International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prasad, R.
1984-01-01
Two previous monographs report on investigations into the extent to which a unified field theory can satisfactorily describe physical reality. The first, Unified field Theory, showed that the paths within a non-Riemannian space are governed by eigenvalue equations. The second, Fundamental Constants, show that the field tensors satisfy sets of differential equations with solutions which represent the evolution of the fields along the paths of the space. The results from the first two monographs are used in this one to make progress on the theory of elementary particles. The five chapters are as follows - Quantum mechanics, gravitation and electromagnetism are aspects of the Unified theory; the fields inside the particle; the quadratic and linear theories; the calculation of the eigenvalues and elementary particles as stable configurations of interacting fields. It is shown that it is possible to construct an internal structure theory for elementary particles. The theory lies within the framework of Einstein's programme-to identify physical reality with a specified geometrical structure. (U.K.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marciano, W.J.
1984-12-01
The present state of the art in elementary particle theory is reviewed. Topics include quantum electrodynamics, weak interactions, electroweak unification, quantum chromodynamics, and grand unified theories. 113 references
Elementary particles and particle interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bethge, K.; Schroeder, U.E.
1986-01-01
This book is a textbook for an introductory course of elementary particle physics. After a general introduction the symmetry principles governing the interactions of elementary particles are discussed. Then the phenomenology of the electroweak and strong interactions are described together with a short introduction to the Weinberg-Salam theory respectively to quantum chromodynamics. Finally a short outlook is given to grand unification with special regards to SU(5) and cosmology in the framework of the current understanding of the fundamental principles of nature. In the appendix is a table of particle properties and physical constants. (HSI) [de
Elementary particles and cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Audouze, J.; Paty, M.
2000-01-01
The universe is the most efficient laboratory of particle physics and the understanding of cosmological processes implies the knowledge of how elementary particles interact. This article recalls the mutual influences between on the one hand: astrophysics and cosmology and on the other hand: nuclear physics and particle physics. The big-bang theory relies on nuclear physics to explain the successive stages of nucleo-synthesis and the study of solar neutrinos has led to discover new aspects of this particle: it is likely that neutrinos undergo oscillations from one neutrino type to another. In some universe events such as the bursting of a super-nova, particles are released with a kinetic energy that would be impossible to reach on earth with a particle accelerator. These events are become common points of interest between astrophysicists and particle physicists and have promoted a deeper cooperation between astrophysics and elementary particle physics. (A.C.)
Condensed elementary particle matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kajantie, K.
1996-01-01
Quark matter is a special case of condensed elementary particle matter, matter governed by the laws of particle physics. The talk discusses how far one can get in the study of particle matter by reducing the problem to computations based on the action. As an example the computation of the phase diagram of electroweak matter is presented. It is quite possible that ultimately an antireductionist attitude will prevail: experiments will reveal unpredicted phenomena not obviously reducible to the study of the action. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ranft, G.; Ranft, J.
1977-01-01
In this part the subject is covered under the following headings, methods for producing high-energy particles; interaction of high-energy particles with matter; methods for the detection of high-energy particles; symmetry properties and conservation laws; quantum number and selection rules; theorem of scattering behaviour at asymptotically high energies; statistical methods in elementary particle physics; interaction of high-energy particles with nuclei; relations of high-energy physics to other branches of science and its response to engineering. Intended as information on high-energy physics for graduate students and research workers familiar with the fundamentals of classical and quantum physics
Is an elementary particle really: (i) a particle? (ii) elementary?
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Is an elementary particle really: (i) a particle? (ii) elementary? Over centuries, naïve notions about this have turned out incorrect. Particles are not really pointlike. The word elementary is not necessarily well-defined. Notes:
Elementary particle interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bugg, W.M.; Condo, G.T.; Handler, T.; Hart, E.L.; Ward, B.F.L.; Close, F.E.; Christophorou, L.G.
1990-10-01
This report discusses freon bubble chamber experiments exposed to μ + and neutrinos, photon-proton interactions; shower counter simulations; SLD detectors at the Stanford Linear Collider, and the detectors at the Superconducting Super Collider; elementary particle interactions; physical properties of dielectric materials used in High Energy Physics detectors; and Nuclear Physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1990-01-01
It is discussed the physics in Brazil in the next decade with regard to elementary particles and field theories. The situation of brazilian research institutes as well as its personnel is also presented. Some recommendations and financing of new projects are also considered. (A.C.A.S.)
Making elementary particles visible
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cohen, Eyal [ArSciMed (art, science, media), 100, rue du Faubourg Saint Antoine, 75012 Paris (France)
1994-07-15
Ever since the days of the ancient Greek atomists, the notion that matter is made up of tiny fundamental elements has dominated the history of scientific theories. Elementary particles (and now strings...) are the latest in this chronological list of fundamental objects. Our notions of what a physical theory should be like, and what precisely ''matter is made up of...'' really means, have evolved with the years, undergoing a profound revolution with quantum mechanics.
Making elementary particles visible
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohen, Eyal
1994-01-01
Ever since the days of the ancient Greek atomists, the notion that matter is made up of tiny fundamental elements has dominated the history of scientific theories. Elementary particles (and now strings...) are the latest in this chronological list of fundamental objects. Our notions of what a physical theory should be like, and what precisely ''matter is made up of...'' really means, have evolved with the years, undergoing a profound revolution with quantum mechanics
Introduction to elementary particles
Griffiths, David J
2008-01-01
This is the first quantitative treatment of elementary particle theory that is accessible to undergraduates. Using a lively, informal writing style, the author strikes a balance between quantitative rigor and intuitive understanding. The first chapter provides a detailed historical introduction to the subject. Subsequent chapters offer a consistent and modern presentation, covering the quark model, Feynman diagrams, quantum electrodynamics, and gauge theories. A clear introduction to the Feynman rules, using a simple model, helps readers learn the calculational techniques without the complicat
Supersymmetry of elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sardanashvili, G.A.; Zakharov, O.A.
1986-01-01
Some difficulties, connected with correct application of supersymmetry mathematical tools in the field and elementary particle theory are pointed out. The role of Grassman algebra in the usual field theory and the role of Lee superalgebra in supertransformations mixing bosons and fermions are shown. Grassman algebra in the theory of supersymmetries plays a role of numerical field. A supersymmetrical model, when indexes {i} of Grassman algebra corresponding to ''color'', and indexes {α} of Lee superalgebra representations - to ''flavor'', is considered. It is marked that the problem of interpretation of Grassman algebra indexes is a key one for the theory of supersymmetries. In particular, it gives no possibility to come from the theory of supersymmetries to the usual field theory, whose indexes of Grassman algebra possess obvious physical meaning
Notes on elementary particle physics
Muirhead, William Hugh
1972-01-01
Notes of Elementary Particle Physics is a seven-chapter text that conveys the ideas on the state of elementary particle physics. This book emerged from an introductory course of 30 lectures on the subject given to first-year graduate students at the University of Liverpool. The opening chapter deals with pertinent terminologies in elementary particle physics. The succeeding three chapters cover the concepts of transition amplitudes, probabilities, relativistic wave equations and fields, and the interaction amplitude. The discussion then shifts to tests of electromagnetic interactions, particul
Recent advances in elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zepeda, D.A.
1985-01-01
A brief review of recent successful results in elementary particle physics, as well as of those problems which may be dealt with in the present of near future is presented. A description of elementary particles and their interactions as they are presently conceived is given. The standard model of electroweak interactions is discussed in detail and the relevance of the recent discovery of the intermediate bosons W + and Z is analized. Finally, the weak features of the standard model and the theories which solve these problems are pointed out. (author)
Dimensional considerations about elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cocconi, G.
1978-01-01
The search for fundamental elementary particles responsible for the observed behaviour of matter during the past decades is briefly reviewed, and the possibility is considered that the four fundamental interactions that shape things merge into a unique field when matter is so compressed that particles are at extremely small distances from one another. These interactions are the gravitational interaction, the electromagnetic interaction, the strong interaction, and the weak interaction. It is thought that a simple geometrical criterion, termed the 'elementary criterion', would suffice to indicate how the various interactions should behave as particles are brought closer to one another and thus approach the situation where all interactions merge. (6 references). (U.K.)
Cosmic objects and elementary particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rozental, I L [AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Kosmicheskikh Issledovanij
1977-02-01
Considered are the connections between the parameters of elementary particles (mass ''size'') and the characteristics of stars (the main sequence stars, white dwarf stars and pulsars). Presented is the elementary theory of black hole radiation in the framework of which all the regularities of the process are derived. The emphiric numerical sequence connecting nucleon mass and universe constants (G, h, c) with the masses of some cosmic objects is given.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sternheimer, J.
1983-01-01
This Note offers a new point of view on particle masses. It is shown that they are distributed following a musical scale, the chromatic tempered scale -for stable particles- subdivided into microintervals including unstable particles. A theoretical explanation, based on causality, allows one also to calculate their global distribution along the mass scale, in agreement with experiment, and indicating the existence of ''musical'' laws in the vibratory organisation of matter [fr
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sternheimer, J.
1983-12-12
This note offers a new point of view on particle masses. It is shown that they are distributed following a musical scale, the chromatic tempered scale -for stable particles- subdivided into microintervals including unstable particles. A theoretical explanation, based on causality, allows one also to calculate their global distribution along the mass scale, in agreement with experiment, and indicating the existence of ''musical'' laws in the vibratory organisation of matter.
Stefanovich, Eugene
2018-01-01
This book introduces notation, terminology, and basic ideas of relativistic quantum theories. The discussion proceeds systematically from the principle of relativity and postulates of quantum logics to the construction of Poincaré invariant few-particle models of interaction and scattering. It is the first of three volumes formulating a consistent relativistic quantum theory of interacting charged particles.
Elementary Particles A New Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
FranciscoMartnezFlores.
2015-07-01
Full Text Available ABSTRACT It is shown the inexistence of neutrinos to define precisely the concept of relativistics mass under this scheme to elementarys particles as electron and interactions particles like photons correspond an electromagnetic and virtual mass. Nucleons protons and neutrons have real or inertial mass for being composite particles since inertia needs structure it is provided by an interactive network originated by strong and weak forces. This mass is building up atoms and all the material world under Classical Physics and Chemistrys laws.These actual masses may be considered as electromagnetic and virtual one thanks to its charge in order to establish the high energies level needed to obtain all particles physics elementary or not which are governed by the laws of Quantum Physics. With all this one may set up amore reasonable and understandable new Standard Model which being projected into Cosmological Model can get rid of some inconsistencies and concepts difficult to be admitted.
Topics in elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dugan, M.J.
1985-01-01
Topics in elementary particle physics are discussed. Models with N = 2 supersymmetry are constructed. The CP violation properties of a class of N = 1 supergravity models are analyzed. The structure of a composite Higgs model is investigated. The implications of a 17 keV neutrino are considered
Atomic nucleus and elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zakrzewski, J.
1976-01-01
Negatively charged leptons and hadrons can be incorporated into atomic shells forming exotic atoms. Nucleon resonances and Λ hyperons can be considered as constituents of atomic nuclei. Information derived from studies of such exotic systems enriches our knowledge of both the interactions of elementary particles and of the structure of atomic nuclei. (author)
Elementary particle interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bugg, W.M.; Condo, G.T.; Handler, T.; Hart, E.L.; Read, K.; Ward, B.F.L.
1992-10-01
Work continues on strange particle production in weak interactions using data from a high-energy neutrino exposure in a freon bubble chamber. Meson photoproduction has also consumed considerable effort. Detector research and development activities have been carried out
Do Elementary Particles Have an Objective Existence?
Nissenson, Bilha
2007-01-01
The formulation of quantum theory does not comply with the notion of objective existence of elementary particles. Objective existence independent of observation implies the distinguishability of elementary particles. In other words: If elementary particles have an objective existence independent of observations, then they are distinguishable. Or if elementary particles are indistinguishable then matter cannot have existence independent of our observation. This paper presents a simple deductio...
Elementary particle physics: Experimental
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lord, J.J.; Burnett, T.H.; Wilkes, R.J.
