics, (4) social influences, and (5) the interaction or decision rules. The explicit use of behavioral and social science models in energy decision-making and behavior studies has been limited. Examples are given of a small number of energy studies which applied and tested existing models in studying the adoption of energy conservation behaviors and technologies, and solar technology.

  15. Some Simple Arguments about Cost Externalization and its Relevance to the Price of Fusion Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budny, R.; Winfree, R.

    1999-01-01

    The primary goal of fusion energy research is to develop a source of energy that is less harmful to the environment than are the present sources. A concern often expressed by critics of fusion research is that fusion energy will never be economically competitive with fossil fuels, which in 1997 provided 75% of the world's energy. And in fact, studies of projected fusion electricity generation generally project fusion costs to be higher than those of conventional methods. Yet it is widely agreed that the environmental costs of fossil fuel use are high. Because these costs aren't included in the market price, and furthermore because many governments subsidize fossil fuel production, fossil fuels seem less expensive than they really are. Here we review some simple arguments about cost externalization which provide a useful background for discussion of energy prices. The collectively self-destructive behavior that is the root of many environmental problems, including fossil fuel use, was termed ''the tragedy of the commons'' by the biologist G. Hardin. Hardin's metaphor is that of a grazing commons that is open to all. Each herdsman, in deciding whether to add a cow to his herd, compares the benefit of doing so, which accrues to him alone, to the cost, which is shared by all the herdsmen using the commons, and therefore adds his cow. In this way individually rational behavior leads to the collective destruction of the shared resource. As Hardin pointed out, pollution is one kind of tragedy of the commons. CO 2 emissions and global warming are in this sense classic tragedies

  16. Investigation of energy-relevant materials with synchrotron X-rays and neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manke, Ingo; Markoetter, Henning; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Grothausmann, Roman; Haas, Sylvio; Thomas, Diana; Hoell, Armin; Genzel, Christoph [Helmholtz Centre Berlin for Materials and Energy, Berlin (Germany); Toetzke, Christian; Banhart, John [Helmholtz Centre Berlin for Materials and Energy, Berlin (Germany); Technische Universitaet Berlin (Germany). Materials Science and Technology; Dawson, Martin [Helmholtz Centre Berlin for Materials and Energy, Berlin (Germany); School of Computing, Science and Engineering, University of Salford (United Kingdom); Hartnig, Christoph [Chemetall GmbH, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    Many materials used for energy conversion have a complex structure and chemical composition, knowledge of which is important for both understanding the function of materials and energy conversion systems and for their further development. Synchrotron radiation and neutrons can make an important contribution to understanding the function of such systems. Taking examples from the fields of fuel cells, gas separation membranes, batteries, solar cells, and catalysts, the use of radiography, tomography, diffraction, scattering, and absorption edge spectroscopy is demonstrated. The strength of such methods is the in situ characterization of processes and compositions, and so the focus is on these aspects. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Regulatory Framework for the Maintenance of the Relevant Knowledge in the Atomic Energy Use Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapozhnikov, A.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: In accordance with the Atomic Act of the Russian Federation the employees and workers (personnel) of nuclear industry organisations, who occupy certain positions or perform specific activities in the field of atomic energy use can start to fulfil their duties only after getting a special permit issued by the state safety regulatory authority. Rostechnadzor issues permits for the specified kinds of activities to personal of nuclear facilities, organizations engaged in transportation of nuclear and radioactive materials, and enterprises performing physical protection and account of nuclear materials and radioactive substances. To enforce the provisions of the Atomic Act Rostechnadzor has developed a regulatory system (requirements, procedures and methodology) for continued supervision over the maintenance of the required level of knowledge and adequate understanding of the nuclear safety requirements by the nuclear personnel, depending on the nature of their job duties and work in the sphere of nuclear energy use. The report presents a long-term experience of Rostechnadzor in implementing an effective regulatory system for maintaining an adequate level of knowledge and expertise of personnel of nuclear industry organisations and ensuring a competent workforce in the nuclear energy sector. (author

  18. Low energy incomplete fusion and its relevance to the synthesis of super heavy elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Abhishek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the presence of incomplete fusion at energies around the Coulomb-barrier and to understand its dependence on various entrance-channel parameters, the incomplete fusion fractions have been deduced (i from excitation function measurements for 18O,13,12C+159Tb, and (ii from forward recoil range measurements for 12C+159Tb systems, at low energies (<7MeV/A. The data have been analyzed within the framework of compound nucleus decay, which suggests the production of xn/pxn-channels via complete fusion, as these are found to be well reproduced by PACE4 predictions, while, a significant enhancement in the excitation functions of α-emitting channels has been observed over the theoretical ones, which has been attributed due to the incomplete fusion processes. Further, the incomplete fusion events observed in case of forward recoil ranges have been explained on the basis of the breakup fusion model, where these events may be attributed to the fusion of 8Be and/or 4He from 12C projectile to the target nucleus. For better insight into the underlying dynamics, the deduced fractions of incomplete fusion have been compared with other nearby systems as a function of various entrance channel parameters. The incomplete fusion has been found to be sensitive to the projectile’s energy and alpha-Q-value of the projectile.

  19. Poleward energy transport: is the standard definition physically relevant at all time scales?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Minyi; Czaja, Arnaud; Graversen, Rune; Tailleux, Remi

    2018-03-01

    Poleward energy transport in the atmosphere and oceans constitutes an important branch of the global energy budget, and its role in the climate system has been the subject of many studies. In the atmosphere, the transport is affected by "eddies" and large scale meridional cells, both with zero net mass transport across latitude circles, but also partly by processes associated with a net transport of mass across latitude circles. The latter must cease to operate in steady state, but they may be significant when time variability of the heat budget is considered. Indeed, examination of reanalysis data on short (daily to monthly) timescales shows that mass variations on these timescales result in surprisingly large fluctuations (in excess of 10^{15} W = 1 PW) in the poleward heat transport. These fluctuations are referred to as "extensive", for they primarily alter the mass integrated energy of the region considered, but not its averaged value. It is suggested that extensive fluctuations mask more meaningful climate signals present in the heat transport variability on monthly and interannual timescales, and a new formulation is proposed to isolate the latter. This new formulation is applied successfully to reanalysis data and climate model simulations.

  20. Conflicts between energy policy as an aspect of overall economic policy and other relevant considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, J. W.

    1977-10-15

    Some of the difficulties which confront New Zealand in devising an appropriate energy policy are evaluated. Certain measures, involving a variety of instruments, intended to further a general aim or aims, embodied in more or less precisely defined objectives, are discussed. Social, economic, political, and technical desiderata and constraints will all be involved in varying degree, and definitive conclusions are unlikely. A further problem is that ends and means may be interdependent. The only certain thing about the future is that it cannot be forecast with any accuracy. This is as true of energy matters as of other things, despite the confidence with which some energy forecasts are made. Confronted with such uncertainty, it is sensible to leave open as many options as possible for as long as possible. More arguably, the unavoidable uncertainty about the future weighs against currently avoidable sacrifices in the interests of generations to come. It is simply not known whether the twenty-first century will judge them to have been worthwhile or not.

  1. Coupling nutrient uptake and energy flow in headwater streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulholland, Patrick J [ORNL; Fellows, Christine [Griffith University, Nathan, Queensland, Australia; Valett, H. Maurice [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Dahm, Cliff [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Thomas, Steve [University of Nebraska

    2006-08-01

    Nutrient cycling and energy flow in ecosystems are tightly linked through the metabolic processes of organisms. Greater uptake of inorganic nutrients is expected to be associated with higher rates of metabolism [gross primary production (GPP) and respiration (R)], due to assimilatory demand of both autotrophs and heterotrophs. However, relationships between uptake and metabolism should vary with the relative contribution of autochthonous and allochthonous sources of organic matter. To investigate the relationship between metabolism and nutrient uptake, we used whole-stream and benthic chamber methods to measure rates of nitrate-nitrogen (NO{sub 3}-N) uptake and metabolism in four headwater streams chosen to span a range of light availability and therefore differing rates of GPP and contributions of autochthonous carbon. We coupled whole-stream metabolism with measures of NO{sub 3}-N uptake conducted repeatedly over the same stream reach during both day and night, as well as incubating benthic sediments under both light and dark conditions. NO{sub 3}-N uptake was generally greater in daylight compared to dark conditions, and although day-night differences in whole-stream uptake were not significant, light-dark differences in benthic chambers were significant at three of the four sites. Estimates of N demand indicated that assimilation by photoautotrophs could account for the majority of NO{sub 3}-N uptake at the two sites with relatively open canopies. Contrary to expectations, photoautotrophs contributed substantially to NO{sub 3}-N uptake even at the two closed-canopy sites, which had low values of GPP/R and relied heavily on allochthonous carbon to fuel R.

  2. High-energy redox-flow batteries with hybrid metal foam electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min-Sik; Lee, Nam-Jin; Lee, Seung-Wook; Kim, Ki Jae; Oh, Duk-Jin; Kim, Young-Jun

    2014-07-09

    A nonaqueous redox-flow battery employing [Co(bpy)3](+/2+) and [Fe(bpy)3](2+/3+) redox couples is proposed for use in large-scale energy-storage applications. We successfully demonstrate a redox-flow battery with a practical operating voltage of over 2.1 V and an energy efficiency of 85% through a rational cell design. By utilizing carbon-coated Ni-FeCrAl and Cu metal foam electrodes, the electrochemical reactivity and stability of the nonaqueous redox-flow battery can be considerably enhanced. Our approach intoduces a more efficient conversion of chemical energy into electrical energy and enhances long-term cell durability. The cell exhibits an outstanding cyclic performance of more than 300 cycles without any significant loss of energy efficiency. Considering the increasing demands for efficient energy storage, our achievement provides insight into a possible development pathway for nonaqueous redox-flow batteries with high energy densities.

  3. Astrophysical relevance of the low-energy dipole strength of 206Pb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonchev, A. P.; Tsoneva, N.; Goriely, S.; Bhatia, C.; Arnold, C. W.; Hammond, S. L.; Kelley, J. H.; Kwan, E.; Lenske, H.; Piekarewicz, J.; Raut, R.; Rusev, G.; Shizuma, T.; Tornow, W.

    2018-05-01

    The dipole strength of 206Pb was studied below the neutron separation energy using photon scattering experiments at the HIGS facility. Utilizing the technique of nuclear resonance fluorescence with 100% linearly-polarized photon beams, the spins, parities, branching ratios and decay widths of excited states in 206Pb from 4.9 - 8.1 MeV have been measured. The new experimental information is used to reliably predict the neutron capture cross section of 205Pb, an important branch point nucleus along the s-process path of nucleosynthesis.

  4. Low-energy ion bombardment of frozen bacterial spores and its relevance to interplanetary space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuleta, M.; Gabla, L.; Szkarlat, A.

    2005-01-01

    The panspermia hypothesis is concerned with the dissemination of life in space in the form of simple micro-organisms. During an interplanetary journey the micro-organisms are subjected to the action of, among others, the solar wind. We have simulated experimentally such conditions bombarding frozen bacterial spores with low-energy hydrogen ions. On the basis of the results obtained and our earlier research, a new look at the panspermia hypothesis is discussed. The general conclusion is that unprotected naked spores, their conglomerates and protected spores can survive attack of the solar wind, although to various degrees. (authors)

  5. Low-energy ion bombardment of frozen bacterial spores and its relevance to interplanetary space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuleta, M.; Gabla, L. [Jagiellonian Univ., Institute of Physics, Cracow (Poland); Szkarlat, A. [Clinical Children' s Hospital of the Jagiellonian Univ., Medical College, Lab. of Microbiology, Cracow (Poland)

    2005-04-01

    The panspermia hypothesis is concerned with the dissemination of life in space in the form of simple micro-organisms. During an interplanetary journey the micro-organisms are subjected to the action of, among others, the solar wind. We have simulated experimentally such conditions bombarding frozen bacterial spores with low-energy hydrogen ions. On the basis of the results obtained and our earlier research, a new look at the panspermia hypothesis is discussed. The general conclusion is that unprotected naked spores, their conglomerates and protected spores can survive attack of the solar wind, although to various degrees. (authors)

  6. Astrophysical relevance of the low-energy dipole strength of 206Pb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonchev A.P.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The dipole strength of 206Pb was studied below the neutron separation energy using photon scattering experiments at the HIGS facility. Utilizing the technique of nuclear resonance fluorescence with 100% linearly-polarized photon beams, the spins, parities, branching ratios and decay widths of excited states in 206Pb from 4.9 - 8.1 MeV have been measured. The new experimental information is used to reliably predict the neutron capture cross section of 205Pb, an important branch point nucleus along the s-process path of nucleosynthesis.

  7. Commercial agreements and documentation relevant for project financing renewable energy schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Renewable energy projects covered by the NFFO Orders are distinguished by the fact that the key contract in any project is in effect a standard form contract in the form of the Power Purchase Agreement with the Non-Fossil Purchasing Agency Limited (''NFPA''). However our research has indicated that general contract standardization is unlikely to be practicable in the short term, although it is thought that the production of a range of specimen documents in the context of this study with input from various representative industry associations could lead to a more consistent approach to the negotiation and structuring of projects and facilitate the presentation of projects at the funding stage. We have produced a suite of documents which are specimens of the sorts of agreements that lenders are likely to find acceptable. The range of documents which we have produced covers the principal contractual arrangements for a typical renewable energy project (including full text or abridged agreements), for a land lease and for agreements for design and build, operation and maintenance, waste supply, wind lease, landfill gas, and forestry residue supply. We have produced an insurance scope of cover and financing documentation including a due diligence check list, term sheet, and a facility agreement with related security documentation. (author)

  8. Effect of local energy supply to a hypersonic flow on the drag of bodies with different nose bluntness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borzov, V.Yu.; Rybka, I.V.; Yur'ev, A.S.

    1995-01-01

    Parameters of the axisymmetric flow around bodies with different bluntness are compared in the case of constant energy supply to the main hypersonic flow. Flow structures, drag coefficients, and expenditure of energy on overcoming drag are analyzed with the effect of thermal energy on the flow taken into account for different bodies with equal volume

  9. High-energy density nonaqueous all redox flow lithium battery enabled with a polymeric membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chuankun; Pan, Feng; Zhu, Yun Guang; Huang, Qizhao; Lu, Li; Wang, Qing

    2015-11-01

    Redox flow batteries (RFBs) are considered one of the most promising large-scale energy storage technologies. However, conventional RFBs suffer from low energy density due to the low solubility of the active materials in electrolyte. On the basis of the redox targeting reactions of battery materials, the redox flow lithium battery (RFLB) demonstrated in this report presents a disruptive approach to drastically enhancing the energy density of flow batteries. With LiFePO4 and TiO2 as the cathodic and anodic Li storage materials, respectively, the tank energy density of RFLB could reach ~500 watt-hours per liter (50% porosity), which is 10 times higher than that of a vanadium redox flow battery. The cell exhibits good electrochemical performance under a prolonged cycling test. Our prototype RFLB full cell paves the way toward the development of a new generation of flow batteries for large-scale energy storage.

  10. High–energy density nonaqueous all redox flow lithium battery enabled with a polymeric membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chuankun; Pan, Feng; Zhu, Yun Guang; Huang, Qizhao; Lu, Li; Wang, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Redox flow batteries (RFBs) are considered one of the most promising large-scale energy storage technologies. However, conventional RFBs suffer from low energy density due to the low solubility of the active materials in electrolyte. On the basis of the redox targeting reactions of battery materials, the redox flow lithium battery (RFLB) demonstrated in this report presents a disruptive approach to drastically enhancing the energy density of flow batteries. With LiFePO4 and TiO2 as the cathodic and anodic Li storage materials, respectively, the tank energy density of RFLB could reach ~500 watt-hours per liter (50% porosity), which is 10 times higher than that of a vanadium redox flow battery. The cell exhibits good electrochemical performance under a prolonged cycling test. Our prototype RFLB full cell paves the way toward the development of a new generation of flow batteries for large-scale energy storage. PMID:26702440

  11. Using Inertial Fusion Implosions to Measure the T+^{3}He Fusion Cross Section at Nucleosynthesis-Relevant Energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylstra, A B; Herrmann, H W; Johnson, M Gatu; Kim, Y H; Frenje, J A; Hale, G; Li, C K; Rubery, M; Paris, M; Bacher, A; Brune, C R; Forrest, C; Glebov, V Yu; Janezic, R; McNabb, D; Nikroo, A; Pino, J; Sangster, T C; Séguin, F H; Seka, W; Sio, H; Stoeckl, C; Petrasso, R D

    2016-07-15

    Light nuclei were created during big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). Standard BBN theory, using rates inferred from accelerator-beam data, cannot explain high levels of ^{6}Li in low-metallicity stars. Using high-energy-density plasmas we measure the T(^{3}He,γ)^{6}Li reaction rate, a candidate for anomalously high ^{6}Li production; we find that the rate is too low to explain the observations, and different than values used in common BBN models. This is the first data directly relevant to BBN, and also the first use of laboratory plasmas, at comparable conditions to astrophysical systems, to address a problem in nuclear astrophysics.

  12. Fundamental Studies of Charge Migration and Delocalization Relevant to Solar Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael J. Therien

    2012-06-01

    This program aimed to understand the molecular-level principles by which complex chemical systems carry out photochemical charge separation, transport, and storage, and how these insights could impact the design of practical solar energy conversion and storage devices. Towards these goals, this program focused on: (1) carrying out fundamental mechanistic and transient dynamical studies of proton-coupled electron-transfer (PCET) reactions; (2) characterizing and interrogating via electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic methods novel conjugated materials that feature large charge delocalization lengths; and (3) exploring excitation delocalization and migration, as well as polaron transport properties of meso-scale assemblies that are capable of segregating light-harvesting antennae, nanoscale wire-like conduction elements, and distinct oxidizing and reducing environments.

  13. Design and relevant sample calculations for a neutral particle energy diagnostic based on time of flight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecconello, M

    1999-05-01

    Extrap T2 will be equipped with a neutral particles energy diagnostic based on time of flight technique. In this report, the expected neutral fluxes for Extrap T2 are estimated and discussed in order to determine the feasibility and the limits of such diagnostic. These estimates are based on a 1D model of the plasma. The input parameters of such model are the density and temperature radial profiles of electrons and ions and the density of neutrals at the edge and in the centre of the plasma. The atomic processes included in the model are the charge-exchange and the electron-impact ionization processes. The results indicate that the plasma attenuation length varies from a/5 to a, a being the minor radius. Differential neutral fluxes, as well as the estimated power losses due to CX processes (2 % of the input power), are in agreement with experimental results obtained in similar devices. The expected impurity influxes vary from 10{sup 14} to 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The neutral particles detection and acquisition systems are discussed. The maximum detectable energy varies from 1 to 3 keV depending on the flight distances d. The time resolution is 0.5 ms. Output signals from the waveform recorder are foreseen in the range 0-200 mV. An 8-bit waveform recorder having 2 MHz sampling frequency and 100K sample of memory capacity is the minimum requirement for the acquisition system 20 refs, 19 figs.

  14. Isospin effects on pt-differential flow in heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansal, Rubina; Jain, Anupriya; Kumar, Suneel

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to study the role of isospin degree of freedom in heavy-ion collisions through the transverse momentum (p t ), neutron to proton ratio and system mass dependence of p t -differential transverse flow. Our study shows that (p t )-differential transverse flow dependence can act as sensitive probe to study symmetry energy and its density dependence compared to the energy of vanishing flow. Symmetry energy and its density dependence play a dominant role over the isospin-dependence of nucleon–nucleon cross-section at Fermi energy. (author)

  15. Mapping the Energy Flow from Supply to End Use in three Geographic Regions of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischke, Peggy; Xiong, Weiming

    China's past economic development policies resulted in different energy infrastructure patterns across China. There is a long tradition in analysing and discussing regional disparities of China's economy. For more than 20 years, regional differences in GDP, industrial outputs, household income...... and consumption were analysed across China's provincial units. Regional disparities in China's current energy flow are rarely visualised and quantified from a comprehensive, system-wide perspective that is tracing all major fuels and energy carriers in supply, transformation and final end-use in different sectors....... A few national and provincial energy flow diagrams of China were developed since 2000, althoug with limited detail on major regional disparities and inter-regional fuel flows. No regional energy flow charts are yet available for East-, Central- and West-China. This study maps and quantifies energy...

  16. Oregon OCS seafloor mapping: Selected lease blocks relevant to renewable energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Hemery, Lenaïg G.; Henkel, Sarah K.

    2017-05-23

    In 2014 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) entered into Intra-agency agreement M13PG00037 to map an area of the Oregon Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) off of Coos Bay, Oregon, under consideration for development of a floating wind energy farm. The BOEM requires seafloor mapping and site characterization studies in order to evaluate the impact of seafloor and sub-seafloor conditions on the installation, operation, and structural integrity of proposed renewable energy projects, as well as to assess the potential effects of construction and operations on archaeological resources. The mission of the USGS is to provide geologic, topographic, and hydrologic information that contributes to the wise management of the Nation's natural resources and that promotes the health, safety, and well being of the people. This information consists of maps, databases, and descriptions and analyses of the water, energy, and mineral resources, land surface, underlying geologic structure, and dynamic processes of the earth.For the Oregon OCS study, the USGS acquired multibeam echo sounder and seafloor video data surrounding the proposed development site, which is 95 km2 in area and 15 miles offshore from Coos Bay. The development site had been surveyed by Solmar Hydro Inc. in 2013 under a contract with WindFloat Pacific. The USGS subsequently produced a bathymetry digital elevation model and a backscatter intensity grid that were merged with existing data collected by the contractor. The merged grids were published along with visual observations of benthic geo-habitat from the video data in an associated USGS data release (Cochrane and others, 2015).This report includes the results of analysis of the video data conducted by Oregon State University and the geo-habitat interpretation of the multibeam echo sounder (MBES) data conducted by the USGS. MBES data was published in Cochrane and others (2015). Interpretive data associated with this

  17. Superresolution of a compact neutron spectrometer at energies relevant for fusion diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reginatto, M.; Zimbal, A.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to achieve resolution that is better than the instrument resolution (i.e., superresolution) is well known in optics, where it has been extensively studied. Unfortunately, there are only a handful of theoretical studies concerning superresolution of particle spectrometers, even though experimentalists are familiar with the enhancement of resolution that is achievable when appropriate methods of data analysis are used, such as maximum entropy and Bayesian methods. Knowledge of the superresolution factor is in many cases important. For example, in applications of neutron spectrometry to fusion diagnostics, the temperature of a burning plasma is an important physical parameter which may be inferred from the width of the peak of the neutron energy spectrum, and the ability to determine this width depends on the superresolution factor. Kosarev has derived an absolute limit for resolution enhancement using arguments based on a well known theorem of Shannon. Most calculations of superresolution factors in the literature, however, are based on the assumption of Gaussian, translationally invariant response functions and therefore not directly applicable to neutron spectrometers which typically have response functions not satisfying these requirements. In this work, we develop a procedure that allows us to overcome these difficulties and we derive estimates of superresolution for liquid scintillator spectrometers of a type commonly used for neutron measurements. Theoretical superresolution factors are compared to experimental results.

  18. Experience relevant to safety obtained from reactor decommissioning operations in the French Atomic Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraudel, B.; Langlois, G.

    1979-01-01

    From among the nuclear facilities constructed in France the authors cite eight large reactors, ranging from critical assemblies to power reactors, that have been finally shut-down since 1965. A brief account is given of the way in which the various operations were carried out after the final control rod drop, a distinction being drawn between the shut-down proper and the containment and dismantling work. A description is also given, from the technical and regulatory standpoint, of the final stage attained, and mention is made of French safety arrangements and of the part played by the safety services during decommissioning operations. Among the lessons derived from French experience, the authors mention the completion of operations without any serious safety problems, and with guarantees for the protection of personnel and the population as a whole, by conventional techniques; the advantage of planning decommissioning operations from the very beginning of construction of the facilities; and the importance of filing descriptive documents. In view of the experience gained, the French Atomic Energy Commission has devised internal procedures for facilitating the application of regulations governing the shut-down and decommissioning phases, which are aimed at preserving surveillance procedures similar to those in force during normal operation. (author)

  19. Survey of Laser Markets Relevant to Inertial Fusion Energy Drivers, information for National Research Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayramian, A.J.; Deri, R.J.; Erlandson, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Development of a new technology for commercial application can be significantly accelerated by leveraging related technologies used in other markets. Synergies across multiple application domains attract research and development (R and D) talent - widening the innovation pipeline - and increases the market demand in common components and subsystems to provide performance improvements and cost reductions. For these reasons, driver development plans for inertial fusion energy (IFE) should consider the non-fusion technology base that can be lveraged for application to IFE. At this time, two laser driver technologies are being proposed for IFE: solid-state lasers (SSLs) and KrF gas (excimer) lasers. This document provides a brief survey of organizations actively engaged in these technologies. This is intended to facilitate comparison of the opportunities for leveraging the larger technical community for IFE laser driver development. They have included tables that summarize the commercial organizations selling solid-state and KrF lasers, and a brief summary of organizations actively engaged in R and D on these technologies.

  20. Optimal Power Flow in Microgrids with Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levron, Yoash; Guerrero, Josep M.; Beck, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    Energy storage may improve power management in microgrids that include renewable energy sources. The storage devices match energy generation to consumption, facilitating a smooth and robust energy balance within the microgrid. This paper addresses the optimal control of the microgrid’s energy...... storage devices. Stored energy is controlled to balance power generation of renewable sources to optimize overall power consumption at the microgrid point of common coupling. Recent works emphasize constraints imposed by the storage device itself, such as limited capacity and internal losses. However...

  1. Using Sankey diagrams to map energy flow from primary fuel to end use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanyam, Veena; Paramshivan, Deepak; Kumar, Amit; Mondal, Md. Alam Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy flows from both supply and demand sides shown through Sankey diagrams. • Energy flows from reserves to energy end uses for primary and secondary fuels shown. • Five main energy demand sectors in Alberta are analyzed. • In residential/commercial sectors, highest energy consumption is in space heating. • In the industrial sector, highest energy use is in the mining subsector. - Abstract: The energy sector is the largest contributor to gross domestic product (GDP), income, employment, and government revenue in both developing and developed nations. But the energy sector has a significant environmental footprint due to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Efficient production, conversion, and use of energy resources are key factors for reducing the environmental footprint. Hence it is necessary to understand energy flows from both the supply and the demand sides. Most energy analyses focus on improving energy efficiency broadly without considering the aggregate energy flow. We developed Sankey diagrams that map energy flow for both the demand and supply sides for the province of Alberta, Canada. The diagrams will help policy/decision makers, researchers, and others to understand energy flow from reserves through to final energy end uses for primary and secondary fuels in the five main energy demand sectors in Alberta: residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, and transportation. The Sankey diagrams created for this study show total energy consumption, useful energy, and energy intensities of various end-use devices. The Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP) model is used in this study. The model showed that Alberta’s total input energy in the five demand sectors was 189 PJ, 186 PJ, 828.5PJ, 398 PJ, and 50.83 PJ, respectively. On the supply side, the total energy input and output were found to be 644.84 PJ and 239 PJ, respectively. These results, along with the associated energy flows were depicted pictorially using

  2. TEMPO-based catholyte for high-energy density nonaqueous redox flow batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaoliang; Xu, Wu; Vijayakumar, Murugesan; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Liu, Tianbiao; Sprenkle, Vincent; Wang, Wei

    2014-12-03

    A TEMPO-based non-aqueous electrolyte with the TEMPO concentration as high as 2.0 m is demonstrated as a high-energy-density catholyte for redox flow battery applications. With a hybrid anode, Li|TEMPO flow cells using this electrolyte deliver an energy efficiency of ca. 70% and an impressively high energy density of 126 W h L(-1) . © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Energy efficient SDN commodity switch based practical flow forwarding method

    KAUST Repository

    Alghadhban, Amer Mohammad JarAlla; Shihada, Basem

    2016-01-01

    -table size and the number of control messages. Consequently, the power consumption of network switches is in orders of magnitude less than other evaluated solutions. It also provides flow management flexibility and scalability. We compare EncPath with single

  4. Energy flow in high speed perforation and cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Thiel, M.

    1980-01-01

    It is demonstrated that effects of long rod penetrators on targets can be modeled by introducing a high pressure (energy) column on the penetration path in place of the projectile. This energy can be obtained from the kinetic energy of the penetrator; the equations of state of the materials used and a Bernoulli penetration condition. The model is supported by detailed hydro calculations

  5. Intraocular pressure, blood pressure, and retinal blood flow autoregulation: a mathematical model to clarify their relationship and clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidoboni, Giovanna; Harris, Alon; Cassani, Simone; Arciero, Julia; Siesky, Brent; Amireskandari, Annahita; Tobe, Leslie; Egan, Patrick; Januleviciene, Ingrida; Park, Joshua

    2014-05-29

    This study investigates the relationship between intraocular pressure (IOP) and retinal hemodynamics and predicts how arterial blood pressure (BP) and blood flow autoregulation (AR) influence this relationship. A mathematical model is developed to simulate blood flow in the central retinal vessels and retinal microvasculature as current flowing through a network of resistances and capacitances. Variable resistances describe active and passive diameter changes due to AR and IOP. The model is validated by using clinically measured values of retinal blood flow and velocity. The model simulations for six theoretical patients with high, normal, and low BP (HBP-, NBP-, LBP-) and functional or absent AR (-wAR, -woAR) are compared with clinical data. The model predicts that NBPwAR and HBPwAR patients can regulate retinal blood flow (RBF) as IOP varies between 15 and 23 mm Hg and between 23 and 29 mm Hg, respectively, whereas LBPwAR patients do not adequately regulate blood flow if IOP is 15 mm Hg or higher. Hemodynamic alterations would be noticeable only if IOP changes occur outside of the regulating range, which, most importantly, depend on BP. The model predictions are consistent with clinical data for IOP reduction via surgery and medications and for cases of induced IOP elevation. The theoretical model results suggest that the ability of IOP to induce noticeable changes in retinal hemodynamics depends on the levels of BP and AR of the individual. These predictions might help to explain the inconsistencies found in the clinical literature concerning the relationship between IOP and retinal hemodynamics. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  6. Suppression of chaos via control of energy flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shengli; Ma, Jun; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    2018-03-01

    Continuous energy supply is critical and important to support oscillating behaviour; otherwise, the oscillator will die. For nonlinear and chaotic circuits, enough energy supply is also important to keep electric devices working. In this paper, Hamilton energy is calculated for dimensionless dynamical system (e.g., the chaotic Lorenz system) using Helmholtz's theorem. The Hamilton energy is considered as a new variable and then the dynamical system is controlled by using the scheme of energy feedback. It is found that chaos can be suppressed even when intermittent feedback scheme is applied. This scheme is effective to control chaos and to stabilise other dynamical systems.

  7. Computational Flow Field in Energy Efficient Engine (EEE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Kenji; Moder, Jeff; Liou, Meng-Sing

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, preliminary results for the recently-updated Open National Combustion Code (Open NCC) as applied to the EEE are presented. The comparison between two different numerical schemes, the standard Jameson-Schmidt-Turkel (JST) scheme and the advection upstream splitting method (AUSM), is performed for the cold flow and the reacting flow calculations using the RANS. In the cold flow calculation, the AUSM scheme predicts a much stronger reverse flow in the central recirculation zone. In the reacting flow calculation, we test two cases: gaseous fuel injection and liquid spray injection. In the gaseous fuel injection case, the overall flame structures of the two schemes are similar to one another, in the sense that the flame is attached to the main nozzle, but is detached from the pilot nozzle. However, in the exit temperature profile, the AUSM scheme shows a more uniform profile than that of the JST scheme, which is close to the experimental data. In the liquid spray injection case, we expect different flame structures in this scenario. We will give a brief discussion on how two numerical schemes predict the flame structures inside the EEE using different ways to introduce the fuel injection.

  8. The case study of energy flow analysis and strategy in pulp and paper industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hua-Wei; Hsu, Chung-Hsuan; Hong, Gui-Bing

    2012-01-01

    The pulp and paper industry is a significant consumer of fossil energy in the Taiwanese manufacturing sector. The concentration of greenhouse gases (GHG) from manufacturing factory activities and vehicle emissions has increased remarkably. Notable energy savings can be achieved in the pulp and paper industry through energy flow analysis. The aim of this paper is to analyze the energy flow for three major energy consuming mills of the pulp and paper industry in Taiwan to make energy savings. In addition, potential technology options are examined for the capture of some of the energy that is currently lost in the processes and to identify the areas of energy saving potential that could have a large impact across more than one industry. The results of this study can serve as a benchmark for developing a quantified list in terms of energy savings potential and opportunities for improving the efficiency of the pulp and paper industry. - Highlights: ► The aim of this paper was to analyze the energy flow for three pulps and paper firms in Taiwan. ► The results were used as the basis for developing a quantified list in terms of energy savings potential. ► Energy flow analysis results can serve as benchmarks for the current pulp and paper making operations.

  9. LCA of local strategies for energy recovery from waste in England, applied to a large municipal flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunesi, Simonetta

    2011-01-01

    An intense waste management (WM) planning activity is currently undergoing in England to build the infrastructure necessary to treat residual wastes, increase recycling levels and the recovery of energy from waste. From the analyses of local WM strategic and planning documents we have identified the emerging of three different energy recovery strategies: established combustion of residual waste; pre-treatment of residual waste and energy recovery from Solid Recovered Fuel in a dedicated plant, usually assumed to be a gasifier; pre-treatment of residual waste and reliance on the market to accept the 'fuel from waste' so produced. Each energy recovery strategy will result in a different solution in terms of the technology selected; moreover, on the basis of the favoured solution, the total number, scale and location of thermal treatment plants built in England will dramatically change. To support the evaluation and comparison of these three WM strategy in terms of global environmental impacts, energy recovery possibilities and performance with respect to changing 'fuel from waste' market conditions, the LCA comparison of eight alternative WM scenarios for a real case study dealing with a large flow of municipal wastes was performed with the modelling tool WRATE. The large flow of waste modelled allowed to formulate and assess realistic alternative WM scenarios and to design infrastructural systems which are likely to correspond to those submitted for approval to the local authorities. The results show that all alternative scenarios contribute to saving abiotic resources and reducing global warming potential. Particularly relevant to the current English debate, the performance of a scenario was shown to depend not from the thermal treatment technology but from a combination of parameters, among which most relevant are the efficiency of energy recovery processes (both electricity and heat) and the calorific value of residual waste and pre-treated material. The

  10. System Size, Energy, Pseudorapidity, and Centrality Dependence of Elliptic Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alver, B.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Chetluru, V.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Harnarine, I.; Hauer, M.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Li, W.; Lin, W. T.; Loizides, C.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Reed, C.; Richardson, E.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Seals, H.; Sedykh, I.; Smith, C. E.; Stankiewicz, M. A.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Szostak, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Walters, P.; Wenger, E.; Willhelm, D.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wyngaardt, S.; Wysłouch, B.

    2007-06-01

    This Letter presents measurements of the elliptic flow of charged particles as a function of pseudorapidity and centrality from Cu-Cu collisions at 62.4 and 200 GeV using the PHOBOS detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The elliptic flow in Cu-Cu collisions is found to be significant even for the most central events. For comparison with the Au-Au results, it is found that the detailed way in which the collision geometry (eccentricity) is estimated is of critical importance when scaling out system-size effects. A new form of eccentricity, called the participant eccentricity, is introduced which yields a scaled elliptic flow in the Cu-Cu system that has the same relative magnitude and qualitative features as that in the Au-Au system.

  11. Forestry and agriculture in an energy crisis. The flow of energy in Swedish forestry and agriculture in 1956 and 1972

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renborg, U; Uhlin, H E

    1975-01-01

    A report issued by the Energy Committee of the Kungl Skogsoch Landbruksakademi under the chairmanship of U. Renborg (published as Meddelanden Nos. 64 and 65, Institut fur Ekonomi och Statistik, Landburkshogskolan, 1975) is summarized. The flow of resources in both years of comparison is described separately for agriculture and forestry in physical, monetary, and energy terms. Energy input is subdivided into solar energy, direct auxiliary energy (in forestry, chiefly fossil fuel) and indirect auxiliary energy (e.g., fertilizers). Forestry is considered to be still very energy extensive (at 1972 prices, the cost per ha of auxiliary energy was 10% of proceeds vs 18% in agriculture (or 14 vs 384 dr/ha in money terms). Recommendations are made for increasing the input of auxiliary energy (e.g., mechanization and greater use of fertilizers) and for research into its more economic use.

  12. Energy efficient SDN commodity switch based practical flow forwarding method

    KAUST Repository

    AlGhadhban, Amer

    2016-07-04

    Recent SDN researches suffer from over-accumulation of unhealthy flow-load. Instead, we leverage the SDN controller network view to encode the end-to-end path information into the packet address. Our solution EncPath significantly reduces the flow-table size and the number of control messages. Consequently, the power consumption of network switches is in orders of magnitude less than other evaluated solutions. It also provides flow management flexibility and scalability. We compare EncPath with single and multipath routing solutions and single path solution. Also, we operated them in proactive and reactive modes. We find that EncPath flow entries in core switches in a multihomed fat-tree with 144 hosts is approximately 1000 times smaller than Equal-Cost MultiPath (ECMP) and random routing. Additionally, the number of control messages to setup the network is reduced by a factor of 200×. This, consequently, affords data-plane and control-plane devices space to process other tasks. © 2016 IEEE.

  13. Generalized Energy Flow Analysis Considering Electricity Gas and Heat Subsystems in Local-Area Energy Systems Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqi Shi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To alleviate environmental pollution and improve the efficient use of energy, energy systems integration (ESI—covering electric power systems, heat systems and natural gas systems—has become an important trend in energy utilization. The traditional power flow calculation method, with the object as the power system, will prove difficult in meeting the requirements of the coupled energy flow analysis. This paper proposes a generalized energy flow (GEF analysis method which is suitable for an ESI containing electricity, heat and gas subsystems. First, the models of electricity, heat, and natural gas networks in the ESI are established. In view of the complexity of the conventional method to solve the gas network including the compressor, an improved practical equivalent method was adopted based on different control modes. On this basis, a hybrid method combining homotopy and the Newton-Raphson algorithm was executed to compute the nonlinear equations of GEF, and the Jacobi matrix reflecting the coupling relationship of multi-energy was derived considering the grid connected mode and island modes of the power system in the ESI. Finally, the validity of the proposed method in multi-energy flow calculation and the analysis of interacting characteristics was verified using practical cases.

  14. Flow pattern and cleaning performance of a stationary liquid jet operating at conditions relevant for industrial tank cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldung Damkjær, N.; Adler-Nissen, Jens; Jensen, B. B. B.

    2017-01-01

    jet was studied using a 19m3 tank and settings applicable to industrial operations; nozzle internal diameters, dN, of 2–5.5mm, cleaning distances, L, of 80–2490mm, and flow rates, Q, of 0.05–3.0m3h−1. Experimental data and model predictions of the behaviour of the jet when striking an unsoiled surface...

  15. Energy and materials flows in the iron and steel industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparrow, F.T.

    1983-06-01

    Past energy-consumption trends and future energy-conservation opportunities are investigated for the nation's iron and steel industry. It is estimated that, in 1980, the industry directly consumed approximately 2.46 x 10/sup 15/ Btu of energy (roughly 3% of total US energy consumption) to produce 111 million tons of raw steel and to ship 84 million tons of steel products. Direct plus indirect consumption is estimated to be about 3.1 x 10/sup 15/ Btu. Of the set of conservation technologies identified, most are judged to be ready for commercialization if and when the industry's capital formation and profitability problems are solved and the gradual predicted increase in energy prices reduces the payback periods to acceptable levels.

  16. Influence of the nuclear symmetry energy on the collective flows of charged pions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Yong, Gao-Chan; Zhang, Lei; Zuo, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Based on the isospin-dependent Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (IBUU) transport model, we studied charged pion transverse and elliptic flows in semicentral 197Au+197Au collisions at 600 MeV/nucleon. It is found that π+-π- differential transverse flow and the difference of π+ and π- transverse flows almost show no effects of the symmetry energy. Their corresponding elliptic flows are largely affected by the symmetry energy, especially at high transverse momenta. The isospin-dependent pion elliptic flow at high transverse momenta thus provides a promising way to probe the high-density behavior of the symmetry energy in heavy-ion collisions at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI, Darmstadt or at the Cooling Storage Ring (CSR) at HIRFL, Lanzhou.

  17. Nuclear reactions in AGB nucleosynthesis: the 19F(α, p22Ne at energies of astrophysical relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Agata G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The abundance of 19F in the universe is strictly related to standard and extra-mixing processes taking place inside AGB-stars, that are considered to be the most important sites for its production. Nevertheless the way in which it is destroyed is far from being well understood. For this reason we studied the 19F(α,p22Ne reaction, that is supposed to be the main destruction channel in the Helium-rich part of the star. In this experiment, the reaction has been studied in the energy range of relevance for astrophysics (0÷1 MeV via the Trojan Horse Method (THM, using the three-body reaction 6Li(19F,p22Ned.

  18. Spatial resolution measurements of the advanced radiographic capability x-ray imaging system at energies relevant to Compton radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, G. N., E-mail: hall98@llnl.gov; Izumi, N.; Landen, O. L.; Tommasini, R.; Holder, J. P.; Hargrove, D.; Bradley, D. K.; Lumbard, A.; Cruz, J. G.; Piston, K.; Bell, P. M.; Carpenter, A. C.; Palmer, N. E.; Felker, B.; Rekow, V.; Allen, F. V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Lee, J. J.; Romano, E. [National Security Technologies LLC, 161 S Vasco Rd., Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Compton radiography provides a means to measure the integrity, ρR and symmetry of the DT fuel in an inertial confinement fusion implosion near peak compression. Upcoming experiments at the National Ignition Facility will use the ARC (Advanced Radiography Capability) laser to drive backlighter sources for Compton radiography experiments and will use the newly commissioned AXIS (ARC X-ray Imaging System) instrument as the detector. AXIS uses a dual-MCP (micro-channel plate) to provide gating and high DQE at the 40–200 keV x-ray range required for Compton radiography, but introduces many effects that contribute to the spatial resolution. Experiments were performed at energies relevant to Compton radiography to begin characterization of the spatial resolution of the AXIS diagnostic.

  19. Radial collective flow in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borderie, B.

    1996-11-01

    The production of radial collective flow is associated with collisions leading to sources which undergo multifragmentation/explosion processes. After a theoretical survey of possible causes of production of radial flow, methods used to derive experimental values are discussed. Finally, a large set of data is presented which can be used to study and disentangle the different effects leading to radial collective flow. The dominant role of compression in the lower energy domain is emphasized. (author)

  20. Concepts for dynamic modelling of energy-related flows in manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, A.J.; Oates, M.R.; Greenough, R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Modelling of the thermal flows in factories and processes is usually separate. ► We propose a set of key features for an integrated thermal model. ► Such models can be used to improve the efficiency of manufacturing processes. - Abstract: Industry uses around one third of the world’s energy, and accounts for about 40% of global carbon dioxide emissions. There is increasing economic and social pressure to improve efficiency and create closed-loop industrial systems, in which energy efficiency plays a key role. This paper describes some of the key concepts involved in modelling the energy flows in manufacturing, both for the building services and the industrial processes. Detailed dynamic energy simulation of buildings is well established and routinely used, working on a time series basis – but current tools are inadequate to model the energy flows of many industrial processes. There are also well-established models of manufacturing flows, used to optimise production efficiency, but typically not modelling energy, and usually representing production and material flows as event-driven processes. The THERM project has developed new software tools to model energy-related and other utility flows in manufacturing, incorporating these into existing thermal models of factory buildings. This makes it possible to map out the whole energy system, and hence to test efficiency measures, to understand the effect of processes on building energy use, to investigate recycling of heat or cooling into other processes or building conditioning, and so on. The paper describes some of the key concepts and modelling approaches involved in developing these models, and gives examples of some real processes modelled in factories. It concludes that such models are entirely feasible and potentially very useful, although to develop a tool which comprehensively models both energy and manufacturing flows would be a major undertaking

  1. New Alkali Metal Flow Battery for Terrestrial and Aerospace Energy Storage Applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This seedling task is to develop new lithium-based flow batteries that will provide several fold improvements in specific energy, cost, simplicity and lifetimes,...

  2. Transverse and radial flow in intermediate energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vestfall, D. Gary

    1997-01-01

    We have studied transverse and radial flow in nucleus-nucleus collisions ranging in energy from 15 to 155 MeV/nucleon. We have measured the impact parameter dependence of the balance energy for Ar + Sc and compared the results with Quantum Molecular Dynamics calculations with and without momentum dependence. We have shown that transverse flow and the balance energy dependence on the isospin of the system using the systems 58 Fe + 58 Fe, 58 Ni + 58 Ni, and 58 Mn + 58 Fe. These results are compared with Boltzmann-Uehling-Uehlenbeck calculations incorporating isospin-dependence. We have measured radial flow for Ar + Sc and find that about 50% of the observed energy is related to radial flow. (author)

  3. Studies of heat transfer having relevance to nuclear reactor containment cooling by buoyancy-driven air flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, J. D.; Li, J.; Wang, J. [The Univ., of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    Two separate effects experiments concerned with buoyancy-influenced convective heat transfer in vertical passages which have relevance to the problem of nuclear reactor containment cooling by means of buoyancy-driven airflow are described. A feature of each is that local values of heat transfer coefficient are determined on surfaces maintained at uniform temperature. Experimental results are presented which highlight the need for buoyancy-induced impairment of turbulent convective heat transfer to be accounted for in the design of such passive cooling systems. A strategy is presented for predicting the heat removal by combined convective and radiative heat transfer from a full scale nuclear reactor containment shell using such experimental results.

  4. New Improved Indirect Measurement of the {sup 19}F( p , α ){sup 16}O Reaction at Energies of Astrophysical Relevance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indelicato, I.; La Cognata, M.; Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Gulino, M.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Romano, S.; Tumino, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Burjan, V.; Hons, Z.; Kroha, V.; Mrazek, J. [Nuclear Physics Institute of ASCR, Rez near Prague (Czech Republic); Hayakawa, S. [RIKEN, CNS, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Mazzocco, M.; Strano, E.; Torresi, D., E-mail: indelicato@lns.infn.it [INFN, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy)

    2017-08-10

    Fluorine abundance determination is of great importance in stellar physics to understand s-elements production and mixing processes in asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. Up to now, theoretical models overproduce F abundances in AGB stars with respect to the observed values, thus calling for further investigation of the reactions involving fluorine. In particular, the {sup 19}F( p , α ){sup 16}O reaction is the main destruction channel of fluorine at the bottom of the convective envelope in AGB stars, an H-rich environment where it can experience temperatures high enough to determine its destruction, owing to additional mixing processes. In this paper the Trojan horse method (THM) was used to extract the {sup 19}F( p , α {sub 0}){sup 16}O S-factor in the energy range of astrophysical interest ( E {sub cm} ≈ 0–1 MeV). This is the most relevant channel at the low temperatures (few 10{sup 7} K) characterizing the bottom of the convective envelope, according to current knowledge. A previous indirect experiment using the THM has observed three resonances in the energy regions below E {sub cm} ≈ 450 keV. These energies correspond to typical AGB temperatures, thus implying a significant increase in the reaction rate. Statistics are scarce for performing an accurate separation between resonances, preventing one from drawing a quantitative conclusion about their total widths and spin parities. Before THM measurement, only extrapolations were available below about 500 keV, showing a non-resonant behavior that sharply contradicts the trend of the astrophysical factor at higher energies. A new experiment has been performed to verify the measured TH astrophysical factor and to perform more accurate spectroscopy of the involved resonances.

  5. Local elastic expansion model for viscous-flow activation energies of glass-forming molecular liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe; Olsen, Niels Boye; Christensen, Tage Emil

    1996-01-01

    A model for the viscosity of glass-forming molecular liquids is proposed in which a "flow event" requires a local volume increase. The activation energy for a flow event is identified with the work done in shoving aside the surrounding liquid; this work is proportional to the high-frequency shear...

  6. Evolution of elliptic and triangular flow as a function of beam energy in a hybrid model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auvinen, J; Petersen, H

    2014-01-01

    Elliptic flow has been one of the key observables for establishing the finding of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) at the highest energies of Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). As a sign of collectively behaving matter, one would expect the elliptic flow to decrease at lower beam energies, where the QGP is not produced. However, in the recent RHIC beam energy scan, it has been found that the inclusive charged hadron elliptic flow changes relatively little in magnitude in the energies between 7.7 and 39 GeV per nucleon-nucleon collision. We study the collision energy dependence of the elliptic and triangular flow utilizing a Boltzmann + hydrodynamics hybrid model. Such a hybrid model provides a natural framework for the transition from high collision energies, where the hydrodynamical description is essential, to smaller energies, where the hadron transport dominates. This approach is thus suitable to investigate the relative importance of these two mechanisms for the production of the collective flow at different values of beam energy. Extending the examined range down to 5 GeV per nucleon-nucleon collision allows also making predictions for the CBM experiment at FAIR.

  7. Studying the collision energy dependence of elliptic and triangular flow with a hybrid model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auvinen, Jussi [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Petersen, Hannah [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Goethe Universitaet, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Elliptic flow has been one of the key observables for establishing the finding of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) at the highest energies of Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). As a sign of collectively behaving matter, the elliptic flow is expected to decrease at lower beam energies, where the QGP is not produced. However, in the recent RHIC beam energy scan, it has been found that the inclusive charged hadron elliptic flow changes relatively little in magnitude within the energy range 7.7-39 GeV per nucleon-nucleon collision. We study the collision energy dependence of the elliptic and triangular flow utilizing a Boltzmann+hydrodynamics hybrid model. Such a hybrid model provides a natural framework for the transition from high collision energies, where the hydrodynamical description is essential, to smaller energies, where the hadron transport dominates. This approach is thus suitable for investigating the relative importance of these two mechanisms for the production of the collective flow at different beam energies.

  8. Microfluidic energy conversion by application of two phase flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Yanbo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the energy conversion performance by the streaming potential using totally different approaches. By introducing gas bubbles, which can be considered as perfect insulators, the internal electrical resistance of the system can be increased, decreasing the conduction current. Following

  9. Energy flow analysis during the tennis serve: comparison between injured and noninjured tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Caroline; Bideau, Benoit; Bideau, Nicolas; Nicolas, Guillaume; Delamarche, Paul; Kulpa, Richard

    2014-11-01

    Energy flow has been hypothesized to be one of the most critical biomechanical concepts related to tennis performance and overuse injuries. However, the relationships among energy flow during the tennis serve, ball velocity, and overuse injuries have not been assessed. To investigate the relationships among the quality and magnitude of energy flow, the ball velocity, and the peaks of upper limb joint kinetics and to compare the energy flow during the serve between injured and noninjured tennis players. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. The serves of expert tennis players were recorded with an optoelectronic motion capture system. The forces and torques of the upper limb joints were calculated from the motion captures by use of inverse dynamics. The amount of mechanical energy generated, absorbed, and transferred was determined by use of a joint power analysis. Then the players were followed during 2 seasons to identify upper limb overuse injuries with a questionnaire. Finally, players were classified into 2 groups according to the questionnaire results: injured or noninjured. Ball velocity increased and upper limb joint kinetics decreased with the quality of energy flow from the trunk to the hand + racket segment. Injured players showed a lower quality of energy flow through the upper limb kinetic chain, a lower ball velocity, and higher rates of energy absorbed by the shoulder and elbow compared with noninjured players. The findings of this study imply that improper energy flow during the tennis serve can decrease ball velocity, increase upper limb joint kinetics, and thus increase overuse injuries of the upper limb joints. © 2014 The Author(s).

  10. A Thermally-Regenerative Ammonia-Based Flow Battery for Electrical Energy Recovery from Waste Heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiuping; Rahimi, Mohammad; Gorski, Christopher A; Logan, Bruce

    2016-04-21

    Large amounts of low-grade waste heat (temperatures energy can be converted to electricity in battery systems. To improve reactor efficiency, a compact, ammonia-based flow battery (AFB) was developed and tested at different solution concentrations, flow rates, cell pairs, and circuit connections. The AFB achieved a maximum power density of 45 W m(-2) (15 kW m(-3) ) and an energy density of 1260 Wh manolyte (-3) , with a thermal energy efficiency of 0.7 % (5 % relative to the Carnot efficiency). The power and energy densities of the AFB were greater than those previously reported for thermoelectrochemical and salinity-gradient technologies, and the voltage or current could be increased using stacked cells. These results demonstrated that an ammonia-based flow battery is a promising technology to convert low-grade thermal energy to electricity. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Algebraic structure of general electromagnetic fields and energy flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacyan, Shahen

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Algebraic structure of general electromagnetic fields in stationary spacetime. → Eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the electomagnetic field tensor. → Energy-momentum in terms of eigenvectors and Killing vector. → Explicit form of reference frame with vanishing Poynting vector. → Application of formalism to Bessel beams. - Abstract: The algebraic structures of a general electromagnetic field and its energy-momentum tensor in a stationary space-time are analyzed. The explicit form of the reference frame in which the energy of the field appears at rest is obtained in terms of the eigenvectors of the electromagnetic tensor and the existing Killing vector. The case of a stationary electromagnetic field is also studied and a comparison is made with the standard short-wave approximation. The results can be applied to the general case of a structured light beams, in flat or curved spaces. Bessel beams are worked out as example.

  12. Urban energy consumption: Different insights from energy flow analysis, input–output analysis and ecological network analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shaoqing; Chen, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Urban energy consumption was assessed from three different perspectives. • A new concept called controlled energy was developed from network analysis. • Embodied energy and controlled energy consumption of Beijing were compared. • The integration of all three perspectives will elucidate sustainable energy use. - Abstract: Energy consumption has always been a central issue for sustainable urban assessment and planning. Different forms of energy analysis can provide various insights for energy policy making. This paper brought together three approaches for energy consumption accounting, i.e., energy flow analysis (EFA), input–output analysis (IOA) and ecological network analysis (ENA), and compared their different perspectives and the policy implications for urban energy use. Beijing was used to exemplify the different energy analysis processes, and the 42 economic sectors of the city were aggregated into seven components. It was determined that EFA quantifies both the primary and final energy consumption of the urban components by tracking the different types of fuel used by the urban economy. IOA accounts for the embodied energy consumption (direct and indirect) used to produce goods and services in the city, whereas the control analysis of ENA quantifies the specific embodied energy that is regulated by the activities within the city’s boundary. The network control analysis can also be applied to determining which economic sectors drive the energy consumption and to what extent these sectors are dependent on each other for energy. So-called “controlled energy” is a new concept that adds to the analysis of urban energy consumption, indicating the adjustable energy consumed by sectors. The integration of insights from all three accounting perspectives further our understanding of sustainable energy use in cities

  13. Centrality dependence of multiplicity, transverse energy, and elliptic flow from hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolb, Peter F.; Heinz, Ulrich; Huovinen, Pasi; Eskola, Kari J.; Tuominen, Kimmo

    2001-03-21

    The centrality dependence of the charged multiplicity, transverse energy, and elliptic flow coefficient is studied in a hydrodynamic model, using a variety of different initializations which model the initial energy or entropy production process as a hard or soft process, respectively. While the charged multiplicity depends strongly on the chosen initialization, the p{sub T}-integrated elliptic flow for charged particles as a function of charged particle multiplicity and the p{sub T}-differential elliptic flow for charged particles in minimum bias events turn out to be almost independent of the initialization.

  14. Energy flow in non-equilibrium conformal field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Denis; Doyon, Benjamin

    2012-09-01

    We study the energy current and its fluctuations in quantum gapless 1d systems far from equilibrium modeled by conformal field theory, where two separated halves are prepared at distinct temperatures and glued together at a point contact. We prove that these systems converge towards steady states, and give a general description of such non-equilibrium steady states in terms of quantum field theory data. We compute the large deviation function, also called the full counting statistics, of energy transfer through the contact. These are universal and satisfy fluctuation relations. We provide a simple representation of these quantum fluctuations in terms of classical Poisson processes whose intensities are proportional to Boltzmann weights.

  15. Measurements of sediment temperatures, conductivity and heat flow in the North Atlantic and their relevance to radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes the methods which were used to measure sediment temperatures, conductivity and heat flow at ten stations in the northeast Atlantic. These have yielded data from a total of 53 individual penetrations. Surface heat fluxes are compared to the values predicted by crustal cooling models while sediment temperature profiles are examined for evidence of vertical pore water advection. No thermal evidence was found for advection through sediments in the Great Meteor East study area. However, non-linear temperature profiles may be evidence for rapid pore water advection at several locations within the King's Trough Flank study region. These results are critically assessed in terms of other factors which may give rise to the observed non-linear temperature profiles. (author)

  16. A steady-state continuous flow chamber for the study of daytime and nighttime chemistry under atmospherically relevant NO levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Ortega, John; Huang, Yuanlong; Shertz, Stephen; Tyndall, Geoffrey S.; Orlando, John J.

    2018-05-01

    Experiments performed in laboratory chambers have contributed significantly to the understanding of the fundamental kinetics and mechanisms of the chemical reactions occurring in the atmosphere. Two chemical regimes, classified as high-NO vs. zero-NO conditions, have been extensively studied in previous chamber experiments. Results derived from these two chemical scenarios are widely parameterized in chemical transport models to represent key atmospheric processes in urban and pristine environments. As the anthropogenic NOx emissions in the United States have decreased remarkably in the past few decades, the classic high-NO and zero-NO conditions are no longer applicable to many regions that are constantly impacted by both polluted and background air masses. We present here the development and characterization of the NCAR Atmospheric Simulation Chamber, which is operated in steady-state continuous flow mode for the study of atmospheric chemistry under intermediate NO conditions. This particular chemical regime is characterized by constant sub-ppb levels of NO and can be created in the chamber by precise control of the inflow NO concentration and the ratio of chamber mixing to residence timescales. Over the range of conditions achievable in the chamber, the lifetime of peroxy radicals (RO2), a key intermediate from the atmospheric degradation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), can be extended to several minutes, and a diverse array of reaction pathways, including unimolecular pathways and bimolecular reactions with NO and HO2, can thus be explored. Characterization experiments under photolytic and dark conditions were performed and, in conjunction with model predictions, provide a basis for interpretation of prevailing atmospheric processes in environments with intertwined biogenic and anthropogenic activities. We demonstrate the proof of concept of the steady-state continuous flow chamber operation through measurements of major first-generation products

  17. Testing of porous SiC with dense coating under relevant conditions for Flow Channel Insert application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordás, N., E-mail: nordas@ceit.es [CEIT and Tecnun (University of Navarra), Manuel de Lardizábal 15, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Bereciartu, A.; García-Rosales, C. [CEIT and Tecnun (University of Navarra), Manuel de Lardizábal 15, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Moroño, A.; Malo, M.; Hodgson, E.R. [CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Abellà, J.; Colominas, S. [Institut Químic de Sarrià, University Ramon Llull, Via Augusta 390, 08017 Barcelona (Spain); Sedano, L. [CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Porous SiC coated by CVD with a dense coating was developed for Flow Channel Inserts (FCI) in dual-coolant blanket concept. • Porous SiC was obtained following the sacrificial template technique, using Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} as sintering additives. • Flexural strength, thermal and electrical conductivity, and microstructure of uncoated and coated porous SiC are presented. • Adhesion of coating to porous SiC and its corrosion behavior under Pb-17.5Li at 700 °C are shown. - Abstract: Thermally and electrically insulating porous SiC ceramics are attractive candidates for Flow Channel Inserts (FCI) in dual-coolant blanket concepts thanks to its relatively inexpensive manufacturing route. To prevent tritium permeation and corrosion by Pb-15.7 a dense coating has to be applied on the porous SiC. Despite not having structural function, FCI must exhibit sufficient mechanical strength to withstand strong thermal gradients and thermo-electrical stresses during operation. This work summarizes the results on the development of coated porous SiC for FCI. Porous SiC was obtained following the sacrificial template technique, using Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} as sintering additives and a carbonaceous phase as pore former. Sintering was performed in inert gas at 1850–1950 °C during 15 min to 3 h, followed by oxidation at 650 °C to eliminate the carbonaceous phase. The most promising bulk materials were coated with a ∼30 μm thick dense SiC by CVD. Results on porosity, bending tests, thermal and electrical conductivity are presented. The microstructure of the coating, its adhesion to the porous SiC and its corrosion behavior under Pb-17.5Li are also shown.

  18. A steady-state continuous flow chamber for the study of daytime and nighttime chemistry under atmospherically relevant NO levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Experiments performed in laboratory chambers have contributed significantly to the understanding of the fundamental kinetics and mechanisms of the chemical reactions occurring in the atmosphere. Two chemical regimes, classified as high-NO vs. zero-NO conditions, have been extensively studied in previous chamber experiments. Results derived from these two chemical scenarios are widely parameterized in chemical transport models to represent key atmospheric processes in urban and pristine environments. As the anthropogenic NOx emissions in the United States have decreased remarkably in the past few decades, the classic high-NO and zero-NO conditions are no longer applicable to many regions that are constantly impacted by both polluted and background air masses. We present here the development and characterization of the NCAR Atmospheric Simulation Chamber, which is operated in steady-state continuous flow mode for the study of atmospheric chemistry under intermediate NO conditions. This particular chemical regime is characterized by constant sub-ppb levels of NO and can be created in the chamber by precise control of the inflow NO concentration and the ratio of chamber mixing to residence timescales. Over the range of conditions achievable in the chamber, the lifetime of peroxy radicals (RO2, a key intermediate from the atmospheric degradation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs, can be extended to several minutes, and a diverse array of reaction pathways, including unimolecular pathways and bimolecular reactions with NO and HO2, can thus be explored. Characterization experiments under photolytic and dark conditions were performed and, in conjunction with model predictions, provide a basis for interpretation of prevailing atmospheric processes in environments with intertwined biogenic and anthropogenic activities. We demonstrate the proof of concept of the steady-state continuous flow chamber operation through measurements of major first

  19. The baseline in bottom-up energy efficiency and saving calculations - A concept for its formalisation and a discussion of relevant options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichl, Johannes; Kollmann, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    One of the central variables in bottom-up energy efficiency and saving calculations is the energy consumption baseline. In the evaluation of energy efficiency measures, developing this baseline is a challenging task, which may involve serious problems, especially if the energy service of the analysed subject has changed while the energy efficiency measure was being implemented. In this paper we present a formalised concept of the process of developing the baseline that is flexible enough to deal with various difficulties, such as changes in the levels of the energy services involved. We also discuss the most relevant options for deriving the necessary variables.

  20. Study of flow instability in a centrifugal fan based on energy gradient theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Meina; Dou, Hua-Shu; Ma, Xiaoyang; Xiao, Qing; Chen, Yongning; He, Haijiang; Ye, Xinxue

    2016-01-01

    Flow instability in a centrifugal fan was studied using energy gradient theory. Numerical simulation was performed for the three dimensional turbulent flow field in a centrifugal fan. The flow is governed by the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the RNG k-ε turbulent model. The finite volume method was used to discretize the governing equations and the Semiimplicit method for pressure linked equation (SIMPLE) algorithm is employed to iterate the system of the equations. The interior flow field in the centrifugal fan and the distribution of the energy gradient function K are obtained at different flow rates. According to the energy gradient method, the area with larger value of K is the place where the flow loses stability easier. The results show that instability is easier to generate in the regions of impeller outlet and volute tongue. The air flow near the hub is more stable than that near the shroud. That is due to the influences of variations of the velocity and the inlet angle along the axial direction. With the decrease of the flow rate, instability zone in a blade channel moves to the impeller inlet from the outlet and the unstable regions in different channels develop in opposite direction to the rotation of impeller

  1. Air shower detection and the energy flow in electromagnetic cascades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor (Nuclear Power Oversight Committee (United States)); Vankov, H.P. (Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. za Yadrena Izsledvaniya i Yadrena Energetika)

    1992-02-01

    We study the longitudinal behaviour of the energy carried by the shower particles E{sub c} and its lateral distribution, give simple parametrizations of the results of Monte Carlo simulations, and discuss the advantages of shower detectors that measure directly E{sub c}. (author).

  2. Manual for best practice for emergency response procedures, part 3: a review of the department of Minerals and Energy guidelines relevant to inrushes, fires, explosions and other emergencies.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Spencer, KC

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available The relevant guidelines issued by the Department of Minerals and Energy were reviewed in light of the findings given in parts one and two of this report. The earlier guidelines were issued unilaterally by the Department of Minerals and Energy...

  3. Vibration energy harvesting in a small channel fluid flow using piezoelectric transducer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Md. Mehedi, E-mail: buetmehedi10@gmail.com; Hossain, Md. Yeam, E-mail: yeamhossain@gmail.com; Mazumder, Rakib, E-mail: rakibmazumder46075@gmail.com; Rahman, Roussel, E-mail: roussel.rahman@gmail.com; Rahman, Md. Ashiqur, E-mail: ashiqurrahman@me.buet.ac.bd [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET), Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh)

    2016-07-12

    This work is aimed at developing a way to harvest energy from a fluid stream with the application of piezoelectric transducers in a small channel. In this COMSOL Multiphysics based simulation study, it is attempted to harvest energy from the abundant renewable source of energy available in the form of kinetic energy of naturally occurring flow of fluids. The strategy involves harnessing energy from a fluid-actuator through generation of couples, eddies and vortices, resulting from the stagnation and separation of flow around a semi-circular bluff-body attached to a cantilever beam containing a piezoceramic layer. Fluctuation of fluidic pressure impulse on the beam due to vortex shedding and varying lift forces causes the flexible cantilever beam to oscillate in the direction normal to the fluid flow in a periodic manner. The periodic application and release of a mechanical strain upon the beam effected a generation of electric potential within the piezoelectric layer, thus enabling extraction of electrical energy from the kinetic energy of the fluid. The piezoelectric material properties and transducer design are kept unchanged throughout the study, whereas the configuration is tested with different fluids and varying flow characteristics. The size and geometry of the obstructing entity are systematically varied to closely inspect the output from different iterations and for finding the optimum design parameters. The intermittent changes in the generated forces and subsequent variation in the strain on the beam are also monitored to find definitive relationship with the electrical energy output.

  4. Sustained turbulence and magnetic energy in non-rotating shear flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauman, Farrukh; Blackman, Eric G.

    2017-01-01

    From numerical simulations, we show that non-rotating magnetohydrodynamic shear flows are unstable to finite amplitude velocity perturbations and become turbulent, leading to the growth and sustenance of magnetic energy, including large scale fields. This supports the concept that sustained...... magnetic energy from turbulence is independent of the driving mechanism for large enough magnetic Reynolds numbers....

  5. A nonlinear flow-induced energy harvester by considering effects of fictitious springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangcheng; Lin, Yueh-Jaw

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a newly proposed energy harvesting approach involving nonlinear coupling effects is demonstrated by utilizing a pair of inducing bluff bodies that are put on both sides of the flag-shaped cantilever beam, and placed in a side-by-side configuration to harvest the energy of the flow. One patch of macro fiber composite is attached to the fixed end of the cantilever beam to facilitate converting the kinetic energy into electric power. It is the first time in recent literature that two fluid dynamic phenomena (i.e. the vortex shedding and the Bernoulli effect) are considered simultaneously in the flow-induced energy harvesting field. The fictitious springs are introduced to explain the nonlinear characteristics of the proposed structure. With the effect of the fictitious springs, the speed range of the flow-induced energy harvester is extended. The proposed structure not only improves the output of the induced-based energy harvester compared to one that has just one cylinder, but can also be utilized in an actual hostile ambient environment. The experimental results for the energy harvester prototype are also investigated. The output power of the energy harvester with two cylinders (D = 25 mm) is measured to be 1.12 μW when the flow speed is 0.325 m s-1 and the center-to-center transverse spacing is 45 mm. This research also delves into the geometric variations of the proposed structure and its optimization.

  6. Energy Harvesting from Fluid Flow in Water Pipelines for Smart Metering Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, D; Willmann, A; Göpfert, R; Becker, P; Folkmer, B; Manoli, Y

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a rotational, radial-flux energy harvester incorporating a three-phase generation principle is presented for converting energy from water flow in domestic water pipelines. The energy harvester together with a power management circuit and energy storage is used to power a smart metering system installed underground making it independent from external power supplies or depleting batteries. The design of the radial-flux energy harvester is adapted to the housing of a conventional mechanical water flow meter enabling the use of standard components such as housing and impeller. The energy harvester is able to generate up to 720 mW when using a flow rate of 20 l/min (fully opened water tab). A minimum flow rate of 3 l/min is required to get the harvester started. In this case a power output of 2 mW is achievable. By further design optimization of the mechanical structure including the impeller and magnetic circuit the threshold flow rate can be further reduced

  7. Energy Harvesting from Fluid Flow in Water Pipelines for Smart Metering Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, D.; Willmann, A.; Göpfert, R.; Becker, P.; Folkmer, B.; Manoli, Y.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper a rotational, radial-flux energy harvester incorporating a three-phase generation principle is presented for converting energy from water flow in domestic water pipelines. The energy harvester together with a power management circuit and energy storage is used to power a smart metering system installed underground making it independent from external power supplies or depleting batteries. The design of the radial-flux energy harvester is adapted to the housing of a conventional mechanical water flow meter enabling the use of standard components such as housing and impeller. The energy harvester is able to generate up to 720 mW when using a flow rate of 20 l/min (fully opened water tab). A minimum flow rate of 3 l/min is required to get the harvester started. In this case a power output of 2 mW is achievable. By further design optimization of the mechanical structure including the impeller and magnetic circuit the threshold flow rate can be further reduced.

  8. Multiparameter flow cytometric remission is the most relevant prognostic factor for multiple myeloma patients who undergo autologous stem cell transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Bruno; Vidriales, Maria-Belén; Cerveró, Jorge; Mateo, Gema; Pérez, Jose J.; Montalbán, Maria A.; Sureda, Anna; Montejano, Laura; Gutiérrez, Norma C.; de Coca, Alfonso García; de las Heras, Natalia; Mateos, Maria V.; López-Berges, Maria C.; García-Boyero, Raimundo; Galende, Josefina; Hernández, Jose; Palomera, Luis; Carrera, Dolores; Martínez, Rafael; de la Rubia, Javier; Martín, Alejandro; Bladé, Joan; Lahuerta, Juan J.; Orfao, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    Minimal residual disease (MRD) assessment is standard in many hematologic malignancies but is considered investigational in multiple myeloma (MM). We report a prospective analysis of the prognostic importance of MRD detection by multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) in 295 newly diagnosed MM patients uniformly treated in the GEM2000 protocol VBMCP/VBAD induction plus autologous stem cell transplantation [ASCT]). MRD status by MFC was determined at day 100 after ASCT. Progression-free survival (PFS; median 71 vs 37 months, P < .001) and overall survival (OS; median not reached vs 89 months, P = .002) were longer in patients who were MRD negative versus MRD positive at day 100 after ASCT. Similar prognostic differentiation was seen in 147 patients who achieved immunofixation-negative complete response after ASCT. Moreover, MRD− immunofixation-negative (IFx−) patients and MRD− IFx+ patients had significantly longer PFS than MRD+ IFx− patients. Multivariate analysis identified MRD status by MFC at day 100 after ASCT as the most important independent prognostic factor for PFS (HR = 3.64, P = .002) and OS (HR = 2.02, P = .02). Our findings demonstrate the clinical importance of MRD evaluation by MFC, and illustrate the need for further refinement of MM re-sponse criteria. This trial is registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov under identifier NCT00560053. PMID:18669875

  9. Effects of variable specific heat on energy transfer in a high-temperature supersonic channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Xiaopeng; Dou, Hua-Shu; Zhu, Zuchao

    2018-05-01

    An energy transfer mechanism in high-temperature supersonic turbulent flow for variable specific heat (VSH) condition through turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), mean kinetic energy (MKE), turbulent internal energy (TIE) and mean internal energy (MIE) is proposed. The similarities of energy budgets between VSH and constant specific heat (CSH) conditions are investigated by introducing a vibrational energy excited degree and considering the effects of fluctuating specific heat. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) of temporally evolving high-temperature supersonic turbulent channel flow is conducted at Mach number 3.0 and Reynolds number 4800 combined with a constant dimensional wall temperature 1192.60 K for VSH and CSH conditions to validate the proposed energy transfer mechanism. The differences between the terms in the two kinetic energy budgets for VSH and CSH conditions are small; however, the magnitude of molecular diffusion term for VSH condition is significantly smaller than that for CSH condition. The non-negligible energy transfer is obtained after neglecting several small terms of diffusion, dissipation and compressibility related. The non-negligible energy transfer involving TIE includes three processes, in which energy can be gained from TKE and MIE and lost to MIE. The same non-negligible energy transfer through TKE, MKE and MIE is observed for both the conditions.