1989-01-01
We are carrying out a research program in high energy experimental particle physics. Studies of high energy hadronic interactions and leptoproduction processes continue using several experimental techniques. Progress has been made on the study of multiparticle production processes in nuclei. Ultra-high energy cosmic ray nucleus-nucleus interactions have been investigated by the Japanese American Cosmic Emulsion Experiment (JACEE) using balloon-borne emulsion chamber detectors. In the area of particle astrophysics, our studies of cosmic ray nuclear interactions have enabled use to make the world's most accurate determination of the comparison of the cosmic rays above 10 13 eV. We have only the detector that can observe interaction vertices and identify particles at energies up to 10**15 eV. Our observations are getting close to placing limits on the acceleration mechanisms postulated for pulsars in which the spin and magnetic moment axes are at different angles. In June, 1989 approval was given by NASA for our participation in the Space Station program. The SCINATT experiment will make use of emulsion chamber detectors, similar to the planned JACEE hybrid balloon flight detectors. These detector will permit precise determination of secondary particle charges, momenta and rapidities, and the accumulation of data will be at least a factor of 10 to 100 greater than in balloon experiments. Emulsion chamber techniques ate also employed in an experiment using accelerator heavy ion beams at CERN and Brookhaven National Laboratory to investigate particle production processes in central collisions of nuclei in the energy range 15 -- 200A GeV. Our study of hadroproduction in lepton interactions is continuing with approval of another 8 months run for deep inelastic muon scattering experiment E665 at Fermilab
Modern Elementary Particle Physics
Kane, Gordon
2017-02-01
1. Introduction; 2. Relativistic notation, Lagrangians, and interactions; 3. Gauge invariance; 4. Non-abelian gauge theories; 5. Dirac notation for spin; 6. The Standard Model Lagrangian; 7. The electroweak theory and quantum chromodynamics; 8. Masses and the Higgs mechanism; 9. Cross sections, decay widths, and lifetimes: W and Z decays; 10. Production and properties of W± and Zᴼ; 11. Measurement of electroweak and QCD parameters: the muon lifetime; 12. Accelerators - present and future; 13. Experiments and detectors; 14. Low energy and non-accelerator experiments; 15. Observation of the Higgs boson at the CERN LHC: is it the Higgs boson?; 16. Colliders and tests of the Standard Model: particles are pointlike; 17. Quarks and gluons, confinement and jets; 18. Hadrons, heavy quarks, and strong isospin invariance; 19. Coupling strengths depend on momentum transfer and on virtual particles; 20. Quark (and lepton) mixing angles; 21. CP violation; 22. Overview of physics beyond the Standard Model; 23. Grand unification; 24. Neutrino masses; 25. Dark matter; 26. Supersymmetry.
Structures in elementary particles. An electromagnetic elementary-particle model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meyer, Carl-Friedrich
2015-01-01
A picture of matter is developed, which is suited to develope and to explain the experimentally determined properties of the elementary particles and the basing structures starting from few known physical conditions in a simple and understandable way. It explains illustratively the spin and the structure of the stable particles, symmetry properties resulting from the half-integerness of the spin, the nature of the electric charge and the third-integerness of the charges in hadrons resulting from this, the stability and the indivisibility f the proton, the conditions for the formation and stability of the particles, and the causes for the limited lifetime of unstable particles like the free neutron. It opens also the view on the cause for the quantization of all for us known processes in the range of the microcosm and creates so an illustrative picture of the matter surrounding us.
Supersymmetry in Elementary Particle Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peskin, Michael E.; /SLAC
2008-02-05
These lectures give a general introduction to supersymmetry, emphasizing its application to models of elementary particle physics at the 100 GeV energy scale. I discuss the following topics: the construction of supersymmetric Lagrangians with scalars, fermions, and gauge bosons, the structure and mass spectrum of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), the measurement of the parameters of the MSSM at high-energy colliders, and the solutions that the MSSM gives to the problems of electroweak symmetry breaking and dark matter.
Are Black Holes Elementary Particles?
Ha, Yuan K.
2009-01-01
Quantum black holes are the smallest and heaviest conceivable elementary particles. They have a microscopic size but a macroscopic mass. Several fundamental types have been constructed with some remarkable properties. Quantum black holes in the neighborhood of the Galaxy could resolve the paradox of ultra-high energy cosmic rays detected in Earth's atmosphere. They may also play a role as dark matter in cosmology.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kenyon, I.R.
1987-01-01
Intended for undergraduate and postgraduate students the book concentrates on the 'standard model' and the gauge symmetries. Leptons, quarks and forces are introduced at the beginning, followed by experimental techniques which have found them. Gauge theories are dealt with in order of increasing complexity - quantum electrodynamics and the gauge principle, symmetries and conservation laws, colour and quantum chromodynamics, the V - A theory of weak interactions and electroweak unification. Attention is then focussed on the hadrons. Deep inelastic scattering of hadrons is explained first, then hadron spectroscopy and then hadron interactions. Current developments beyond the Standard model - grand unification, supersymmetry, cosmology and gravitation -are discussed in the final chapter. The appendices cover kinematic, cross-section and decay-rate formulae, Breit-Wigner resonances, some Clebsch-Gordan coefficient tables, a table of particle properties, exercises and answers, and the Dirac equation. There is also an appendix on calculating scattering amplitudes for fermion + fermion going to fermion + fermion. A list of references is given. (U.K.)
Nuclei, hadrons, and elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bopp, F.W.
1989-01-01
This book is a short introduction to the physics of the nuclei, hadrons, and elementary particles for students of physics. Important facts and model imaginations on the structure, the decay, and the scattering of nuclei, the 'zoology' of the hadrons and basic facts of hadronic scattering processes, a short introduction to quantum electrodynamics and quantum chromodynamics and the most important processes of lepton and parton physics, as well as the current-current approach of weak interactions and the Glashow-Weinberg-Salam theory are presented. (orig.) With 153 figs., 10 tabs [de
Instrumentation in elementary particle physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fabjan, C W [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Pilcher, J E [Chicago Univ., IL (United States); eds.
1988-01-01
The first International Committee for Future Accelerators Instrumentation School was held at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy from 8 to 19 June 1987. The School was attended by 74 students of whom 45 were from developing countries, 10 lecturers and 9 laboratory instructors. The next generation of elementary particle physics experiments would depend vitally on new ideas in instrumentation. This is a field where creativity and imagination play a major role and large budgets are not a prerequisite. One of the unique features was the presentation of four laboratory experiments using modern techniques and instrumentation. Refs, figs and tabs.
Instrumentation in elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fabjan, C.W.; Pilcher, J.E.
1988-01-01
The first International Committee for Future Accelerators Instrumentation School was held at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy from 8 to 19 June 1987. The School was attended by 74 students of whom 45 were from developing countries, 10 lecturers and 9 laboratory instructors. The next generation of elementary particle physics experiments would depend vitally on new ideas in instrumentation. This is a field where creativity and imagination play a major role and large budgets are not a prerequisite. One of the unique features was the presentation of four laboratory experiments using modern techniques and instrumentation. Refs, figs and tabs
Tracking and imaging elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Breuker, H.; Drevermann, H.; Grab, C.; Rademakers, A.A.; Stone, H.
1991-01-01
The Large Electron-Positron (LEP) Collider is one of the most powerful particle accelerators ever built. It smashes electrons into their antimatter counterparts, positrons, releasing as much as 100 billion electron volts of energy within each of four enormous detectors. Each burst of energy generates a spray of hundreds of elementary particles that are monitored by hundreds of thousands of sensors. In less than a second, an electronic system must sort through the data from some 50,000 electron-positron encounters, searching for just one or two head-on collisions that might lead to discoveries about the fundamental forces and the elementary particles of nature. When the electronic systems identify such a promising event, a picture of the data must be transmitted to the most ingenious image processor ever created. The device is the human brain. Computers cannot match the brain's capacity to recognize complicated patterns in the data collected by the LEP detectors. The work of understanding subnuclear events begins therefore through the visualization of objects that are trillions of times smaller than the eye can see and that move millions of times faster than the eye can follow. During the past decade, the authors and their colleagues at the European laboratory for particle physics (CERN) have attempted to design the perfect interface between the minds of physicists and the barrage of electronic signals from the LEP detectors. Using sophisticated computers, they translate raw data - 500,000 numbers from each event - into clear, meaningful images. With shapes, curves and colors, they represent the trajectories of particles, their type, their energy and many other properties
Research in elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bland, R.W.; Greensite, J.
1992-01-01
Task A of this contract supports research in elementary particle physics using cryogenic particle detectors. We have developed superconducting aluminum tunnel-junction detectors sensitive to a variety of particle signals, and with potential application to a number of particle-physics problems. We have extended our range of technologies through a collaboration with Simon Labov, on niobium tri-layer junctions, and Jean-Paul Maneval, on high-T c superconducting bolometers. We have new data on response to low-energy X-rays and to alpha-particle signals from large-volume detectors. The theoretical work under this contract (Task B) is a continued investigation of nonperturbative aspects of quantum gravity. A Monte Carlo calculation is proposed for Euclidian quantum gravity, based on the ''fifth-time action'' stabilization procedure. Results from the last year include a set of seven papers, summarized below, addressing various aspects of nonperturbative quantum gravity and QCD. Among the issues- addressed is the so-called ''problem of time'' in canonical quantum gravity
String model of elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kikkawa, Keiji
1975-01-01
Recent development of the models of elementary particles is described. The principal features of elementary particle physics can be expressed by quark model, mass spectrum, the Regge behavior of scattering amplitude, and duality. Venezians showed in 1968 that the B function can express these features. From the analysis of mass spectrum, the string model was introduced. The quantization of the string is performed with the same procedure as the ordinary quantum mechanics. The motion of the string is determined by the Nambu-Goto action integral, and the Schroedinger equation is obtained. Mass spectrum from the string model was same as that from the duality model such as Veneziano model. The interaction between strings can be introduced, and the Lagrangian can be formulated. The relation between the string model and the duality model has been studied. The string model is the first theory of non-local field, and the further development is attractive. The relation between this model and the quark model is still not clear. (Kato, T.)
The geometry of elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lov, T.R.
1987-01-01
A new model of elementary particles based on the geometry of Quantum deSitter space QdS = SU (3,2)/(SU(3,1) x U(1)) is introduced and studied. QdS is a complexification of quantization of anti-de Sitter space, AdS = SO(3,2)/SO(3,1), which in recent years had played a pivotal role in supergravity. The nontrival principle fiber bundle has total space SU(3,2), fiber SU(3,1) x U(1) and base QdS. In this setting, the standard recipes for Yang-Mills fields don't work. These require connections and the associated covariant derivatives. Here it is shown that the Lie derivatives, not the covariant derivatives are important in quantization. In this setting, the no-go theorems are not valid. This new quantum mechanics leads to a model of elementary particles as vertical vector fields in the bundle with interaction via the Lie bracket. There are five physical interactions modelled by the bracket interaction. The quantum numbers are identified as the roots of su(3,2) and are preserved under the bracket interaction. The model explains conservation of charge, baryon number, lepton number, parity and the heirarchy problem. Since the bracket is the curvature of a homogeneous space, particles are then the curvature of QdS. This model for particles is consistent with the requirements of General Relativity. Furthermore, since the curvature tensor is built from the quantized wave functions, the curvature tensor is quantized and this is quantum theory of gravity
Elementary particles in curved spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lazanu, I.
2004-01-01
The theories in particle physics are developed currently, in Minkowski space-time starting from the Poincare group. A physical theory in flat space can be seen as the limit of a more general physical theory in a curved space. At the present time, a theory of particles in curved space does not exist, and thus the only possibility is to extend the existent theories in these spaces. A formidable obstacle to the extension of physical models is the absence of groups of motion in more general Riemann spaces. A space of constant curvature has a group of motion that, although differs from that of a flat space, has the same number of parameters and could permit some generalisations. In this contribution we try to investigate some physical implications of the presumable existence of elementary particles in curved space. In de Sitter space (dS) the invariant rest mass is a combination of the Poincare rest mass and the generalised angular momentum of a particle and it permits to establish a correlation with the vacuum energy and with the cosmological constant. The consequences are significant because in an experiment the local structure of space-time departs from the Minkowski space and becomes a dS or AdS space-time. Discrete symmetry characteristics of the dS/AdS group suggest some arguments for the possible existence of the 'mirror matter'. (author)
A research Program in Elementary Particle Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sobel, Henry; Molzon, William; Lankford, Andrew; Taffard, Anyes; Whiteson, Daniel; Kirkby, David
2013-07-25
Work is reported in: Neutrino Physics, Cosmic Rays and Elementary Particles; Particle Physics and Charged Lepton Flavor Violation; Research in Collider Physics; Dark Energy Studies with BOSS and LSST.
Charm-quarks and new elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petersen, J.L.
1978-01-01
This is the first part of an extensive paper which discusses: the Nobel prize in physics 1976; discovery of the J/psi-particle; elementary particles and elementary building blocks; the four reciprocal effects; gauge theories; quark-antiquark reciprocal effects; the high-energy approximation; a simple quark-antiquark potential; and quark diagrams and the Zweig rule. (Auth.)
On the Origin of Elementary Particle Masses
Hansson, Johan
2012-01-01
The oldest enigma in fundamental particle physics is: Where do the observed masses of elementary particles come from? Inspired by observation of the empirical particle mass spectrum we propose that the masses of elementary parti cles arise solely due to the self-interaction of the fields associated with a particle. We thus assume that the mass is proportional to the strength of the interaction of th e field with itself. A simple application of this idea to the fermi...
Elementary particle physics at the University of Florida
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1991-01-01
This report discusses research in the following areas: theoretical elementary particle physics; experimental elementary particle physics; axion project; SSC detector development; and computer acquisition. (LSP)
Elementary particle physics at the University of Florida
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1991-12-01
This report discusses research in the following areas: theoretical elementary particle physics; experimental elementary particle physics; axion project; SSC detector development; and computer acquisition. (LSP).