  10. Angular distributions of the quenched energy flow from dijets with different radius parameters in CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGinn, Christopher F.

    2016-12-15

    The flow of the quenched energy in imbalanced dijet events has been previously studied by transverse vector sum of charged particles with the CMS detector, namely the missing p{sub T} measurement. The results have led to new theoretical insights to order to explain the wide angle radiation. The missing p{sub T} technique has been improved so that it allows the study of angular distribution of the energy flow with respect to the dijet axis. The measurements are performed using different distance parameters R with the anti-k{sub T} clustering algorithm, which provide information about how the angular distribution of the quenched energy depends on the jet width.

  11. Valuing uncertain cash flows from investments that enhance energy efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadie, Luis M; Chamorro, José M; González-Eguino, Mikel

    2013-02-15

    There is a broad consensus that investments to enhance energy efficiency quickly pay for themselves in lower energy bills and spared emission allowances. However, investments that at first glance seem worthwhile usually are not undertaken. One of the plausible, non-excluding explanations is the numerous uncertainties that these investments face. This paper deals with the optimal time to invest in an energy efficiency enhancement at a facility already in place that consumes huge amounts of a fossil fuel (coal) and operates under carbon constraints. We follow the Real Options approach. Our model comprises three sources of uncertainty following different stochastic processes which allows for application in a broad range of settings. We assess the investment option by means of a three-dimensional binomial lattice. We compute the trigger investment cost, i.e., the threshold level below which immediate investment would be optimal. We analyze the major drivers of this decision thus aiming at the most promising policies in this regard. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dependence of energy characteristics of ascending swirling air flow on velocity of vertical blowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, R. E.; Obukhov, A. G.; Kutrunov, V. N.

    2018-05-01

    In the model of a compressible continuous medium, for the complete Navier-Stokes system of equations, an initial boundary problem is proposed that corresponds to the conducted and planned experiments and describes complex three-dimensional flows of a viscous compressible heat-conducting gas in ascending swirling flows that are initiated by a vertical cold blowing. Using parallelization methods, three-dimensional nonstationary flows of a polytropic viscous compressible heat-conducting gas are constructed numerically in different scaled ascending swirling flows under the condition when gravity and Coriolis forces act. With the help of explicit difference schemes and the proposed initial boundary conditions, approximate solutions of the complete system of Navier-Stokes equations are constructed as well as the velocity and energy characteristics of three-dimensional nonstationary gas flows in ascending swirling flows are determined.

  13. Local expansion flows of galaxies: quantifying acceleration effect of dark energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernin, A. D.; Teerikorpi, P.

    2013-08-01

    The nearest expansion flow of galaxies observed around the Local group is studied as an archetypical example of the newly discovered local expansion flows around groups and clusters of galaxies in the nearby Universe. The flow is accelerating due to the antigravity produced by the universal dark energy background. We introduce a new acceleration measure of the flow which is the dimensionless ``acceleration parameter" Q (x) = x - x-2 depending on the normalized distance x only. The parameter is zero at the zero-gravity distance x = 1, and Q(x) ∝ x, when x ≫ 1. At the distance x = 3, the parameter Q = 2.9. Since the expansion flows have a self-similar structure in normalized variables, we expect that the result is valid as well for all the other expansion flows around groups and clusters of galaxies on the spatial scales from ˜ 1 to ˜ 10 Mpc everywhere in the Universe.

  14. Vibrational energy flow in the villin headpiece subdomain: Master equation simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitner, David M.; Buchenberg, Sebastian; Brettel, Paul; Stock, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    We examine vibrational energy flow in dehydrated and hydrated villin headpiece subdomain HP36 by master equation simulations. Transition rates used in the simulations are obtained from communication maps calculated for HP36. In addition to energy flow along the main chain, we identify pathways for energy transport in HP36 via hydrogen bonding between residues quite far in sequence space. The results of the master equation simulations compare well with all-atom non-equilibrium simulations to about 1 ps following initial excitation of the protein, and quite well at long times, though for some residues we observe deviations between the master equation and all-atom simulations at intermediate times from about 1–10 ps. Those deviations are less noticeable for hydrated than dehydrated HP36 due to energy flow into the water

  15. Comparison of energy flows in deep inelastic scattering events with and without a large rapidity gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.

    1994-07-01

    Energy flows in deep inelastic electron-proton scattering are investigated at a centre-of-mass energy of 296 GeV for the range Q 2 ≥10 GeV 2 using the ZEUS detector. A comparison is made between events with and without a large rapidity gap between the hadronic system and the proton direction. The energy flows, corrected for detector acceptance and resolution, are shown for these two classes of events in both the HERA laboratory frame and the Breit frame. From the differences in the shapes of these energy flows we conclude that QCD radiation is suppressed in the large-rapidity-gap events compared to the events without a large rapidity gap. (orig.)

  16. Vibrational energy flow in the villin headpiece subdomain: Master equation simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, David M., E-mail: dml@unr.edu, E-mail: stock@physik.uni-freiburg.de [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Physics Program, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States); Freiburg Institute for Advanced Studies (FRIAS), University of Freiburg, Freiburg (Germany); Buchenberg, Sebastian; Brettel, Paul [Biomolecular Dynamics, Institute of Physics, University of Freiburg, Freiburg (Germany); Stock, Gerhard, E-mail: dml@unr.edu, E-mail: stock@physik.uni-freiburg.de [Freiburg Institute for Advanced Studies (FRIAS), University of Freiburg, Freiburg (Germany); Biomolecular Dynamics, Institute of Physics, University of Freiburg, Freiburg (Germany)

    2015-02-21

    We examine vibrational energy flow in dehydrated and hydrated villin headpiece subdomain HP36 by master equation simulations. Transition rates used in the simulations are obtained from communication maps calculated for HP36. In addition to energy flow along the main chain, we identify pathways for energy transport in HP36 via hydrogen bonding between residues quite far in sequence space. The results of the master equation simulations compare well with all-atom non-equilibrium simulations to about 1 ps following initial excitation of the protein, and quite well at long times, though for some residues we observe deviations between the master equation and all-atom simulations at intermediate times from about 1–10 ps. Those deviations are less noticeable for hydrated than dehydrated HP36 due to energy flow into the water.

  17. Biogenic materials in Switzerland - mass and energy flows; Biogene Gueter in der Schweiz: Massen- und Energiefluesse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheurer, K; Baier, U

    2001-07-01

    This study supplements a series of studies carried out under the 'Energy 2000' programme and its follow-up 'SwissEnergy' on the energy potential of biomass in Switzerland. This study compiles data from existing studies and statistics and presents them as detailed mass and energy flow diagrams. The findings of the study confirm that the most important biomass fluxes are generated by animal feed stuffs and manure and that these represent an important potential for use as a source of energy. The authors state that in the foodstuffs and wood/paper industries a high level of sustainability in resource usage has been attained and that the largest losses in mass and energy flows can be found in livestock breeding and human biomass consumption.

  18. Biogenic materials in Switzerland - mass and energy flows; Biogene Gueter in der Schweiz: Massen- und Energiefluesse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheurer, K.; Baier, U.

    2001-07-01

    This study supplements a series of studies carried out under the 'Energy 2000' programme and its follow-up 'SwissEnergy' on the energy potential of biomass in Switzerland. This study compiles data from existing studies and statistics and presents them as detailed mass and energy flow diagrams. The findings of the study confirm that the most important biomass fluxes are generated by animal feed stuffs and manure and that these represent an important potential for use as a source of energy. The authors state that in the foodstuffs and wood/paper industries a high level of sustainability in resource usage has been attained and that the largest losses in mass and energy flows can be found in livestock breeding and human biomass consumption.

  19. Energy Flow Exciting Field-Aligned Current at Substorm Expansion Onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebihara, Y.; Tanaka, T.

    2017-12-01

    At substorm expansion onset, upward field-aligned currents (FACs) increase abruptly, and a large amount of electromagnetic energy starts to consume in the polar ionosphere. A question arises as to where the energy comes from. Based on the results obtained by the global magnetohydrodynamics simulation, we present energy flow and energy conversion associated with the upward FACs that manifest the onset. Our simulations show that the cusp/mantle region transmits electromagnetic energy to almost the entire region of the magnetosphere when the interplanetary magnetic field is southward. Integral curve of the Poynting flux shows a spiral moving toward the ionosphere, probably suggesting the pathway of electromagnetic energy from the cusp/mantle dynamo to the ionosphere. The near-Earth reconnection initiates three-dimensional redistribution of the magnetosphere. Flow shear in the near-Earth region results in the generation of the near-Earth dynamo and the onset FACs. The onset FACs are responsible to transport the electromagnetic energy toward the Earth. In the near-Earth region, the electromagnetic energy coming from the cusp/mantle dynamo is converted to the kinetic energy (known as bursty bulk flow) and the thermal energy (associated with high-pressure region in the inner magnetosphere). Then, they are converted to the electromagnetic energy associated with the onset FACs. A part of electromagnetic energy is stored in the lobe region during the growth phase. The release of the stored energy, together with the continuously supplied energy from the cusp/mantle dynamo, contributes to the energy supply to the ionosphere during the expansion phase.

  20. Energy and exergy analysis of counter flow wet cooling towers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan Mani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooling tower is an open system direct contact heat exchanger, where it cools water by both convection and evaporation. In this paper, a mathematical model based on heat and mass transfer principle is developed to find the outlet condition of water and air. The model is solved using iterative method. Energy and exergy analysis infers that inlet air wet bulb temperature is found to be the most important parameter than inlet water temperature and also variation in dead state properties does not affect the performance of wet cooling tower. .

  1. Low Energy Flow - The Path Towards Sustainable Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1996-01-01

    energy consumption by a factor three to five. But it is stressed, that these efficiency gains can easily be eaten up by decline in efficiencies in the ways we conduct our lifestyles and run our economies. To apply such an overall effciency view, however, turns out to pose a threat to the presently...... prevailing economic growth practice. We have to face this challenge, if we want to secure a decent material well-being for all people on earth, also the generations to come. Countries with econmies in a transition do in fact have some advantages, if aiming directly at a sustainable economy....

  2. Using Free Flow Energy Cumulation in Wind and Hydro Power Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev Ktitorov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available When approaching a conventional wind turbine, the air flow is slowed down and widened. This results in a loss of turbine efficiency. In order to exploit wind or water flow power as effectively as possible, it was suggested that the turbine should be placed inside a shroud, which consists of 4 wing-shaped surfaces. Two internal airfoils improve the turbine performance by speeding up the flow acting on the turbine blades, two external wings create a field of low pressure behind the turbine, thus, helping to draw more mass flow to the turbine and avoid the loss of efficiency due to flow deceleration.  The system accumulates kinetic energy of the flow in a small volume where the smaller (and, therefore, cheaper turbine can be installed. A smaller system can be installed inside the bigger one, which would help to accumulate even more kinetic energy on the turbine. We call this method the kinetic energy summation with local flow redistribution. Both experiments and CFD simulations demonstrate a significant increase in velocity and generated mechanical power in comparison of those for a bare turbine.

  3. Energy deposition, heat flow, and rapid solidification during laser and electron beam irradiation of materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, C.W.; Aziz, M.J.

    1985-10-01

    The fundamentals of energy deposition, heat flow, and rapid solidification during energy deposition from lasers and electron beams is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the deposition of energy from pulsed sources (10 to 100 ns pulse duration time) in order to achieve high heating and cooling rates (10/sup 8/ to 10/sup 10/ /sup 0/C/s) in the near surface region. The response of both metals and semiconductors to pulsed energy deposition is considered. Guidelines are presented for the choice of energy source, wavelength, and pulse duration time.

  4. Research on Pulsed Jet Flow Control without External Energy in a Blade Cascade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To control the flow separation in the compressors, a novel pulsed jet concept without external energy injection is proposed. The new concept designs a slot in the middle of the blade and sets a micro device to switch the slot periodically. Such a structure is expected to generate a pulsed jet by the pressure difference between the pressure side and the suction side of the blade. In order to analyze the interaction between the pulsed jet and unsteady separated flow, our numerical and experimental study is based on a specific cascade (with a flow separation inside and a pulsed jet (one of the unsteady flow control method. The experimental and numerical results both show that when the frequency of pulsed jet is approximate to that of the separation vortex, then the control tends to be more effective. Based on the numerical simulations, the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD is then used to reveal the control mechanism, extracting the different time-space structures from the original field. The results with the aid of POD show that the pulsed jet can redistribute the kinetic energy of each mode, and strengthen or weaken certain modes, particularly, while the steady jet reduces the kinetic energy of high-order modes in whole. Also, pulsed jet with proper parameters can transfer the energy from higher modes to the first flow mode (averaged flow, which is due to the conversion of the spatial vortical structures and the time evolution of the modes.

  5. The relevance of US experience to the completion of the European internal energy market for natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood-Collins, John [Little (Arthur D.), Inc., London (GB); Lee, William [Shearman and Sterling, Paris (FR)

    1990-01-01

    The European Commission's 1988 document on the completion of the internal energy market made a number of recommendations which, if adopted, would significantly affect the European natural gas industry. These were principally that: user's access to transmission systems should be facilitated, in order to permit them direct access to suppliers; greater price transparency should be encouraged, to remove competitive distortions; and fiscal harmonisation should be accelerated, in order to ''level the playing field'' between industrial users in different countries. Advocates of ''open access'' or ''common carriage'', i.e. of a system under which owners of gas pipeline and storage facilities would have a legal obligation to provide transportation and related services to third parties for a specific fee, have argued that adoption of a US-style regulatory system could improve the efficiency of European markets by removing anti-competitive practices. The purpose of this article is to review the arguments on both sides and, in particular, to consider whether US experience may be a relevant model for European authorities to adopt. (author).

  6. Functionalized Magnetic Resonance Contrast Agent Selectively Binds to Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa on Activated Human Platelets under Flow Conditions and Is Detectable at Clinically Relevant Field Strengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin von zur Mühlen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent progress in molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI provides the opportunity to image cells and cellular receptors using microparticles of iron oxide (MPIOs. However, imaging targets on vessel walls remains challenging owing to the quantity of contrast agents delivered to areas of interest under shear stress conditions. We evaluated ex vivo binding characteristics of a functional MRI contrast agent to ligand-induced binding sites (LIBSs on activated glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptors of human platelets, which were lining rupture-prone atherosclerotic plaques and could therefore facilitate detection of platelet-mediated pathology in atherothrombotic disease. MPIOs were conjugated to anti-LIBS single-chain antibodies (LIBS-MPIO or control antibodies (control MPIO. Ex vivo binding to human platelet-rich clots in a dose-dependent manner was confirmed on a 3 T clinical MRI scanner and by histology (p < .05 for LIBS-MPIO vs control MPIO. By using a flow chamber setup, significant binding of LIBS-MPIO to a platelet matrix was observed under venous and arterial flow conditions, but not for control MPIO (p < .001. A newly generated MRI contrast agent detects activated human platelets at clinically relevant magnetic field strengths and binds to platelets under venous and arterial flow conditions, conveying high payloads of contrast to specific molecular targets. This may provide the opportunity to identify vulnerable, rupture-prone atherosclerotic plaques via noninvasive MRI.

  7. Radial Flow in a Multiphase Transport Model at FAIR Energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya Sarkar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Azimuthal distributions of radial velocities of charged hadrons produced in nucleus-nucleus (AB collisions are compared with the corresponding azimuthal distribution of charged hadron multiplicity in the framework of a multiphase transport (AMPT model at two different collision energies. The mean radial velocity seems to be a good probe for studying radial expansion. While the anisotropic parts of the distributions indicate a kind of collective nature in the radial expansion of the intermediate “fireball,” their isotropic parts characterize a thermal motion. The present investigation is carried out keeping the upcoming Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM experiment to be held at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR in mind. As far as high-energy heavy-ion interactions are concerned, CBM will supplement the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC and Large Hadron Collider (LHC experiments. In this context our simulation results at high baryochemical potential would be interesting, when scrutinized from the perspective of an almost baryon-free environment achieved at RHIC and LHC.

  8. Power flow control strategy in distribution network for dc type distributed energy resource at load bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanif, A.; Choudhry, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    This research work presents a feed forward power flow control strategy in the secondary distribution network working in parallel with a DC type distributed energy resource (DER) unit with SPWM-IGBT Voltage Source Converter (VSC). The developed control strategy enables the VSC to be used as power flow controller at the load bus in the presence of utility supply. Due to the investigated control strategy, power flow control from distributed energy resource (DER) to common load bus is such that power flows to the load without facing any power quality problem. The technique has an added advantage of controlling power flow without having a dedicated power flow controller. The SPWM-IGBT VSC is serving the purpose of dc-ac converter as well as power flow controller. Simulations for a test system using proposed power flow control strategy are carried out using SimPower Systems toolbox of MATLAB at the rate and Simulink at the rate. The results show that a reliable, effective and efficient operation of DC type DER unit in coordination with main utility network can be achieved. (author)

  9. A scenario analysis of future energy systems based on an energy flow model represented as functionals of technology options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Yasunori; Kimura, Seiichiro; Okamoto, Yoshitaka; Koyama, Michihisa

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy flow model was represented as the functionals of technology options. • Relationships among available technologies can be visualized by developed model. • Technology roadmapping can be incorporated into the model as technical scenario. • Combination of technologies can increase their contribution to the environment. - Abstract: The design of energy systems has become an issue all over the world. A single optimal system cannot be suggested because the availability of infrastructure and resources and the acceptability of the system should be discussed locally, involving all related stakeholders in the energy system. In particular, researchers and engineers of technologies related to energy systems should be able to perform the forecasting and roadmapping of future energy systems and indicate quantitative results of scenario analyses. We report an energy flow model developed for analysing scenarios of future Japanese energy systems implementing a variety of feasible technology options. The model was modularized and represented as functionals of appropriate technology options, which enables the aggregation and disaggregation of energy systems by defining functionals for single technologies, packages integrating multi-technologies, and mini-systems such as regions implementing industrial symbiosis. Based on the model, the combinations of technologies on both energy supply and demand sides can be addressed considering not only the societal scenarios such as resource prices, economic growth and population change but also the technical scenarios including the development and penetration of energy-related technologies such as distributed solid oxide fuel cells in residential sectors and new-generation vehicles, and the replacement and shift of current technologies such as heat pumps for air conditioning and centralized power generation. The developed model consists of two main modules; namely, a power generation dispatching module for the

  10. Energy harvesting by means of flow-induced vibrations on aerospace vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daochun; Wu, Yining; Da Ronch, Andrea; Xiang, Jinwu

    2016-10-01

    This paper reviews the design, implementation, and demonstration of energy harvesting devices that exploit flow-induced vibrations as the main source of energy. Starting with a presentation of various concepts of energy harvesters that are designed to benefit from a general class of flow-induced vibrations, specific attention is then given at those technologies that may offer, today or in the near future, a potential benefit to extend the operational capabilities and to monitor critical parameters of unmanned aerial vehicles. Various phenomena characterized by flow-induced vibrations are discussed, including limit cycle oscillations of plates and wing sections, vortex-induced and galloping oscillations of bluff bodies, vortex-induced vibrations of downstream structures, and atmospheric turbulence and gusts. It was found that linear or linearized modeling approaches are commonly employed to support the design phase of energy harvesters. As a result, highly nonlinear and coupled phenomena that characterize flow-induced vibrations are neglected in the design process. The Authors encourage a shift in the current design paradigm: considering coupled nonlinear phenomena, and adequate modeling tools to support their analysis, from a design limitation to a design opportunity. Special emphasis is placed on identifying designs and implementations applicable to aircraft configurations. Application fields of flow-induced vibrations-based energy harvesters are discussed including power supply for wireless sensor networks and simultaneous energy harvest and control. A large body of work on energy harvesters is included in this review journal. Whereas most of the references claim direct applications to unmanned aerial vehicles, it is apparent that, in most of the cases presented, the working principles and characteristics of the energy harvesters are incompatible with any aerospace applications. Finally, the challenges that hold back the integration of energy harvesting

  11. Flow of light energy in benthic photosynthetic microbial mats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Najjar, Mohammad Ahmad A.

    2010-12-15

    The work in this thesis demonstrates the assessment of the energy budget inside microbial mat ecosystems, and the factors affecting light utilization efficiency. It presents the first balanced light energy budget for benthic microbial mat ecosystems, and shows how the budget and the spatial distribution of the local photosynthetic efficiencies within the euphotic zone depend on the absorbed irradiance (Jabs). The energy budget was dominated by heat dissipation on the expense of photosynthesis. The maximum efficiency of photosynthesis was at light limiting conditions When comparing three different marine benthic photosynthetic ecosystems (originated from Abu-Dhabi, Arctic, and Exmouth Gulf in Western Australia), differences in the efficiencies were calculated. The results demonstrated that the maximum efficiency depended on mat characteristics affecting light absorption and scattering; such as, photopigments ratio and distribution, and the structural organization of the photosynthetic organisms relative to other absorbing components of the ecosystem (i.e., EPS, mineral particles, detritus, etc.). The maximum efficiency decreased with increasing light penetration depth, and increased with increasing the accessory pigments (phycocyanin and fucoxanthin)/chlorophyll ratio. Spatial heterogeneity in photosynthetic efficiency, pigment distribution, as well as light acclimation in microbial mats originating from different geographical locations was investigated. We used a combined pigment imaging approach (variable chlorophyll fluorescence and hyperspectral imaging), and fingerprinting approach. For each mat, the photosynthetic activity was proportional to the local pigment concentration in the photic zone, but not for the deeper layers and between different mats. In each mat, yield of PSII and E1/2 (light acclimation) generally decreased in parallel with depth, but the gradients in both parameters varied greatly between samples. This mismatch between pigments concentration

  12. Multichannel readout ASIC design flow for high energy physics and cosmic rays experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronin, A; Malankin, E

    2016-01-01

    In the large-scale high energy physics and astrophysics experiments multi-channel readout application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) are widely used. The ASICs for such experiments are complicated systems, which usually include both analog and digital building blocks. The complexity and large number of channels in such ASICs require the proper methodological approach to their design. The paper represents the mixed-signal design flow of the ASICs for high energy physics and cosmic rays experiments. This flow was successfully embedded to the development of the read-out ASIC prototype for the muon chambers of the CBM experiment. The approach was approved in UMC CMOS MMRF 180 nm process. The design flow enable to analyse the mixed-signal system operation on the different levels: functional, behavioural, schematic and post layout including parasitic elements. The proposed design flow allows reducing the simulation period and eliminating the functionality mismatches on the very early stage of the design. (paper)

  13. One-dimensional model of steady, compressible channel flow with mass, momentum, and energy addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, S.C.

    1976-09-01

    A one-dimensional model of steady, compressible channel flow with mass, momentum and energy addition is discussed. An exact solution to the governing equations was found and from it a similarity parameter relating dimensionless mass, momentum and energy addition identified. This similarity parameter is used to make two flows having different dimensionless mass, momentum and energy additions equivalent. Application of the similarity parameter to the LASL Intense Neutron Source experiment and the Sandia simulation of that experiment results in an expression relating the dimensionless mass addition of combustible gas required in the Sandia experiment to dimensionless energy addition in the LASL experiment. Results of the analysis indicate that the Sandia experiment can realistically simulate the energy addition in the LASL Intense Neutron Source experiment

  14. PCB Food Web Dynamics Quantify Nutrient and Energy Flow in Aquatic Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Anne M; Paterson, Gordon; Drouillard, Ken G; Haffner, G Douglas

    2015-11-03

    Measuring in situ nutrient and energy flows in spatially and temporally complex aquatic ecosystems represents a major ecological challenge. Food web structure, energy and nutrient budgets are difficult to measure, and it is becoming more important to quantify both energy and nutrient flow to determine how food web processes and structure are being modified by multiple stressors. We propose that polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners represent an ideal tracer to quantify in situ energy and nutrient flow between trophic levels. Here, we demonstrate how an understanding of PCB congener bioaccumulation dynamics provides multiple direct measurements of energy and nutrient flow in aquatic food webs. To demonstrate this novel approach, we quantified nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and caloric turnover rates for Lake Huron lake trout, and reveal how these processes are regulated by both growth rate and fish life history. Although minimal nutrient recycling was observed in young growing fish, slow growing, older lake trout (>5 yr) recycled an average of 482 Tonnes·yr(-1) of N, 45 Tonnes·yr(-1) of P and assimilated 22 TJ yr(-1) of energy. Compared to total P loading rates of 590 Tonnes·yr(-1), the recycling of primarily bioavailable nutrients by fish plays an important role regulating the nutrient states of oligotrophic lakes.

  15. Ambipolar zinc-polyiodide electrolyte for a high-energy density aqueous redox flow battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Nie, Zimin; Vijayakumar, M; Li, Guosheng; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent; Wang, Wei

    2015-02-24

    Redox flow batteries are receiving wide attention for electrochemical energy storage due to their unique architecture and advantages, but progress has so far been limited by their low energy density (~25 Wh l(-1)). Here we report a high-energy density aqueous zinc-polyiodide flow battery. Using the highly soluble iodide/triiodide redox couple, a discharge energy density of 167 Wh l(-1) is demonstrated with a near-neutral 5.0 M ZnI2 electrolyte. Nuclear magnetic resonance study and density functional theory-based simulation along with flow test data indicate that the addition of an alcohol (ethanol) induces ligand formation between oxygen on the hydroxyl group and the zinc ions, which expands the stable electrolyte temperature window to from -20 to 50 °C, while ameliorating the zinc dendrite. With the high-energy density and its benign nature free from strong acids and corrosive components, zinc-polyiodide flow battery is a promising candidate for various energy storage applications.

  16. The Multiscale Interaction of Vibrational Energy Transfer and Turbulent Combustion in Supersonic Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-04

    comply with a collection of information   if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE...µm in order to facilitate the flow diagnostics. The center jet flow issues through a CNC- machined stainless nozzle, which can be replaced to provide...the mixing in the shear layer, which will be used to compare with the relaxation time of the vibrational energy, was defined as the eddy turnover time

  17. Numerical study of the air-flow in an oscillating water column wave energy converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paixao Conde, J.M. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, New University of Lisbon, Monte de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); IDMEC, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Gato, L.M.C. [IDMEC, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2008-12-15

    The paper presents a numerical study of the air-flow in a typical pneumatic chamber geometry of an oscillating water column (OWC)-type wave energy converter (WEC), equipped with two vertical-axis air turbines, asymmetrically placed on the top of the chamber. Outwards and inwards, steady and periodic, air-flow calculations were performed to investigate the flow distribution at the turbines' inlet sections, as well as the properties of the air-jet impinging on the water free-surface. The original design of the OWC chamber is likely to be harmful for the operation of the turbines due to the possible air-jet-produced water-spray at the water free-surface subsequently ingested by the turbine. A geometry modification of the air chamber, using a horizontal baffle-plate to deflect the air from the turbines, is proposed and proved to be very effective in reducing the risk of water-spray production from the inwards flow. The flow distribution at the turbines' inlet sections for the outwards flow was found to be fairly uniform for the geometries considered, providing good inlet flow conditions for the turbines. Steady flow was found to be an acceptable model to study the air-flow inside the pneumatic chamber of an OWC-WEC. (author)

  18. The use of energy in China: Tracing the flow of energy from primary source to demand drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Linwei; Allwood, Julian M.; Cullen, Jonathan M.; Li, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    We present a map of the transformation of energy in China as a Sankey diagram. After a review of previous work, and a statement of methodology, our main work has been the identification, evaluation, and treatment of appropriate data sources. This data is used to construct the Sankey diagram, in which flows of energy are traced from energy sources through end-use conversion devices, passive systems and final services to demand drivers. The resulting diagram provides a convenient and clear snapshot of existing energy transformations in China which can usefully be compared with a similar global analysis and which emphasises the potential for improvements in energy efficiency in ‘passive systems’. More broadly, it gives a basis for examining and communicating future energy scenarios, including changes to demand, changes to the supply mix, changes in efficiency and alternative provision of existing services. -- Highlights: ► A Sankey Diagram has been created to show the complete picture of energy transformation in China. ► The Diagram traces energy transformations from source to final service. ► The diagram is organised by technologies, enabling prioritisation and allowing future calculation of efficiencies. ► The diagram is contrasted with an equivalent diagram for global energy use. ► Armed with the diagram we can now examine the system-wide consequences of future changes to China's energy system.

  19. Melt Flow and Energy Limitation of Laser Cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Hudeček

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser technology is a convertible technology for plenty of parts in most materials. Laser material processing for industrial manufacturing applications is today a widespread procedure for welding, cutting, marking and micro machining of metal and plastic parts and components. Involvement and support this huge mass-production industry of laser cutting, new technology and dry-process using lasers were and are being actively developed. Fundamentally, industrial laser cutting or other applications on industry should satisfy the four key practical application issues including “Quality or Performance”, “Throughput or Speed”, “Cost or Total Ownership Cost”, and “Reliability”. Laser requires for examples several complicated physical factors to be resolved including die strength to be enable good wire-bonding and survival of severe cycling test, clean cutting wall surface, good cutting of direct attach film, and proper speed of cutting for achieving economy of throughput. Some example of maximum cutting rate, wherewith is normally limited laser energy, cutting speed is depend on type laser, different of cutting with one laser beam and beam pattern and applied laser power/material thickness will be introduced in this paper.

  20. Distributed Multi-Commodity Network Flow Algorithm for Energy Optimal Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Trdlicka

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes a distributed algorithm for energy optimal routing in a wireless sensor network. The routing problem is described as a mathematical problem by the minimum-cost multi-commodity network flow problem. Due to the separability of the problem, we use the duality theorem to derive the distributed algorithm. The algorithm computes the energy optimal routing in the network without any central node or knowledge of the whole network structure. Each node only needs to know the flow which is supposed to send or receive and the costs and capacities of the neighboring links. An evaluation of the presented algorithm on benchmarks for the energy optimal data flow routing in sensor networks with up to 100 nodes is presented.

  1. Control of 2D Flexible Structures by Confinement of Vibrations and Regulation of Their Energy Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhreddine Landolsi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the control of 2D flexible structures by vibration confinement and the regulation of their energy flow along prespecified spatial paths. A discretized-model-based feedback strategy, aiming at confining and suppressing simultaneously the vibration, is proposed. It is assumed that the structure consists of parts that are sensitive to vibrations. The control design introduces a new pseudo-modal matrix derived from the computed eigenvectors of the discretized model. Simulations are presented to show the efficacy of the proposed control law. A parametric study is carried out to examine the effects of the different control parameters on the simultaneous confinement and suppression of vibrations. In addition, we conducted a set of simulations to investigate the flow control of vibrational energy during the confinement-suppression process. We found that the energy flow can be regulated via a set of control parameters for different confinement configurations.

  2. A compact low energy multibeam gamma-ray densitometer for pipe-flow measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjugum, Stein-Arild; Frieling, Joop; Johansen, Geir Anton

    2002-01-01

    A compact low-energy multibeam gamma-ray densitometer for oil/water/gas pipe-flow measurement has been built at the University of Bergen. The instrument consists of one Am-241 source and three detectors, all collimated and embedded in the pipe wall. Only the 59.5 keV radiation energy of the source is utilized. Two of the detectors measure transmitted radiation across the pipe flow, and one measure scattered radiation at a 90 degree sign angle. The purpose of the multibeam measurement geometry is to acquire flow regime information and to reduce the flow regime dependency of the gas volume fraction (GVF) measurements. The measurement of scattered radiation enables the dual modality densitometry (DMD) measurement principle to be exploited. Its basic principle is to combine the measurement of scattered and transmitted radiation in order to obtain salinity independent GVF measurements. The salinity dependency is otherwise strongly significant when using low-energy radiation. It is also possible to measure the salinity by using this principle. The instrument is a laboratory prototype, and it has been used for characterising the measurement principle and to test different detector alternatives. The testing of the instrument includes static tests on plastic phantoms, tests on simulated water/gas flow and three phase flow loop tests. Both the multibeam measurement principle and the DMD principle have been verified to provide valuable information. This paper presents the physics behind, experimental results and an evaluation of the system

  3. Data on flow cell optimization for membrane-based electrokinetic energy conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Nicolas Østedgaard-Munck

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article elaborates on the design and optimization of a specialized flow cell for the measurement of direct conversion of pressure into electrical energy (Electrokinetic Energy Conversion, EKEC which has been presented in Østedgaard-Munck et al. (2017 [1]. Two main flow cell parameters have been monitored and optimized: A the hydraulic pressure profile on each side of the membrane introduced by pumps recirculating the electrolyte solution through the flow fields and B the electrical resistance between the current collectors across the combined flow cell. The latter parameter has been measured using four-point Electrochemical Impedance spectroscopy (EIS for different flow rates and concentrations. The total cell resistance consists of contributions from different components: the membrane (Rmem, anode charge transfer (RA, cathode charge transfer (RC, and ion diffusion in the porous electrodes (RD.The intrinsic membrane properties of Nafion 117 has been investigated experimentally in LiI/I2 solutions with concentrations ranging between 0.06 and 0.96 M and used to identify the preferred LiI/I2 solution concentration. This was achieved by measuring the solution uptake, internal solution concentration and ion exchange capacity. The membrane properties were further used to calculate the transport coefficients and electrokinetic Figure of merit in terms of the Uniform potential and Space charge models. Special attention has been put on the streaming potential coefficient which is an intrinsic property. Keywords: Electrokinetic energy conversion, Electrochemical flow cell, Conversion efficiency

  4. Calculation of nonstationary gas-dynamic flows with periodic local supply of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailova, N.V.; Myshetskaya, E.E.; Rakhimov, A.T.; Favorskii, A.P.

    The paper considers the motion of a flow of gas with local supply of energy periodic in time. Solution of the problem in one-dimensional formulation in the approximation of an ideal nonviscous non-heat-conducting gas is carried out by numerical methods. The possibility of emergence of the flow into a periodic regime is established and the rate of this process is calculated. The character of the periodic structure is investigated in dependence on the frequency of the superimposition of perturbations and the Mach number in unperturbed flow of the gas

  5. Transverse energy per charged particle in heavy-ion collisions: Role of collective flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Tiwari, Swatantra; Sahoo, Raghunath

    2018-03-01

    The ratio of (pseudo)rapidity density of transverse energy and the (pseudo)rapidity density of charged particles, which is a measure of the mean transverse energy per particle, is an important observable in high energy heavy-ion collisions. This ratio reveals information about the mechanism of particle production and the freeze-out criteria. Its collision energy and centrality dependence is almost similar to the chemical freeze-out temperature until top Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) energy. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) measurement at √{s_{NN}} = 2.76 TeV brings up new challenges towards understanding the phenomena like gluon saturation and role of collective flow, etc. being prevalent at high energies, which could contribute to the above observable. Statistical Hadron Gas Model (SHGM) with a static fireball approximation has been successful in describing both the centrality and energy dependence until top RHIC energies. However, the SHGM predictions for higher energies lie well below the LHC data. In order to understand this, we have incorporated collective flow in an excluded-volume SHGM (EV-SHGM). Our studies suggest that the collective flow plays an important role in describing E T/ N ch and it could be one of the possible parameters to explain the rise observed in E T/ N ch from RHIC to LHC energies. Predictions are made for E T/ N ch , participant pair normalized-transverse energy per unit rapidity and the Bjorken energy density for Pb+Pb collisions at √{s_{NN}} = 5.02 TeV at the Large Hadron Collider.

  6. Energy Efficient Thermal Management for Natural Gas Engine Aftertreatment via Active Flow Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David K. Irick; Ke Nguyen; Vitacheslav Naoumov; Doug Ferguson

    2006-04-01

    The project is focused on the development of an energy efficient aftertreatment system capable of reducing NOx and methane by 90% from lean-burn natural gas engines by applying active exhaust flow control. Compared to conventional passive flow-through reactors, the proposed scheme cuts supplemental energy by 50%-70%. The system consists of a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) system and an oxidation catalyst. Through alternating flow control, a major amount of engine exhaust flows through a large portion of the LNT system in the absorption mode, while a small amount of exhaust goes through a small portion of the LNT system in the regeneration or desulfurization mode. By periodically reversing the exhaust gas flow through the oxidation catalyst, a higher temperature profile is maintained in the catalyst bed resulting in greater efficiency of the oxidation catalyst at lower exhaust temperatures. The project involves conceptual design, theoretical analysis, computer simulation, prototype fabrication, and empirical studies. This report details the progress during the first twelve months of the project. The primary activities have been to develop the bench flow reactor system, develop the computer simulation and modeling of the reverse-flow oxidation catalyst, install the engine into the test cell, and begin design of the LNT system.