Elementary particle physics with atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wieman, C.E.
1993-01-01
One of the unique aspects of atomic physics is the capacity to make measurements with extraordinarily high precision. In suitably chosen systems, precision measurements can reveal information about fundamental interactions in nature that is not available from other sources. Although elementary particle physics is often perceived as synonymous with open-quotes high energyclose quotes and open-quotes high cost,close quotes atomic physics has played, and can continue to play, a significant role in this area. A few illustrative examples of this include (1) the measurement of the Lamb shift in hydrogen and its, influence on the modern development of quantum field theory, (2) the severe limits placed on possible time reversal violating interactions by atomic (and neutron) searches for electric dipole moments, and (3) the measurement (and closely related atomic theory) of parity, nonconservation in atoms. This latter work has provides a precise confirmation of the Standard Model of the weak, electromagnetic, and strong interactions, and is a uniquely sensitive test for the validity of a variety of alternative models that have been put forth. I will also discuss some of the joys and frustrations of doggedly pursuing the open-quotes ultimateclose quotes measurement of ridiculously tiny effects
REDUCE in elementary particle physics. Quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grozin, A.G.
1990-01-01
This preprint is the second part of the problem book on using REDUCE for calculations of cross sections and decay probabilities in elementary particle physics. It contains examples of calculations in quantum electrodynamics. 5 refs
Physical Origin of Elementary Particle Masses
Hansson, Johan
2014-01-01
In contemporary particle physics, the masses of fundamental particles are incalculable constants, being supplied by experimental values. Inspired by observation of the empirical particle mass spectrum, and their corresponding physical interaction couplings, we propose that the masses of elementary particles arise solely due to the self-interaction of the fields associated with the charges of a particle. A first application of this idea is seen to yield correct order of magnitude predictions f...
Quantum Black Holes As Elementary Particles
Ha, Yuan K.
2008-01-01
Are black holes elementary particles? Are they fermions or bosons? We investigate the remarkable possibility that quantum black holes are the smallest and heaviest elementary particles. We are able to construct various fundamental quantum black holes: the spin-0, spin 1/2, spin-1, and the Planck-charge cases, using the results in general relativity. Quantum black holes in the neighborhood of the Galaxy could resolve the paradox posed by the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin limit on the energy of cosmi...
Uses of solid state analogies in elementary particle theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anderson, P.W.
1976-01-01
The solid state background of some of the modern ideas of field theory is reviewed, and additional examples of model situations in solid state or many-body theory which may have relevance to fundamental theories of elementary particles are adduced
Topics in elementary particle physics
Jin, Xiang
The author of this thesis discusses two topics in elementary particle physics: n-ary algebras and their applications to M-theory (Part I), and functional evolution and Renormalization Group flows (Part II). In part I, Lie algebra is extended to four different n-ary algebraic structure: generalized Lie algebra, Filippov algebra, Nambu algebra and Nambu-Poisson tensor; though there are still many other n-ary algebras. A natural property of Generalized Lie algebras — the Bremner identity, is studied, and proved with a totally different method from its original version. We extend Bremner identity to n-bracket cases, where n is an arbitrary odd integer. Filippov algebras do not focus on associativity, and are defined by the Fundamental identity. We add associativity to Filippov algebras, and give examples of how to construct Filippov algebras from su(2), bosonic oscillator, Virasoro algebra. We try to include fermionic charges into the ternary Virasoro-Witt algebra, but the attempt fails because fermionic charges keep generating new charges that make the algebra not closed. We also study the Bremner identity restriction on Nambu algebras and Nambu-Poisson tensors. So far, the only example 3-algebra being used in physics is the BLG model with 3-algebra A4, describing two M2-branes interactions. Its extension with Nambu algebra, BLG-NB model, is believed to describe infinite M2-branes condensation. Also, there is another propose for M2-brane interactions, the ABJM model, which is constructed by ordinary Lie algebra. We compare the symmetry properties between them, and discuss the possible approaches to include these three models into a grand unification theory. In Part II, we give an approximate solution for Schroeder's equations, based on series and conjugation methods. We use the logistic map as an example, and demonstrate that this approximate solution converges to known analytical solutions around the fixed point, around which the approximate solution is constructed
Introduction to the elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shellard, R.C.
1982-03-01
An introduction is given to the subject of elementary particle physics. Several particle properties are discussed and some models are shown. This introduction covers the theoretical as well as the experimental aspects including a topic on detectors. (L.C.) [pt
Elementary particle physics in early physics education
Wiener, Gerfried
2017-01-01
Current physics education research is faced with the important question of how best to introduce elementary particle physics in the classroom early on. Therefore, a learning unit on the subatomic structure of matter was developed, which aims to introduce 12-year-olds to elementary particles and fundamental interactions. This unit was iteratively evaluated and developed by means of a design-based research project with grade-6 students. In addition, dedicated professional development programmes were set up to instruct high school teachers about the learning unit and enable them to investigate its didactical feasibility. Overall, the doctoral research project led to successful results and showed the topic of elementary particle physics to be a viable candidate for introducing modern physics in the classroom. Furthermore, thanks to the design-based research methodology, the respective findings have implications for both physics education and physics education research, which will be presented during the PhD defen...
Elementary particles and physics interaction unification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leite-Lopes, J.
1985-01-01
Quantum theory and relativity theory are fundamental of relativistic quantum mechanics, quantum field theory, which is the base of elementary particle physics, gauge field theory and basic force unification models. After a short introduction of relativistic equations of the main fields, the free scalar field, the free vector field, the free electromagnetic field and the free spinor field, and of elementary particles and basic interactions, gauge invariance and electromagnetic gauge field are detailed. Then the presentation of internal degrees of freedom, especially isospin, introduces gauge field theory of Yang-Mills. At last weak interactions and strong interactions are presented and lead to grand unification theory in conclusion [fr
Some problems of high-energy elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isaev, P.S.
1995-01-01
The problems of high-energy elementary particle physics are discussed. It is pointed out that the modern theory of elementary-particle physics has no solutions of some large physical problems: origin of the mass, electric charge, identity of particle masses, change of the mass of elementary particles in time and others. 7 refs
Research program in elementary particle theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1989-01-01
The Syracuse High Energy Theory group has continued to make significant contributions to many areas. Many novel aspects of Chern-Simons terms and effective Lagrangians were investigated. Various interesting aspects of quantum gravity and string theory were explored. Gauge models of elementary particles were studied in depth. The investigations of QCD at finite temperatures and multiply connected configuration spaces continued. 24 refs
Theoretical Studies in Elementary Particle Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Collins, John C.; Roiban, Radu S
2013-04-01
This final report summarizes work at Penn State University from June 1, 1990 to April 30, 2012. The work was in theoretical elementary particle physics. Many new results in perturbative QCD, in string theory, and in related areas were obtained, with a substantial impact on the experimental program.
The periodic table of elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhattacharjee, B.J.
1994-01-01
It is shown that a periodic classification of elementary particles (eps) may be done with the basic properties of eps: viz. mass, spin and parity. Further application of spacing rule and GMO mass formulae show repetitions at very regular intervals. It is found that properties of eps are periodic function of rest mass. (author). 17 refs., 6 tabs
The periodic table of elementary particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bhattacharjee, B J [St. Anthony' s College, Shillong (India). Dept. of Physics
1994-01-01
It is shown that a periodic classification of elementary particles (eps) may be done with the basic properties of eps: viz. mass, spin and parity. Further application of spacing rule and GMO mass formulae show repetitions at very regular intervals. It is found that properties of eps are periodic function of rest mass. (author). 17 refs., 6 tabs.
REDUCE system in elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grozin, A.G.
1990-01-01
This preprint is the first part of the problem book on using REDUCE for calculations of cross sections and decay probabilities in elementary particle physics. It contains the review of the necessary formulae and examples of using REDUCE for calculations with vectors and Dirac matrices. 5 refs.; 11 figs
Theoretical aspects of elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wess, J.
1985-01-01
The author presents a populary introduction to the theory of elementary particles on the base of quantum mechanics and special relativity theory. The families of quarks, leptons, and gauge bosons are presented, and the connection between symmetry and conservation laws is discussed with special regards to gauge theories. Thereby the description of particle interactions by Feynman diagrams is considered. Finally a brief introduction to supersymmetry and supergravity is given. (HSI) [de
Theory of elementary particles. Proceedings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luest, D.; Weigt, G.
1994-03-01
These proceedings contain most of the invited talks ans short communications presented at the named symposium. These concern developments in field theory in connection with string models, grand unification, and quantum gravity. See hints under the relevant topics. (HSI)
In search of elementary spin 0 particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Płaczek, Wiesław
2015-01-01
The Standard Model of strong and electroweak interactions uses point-like spin 1/2 particles as the building bricks of matter and point-like spin 1 particles as the force carriers. One of the most important questions to be answered by the present and future particle physics experiments is whether the elementary spin 0 particles exist, and if they do, what are their interactions with the spin 1/2 and spin 1 particles. Spin 0 particles have been searched extensively over the last decades. Several initial claims of their discoveries were finally disproved in the final experimental scrutiny process. The recent observation of the excess of events at the LHC in the final states involving a pair of vector bosons, or photons, is commonly interpreted as the discovery of the first elementary scalar particle, the Higgs boson. In this paper we recall examples of claims and subsequent disillusions in precedent searches spin 0 particles. We address the question if the LHC Higgs discovery can already be taken for granted, or, as it turned out important in the past, whether it requires a further experimental scrutiny before the existence of the first ever found elementary scalar particle is proven beyond any doubt. An example of the Double Drell–Yan process for which such a scrutiny is indispensable is discussed in some detail. - Highlights: • We present a short history of searches of spin 0 particles. • We construct a model of the Double Drell–Yan Process (DDYP) at the LHC. • We investigate the contribution of the DDYP to the Higgs searches background
Research in elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1992-01-01
Experimental and theoretical work on high energy physics is reviewed. Included are preparations to study high-energy electron-proton interactions at HERA, light-cone QCD, decays of charm and beauty particles, neutrino oscillation, electron-positron interactions at CLEO II, detector development, and astrophysics and cosmology
Gauge theory and elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zwirn, H.
1982-01-01
The present orientation of particle physics, founded on local gauge invariance theories and spontaneous symmetry breaking is described in a simple formalism. The application of these ideas to the latest theories describing electromagnetic and weak interactions (Glashow, Weinberg, Salam models) and strong interactions, quantum chromodynamics, is presented so as to give a general picture of the mechanisms subtending these theories [fr
Research in Elementary Particle Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
White, Andrew Paul [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); De, Kaushik [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); Brandt, Andrew [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); Yu, Jaehoon [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); Farbin, Amir [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States)
2015-02-02
This report details the accomplishments and research results for the High Energy Physics Group at the University of Texas at Arlington at the Energy and Intensity Frontiers. For the Energy Frontier we have made fundamental contributions in the search for supersymmetric particles, proposed to explain the stabilization of the mass of the Higgs Boson – the agent giving mass to all known particles. We have also made major contributions to the search for additional Higgs Bosons and to the planning for future searches. This work has been carried out in the context of the ATLAS Experiment at CERN (European Nuclear Research Laboratory) and for which we have made major contributions to computing and data distribution and processing, and have worked to calibrate the detector and prepare upgraded electronics for the future. Our other contribution to the Energy Frontier has been to the International Linear Collider (ILC) project, potentially hosted by Japan, and to the Silicon Detector Concept (SiD) in particular. We have lead the development of the SiD Concept and have worked on a new form of precise energy measurement for particles from the high energy collisions of electrons and positrons at the ILC. For the Intensity Frontier, we have worked to develop the concept of Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment(s) (LBNE) at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Our contributions to detector development, neutrino beam studies, particle identification, software development will facilitate future studies of the oscillation of one type of neutrino into other type(s), establish the order of the neutrino masses, and, through an innovative new idea, allow us to create a beam of dark matter particles.
Investigations in Elementary Particle Theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weiler, Thomas J. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Kephart, Thomas W. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Scherrer, Robert J. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)
2014-07-02
The research interests of our three Co-PI’s complement each other very well. Kephart works mainly on models of particle unification in four or higher dimensions, on aspects of gravity such as inflation, black-holes, and the very early Universe, and on applications of knot theory and topology to various physical systems (including gluon dynamics). Scherrer works mainly on aspects of the intermediate-aged Universe, including dark matter and dark energy, and particle physics in the early Universe. Weiler works mainly on neutrino physics, dark matter signatures, and extreme particle-astrophysics in the late Universe, including origins of the highest-energy cosmic-rays and gamma-rays, and the future potential of neutrino astrophysics. Kephart and Weiler have lately devoted some research attention to the LHC and its reach for probing physics beyond the Standard Model. During the 3-year funding period, our grant supported one postdoc (Chiu Man Ho) and partially supported two students, Peter Denton and Lingjun Fu. Chiu Man collaborated with all three of the Co-PI’s during the 3-year funding period and published 16 refereed papers. Chiu Man has gone on to a postdoc with Steve Hsu at Michigan State University. Denton and Fu will both receive their PhDs during the 2014-15 academic year. The total number of our papers published in refereed journals by the three co-PIs during the period of this grant (2011-present) is 54. The total number of talks given by the group members during this time period, including seminars, colloquia, and conference presentations, is 47. Some details of the accomplishments of our DOE funded researchers during the grant period include Weiler being named a Simons Fellow in 2013. He presented an invited TEDx talk in 2012. His paper on closed timelike curves (2013) garnered a great deal of national publicity. Scherrer’s paper on the “little rip” (2011) fostered a new area of cosmological research, and the name “little rip” has now entered
Elementary particle physics---Experimental
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lord, J.J.; Burnett, T.H.; Wilkes, R.J.