  7. A PROTOTYPICAL HYDRODYNAMIC MINI GENERATOR OF ELECTRIC ENERGY TO BE USED IN THE CHANNEL FLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman KACZYŃSKI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the numerical analysis and scientific research of prototypical solutions for mini generators of electric energy to be assembled in small diameter pipelines. Additionally, this papers presents the construction of a test stand stimulating similar flow to the actual flow allowing testing various geometry of impellers at variable conditions. In order to optimize the impellers geometry of hydro generators the cfd analysis has been used. The characteristics of miniature stepper motors working as electric energy generators have also been assigned.

  8. Wind energy: an application of Bernoulli's theorem generalized to isentropic flow of ideal gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Luca, R; Desideri, P

    2013-01-01

    By considering the extension of Bernoulli's theorem to the case of the isentropic flow of ideal gases we conceive a small-scale wind–energy system able to work in the presence of low wind velocities in any direction. The flow of air inside a hyperbolically shaped pipe is studied using elementary physics concepts. The results obtained show that wind velocity in the system increases for decreasing cross-sectional areas, allowing a lower cut-in wind speed and an increase in the annual energy production of the device. (paper)

  9. Momentum-energy transport from turbulence driven by parallel flow shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, J.Q.; Horton, W.; Bengtson, R.D.; Li, G.X.

    1994-04-01

    The low frequency E x B turbulence driven by the shear in the mass flow velocity parallel to the magnetic field is studied using the fluid theory in a slab configuration with magnetic shear. Ion temperature gradient effects are taken into account. The eigenfunctions of the linear instability are asymmetric about the mode rational surfaces. Quasilinear Reynolds stress induced by such asymmetric fluctuations produces momentum and energy transport across the magnetic field. Analytic formulas for the parallel and perpendicular Reynolds stress, viscosity and energy transport coefficients are given. Experimental observations of the parallel and poloidal plasma flows on TEXT-U are presented and compared with the theoretical models

  10. Boltzmann rovibrational collisional coarse-grained model for internal energy excitation and dissociation in hypersonic flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munafò, A; Panesi, M; Magin, T E

    2014-02-01

    A Boltzmann rovibrational collisional coarse-grained model is proposed to reduce a detailed kinetic mechanism database developed at NASA Ames Research Center for internal energy transfer and dissociation in N(2)-N interactions. The coarse-grained model is constructed by lumping the rovibrational energy levels of the N(2) molecule into energy bins. The population of the levels within each bin is assumed to follow a Boltzmann distribution at the local translational temperature. Excitation and dissociation rate coefficients for the energy bins are obtained by averaging the elementary rate coefficients. The energy bins are treated as separate species, thus allowing for non-Boltzmann distributions of their populations. The proposed coarse-grained model is applied to the study of nonequilibrium flows behind normal shock waves and within converging-diverging nozzles. In both cases, the flow is assumed inviscid and steady. Computational results are compared with those obtained by direct solution of the master equation for the rovibrational collisional model and a more conventional multitemperature model. It is found that the proposed coarse-grained model is able to accurately resolve the nonequilibrium dynamics of internal energy excitation and dissociation-recombination processes with only 20 energy bins. Furthermore, the proposed coarse-grained model provides a superior description of the nonequilibrium phenomena occurring in shock heated and nozzle flows when compared with the conventional multitemperature models.

  11. Parameters for calculation of nuclear reactions of relevance to non-energy nuclear applications (Reference Input Parameter Library: Phase III). Summary report of the first research coordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capote Noy, R.

    2004-08-01

    A summary is given of the First Research Coordination Meeting on Parameters for Calculation of Nuclear Reactions of Relevance to Non-Energy Nuclear Applications (Reference Input Parameter Library: Phase III), including a critical review of the RIPL-2 file. The new library should serve as input for theoretical calculations of nuclear reaction data at incident energies up to 200 MeV, as needed for energy and non-energy modern applications of nuclear data. Technical discussions and the resulting work plan of the Coordinated Research Programme are summarized, along with actions and deadlines. Participants' contributions to the RCM are also attached. (author)

  12. A Low-Cost Neutral Zinc-Iron Flow Battery with High Energy Density for Stationary Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Congxin; Duan, Yinqi; Xu, Wenbin; Zhang, Huamin; Li, Xianfeng

    2017-11-20

    Flow batteries (FBs) are one of the most promising stationary energy-storage devices for storing renewable energy. However, commercial progress of FBs is limited by their high cost and low energy density. A neutral zinc-iron FB with very low cost and high energy density is presented. By using highly soluble FeCl 2 /ZnBr 2 species, a charge energy density of 56.30 Wh L -1 can be achieved. DFT calculations demonstrated that glycine can combine with iron to suppress hydrolysis and crossover of Fe 3+ /Fe 2+ . The results indicated that an energy efficiency of 86.66 % can be obtained at 40 mA cm -2 and the battery can run stably for more than 100 cycles. Furthermore, a low-cost porous membrane was employed to lower the capital cost to less than $ 50 per kWh, which was the lowest value that has ever been reported. Combining the features of low cost, high energy density and high energy efficiency, the neutral zinc-iron FB is a promising candidate for stationary energy-storage applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Exploring energy loss by vector flow mapping in children with ventricular septal defect: Pathophysiologic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Takashi; Itatani, Keiichi; Takanashi, Manabu; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Ando, Hisashi; Kimura, Sumito; Oka, Norihiko; Miyaji, Kagami; Ishii, Masahiro

    2017-10-01

    Vector flow mapping is a novel echocardiographic flow visualization method, and it has enabled us to quantitatively evaluate the energy loss in the left ventricle (intraventricular energy loss). Although intraventricular energy loss is assumed to be a part of left ventricular workload itself, it is unclear what this parameter actually represents. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the characteristics of intraventricular energy loss. We enrolled 26 consecutive children with ventricular septal defect (VSD). On echocardiography vector flow mapping, intraventricular energy loss was measured in the apical 3-chamber view. We measured peak energy loss and averaged energy loss in the diastolic and systolic phases, and subsequently compared these parameters with catheterization parameters and serum brain natrium peptide (BNP) level. Diastolic, peak, and systolic energy loss were strongly and positively correlated with right ventricular systolic pressure (r=0.76, 0.68, and 0.56, p<0.0001, = 0.0001, and 0.0029, respectively) and right ventricular end diastolic pressure (r=0.55, 0.49, and 0.49, p=0.0038, 0.0120, and 0.0111, respectively). In addition, diastolic, peak, and systolic energy loss were significantly correlated with BNP (r=0.75, 0.69 and 0.49, p<0.0001, < 0.0001, and=0.0116, respectively). In children with VSD, elevated right ventricular pressure is one of the factors that increase energy loss in the left ventricle. The results of the present study encourage further studies in other study populations to elucidate the characteristics of intraventricular energy loss for its possible clinical application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of Non-Conservative Joints in Beam Networks for Vibration Energy Flow Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jee-Hun Song

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Our work aims to find a general solution for the vibrational energy flow through a plane network of beams on the basis of an energy flow analysis. A joint between two semi-infinite beams are modeled by three sets of springs and dashpots. Thus, the results can incorporate the case of complaint and non-conservative in all the three degrees of freedom. In the cases of finite coupled structures connected at a certain angle, the derived non-conservative joints and developed wave energy equation were applied. The joint properties, the frequency, the coupling angle, and the internal loss factor were changed to evaluate the proposed methods for predicting medium-to-high frequency vibrational energy and intensity distributions.

  15. Design and optimization of a large flow rate booster pump in SWRO energy recovery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Z N; Wu, P; Wu, D Z; Wang, L Q

    2013-01-01

    Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) is a high energy-consumption industry, so energy efficiency is an important issue. Energy recovery systems, which contain a pressure exchanger and a booster pump, are widely used in SWRO plants. As a key part of energy recovery system, the difficulty of designing booster pumps lies in high inlet pressure, high medium causticity and large flow rate. High inlet pressure adds difficulties to seal design, and large flow rate and high efficiency requirement bring high demand for hydraulic design. In this paper, a 625 m 3 /h booster pump is designed and optimized according to the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation results. The impeller and volute is well designed, a new type of high pressure mechanical seal is applied and axial force is well balanced. After optimization based on blade redesign, the efficiency of the pump was improved. The best efficiency reaches more than 85% at design point according to the CFD simulation result

  16. Design and optimization of a large flow rate booster pump in SWRO energy recovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Z. N.; Wu, P.; Wu, D. Z.; Wang, L. Q.

    2013-12-01

    Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) is a high energy-consumption industry, so energy efficiency is an important issue. Energy recovery systems, which contain a pressure exchanger and a booster pump, are widely used in SWRO plants. As a key part of energy recovery system, the difficulty of designing booster pumps lies in high inlet pressure, high medium causticity and large flow rate. High inlet pressure adds difficulties to seal design, and large flow rate and high efficiency requirement bring high demand for hydraulic design. In this paper, a 625 m3/h booster pump is designed and optimized according to the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation results. The impeller and volute is well designed, a new type of high pressure mechanical seal is applied and axial force is well balanced. After optimization based on blade redesign, the efficiency of the pump was improved. The best efficiency reaches more than 85% at design point according to the CFD simulation result.

  17. A novel iron-lead redox flow battery for large-scale energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y. K.; Zhao, T. S.; Zhou, X. L.; Wei, L.; Ren, Y. X.

    2017-04-01

    The redox flow battery (RFB) is one of the most promising large-scale energy storage technologies for the massive utilization of intermittent renewables especially wind and solar energy. This work presents a novel redox flow battery that utilizes inexpensive and abundant Fe(II)/Fe(III) and Pb/Pb(II) redox couples as redox materials. Experimental results show that both the Fe(II)/Fe(III) and Pb/Pb(II) redox couples have fast electrochemical kinetics in methanesulfonic acid, and that the coulombic efficiency and energy efficiency of the battery are, respectively, as high as 96.2% and 86.2% at 40 mA cm-2. Furthermore, the battery exhibits stable performance in terms of efficiencies and discharge capacities during the cycle test. The inexpensive redox materials, fast electrochemical kinetics and stable cycle performance make the present battery a promising candidate for large-scale energy storage applications.

  18. Development and experimental evaluation of models for low capillary number two-phase flows in rough walled fractures relevant to natural gradient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.J.; Yarrington, L.; Nicholl, M.J.

    1997-09-01

    The major results from SNL's Conceptual Model Development and Validation Task (WBS 1.2.5.4.6) as developed through exploration of small scale processes were synthesized in Glass et al. to give guidance to Performance Assessment on improving conceptual models for isothermal flow in unsaturated, fractured rock. There, pressure saturation and relative permeability curves for single fractures were proposed to be a function of both fracture orientation within the gravity field and initial conditions. We refer the reader to Glass et al. for a discussion of the implications of this behavior for Performance Assessment. The scientific research we report here substantiates this proposed behavior. We address the modeling of phase structure within fractures under natural gradient conditions relevant to unsaturated flow through fractures. This phase structure underlies the calculation of effective properties for individual fractures and hence fracture networks as required for Performance Assessment. Standard Percolation (SP) and Invasion Percolation (IP) approaches have been recently proposed to model the underlying phase saturation structures within the individual fractures during conditions of two-phase flow. Subsequent analysis of these structures yields effective two-phase pressure-saturation and relative permeability relations for the fracture. However, both of these approaches yield structures that are at odds with physical reality as we see in experiments and thus effective properties calculated from these structures are in error. Here we develop and evaluate a Modified Invasion Percolation (MIP) approach to better model quasi-static immiscible displacement in fractures. The effects of gravity, contact angle, local aperature field geometry, and local in-plane interfacial curvature between phases are included in the calculation of invasion pressure for individual sites in a discretized aperture field

  19. Material and Energy Flows Associated with Select Metals in GREET 2. Molybdenum, Platinum, Zinc, Nickel, Silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benavides, Pahola T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dai, Qiang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sullivan, John L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kelly, Jarod C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we analyzed the material and energy consumption from mining to production of molybdenum, platinum, zinc, and nickel. We also analyzed the production of solar- and semiconductor-grade silicon. We described new additions to and expansions of the data in GREET 2. In some cases, we used operating permits and sustainability reports to estimate the material and energy flows for molybdenum, platinum, and nickel, while for zinc and silicon we relied on information provided in the literature.

  20. The Concept of EV’s Intelligent Integrated Station and Its Energy Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Da Xie; Haoxiang Chu; Yupu Lu; Chenghong Gu; Furong Li; Yu Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The increasing number of electric vehicles (EVs) connected to existing distribution networks as time-variant loads cause significant distortions in line current and voltage. A novel EV's intelligent integrated station (IIS) making full use of retired batteries is introduced in this paper to offer a potential solution for accommodating the charging demand of EVs. It proposes the concept of generalized energy in IIS, based on the energy/power flow between IIS and EVs, and between IIS and the po...

  1. On the Flow Instabilities and Turbulent Kinetic Energy of Large-Scale Francis Hydroturbine Model at Low Flow Rate Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tao Su

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is to make a better understanding of the flow instabilities and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE features in a large-scale Francis hydroturbine model. The flow instability with aspect of pressure oscillation and pressure-velocity correlation was investigated using large eddy simulation (LES method along with two-phase cavitation model. The numerical simulation procedures were validated by the existing experimental result, and further the TKE evolution was analyzed in a curvilinear coordinates. By monitoring the fluctuating pressure and velocities in the vanes’ wake region, the local pressure and velocity variations were proven to have a phase difference approaching π/2, with a reasonable cross-correlation coefficient. Also the simultaneous evolution of pressure fluctuations at the opposite locations possessed a clear phase difference of π, indicating the stresses variations on the runner induced by pressure oscillation were in an odd number of nodal diameter. Considering the TKE generation, the streamwise velocity component us′2 contributed the most to the TKE, and thus the normal stress production term and shear stress production term imparted more instability to the flow than other production terms.

  2. Hybrid Graphene-Polyoxometalates Nanofluids as Liquid Electrodes for Dual Energy Storage in Novel Flow Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubal, Deepak P; Rueda-Garcia, Daniel; Marchante, Carlos; Benages, Raul; Gomez-Romero, Pedro

    2018-02-22

    Solid Hybrid materials abound. But flowing versions of them are new actors in the materials science landscape and in particular for energy applications. This paper presents a new way to deliver nanostructured hybrid materials for energy storage, namely, in the form of nanofluids. We present here the first example of a hybrid electroactive nanofluid (HENFs) combining capacitive and faradaic energy storage mechanisms in a single fluid material. This liquid electrode is composed of reduced graphene oxide and polyoxometalates (rGO-POMs) forming a stable nanocomposite for electrochemical energy storage in novel Nanofluid Flow Cells. Two graphene based hybrid materials (rGO-phosphomolybdate, rGO-PMo 12 and rGO-phosphotungstate, rGO-PW 12 ) were synthesized and dispersed with the aid of a surfactant in 1 M H 2 SO 4 aqueous electrolyte to yield highly stable hybrid electroactive nanofluids (HENFs) of low viscosity which were tested in a home-made flow cell under static and continuous flowing conditions. Remarkably, even low concentration rGO-POMs HENFs (0.025 wt%) exhibited high specific capacitances of 273 F/g(rGO-PW 12 ) and 305 F/g(rGO-PMo 12 ) with high specific energy and specific power. Moreover, rGO-POM HENFs show excellent cycling stability (∼95 %) as well as Coulombic efficiency (∼77-79 %) after 2000 cycles. Thus, rGO-POM HENFs effectively behave as real liquid electrodes with excellent properties, demonstrating the possible future application of HENFs for dual energy storage in a new generation of Nanofluid Flow Cells. © 2018 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Energy flow and particle spectra with respect to the reaction plane for Au+Au collisions at AGS energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yingchao; Wessels, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Transverse energy flow is studied by exploiting the near 4π calorimetric coverage of experiment E877. A Fourier decomposition of the azimuthal transverse energy distributions in different regions of pseudorapidity is performed as a function of the centrality in order to describe the event shape. The extracted coefficients are compared to model predictions. Using the E877 forward spectrometer, triple differential cross section for protons and π + are measured with respect to the reaction plane determined by calorimeters. The variation of slope parameters at different orientations to the reaction plane is obtained by fitting to thermal Boltzmann distributions. (orig.)

  4. Aqueous Lithium-Iodine Solar Flow Battery for the Simultaneous Conversion and Storage of Solar Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mingzhe; McCulloch, William D; Beauchamp, Damian R; Huang, Zhongjie; Ren, Xiaodi; Wu, Yiying

    2015-07-08

    Integrating both photoelectric-conversion and energy-storage functions into one device allows for the more efficient solar energy usage. Here we demonstrate the concept of an aqueous lithium-iodine (Li-I) solar flow battery (SFB) by incorporation of a built-in dye-sensitized TiO2 photoelectrode in a Li-I redox flow battery via linkage of an I3(-)/I(-) based catholyte, for the simultaneous conversion and storage of solar energy. During the photoassisted charging process, I(-) ions are photoelectrochemically oxidized to I3(-), harvesting solar energy and storing it as chemical energy. The Li-I SFB can be charged at a voltage of 2.90 V under 1 sun AM 1.5 illumination, which is lower than its discharging voltage of 3.30 V. The charging voltage reduction translates to energy savings of close to 20% compared to conventional Li-I batteries. This concept also serves as a guiding design that can be extended to other metal-redox flow battery systems.

  5. Triboelectric-based harvesting of gas flow energy and powerless sensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taghavi, Majid, E-mail: majid.taghavi@iit.it [Micro-BioRobotics Center, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Pontedera (Italy); Biorobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pontedera, Pisa (Italy); Sadeghi, Ali; Mazzolai, Barbara [Micro-BioRobotics Center, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Pontedera (Italy); Beccai, Lucia, E-mail: lucia.beccai@iit.it [Micro-BioRobotics Center, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Pontedera (Italy); Mattoli, Virgilio, E-mail: virgilio.mattoli@iit.it [Micro-BioRobotics Center, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Pontedera (Italy)

    2014-12-30

    Highlights: • The mechanical energy of both pure and impure gases can be harvested by the introduced system. • The blown gas vibrates a non conductive sheet between two surfaces, generating the triboelectric charges. • The system is able to measure the flow rate of the blown gas. • The existence of dust in the blown air can be detected without external powering. • A self powered smoke detector is introduced. - Abstract: In this work, we propose an approach that can convert gas flow energy to electric energy by using the triboelectric effect, in a structure integrating at least two conductive parts (i.e. electrodes) and one non-conductive sheet. The gas flow induces vibration of the cited parts. Therefore, the frequent attaching and releasing between a non-conductive layer with at least one electrode generates electrostatic charges on the surfaces, and then an electron flow between the two electrodes. The effect of blown gas on the output signals is studied to evaluate the gas flow sensing. We also illustrate that the introduced system has an ability to detect micro particles driven by air into the system. Finally we show how we can use this approach for a self sustainable system demonstrating smoke detection and LED lightening.

  6. Triboelectric-based harvesting of gas flow energy and powerless sensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taghavi, Majid; Sadeghi, Ali; Mazzolai, Barbara; Beccai, Lucia; Mattoli, Virgilio

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The mechanical energy of both pure and impure gases can be harvested by the introduced system. • The blown gas vibrates a non conductive sheet between two surfaces, generating the triboelectric charges. • The system is able to measure the flow rate of the blown gas. • The existence of dust in the blown air can be detected without external powering. • A self powered smoke detector is introduced. - Abstract: In this work, we propose an approach that can convert gas flow energy to electric energy by using the triboelectric effect, in a structure integrating at least two conductive parts (i.e. electrodes) and one non-conductive sheet. The gas flow induces vibration of the cited parts. Therefore, the frequent attaching and releasing between a non-conductive layer with at least one electrode generates electrostatic charges on the surfaces, and then an electron flow between the two electrodes. The effect of blown gas on the output signals is studied to evaluate the gas flow sensing. We also illustrate that the introduced system has an ability to detect micro particles driven by air into the system. Finally we show how we can use this approach for a self sustainable system demonstrating smoke detection and LED lightening

  7. The Energy Dependence of Flow in Ni Induced Collisions from 400A to 1970A MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chance, J.; Brady, F.; Cebra, D.; Kintner, J.; Partlan, M.; Romero, J.; Albergo, S.; Caccia, Z.; Costa, S.; Insolia, A.; Potenza, R.; Romanski, J.; Russo, G.; Tuve, C.; Bieser, F.; Cebra, D.; Lisa, M.; Matis, H.; McMahan, M.; McParland, C.; Olson, D.; Rai, G.; Rasmussen, J.; Ritter, H.; Symons, T.; Wieman, H.; Wienold, T.; Choi, Y.; Elliott, J.; Gilkes, M.; Hauger, J.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Porile, N.; Scharenberg, R.; Srivastava, B.; Tincknell, M.; Warren, P.; Chacon, A.; Wolf, K.

    1997-01-01

    We study the energy dependence of collective (hydrodynamic-like) nuclear matter flow in (400 endash 1970)A MeV Ni+Au and (1000 endash 1970)A MeV Ni+Cu reactions. The flow increases with energy, appears to reach a maximum, and then to decrease at higher energies. A way of comparing the energy dependence of flow values for different projectile-target mass combinations is introduced, which demonstrates a more-or-less common scaling behavior among flow values from different systems. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  8. A review of the characteristics of dietary fibers relevant to appetite and energy intake outcomes in human intervention trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poutanen, Kaisa S; Dussort, Pierre; Erkner, Alfrun; Fiszman, Susana; Karnik, Kavita; Kristensen, Mette; Marsaux, Cyril Fm; Miquel-Kergoat, Sophie; Pentikäinen, Saara P; Putz, Peter; Slavin, Joanne L; Steinert, Robert E; Mela, David J

    2017-09-01

    Background: Many intervention studies have tested the effect of dietary fibers (DFs) on appetite-related outcomes, with inconsistent results. However, DFs comprise a wide range of compounds with diverse properties, and the specific contribution of these to appetite control is not well characterized. Objective: The influence of specific DF characteristics [i.e., viscosity, gel-forming capacity, fermentability, or molecular weight (MW)] on appetite-related outcomes was assessed in healthy humans. Design: Controlled human intervention trials that tested the effects of well-characterized DFs on appetite ratings or energy intake were identified from a systematic search of literature. Studies were included only if they reported 1 ) DF name and origin and 2 ) data on viscosity, gelling properties, fermentability, or MW of the DF materials or DF-containing matrixes. Results: A high proportion of the potentially relevant literature was excluded because of lack of adequate DF characterization. In total, 49 articles that met these criteria were identified, which reported 90 comparisons of various DFs in foods, beverages, or supplements in acute or sustained-exposure trials. In 51 of the 90 comparisons, the DF-containing material of interest was efficacious for ≥1 appetite-related outcome. Reported differences in material viscosity, MW, or fermentability did not clearly correspond to differences in efficacy, whereas gel-forming DF sources were consistently efficacious (but with very few comparisons). Conclusions: The overall inconsistent relations of DF properties with respect to efficacy may reflect variation in measurement methodology, nature of the DF preparation and matrix, and study designs. Methods of DF characterization, incorporation, and study design are too inconsistent to allow generalized conclusions about the effects of DF properties on appetite and preclude the development of reliable, predictive, structure-function relations. Improved standards for

  9. Deterministic and stochastic algorithms for resolving the flow fields in ducts and networks using energy minimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochi, Taha

    2016-09-01

    Several deterministic and stochastic multi-variable global optimization algorithms (Conjugate Gradient, Nelder-Mead, Quasi-Newton and global) are investigated in conjunction with energy minimization principle to resolve the pressure and volumetric flow rate fields in single ducts and networks of interconnected ducts. The algorithms are tested with seven types of fluid: Newtonian, power law, Bingham, Herschel-Bulkley, Ellis, Ree-Eyring and Casson. The results obtained from all those algorithms for all these types of fluid agree very well with the analytically derived solutions as obtained from the traditional methods which are based on the conservation principles and fluid constitutive relations. The results confirm and generalize the findings of our previous investigations that the energy minimization principle is at the heart of the flow dynamics systems. The investigation also enriches the methods of computational fluid dynamics for solving the flow fields in tubes and networks for various types of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids.

  10. SGS Modeling of the Internal Energy Equation in LES of Supersonic Channel Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath, Sriram; Brereton, Giles

    2011-11-01

    DNS of fully-developed turbulent supersonic channel flows (Reτ = 190) at up to Mach 3 indicate that the turbulent heat fluxes depend only weakly on Mach number, while the viscous dissipation and pressure dilatation do so strongly. Moreover, pressure dilatation makes a significant contribution to the internal energy budget at Mach 3 and higher. The balance between these terms is critical to determining the temperature (and so molecular viscosity) from the internal energy equation and so, in LES of these flows, it is essential to use accurate SGS models for the viscous dissipation and the pressure dilatation. In this talk, we present LES results for supersonic channel flow, using SGS models for these terms that are based on the resolved-scale dilatation, an inverse timescale, and SGS momentum fluxes, which intrinsically represent this Mach number effect.

  11. Computer modelling of a linear turbine for extracting energy from slow-flowing waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raykov, Plamen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to describe the main relationships in the process of designing linear chain turbines with blades and their accompanying devices for obtaining energy from slow flowing waters. Based on the shortcomings of previous types of linear turbines a new concept for arrangement of the blades angles with respect to the flowing water was developed. The dependencies of the geometrical parameters of designed new type linear water turbine and the force applied by the flowing water to the blades are obtained. The optimal relationship between velocity of stream water and extracted power is calculated. The ratio between power characteristics of the extracted energy for different speeds of blades and inclination angle are presented. On the basis of the theoretical results a new linear turbine prototype with inclined blades was designed. Key words: water power system, blade-chain devices, linear turbines

  12. Dynamic Optimal Energy Flow in the Integrated Natural Gas and Electrical Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Jiakun; Zeng, Qing; Ai, Xiaomeng

    2018-01-01

    . Simulation on the test case illustrates the success of the modelling and the beneficial roles of the power-to-gas are analyzed. The proposed model can be used in the decision support for both planning and operation of the coordinated natural gas and electrical power systems.......This work focuses on the optimal operation of the integrated gas and electrical power system with bi-directional energy conversion. Considering the different response times of the gas and power systems, the transient gas flow and steady- state power flow are combined to formulate the dynamic...... optimal energy flow in the integrated gas and power systems. With proper assumptions and simplifications, the problem is transformed into a single stage linear programming. And only a single stage linear programming is needed to obtain the optimal operation strategy for both gas and power systems...

  13. Functional efficiency comparison between split- and parallel-hybrid using advanced energy flow analysis methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guttenberg, Philipp; Lin, Mengyan [Romax Technology, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    The following paper presents a comparative efficiency analysis of the Toyota Prius versus the Honda Insight using advanced Energy Flow Analysis methods. The sample study shows that even very different hybrid concepts like a split- and a parallel-hybrid can be compared in a high level of detail and demonstrates the benefit showing exemplary results. (orig.)

  14. Price-based optimal control of power flow in electrical energy transmission networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jokic, A.; Lazar, M.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.; Bemporad, A.; Bicchi, A.; Buttazzo, G.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a novel control scheme for achieving optimal power balancing and congestion control in electrical energy transmission networks via nodal prices. We develop an explicit controller that guarantees economically optimal steady-state operation while respecting all line flow

  15. Using Flow Electrodes in Multiple Reactors in Series for Continuous Energy Generation from Capacitive Mixing

    KAUST Repository

    Hatzell, Marta C.

    2014-12-09

    Efficient conversion of “mixing energy” to electricity through capacitive mixing (CapMix) has been limited by low energy recoveries, low power densities, and noncontinuous energy production resulting from intermittent charging and discharging cycles. We show here that a CapMix system based on a four-reactor process with flow electrodes can generate constant and continuous energy, providing a more flexible platform for harvesting mixing energy. The power densities were dependent on the flow-electrode carbon loading, with 5.8 ± 0.2 mW m–2 continuously produced in the charging reactor and 3.3 ± 0.4 mW m–2 produced in the discharging reactor (9.2 ± 0.6 mW m–2 for the whole system) when the flow-electrode carbon loading was 15%. Additionally, when the flow-electrode electrolyte ion concentration increased from 10 to 20 g L–1, the total power density of the whole system (charging and discharging) increased to 50.9 ± 2.5 mW m–2.

  16. A methodology for online visualization of the energy flow in a machine tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Züst, Simon; Mayr, Josef

    2017-01-01

    the machining process and by this increasing its energy efficiency. This study intents to propose a method which has the capability of real-time monitoring of the entire energetic flows in a CNC machine tool including motors, pumps and cooling fluid. The structure of this approach is based on categorizing...

  17. Online Speed Scaling Based on Active Job Count to Minimize Flow Plus Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lam, Tak-Wah; Lee, Lap Kei; To, Isaac K. K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is concerned with online scheduling algorithms that aim at minimizing the total flow time plus energy usage. The results are divided into two parts. First, we consider the well-studied “simple” speed scaling model and show how to analyze a speed scaling algorithm (called AJC) that chan...

  18. Energy efficiency improvements utilising mass flow control and a ring topology in a district heating network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laajalehto, Tatu; Kuosa, Maunu; Mäkilä, Tapio; Lampinen, Markku; Lahdelma, Risto

    2014-01-01

    Heating and cooling have a major role in the energy sector, covering 46% of total final energy use worldwide. District heating (DH) is a significant technology for improving the energy efficiency of heating systems in communities, because it enables waste heat sources to be utilised economically and therefore significantly reduces the environmental impacts of power generation. As a result of new and more stringent construction regulations for buildings, the heat demands of individual buildings are decreasing and more energy-efficient heating systems have to be developed. In this study, the energy efficiency of a new DH system which includes both a new control system called mass flow control and a new network design called a ring network is examined. A topology in the Helsinki region is studied by using a commercial DH network modelling tool, Grades Heating. The district heating network is attached to a wood-burning heat station which has a heat recovery system in use. Examination is performed by means of both technical and economic analysis. The new non-linear temperature programme that is required is adopted for supply and return temperatures, which allows greater temperature cooling and smaller flow rates. Lower district heating water temperatures are essential when reducing the heat losses in the network and heat production. Mass flow control allows smaller pressure drops in the network and thus reduces the pumping power. The aim of this study was to determine the most energy-efficient DH water supply temperatures in the case network. If the ring network design is utilised, the district heating system is easier to control. As a result the total heat consumption within the heating season is reduced compared to traditional DH systems. On the basis of the results, the new DH system is significantly more energy-efficient in the case network that was examined than the traditional design. For example, average energy losses within the constraints (which consist of heat

  19. A highly energy-efficient flow-through electro-Fenton process for organic pollutants degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Liang; Zhou, Minghua; Ren, Gengbo; Yang, Weilu; Liang, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A highly energy-efficient flow-through electro-Fenton reactor was designed. • It had high H 2 O 2 yield and low energy consumption for organic pollutants degradation. • The effect of operational parameters was optimized and possible process mechanism was studied. • The novel system performed wide practicability and potential for organic pollutants degradation. - Abstract: A highly energy-efficient flow-through Electro-Fenton (E-Fenton) reactor for oxidation of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution was designed using a perforated DSA as anode and the graphite felt modified by carbon black and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) as cathode for the in situ generation of H 2 O 2 . The modified cathode had a high H 2 O 2 production with low energy consumption, which was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption study and contact angle. The flow-through E-Fenton system was compared to the flow-by and regular one, and confirmed to be best on MB removal and TOC degradation. The operational parameters such as current density, pH, Fe 2+ concentration and flow rate were optimized. The MB and TOC removal efficiency of the effluents could keep above 90% and 50%, respectively, and the energy consumption was 23.0 kWh/kgTOC at the current density of 50 mA, pH 3, 0.3 mM Fe 2+ , and the flow rate of 7 mL/min. ·OH was proved to be the main oxidizing species in this system. After 5 times operation, the system, especially cathode, still showed good stability. Five more organic pollutants including orange II (OG), tartrazine, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), tetracycline (TC) and 2,4-dichlorophen (2,4-DCP) were investigated and the electric energy consumption (EEC) was compared with literatures. All results demonstrated that this flow-through E-Fenton system was energy-efficient and potential for degradation of organic pollutants.

  20. Design, Analysis, and Evaluation of a Compact Electromagnetic Energy Harvester from Water Flow for Remote Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops an electromagnetic energy harvester, which can generate small-scale electricity from non-directional water flow in oceans or rivers for remote sensors. The energy harvester integrates a Tesla disk turbine, a miniature axial-flux permanent magnet generator, and a ring cover with symmetrical grooves which are utilized to rectify flow direction. A compact structure is achieved by mounting the permanent magnets of the generator directly on the end surfaces of the turbine rotor. Theoretical analysis is implemented to illustrate the energy conversion process between flow kinetic form and electrical form. Additionally, a mathematical model is developed to investigate the magnetic field distribution produced by the cubical permanent magnets as well as parametric effect. Plastic prototypes with a diameter of 65 mm and a height of 46 mm are fabricated by using a 3D printing technique. The effect of the groove angle is experimentally investigated and compared under a no-load condition. The prototype with the optimal groove angle can operate at flow velocity down to 0.61 m/s and can induce peak-to-peak electromotive force of 2.64–11.92 V at flow velocity of 0.61–1.87 m/s. It can be observed from the results that the analytical and the measured curves are in good accordance. Loaded experiments show that the output electrical power is 23.1 mW at flow velocity of 1.87 m/s when the load resistance is approximately equal to the coil resistance. The advantages and disadvantages of the proposed energy harvester are presented through comparison with existing similar devices.

  1. Design of State-of-the-art Flow Cells for Energy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-31

    The worldwide energy demand is increasing every day and it necessitates rational and efficient usage of renewable energy. Undoubtedly, utilization of renewable energy can address various environmental challenges. However, all current renewable energy resources (wind, solar, and hydroelectric power) are intermittent and fluctuating in their nature that raises an important question of introducing effective energy storage solutions. Utilization of redox flow cells (RFCs) has recently been recognized as a viable technology for large-scale energy storage and, hence, is well suited for integrating renewable energy and balancing electricity grids. In brief, RFC is an electrochemical storage device where energy is stored in chemical bonds, similar to a battery, but with reactants external to the cell. The state-of-the-art in flow cell technology uses an aqueous acidic electrolyte and simple metal redox couples. Thus, there is an urgent call to develop efficient (high-energy density) and low-cost RFCs to meet the efflorescent energy storage demands. To address the first challenge of achieving high-energy density, we plan to design and further modify complexes composed of bifunctional multidentate ligands and specific metal centers, capable of storing as many electrons as possible. In order to address the second challenge of reducing cost of the RFCs, we plan to use iron (Fe) metal as it regularly occupies multiple oxidation states and is the second most abundant metal in the earth’s crust that makes it an ideal metal for improved energy densities, higher potentials, and numbers of electrons per molecule while maintaining potential cost competitiveness. Density functional theory calculations considering solvation effects will be performed to yield accurate predictions of redox potentials.

  2. Design of State-of-the-art Flow Cells for Energy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-29

    The worldwide energy demand is increasing every day and it necessitates rational and efficient usage of renewable energy. Undoubtedly, utilization of renewable energy can address various environmental challenges. However, all current renewable energy resources (wind, solar, and hydroelectric power) are intermittent and fluctuating in their nature that raises an important question of introducing effective energy storage solutions. Utilization of redox flow cells (RFCs) has recently been recognized as a viable technology for large-scale energy storage and, hence, is well suited for integrating renewable energy and balancing electricity grids. In brief, RFC is an electrochemical storage device (Fig. 1), where energy is stored in chemical bonds, similar to a battery, but with reactants external to the cell. The state-of-the-art in flow cell technology uses an aqueous acidic electrolyte and simple metal redox couples. Several of these systems have been commercialized although current technologies, such as vanadium (V) and zinc-bromine (Zn-Br2) RFCs, for grid level energy storage, suffer from a number of drawbacks, i.e. expensive and resource-limited active materials (vanadium RFCc), and low current performance (Zn-Br2 RFCs due to Zn dendrite formation). Thus, there is an urgent call to develop efficient (high-energy density) and low-cost RFCs to meet the efflorescent energy storage demands. Approach: To address the first challenge of achieving high-energy density, we plan to design and further modify complexes composed of bifunctional multidentate ligands and specific metal centers, capable of storing as many electrons as possible.

  3. 4D Flow Analysis of BAV-Related Fluid-Dynamic Alterations: Evidences of Wall Shear Stress Alterations in Absence of Clinically-Relevant Aortic Anatomical Remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Piatti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV is the most common congenital cardiac disease and is a foremost risk factor for aortopathies. Despite the genetic basis of BAV and of the associated aortopathies, BAV-related alterations in aortic fluid-dynamics, and particularly in wall shear stresses (WSSs, likely play a role in the progression of aortopathy, and may contribute to its pathogenesis. To test whether WSS may trigger aortopathy, in this study we used 4D Flow sequences of phase-contrast cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR to quantitatively compare the in vivo fluid dynamics in the thoracic aorta of two groups of subjects: (i five prospectively enrolled young patients with normo-functional BAV and with no aortic dilation and (ii ten age-matched healthy volunteers. Through the semi-automated processing of 4D Flow data, the aortic bulk flow at peak systole was quantified, and WSSs acting on the endothelium of the ascending aorta were characterized throughout the systolic phase in terms of magnitude and time-dependency through a method recently developed by our group. Variables computed for each BAV patient were compared vs. the corresponding distribution of values obtained for healthy controls. In BAV patients, ascending aorta diameter was measured on cine-CMR images at baseline and at 3-year follow-up. As compared to controls, normo-functional BAV patients were characterized by minor bulk flow disturbances at peak systole. However, they were characterized by evident alterations of WSS distribution and peak values in the ascending aorta. In particular, in four BAV patients, who were characterized by right-left leaflet fusion, WSS peak values exceeded by 27–46% the 90th percentile of the distribution obtained for healthy volunteers. Only in the BAV patient with right-non-coronary leaflet fusion the same threshold was exceeded by 132%. Also, evident alterations in the time-dependency of WSS magnitude and direction were observed. Despite, these fluid

  4. Optimization model of peach production relevant to input energies – Yield function in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghatrehsamani, Shirin; Ebrahimi, Rahim; Kazi, Salim Newaz; Badarudin Badry, Ahmad; Sadeghinezhad, Emad

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the amount of input–output energy used in peach production and to develop an optimal model of production in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province, Iran. Data were collected from 100 producers by administering a questionnaire in face-to-face interviews. Farms were selected based on random sampling method. Results revealed that the total energy of production is 47,951.52 MJ/ha and the highest share of energy consumption belongs to chemical fertilizers (35.37%). Consumption of direct energy was 47.4% while indirect energy was 52.6%. Also, Total energy consumption was divided into two groups; renewable and non-renewable (19.2% and 80.8% respectively). Energy use efficiency, Energy productivity, Specific energy and Net energy were calculated as 0.433, 0.228 (kg/MJ), 4.38 (MJ/kg) and −27,161.722 (MJ/ha), respectively. According to the negative sign for Net energy, if special strategy is used, energy dismiss will decrease and negative effect of some parameters could be omitted. In the present case the amount is indicating decimate of production energy. In addition, energy efficiency was not high enough. Some of the input energies were applied to machinery, chemical fertilizer, water irrigation and electricity which had significant effect on increasing production and MPP (marginal physical productivity) was determined for variables. This parameter was positive for energy groups namely; machinery, diesel fuel, chemical fertilizer, water irrigation and electricity while it was negative for other kind of energy such as chemical pesticides and human labor. Finally, there is a need to pursue a new policy to force producers to undertake energy-efficient practices to establish sustainable production systems without disrupting the natural resources. In addition, extension activities are needed to improve the efficiency of energy consumption and to sustain the natural resources. - Highlights: • Replacing non-renewable energy with renewable

  5. Description of relevant scenarios in the field of agricultural, environmental and climate policy and energy prices for the preliminary study on a Roadmap for the 'SuikerUnie'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plomp, A.J.

    2011-11-01

    In the Dutch Long Term Agreements on energy efficiency (MJA3 and MEE)the Dutch government and industry agreed to strive for a 30% energy efficiency improvement in 2020 compared to 2005. To reach more than 30%, it is not enough to optimize; instead larger process changes will be needed. An important instrument is the realization of preliminary studies and roadmaps, which are supported by the government. This memo offers an overview of relevant developments and scenarios from Agricultural, climate and environmental policy and energy prices for the Dutch sugar industry. This memo serves as input for the Preliminary study Roadmap SuikerUnie. [nl

  6. Bounded energy states in homogeneous turbulent shear flow: An alternative view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Peter S.; Speziale, Charles G.

    1990-01-01

    The equilibrium structure of homogeneous turbulent shear flow is investigated from a theoretical standpoint. Existing turbulence models, in apparent agreement with physical and numerical experiments, predict an unbounded exponential time growth of the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate; only the anisotropy tensor and turbulent time scale reach a structural equilibrium. It is shown that if vortex stretching is accounted for in the dissipation rate transport equation, then there can exist equilibrium solutions, with bounded energy states, where the turbulence production is balanced by its dissipation. Illustrative calculations are present for a k-epsilon model modified to account for vortex stretching. The calculations indicate an initial exponential time growth of the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate for elapsed times that are as large as those considered in any of the previously conducted physical or numerical experiments on homogeneous shear flow. However, vortex stretching eventually takes over and forces a production-equals-dissipation equilibrium with bounded energy states. The validity of this result is further supported by an independent theoretical argument. It is concluded that the generally accepted structural equilibrium for homogeneous shear flow with unbounded component energies is in need of re-examination.

  7. Numerical study on increasing mass flow ratio by energy deposition of high frequency pulsed laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Diankai; Hong Yanji; Li Qian

    2013-01-01

    The mass flow ratio (MFR) of air breathing ramjet inlet would be decreased, when the Mach number is lower than the designed value. High frequency pulsed laser energy was deposited upstream of the cowl lip to reflect the stream so as to increase the MFR. When the Mach number of the flow was 5.0, and the static pressure and temperature of the flow were 2 551.6 Pa and 116.7 K, respectively, two-dimensional non-stationary compressible RANS equations were solved with upwind format to study the mechanisms of increasing MFR by high frequency pulsed laser energy deposition. The laser deposition frequency was 100 kHz and the average power was 500 W. The crossing point of the first forebody oblique shock and extension line of cowl lip was selected as the expected point. Then the deposition position was optimized by searching near the expected point. The results indicate that with the optimization of laser energy deposition position, the MFR would be increased from 63% to 97%. The potential value of increasing MFR by high frequency pulsed laser energy deposition was proved. The method for selection of the energy deposition position was also presented. (authors)

  8. Resource Evaluation and Energy Production Estimate for a Tidal Energy Conversion Installation using Acoustic Flow Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Ian; Baldwin, Ken; Wosnik, Martin

    2015-11-01

    The ``Living Bridge'' project plans to install a tidal turbine at Memorial Bridge in the Piscataqua River at Portsmouth, NH. A spatio-temporal tidal energy resource assessment was performed using long term bottom-deployed Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers ADCP. Two locations were evaluated: at the planned deployment location and mid-channel. The goal was to determine the amount of available kinetic energy that can be converted into usable electrical energy on the bridge. Changes in available kinetic energy with ebb/flood and spring/neap tidal cycles and electrical energy demand were analyzed. A system model is used to calculate the net energy savings using various tidal generator and battery bank configurations. Differences in the tidal characteristics between the two measurement locations are highlighted. Different resource evaluation methodologies were also analyzed, e.g., using a representative ADCP ``bin'' vs. a more refined, turbine-geometry-specific methodology, and using static bin height vs. bin height that move w.r.t. the free surface throughout a tidal cycle (representative of a bottom-fixed or floating turbine deployment, respectively). ADCP operating frequencies and bin sizes affect the standard deviation of measurements, and measurement uncertainties are evaluated. Supported by NSF-IIP grant 1430260.

  9. Energy flow in plate assembles by hierarchical version of finite element method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wachulec, Marcin; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    method has been proposed. In this paper a modified hierarchical version of finite element method is used for modelling of energy flow in plate assembles. The formulation includes description of in-plane forces so that planes lying in different planes can be modelled. Two examples considered are: L......The dynamic analysis of structures in medium and high frequencies are usually focused on frequency and spatial averages of energy of components, and not the displacement/velocity fields. This is especially true for structure-borne noise modelling. For the analysis of complicated structures...... the finite element method has been used to study the energy flow. The finite element method proved its usefulness despite the computational expense. Therefore studies have been conducted in order to simplify and reduce the computations required. Among others, the use of hierarchical version of finite element...

  10. Drag Reduction by Laser-Plasma Energy Addition in Hypersonic Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A. C.; Minucci, M. A. S.; Toro, P. G. P.; Chanes, J. B. Jr; Myrabo, L. N.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate the drag reduction by laser-plasma energy addition in a low density Mach 7 hypersonic flow. The experiments were conducted in a shock tunnel and the optical beam of a high power pulsed CO 2 TEA laser operating with 7 J of energy and 30 MW peak power was focused to generate the plasma upstream of a hemispherical model installed in the tunnel test section. The non-intrusive schlieren optical technique was used to visualize the effects of the energy addition to hypersonic flow, from the plasma generation until the mitigation of the shock wave profile over the model surface. Aside the optical technique, a piezoelectric pressure transducer was used to measure the impact pressure at stagnation point of the hemispherical model and the pressure reduction could be observed

  11. Detection of Parametric Roll Resonance on Ships from Indication of Nonlinear Energy Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galeazzi, Roberto; Blanke, Mogens; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2009-01-01

    The detection of the onset of parametric roll resonance on ships is of a central importance in order to activate specific control strategies able to counteract the large roll motion. One of the main priorities is to have detectors with a small detection time, such that warnings can be issued when...... the roll oscillations are about 5◦. This paper proposes two different detection approaches: the first one based on sinusoidal detection in white gaussian noise; the second one utilizes an energy flow indicator in order to catch the onset of parametric roll based upon the transfer of energy from heave...... and pitch to roll. Both detectors have been validated against experimental data of a scale model of a container vessel excited with both regular and irregular waves. The detector based on the energy flow indicator proved to be very robust to different scenarios (regular/irregular waves) since it does...

  12. Flow with vibrational energy exchange, application to CO2 electric laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahan, Claude.

    1974-01-01

    The performances of a continuous wave (CO 2 , N 2 , He) laser ionized by an electron beam are calculated. Several types of phenomena are considered: energy exchange processes between molecules of laser medium, electron molecular excitation processes, aerodynamic phenomena: the energy exchanges accompanying the laser effect generate important quantities of heat, which have to be evacuated by the flow. After a survey of the fundamental assumptions on molecular phenomena, a computer code was developed for following, along the flow, the evolution of the thermodynamic parameters (pressure, temperature), of the laser gain, and of the electrical properties (electron density and temperature). To provide a finer description of the last ones, a model giving the energy distribution of the electrons in the laser medium was established [fr

  13. Energy and materials flows in the fabrication of iron and steel semifinished products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, J.B. Jr.; Arons, R.M.

    1979-08-01

    The flow of energy and materials in the fabrication of iron and steel semifinished products from molten metal is discussed. The focus is on techniques to reduce the amount of energy required to produce the typical products of integrated steel plants and iron and steel foundries. In integrated steel plants, if only 50% of the steel being cast were continuously cast, industry-wide energy consumption would be reduced by 6 to 15%. Further major energy savings could be achieved by increased use of by-product gases and regenerators in the various reheat operations. Finally, systems optimization studies to maintain the even flow of materials at full capacity should yield further improvements in energy efficiency. In foundry operations, alternate heating methods in forging operations and the use of no-bake molding and core materials should result in substantial energy savings. Studies of specific operations will suggest housekeeping changes to minimize wasted energy. These changes might include fixing heat leaks, reducing floor space requirements, improving temperature regulation, lowering working temperatures in some steel-forming operations, redesigning products, and minimizing scrap generation. There is also a need for new, energy conserving technologies. A good example would be the development of nondestructive testing to determine the existence, location, and size of defects in ingots at elevated temperatures. A second example is the need to reduce, through system studies, the large amount of scrap typical of foundry operations. Finally, computer control of steel mill operations (materials flow, furnace residence times, excessive heating or overheating, and full capacity utilization of all facilities at all times) deserves further study.

  14. A computational study of inviscid hypersonic flows using energy relaxation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagdewe, Suryakant; Kim, H. D.; Shevare, G. R.

    2008-01-01

    Reasonable analysis of hypersonic flows requires a thermodynamic non-equilibrium model to properly simulate strong shock waves or high pressure and temperature states in the flow field. The energy relaxation method (ERM) has been used to model such a non-equilibrium effect which is generally expressed as a hyperbolic system of equations with a stiff relaxation source term. Relaxation time that is multiplied with source terms is responsible for nonequilibrium in the system. In the present study, a numerical analysis has been carried out with varying values of relaxation time for several hypersonic flows with AUSM (advection upstream splitting method) as a numerical scheme. Vibration modes of thermodynamic nonequilibrium effects are considered. The results obtained showed that, as the relaxation time reduces to zero, the solution marches toward equilibrium, while it shows non-equilibrium effects, as the relaxation time increases. The present computations predicted the experiment results of hypersonic flows with good accuracy. The work carried out suggests that the present energy relaxation method can be robust for analysis of hypersonic flows

  15. Inlet Diameter and Flow Volume Effects on Separation and Energy Efficiency of Hydrocyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikli, Ş.; Olcay, A. B.

    2015-08-01

    This study investigates hydrocyclone performance of an oil injected screw compressor. Especially, the oil separation efficiency of a screw compressor plays a significant role for air quality and non-stop working hour of compressors has become an important issue when the efficiency in energy is considered. In this study, two separation efficiency parameters were selected to be hydrocyclone inlet diameter and flow volume height between oil reservoir surface and top of the hydrocyclone. Nine different cases were studied in which cyclone inlet diameter and flow volume height between oil reservoir surface and top were investigated in regards to separation and energy performance aspects and the effect of the parameters on the general performance appears to be causing powerful influence. Flow inside the hydrocyclone geometry was modelled by Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) and hydro particles were tracked by Discrete Phase Model (DPM). Besides, particle break up was modelled by the Taylor Analogy Breakup (TAB) model. The reversed vortex generation was observed at different planes. The upper limit of the inlet diameter of the cyclone yields the centrifugal force on particles to decrease while the flow becomes slower; and the larger diameter implies slower flow. On the contrary, the lower limit is increment in speed causes breakup problems that the particle diameters become smaller; consequently, it is harder to separate them from gas.

  16. Shared Freight Transportation and Energy Commodities Phase One: Coal, Crude Petroleum, & Natural Gas Flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Shih-Miao [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hwang, Ho-Ling [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Davidson, Diane [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The Freight Analysis Framework (FAF) integrates data from a variety of sources to create a comprehensive picture of nationwide freight movements among states and major metropolitan areas for all modes of transportation. It provides a national picture of current freight flows to, from, and within the United States, assigns selected flows to the transportation network, and projects freight flow patterns into the future. The latest release of FAF is known as FAF4 with a base year of 2012. The FAF4 origin-destination-commodity-mode (ODCM) matrix is provided at national, state, major metropolitan areas, and major gateways with significant freight activities (e.g., El Paso, Texas). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is interested in using FAF4 database for its strategic planning and policy analysis, particularly in association with the transportation of energy commodities. However, the geographic specification that DOE requires is a county-level ODCM matrix. Unfortunately, the geographic regions in the FAF4 database were not available at the DOE desired detail. Due to this limitation, DOE tasked Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to assist in generating estimates of county-level flows for selected energy commodities by mode of transportation.

  17. Influence of the variation potential on photosynthetic flows of light energy and electrons in pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhova, Ekaterina; Mudrilov, Maxim; Vodeneev, Vladimir; Sukhov, Vladimir

    2018-05-01

    Local damage (mainly burning, heating, and mechanical wounding) induces propagation of electrical signals, namely, variation potentials, which are important signals during the life of plants that regulate different physiological processes, including photosynthesis. It is known that the variation potential decreases the rate of CO 2 assimilation by the Calvin-Benson cycle; however, its influence on light reactions has been poorly investigated. The aim of our work was to investigate the influence of the variation potential on the light energy flow that is absorbed, trapped and dissipated per active reaction centre in photosystem II and on the flow of electrons through the chloroplast electron transport chain. We analysed chlorophyll fluorescence in pea leaves using JIP-test and PAM-fluorometry; we also investigated delayed fluorescence. The electrical signals were registered using extracellular electrodes. We showed that the burning-induced variation potential stimulated a nonphotochemical loss of energy in photosystem II under dark conditions. It was also shown that the variation potential gradually increased the flow of light energy absorbed, trapped and dissipated by photosystem II. These changes were likely caused by an increase in the fraction of absorbed light distributed to photosystem II. In addition, the variation potential induced a transient increase in electron flow through the photosynthetic electron transport chain. Some probable mechanisms for the influence of the variation potential on the light reactions of photosynthesis (including the potential role of intracellular pH decrease) are discussed in the work.

  18. Integrated Photoelectrochemical Solar Energy Conversion and Organic Redox Flow Battery Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Wenjie

    2016-09-21

    Building on regenerative photoelectrochemical solar cells and emerging electrochemical redox flow batteries (RFBs), more efficient, scalable, compact, and cost-effective hybrid energy conversion and storage devices could be realized. An integrated photoelectrochemical solar energy conversion and electrochemical storage device is developed by integrating regenerative silicon solar cells and 9,10-anthraquinone-2,7-disulfonic acid (AQDS)/1,2-benzoquinone-3,5-disulfonic acid (BQDS) RFBs. The device can be directly charged by solar light without external bias, and discharged like normal RFBs with an energy storage density of 1.15 Wh L−1 and a solar-to-output electricity efficiency (SOEE) of 1.7 % over many cycles. The concept exploits a previously undeveloped design connecting two major energy technologies and promises a general approach for storing solar energy electrochemically with high theoretical storage capacity and efficiency.

  19. Integrated Photoelectrochemical Solar Energy Conversion and Organic Redox Flow Battery Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjie; Fu, Hui-Chun; Li, Linsen; Cabán-Acevedo, Miguel; He, Jr-Hau; Jin, Song

    2016-10-10

    Building on regenerative photoelectrochemical solar cells and emerging electrochemical redox flow batteries (RFBs), more efficient, scalable, compact, and cost-effective hybrid energy conversion and storage devices could be realized. An integrated photoelectrochemical solar energy conversion and electrochemical storage device is developed by integrating regenerative silicon solar cells and 9,10-anthraquinone-2,7-disulfonic acid (AQDS)/1,2-benzoquinone-3,5-disulfonic acid (BQDS) RFBs. The device can be directly charged by solar light without external bias, and discharged like normal RFBs with an energy storage density of 1.15 Wh L -1 and a solar-to-output electricity efficiency (SOEE) of 1.7 % over many cycles. The concept exploits a previously undeveloped design connecting two major energy technologies and promises a general approach for storing solar energy electrochemically with high theoretical storage capacity and efficiency. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Computation of fluid flow in distending tunnels with mass, momentum and energy exchange with the walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maw, J R [AWRE, Aldermaston (United Kingdom)

    1970-05-01

    When calculating the effects of an underground explosion it may be useful to be able to calculate the flow of the very hot gaseous products along pipes or tunnels. For example it might be possible to treat a fault in the surrounding rock as an idealised pipe forced open by the high pressure generated by the explosion. Another possibility might be the use of a specially constructed tunnel to channel the energy released in some preferred direction. In such cases the gas flow is complicated by several phenomena. The cross section of the pipe may vary with axial distance and also distend with time. Heat will be lost to the walls of the pipe which may be ablated leading to entrainment of wall material into the gas flow. In addition wall friction will tend to retard the flow. This paper describes a simple computer program, HAT, which was written to calculate such flows. The flow is assumed to be quasi-one-dimensional in that flow quantities such as pressure density and axial velocity do not vary across the pipe. However the radius of the pipe may vary both with axial distance and with time. Sources, or sinks of mass, momentum and energy are included in the governing equations which allow simulation of the phenomena described above. The governing equations are derived in Eulerian form and approximated using an extension of the finite difference scheme of Lax. A brief outline of the computational procedure is given. To demonstrate the capabilities and assess the accuracy of the program two simple problems are calculated using HAT (i) The motion of a shock along a converging pipe. (ii) The effect of mass addition through the walls on the motion of a shock along a uniform pipe. In both cases results obtained using HAT are compared with theoretical analyses of the motion.

  1. Orbital rotation without orbital angular momentum: mechanical action of the spin part of the internal energy flow in light beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsky, O. V.; Bekshaev, A. Ya; Maksimyak, P. P.

    2012-01-01

    flow upon tight focusing of the beam, usually applied for energy flow detection by means of the mechanical action upon probe particles. We propose a two-beam interference technique that results in an appreciable level of spin flow in moderately focused beams and detection of the orbital motion of probe...... particles within a field where the transverse energy circulation is associated exclusively with the spin flow. This result can be treated as the first demonstration of mechanical action of the spin flow of a light field....

  2. Mass and energy flows between the Solar chromosphere, transition region, and corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansteen, V. H.

    2017-12-01

    A number of increasingly sophisticated numerical simulations spanning the convection zone to corona have shed considerable insight into the role of the magnetic field in the structure and energetics of the Sun's outer atmosphere. This development is strengthened by the wealth of observational data now coming on-line from both ground based and space borne observatories. We discuss what numerical models can tell us about the mass and energy flows in the region of the upper chromosphere and lower corona, using a variety of tools, including the direct comparison with data and the use of passive tracer particles (so-called 'corks') inserted into the simulated flows.

  3. Evaluation of a scattered radiation field in a cluster relevant for multiple-energy X-ray holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonda, L.

    1996-09-01

    We analyze theoretically a recent proposal of utilizing synchrotron radiation to generate an electromagnetic scattering field at a specific target atom inside a material sample. The direct wave coming from a wiggler interferes there with the waves scattered by the surrounding atoms. The suggestion is relevant for obtaining atomic holographic images. (author). 23 refs, 2 figs

  4. DEUGD. Sustainable energy from concentrated flows in Deventer, Netherlands; DEUGD. Duurzame Energie Uit Geconcentreerde stromen Deventer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telkamp, P.; Flameling, A.G. [Tauw, Deventer (Netherlands); Wempe, J.F.D.B.; De Wit, J.B. [Saxion Hogeschool, Deventer (Netherlands)

    2011-12-15

    The Dutch DEUGD project looks at options for expanding the energy produced at the sewage water treatment plant in Deventer (biogas) with concentrated toilet water (blackwater)and organic kitchen waste from new dwellings in the north of Deventer. The research focuses on the feasibility of using the energy content of waste water and organic kitchen waste in the north of Deventer for heating housing projects. Starting point is to first use the existing infrastructure of the sewage water treatment plant (existing sludge digestion and CHP) and subsequently (medium-term) expansion of this infrastructure or of the delivery of biogas. This report presents the results of this feasibility study [Dutch] In het project DEUGD wordt vastgesteld of het mogelijk is om de energie die op de rwzi (rioolwaterzuiveringsinstallatie) Deventer wordt geproduceerd in de vorm van biogas te vergroten met geconcentreerd toiletwater (zwartwater) en organisch keukenafval (GF) uit nieuwe woningen in het noorden van Deventer. Het onderzoek richt zich op de haalbaarheid om de energie-inhoud van het afvalwater en het organisch keukenafval te gebruiken in het noorden van Deventer voor de verwarming van woningbouwprojecten. Uitgangspunt is in eerste instantie het gebruiken van de bestaande infrastructuur op de rwzi (bestaande slibgisting en Warmte-Kracht Koppeling (WKK)) en in tweede instantie (middellange termijn) een uitbreiding van deze infrastructuur of het leveren van biogas. In deze rapportage wordt verslag gedaan van de uitkomsten van dit haalbaarheidsonderzoek.

  5. Power flow as a complement to statistical energy analysis and finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuschieri, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    Present methods of analysis of the structural response and the structure-borne transmission of vibrational energy use either finite element (FE) techniques or statistical energy analysis (SEA) methods. The FE methods are a very useful tool at low frequencies where the number of resonances involved in the analysis is rather small. On the other hand SEA methods can predict with acceptable accuracy the response and energy transmission between coupled structures at relatively high frequencies where the structural modal density is high and a statistical approach is the appropriate solution. In the mid-frequency range, a relatively large number of resonances exist which make finite element method too costly. On the other hand SEA methods can only predict an average level form. In this mid-frequency range a possible alternative is to use power flow techniques, where the input and flow of vibrational energy to excited and coupled structural components can be expressed in terms of input and transfer mobilities. This power flow technique can be extended from low to high frequencies and this can be integrated with established FE models at low frequencies and SEA models at high frequencies to form a verification of the method. This method of structural analysis using power flo and mobility methods, and its integration with SEA and FE analysis is applied to the case of two thin beams joined together at right angles.

  6. Informing the Financing of Universal Energy Access: An Assessment of Current Flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazilian, Morgan; Nussbaumer, Patrick [United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Vienna (Austria); Gualberti, Giorgio [Technical University of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal); Haites, Erik [Margaree Consultants Inc., Toronto (Canada); Levi, Michael [Council on Foreign Relations, New York, NY (United States); Siegel, Judy [Energy and Security Group, Reston, VA (United States); Kammen, Daniel [The World Bank, Washington, DC (United States); Fenhann, Joergen [UNEP Risoe Centre, Technical University of Denmark (Denmark)

    2011-07-15

    Energy poverty is widely recognized as a major obstacle to economic and social development and poverty alleviation. To help inform the design of appropriate and effective policies to reduce energy poverty, we present a brief analysis of the current macro financial flows in the electricity and gas distribution sectors in developing countries. We build on the methodology used to quantify the flows of investment in the climate change area. This methodology relies on national gross fixed capital formation, overseas development assistance, and foreign direct investment. These high-level and aggregated investment figures provide a sense of scale to policy-makers, but are only a small part of the information required to design financial vehicles. In addition, these figures tend to mask numerous variations between sectors and countries, as well as trends and other temporal fluctuations. Nonetheless, for the poorest countries, one can conclude that the current flows are considerably short (at least five times) of what will be required to provide a basic level of access to clean, modern energy services to the 'energy poor'.

  7. Energy efficiency analyses of active flow aftertreatment systems for lean burn internal combustion engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Ming; Reader, Graham T.

    2004-01-01

    The use of three way catalytic converters in stoichiometric burn reciprocating internal combustion engine systems has proved to be an effective and efficient method for reducing the level of criteria pollutants. However, such passive systems have not been as successful in emission amelioration when combined with lean burn engines. This is because of the thermochemical nature of the exhaust gases generated by such engines. The high content of exhaust oxygen largely negates the effectiveness of three way catalytic converters, and the comparatively low temperature of the combusted gases means that supplemental energy has to be added to these gases to enable the converter to function correctly. This requirement severely reduces the energy efficiency of conventional passive aftertreatment systems. However, initial empirical studies have indicated that a possible means of improving the performance of aftertreatment devices when used with lean burn engine systems is to use active flow control of the exhaust gases. These results are reported in this paper. This concept has been further investigated by developing an energy efficiency analysis that enables the effects on aftertreatment performance of different gas flow rates, flow reversal frequencies and monolith solid properties to be investigated. Simulation results indicate that through active thermal management, the supplemental energy consumption can be drastically reduced

  8. Flow control in s-shaped air intake diffuser of gas turbine using proposed energy promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessam Raed A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental and numerical investigation of the flow control in an air intake S-shaped diffuser with and without energy promoters. The S-shaped diffuser had an area ratio 3.1and turning angle of 45°/45°. The proposed energy promoter was named as stream line sheet energy promoter. Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation was performed through commercial ANSYS-FLUENT 16.2 software. The measurements were made inside annular subsection, 45° from 360° of the complete annular shape of the diffuser, at Reynolds number 5.8×104 and turbulence intensity 4.1%. Results for the bare S-shaped diffuser (without energy promoters showed the flow structures within the S-shaped diffuser were dominated by counter-rotating vortices and boundary layer separation especially in the outer surface. The combination of the adverse pressure gradient at the first bend of outer surface and upstream low momentum wakes caused the boundary layer to separate early. The combinations of proposed energy promoters were installed on the inner and outer surfaces at three installation planes. The use of energy promoters resulting in significantly decreased the outer surface boundary layer separation with consequential improving the static pressure coefficient and reduction of total pressure losses

  9. Concentrated energy addition for active drag reduction in hypersonic flow regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwin Ganesh, M.; John, Bibin

    2018-01-01

    Numerical optimization of hypersonic drag reduction technique based on concentrated energy addition is presented in this study. A reduction in wave drag is realized through concentrated energy addition in the hypersonic flowfield upstream of the blunt body. For the exhaustive optimization presented in this study, an in-house high precision inviscid flow solver has been developed. Studies focused on the identification of "optimum energy addition location" have revealed the existence of multiple minimum drag points. The wave drag coefficient is observed to drop from 0.85 to 0.45 when 50 Watts of energy is added to an energy bubble of 1 mm radius located at 74.7 mm upstream of the stagnation point. A direct proportionality has been identified between energy bubble size and wave drag coefficient. Dependence of drag coefficient on the upstream added energy magnitude is also revealed. Of the observed multiple minimum drag points, the energy deposition point (EDP) that offers minimum wave drag just after a sharp drop in drag is proposed as the most optimum energy addition location.

  10. A chemistry and material perspective on lithium redox flow batteries towards high-density electrical energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Ding, Yu; Li, Yutao; Peng, Lele; Byon, Hye Ryung; Goodenough, John B; Yu, Guihua

    2015-11-21

    Electrical energy storage system such as secondary batteries is the principle power source for portable electronics, electric vehicles and stationary energy storage. As an emerging battery technology, Li-redox flow batteries inherit the advantageous features of modular design of conventional redox flow batteries and high voltage and energy efficiency of Li-ion batteries, showing great promise as efficient electrical energy storage system in transportation, commercial, and residential applications. The chemistry of lithium redox flow batteries with aqueous or non-aqueous electrolyte enables widened electrochemical potential window thus may provide much greater energy density and efficiency than conventional redox flow batteries based on proton chemistry. This Review summarizes the design rationale, fundamentals and characterization of Li-redox flow batteries from a chemistry and material perspective, with particular emphasis on the new chemistries and materials. The latest advances and associated challenges/opportunities are comprehensively discussed.

  11. Flow design and simulation of a gas compression system for hydrogen fusion energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avital, E J; Salvatore, E [School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Rd London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Munjiza, A [Civil Engineering, University of Split, Livanjska 2100 Split (Croatia); Suponitsky, V; Plant, D; Laberge, M, E-mail: e.avital@qmul.ac.uk [General Fusion Inc.,108-3680 Bonneville Place, Burnaby, BC V3N 4T5 (Canada)

    2017-08-15

    An innovative gas compression system is proposed and computationally researched to achieve a short time response as needed in engineering applications such as hydrogen fusion energy reactors and high speed hammers. The system consists of a reservoir containing high pressure gas connected to a straight tube which in turn is connected to a spherical duct, where at the sphere’s centre plasma resides in the case of a fusion reactor. Diaphragm located inside the straight tube separates the reservoir’s high pressure gas from the rest of the plenum. Once the diaphragm is breached the high pressure gas enters the plenum to drive pistons located on the inner wall of the spherical duct that will eventually end compressing the plasma. Quasi-1D and axisymmetric flow formulations are used to design and analyse the flow dynamics. A spike is designed for the interface between the straight tube and the spherical duct to provide a smooth geometry transition for the flow. Flow simulations show high supersonic flow hitting the end of the spherical duct, generating a return shock wave propagating upstream and raising the pressure above the reservoir pressure as in the hammer wave problem, potentially giving temporary pressure boost to the pistons. Good agreement is revealed between the two flow formulations pointing to the usefulness of the quasi-1D formulation as a rapid solver. Nevertheless, a mild time delay in the axisymmetric flow simulation occurred due to moderate two-dimensionality effects. The compression system is settled down in a few milliseconds for a spherical duct of 0.8 m diameter using Helium gas and a uniform duct cross-section area. Various system geometries are analysed using instantaneous and time history flow plots. (paper)

  12. Flow design and simulation of a gas compression system for hydrogen fusion energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avital, E. J.; Salvatore, E.; Munjiza, A.; Suponitsky, V.; Plant, D.; Laberge, M.

    2017-08-01

    An innovative gas compression system is proposed and computationally researched to achieve a short time response as needed in engineering applications such as hydrogen fusion energy reactors and high speed hammers. The system consists of a reservoir containing high pressure gas connected to a straight tube which in turn is connected to a spherical duct, where at the sphere’s centre plasma resides in the case of a fusion reactor. Diaphragm located inside the straight tube separates the reservoir’s high pressure gas from the rest of the plenum. Once the diaphragm is breached the high pressure gas enters the plenum to drive pistons located on the inner wall of the spherical duct that will eventually end compressing the plasma. Quasi-1D and axisymmetric flow formulations are used to design and analyse the flow dynamics. A spike is designed for the interface between the straight tube and the spherical duct to provide a smooth geometry transition for the flow. Flow simulations show high supersonic flow hitting the end of the spherical duct, generating a return shock wave propagating upstream and raising the pressure above the reservoir pressure as in the hammer wave problem, potentially giving temporary pressure boost to the pistons. Good agreement is revealed between the two flow formulations pointing to the usefulness of the quasi-1D formulation as a rapid solver. Nevertheless, a mild time delay in the axisymmetric flow simulation occurred due to moderate two-dimensionality effects. The compression system is settled down in a few milliseconds for a spherical duct of 0.8 m diameter using Helium gas and a uniform duct cross-section area. Various system geometries are analysed using instantaneous and time history flow plots.

  13. Fundamental study on flow characteristics of disrupted core pool at a low energy level (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Koji; Liu, Ping; Matsumoto, Tatsuya; Fukuda, Kenji; Tobita, Yoshiharu; Yamano, Hidemasa; Sato, Ikken

    2009-09-01

    Dynamic behaviors of solid-particle dominant multiphase flows were investigated to model the mobility of core materials in a low-energy disrupted core of a liquid metal fast reactor. Two series of experiments were performed, those were dam-break experiments and bubble visualization experiments. Verification of fluid-dynamics models used in the fast reactor safety analysis code SIMMER-III was also conducted based on the numerical simulations of these experiments. The experimental analyses show that SIMMER-III can represent effects of solid particle interaction on multiphase flow behaviors by adjusting model parameters of the particle jamming model if the particles are immersed in liquid phase. Further improvement of SIMMER-III with more generalized models is necessary to appropriately simulate interactions between solid particles in a wider range of flow conditions. (author)

  14. Optimal power flow for technically feasible Energy Management systems in Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanseverino, Eleonora Riva; T. T. Quynh, T.; Di Silvestre, Maria Luisa

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a combined optimal energy and power flow management for islanded microgrids. The highest control level in this case will provide a feasible and optimized operating point around the economic optimum. In order to account for both unbalanced and balanced loads, the optimal power...... flow is carried out using a Glow-worm Swarm Optimizer. The control level is organized into two different sub-levels, the highest of which accounts for minimum cost operation and the lowest one solving the optimal power flow and devising the set points of inverter interfaced generation units...... and rotating machines with a minimum power loss. A test has been carried out for 6 bus islanded microgrids to show the efficiency and feasibility of the proposed technique....