1990-01-01
We are continuing a research program in high energy experimental particle physics and particle astrophysics. Studies of high energy hadronic interactions were performed using several techniques, in addition, a high energy leptoproduction experiment was continued at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. We are participants in a joint US/Japan program to study nuclear interactions at energies two orders of magnitude greater than those of existing accelerators. The data are being collected with ballon-borne emulsion chambers. The properties of nuclear interactions at these high energies will reveal whether new production mechanisms come into play due to the high nuclear densities and temperatures obtained. We carried out closely related studies of hadronic interactions in emulsions exposed to high energy accelerator beams. We are members of a large international collaboration which has exposed emulsion chamber detectors to beams of 32 S and 16 O with energy 60 and 200 GeV/n at CERN and 15 GeV/n at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The primary objectives of this program are to determine the existence and properties of the hypothesized quark-gluon phase of matter, and its possible relation to a variety of anomalous observations. Studies of leptoproduction processes at high energies involve two separate experiments, one using the Tevatron 500 GeV muon beam and the other exploring the >TeV regime. We are participants in Fermilab experiment E665 employing a comprehensive counter/streamer chamber detector system. During the past year we joined the DUMAND Collaboration, and have been assigned responsibility for development and construction of critical components for the deep undersea neutrino detector facility, to be deployed in 1991. In addition, we are making significant contributions to the design of the triggering system to be used
Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revision
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galic, H.; Armstrong, F.E.; von Przewoski, B.
1994-08-01
This report contains summaries of 568 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments that finished taking data before 1988 are excluded. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, INS (Tokyo), ITEP (Moscow), IUCF (Bloomington), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several underground and underwater experiments. Instructions are given for remote searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries
Current status of elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okun', L.B.
1998-01-01
A brief review is given of the state-of-the art in elementary particle physics based on the talk of the same title given on January 22, 1998, at the seminar marking the 90th birth anniversary of L.D. Landau. (The seminar was hosted by the P.L. Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems in cooperation with the L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics)
What are the masses of elementary particles?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Good, I.J.
1988-01-01
The paper concerns the numerology on the masses of elementary particles, and examines the formula m(n)-m(p)/m(p) 136α/6x120 (where m(n) and m(p) are the rest masses of the neutron and proton respectively and α is the fine structure constant). The author reports that this simple relationship between fundamental constants is correct to one part in at least 51,000, and is comfortably consistent with experimental results. (U.K.)
Current experiments in elementary-particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Rittenberg, A.
1983-03-01
Microfiche are included which contain summaries of 479 experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments are included at the following laboratories: Brookhaven (BNL); CERN; CESR; DESY; Fermilab (FNAL); Institute for Nuclear Studies (INS); KEK; LAMPF; Serpukhov (SERP); SIN; SLAC; and TRIUMF. Also, summaries of proton decay experiments are included. A list of experiments and titles is included; and a beam-target-momentum index and a spokesperson index are given. Properties of beams at the facilities are tabulated
Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revision
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Galic, H. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Armstrong, F.E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); von Przewoski, B. [Indiana Univ. Cyclotron Facility, Bloomington, IN (United States)] [and others
1994-08-01
This report contains summaries of 568 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments that finished taking data before 1988 are excluded. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, INS (Tokyo), ITEP (Moscow), IUCF (Bloomington), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several underground and underwater experiments. Instructions are given for remote searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.
Einstein model for elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, N.K.
1975-01-01
A group theoretical model unifying a space-time group (E) and an internal symmetry group (I) for strongly interacting particles is worked out. The space-time group is the one that pertains to the group of motions of static Einstein cosmological model implying the symmetry of the group E = O 4 logical operation of multiplication R. With the use of Gueret and Vigier prescription, the left coset R logical operation of multiplication O 4 is identified with the internal symmetry group I = U 1 β logical operation of multiplication (SU(2) logical operation of multiplication SU(2)) contains SU(4). The complete dynamical group (D) is then found to be D = E logical operation of multiplication I = (O logical operation of multiplication R) logical operation of multiplication U 1 β logical operation of multiplication (SU(2) logical operation of multiplication SU(2) contains SO(4,2). Physically useful representations of the space-time group (E) are worked out by solving the eigenvalue problem of Laplace-Beltmi operator. The internal quantum numbers are prescribed in accordance with the SU(2) logical operation of multiplication SU(2) model of Nakamura and Sato. A general mass formula is derived and its use for known baryons and mesons is discussed. (author)
From elementary particles to stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Besliu, C.; Jipa, Al.
1999-01-01
The 50th anniversary of National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH) coincides with half a century from the discovery of relativistic heavy ions in the primary cosmic radiation. Therefore, an analysis of connections between Particle Physics and Cosmology seems to be indicated at this anniversary. The Relativistic Nuclear Physics could be a bridge between the two fields. Important information on the Universe evolution after Big-Bang, can be obtained in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions. To compare the processes following the Big Bang with those of quark-gluon plasma formation, expected at collider energies, it is necessary to know the thermodynamic conditions for each stage as well as the time evolution of the systems. In this work, some comparisons of the experimental results and simulations on thermodynamic parameters obtained in relativistic and ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions are discussed and compared with some recent cosmological observations. The existence of similar values of the thermodynamic parameters for equivalent moments in the evolutions of the two systems could be an important tool in a deeper understanding of the Universe. (authors)
[Research in elementary particles and interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adair, R.; Sandweiss, J.; Schmidt, M.
1992-05-01
Research of the Yale University groups in the areas of elementary particles and their interactions are outlined. Work on the following topics is reported: development of CDF trigger system; SSC detector development; study of heavy flavors at TPL; search for composite objects produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions; high-energy polarized lepton-nucleon scattering; rare K + decays; unpolarized high-energy muon scattering; muon anomalous magnetic moment; theoretical high-energy physics including gauge theories, symmetry breaking, string theory, and gravitation theory; study of e + e - interactions with the SLD detector at SLAC; and the production and decay of particles containing charm and beauty quarks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dieckmann, M.E.
1999-01-01
In this work the emission of high amplitude wave packets into a plasma is examined. The plasma is modelled by an 1 1/2D electromagnetic and relativistic particle in cell code. The antenna is modelled by applying forced electrostatic field oscillations to a subset of the simulation grid cells. The emitted wave packets are followed in space and time. It is investigated how the wave packets are affected by instabilities. The detected instabilities affecting ECH waves have been identified as wave decay, nonlinear damping due to trapping and modulational instabilities. These instabilities have been discussed with hindsight to the plasma sounding experiment. A plasma sounder is an experiment emitting short wave packets into the ambient plasma and then it listens to the response. The assumption that the emitted waves are linear waves then allows to determine the plasma magnetic field strength, the electron density and possibly the electron thermal velocity from the response spectrum. The impact of the non-linear instabilities on the plasma wave response spectrum provided by a sounder have been predicted in this work and the predictions have been shown to match a wide range of experimental observations. A dependence of the instabilities on the simulation noise levels, for example the dependence of the wave interaction time in a wave decay on the noise electric field amplitudes, required it to investigate the simulation noise properties (spectral distribution) and to compare it to real plasma thermal noise. It has also been examined how a finite length antenna would filter the simulation noise. (author)
About limit masses of elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ibadova, U.R.
2002-01-01
The simple examples of spontaneous breaking of various symmetries for the scalar theory with fundamental mass have been considered. Higgs' generalizations on 'fundamental masses' that was introduced into the theory on a basis of the five-dimensional de Sitter space. The connection among 'fundamental mass', 'Planck's mass' and 'maxim ons' has been found. Consequently, the relationship among G-gravitational constant and other universal parameters can be established. The concept the mass having its root from deep antiquity (including Galilee's Pis sans experiment, theoretical research of the connection of mass with the Einstein's energy etc.) still remains fundamental. Every theoretical and experimental research in classical physics and quantum physics associated with mass is of step to the discernment of Nature. Besides of mass, the other fundamental constants such as Planck's constant ℎ and the speed of light also play the most important role in the modern theories. The first one related to quantum mechanics and the second one is related to the theory of relativity. Nowadays the properties and interactions of elementary particles can be described more or less adequately in terms of local fields that are affiliated with the lowest representations of corresponding compact groups of symmetry. It is known that the mass of any body is composed of masses of its comprising elementary particles. The mass of elementary particles is the Casimir operator of the non-compact Poincare group, and those representations of the given group, that are being used in Quantum Field Theory (QFT), and it can take any values in the interval of 0≤m≤∞. Two particles, today referred to as elementary particles, can have masses; distinct one from another by many orders. For example, vectorial bosons with the mass of ∼10 15 GeV take place in general relativity theory modules, whereas the mass of an electron is only ∼0.5·10 3 GeV. Formally, the standard QFT remains logical in a case
Compilation of data on elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trippe, T.G.
1984-09-01
The most widely used data compilation in the field of elementary particle physics is the Review of Particle Properties. The origin, development and current state of this compilation are described with emphasis on the features which have contributed to its success: active involvement of particle physicists; critical evaluation and review of the data; completeness of coverage; regular distribution of reliable summaries including a pocket edition; heavy involvement of expert consultants; and international collaboration. The current state of the Review and new developments such as providing interactive access to the Review's database are described. Problems and solutions related to maintaining a strong and supportive relationship between compilation groups and the researchers who produce and use the data are discussed
The Search for Stable, Massive, Elementary Particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Peter C.
2001-01-01
In this paper we review the experimental and observational searches for stable, massive, elementary particles other than the electron and proton. The particles may be neutral, may have unit charge or may have fractional charge. They may interact through the strong, electromagnetic, weak or gravitational forces or through some unknown force. The purpose of this review is to provide a guide for future searches--what is known, what is not known, and what appear to be the most fruitful areas for new searches. A variety of experimental and observational methods such as accelerator experiments, cosmic ray studies, searches for exotic particles in bulk matter and searches using astrophysical observations is included in this review
Elementary particles and emergent phase space
Zenczykowski, Piotr
2014-01-01
The Standard Model of elementary particles, although very successful, contains various elements that are put in by hand. Understanding their origin requires going beyond the model and searching for ""new physics"". The present book elaborates on one particular proposal concerning such physics. While the original conception is 50 years old, it has not lost its appeal over time. Its basic idea is that space - an arena of events treated in the Standard Model as a classical background - is a concept which emerges from a strictly discrete quantum layer in the limit of large quantum numbers. This bo
Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revised
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Galic, H. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Linear Accelerator Center; Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, B. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Dodder, D.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Klyukhin, V.I.; Ryabov, Yu.G. [Inst. for High Energy Physics, Serpukhov (Russian Federation); Illarionova, N.S. [Inst. of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lehar, F. [CEN Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Oyanagi, Y. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Sciences; Olin, A. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Frosch, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland)
1992-06-01
This report contains summaries of 584 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments that finished taking data before 1986 are excluded. Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, SSCL, and TRIUMF, and also several underground and underwater experiments. Instructions are given for remote searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.
Elementary particle physics in a nutshell
Tully, Christopher C
2011-01-01
The new experiments underway at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Switzerland may significantly change our understanding of elementary particle physics and, indeed, the universe. This textbook provides a cutting-edge introduction to the field, preparing first-year graduate students and advanced undergraduates to understand and work in LHC physics at the dawn of what promises to be an era of experimental and theoretical breakthroughs. Christopher Tully, an active participant in the work at the LHC, explains some of the most recent experiments in the field. But this book, which emerged fr
Current experiments in elementary particle physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E., Oyanagi, Y.; Dodder, D.C.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Frosch, R.; Olin, A.; Lehar, F.; Moskalev, A.N.; Barkov, B.P.
1987-03-01
This report contains summaries of 720 recent and current experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1980 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, KEK, LAMPF, Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute, Saclay, Serpukhov, SIN, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also experiments on proton decay. Instructions are given for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized.
Current experiments in elementary particle physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Trippe, T.G.; Yost, G.P. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Oyanagi, Y. (Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan)); Dodder, D.C. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Ryabov, Yu.G.; Slabospitsky, S.R. (Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Serpukhov (USSR). Inst. Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij); Frosch, R. (Swiss Inst. for Nuclear Research, Villigen (Switzerla
1989-09-01
This report contains summaries of 736 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1982 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PSI/SIN, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several underground experiments. Also given are instructions for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized.