  15. Flood Risk Mapping Using Flow Energy Equation and Geographic Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    pourya Javan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Flooding and its damages are not only found uplift water level in a region. In other words, the depth and speed parameters together have determining the level of flood risk at each point. This subject is visible in flooded plain with low height and high speed of 2 meters per second, which damages are extensive. According to the criteria of having both velocity and flow depth in the governing equation to the flows energy, this equation seems appropriate to analysis in this study. Various methods have been proposed for increase accuracy in flood zoning with different return periods and risks associated with it in land border of river. For example, some of these methods are considered factors such as analysis of past flooding in the area affected by floods, hydrological factors and consideration of hydraulic elements affecting in flood zoning (such as flow velocity. This paper investigates the effect of flood zoning by the energy flow in the areas affected by floods. Also risk due to flood based on energy flow in each section of the river is compared by the proposed graphs of hazard interval and other done flood zoning in this field. In this study, the FORDO river has been selected as the case study. This river is part of the rivers located in the city of QOM KAHAK. The characteristics of river in upstream and downstream are mountain, young and stable and adult, respectively. Also this river in different seasons is exposed the flood damage. The proposed method in this study can be improving recognition accuracy of flood risk in areas affected by flood. Also, this method facilitate the identify parts of the river bed, that is affected by severe flooding, for decision making to improve rivers organizing.

  16. Production of marine trematode cercariae: a potentially overlooked path of energy flow in benthic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thieltges, David W.; de Montaudouin, Xavier; Fredensborg, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Parasites, in particular trematodes, are unseen but ubiquitous components of marine intertidal ecosystems. Although parasites are known to affect population dynamics and food web structure, their potential function as an unrecognized path of energy flow in these ecosystems is yet to be quantified...... in different marine benthic systems. Across 18 trematode species, cercarial output (no. cercariae shed snail-1 d-1) ranged over 4 orders of magnitude and was positively correlated with snail host species size. While cercarial output did not correlate with latitude, it did correlate negatively with the size...... reported for free-living invertebrates inhabiting benthic ecosystems. These estimates would be much higher if they included all trematode species in an ecosystem, and not just single-species values. Overall, results suggest that trematode cercariae represent potentially important paths of energy flow...

  17. Energy flow analysis of out-of-plane vibration in coplanar coupled finite Mindlin plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Ho Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available : In this paper, an Energy Flow Analysis (EFA for coplanar coupled Mindlin plates was performed to estimate their dynamic responses at high frequencies. Mindlin plate theory can consider the effects of shear distortion and rotatory inertia, which are very important at high frequencies. For EFA for coplanar coupled Mindlin plates, the wave transmission and reflection relationship for progressing out-of-plane waves (out-of-plane shear wave, bending dominant flexural wave, and shear dominant flexural wave in coplanar coupled Mindlin plates was newly derived. To verify the validity of the EFA results, numerical analyses were performed for various cases where coplanar coupled Mindlin plates are excited by a harmonic point force, and the energy flow solutions for coplanar coupled Mindlin plates were compared with the classical solutions in the various conditions.

  18. Optical measurements of lateral energy flow and plasma motion in laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, R.F.; Riffle, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    An optical system consisting of a telephoto lens and multi-image camera is described and the experimental results and their implications are presented. We will also describe the opto-electronic system that will measure the time history of the energy flow with sub-nanosecond resolution. The system will be useful to study both one- and two-dimensional geometries. The third optical diagnostic is a laser probe utilizing detection by the opto-electronic system mentioned above. This diagnostic measures plasma motion as well as energy flow. The laser probe and detection system mounts directly onto the target chamber at LASLs Gemini CO 2 laser, causing severe alignment and stability problems whose solutions will be shown

  19. Angular pattern of minijet transverse energy flow in hadron and nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonidov, A.V.; Ostrovsky, D.M.

    2002-01-01

    The azimuthal asymmetry of a minijet system produced at the early stage of nucleon-nucleon and nuclear collisions in a central rapidity window is studied. We show that, in pp collisions, the minijet-transverse-energy production in a central rapidity window is essentially unbalanced in azimuth because of asymmetric contributions in which only one minijet hits the acceptance window. We further study the angular pattern of the transverse-energy flow generated by semihard degrees of freedom at the early stage of high-energy nuclear collisions and its dependence on the number of semihard collisions in the models either including or neglecting soft contributions to the inelastic cross section at RHIC and LHC energies, as well as on the choice of infrared cutoff

  20. Angular pattern of minijet transverse energy flow in hadron and nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonidov, A.V.; Ostrovsky, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    The azimuthal asymmetry of a minijet system produced at the early stage of nucleon-nucleon and nuclear collisions in a central rapidity window is studied. We show that in pp collisions the minijet transverse energy production in a central rapidity window is essentially unbalanced in the azimuth due to asymmetric contributions in which only one minijet hits the acceptance window. We further study the angular pattern of the transverse energy flow generated by the semihard degrees of freedom at the early stage of high energy nuclear collisions and its dependence on the number of semihard collisions in the models both including and neglecting soft contributions to the inelastic cross section at RHIC and LHC energies as well as on the choice of the infrared cutoff. (orig.)

  1. Modelling and study on the output flow characteristics of expansion energy used hydropneumatic transformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Yan; Wu, Tiecheng; Cai, Maolin; Liu, Chong [Beihang University, Beijing (China)

    2016-03-15

    Hydropneumatic transformer (short for HP transformer) is used to pump pressurized hydraulic oil. Whereas, due to its insufficient usage of energy and low efficiency, a new kind of HP transformer: EEUHP transformer (Expansion energy used hydropneumatic transformer) was proposed. To illustrate the characteristics of the EEUHP transformer, a mathematical model was built. To verify the mathematical model, an experimental prototype was setup and studied. Through simulation and experimental study on the EEUHP transformer, the influence of five key parameters on the output flow of the EEUHP transformer were obtained, and some conclusions can be drawn. Firstly, the mathematical model was proved to be valid. Furthermore, the EEUHP transformer costs fewer of compressed air than the normal HP transformer when the output flow of the two kinds of transformers are almost same. Moreover, with an increase in the output pressure, the output flow decreases sharply. Finally, with an increase in the effective area of hydraulic output port, the output flow increases distinctly. This research can be referred to in the performance and design optimization of the EEUHP transformers.

  2. Bounded energy states in homogeneous turbulent shear flow - An alternative view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, P. S.; Speziale, C. G.

    1992-01-01

    The equilibrium structure of homogeneous turbulent shear flow is investigated from a theoretical standpoint. Existing turbulence models, in apparent agreement with physical and numerical experiments, predict an unbounded exponential time growth of the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate; only the anisotropy tensor and turbulent time scale reach a structural equilibrium. It is shown that if a residual vortex stretching term is maintained in the dissipation rate transport equation, then there can exist equilibrium solutions, with bounded energy states, where the turbulence production is balanced by its dissipation. Illustrative calculations are presented for a k-epsilon model modified to account for net vortex stretching.

  3. Energy loss as the origin of a universal scaling law of the elliptic flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andres, Carlota; Pajares, Carlos [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Instituto Galego de Fisica de Altas Enerxias IGFAE, Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Braun, Mikhail [Saint Petersburg State University, Department of High-Energy Physics, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    It is shown that the excellent scaling of the elliptic flow found for all centralities, species and energies from RHIC to the LHC for p{sub T} less than the saturation momentum is a consequence of the energy lost by a parton interacting with the color field produced in a nucleus-nucleus collision. In particular, the deduced shape of the scaling curve describes correctly all the data. We discuss the possible extensions to higher p{sub T}, proton-nucleus and proton-proton collisions as well as higher harmonics. (orig.)

  4. The influence of salinity of fly ash mixtures on energy looses during flow in pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    И. Собота

    2017-01-01

    In Polish mining for backfilling the fly ash mixtures are used. Last time for fly ash mixtures preparation the saline water from mine have been used, to thanks to that the saline water missing the surface waters. Usage of saline water for fly ash mixture preparation causes the changes in energy looses during the flow in pipelines. The paper presents the results of energy looses measurement іn laboratory pipeline installation with diameter D =50 mm. The measurements have been performed for dif...

  5. A high-energy-density redox flow battery based on zinc/polyhalide chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liqun; Lai, Qinzhi; Zhang, Jianlu; Zhang, Huamin

    2012-05-01

    Zn and the Art of Battery Development: A zinc/polyhalide redox flow battery employs Br(-) /ClBr(2-) and Zn/Zn(2+) redox couples in its positive and negative half-cells, respectively. The performance of the battery is evaluated by charge-discharge cycling tests and reveals a high energy efficiency of 81%, based on a Coulombic efficiency of 96% and voltage efficiency of 84%. The new battery technology can provide high performance and energy density at an acceptable cost. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. A software application for energy flow simulation of a grid connected photovoltaic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamad, Ayman A.; Alsaad, Mohammad A.

    2010-01-01

    A computer software application was developed to simulate hourly energy flow of a grid connected photovoltaic system. This software application enables conducting an operational evaluation of a studied photovoltaic system in terms of energy exchange with the electrical grid. The system model consists of a photovoltaic array, a converter and an optional generic energy storage component that supports scheduled charging/discharging. In addition to system design parameters, the software uses hourly solar data and hourly load data to determine the amount of energy exchanged with electrical grid for each hour of the simulated year. The resulting information is useful in assessing the impact of the system on demand for electrical energy of a building that uses it. The software also aggregates these hourly results in daily, monthly and full year sums. The software finds the financial benefit of the system as the difference in grid electrical energy cost between two simultaneously considered cases. One is with load supplied only by the electrical grid, while the other is with the photovoltaic system present and contributing energy. The software supports the energy pricing scheme used in Jordan for domestic consumers, which is based on slices of monthly consumption. By projecting the yearly financial results on the system lifetime, the application weighs the financial benefit resulting from using the system against its cost, thus facilitating an economical evaluation.

  7. A neural network approach to the study of internal energy flow in molecular systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumpter, B.G.; Getino, C.; Noid, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    Neural networks are used to develop a new technique for efficient analysis of data obtained from molecular-dynamics calculations and is applied to the study of mode energy flow in molecular systems. The methodology is based on teaching an appropriate neural network the relationship between phase-space points along a classical trajectory and mode energies for stretch, bend, and torsion vibrations. Results are discussed for reactive and nonreactive classical trajectories of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) on a semiempirical potential-energy surface. The neural-network approach is shown to produce reasonably accurate values for the mode energies, with average errors between 1% and 12%, and is applicable to any region within the 24-dimensional phase space of H 2 O 2 . In addition, the generic knowledge learned by the neural network allows calculations to be made for other molecular systems. Results are discussed for a series of tetratomic molecules: H 2 X 2 , X=C, N, O, Si, S, or Se, and preliminary results are given for energy flow predictions in macromolecules

  8. Energy dependence of collective flow of neutrons and charged particles in 197Au+197Au collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaich, T.; Freiesleben, H.; Holzmann, R.; Keller, J.G.; Prokopowicz, W.; Schuetter, C.; Wajda, E.; Zude, E.

    1994-01-01

    Our contribution focusses on one particular aspect of collective flow of nuclear matter: the so-called ''squeeze-out'', i.e. the preferential emission of mid-rapidity particles perpendicular to the reaction plane. The data were taken for the system 197 Au + 197 Au at 400, 600 and 800 MeV/u. We cover two topics, the comparison of neutrons and protons, and the bombarding energy dependence of the neutrons' squeeze-out. (orig.)

  9. Measurement of the forward energy flow in pp collisions at [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaij, R; Abellan Beteta, C; Adametz, A; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Dogaru, M; Domingo Bonal, F; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Mac Raighne, A; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pie Valls, B; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; Dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schleich, S; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, M; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urner, D; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    The energy flow created in pp collisions at [Formula: see text] is studied within the pseudorapidity range 1.9< η <4.9 with data collected by the LHCb experiment. The measurements are performed for inclusive minimum-bias interactions, hard scattering processes and events with an enhanced or suppressed diffractive contribution. The results are compared to predictions given by Pythia-based and cosmic-ray event generators, which provide different models of soft hadronic interactions.

  10. Energy transformation, transfer, and release dynamics in high speed turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Secondly, a new high -order (4 th -order) convective flux formulation was developed that uses the tabulated information, yet produces a fully consistent...Klippenstein 2012 Comprehensive H2/O2 Kinetic Model for High - Pressure Combustion. Int. J. Chem. Kinetics 44:444-474. Cabot, W.H., A.W. Cook, P.L. Miller, D.E...AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2017-0054 Energy Transformation, Transfer, and Release Dynamics in High -Speed Turbulent Flows Paul Dimotakis CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE

  11. Simulation mechanisms of low energy nuclear reaction using super flow energy external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gareev, F.A.; Zhidkova, I.E.; ); Ratis, Yu.I.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The review of possible stimulation mechanisms of the LENR (low energy nuclear reactions) is represented. We have concluded that transamination of nuclei at low energies and excess heat are possible in the framework of the modern physical theory - the universal resonance synchronization principle and based on its different enhancement mechanisms of reaction rates are responsible for these processes. The excitation nd ionization of atom may play role as trigger for LERN. Investigation of this phenomenon requires knowledge of different branches if science: nuclear and atomic physics, chemistry and electrochemistry, condensed matter and solid state physics. The results of this research field can provide a new source of energy, substances and technologies. The puzzle of poor re-productivity of experimental data in due ti the fact LENR occurs in open systems and it is extremely sensitive to parameters of external fields and systems. Classical re-productivity principle should be reconsidered for LENR experiments. Poor re-productivity and unexpected results do not means that the experiment is wrong. Our main conclusion: LENR may be understand in terms of the modern theory without any violation of the basic physics. 2) Weak and electromagnetic interactions may show the strong influence of the surrounding conditions on the nuclear processes. 3) Universal resonance synchronization principle is a key issue to make a bridge between various scales of interactions and it is responsible for self-organization of hierarchical systems independent of substances, fields and interactions. We bring some arguments in favor of the mechanism - order based on order - declared by Schroedinger in fundamental problem of contemporary science. 4) The universal resonance synchronization principle became a fruitful interdisciplinary science of general laws of self-organized processes in different branches of physics because it is consequence of the energy conservation law and resonance

  12. Some consideration on the relevance of concepts based on the probability distribution of words reminded by stimulus terms concerning atomic energy and radiation utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urabe, Itsumasa

    2002-01-01

    The relevance of concepts brought to mind by stimulus terms concerning atomic energy and radiation utilization has been investigated to learn how people understand the present status of nuclear technology. The relevance of concepts was defined as the frequency distribution of words that came to mind immediately after seeing selected terms needed for present-day life as well as for nuclear engineering. An analysis of knowledge structure shows that a concept of atomic energy has a close relation with that of electric power generation; an understanding of nuclear power utilization may be promoted in relation to an understanding of energy and environmental problems because the concepts of energy, atomic energy, electric power generation, and natural environment have closer relations with one another; a concept of radiation has various relations with harmful radiological health effects, but little relation with industrial, agricultural, and other beneficial uses except of nuclear power generation or medical applications. It also became clear from the investigation that studies on natural radiation may be important to promote an understanding of radiation utilization because a concept of the natural environment does not yet relate to that of natural radiation. (author)

  13. Experimental studies of keV energy neutron-induced reactions relevant to astrophysics and nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shima, T.; Kii, T.; Kikuchi, T.; Okazaki, F.; Kobayashi, T.; Baba, T.; Nagai, Y. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Faculty of Science; Igashira, M.

    1997-03-01

    Nuclear reactions induced by keV energy neutrons provide a plenty of informations for studies of both astrophysics and nuclear physics. In this paper we will show our experimental studies of neutron- induced reactions of light nuclei in the keV energy region by means of a pulsed keV neutron beam and high-sensitivity detectors. Also we will discuss astrophysical and nuclear-physical consequences by using the obtained results. (author)

  14. Nanofluid heat transfer under mixed convection flow in a tube for solar thermal energy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, Y Raja; Sharma, K V; Kamal, Subhash

    2016-05-01

    The solar flat plate collector operating under different convective modes has low efficiency for energy conversion. The energy absorbed by the working fluid in the collector system and its heat transfer characteristics vary with solar insolation and mass flow rate. The performance of the system is improved by reducing the losses from the collector. Various passive methods have been devised to aid energy absorption by the working fluid. Also, working fluids are modified using nanoparticles to improve the thermal properties of the fluid. In the present work, simulation and experimental studies are undertaken for pipe flow at constant heat flux boundary condition in the mixed convection mode. The working fluid at low Reynolds number in the mixed laminar flow range is undertaken with water in thermosyphon mode for different inclination angles of the tube. Local and average coefficients are determined experimentally and compared with theoretical values for water-based Al2O3 nanofluids. The results show an enhancement in heat transfer in the experimental range with Rayleigh number at higher inclinations of the collector tube for water and nanofluids.

  15. Material and energy flow analysis (MEFA – first step in eco-innovation approach to assessment of steel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Korol

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the study was to evaluate material and energy flow analysis (MEFA of steel production. The application of umberto universal software to devise MEFA for the steel production was presented. The material and energy flow analysis of steel production includes a range of technologies through each unit process in integrated steelmaking route in Poland. Modelling MEFA helps a high level of technology to be reached through the effective use of resources and energy.

  16. IMP-8 observations of the spectra, composition, and variability of solar heavy ions at high energies relevant to manned space missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tylka, Allan J.; Dietrich, William F.

    1999-01-01

    In more than 25 years of almost continuous observations, the University of Chicago's Cosmic Ray Telescope (CRT) on IMP-8 has amassed a unique database on high-energy solar heavy ions of potential relevance to manned spaceflight. In the very largest particle events, IMP-8/CRT has even observed solar Fe ions above the Galactic cosmic ray background up to ∼800 MeV/nucleon, an energy sufficiently high to penetrate nearly 25 g/cm 2 of shielding. IMP-8/CRT observations show that high-energy heavy-ion spectra are often surprisingly hard power laws, without the exponential roll-offs suggested by stochastic acceleration fits to lower energy measurements alone. Also, in many solar particle events the Fe/O ratio grows with increasing energy, contrary to the notion that ions with higher mass-to-charge ratios should be less abundant at higher energies. Previous studies of radiation hazards for manned spaceflight have often assumed heavy-ion composition and steeply-falling energy spectra inconsistent with these observations. Conclusions based on such studies should therefore be re-assessed. The significant event-to-event variability observed in the high-energy solar heavy ions also has important implications for strategies in building probabilistic models of solar particle radiation hazards

  17. PHYSICS OF A PARTIALLY IONIZED GAS RELEVANT TO GALAXY FORMATION SIMULATIONS-THE IONIZATION POTENTIAL ENERGY RESERVOIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenbroucke, B.; De Rijcke, S.; Schroyen, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Jachowicz, N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ghent University, Proeftuinstraat 86, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2013-07-01

    Simulation codes for galaxy formation and evolution take on board as many physical processes as possible beyond the standard gravitational and hydrodynamical physics. Most of this extra physics takes place below the resolution level of the simulations and is added in a ''sub-grid'' fashion. However, these sub-grid processes affect the macroscopic hydrodynamical properties of the gas and thus couple to the ''on-grid'' physics that is explicitly integrated during the simulation. In this paper, we focus on the link between partial ionization and the hydrodynamical equations. We show that the energy stored in ions and free electrons constitutes a potential energy term which breaks the linear dependence of the internal energy on temperature. Correctly taking into account ionization hence requires modifying both the equation of state and the energy-temperature relation. We implemented these changes in the cosmological simulation code GADGET2. As an example of the effects of these changes, we study the propagation of Sedov-Taylor shock waves through an ionizing medium. This serves as a proxy for the absorption of supernova feedback energy by the interstellar medium. Depending on the density and temperature of the surrounding gas, we find that up to 50% of the feedback energy is spent ionizing the gas rather than heating it. Thus, it can be expected that properly taking into account ionization effects in galaxy evolution simulations will drastically reduce the effects of thermal feedback. To the best of our knowledge, this potential energy term is not used in current simulations of galaxy formation and evolution.

  18. PHYSICS OF A PARTIALLY IONIZED GAS RELEVANT TO GALAXY FORMATION SIMULATIONS—THE IONIZATION POTENTIAL ENERGY RESERVOIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenbroucke, B.; De Rijcke, S.; Schroyen, J.; Jachowicz, N.

    2013-01-01

    Simulation codes for galaxy formation and evolution take on board as many physical processes as possible beyond the standard gravitational and hydrodynamical physics. Most of this extra physics takes place below the resolution level of the simulations and is added in a ''sub-grid'' fashion. However, these sub-grid processes affect the macroscopic hydrodynamical properties of the gas and thus couple to the ''on-grid'' physics that is explicitly integrated during the simulation. In this paper, we focus on the link between partial ionization and the hydrodynamical equations. We show that the energy stored in ions and free electrons constitutes a potential energy term which breaks the linear dependence of the internal energy on temperature. Correctly taking into account ionization hence requires modifying both the equation of state and the energy-temperature relation. We implemented these changes in the cosmological simulation code GADGET2. As an example of the effects of these changes, we study the propagation of Sedov-Taylor shock waves through an ionizing medium. This serves as a proxy for the absorption of supernova feedback energy by the interstellar medium. Depending on the density and temperature of the surrounding gas, we find that up to 50% of the feedback energy is spent ionizing the gas rather than heating it. Thus, it can be expected that properly taking into account ionization effects in galaxy evolution simulations will drastically reduce the effects of thermal feedback. To the best of our knowledge, this potential energy term is not used in current simulations of galaxy formation and evolution.

  19. Use of material flow accounting for assessment of energy savings: A case of biomass in Slovakia and the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanianska, Radoslava; Gustafikova, Tatiana; Kizekova, Miriam; Kovanda, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic material and energy flows are considered to be the major cause of many environmental problems humans face today. In order to measure material and energy flows, and to mitigate related problems, the technique of material flow and energy flow analysis has been conceived. The aim of this article is to use material and energy flow accounting approaches to quantify the amount of biomass that is available, but that so far has not been used for energy purposes in Slovakia and the Czech Republic and to calculate how much consumed fossil fuels and corresponding CO 2 emissions can be saved by utilising this biomass. Based on the findings presented, 3544 kt/yr of the total unused biomass in Slovakia could replace 53 PJ/yr of energy from fossil fuels and 6294 kt/yr of the total unused biomass in the Czech Republic could replace 91 PJ/yr of energy. Such replacement could contribute to a decrease in total CO 2 emissions by 9.2% in Slovakia and by 5.4% in the Czech Republic and thus contribute to an environmental improvement with respect to climate change. - Research highlights: → The material and energy flow accounting approaches for biomass were applied. → In Slovakia, 3544 kt/yr of the total unused biomass is available. → In the Czech Republic, 6294 kt/yr of the total unused biomass is available. → Such biomass could be used for energy production and thus reduce CO 2 emissions.

  20. The possible role of solitons in energy transfer in DNA: the relevance of studies with Auger emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baverstock, K.F.; Cundall, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    The interpretation of some experiments in which ionising energy is directly absorbed by DNA involve postulates that large scale energy migration takes place in DNA over long distances (kilobase pairs). A possible mechanism for such processes is provided by solitary vibrational waves called solitons. (Solitons arise when a pseudo-one dimensional system with non-linear characteristics suffers a large local transitory displacement from equilibrium). Various synthetic polymers, such as polyacetylene are known, to sustain solitons and various physical properties of biopolymers such as DNA can be described in terms of 'open states' associated with inplane rotation of a group of the hydrogen bonded bases which has solitonic properties. The absorption of ionising energy by DNA systems can provide the transient displacement from equilibrium necessary to set-up wave conditions appropriate for soliton production. Auger emitters would be particularly well suited for inducing solitons and offer the possibility for causing ionising energy to be 'injected' into the DNA molecule at a specific point in the molecular sequence. Experiments to test the hypothesis that this event causes long range energy transfer are discussed. (author)

  1. Heavy inertial particles in turbulent flows gain energy slowly but lose it rapidly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Akshay; Gupta, Anupam; Mitra, Dhrubaditya; Pandit, Rahul

    2018-03-01

    We present an extensive numerical study of the time irreversibility of the dynamics of heavy inertial particles in three-dimensional, statistically homogeneous, and isotropic turbulent flows. We show that the probability density function (PDF) of the increment, W(τ), of a particle's energy over a time scale τ is non-Gaussian, and skewed toward negative values. This implies that, on average, particles gain energy over a period of time that is longer than the duration over which they lose energy. We call this slow gain and fast loss. We find that the third moment of W(τ) scales as τ^{3} for small values of τ. We show that the PDF of power-input p is negatively skewed too; we use this skewness Ir as a measure of the time irreversibility and we demonstrate that it increases sharply with the Stokes number St for small St; this increase slows down at St≃1. Furthermore, we obtain the PDFs of t^{+} and t^{-}, the times over which p has, respectively, positive or negative signs, i.e., the particle gains or loses energy. We obtain from these PDFs a direct and natural quantification of the slow gain and fast loss of the energy of the particles, because these PDFs possess exponential tails from which we infer the characteristic loss and gain times t_{loss} and t_{gain}, respectively, and we obtain t_{loss}energy occurs with greater probability in the strain-dominated region than in the vortical one; in contrast, the slow gain in the energy of the particles is equally likely in vortical or strain-dominated regions of the flow.

  2. A generation-attraction model for renewable energy flows in Italy: A complex network approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valori, Luca; Giannuzzi, Giovanni Luca; Facchini, Angelo; Squartini, Tiziano; Garlaschelli, Diego; Basosi, Riccardo

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, in Italy, the trend of the electricity demand and the need to connect a large number of renewable energy power generators to the power-grid, developed a novel type of energy transmission/distribution infrastructure. The Italian Transmission System Operator (TSO) and the Distribution System Operator (DSO), worked on a new infrastructural model, based on electronic meters and information technology. In pursuing this objective it is crucial importance to understand how even more larger shares of renewable energy can be fully integrated, providing a constant and reliable energy background over space and time. This is particularly true for intermittent sources as photovoltaic installations due to the fine-grained distribution of them across the Country. In this work we use an over-simplified model to characterize the Italian power grid as a graph whose nodes are Italian municipalities and the edges cross the administrative boundaries between a selected municipality and its first neighbours, following a Delaunay triangulation. Our aim is to describe the power flow as a diffusion process over a network, and using open data on the solar irradiation at the ground level, we estimate the production of photovoltaic energy in each node. An attraction index was also defined using demographic data, in accordance with average per capita energy consumption data. The available energy on each node was calculated by finding the stationary state of a generation-attraction model.

  3. Multi-Objective Flexible Flow Shop Scheduling Problem Considering Variable Processing Time due to Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuli Wu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy is an alternative to non-renewable energy to reduce the carbon footprint of manufacturing systems. Finding out how to make an alternative energy-efficient scheduling solution when renewable and non-renewable energy drives production is of great importance. In this paper, a multi-objective flexible flow shop scheduling problem that considers variable processing time due to renewable energy (MFFSP-VPTRE is studied. First, the optimization model of the MFFSP-VPTRE is formulated considering the periodicity of renewable energy and the limitations of energy storage capacity. Then, a hybrid non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm with variable local search (HNSGA-II is proposed to solve the MFFSP-VPTRE. An operation and machine-based encoding method is employed. A low-carbon scheduling algorithm is presented. Besides the crossover and mutation, a variable local search is used to improve the offspring’s Pareto set. The offspring and the parents are combined and those that dominate more are selected to continue evolving. Finally, two groups of experiments are carried out. The results show that the low-carbon scheduling algorithm can effectively reduce the carbon footprint under the premise of makespan optimization and the HNSGA-II outperforms the traditional NSGA-II and can solve the MFFSP-VPTRE effectively and efficiently.

  4. Detailed Geological Modelling in Urban Areas focused on Structures relevant to the Near Surface Groundwater Flow in the context of Climatic Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, T.; Pallesen, T. M.; Jensen, N. P.; Mielby, S.; Sandersen, P.; Kristensen, M.

    2015-12-01

    This case demonstrates a practical example from the city of Odense (DK) where new geological modeling techniques has been developed and used in the software GeoScene3D, to create a detailed voxel model of the anthropogenic layer. The voxel model has been combined with a regional hydrostratigraphic layer model. The case is part of a pilot project partly financed by VTU (Foundation for Development of Technology in the Danish Water Sector) and involves many different datatypes such as borehole information, geophysical data, human related elements (landfill, pipelines, basements, roadbeds etc). In the last few years, there has been increased focus on detailed geological modeling in urban areas. The models serve as important input to hydrological models. This focus is partly due to climate changes as high intensity rainfalls are seen more often than in the past, and water recharge is a topic too. In urban areas, this arises new challenges. There is a need of a high level of detailed geological knowledge for the uppermost zone of the soil, which typically are problematic due to practically limitations, especially when using geological layer models. Furthermore, to accommodate the need of a high detail, all relevant available data has to be used in the modeling process. Human activity has deeply changed the soil layers, e.g. by constructions as roadbeds, buildings with basements, pipelines, landfill etc. These elements can act as barriers or pathways regarding surface near groundwater flow and can attribute to local flooding or mobilization and transport of contaminants etc. A geological voxel model is built by small boxes (a voxel). Each box can contain several parameters, ex. lithology, transmissivity or contaminant concentration. Human related elements can be implemented using tools, which gives the modeler advanced options for making detailed small-scale models. This case demonstrates the workflow and the resulting geological model for the pilot area.

  5. Reaction mechanism and reaction coordinates from the viewpoint of energy flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wenjin; Ma, Ao, E-mail: aoma@uic.edu [Department of Bioengineering, The University of Illinois at Chicago, 851 South Morgan Street, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States)

    2016-03-21

    Reaction coordinates are of central importance for correct understanding of reaction dynamics in complex systems, but their counter-intuitive nature made it a daunting challenge to identify them. Starting from an energetic view of a reaction process as stochastic energy flows biased towards preferred channels, which we deemed the reaction coordinates, we developed a rigorous scheme for decomposing energy changes of a system, both potential and kinetic, into pairwise components. The pairwise energy flows between different coordinates provide a concrete statistical mechanical language for depicting reaction mechanisms. Application of this scheme to the C{sub 7eq} → C{sub 7ax} transition of the alanine dipeptide in vacuum revealed novel and intriguing mechanisms that eluded previous investigations of this well studied prototype system for biomolecular conformational dynamics. Using a cost function developed from the energy decomposition components by proper averaging over the transition path ensemble, we were able to identify signatures of the reaction coordinates of this system without requiring any input from human intuition.

  6. Reaction mechanism and reaction coordinates from the viewpoint of energy flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wenjin; Ma, Ao

    2016-01-01

    Reaction coordinates are of central importance for correct understanding of reaction dynamics in complex systems, but their counter-intuitive nature made it a daunting challenge to identify them. Starting from an energetic view of a reaction process as stochastic energy flows biased towards preferred channels, which we deemed the reaction coordinates, we developed a rigorous scheme for decomposing energy changes of a system, both potential and kinetic, into pairwise components. The pairwise energy flows between different coordinates provide a concrete statistical mechanical language for depicting reaction mechanisms. Application of this scheme to the C 7eq → C 7ax transition of the alanine dipeptide in vacuum revealed novel and intriguing mechanisms that eluded previous investigations of this well studied prototype system for biomolecular conformational dynamics. Using a cost function developed from the energy decomposition components by proper averaging over the transition path ensemble, we were able to identify signatures of the reaction coordinates of this system without requiring any input from human intuition.

  7. State-to-State Mode Specificity: Energy Sequestration and Flow Gated by Transition State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bin; Sun, Zhigang; Guo, Hua

    2015-12-23

    Energy flow and sequestration at the state-to-state level are investigated for a prototypical four-atom reaction, H2 + OH → H + H2O, using a transition-state wave packet (TSWP) method. The product state distribution is found to depend strongly on the reactant vibrational excitation, indicating mode specificity at the state-to-state level. From a local-mode perspective, it is shown that the vibrational excitation of the H2O product derives from two different sources, one attributable to the energy flow along the reaction coordinate into the newly formed OH bond and the other due to the sequestration of the vibrational energy in the OH spectator moiety during the reaction. The analysis provided a unified interpretation of some seemingly contradicting experimental observations. It is further shown that the transfer of vibrational energy from the OH reactant to H2O product is gated by the transition state, accomplished coherently by multiple TSWPs with the corresponding OH vibrational excitation.

  8. A low-cost iron-cadmium redox flow battery for large-scale energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y. K.; Zhao, T. S.; Zhou, X. L.; Wei, L.; Jiang, H. R.

    2016-10-01

    The redox flow battery (RFB) is one of the most promising large-scale energy storage technologies that offer a potential solution to the intermittency of renewable sources such as wind and solar. The prerequisite for widespread utilization of RFBs is low capital cost. In this work, an iron-cadmium redox flow battery (Fe/Cd RFB) with a premixed iron and cadmium solution is developed and tested. It is demonstrated that the coulombic efficiency and energy efficiency of the Fe/Cd RFB reach 98.7% and 80.2% at 120 mA cm-2, respectively. The Fe/Cd RFB exhibits stable efficiencies with capacity retention of 99.87% per cycle during the cycle test. Moreover, the Fe/Cd RFB is estimated to have a low capital cost of 108 kWh-1 for 8-h energy storage. Intrinsically low-cost active materials, high cell performance and excellent capacity retention equip the Fe/Cd RFB to be a promising solution for large-scale energy storage systems.

  9. Balance of liquid-phase turbulence kinetic energy equation for bubble-train flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilic, Milica; Woerner, Martin; Cacuci, Dan Gabriel

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the investigation of bubble-induced turbulence using direct numerical simulation (DNS) of bubbly two-phase flow is reported. DNS computations are performed for a bubble-driven liquid motion induced by a regular train of ellipsoidal bubbles rising through an initially stagnant liquid within a plane vertical channel. DNS data are used to evaluate balance terms in the balance equation for the liquid phase turbulence kinetic energy. The evaluation comprises single-phase-like terms (diffusion, dissipation and production) as well as the interfacial term. Special emphasis is placed on the procedure for evaluation of interfacial quantities. Quantitative analysis of the balance equation for the liquid phase turbulence kinetic energy shows the importance of the interfacial term which is the only source term. The DNS results are further used to validate closure assumptions employed in modelling of the liquid phase turbulence kinetic energy transport in gas-liquid bubbly flows. In this context, the performance of respective closure relations in the transport equation for liquid turbulence kinetic energy within the two-phase k-ε and the two-phase k-l model is evaluated. (author)

  10. Energy flows modelling of a PEM electrolyzer-Photovoltaic generator-PEM fuel cell coupling dedicated to stationary applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agbli, Krehi Serge

    2012-01-01

    A standalone multi-source system based on the coupling of photovoltaic energy and both a PEM electrolyzer and a PEMFC for stationary application is studied. The system gathers photovoltaic array as main energy source, ultra-capacitors and batteries packs in order to smooth respectively fast and medium dynamic by supplying the load or by absorbing photovoltaic source overproduction. Because of the necessity of fuel availability, especially for islanding application like this one, a PEM electrolyzer is integrated to the system for in situ hydrogen production. The relevance of PEMFC system powered by solar hydrogen is pointed out before examining hydrogen storage issue. Energetic and economic analyses have been performed leading to the choice of the pressurised hydrogen storage (in the bottle) rather than hydrogen storage both as liquid and within metal hydride. The main purpose being the proper management of the power flows in order to meet the energy requirement (the load) without power cut, a graphical modelling tool namely Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR) is used because of its analysis and control strengths. The EMR ability to describe multi-physics energetic tools is used to develop a PEM electrolyzer model. The multi-domain interaction between the electrical, the electrochemical, the thermodynamic and the fluidic domain is emphasised. Moreover, the temperature variation influence on the electrochemical parameters of the electrolyzer is taken into account by the developed EMR model. Afterwards, thanks to the modular feature of the EMR, the different models of each energetic entity of the system are performed before their assembling leading to the overall system EMR model. By using scale effect allowing extending the energetic tool power range from the experimental validation one to another one, the energetic system sizing is performed according to a household power profile. Then, by the help of the multi-level representation, the maximal control

  11. Duality of the magnetic flux tube and electric current descriptions magnetospheric plasma and energy flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, G.