New developments in elementary-particle physics
Zichichi, A
1979-01-01
The modern attempt at unification of all the forces in nature is based on supersymmetry. To achieve the unification of strong and electroweak forces the distinction between leptons and hadrons (quarks) must go. The fundamental symmetry of nature is the SU(3)/sub c/ gauge symmetry, where c stands for colour. There are three colours which are the basic changes of nature and act between quarks and gluons. Elementary particles are now thought to be made of quarks and gluons. The fundamental forces of nature now appear to be the superstrong (which generates strong and semi-strong forces), electroweak (generating electromagnetic, weak and superweak) and gravitational forces. (89 refs).
Current experiments in elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Oyanagi, Y.; Dodder, D.C.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Frosch, R.; Olin, A.; Lehar, F.; Moskalev, A.N.; Barkov, B.P.
1987-03-01
This report contains summaries of 720 recent and current experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1980 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, KEK, LAMPF, Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute, Saclay, Serpukhov, SIN, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also experiments on proton decay. Instructions are given for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized
Current experiments in elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Trippe, T.G.; Yost, G.P.; Oyanagi, Y.; Dodder, D.C.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Slabospitsky, S.R.; Olin, A.; Klumov, I.A.
1989-09-01
This report contains summaries of 736 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1982 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PSI/SIN, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several underground experiments. Also given are instructions for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized
Current experiments in elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galic, H.; Dodder, D.C.; Klyukhin, V.I.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Illarionova, N.S.; Lehar, F.; Oyanagi, Y.; Frosch, R.
1992-06-01
This report contains summaries of 584 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments that finished taking data before 1986 are excluded. Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, SSCL, and TRIUMF, and also several underground and underwater experiments. Instructions are given for remote searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries
Elementary Particles The first hundred years
Perkins, Donald Hill
1997-01-01
To mark the centenary of the discovery of that first elementary particle, the electron, some remarks and recollections from the early days of high energy physics, including the impact of early experiments and ideas on todayÕs research. Much of our progress in this field has been carefully anticipated and planned, but a surprising number of successes were the result of incredibly lucky breaks, where headway was made despite - or even because of - incorrect experimental results, crossed wires or simply asking the wrong question at the right time. We can be sure therefore that the next century - or perhaps even what remains of this one - will have unexpected surprises in store.
The basic elementary particles as martensitic nucleus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aguinaco-Bravo, V. J.; Onoro, J.
1999-01-01
The martensitic transformation is a diffusional structural change that produces an important modification of the microstructure and properties of materials. In this paper we propose how the martensitic phase is nucleated from a basic elementary particle (bep). The bep is formed in several stages. Vacancies, divacancies, etc. are formed at high temperature, which collapse into prismatic dislocation loops during the cooling process. We define a bep as a dislocation loop reaching a critical radius and fulfilling certain elastic energy conditions. A martensitic nucleus is a bep that coincides crystallographically with the habit plane of the matrix. (Author) 16 refs
On the Origin of Elementary Particle Masses
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hansson J.
2014-04-01
Full Text Available The oldest enigma in fundamental particle physics is: Where do the observed masses of elementary particles come from? Inspired by observation of the empirical particle mass spectrum we propose that the masses of elementary parti cles arise solely due to the self-interaction of the fields associated with a particle. We thus assume that the mass is proportional to the strength of the interaction of th e field with itself. A simple application of this idea to the fermions is seen to yield a mas s for the neutrino in line with constraints from direct experimental upper limits and correct order of magnitude predictions of mass separations between neutrinos, charge d leptons and quarks. The neutrino interacts only through the weak force, hence becom es light. The electron in- teracts also via electromagnetism and accordingly becomes heavier. The quarks also have strong interactions and become heavy. The photon is the only fundamental parti- cle to remain massless, as it is chargeless. Gluons gain mass comparable to quarks, or slightly larger due to a somewhat larger color charge. Inclu ding particles outside the standard model proper, gravitons are not exactly massless, but very light due to their very weak self-interaction. Some immediate and physically interesting consequences arise: i Gluons have an e ff ective range ∼ 1 fm, physically explaining why QCD has finite reach; ii Gravity has an effective range ∼ 100 Mpc coinciding with the largest known structures, the cosmic voids; iii Gravitational waves undergo dispersion even in vacuum, and have all five polarizations (not just the two of m = 0, which might explain why they have not yet been detected.
Facts and mysteries in elementary particle physics
Veltman, Martinus J G
2018-01-01
This book provides a comprehensive overview of modern particle physics accessible to anyone with a true passion for wanting to know how the universe works. We are introduced to the known particles of the world we live in. An elegant explanation of quantum mechanics and relativity paves the way for an understanding of the laws that govern particle physics. These laws are put into action in the world of accelerators, colliders and detectors found at institutions such as CERN and Fermilab that are in the forefront of technical innovation. Real world and theory meet using Feynman diagrams to solve the problems of infinities and deduce the need for the Higgs boson. Facts and Mysteries in Elementary Particle Physics offers an incredible insight from an eyewitness and participant in some of the greatest discoveries in 20th century science. From Einstein's theory of relativity to the spectacular discovery of the Higgs particle, this book will fascinate and educate anyone interested in the world of quarks, leptons an...
Elementary Particle Spectroscopy in Regular Solid Rewrite
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trell, Erik
2008-01-01
The Nilpotent Universal Computer Rewrite System (NUCRS) has operationalized the radical ontological dilemma of Nothing at All versus Anything at All down to the ground recursive syntax and principal mathematical realisation of this categorical dichotomy as such and so governing all its sui generis modalities, leading to fulfilment of their individual terms and compass when the respective choice sequence operations are brought to closure. Focussing on the general grammar, NUCRS by pure logic and its algebraic notations hence bootstraps Quantum Mechanics, aware that it ''is the likely keystone of a fundamental computational foundation'' also for e.g. physics, molecular biology and neuroscience. The present work deals with classical geometry where morphology is the modality, and ventures that the ancient regular solids are its specific rewrite system, in effect extensively anticipating the detailed elementary particle spectroscopy, and further on to essential structures at large both over the inorganic and organic realms. The geodetic antipode to Nothing is extension, with natural eigenvector the endless straight line which when deployed according to the NUCRS as well as Plotelemeian topographic prescriptions forms a real three-dimensional eigenspace with cubical eigenelements where observed quark-skewed quantum-chromodynamical particle events self-generate as an Aristotelean phase transition between the straight and round extremes of absolute endlessness under the symmetry- and gauge-preserving, canonical coset decomposition SO(3)xO(5) of Lie algebra SU(3). The cubical eigen-space and eigen-elements are the parental state and frame, and the other solids are a range of transition matrix elements and portions adapting to the spherical root vector symmetries and so reproducibly reproducing the elementary particle spectroscopy, including a modular, truncated octahedron nano-composition of the Electron which piecemeal enter into molecular structures or compressed to each
Energy related applications of elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rafelski, J.
1991-01-01
The current research position is summarized, and what could be done in the future to clarify issues which were opened up by the research is indicated. Following on the discussion of the viability of catalyzed fusion, there is presented along with the key experimental results, a short account of the physics surrounding the subject. This is followed by a discussion of key research topics addressed. In consequence of the progress made, it appears that the feasibility of a small-scale fusion based on catalyzed reactions rests on either the remote chance that a yet undiscovered ultraheavy negatively charged elementary particle exists in Nature, or on the possible technical realization of a system based on muon-catalyzed fusion (MuCF) in high-density degenerate hydrogen plasma (density 1000 LHD, temperature O(100 eV)). The lattter is considered to have practical promise
Vanishing cosmological constant in elementary particles theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pisano, F.; Tonasse, M.D.
1997-01-01
The quest of a vanishing cosmological constant is considered in the simplest anomaly-free chiral gauge extension of the electroweak standard model where the new physics is limited to a well defined additional flavordynamics above the Fermi scale, namely up to a few TeVs by matching the gauge coupling constants at the electroweak scale, and with an extended Higgs structure. In contrast to the electroweak standard model, it is shown how the extended scalar sector of the theory allows a vanishing or a very small cosmological constant. the details of the cancellation mechanism are presented. At accessible energies the theory is indistinguishable from the standard model of elementary particles and it is in agreement with all existing data. (author). 32 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brueckner, Thomas Christian
2015-01-01
After a description of the standard model of elementary-particle physics the author describes structuralistic reconstructions. Then the problem of the theoretical terms is discussed. Therafter the reconstruction of the standard-model elementary particles is described. Finally the ontology of leptons, quarks and both free and in atoms bound protons is considered.
Tachyons: may they have a role in elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recami, E.; Rodrigues, W. A.
1985-01-01
The possible role of space like objects in elementary particle physics (and in quantum mechanics) is reviewed and discussed, mainly by exploiting the explicit consequences of the peculiar relativistic mechanics of tachyons. Particular attention is paid : 1) to tachyons as the possible carriers of interactions (''internal lines''); e.g., to the links between ''virtual particles'' and superluminal objects; 2) to the possibility of ''vacuum decays'' at the classical level; 3) to a Lorentz-invariant bootstrap model; 4) to the apparent shape of the tachyonic elementary particles (''elementary tachyons'') and its possible connection with the de Broglie wave-particle dualism
Tachyons: may they have a role in elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recami, E.; Rodrigues Junior, W.A.
1985-01-01
The possible role of space-like objects in elementary particle physics (and in quantum mechanics) is reviewed and discussed, mainly by exploiting the explicit consequences of the peculiar relativistic mechanics of Tachyons. Particular attention is paid: (i) to tachyons as the possible carriers of interactions ('internal lines'); e.g., to the links between 'virtual particles' and superluminal objects; (ii) to the possibility of 'vacuum decays' at the classical level; (iii) to a Lorentz-invariant bootstrap model; (iv) to the apparent shape of the tachyonic elementary particles ('elementary tachyons') and its possible connection with the de Broglie wave-particle dualism. (Author) [pt
Elementary particle physics at the University of Florida. Annual progress report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1991-12-01
This report discusses research in the following areas: theoretical elementary particle physics; experimental elementary particle physics; axion project; SSC detector development; and computer acquisition. (LSP).
Puzzle of the particles and the universe. The inner life of the elementary particles IX d
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geitner, Uwe W.
2013-01-01
The series The Inner Life of the Elementary Particles attempts to develop the elementary particles along of a genealogical tree, which begins before the ''big bang''. The simple presentation without mathematics opens also for the interested layman a plastic understanding. Volume IX discusses the known puzzles of particle physics and cosmology and offers for many of them explanation models. Explanation approaches are among others the ''DNA'' of the elementary particles and the interpretation of the quanta and the spin.
Progress in elementary particle theory, 1950-1964
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gell-Mann, M.
1989-01-01
This final chapter of the book lists advances in elementary particle theory from 1950 to 1964 in an order of progressive understanding of ideas rather than chronologically. Starting with quantum field theory and the important discoveries within it, the author explains the connections and items missing in this decade, but understood later. The second part of the chapter takes the same pattern, but deals with basic interactions (strong, electromagnetic, weak and gravitational) and elementary particles, including quarks. By 1985, theory had developed to such a degree that it was hoped that the long-sought-after unified field theory of all elementary particles and interactions of nature might be close at hand. (UK)
Effective Lagrangians in elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trahern, C.G.
1982-01-01
Non-linear effective Lagrangians are constructed to represent the low energy phenomenology of elementary particles. As approximate descriptions of the dynamics of hadrons, these models simulate the expected (but unproven) behavior of more complex theories such as quantum Chromo-dynamics [QCD]. A general formalism for non-linear models was developed in the late 1960's by Coleman, Wess and Zumino. This dissertation utilizes and extends their work by incorporating some of the advances that have been made in the understanding of quantum field theories in the last decade. In particular the significance of spatial boundary conditions for interpreting the ground state behavior of the non-linear models is investigated. In addition the existence of a dual theory for the non-linear model is discussed. For experimental purposes duality refers to the possibility that in different enrgy regimes there may be wholly distinct kinds of excitations in the physical spectrum. Corresponding to these phenomenological distinctions are mutually exclusive mathematical descriptions. A familiar example is the duality of electric and magnetic charge in electro-dynamics. If magnetic charges do exist, they are expected to be extremely massive states that are unobservable up to very high energies. The analysis of such states within electrodynamics shows that one cannot describe both electric and magnetic charges without admitting the presence of singularities in the electric potential. A completely analogous form of duality is found and discussed for the non-linear models
Quantum field theory and the internal states of elementary particles
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Greben, JM
2011-01-01
Full Text Available A new application of quantum field theory is developed that gives a description of the internal dynamics of dressed elementary particles and predicts their masses. The fermionic and bosonic quantum fields are treated as interdependent fields...
Physics through the 1990s: Elementary-particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirk, W.T.