    1981-01-01

    The duality between electric current and magnetic flux tubes is outlined for the magnetosphere. Magnetic flux tubes are regarded as fluid elements subjected to various stresses. Current closure then becomes the dual of stress balance, and Poynting vector energy flow a dual of J x E dissipation. The stresses acting on a flux tube are magnetic stresses, which correspond to currents at a distance, and plasma stresses, which correspond to local currents. The duality between current and stress is traced for ionospheric ion drag forces, solar wind stresses at the magnetopause, inertial effects, and the effects of energetic plasma on flux tubes. The stress balance and dual current systems are outlined for idealized magnetospheres of increasing complexity. For a simple magnetosphere with no convective flow, the balance stresses are solar wind pressure and neutral sheet plasma pressure. The corresponding current systems are the Chapman-Ferraro magnetopause currents and the magetotail current system. The introduction of convective flow introduces further stresses: ionospheric ion drag. Alfven layer shielding, and an imbalance in day-night magnetic stresses due to transport of flux tubes to the nightside by the solar wind. These stresses balance, and hence the corresponding additional currents (the ionospheric Pedersen current and the electrojets, the partial ring current, and two other current systems from the magnetopause and tail) must form a closed current system and do so by the region I and II field-aligned currents of Iijima and Potemra. The energy flow in the above models is described in terms of both Poynting vectors and the above current systems. Temporal variations examined are (1) an increase in dayside merging and/or nightside reconnection, (2) an increase in the energy density of plasma in the plasma sheet, (3) an increase in ionospheric conductivity, and (4) an increase in solar wind pressure

  12. Control of Vibratory Energy Harvesters in the Presence of Nonlinearities and Power-Flow Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Ian L.

    control the harvester is infeasible due to the high levels of parasitic power required to operate the drive. For the case where a single-directional drive is used, a constraint on the directionality of power-flow is imposed on the system, which necessitates the use of nonlinear feedback. As such, a sub-optimal controller for power-flow-constrained vibratory energy harvesters is presented, which is analytically guaranteed to outperform the optimal static admittance controller. Finally, the last section of this dissertation explores a numerical approach to compute optimal discretized control manifolds for systems with power-flow constraints. Unlike the sub-optimal nonlinear controller, the numerical controller satisfies the necessary conditions for optimality by solving the stochastic Hamilton-Jacobi equation.

  13. Allocating subsidies to R&D or to market applications of renewable energy? Balance and geographical relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koseoglu, N.M.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Subtil Lacarda, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses a basic problem in innovation studies, namely the allocation of scarce funds for governmental subsidies to market and R&D support, with the aim to effectively promote a transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy technologies. Although various ideas on this exist, a general

  14. Linearly decoupled energy-stable numerical methods for multi-component two-phase compressible flow

    KAUST Repository

    Kou, Jisheng

    2017-12-06

    In this paper, for the first time we propose two linear, decoupled, energy-stable numerical schemes for multi-component two-phase compressible flow with a realistic equation of state (e.g. Peng-Robinson equation of state). The methods are constructed based on the scalar auxiliary variable (SAV) approaches for Helmholtz free energy and the intermediate velocities that are designed to decouple the tight relationship between velocity and molar densities. The intermediate velocities are also involved in the discrete momentum equation to ensure a consistency relationship with the mass balance equations. Moreover, we propose a component-wise SAV approach for a multi-component fluid, which requires solving a sequence of linear, separate mass balance equations. We prove that the methods have the unconditional energy-dissipation feature. Numerical results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  15. Measurement of Forward Energy Flow at 13 TeV with the CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Cerci, Salim

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of the energy flow is performed with the forward (HF: $3.15 <\\mid \\eta \\mid) < 5.2$) and very-forward (CASTOR: $-6.6 < \\eta < -5.2$) calorimeters of CMS at the centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The data were taken during the several periods of low luminosity operation in 2015. The results are compared to Monte Carlo (MC) model predictions as well as the earlier proton-proton data taken at $\\sqrt{s} = 0.9$ TeV and 7 TeV. Furthermore, the beam fragmentation which provides valuable input for tuning of MC models used to describe high energy hadronic interactions is also studied at the regions close to the beam rapidities.

  16. Classical and ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov instability and other ICF-relevant plasma flows diagnosed with monochromatic x-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aglitskiy, Y; Metzler, N; Karasik, M; Velikovich, A L; Zalesak, S T; Schmitt, A J; Serlin, V; Weaver, J; Obenschain, S P; Gardner, J H

    2008-01-01

    In inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy density physics (HEDP), the most important manifestations of the hydrodynamic instabilities and other mixing processes involve lateral motion of the accelerated plasmas. In order to understand the experimental observations and to advance the numerical simulation codes to the point of predictive capability, it is critically important to accurately diagnose the motion of the dense plasma mass. The most advanced diagnostic technique recently developed for this purpose is the monochromatic x-ray imaging that combines large field of view with high contrast, high spatial resolution and large throughput, ensuring high temporal resolution at large magnification. Its application made it possible for the experimentalists to observe for the first time important hydrodynamic effects that trigger compressible turbulent mixing in laser targets, such as ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability, feedout, interaction of an RM-unstable interface with shock and rarefaction waves. It also helped to substantially improve the accuracy of diagnosing many other important plasma flows, ranging from laser-produced jets to electromagnetically driven wires in a Z-pinch, and to test various methods suggested for mitigation of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. We will review the results obtained with the aid of this technique in ICF-HEDP studies at the Naval Research Laboratory and the prospects of its future applications.

  17. Dynamo dominated accretion and energy flow: The mechanism of active galactic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colgate, S.A.; Li, H.

    1998-12-31

    An explanation of the magnetic fields of the universe, the central mass concentration of galaxies, the massive black hole of every galaxy, and the AGN phenomena has been an elusive goal. The authors suggest here the outlines of such a theoretical understanding and point out where the physical understanding is missing. They believe there is an imperative to the sequence of mass flow and hence energy flow in the collapse of a galactic mass starting from the first non-linearity appearing in structure formation following decoupling. This first non-linearity of a two to one density fluctuation, the Lyman-{alpha} clouds, ultimately leads to the emission spectra of the phenomenon of AGN, quasars, blazars, etc. The over-arching physical principle is the various mechanisms for the transport of angular momentum. They believe they have now understood the new physics of two of these mechanisms that have previously been illusive and as a consequence they impose strong constraints on the initial conditions of the mechanisms for the subsequent emission of the gravitational binding energy. The new phenomena described are: (1) the Rossby vortex mechanism of the accretion disk {alpha}-viscosity, and (2) the mechanism of the {alpha}-{Omega} dynamo in the accretion disk. The Rossby vortex mechanism leads to a prediction of the black hole mass and rate of energy release and the {alpha}-{Omega} dynamo leads to the generation of the magnetic flux of the galaxy (and the far greater magnetic flux of clusters) and separately explains the primary flux of energy emission as force-free magnetic energy density. This magnetic flux and magnetic energy density separately are the necessary consequence of the saturation of a dynamo created by the accretion disk with a gain greater than unity.

  18. Heavy inertial particles in turbulent flows gain energy slowly but lose it rapidly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Akshay; Gupta, Anupam; Mitra, Dhrubaditya; Pandit, Rahul

    2018-03-01

    We present an extensive numerical study of the time irreversibility of the dynamics of heavy inertial particles in three-dimensional, statistically homogeneous, and isotropic turbulent flows. We show that the probability density function (PDF) of the increment, W (τ ) , of a particle's energy over a time scale τ is non-Gaussian, and skewed toward negative values. This implies that, on average, particles gain energy over a period of time that is longer than the duration over which they lose energy. We call this slow gain and fast loss. We find that the third moment of W (τ ) scales as τ3 for small values of τ . We show that the PDF of power-input p is negatively skewed too; we use this skewness Ir as a measure of the time irreversibility and we demonstrate that it increases sharply with the Stokes number St for small St; this increase slows down at St≃1 . Furthermore, we obtain the PDFs of t+ and t-, the times over which p has, respectively, positive or negative signs, i.e., the particle gains or loses energy. We obtain from these PDFs a direct and natural quantification of the slow gain and fast loss of the energy of the particles, because these PDFs possess exponential tails from which we infer the characteristic loss and gain times tloss and tgain, respectively, and we obtain tlossprobability in the strain-dominated region than in the vortical one; in contrast, the slow gain in the energy of the particles is equally likely in vortical or strain-dominated regions of the flow.

  19. Relationships among the Energy, Emergy, and Money Flows of the United States from 1900 to 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, Daniel Elliott; Lu, Hongfang; Walker, Henry Allen

    2014-01-01

    Energy Systems Language models of the resource base for the U.S. economy and of economic exchange were used, respectively, (1) to show how energy consumption and emergy use contribute to real and nominal gross domestic product (GDP) and (2) to propose a model of coupled flows that explains high correlations of these inputs with measures of market-based economic activity. We examined a third power law model of growth supported by excess resources and found evidence that it has governed U.S. economic growth since 1900, i.e., nominal GDP was best explained by a power function of total emergy use with exponent 2.8. We used a weight of evidence approach to identify relationships among emergy, energy, and money flows in the U.S. from 1900 to 2011. All measures of quality adjusted energy consumption had a relationship with nominal GDP that was best described by a hyperbolic function plus a constant and the relationship between all measures of energy consumption and real GDP was best described by a second order polynomial. The fact that energy consumption per unit of real GDP declined after 1996 as real GDP continued to increase indicates that energy conservation or a shift toward less energy intensive industries has resulted in lower fossil fuel use and reduced CO 2 emissions while maintaining growth in real GDP. Since all energy consumption measures versus real GDP deviated from a power law relationship after 1996; whereas, total emergy use did not, we concluded that total emergy use captured more of the factors responsible for the increase in real GDP than did energy measures alone, and as a result, total emergy use may be the best measure to quantify the biophysical basis for social and economic activity in the information age. The emergy to money ratio measured as solar emjoules per nominal followed a decreasing trend from a high of 1.01E+14 semj/$ in 1902 to 1.56E+12 semj/$ in 2011 with fluctuations in its value corresponding to major periods of inflation and

  20. Relationships among the Energy, Emergy and Money Flows of the United States from 1900 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Elliott Campbell

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy Systems Language models of the resource base for the U.S. economy and of economic exchange were used, respectively, (1 to show how energy consumption and emergy use contribute to real and nominal GDP and (2 to propose a model of coupled flows that explains high correlations of these inputs with measures of market-based economic activity. We examined a 3rd power law model of growth supported by excess resources and found evidence that it has governed U.S. economic growth since 1900, i.e., nominal GDP was best explained by a power function of total emergy use with exponent 2.8. We used a weight of evidence approach to identify relationships among emergy, energy, and money flows in the U.S. from 1900 to 2011. All measures of quality adjusted energy consumption had a relationship with nominal GDP that was best described by a hyperbolic function plus a constant and the relationship between all measures of energy consumption and real GDP was best described by a 2nd order polynomial. The fact that energy consumption per unit of real GDP declined after 1996 as real GDP continued to increase indicates that energy conservation or a shift toward less energy intensive industries has resulted in lower fossil fuel use and reduced CO2 emissions, while maintaining growth in real GDP. Since all energy consumption measures vs. real GDP deviated from a power law relationship after 1996; whereas, total emergy use did not, we concluded that total emergy use captured more of the factors responsible for the increase in real GDP than did energy measures alone, and as a result, total emergy use may be the best measure to quantify the biophysical basis for social and economic activity in the information age. The Emergy to Money Ratio measured as solar emjoules per nominal $ followed a decreasing trend from a high of 1.01E+14 semj/$ in 1902 to 1.56E+12 semj/$ in 2011 with fluctuations in its value corresponding to major periods of inflation and deflation over this

  1. Relationships among the Energy, Emergy, and Money Flows of the United States from 1900 to 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Daniel Elliott, E-mail: campbell.dan@epa.gov [Atlantic Ecology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States); Lu, Hongfang [South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China); Walker, Henry Allen [Atlantic Ecology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States)

    2014-10-17

    Energy Systems Language models of the resource base for the U.S. economy and of economic exchange were used, respectively, (1) to show how energy consumption and emergy use contribute to real and nominal gross domestic product (GDP) and (2) to propose a model of coupled flows that explains high correlations of these inputs with measures of market-based economic activity. We examined a third power law model of growth supported by excess resources and found evidence that it has governed U.S. economic growth since 1900, i.e., nominal GDP was best explained by a power function of total emergy use with exponent 2.8. We used a weight of evidence approach to identify relationships among emergy, energy, and money flows in the U.S. from 1900 to 2011. All measures of quality adjusted energy consumption had a relationship with nominal GDP that was best described by a hyperbolic function plus a constant and the relationship between all measures of energy consumption and real GDP was best described by a second order polynomial. The fact that energy consumption per unit of real GDP declined after 1996 as real GDP continued to increase indicates that energy conservation or a shift toward less energy intensive industries has resulted in lower fossil fuel use and reduced CO{sub 2} emissions while maintaining growth in real GDP. Since all energy consumption measures versus real GDP deviated from a power law relationship after 1996; whereas, total emergy use did not, we concluded that total emergy use captured more of the factors responsible for the increase in real GDP than did energy measures alone, and as a result, total emergy use may be the best measure to quantify the biophysical basis for social and economic activity in the information age. The emergy to money ratio measured as solar emjoules per nominal followed a decreasing trend from a high of 1.01E+14 semj/$ in 1902 to 1.56E+12 semj/$ in 2011 with fluctuations in its value corresponding to major periods of inflation and

  2. Hybridized electromagnetic-triboelectric nanogenerator for scavenging air-flow energy to sustainably power temperature sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Wang, Shuhua; Yang, Ya; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-04-28

    We report a hybridized nanogenerator with dimensions of 6.7 cm × 4.5 cm × 2 cm and a weight of 42.3 g that consists of two triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) and two electromagnetic generators (EMGs) for scavenging air-flow energy. Under an air-flow speed of about 18 m/s, the hybridized nanogenerator can deliver largest output powers of 3.5 mW for one TENG (in correspondence of power per unit mass/volume: 8.8 mW/g and 14.6 kW/m(3)) at a loading resistance of 3 MΩ and 1.8 mW for one EMG (in correspondence of power per unit mass/volume: 0.3 mW/g and 0.4 kW/m(3)) at a loading resistance of 2 kΩ, respectively. The hybridized nanogenerator can be utilized to charge a capacitor of 3300 μF to sustainably power four temperature sensors for realizing self-powered temperature sensor networks. Moreover, a wireless temperature sensor driven by a hybridized nanogenerator charged Li-ion battery can work well to send the temperature data to a receiver/computer at a distance of 1.5 m. This work takes a significant step toward air-flow energy harvesting and its potential applications in self-powered wireless sensor networks.

  3. Mass balances and energy flows, reference concept. (Spent Fuel - Copper-Iron - Bentonite - Granite)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordman, H.; Lehikoinen, J.

    2008-12-01

    In this work, a semi-quantitative analysis of mass and energy flows and balances in a deep repository of the KBS-3V type subject to a glacial cycle has been carried out. The energy flows and temperatures show the maximum temperature at the canister surface not to exceed the design temperature of 100 deg C. If the measures taken to limit the water flow into the underground facilities are appropriate, the lifetime of the calcite buffer in the hydraulically conductive fracture zones was calculated to extend well beyond the operational phase of the repository. The results from hydrogeochemical model calculations in the backfill imply a long-term exchange of sodium for calcium in the clay component, if MX-80 bentonite is used. As this constitutes a potential threat to the swelling pressure of backfill in saline water environments, the physicochemical properties of a backfill should be carefully adjusted to meet its preplanned function. Despite short-lived episodes of oxygen-rich glacial water intrusion, the corrosion of the copper canister will likely be minor in the long term. (orig.)

  4. Comparison of spatio-temporal resolution of different flow measurement techniques for marine renewable energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Vincent; Wosnik, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Marine hydrokinetic (MHK) energy conversion devices are subject to a wide range of turbulent scales, either due to upstream bathymetry, obstacles and waves, or from wakes of upstream devices in array configurations. The commonly used, robust Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) are well suited for long term flow measurements in the marine environment, but are limited to low sampling rates due to their operational principle. The resulting temporal and spatial resolution is insufficient to measure all turbulence scales of interest to the device, e.g., ``blade-scale turbulence.'' The present study systematically characterizes the spatial and temporal resolution of ADCP, Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry (ADV), and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Measurements were conducted in a large cross section tow tank (3.7m × 2.4m) for several benchmark cases, including low and high turbulence intensity uniform flow as well as in the wake of a cylinder, to quantitatively investigate the flow scales which each of the instruments can resolve. The purpose of the study is to supply data for mathematical modeling to improve predictions from ADCP measurements, which can help lead to higher-fidelity energy resource assessment and more accurate device evaluation, including wake measurements. Supported by NSF-CBET grant 1150797.

  5. The Concept of EV’s Intelligent Integrated Station and Its Energy Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Xie

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of electric vehicles (EVs connected to existing distribution networks as time-variant loads cause significant distortions in line current and voltage. A novel EV’s intelligent integrated station (IIS making full use of retired batteries is introduced in this paper to offer a potential solution for accommodating the charging demand of EVs. It proposes the concept of generalized energy in IIS, based on the energy/power flow between IIS and EVs, and between IIS and the power grid, to systematically evaluate the energy capacity of IIS. In order to derive a unique and satisfactory operation mode, information from both the grid (in terms of load level and IIS (in terms of its energy capacity and EVs battery charging/exchanging requests is merged. Then, based on the generalized energy of different systems, a novel charging/discharging control strategy is presented and whereby the operating status of the grid and energy capacity of IIS are monitored to make reasonable operation plans for IIS. Simulation results suggest that the proposed IIS offers peak load shifting when EV battery charging/exchanging requests are satisfied compared to existing charging stations.

  6. Water flow and energy balance for a tropical dry semideciduous forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, J. L.; Garruña-Hernandez, R.; Leon-Palomo, M.; Us-Santamaria, R.; Sima, J. L.

    2013-05-01

    Tropical forests cool down locally because increase water evaporation from the soil to the atmosphere, reduce albedo and help forming clouds that reflect solar radiation back to the atmosphere; this, aligned to the carbon catchment, increase forests value. We will present an estimation of the sap flow and energy balance for the tropical dry semideciduous forest at Kiuic, Yucatan, Mexico during a year. We use a meteorological tower equipped with a rain gauge, temperature and relative humidity, heat flow plates, thermocouples and volumetric soil water content. We recorded net radiation and soil heat flux and estimated sensible heat and latent heat. Besides, we estimated latent heat by measuring sap flow directly in tres using disispation constant heat probes during the rainy season. Results show the influence of the seasonality on net radiation, air temperatura and vapor pressure deficit, because during the dry season his variables were higher and with more duation than during the rainy and early dry season. Sap flow was different for trees belonging to the family Fabaceae compared to trees from other families.

  7. High Performance Hydrogen/Bromine Redox Flow Battery for Grid-Scale Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, KT; Ridgway, P; Weber, AZ; Haussener, S; Battaglia, V; Srinivasan, V

    2012-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of a promising hydrogen/bromine redox flow battery is investigated for grid-scale energy-storage application with some of the best redox-flow-battery performance results to date, including a peak power of 1.4 W/cm(2) and a 91% voltaic efficiency at 0.4 W/cm(2) constant-power operation. The kinetics of bromine on various materials is discussed, with both rotating-disk-electrode and cell studies demonstrating that a carbon porous electrode for the bromine reaction can conduct platinum-comparable performance as long as sufficient surface area is realized. The effect of flow-cell designs and operating temperature is examined, and ohmic and mass-transfer losses are decreased by utilizing a flow-through electrode design and increasing cell temperature. Charge/discharge and discharge-rate tests also reveal that this system has highly reversible behavior and good rate capability. (C) 2012 The Electrochemical Society. [DOI: 10.1149/2.018211jes] All rights reserved.

  8. Dark energy in six nearby galaxy flows: Synthetic phase diagrams and self-similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernin, A. D.; Teerikorpi, P.; Dolgachev, V. P.; Kanter, A. A.; Domozhilova, L. M.; Valtonen, M. J.; Byrd, G. G.

    2012-09-01

    Outward flows of galaxies are observed around groups of galaxies on spatial scales of about 1 Mpc, and around galaxy clusters on scales of 10 Mpc. Using recent data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), we have constructed two synthetic velocity-distance phase diagrams: one for four flows on galaxy-group scales and the other for two flows on cluster scales. It has been shown that, in both cases, the antigravity produced by the cosmic dark-energy background is stronger than the gravity produced by the matter in the outflow volume. The antigravity accelerates the flows and introduces a phase attractor that is common to all scales, corresponding to a linear velocity-distance relation (the local Hubble law). As a result, the bundle of outflow trajectories mostly follow the trajectory of the attractor. A comparison of the two diagrams reveals the universal self-similar nature of the outflows: their gross phase structure in dimensionless variables is essentially independent of their physical spatial scales, which differ by approximately a factor of 10 in the two diagrams.

  9. Analytical Model for Mean Flow and Fluxes of Momentum and Energy in Very Large Wind Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markfort, Corey D.; Zhang, Wei; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    As wind-turbine arrays continue to be installed and the array size continues to grow, there is an increasing need to represent very large wind-turbine arrays in numerical weather prediction models, for wind-farm optimization, and for environmental assessment. We propose a simple analytical model for boundary-layer flow in fully-developed wind-turbine arrays, based on the concept of sparsely-obstructed shear flows. In describing the vertical distribution of the mean wind speed and shear stress within wind farms, our model estimates the mean kinetic energy harvested from the atmospheric boundary layer, and determines the partitioning between the wind power captured by the wind turbines and that absorbed by the underlying land or water. A length scale based on the turbine geometry, spacing, and performance characteristics, is able to estimate the asymptotic limit for the fully-developed flow through wind-turbine arrays, and thereby determine if the wind-farm flow is fully developed for very large turbine arrays. Our model is validated using data collected in controlled wind-tunnel experiments, and its usefulness for the prediction of wind-farm performance and optimization of turbine-array spacing are described. Our model may also be useful for assessing the extent to which the extraction of wind power affects the land-atmosphere coupling or air-water exchange of momentum, with implications for the transport of heat, moisture, trace gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, and ecologically important oxygen.

  10. Regulation of Renewable Energy Sources to Optimal Power Flow Solutions Using ADMM: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yijian; Hong, Mingyi; Dall' Anese, Emiliano; Dhople, Sairaj; Xu, Zi

    2017-03-03

    This paper considers power distribution systems featuring renewable energy sources (RESs), and develops a distributed optimization method to steer the RES output powers to solutions of AC optimal power flow (OPF) problems. The design of the proposed method leverages suitable linear approximations of the AC-power flow equations, and is based on the Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers (ADMM). Convergence of the RES-inverter output powers to solutions of the OPF problem is established under suitable conditions on the stepsize as well as mismatches between the commanded setpoints and actual RES output powers. In a broad sense, the methods and results proposed here are also applicable to other distributed optimization problem setups with ADMM and inexact dual updates.

  11. Fundamental study on flow characteristics of disrupted core pool at a low energy level (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Koji; Liu, Ping; Matsumoto, Tatsuya; Fukuda, Kenji; Tobita, Yoshiharu; Sato, Ikken

    2007-03-01

    Dynamic behaviors of solid particle beds in a liquid pool against pressure transients were investigated to model the mobility of core materials in a low-energy disrupted core of a liquid metal fast reactor. A series of experiments was performed with a particle bed of different heights, comprising different monotype solid particles, where variable initial pressures of the originally pressurized nitrogen gas were adopted as the pressure source. Computational simulations of the experiments were performed using SIMMER-III, a fast reactor safety analysis code. Experimental analyses using the SIMMER-III code show that physical models and method used in the code can reasonably represent the transient behaviors of multiphase flows with rich solid phase as observed in the experiments. The validation of several key models of SIMMER-III was also discussed for treating transient behaviors of the solid-particle phase in multiphase flows. (author)

  12. Energy transport in a shear flow of particles in a two-dimensional dusty plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan; Goree, J; Liu, Bin

    2012-11-01

    A shear flow of particles in a laser-driven two-dimensional (2D) dusty plasma is observed in a study of viscous heating and thermal conduction. Video imaging and particle tracking yields particle velocity data, which we convert into continuum data, presented as three spatial profiles: mean particle velocity (i.e., flow velocity), mean-square particle velocity, and mean-square fluctuations of particle velocity. These profiles and their derivatives allow a spatially resolved determination of each term in the energy and momentum continuity equations, which we use for two purposes. First, by balancing these terms so that their sum (i.e., residual) is minimized while varying viscosity η and thermal conductivity κ as free parameters, we simultaneously obtain values for η and κ in the same experiment. Second, by comparing the viscous heating and thermal conduction terms, we obtain a spatially resolved characterization of the viscous heating.

  13. Analysis of energy consumption and emission of the heterogeneous traffic flow consisting of traditional vehicles and electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hong; Huang, Hai-Jun; Tang, Tie-Qiao

    2017-12-01

    Electric vehicle (EV) has become a potential traffic tool, which has attracted researchers to explore various traffic phenomena caused by EV (e.g. congestion, electricity consumption, etc.). In this paper, we study the energy consumption (including the fuel consumption and the electricity consumption) and emissions of heterogeneous traffic flow (that consists of the traditional vehicle (TV) and EV) under three traffic situations (i.e. uniform flow, shock and rarefaction waves, and a small perturbation) from the perspective of macro traffic flow. The numerical results show that the proportion of electric vehicular flow has great effects on the TV’s fuel consumption and emissions and the EV’s electricity consumption, i.e. the fuel consumption and emissions decrease while the electricity consumption increases with the increase of the proportion of electric vehicular flow. The results can help us better understand the energy consumption and emissions of the heterogeneous traffic flow consisting of TV and EV.

  14. Parametric Study and Optimization of a Piezoelectric Energy Harvester from Flow Induced Vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, P.; Jawahar Chandra, C.; Neeraj, P.; Santhosh, B.

    2018-02-01

    Self-powered systems have become the need of the hour and several devices and techniques were proposed in favour of this crisis. Among the various sources, vibrations, being the most practical scenario, is chosen in the present study to investigate for the possibility of harvesting energy. Various methods were devised to trap the energy generated by vibrating bodies, which would otherwise be wasted. One such concept is termed as flow-induced vibration which involves the flow of a fluid across a bluff body that oscillates due to a phenomenon known as vortex shedding. These oscillations can be converted into electrical energy by the use of piezoelectric patches. A two degree of freedom system containing a cylinder as the primary mass and a cantilever beam as the secondary mass attached with a piezoelectric circuit, was considered to model the problem. Three wake oscillator models were studied in order to determine the one which can generate results with high accuracy. It was found that Facchinetti model produced better results than the other two and hence a parametric study was performed to determine the favourable range of the controllable variables of the system. A fitness function was formulated and optimization of the selected parameters was done using genetic algorithm. The parametric optimization led to a considerable improvement in the harvested voltage from the system owing to the high displacement of secondary mass.

  15. The influence of salinity of fly ash mixtures on energy looses during flow in pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    И. Собота

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In Polish mining for backfilling the fly ash mixtures are used. Last time for fly ash mixtures preparation the saline water from mine have been used, to thanks to that the saline water missing the surface waters. Usage of saline water for fly ash mixture preparation causes the changes in energy looses during the flow in pipelines. The paper presents the results of energy looses measurement іn laboratory pipeline installation with diameter D =50 mm. The measurements have been performed for different fly ash – saline water proportions. Tested fly-ash from Siersza power plant has typical properties (grain size distribution curve, density for ashes used for backfilling mixtures preparation. Increase of fluid (water salinity modifies fluid viscosity. Brine in comparison with pure water retains as liquid with increased viscosity. Increased viscosity can influence on the mixture ash-brine properties for example causing flocculation effect. Also changeable salinity has an influence on proper determination of resistance (frictional coefficient λ during mixtures flow in pipelines because it depends on Reynolds number which depends on liquid viscosity. Increase of fly-ash concentrations in fly-ash – brine mixtures cause increase of energy losses.

  16. Studying the molecular mechanisms of radiation damage : low-energy electron interactions with biomolecules and medically relevant molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanzer, K.

    2015-01-01

    Since it was discovered in the year 2000 that secondary electrons with energies below 20 eV, which are the most abundant secondary species produced upon the interaction of ionizing radiation with biological tissue, can induce severe damages in the DNA such as single and double strand breaks, the interest for the study of the interaction of electrons with essential molecules of the human body has grown immensely. Double strand breaks can lead to cancer and are therefore a substantial threat to human health, however, the radiation research community is not sure how these strand breaks are formed upon interaction with ionizing radiation. The fact that even electrons with energies well below the ionization threshold can induce great damage in biological molecules via a resonant process called dissociative electron attachment (DEA), has even furthered the interest in these electron interactions, as it was shown to be a very efficient decomposition mechanism. A variety of studies, such as DEA studies to components of the DNA, for example, have been undertaken so far to shed more light on the role electrons play in the radiation damage of biomolecules. In this thesis two nucleobases, adenine and hypoxanthine, have been studied by observing their response towards low-energy electrons. It has been found that these nucleobases behave in a similar manner upon low-energy electron interaction, as do other nucleobases, that have been studied previously. The loss of hydrogen is suspected to act as a precursor for the decomposition of the DNA and the nucleobases can also undergo ring cleavage, which will induce substantial damage in the DNA. Furthermore, the search for improved and more efficient methods for the treatment of cancer is as important as ever, considering the ever-rising number of cancer deaths. Radiotherapy has proven to be one of the best treatments for tumors, but was found to be ineffective in hypoxic - oxygen deprived - tumors. Compounds called radiosensitizers

  17. Tailoring of the PS surface with low energy ions: Relevance to growth and adhesion of noble metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaporojtchenko, V.; Zekonyte, J.; Wille, S.; Schuermann, U.; Faupel, F.

    2005-01-01

    Ion-polymer interaction induces different phenomena in the near surface layer of polymers, and promotes its adhesion to metals. Using XPS, TEM and AFM, polystyrene surface was examined after 1 keV ion-beam treatments with oxygen, nitrogen and argon ions in the ion fluence range from 10 12 to 10 16 cm -2 to clarify the following points: chemical reaction after treatment in vacuum and after exposure to air, identification of adsorption-relevant species for metal atoms, formation of cross-links in the outermost polymer layer. The early stages of metal-polymer interface formation during metallization play a crucial role in the metal-polymer adhesion. Therefore, the influence of the ion fluence and ion chemistry on the condensation of noble metals, film growth and peel strength were measured. The peel strength showed a maximum at a certain fluence depending on ion chemistry. For example, the surface treatment with very low fluence of oxygen ions improved the adhesion between copper and polystyrene by two orders of magnitude without significantly increasing the surface roughness measured with AFM. The locus of failure changed at the same time from interfacial failure for untreated polymer surfaces to cohesive failure in the polymer for modified surfaces. A multilayer model of the metal-polymer interface after ion treatment is suggested

  18. a Matlab Toolbox for Basin Scale Fluid Flow Modeling Applied to Hydrology and Geothermal Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcanie, M.; Lupi, M.; Carrier, A.

    2017-12-01

    Recent boosts in the development of geothermal energy were fostered by the latest oil crises and by the need of reducing CO2 emissions generated by the combustion of fossil fuels. Various numerical codes (e.g. FEHM, CSMP++, HYDROTHERM, TOUGH) have thus been implemented for the simulation and quantification of fluid flow in the upper crust. One possible limitation of such codes is the limited accessibility and the complex structure of the simulators. For this reason, we began to develop a Hydrothermal Fluid Flow Matlab library as part of MRST (Matlab Reservoir Simulation Toolbox). MRST is designed for the simulation of oil and gas problems including carbon capture storage. However, a geothermal module is still missing. We selected the Geneva Basin as a natural laboratory because of the large amount of data available in the region. The Geneva Basin has been intensely investigated in the past with exploration wells, active seismic and gravity surveys. In addition, the energy strategy of Switzerland promotes the development of geothermal energy that lead to recent geophysical prospections. Previous and ongoing projects have shown the geothermal potential of the Geneva Basin but a consistent fluid flow model assessing the deep circulation in the region is yet to be defined. The first step of the study was to create the basin-scale static model. We integrated available active seismic, gravity inversions and borehole data to describe the principal geologic and tectonic features of the Geneva Basin. Petrophysical parameters were obtained from available and widespread well logs. This required adapting MRST to standard text format file imports and outline a new methodology for quick static model creation in an open source environment. We implemented several basin-scale fluid flow models to test the effects of petrophysical properties on the circulation dynamics of deep fluids in the Geneva Basin. Preliminary results allow the identification of preferential fluid flow

  19. Triton-3He relative and differential flows as probes of the nuclear symmetry energy at supra-saturation densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong Gaochan; Li Baoan; Chen Liewen; Zhang Xunchao

    2009-01-01

    Using a transport model coupled with a phase-space coalescence afterburner, we study the triton- 3 He (t- 3 He) ratio with both relative and differential transverse flows in semicentral 132 Sn+ 124 Sn reactions at a beam energy of 400 MeV/nucleon. The neutron-proton ratios with relative and differential flows are also discussed as a reference. We find that similar to the neutron-proton pairs, the t- 3 He pairs also carry interesting information regarding the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy. Moreover, the nuclear symmetry energy affects more strongly the t- 3 He relative and differential flows than the π - /π + ratio in the same reaction. The t- 3 He relative flow can be used as a particularly powerful probe of the high-density behavior of the nuclear symmetry energy.

  20. Assessment on the energy flow and carbon emissions of integrated steelmaking plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huachun He

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available China’s iron and steel industry has developed rapidly over the past two decades. The annual crude steel production is nearly half of the global production, and approximately 90% of the steel is produced via BF–BOF route that is energy-intensive. Based on the practice of integrated steelmaking plants, a material flow analysis model that includes three layers, i.e., material, ferrum, and energy, was constructed on process levels to analyze the energy consumption and carbon emissions according to the principle of mass conservation and the First Law of Thermodynamics. The result shows that the primary energy intensity and carbon emissions are 20.3 GJ/t and 0.46 tC/t crude steel, respectively, including coke and ancillary material’s preparation. These values are above the world’s average level of the BF–BOF route and could be regarded as a high-performance benchmark of steelmaking efficiency. However, the total energy consumption and carbon emission from steelmaking industry were approximately 13095 PJ and 300 MtC, respectively, on the best practice estimation in 2011, and are still large numbers for achieving the goal of reducing global warming. The potential carbon reduction will be limited if no significant changes are undertaken in the steel industry.

  1. Energy white paper 2007: the British strategy to take up the energy challenge; Energy white paper 2007: la strategie britannique pour relever le defi de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Following the energy policy review published in 2006 by the Department for Trade and Industry (DTI), the Energy White Paper 2007, published on May 23, 2007, gathers all measures preconized in this domain. This document recalls, first, the objectives and priorities of the British government at the international, national, regional and local scales, as already clearly explained in previous DTI publications. This white book announces also some new measures and the launching of new public hearings about other measures in view. All in all, 18 hearings are announced which deal with various topics, from the new nuclear power plants to the reform of renewables obligations, the organization of big energy projects or the dismantling of offshore energy facilities. This document recalls the objective of the government and describes the British international policy in the domain of energy. It presents the measures for the fight against climatic change (energy conservation, development of clean energies, decentralized energy production), for warranting the security of supplies (diversification of offer, improvement of networks, planning of energy projects) and, in particular, the proposals of the government concerning the transportation sector and the fight against energy paucity. It stresses also on the importance of R and D and on the British authority in energy technologies. Finally, it gathers the reactions of the most representative actors of the British energy sector. (J.S.)

  2. Progress in Computational Physics (PiCP) Vol 2 Coupled Fluid Flow in Energy, Biology and Environmental Research

    CERN Document Server

    Ehrhardt, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    This second volume contains both, the mathematical analysis of the coupling between fluid flow and porous media flow and state-of-the art numerical techniques, like tailor-made finite element and finite volume methods. Readers will come across articles devoted to concrete applications of these models in the field of energy, biology and environmental research.

  3. Scattering of inhomogeneous circularly polarized optical field and mechanical manifestation of the internal energy flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekshaev, A. Ya; Angelsky, O. V.; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2012-01-01

    between the forward- and backward-scattered momentum fluxes in the Rayleigh scattering regime appears due to the spin part of the internal energy flow in the incident beam. The transverse ponderomotive forces exerted on dielectric and conducting particles of different sizes are calculated and special......Based on the Mie theory and on the incident beam model via superposition of two plane waves, we analyze numerically the momentum flux of the field scattered by a spherical, nonmagnetic microparticle placed within the spatially inhomogeneous circularly polarized paraxial light beam. The asymmetry...

  4. Experimental Modeling of the Overtopping Flow on the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmeggiani, Stefano; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Friis-Madsen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    The Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter is currently facing a precommercial phase. At this stage of development a reliable overtopping model is highly required, in order to predict the performance of the device at possible deployment locations. A model formulation derived for an overtopping device...... with general geometry has been used so far. The paper presents an updated formulation drawn through the tank testing of a scaled model the Wave Dragon. The sensitivity analysis of the main features influencing the overtopping flow led to an updated model formulation which can be specifically suited...... for the Wave Dragon....