1986-01-01
This report on elementary-particle physics is part of an overall survey of physics carried out for the National Academy of Sciences by the National Research Council. The panel that wrote this report had three goals. The first goal was to explain the nature of elementary-particle physics and to describe how research is carried out in this field. The second goal was to summarize our present knowledge of the elementary particles and the fundamental forces. The third goal was to consider the future course of elementary-particle physics research and to propose a program for this research in the United States. All of these goals are covered in this report
Elementary particles and basic interactions. Trends and perspectives
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baton, J.P.; Cohen-Tannoudji, G.
1992-06-01
This lesson given to Physics teachers, takes stock of actual knowledge and trends in Particle Physics: basic interactions and unification, elementary particles (lepton-quarks), fields theories, boson and gluon discovery. It reminds the operating principle of different large accelerators established in the world and associated particle detectors. It includes also a glossary
On Adiabatic Processes at the Elementary Particle Level
A, Michaud
2016-01-01
Analysis of adiabatic processes at the elementary particle level and of the manner in which they correlate with the principle of conservation of energy, the principle of least action and entropy. Analysis of the initial and irreversible adiabatic acceleration sequence of newly created elementary particles and its relation to these principles. Exploration of the consequences if this first initial acceleration sequence is not subject to the principle of conservation.
The origin of mass elementary particles and fundamental symmetries
Iliopoulos, John
2017-01-01
The discovery of a new elementary particle at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in 2012 made headlines in world media. Since we already know of a large number of elementary particles, why did this latest discovery generate so much excitement? This small book reveals that this particle provides the key to understanding one of the most extraordinary phenomena which occurred in the early Universe. It introduces the mechanism that made possible, within tiny fractions of a second after the Big Bang, the generation of massive particles. The Origin of Mass is a guided tour of cosmic evolution, from the Big Bang to the elementary particles we study in our accelerators today. The guiding principle of this book is a concept of symmetry which, in a profound and fascinating way, seems to determine the structure of the Universe.
Proceedings of the XXVI international symposium Ahrenshoop on the theory of elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doerfel, B.; Wieczorek, E.
1993-02-01
These proceedings contain most of the invited talks and short communications presented at the XXVI th International Symposium Ahrenshoop on the Theory of Elementary Particles which took place from September 9 th to 13 th , 1992 at Wendisch-Rietz near Berlin. The Symposium was organized jointly by the Institute for Elementary Particle Physics of the Humboldt University Berlin, the Institute for Theoretical Physics of the University Hannover, the Sektion Physik of the University Munich, and DESY - Institute for High Energy Physics Zeuthen. See hints under the relevant topics. (orig.)
Theoretical & Experimental Studies of Elementary Particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McFarland, Kevin [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)
2012-10-04
Abstract High energy physics has been one of the signature research programs at the University of Rochester for over 60 years. The group has made leading contributions to experimental discoveries at accelerators and in cosmic rays and has played major roles in developing the theoretical framework that gives us our ``standard model'' of fundamental interactions today. This award from the Department of Energy funded a major portion of that research for more than 20 years. During this time, highlights of the supported work included the discovery of the top quark at the Fermilab Tevatron, the completion of a broad program of physics measurements that verified the electroweak unified theory, the measurement of three generations of neutrino flavor oscillations, and the first observation of a ``Higgs like'' boson at the Large Hadron Collider. The work has resulted in more than 2000 publications over the period of the grant. The principal investigators supported on this grant have been recognized as leaders in the field of elementary particle physics by their peers through numerous awards and leadership positions. Most notable among them is the APS W.K.H. Panofsky Prize awarded to Arie Bodek in 2004, the J.J. Sakurai Prizes awarded to Susumu Okubo and C. Richard Hagen in 2005 and 2010, respectively, the Wigner medal awarded to Susumu Okubo in 2006, and five principal investigators (Das, Demina, McFarland, Orr, Tipton) who received Department of Energy Outstanding Junior Investigator awards during the period of this grant. The University of Rochester Department of Physics and Astronomy, which houses the research group, provides primary salary support for the faculty and has waived most tuition costs for graduate students during the period of this grant. The group also benefits significantly from technical support and infrastructure available at the University which supports the work. The research work of the group has provided educational opportunities
Resource Letter HEPP-1: History of elementary-particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hovis, R.C.; Kragh, H.
1991-01-01
This Resource Letter provides a guide to literature on the history of modern elementary-particle physics. Histories that treat developments from the 1930s through the 1980s are focused on and a sampling is included of the historiography covering the period c. 1890--1930, the prehistory of elementary-particle physics as a discipline. Also included are collections of scientific papers, which might be especially valuable to individuals who wish to undertake historical research on particular scientists or subfields of elementary-particle physics. The introduction presents some statistical data and associated references for elementary-particle physics and surveys historiographical approaches and issues that are represented in historical accounts in the bibliography. All references are assigned a rating of E (Elementary), I (Intermediate), or A (Advanced) based on their technical or conceptual difficulty or their appropriateness for a person attempting a graduated study of the history of modern particle physics. That is, items labeled E are suitable for the layman or would be fundamental to a beginning exploration of the history of particle physics, whereas items labeled A are technically demanding (mathematically, historiographically, or philosophically) or would be most appropriate for specialized or advanced examinations of various topics
Tachyons: may they have a role in elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recami, Erasmo
1985-01-01
The possible role of space-like objects in elementary particle physics (and in quantum mechanics) is reviewed and discussed, mainly by exploiting the explicit consequences of the peculiar relativistic mechanics of Tachyons. Particular attention is paid: (i) to tachyons as the possible carriers of interactions; (ii) to the possibility of ''vacuum decays'' at the classical level; (iii) to a Lorentz-invariant bootstrap model; (iv) to the apparent shape of the tachyonic elementary particles and its possible connection with the de Broglie wave-particle dualism. (author)
Latest AMS Results on elementary particles in cosmic rays
Kounine, Andrei; AMS Collaboration
2017-01-01
AMS-02 is a particle physics detector collecting data on the International Space Station since May 2011. Precision measurements of all elementary charged cosmic ray particles have been performed by AMS using a data sample of 85 billion cosmic ray events collected during the first five years of operations on the Station. The latest AMS results on the fluxes and flux ratios of the elementary cosmic ray particles are presented. They show unique features that require accurate theoretical interpretation as to their origin, be it from dark matter collisions or new astrophysical sources. On behalf of the AMS Collaboration.
Electric dipole moments of elementary particles, nuclei, atoms, and molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Commins, Eugene D.
2007-01-01
The significance of particle and nuclear electric dipole moments is explained in the broader context of elementary particle physics and the charge-parity (CP) violation problem. The present status and future prospects of various experimental searches for electric dipole moments are surveyed. (author)
Dynamic model of elementary particles and the nature of mass and “electric” charge
Kreidik, Leonid G.; Institute of Mathematics & Physics, UTA; Shpenkov, George P.; Institute of Mathematics & Physics, UTA
2009-01-01
The physical model of elementary particles, based on the wave features of their behavior, is described here. Elementary particles are regarded as elementary dynamical structures of the microworld, interrelated with all levels of the Universe, i.e., inseparable from the structure of the Universe as a whole. Between any elementary particles and the ambient field of matter-space-time, as well as between elementary particles themselves, there exists an interchange of matter-space-time occurring b...
The Sun as a system of elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kleczek, J.
1986-01-01
The paper based on known facts of solar physics-is an attempt to interpret the Sun as a selfgravitating system of about 10/sup 57/ nucleons and electrons. These elementary particles are endowed with strong, electromagnetic, weak and gravitational interactions. Origin of the Sun, its evolution, structure and physiology are consequences of the four interactions. Each structural property, every evolutionary process, any activity phenomenon or event on the Sun can be traced backwards to the four fundamental forces of nature, viz. to interactions of elementary particles
Elementary Particle Interactions with CMS at LHC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spanier, Stefan
2016-01-01
The High Energy Particle Physics group of the University of Tennessee participates in the search for new particles and forces in proton-proton collisions at the LHC with the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment. Since the discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012, the search has intensified to find new generations of particles beyond the standard model using the higher collision energies and ever increasing luminosity, either directly or via deviations from standard model predictions such as the Higgs boson decays. As part of this effort, the UTK group has expanded the search for new particles in four-muon final states, and in final states with jets, has successfully helped and continues to help to implement and operate an instrument for improved measurements of the luminosity needed for all data analyses, and has continued to conduct research of new technologies for charged particle tracking at a high-luminosity LHC.
Elementary Particle Interactions with CMS at LHC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spanier, Stefan [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)
2016-07-31
The High Energy Particle Physics group of the University of Tennessee participates in the search for new particles and forces in proton-proton collisions at the LHC with the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment. Since the discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012, the search has intensified to find new generations of particles beyond the standard model using the higher collision energies and ever increasing luminosity, either directly or via deviations from standard model predictions such as the Higgs boson decays. As part of this effort, the UTK group has expanded the search for new particles in four-muon final states, and in final states with jets, has successfully helped and continues to help to implement and operate an instrument for improved measurements of the luminosity needed for all data analyses, and has continued to conduct research of new technologies for charged particle tracking at a high-luminosity LHC.
A Search for Free Fractional Electric Charge Elementary Particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Halyo, Valerie
2000-12-04
A direct search was carried out in bulk matter for free fractional electric charge elementary particles using the largest mass single sample ever studied--about 17.4 mg of silicone oil. The search used an improved and highly automated Millikan oil drop technique. No evidence for fractional charge particles was found. The concentration of particles with fractional charge more than 0.16 e (e being the magnitude of the electron charge) from the nearest integer charge is less than 4.71 x 10{sup -22} particles per nucleon with 95% confidence.
A Search for Free Fractional Electric Charge Elementary Particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Halyo, Valerie
2000-12-04
A direct search was carried out in bulk matter for free fractional electric charge elementary particles using the largest mass single sample ever studied| about 17.4 mg of silicone oil. The search used an improved and highly automated Millikan oil drop technique. No evidence for fractional charge particles was found. The concentration of particles with fractional charge more than 0.16 e (e being the magnitude of the electron charge) from the nearest integer charge is less than 4.71 x 10{sup -22} particles per nucleon with 95% confidence.
Supersymmetry violation in elementary particle-monopole scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Casher, A.; Shamir, Y.
1991-10-01
We show that the scattering of elementary particles on solitons (monopoles, fluxons, etc.) in supersymmetric gauge theories violates the relations dictated by supersymmetry at tree level. The violation arises because of the discrepancy between the spectra of bosonic and fermionic fluctuations and because of the fermionic nature of the supersymmetry generators. (author). 14 refs
1975 annual report of the Elementary Particle Physics Department
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1976-03-01
The annual report gives a short summary of experiments in progress and of approved proposals of experiments to be performed at CERN by the Elementary Particle Physics Department of Saclay, and also publication lists and informations about the Department activities during 1975 [fr
Quantum Optics, Diffraction Theory, and Elementary Particle Physics
CERN. Geneva
2009-01-01
Physical optics has expanded greatly in recent years. Though it remains part of the ancestry of elementary particle physics, there are once again lessons to be learned from it. I shall discuss several of these, including some that have emerged at CERN and Brookhaven.
Second class current and structure of elementary particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Senju, H [Nagoya Municipal Women' s Junior Coll. (Japan); Matsushima, T
1976-10-01
We examine what is required for the structure of elementary particles by the second class nucleonic currents which was recently discovered by Sugimoto et al. The experiment strongly suggests that the quark has a radius of a few tenth of fermi and the partons are constituents of quarks. We discuss briefly a possible internal structure of the quark.
Inner life of elementary particles. Pt. V. Detail model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geitner, Uwe W.
2011-01-01
The author tries to develop a model for the cosmological beginning of the universe starting from the existing world. The booklet (part IV) includes the following chapters: introduction; origin of vibrations; origin of the big-bang; origin of elementary particles; charges and fields, unified conception of forces; conclusions.
Systematics of experimental charge radii of elements and elementary particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Antony, M.S.; Britz, J.
1987-02-01
The systematics of experimental charge radii of elements and elementary particles ..pi../sup -/, K/sup -/, K/sup 0/, p and n is discussed. The root-meansquare charge radius of a quark core in nucleous derived from the systematics is estimated to be 0.3 fm. Charge radii evaluated from Coulomb displacement energies are also tabulated.
Electron cooling and elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Budker, G.I.; Skrinskij, A.N.