  5. Pre-plasma effect on laser beam energy transfer to a dense target under conditions relevant to shock ignition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pisarczyk, T.; Gus’kov, S.Yu.; Renner, Oldřich; Demchenko, N. N.; Kalinowska, Z.; Chodukowski, T.; Rosinski, M.; Parys, P.; Šmíd, Michal; Dostál, Jan; Badziak, J.; Batani, D.; Volpe, L.; Krouský, Eduard; Dudžák, Roman; Ullschmied, Jiří; Turčičová, Hana; Hřebíček, Jan; Medřík, Tomáš; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Skála, Jiří; Zaras-Szydlowska, A.; Antonelli, L.; Maheut, Y.; Borodziuk, S.; Kasperczuk, A.; Pisarczyk, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 2 (2015), s. 221-236 ISSN 0263-0346 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0061; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14089; GA MŠk LM2010014; GA ČR GPP205/11/P712 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0061; AVČR(CZ) M100101208; FP7(XE) 284464 Program:FP7 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389021 Keywords : energy transport * fast electrons * femtosecond interferometry * laser-produced plasma * shock ignition Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics; BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers (UFP-V) Impact factor: 1.649, year: 2015

  6. Instrumentation for the observation of atmospheric parameters, relevant for IACTs, for site-search and correction of the energy spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruck, Christian; Hose, Juergen; Engelhardt, Toni; Mirzoyan, Razmik; Schweizer, Thomas; Teshima, Masahiro [Max Plank Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The atmospheric conditions have impact on the measured data by imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACT). Cherenkov light from air showers traverses 5-25 km distance in the atmosphere before reaching the telescopes. This light becomes attenuated because of absorption by oxigen and ozone as well as because of the Rayleigh and the Mie scatterings. The latter is the variable component in the atmosphere that depends on the momentary distribution of aerosols, their size and types and distribution heights. We have developed a micro-LIDAR system for parametrising these losses and plan to locate it next to the MAGIC telescopes for simultaneous operation. This shall allow us to improve the energy resolution of the telescopes for the data taken at non-ideal weather conditions. Also, we are working on developing diverse instrumentation for paramerising the atmosphere and for the searching proper sites for the CTA project. In our presentation we plan to report about the above-mentioned activities.

  7. Surface mechanical attrition treatment of tungsten and its behavior under low energy deuterium plasma implantation relevant to ITER divertor conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, H.Y.; Yuan, Y.; Fu, B.Q.; Godfrey, A.; Liu, W. [Tsinghua Univ.. Lab. of Advanced Materials, Beijing (China); Zhang, Y.B. [Technical Univ. og Denmark. DTU Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark); Tao, N.R. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang (China)

    2012-11-01

    In the light of a foreseen application for tungsten (W) as an ITER divertor material samples have been plastically deformed by a surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) and by cold rolling. The resistance to blister formation by low energy deuterium implantation in these samples has been examined, with the result that the structure is significantly improved as the structural scale is reduced to the nanometer range in the SMAT sample. The distribution of blisters in this sample is however bimodal, due to the formation of several very large blisters, which are heterogeneously distributed. The observations suggest that process optimization must be a next step in the development with a view to the application of plastically deformed W in a fusion reactor. (Author)

  8. Increased mitochondrial energy efficiency in skeletal muscle after long-term fasting: its relevance to animal performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourguignon, Aurore; Rameau, Anaïs; Toullec, Gaëlle; Romestaing, Caroline; Roussel, Damien

    2017-07-01

    In the final stage of fasting, skeletal muscle mass and protein content drastically decrease when the maintenance of efficient locomotor activity becomes crucial for animals to reactivate feeding behaviour and survive a very long period of starvation. As mitochondrial metabolism represents the main physiological link between the endogenous energy store and animal performance, the aim of this study was to determine how a very long, natural period of fasting affected skeletal muscle mitochondrial bioenergetics in king penguin ( Aptenodytes patagonicus ) chicks. Rates of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation were measured in pectoralis permeabilized fibres and isolated mitochondria. Mitochondrial ATP synthesis efficiency and the activities of respiratory chain complexes were measured in mitochondria isolated from pectoralis muscle. Results from long-term (4-5 months) naturally fasted chicks were compared with those from short-term (10 day) fasted birds. The respiratory activities of muscle fibres and isolated mitochondria were reduced by 60% and 45%, respectively, on average in long-term fasted chicks compared with short-term fasted birds. Oxidative capacity and mitochondrial content of pectoralis muscle were lowered by long-term fasting. Bioenergetic analysis of pectoralis muscle also revealed that mitochondria were, on average, 25% more energy efficient in the final stage of fasting (4-5 months) than after 10 days of fasting (short-term fasted birds). These results suggest that the strong reduction in respiratory capacity of pectoralis muscle was partly alleviated by increased mitochondrial ATP synthesis efficiency. Such oxidative phosphorylation optimization can impact animal performance, e.g. the metabolic cost of locomotion or the foraging efficiency. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Numerical investigation on flow behavior and energy separation in a micro-scale vortex tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahbar Nader

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are a few experimental and numerical studies on the behaviour of micro-scale vortex tubes. The intention of this work is to investigate the energy separation phenomenon in a micro-scale vortex tube by using the computational fluid dynamic. The flow is assumed as steady, turbulent, compressible ideal gas, and the shear-stress transport sst k-w is used for modeling of turbulence phenomenon. The results show that 3-D CFD simulation is more accurate than 2-D axisymmetric one. Moreover, optimum cold-mass ratios to maximize the refrigeration-power and isentropicefficiency are evaluated. The results of static temperature, velocity magnitude and pressure distributions show that the temperature-separation in the micro-scale vortex tube is a function of kinetic-energy variation and air-expansion in the radial direction.

  10. Air flow optimization for energy efficient blower of biosafety cabinet class II A2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, M. D.; Mohtar, M. Z.; Alias, A. A.; Wong, L. K.; Yunos, Y. S.; Rahman, M. R. A.; Zulkharnain, A.; Tan, C. S.; Thayan, R.

    2017-04-01

    An energy efficient Biosafety Cabinet (BSC) has become a big challenge for manufacturers to develop BSC with the highest level of protection. The objective of research is to increase air flow velocity discharge from centrifugal blower. An aerodynamic duct shape inspired by the shape of Peregrine Falcon’s wing during diving flight is added to the end of the centrifugal blower. Investigation of air movement is determined by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The results showed that air velocity can be increased by double compared to typical manufactured BSC and no air recirculation. As conclusion, a novel design of aerodynamic duct shape successfully developed and proved that air velocity can be increase naturally with same impeller speed. It can contribute in increasing energy efficiency of the centrifugal blower. It is vital to BSC manufacturer and can be apply to Heating, Air Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) industries.

  11. Forward $\\pi^{0}$ Production and Associated Transverse Energy Flow in Deep-Inelastic Scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aktas, A.; Anthonis, T.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baumgartner, S.; Becker, J.; Beckingham, M.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Bohme, J.; Boenig, M.O.; Boudry, V.; Bracinik, J.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruncko, D.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Burrage, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Caron, S.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Chekelian, V.; Clarke, D.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J.G.; Coppens, Y.R.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cousinou, M.C.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Davidsson, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delerue, N.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dingfelder, J.; Dixon, P.; Dodonov, V.; Dowell, J.D.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Ferron, S.; Fleischer, M.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flucke, G.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Franke, G.; Frising, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, J.; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Grab, C.; Grabski, V.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haller, J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henschel, H.; Henshaw, O.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hilgers, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hladky, J.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Ibbotson, M.; Jacquet, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, C.; Johnson, D.P.; Jones, M.A.S.; Jung, H.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Katzy, J.; Keil, F.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Koblitz, B.; Kolya, S.D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Koutouev, R.; Koutov, A.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kroseberg, J.; Kueckens, J.; Kuhr, T.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leiner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lueders, H.; Luders, S.; Luke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mangano, S.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S.J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michine, S.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Milstead, D.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nozicka, M.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Phillips, J.P.; Pitzl, D.; Poschl, R.; Povh, B.; Raicevic, N.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauvan, E.; Schatzel, S.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, M.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Strauch, I.; Straumann, U.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Turney, J.E.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Uraev, A.; Urban, Marcel; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vassiliev, S.; Vazdik, Y.; Veelken, C.; Vest, A.; Vichnevski, A.; Volchinski, V.; Wacker, K.; Wagner, J.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, N.; Wessels, M.; Wessling, B.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.G.; Wissing, Ch.; Woehrling, E.E.; Wunsch, E.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zomer, F.; zur Nedden, M.

    2004-01-01

    Deep-inelastic positron-proton interactions at low values of Bjorken-x down to x \\approx 4.10^-5 which give rise to high transverse momentum pi^0 mesons are studied with the H1 experiment at HERA. The inclusive cross section for pi^0 mesons produced at small angles with respect to the proton remnant (the forward region) is presented as a function of the transverse momentum and energy of the pi^0 and of the four-momentum transfer Q^2 and Bjorken-x. Measurements are also presented of the transverse energy flow in events containing a forward pi^0 meson. Hadronic final state calculations based on QCD models implementing different parton evolution schemes are confronted with the data.

  12. On the relation between the ratio of energy of vaporization to activation energy for flow and physical properties of liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutt, N.V.K.; Ravikumar, Y.V.L.; Prasad, D.H.L.

    1993-01-01

    A relation between the ratio of energy of vaporization (Esub(vap) to the activation energy for flow (Esub(vis)) and the ratio of melting point (T m ) to the critical temperature (T c ) has been developed for liquid metals, and is shown to be superior to the examinations from Eyring theory. (author). 12 refs

  13. Mineral carbonation: energy costs of pretreatment options and insights gained from flow loop reaction studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, Larry R.; O' Connor, William K.; Dahlin, David C.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Rush, Gilbert E.

    2004-01-01

    Sequestration of carbon as a stable mineral carbonate has been proposed to mitigate environmental concerns that carbon dioxide may with time escape from its sequestered matrix using alternative sequestration technologies. A method has been developed to prepare stable carbonate products by reacting CO2 with magnesium silicate minerals in aqueous bicarbonate/chloride media at high temperature and pressure. Because this approach is inherently expensive due to slow reaction rates and high capital costs, studies were conducted to improve the reaction rates through mineral pretreatment steps and to cut expenses through improved reactor technology. An overview is given for the estimated cost of the process including sensitivity to grinding and heating as pretreatment options for several mineral feedstocks. The energy costs are evaluated for each pretreatment in terms of net carbon avoided. New studies with a high-temperature, high-pressure flow-loop reactor have yielded information on overcoming kinetic barriers experienced with processing in stirred autoclave reactors. Repeated tests with the flow-loop reactor have yielded insights on wear and failure of system components, on challenges to maintain and measure flow, and for better understanding of the reaction mechanism.

  14. Mineral carbonation: energy costs of pretreatment options and insights gained from flow loop reaction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penner, Larry R.; O'Connor, William K.; Dahlin, David C.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Rush, Gilbert E.

    2004-01-01

    Sequestration of carbon as a stable mineral carbonate has been proposed to mitigate environmental concerns that carbon dioxide may with time escape from its sequestered matrix using alternative sequestration technologies. A method has been developed to prepare stable carbonate products by reacting CO2 with magnesium silicate minerals in aqueous bicarbonate/chloride media at high temperature and pressure. Because this approach is inherently expensive due to slow reaction rates and high capital costs, studies were conducted to improve the reaction rates through mineral pretreatment steps and to cut expenses through improved reactor technology. An overview is given for the estimated cost of the process including sensitivity to grinding and heating as pretreatment options for several mineral feedstocks. The energy costs are evaluated for each pretreatment in terms of net carbon avoided. New studies with a high-temperature, high-pressure flow-loop reactor have yielded information on overcoming kinetic barriers experienced with processing in stirred autoclave reactors. Repeated tests with the flow-loop reactor have yielded insights on wear and failure of system components, on challenges to maintain and measure flow, and for better understanding of the reaction mechanism

  15. Spatial structure of kinetic energy spectra in LES simulations of flow in an offshore wind farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruh, Wolf-Gerrit; Creech, Angus

    2017-04-01

    The evolution of wind turbine and wind farm wakes was investigated numerically for the case of Lillgrund wind farm consisting of a tightly packed array of 48 turbines. The simulations for a number of wind directions at a free wind speed of just under the rated wind speed in a neutrally stable atmosphere were carried out using Large-Eddy Simulations with the adaptive Finite-Element CFD solver Fluidity. The results were interpolated from the irregularly spaced mesh nodes onto a regular grid with comparable spatial resolution at horizontal slices at various heights. To investigate the development of the wake as the flow evolves through the array, spectra of the kinetic energy in sections perpendicular to the wind directions within the wake and to the sides of the array were calculated. This paper will present the key features and spectral slopes of the flow as a function of downstream distance from the front turbine through and beyond the array. The main focus will be on the modification of the spectra as the flow crosses a row of turbines followed by its decay in the run-up to the next row, but we will also present to wake decay of the wind farm wake downstream of the array.

  16. Scope and limitations of high energy electron scattering in obtaining relevant structural information about atoms and molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketkar, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    During the course of this work experiments were undertaken to measure the scattering cross-sections for high energy electrons scattering from various target systems. The experiments can be broadly classified into two categories, one dealing with rather small systems and the other dealing with large systems (at least in the view of physicists). Although the experimental aspects, in so much as the experimental measurement of the intensities of the scattered electron is concerned, is the same for both the cases the motivation for performing the experiment is totally different. In the first case, simple atomic and molecular target systems, namely He, H 2 and D 2 , are used. For such systems, good theoretical framework is available and critical comparisons of experimental cross sections are made with theoretical predictions. Attention is focussed mainly at small momentum transfer (up to 10A -1 ), and correlation and binding effects are studied. In the second case, somewhat larger molecular systems, namely naphthalene, anthraquinone, anthracene and dichromium tetraacetate are used. For such systems attention is focused at large momentum transfer (from 10 to 25 A -1 ) to obtain structural information about the molecules

  17. NIMBY or not? Exploring the relevance of location and the politics of voiced opinions in renewable energy siting controversies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horst, Dan van der

    2007-01-01

    Local protests against renewable energy facilities have added fuel to the debate about the so-called NIMBY (not in my back yard) effect. This paper identifies six 'variables' that can hamper the comparison between different public perception studies, and offers two broad conclusions. On aggregate, proximity does have strong influence on public attitudes to proposed projects, but the nature, strength and spatial scale of this effect may vary according to local context and 'value' of the land. Residents of stigmatised places are more likely to welcome facilities that are relatively 'green', while people who derive a more positive sense of identity from particular rural landscapes are likely to resist such potential developments, especially if they also live there. Secondly, the fear of being branded a NIMBY, and the positive ethics associated with the notion of renewable are both likely to 'colour' the responses of many interviewees. These aspects need to be clarified and accounted for in analyses of elicited responses, both quantitative and qualitative, if we are to improve our understanding of the social construction of individual attitudes in siting conflicts

  18. Characterisation of Tidal Flows at the European Marine Energy Centre in the Absence of Ocean Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian G. Sellar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The data analyses and results presented here are based on the field measurement campaign of the Reliable Data Acquisition Platform for Tidal (ReDAPT project (Energy Technologies Institute (ETI, U.K. 2010–2015. During ReDAPT, a 1 MW commercial prototype tidal turbine was deployed and operated at the Fall of Warness tidal test site within the European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC, Orkney, U.K. Mean flow speeds and Turbulence Intensity (TI at multiple positions proximal to the machine are considered. Through the implemented wave identification techniques, the dataset can be filtered into conditions where the effects of waves are present or absent. Due to the volume of results, only flow conditions in the absence of waves are reported here. The analysis shows that TI and mean flows are found to vary considerably between flood and ebb tides whilst exhibiting sensitivity to the tidal phase and to the specification of spatial averaging and velocity binning. The principal measurement technique was acoustic Doppler profiling provided by seabed-mounted Diverging-beam Acoustic Doppler Profilers (D-ADP together with remotely-operable Single-Beam Acoustic Doppler Profilers (SB-ADP installed at mid-depth on the tidal turbine. This novel configuration allows inter-instrument comparisons, which were conducted. Turbulence intensity averaged over the rotor extents of the ReDAPT turbine for flood tides vary between 16.7% at flow speeds above 0.3 m/s and 11.7% when considering only flow speeds in the turbine operating speed range, which reduces to 10.9% (6.8% relative reduction following the implementation of noise correction techniques. Equivalent values for ebb tides are 14.7%, 10.1% and 9.3% (7.9% relative reduction. For flood and ebb tides, TI values resulting from noise correction are reduced in absolute terms by 3% and 2% respectively across a wide velocity range and approximately 1% for turbine operating speeds. Through comparison with SB-ADP-derived mid

  19. Quantum localization and protein-assisted vibrational energy flow in cofactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitner, David M

    2010-01-01

    Quantum effects influence vibrational dynamics and energy flow in biomolecules, which play a central role in biomolecule function, including control of reaction kinetics. Lifetimes of many vibrational modes of proteins and their temperature dependence, as determined by quantum golden-rule-based calculations, exhibit trends consistent with experimental observation and distinct from estimates based on classical modeling. Particularly notable are quantum coherence effects that give rise to localization of vibrational states of sizable organic molecules in the gas phase. Even when such a molecule, for instance a cofactor, is embedded in a protein, remnants of quantum localization survive that influence vibrational energy flow and its dependence on temperature. We discuss these effects on the mode-damping rates of a cofactor embedded in a protein, using the green fluorescent protein chromophore as a specific example. We find that for cofactors of this size embedded in their protein and solvent environment at room temperature a golden-rule calculation often overestimates the mode-damping rate.

  20. Analysis of multiphase flows using dual-energy gamma densitometry and neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, C.M.; James, G.D.

    1993-01-01

    Dual-energy gamma densitometry offers a powerful technique for the non-intrusive analysis of multiphase flows. By employing multiple beam lines, information on the phase configuration can be obtained. Once the configuration is known, it then becomes possible in principle to determine the phase fractions. In practice, however, the extraction of the phase fractions from the densitometer data is complicated by the wide variety of phase configurations which can arise, and by the considerable difficulties of modelling multiphase flows. In this paper we show that neural network techniques provide a powerful approach to the analysis of data from dual-energy gamma densitometers, allowing both the phase configuration and the phase fractions to be determined with high accuracy, whilst avoiding the uncertainties associated with modelling. The technique is well suited to the determination of oil, water and gas fractions in multiphase oil pipelines. Results from linear and non-linear network models are compared, and a new technique for validating the network output is described. (orig.)

  1. Schlieren Visualization of the Energy Addition by Multi Laser Pulse in Hypersonic Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A. C.; Minucci, M. A. S.; Toro, P. G. P.; Chanes, J. B. Jr; Myrabo, L. N.

    2008-01-01

    The experimental results of the energy addition by multi laser pulse in Mach 7 hypersonic flow are presented. Two high power pulsed CO 2 TEA lasers (TEA1 5.5 J, TEA2 3.9 J) were assembled sharing the same optical cavity to generate the plasma upstream of a hemispherical model installed in the tunnel test section. The lasers can be triggered with a selectable time delay and in the present report the results obtained with delay between 30 μs and 80 μs are shown. The schlieren technique associated with a high speed camera was used to accomplish the influence of the energy addition in the mitigation of the shock wave formed on the model surface by the hypersonic flow. A piezoelectric pressure transducer was used to obtain the time history of the impact pressure at stagnation point of the model and the pressure reduction could be measured. The total recovery of the shock wave between pulses as well as the prolonged effect of the mitigation without recovery was observed by changing the delay

  2. Energy efficiency enhancement of natural rubber smoking process by flow improvement using a CFD technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekasakul, Perapong; Promtong, Machimontorn

    2008-01-01

    A non-uniform flow and large temperature variation in a natural rubber smoking-room cause an inefficient use of energy. Flow uniformity and temperature variation can be improved by using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The effects of the size, position and number of gas supply ducts and ventilating lids which were at the inlets and the outlets of the smoking-room were investigated. The optimal rubber smoking-room of size 2.6 m x 6.2 m x 3.6 m contains 154 50 mm-diameter hot gas supply ducts, and four 0.25 x 0.25 m and four 0.25 x 0.20 m ventilating lids. The velocity distribution of this model in the rubber-hanging area was rather uniform. The average monitoring temperature of 54 positions was 62.1 deg. C. This model could reduce the temperature variation by a factor of three from the original room model, i.e., from 15 to 5.5 deg. C. In a further study, the heat input of an appropriate room model was finely adjusted to obtain a suitable temperature (60 deg. C) for the smoking process. It was found that an appropriate heat supply at this temperature is 11 kW. At this rate, the temperature variation is 5.3 deg. C. This improved model should help the rubber smoking cooperatives to achieve at least a 31.25% saving in energy

  3. Energy efficiency enhancement of natural rubber smoking process by flow improvement using a CFD technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tekasakul, Perapong [Energy Technology Research Center and Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand)], E-mail: perapong.t@psu.ac.th; Promtong, Machimontorn [Division of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering and Resources, Walailak University, Nakhon Si Thammarat 80160 (Thailand)

    2008-09-15

    A non-uniform flow and large temperature variation in a natural rubber smoking-room cause an inefficient use of energy. Flow uniformity and temperature variation can be improved by using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The effects of the size, position and number of gas supply ducts and ventilating lids which were at the inlets and the outlets of the smoking-room were investigated. The optimal rubber smoking-room of size 2.6 m x 6.2 m x 3.6 m contains 154 50 mm-diameter hot gas supply ducts, and four 0.25 x 0.25 m and four 0.25 x 0.20 m ventilating lids. The velocity distribution of this model in the rubber-hanging area was rather uniform. The average monitoring temperature of 54 positions was 62.1 deg. C. This model could reduce the temperature variation by a factor of three from the original room model, i.e., from 15 to 5.5 deg. C. In a further study, the heat input of an appropriate room model was finely adjusted to obtain a suitable temperature (60 deg. C) for the smoking process. It was found that an appropriate heat supply at this temperature is 11 kW. At this rate, the temperature variation is 5.3 deg. C. This improved model should help the rubber smoking cooperatives to achieve at least a 31.25% saving in energy.

  4. Design and Numerical Simulations of a Flow Induced Vibration Energy Converter for Underwater Mooring Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenlong Tian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Limited battery energy restricts the duration of the underwater operation of underwater mooring platforms (UMPs. In this paper, a flow-induced vibration energy converter (FIVEC is designed to produce power for the UMPs and extend their operational time. The FIVEC is equipped with a thin plate to capture the kinetic energy in the vortices shed from the surface of the UMP. A magnetic coupling (MC is applied for the non-contacting transmission of the plate torque to the generators so that the friction loss can be minimized. In order to quantify and evaluate the performance of the FIVEC, two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations are performed. Simulations are based on the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS equations and the shear stress transport (SST k-ω turbulent model is utilized. The CFD method is firstly validated using existing experimental data. Then the influences of plate length and system damping on the performance of the FIVEC are evaluated. The results show that the device has a maximum averaged power coefficient of 0.0520 (13.86 W in the considered situations. The results also demonstrate the feasibility of this energy converter plan.

  5. Energy extraction from ocean currents using straight bladed cross-flow hydrokinetic turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Dudhgaonkar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting marine renewable energy remains to be a prime focus of researchers across the globe both in environmental and in commercial perspectives. India is blessed with a long coastline, and the seas around Indian peninsula offer ample potential to tap various ocean energy forms. National Institute of Ocean Technology carries out research and various ocean energy technologies, out of which harnessing kinetic energy in seawater currents is one. This article presents the open sea trials recently carried out on National Institute of Ocean Technology’s cross-flow hydrokinetic ocean current turbine in South Andaman. The turbine was designed to generate 100 W electricity at 1.2 m/s current speed and was built in-house. The turbine was initially tested in a seawater channel and then was deployed in Macpherson Strait in Andaman. It was fitted below a floating platform designed especially for this purpose, and the performance of the turbine was continuously logged inside an on-board data acquisition system. The trials were successful and in line with computations.

  6. Quantifying the mechanism of phosphate monoester hydrolysis in aqueous solution by evaluating the relevant ab initio QM/MM free-energy surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikov, Nikolay V; Prasad, B Ram; Chakrabarty, Suman; Chu, Zhen T; Warshel, Arieh

    2013-10-24

    Understanding the nature of the free-energy surfaces for phosphate hydrolysis is a prerequisite for understanding the corresponding key chemical reactions in biology. Here, the challenge has been to move to careful ab initio QM/MM (QM(ai)/MM) free-energy calculations, where obtaining converging results is very demanding and computationally expensive. This work describes such calculations, focusing on the free-energy surface for the hydrolysis of phosphate monoesters, paying special attention to the comparison between the one water (1W) and two water (2W) paths for the proton-transfer (PT) step. This issue has been explored before by energy minimization with implicit solvent models and by nonsystematic QM/MM energy minimization, as well as by nonsystematic free-energy mapping. However, no study has provided the needed reliable 2D (3D) surfaces that are necessary for reaching concrete conclusions. Here we report a systematic evaluation of the 2D (3D) free-energy maps for several relevant systems, comparing the results of QM(ai)/MM and QM(ai)/implicit solvent surfaces, and provide an advanced description of the relevant energetics. It is found that the 1W path for the hydrolysis of the methyl diphosphate (MDP) trianion is 6-9 kcal/mol higher than that the 2W path. This difference becomes slightly larger in the presence of the Mg(2+) ion because this ion reduces the pKa of the conjugated acid form of the phosphate oxygen that accepts the proton. Interestingly, the BLYP approach (which has been used extensively in some studies) gives a much smaller difference between the 1W and 2W activation barriers. At any rate, it is worth pointing out that the 2W transition state for the PT is not much higher that the common plateau that serves as the starting point of both the 1W and 2W PT paths. Thus, the calculated catalytic effects of proteins based on the 2W PT mechanistic model are not expected to be different from the catalytic effects predicted using the 1W PT mechanistic

  7. The effect of low energy helium ion irradiation on tungsten-tantalum (W-Ta) alloys under fusion relevant conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonderman, S.; Tripathi, J. K.; Novakowski, T. J.; Sizyuk, T.; Hassanein, A.

    2017-08-01

    Currently, tungsten remains the best candidate for plasma-facing components (PFCs) for future fusion devices because of its high melting point, low erosion, and strong mechanical properties. However, continued investigation has shown tungsten to undergo severe morphology changes under fusion-like conditions. These results motivate the study of innovative PFC materials which are resistant to surface morphology evolution. The goal of this work is to examine tungsten-tantalum (W-Ta) alloys, a potential PFC material, and their response to low energy helium ion irradiation. Specifically, W-Ta samples are exposed to 100 eV helium irradiations with a flux of 1.15 × 1021 ions m-2 s-1, at 873 K, 1023 K, and 1173 K for 1 h duration. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveals significant changes in surface deterioration due to helium ion irradiation as a function of both temperature and tantalum concentration in W-Ta samples. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) studies show a slight lattice parameter expansion in W-Ta alloy samples compared to pure W samples. The observed lattice parameter expansion in W-Ta alloy samples (proportional to increasing Ta wt.% concentrations) reflect significant differences observed in the evolution of surface morphology, i.e., fuzz development processes for both increasing Ta wt.% concentration and target temperature. These results suggest a correlation between the observed morphology differences and the induced crystal structure change caused by the presence of tantalum. Shifts in the XRD peaks before and after 100 eV helium irradiation with a flux of 1.15 × 1021 ions m-2 s-1, 1023 K, for 1 h showed a significant difference in the magnitude of the shift. This has suggested a possible link between the atomic spacing of the material and the accumulated damage. Ongoing research is needed on W-Ta alloys and other innovative materials for their application as irradiation resistant materials in future fusion or irradiation environments.

  8. CFEST Coupled Flow, Energy & Solute Transport Version CFEST005 User’s Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, Vicky L.; Chen, Yousu; Gilca, Alex; Cole, Charles R.; Gupta, Sumant K.

    2006-07-20

    The CFEST (Coupled Flow, Energy, and Solute Transport) simulator described in this User’s Guide is a three-dimensional finite-element model used to evaluate groundwater flow and solute mass transport. Confined and unconfined aquifer systems, as well as constant and variable density fluid flows can be represented with CFEST. For unconfined aquifers, the model uses a moving boundary for the water table, deforming the numerical mesh so that the uppermost nodes are always at the water table. For solute transport, changes in concentra¬tion of a single dissolved chemical constituent are computed for advective and hydrodynamic transport, linear sorption represented by a retardation factor, and radioactive decay. Although several thermal parameters described in this User’s Guide are required inputs, thermal transport has not yet been fully implemented in the simulator. Once fully implemented, transport of thermal energy in the groundwater and solid matrix of the aquifer can also be used to model aquifer thermal regimes. The CFEST simulator is written in the FORTRAN 77 language, following American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards. Execution of the CFEST simulator is controlled through three required text input files. These input file use a structured format of associated groups of input data. Example input data lines are presented for each file type, as well as a description of the structured FORTRAN data format. Detailed descriptions of all input requirements, output options, and program structure and execution are provided in this User’s Guide. Required inputs for auxillary CFEST utilities that aide in post-processing data are also described. Global variables are defined for those with access to the source code. Although CFEST is a proprietary code (CFEST, Inc., Irvine, CA), the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory retains permission to maintain its own source, and to distribute executables to Hanford subcontractors.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW COST INFERENTIAL NATURAL GAS ENERGY FLOW RATE PROTOTYPE RETROFIT MODULE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Kelner; D. George; T. Morrow; T. Owen; M. Nored; R. Burkey; A. Minachi

    2005-05-01

    In 1998, Southwest Research Institute began a multi-year project to develop a working prototype instrument module for natural gas energy measurement. The module will be used to retrofit a natural gas custody transfer flow meter for energy measurement, at a cost an order of magnitude lower than a gas chromatograph. Development and evaluation of the prototype energy meter in 2002-2003 included: (1) refinement of the algorithm used to infer properties of the natural gas stream, such as heating value; (2) evaluation of potential sensing technologies for nitrogen content, improvements in carbon dioxide measurements, and improvements in ultrasonic measurement technology and signal processing for improved speed of sound measurements; (3) design, fabrication and testing of a new prototype energy meter module incorporating these algorithm and sensor refinements; and (4) laboratory and field performance tests of the original and modified energy meter modules. Field tests of the original energy meter module have provided results in close agreement with an onsite gas chromatograph. The original algorithm has also been tested at a field site as a stand-alone application using measurements from in situ instruments, and has demonstrated its usefulness as a diagnostic tool. The algorithm has been revised to use measurement technologies existing in the module to measure the gas stream at multiple states and infer nitrogen content. The instrumentation module has also been modified to incorporate recent improvements in CO{sub 2} and sound speed sensing technology. Laboratory testing of the upgraded module has identified additional testing needed to attain the target accuracy in sound speed measurements and heating value.

  10. Analysis of atmospheric flow over a surface protrusion using the turbulence kinetic energy equation with reference to aeronautical operating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, W.; Harper, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    Flow over surface obstructions can produce significantly large wind shears such that adverse flying conditions can occur for aeronautical systems (helicopters, STOL vehicles, etc.). Atmospheric flow fields resulting from a semi-elliptical surface obstruction in an otherwise horizontally homogeneous statistically stationary flow are modelled with the boundary-layer/Boussinesq-approximation of the governing equation of fluid mechanics. The turbulence kinetic energy equation is used to determine the dissipative effects of turbulent shear on the mean flow. Iso-lines of turbulence kinetic energy and turbulence intensity are plotted in the plane of the flow and highlight regions of high turbulence intensity in the stagnation zone and sharp gradients in intensity along the transition from adverse to favourable pressure gradient. Discussion of the effects of the disturbed wind field in CTOL and STOL aircraft flight path and obstruction clearance standards is given. The results indicate that closer inspection of these presently recommended standards as influenced by wind over irregular terrains is required.

  11. Scaling of normalized mean energy and scalar dissipation rates in a turbulent channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Hiroyuki; Antonia, Robert Anthony

    2011-05-01

    Non-dimensional parameters for the mean energy and scalar dissipation rates Cɛ and Cɛθ are examined using direct numerical simulation (DNS) data obtained in a fully developed turbulent channel flow with a passive scalar (Pr = 0.71) at several values of the Kármán (Reynolds) number h+. It is shown that Cɛ and Cɛθ are approximately equal in the near-equilibrium region (viz., y+ = 100 to y/h = 0.7) where the production and dissipation rates of either the turbulent kinetic energy or scalar variance are approximately equal and the magnitudes of the diffusion terms are negligibly small. The magnitudes of Cɛ and Cɛθ are about 2 and 1 in the logarithmic and outer regions, respectively, when h+ is sufficiently large. The former value is about the same for the channel, pipe, and turbulent boundary layer, reflecting the similarity between the mean velocity and temperature distributions among these three canonical flows. The latter value is, on the other hand, about twice as large as in homogeneous isotropic turbulence due to the existence of the large-scale u structures in the channel. The behaviour of Cɛ and Cɛθ impacts on turbulence modeling. In particular, the similarity between Cɛ and Cɛθ leads to a simple relation for the scalar variance to turbulent kinetic energy time-scale ratio, an important ingredient in the eddy diffusivity model. This similarity also yields a relation between the Taylor and Corrsin microscales and analogous relations, in terms of h+, for the Taylor microscale Reynolds number and Corrsin microscale Peclet number. This dependence is reasonably well supported by both the DNS data at small to moderate h+ and the experimental data of Comte-Bellot [Ph. D. thesis (University of Grenoble, 1963)] at larger h+. It does not however apply to a turbulent boundary layer where the mean energy dissipation rate, normalized on either wall or outer variables, is about 30% larger than for the channel flow.

  12. The energy policy relevance of the 2014 IPCC Working Group III report on the macro-economics of mitigating climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, Richard A.; Guenther, Edeltraud

    2016-01-01

    Research which attempted to determine the macroeconomic importance of mitigating climate change through 2100 was presented primarily in Chapter 6 of the 2014 IPCC Working Group III report. Some of the findings of this chapter were then summarized in the Summary for Policy Makers (SPMs) of both the Synthesis Report, and the WGIII report. Unfortunately, these SPMs omitted key aspects of what the overall macroeconomic results for the costs and benefits of mitigating climate change actually did and did not include, how they were produced, and a careful assessment of their uncertainty and scientific validity. Yet, many of the major omissions were acknowledged deep in the text of Chapter 6, but were not revealed to the public. We conclude, therefore, that neither of these SPMs was useful for energy policy makers and energy managers, and they were misleading due to their many key omissions. Finally, we recommend several improvements that can be made to integrated assessment modeling methodologies so that the macroeconomic analysis of mitigating climate change resulting from the use of such models can be more relevant and useful to energy policy makers in the future, and can be communicated to them better. - Highlights: •The 2014 IPCC Working Group III Report has major omissions in its economic analysis. •Many well-known benefits of mitigation are not included in its economic results. •The Summary for Policy Makers is not very useful for energy policy decision makers. •The upcoming Sixth IPCC WGIII analysis should be structured quite differently.

  13. Electron energy distribution functions and transport coefficients relevant for air plasmas in the troposphere: impact of humidity and gas temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordillo-Vazquez, F J [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (IAA), CSIC, PO Box 3004, 18080 Granada (Spain); Donko, Z [Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, H-1525 Budapest, PO Box, 49 (Hungary)

    2009-08-15

    A Boltzmann and Monte Carlo analysis of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) and transport coefficients for air plasmas is presented for the conditions of the Earth troposphere where some transient luminous events (TLEs) such as blue jets, blue starters and gigantic jets have been observed. According to recent model results (Minschwaner et al 2004 J. Climate 17 1272) supported by the halogen occultation experiment, the relative humidity of the atmospheric air between 0 and 15 km can change between 15% and 100% depending on the altitude investigated and the ground temperature. The latter results cover a region of latitudes between -25 deg. S and +25 deg. N, that is, the Earth tropical region where lightning and TLE activity is quite high. The calculations shown here suggest that the relative humidity has a clear impact on the behaviour of the EEDF and magnitude of the transport coefficients of air plasmas at ground (0 km) and room temperature conditions (293 K). At higher altitudes (11 and 15 km), the influence of the relative humidity is negligible when the values of the gas temperature are assumed to be the 'natural' ones c