1978-01-01
This review is devoted to a new method in experimental physics - the electron cooling. This method opens possibilities in storing the intense and highly monochromatic beams of heavy particles and allows to carry out a wide series of experiments of a high luminocity and resolution. The method is based on the beam cooling by an accompanying flux of electrons. The cooling is due to Coulomb collisions of the beam particles with electrons. In the first part the theoretical aspects of the method are considered shortly. The layout of the NAP-M installation with electron cooling and results of successful experiments on cooling the proton beam are given. In the second part the new possibilities are discussed which appear due to application of electron cooling: storing the intense antiproton beams and realization of the proton - antiproton colliding beams, carrying out experiments with the super fine targets in storage rings, experiments with particles and antiparticles at ultimately low energies, storing the polarized antiprotons and other particles, production of antiatoms, antideuton storing, experiments with ion beams
Elementary particle physics and cosmology: current status and prospects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rubakov, Valerii A
1999-01-01
The current status of elementary particle physics can be briefly summarized as follows: the Standard Model of elementary particles is perfectly (at the level of radiation effects!) adequate in describing all the available experimental data except for the recent indications of neutrino oscillations. At the same time, much (and possibly most) of today's cosmology is not encompassed by the Standard Model - a fact which, together with intrinsic theoretical difficulties and the neutrino oscillation challenge, strongly indicates that the Standard Model is incomplete. It is expected that in the current decade a 'new physics', i.e. particles and interactions beyond the Standard Model, will emerge. Major advances in cosmology, both in terms of qualitatively improved observations and theoretical analysis of the structure and evolution of the Universe, are expected as well. (special issue)
Elementary particles, dark matter candidate and new extended standard model
Hwang, Jaekwang
2017-01-01
Elementary particle decays and reactions are discussed in terms of the three-dimensional quantized space model beyond the standard model. Three generations of the leptons and quarks correspond to the lepton charges. Three heavy leptons and three heavy quarks are introduced. And the bastons (new particles) are proposed as the possible candidate of the dark matters. Dark matter force, weak force and strong force are explained consistently. Possible rest masses of the new particles are, tentatively, proposed for the experimental searches. For more details, see the conference paper at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/308723916.
Spaceship neutrino. History of an elementary particle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sutton, C.
1994-01-01
The author tells the story of the neutrino that was postulated as early as the 30s by W. Pauli but could only be proved in the 50s. She tells of the expensive experiments by means of the complicated detectors on the earth to record the particles streaming out of the sun in the billions. Discussed also is the cosmological theory which holds that the neutrinos could provide the missing mass in the universe. figs., tabs., refs
Theoretical and experimental studies of elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bodek, A.; Ferbel, T.; Melissinos, A.C.; Olsen, S.L.; Slattery, P.; Tipton, P.; Das, A.; Hagen, C.R.; Rajeev, S.G.; Okubo, S.
1991-01-01
This report discusses: Fixed target experimentation at Fermilab; the D-zero collider experiment at Fermilab; deep inelastic lepton nucleon scattering; non-accelerator experiments and non-linear QED; the AMY experiment at TRISTAN and other activities at KEK; the collider detector at Fermilab; laser switched linac; preparations for experiments at the SSC; search for massive stable particles; and the Advanced Study Institute on techniques and concepts of high energy physics
Charting the Course for Elementary Particle Physics
Richter, B.
2007-02-16
"It was the best of times; it was the worst of times" is the way Dickens begins the Tale of Two Cities. The line is appropriate to our time in particle physics. It is the best of times because we are in the midst of a revolution in understanding, the third to occur during my career. It is the worst of times because accelerator facilities are shutting down before new ones are opening, restricting the opportunity for experiments, and because of great uncertainty about future funding. My task today is to give you a view of the most important opportunities for our field under a scenario that is constrained by a tight budget. It is a time when we cannot afford the merely good, but must give first priority to the really important. The defining theme of particle physics is to learn what the universe is made of and how it all works. This definition spans the full range of size from the largest things to the smallest things. This particle physics revolution has its origins in experiments that look at both.
Charting the Course for Elementary Particle Physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Richter, Burton
2007-01-01
''It was the best of times; it was the worst of times'' is the way Dickens begins the Tale of Two Cities. The line is appropriate to our time in particle physics. It is the best of times because we are in the midst of a revolution in understanding, the third to occur during my career. It is the worst of times because accelerator facilities are shutting down before new ones are opening, restricting the opportunity for experiments, and because of great uncertainty about future funding. My task today is to give you a view of the most important opportunities for our field under a scenario that is constrained by a tight budget. It is a time when we cannot afford the merely good, but must give first priority to the really important. The defining theme of particle physics is to learn what the universe is made of and how it all works. This definition spans the full range of size from the largest things to the smallest things. This particle physics revolution has its origins in experiments that look at both
Phase transitions and elementary-particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Creutz, M.
1981-01-01
The reason physicists have recently taken an intense interest in the statistical mechanics of certain lattice models is reviewed. Phase transitions in these systems are of direct relevance to whether the gauge theory of interacting quarks and gluons can prevent the quark as appearing as a free isolated object. Monte Carlo simulation techniques have given the strongest evidence for the confinement phenomenon and are beginning to make numerical predictions in strong interaction physics
Energy related applications of elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rafelski, J.
1989-01-01
Study of muon catalysis of nuclear fusion and phenomena commonly referred to as cold fusion has been central to our effort. Muon catalyzed fusion research concentrated primarily on the identification of energy efficient production of muons, and the understanding and control of the density dependence of auto-poisoning (sticking) of the catalyst. We have also developed the in-flight fusion description of the tμ-d reaction, and work in progress shows promise in explaining the fusion cycle anomalies and smallness of sticking as a consequence of the dominant role of such reactions. Our cold fusion work involved the exploration of numerous environments for cold fusion reactions in materials used in the heavy water electrolysis, with emphasis on reactions consistent with the conventional knowledge of nuclear physics reactions. We then considered the possibility that a previously unobserved ultra-heavy particle X - is a catalyst of dd fusion, explaining the low intensity neutrons observed by Jones et. al. 29 refs
The new classification of elementary particle resonance mass spectra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gareev, F.A.; Barabanov, M.Yu.; Kazacha, G.S.
1997-01-01
Elementary particle resonances have been systematically analyzed from the first principles: the conservation laws of energy-momentum and Ehrenfest adiabatic invariant. As a result, resonance decay product momenta and masses of resonances were established to be quantized. Radial excited states of resonances were revealed. These observations give us a possibility to formulate the strategy of experimental searches for new resonances and to systematize already known ones. (author)
Some current experimental challenges in elementary particle physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cline, D.B. (California Univ., Los Angeles (USA). Dept. of Physics)
1990-06-01
We describe three experimental challenges for experimental elementary particle physics: (1) the ongoing search for flavor changing weak neutral currents, including future prospect for a anti BB factory, (2) the status of the tests of the standard model in the W, Z and t quark sectors and (3) some current search for physics beyond the standard model, to include the possibility of searching for CPT violation using a {Phi} factory. (orig.).
A survey of research in elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baton, J.P.; Cohen-Tannoudji, G.
1986-05-01
These notes are devoted to the current trends in elementary particle physics. They are not intended for the training of experts in the field. After a brief historical survey, one discusses the difficulties which have made necessary to move from classical physics to relativistic quantum physics. The main concepts of this new theory are rapidly presented. The experimental methods are discussed within a few typical experiments, already performed or scheduled. The main questions which are still unsolved are rapidly mentioned [fr
A survey of research in elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baton, J.P.; Cohen-Tannoudji, G.
1986-10-01
These notes are devoted to the current trends in elementary particle physics. They are not intended for the training of experts in the field. After a brief historical survey, one discusses the difficulties which have made necessary to move from classical physics to relativistic quantum physics. The main concepts of this new theory are rapidly presented. The experimental methods are discussed within a few typical experiments, already performed or scheduled. The main questions which are still unsolved are rapidly mentioned [fr
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brueckner, Thomas Christian
2015-07-01
After a description of the standard model of elementary-particle physics the author describes structuralistic reconstructions. Then the problem of the theoretical terms is discussed. Therafter the reconstruction of the standard-model elementary particles is described. Finally the ontology of leptons, quarks and both free and in atoms bound protons is considered.
Elementary particle theory in Japan, 1930-1960
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, L.M.; Kawabe, Rokuo; Konuma, Michiji; Maki, Ziro
1991-01-01
The present volume consists of the combined proceedings of two Japan-USA Collaborative Workshops, organized to explore historical developments of particle theory in Japan during the period 1930-1960, i.e., the three decades that include the birth and development of Meson Theory. The first phase of workshops was held during September 1978-July 1979 and the second during July 1984-September 1985. The original versions of these proceedings were published informally; namely, the former was distributed as a series of preprints of the Yukawa Institute (then called RIFP) entitled 'Particle Physics in Japan, 1930-50 Vol. I, II' (RIFP-407 and -408, September 1980); the latter was issued in the form of camera-ready printing from Yukawa Hall Archival Library (YHAL) in May 1988, under the title 'Elementary Particle Theory in Japan, 1935-1960'. Only a small number of copies were printed for both sets of proceedings due to financial limitations of the project. (author)
Elementary particle treatment of the radiative muon capture
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gmitro, M.; Ovchinnikova, A.A.
1979-01-01
Radiative nucleon-capture amplitudes have been constructed for the 12 C(O + ) → 12 B(1 + ) and 16 O(O + ) → 16 N(2 - ) transitions using assumptions about the conservation of electromagnetic and weak hadronic currents supplemented by a dynamical hypothesis. The nucleus is treated as an elementary particle and therefore is completely defined by its charge e, magnetic moment μ, spin J and parity π. In this case the radiative amplitude obtained in the framework of perturbation theory with minimal coupling sometimes does not satisfy the CVC and PCAC conditions and it can be even gauge noninvariant. The method considered allows one to overcome these shortcomings. (G.M.)
[Theoretical elementary particle studies.] Final report, September 1983-July 1985
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Collins, J.C.
1985-01-01
The work done during the period September 1983 to July 1985 covers several areas of the theory of the strong interactions of elementary particles, mostly in the area characterized as 'perturbative QCD'. The specific topics are: the proof of factorization for hard processes, such as the Drell-Yan process; calculation of transverse-mementum distributions for these processes; investigation of the small-x region; demonstration of the applicability of perturbative QCD (quantum chromodynamics) to the production of heavy quarks; and improved methods of calculation of the effects of heavy quarks in hard processes, and in particular of their distribution functions in hadrons ('structure functions'). 31 refs
At the origins of mass: elementary particles and fundamental symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iliopoulos, Jean; Englert, Francois
2015-01-01
After a brief recall of the history of cosmology, the author proposes an overview of the different symmetries (symmetries in space and in time, internal symmetries, local or gauge symmetries), describes the mass issue (gauge interactions, quarks and leptons as matter mass constituents, chirality), addresses the spontaneous symmetry breaking (the Curie theorem, spontaneous symmetry breaking in classical physics and in quantum physics, the Goldstone theorem, spontaneous symmetry breaking in presence of gauge interactions), presents the standard theory (electromagnetic and weak interactions, strong interactions, relationship with experiment). An appendix presents elementary particles, and notably reports the story of the neutrino
Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revision 1-85
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Rittenberg, A.
1985-01-01
This report contains summaries of 551 approved experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1 January 1980 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, KEK, LAMPF, Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute, Saclay, Serpukhov, SIN, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also experiments on proton decay. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized. Instructions are given for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries
Factorization of the Laplacian and families of elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keller, J.
1994-01-01
It is shown that multi-vector Clifford algebra allows a series of factorizations of the Laplacian operator and associated Dirac-like equations, this set of related equations generates 3 families of elementary particles with the experimentally observed lepton and quark content for each family and the experimentally observed electroweak color interactions and other related properties. In contrast to the usual approach to the standard model the properties for the different fields of the model are consequences of the relative properties of the equations, among themselves and in relation to space-time, and therefore, they do not need to be postulates of the theory. 11 refs
What can we learn about elementary particles from atomic physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanders, P.G.H.
1976-01-01
Information about elementary particles can be obtained from atomic physics in two ways. One can compare the results of high precision experiments with accurate theoretical predictions in those simple systems, such as hydrogen, where these are possible. Alternatively, one can carry out experiments designed to look with great sensitivity for small effects, such as non-conservation of parity or violation of time reversal invariance which are forbidden in the normal atomic theory. Current work which will be described can yield significant information concerning quantum electrodynamics, the values of the fundamental constants, the structure of nucleons and the nature of the weak interactions. (orig.) [de
Non-European facilities for elementary particle physics research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mann, A.K.
1983-01-01
The facilities we now employ in high energy physics cover a broad spectrum of particle energies and intensities and provide therefore a multiplicity of probes with which to study the behavior of elementary particles. In general, the goal has been to achieve ever higher particle energies and intensities, with emphasis on energy, and to develop more versatile and more sensitive detectors with which to study the resultant particle-particle interactions. Most energy regimes that have been explored have yielded new, fundamental information which often becomes clearer and more easily developed when particle energies are further increased. In this talk I shall try to delineate the nature of those facilities in Canada, Japan and the U.S.A. It is useful, I believe, to begin with a brief discussion of the funding and management of facilities in those countries and a short summary of recent history. The main body of the talk concentrates on the present, planned and contemplated facilities of the major non-European accelerator laboratories, and address briefly the status of accelerator development. The concluding section will summarize the salient features of the discussion. (author)
Knots on a Torus: A Model of the Elementary Particles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jack S. Avrin
2012-02-01
Full Text Available Two knots; just two rudimentary knots, the unknot and the trefoil. That’s all we need to build a model of the elementary particles of physics, one with fermions and bosons, hadrons and leptons, interactions weak and strong and the attributes of spin, isospin, mass, charge, CPT invariance and more. There are no quarks to provide fractional charge, no gluons to sequester them within nucleons and no “colors” to avoid violating Pauli’s principle. Nor do we require the importation of an enigmatic Higgs boson to confer mass upon the particles of our world. All the requisite attributes emerge simply (and relativistically invariant as a result of particle conformation and occupation in and of spacetime itself, a spacetime endowed with the imprimature of general relativity. Also emerging are some novel tools for systemizing the particle taxonomy as governed by the gauge group SU(2 and the details of particle degeneracy as well as connections to Hopf algebra, Dirac theory, string theory, topological quantum field theory and dark matter. One exception: it is found necessary to invoke the munificent geometry of the icosahedron in order to provide, as per the group “flavor” SU(3, a scaffold upon which to organize the well-known three generations—no more, no less—of the particle family tree.
The Relevant Factors in Promoting Reading Activities in Elementary Schools
Huang, Han-Chen; Tsai, Yao-Hsu; Huang, Shih-Hsiang
2015-01-01
In order to help students absorb knowledge, schools often conduct reading activities. Thorough planning and strategies, however, are needed to insure the effect of reading promotions, and make them a deeply-rooted part of life. This study adopted the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to discuss the relevant factors in promoting reading activities…
Impact of storage rings on elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trilling, G.H.
1979-03-01
It is well known that new experimental discoveries often closely follow the development of new technology. There is hardly a better example of this than the close coupling between new discoveries in the frontiers of elementary particle physics and the development of the art and science of making high-energy accelerators. It is almost twenty-five years since the construction of the Bevatron made possible the discovery of the antiproton; and, since that time, knowledge and understanding of particle physics has made enormous strides in step with new developments in both the accelerator and the detector arts. An attempt is made to document how intimately many of the recent advances have been tied to the success in the development of storage rings and colliding beams
Use of new computer technologies in elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaines, I.; Nash, T.
1987-01-01
Elementary particle physics and computers have progressed together for as long as anyone can remember. The symbiosis is surprising considering the dissimilar objectives of these fields, but physics understanding cannot be had simply by detecting the passage of particles. It requires a selection of interesting events and their analysis in comparison with quantitative theoretical predictions. The extraordinary reach made by experimentalists into realms always further removed from everyday observation frequently encountered technology constraints. Pushing away such barriers has been an essential activity of the physicist since long before Rossi developed the first practical electronic AND gates as coincidence circuits in 1930. This article describes the latest episode of this history, the development of new computer technologies to meet the various and increasing appetite for computing of experimental (and theoretical) high energy physics
Physics through the 1990s: Elementary-particle physics
1986-01-01
The volume begins with a non-mathematical discussion of the motivation behind, and basic ideas of, elementary-particle physics theory and experiment. The progress over the past two decades with the quark model and unification of the electromagnetic and weak interactions is reviewed. Existing theoretical problems in the field, such as the origin of mass and the unification of the fundamental forces, are detailed, along with experimental programs to test the new theories. Accelerators, instrumentation, and detectors are described for both current and future facilities. Interactions with other areas of both theoretical and applied physics are presented. The sociology of the field is examined regarding the education of graduate students, the organization necessary in large-scale experiments, and the decision-making process involved in high-cost experiments. Finally, conclusions and recommendations for maintaining US excellence in theory and experiment are given. Appendices list both current and planned accelerators, and present statistical data on the US elementary-particle physics program. A glossary is included.
Physics through the 1990s: Elementary-particle physics
The volume begins with a non-mathematical discussion of the motivation behind, and basic ideas of, elementary-particle physics theory and experiment. The progress over the past two decades with the quark model and unification of the electromagnetic and weak interactions is reviewed. Existing theoretical problems in the field, such as the origin of mass and the unification of the fundamental forces, are detailed, along with experimental programs to test the new theories. Accelerators, instrumentation, and detectors are described for both current and future facilities. Interactions with other areas of both theoretical and applied physics are presented. The sociology of the field is examined regarding the education of graduate students, the organization necessary in large-scale experiments, and the decision-making process involved in high-cost experiments. Finally, conclusions and recommendations for maintaining US excellence in theory and experiment are given. Appendices list both current and planned accelerators, and present statistical data on the US elementary-particle physics program. A glossary is included.
Relevance of plasma science to particle accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.
1998-01-01
In following the theme of this Symposium, ''Plasma Science and Its Applications,'' the authors may be suggesting to some readers that the other applications of Plasma Science somehow justify the existence of a field traditionally devoted to fusion energy. In fact, they do not believe that plasma science can or should be justified for its spin-off contributions. Nevertheless, the unity of science would be seriously threatened by a precipitous decline in the support for plasma science. It is that unity which repeatedly has been verified as one looks for how advances in one field are crucial to several other seemingly fundamentally different fields. Thus it is in this case, as a representative of the community of Particle Accelerator Scientists, that they show four significant areas in which the methods and the results of plasma science have been applied to Accelerator Science. They have deliberately skipped plasma ion sources which are perhaps the most obvious application of plasmas to accelerators. Two of their four examples are cases in which the computational methods of plasma science have been adopted, and two are examples in which the plasmas themselves are employed. One of each category are now actively in use and the other one in each category is being used to develop or design new devices
Elementary particle physics at the University of Florida. Annual progress report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1996-01-01
This report discusses the following topics: Task A: theoretical elementary particle physics; Task B: experimental elementary particle physics; Task C: axion project; Task G: experimental research in collider physics; and Task S: computer acquisition. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database
Research in elementary particle physics at the University of Florida: Annual progress report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1988-01-01
This is a progress report on the Elementary Particle Physics program at the University of Florida. The program has five tasks covering a broad range of topics in theoretical and experimental high energy physics: Theoretical Elementary Particle Physics, Experimental High Energy Physics, Axion Search, Detector Development, and Computer Requisition
Electron, Muon, and Tau Heavy Lepton--Are These the Truly Elementary Particles?
Perl, Martin L.
1980-01-01
Discussed is the present concept of the ultimate nature of matter--the elementary particle. An explanation is given for why the lepton family of particles--the electron, muon, and tau--may be truly elementary. The tau lepton is described in more detail. (Author/DS)
Elementary particle physics at the University of Florida. Annual report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Field, R.D.; Ramond, P.M.; Sikivie, P.
1995-01-01
This is the annual progress report of the University of Florida's elementary particle physics group. The theoretical high energy physics group's research covers a broad range of topics, including both theory and phenomenology. Present work of the experimental high energy physics group is directed toward the CLEO detector, with some effort going to B physics at Fermilab. The Axion Search project is participating in the operation of a large-scale axion detector at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, with the University of Florida taking responsibility for this experiment's high-resolution spectrometer's assembly, programming, and installation, and planning to take shifts during operation of the detector in FY96. The report also includes a continuation of the University's three-year proposal to the United States Department of Energy to upgrade the University's high-energy physics computing equipment and to continue student support, system manager/programmer support, and maintenance. Report includes lists of presentations and publications by members of the group
Unification of all elementary-particle forces including gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Terazawa, Hidezumi; Chikashige, Yuichi; Matsuki, Takayuki; Akama, Keiichi.
1978-07-01
A unified model of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio type for all elementary-particle forces including gravity is reviewed in some detail. Starting with a nonlinear fermion Lagrangian of the Heisenberg type and imposing the massless conditions of Bjorken on vector auxiliary fields, on effective Lagrangian is constructed, which combines the unified SU (2) x U (1) gauge theory of Weinberg and Salam for the weak and electromagnetic interactions of leptons and quarks and the Yang-Mills gauge theory of color SU (3) for the strong interaction of quarks. The photon, the weak vector bosons, and the physical Higgs scalar appear as collective excitations of lepton-antilepton or quark-antiquark pairs while the color-octet gluons appear as those of quark-antiquark pairs. The most important results of this unified model are presented. The Weinberg angle and the gluon coupling constant are determined, and the masses of the weak vector bosons are predicted. (Yoshimori, M.)
A data acquisition system for elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grittenden, J.A.; Benenson, G.; Cunitz, H.; Hsuing, Y.B.; Kaplan, D.M.; Sippach, W.; Stern, B.
1984-01-01
The data acquisition system experiment 605 at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory employs a set of data transfer protocols developed at Columbia University and implemented in the Nevis Laboratories Data Transport System. The authors describe the logical design of the Transport System, its physical realization, and its particular application during the Spring, 1982 data run of experiment 605. During that run it served as the interface between the data latches and a megabyte of fast memory, operating at a data transfer rate of 200 nsec/16-bit word. Up to two thousand events were read out during the one second beam spill, each event consisting of about 250 words. Included are details of proposed improvements to the data acquisition system and append a brief comment of the need for inexpensive, versatile readout systems in experimental elementary particle physics
Conceptual citation frequency - quantum mechanics and elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hurt, C.D.
1986-01-01
The differences in conceptual citation frequency are examined between quantum mechanics literature and elementary particle physics literature. Using a sample based on increments of 5 years, 7 contrast tests were generated over a literature period of 35 years. A Dunn planned comparison procedure indicated a statistical difference in years 5 and 10 but no differences were found in the remaining years. The results must be weighed against the time frames in which the literature was produced but clearly point to an initial difference in the two areas. Additional work is required to reevaluate the findings and to investigate the conceptual citation frequency issue further. The frequency distribution generated approximates a cumulative advantage process. (author)
Theoretical and Experimental Studies of Elementary Particle Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Evans, Harold G [Indiana University; Kostelecky, V Alan [Indiana University; Musser, James A [Indiana University
2013-07-29
The elementary particle physics research program at Indiana University spans a broad range of the most interesting topics in this fundamental field, including important contributions to each of the frontiers identified in the recent report of HEPAP's Particle Physics Prioritization Panel: the Energy Frontier, the Intensity Frontier, and the Cosmic Frontier. Experimentally, we contribute to knowledge at the Energy Frontier through our work on the D0 and ATLAS collaborations. We work at the Intensity Frontier on the MINOS and NOvA experiments and participate in R&D for LBNE. We are also very active on the theoretical side of each of these areas with internationally recognized efforts in phenomenology both in and beyond the Standard Model and in lattice QCD. Finally, although not part of this grant, members of the Indiana University particle physics group have strong involvement in several astrophysics projects at the Cosmic Frontier. Our research efforts are divided into three task areas. The Task A group works on D0 and ATLAS; Task B is our theory group; and Task C contains our MINOS, NOvA, and LBNE (LArTPC) research. Each task includes contributions from faculty, senior scientists, postdocs, graduate and undergraduate students, engineers, technicians, and administrative personnel. This work was supported by DOE Grant DE-FG02-91ER40661. In the following, we describe progress made in the research of each task during the final period of the grant, from November 1, 2009 to April 30, 2013.
Elementary particles, the concept of mass, and emergent spacetime
Żenczykowski, Piotr
2015-07-01
It is argued that the problem of space quantization should be considered in close connection with the problem of mass quantization. First, the nonlocality of quantum physics suggests that if spacetime emerges from the underlying quantum layer, this emergence should occur simultaneously at all distance and momentum scales, and not just at the Planck scale. Second, the spectrum of elementary particles provides us with a lot of important information, experimentally inaccessible at the Planck scale, that could be crucial in unravelling the mechanism of emergence. Accordingly, we start with a brief review of some fundamental issues appearing both in the spectroscopy of excited baryons and in connection with the concept of quark mass. It is pointed out that experiment suggests the inadequacy of the description of baryonic interior in terms of ordinary spacetime background. Thus, it is argued that one should be able to learn about the emergence of space from the studies of the quark/hadron transition. The problem of mass is then discussed from the point of view of nonrelativistic phase space and its Clifford algebra, which proved promising in the past. Connection with the Harari-Shupe explanation of the pattern of a single Standard Model generation is briefly reviewed and a proposal for the reintroduction of relativistic covariance into the phase-space scheme is presented.
Research in elementary particle physics. Technical progress report, June 1, 1983-May 31, 1984
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirsch, L.E.; Schnitzer, H.J.; Bensinger, J.R.; Abbott, L.F.
1984-01-01
Under this contract, research has been performed on both the theoretical and experimental properties of elementary particles. A brief description of the work which is either in progress or has been completed is given. Publications are listed
Elementary particles and the laws of physics: The 1986 Dirac Memorial Lectures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feynman, R.P.; Weinberg, S.
1987-01-01
Elementary Particles and the Laws of Physics contains transcriptions of the two lectures given in Cambridge, England, in 1986 by Nobel Laureates Richard P. Feynman and Steven Weinberg to commemorate the famous British physicist Paul Dirac. The talks focus on the fundamental problems of physics and the present state of our knowledge. Professor Feynman discusses how the laws of physics require the existence of antiparticles; Professor Weinberg examines the development of the fundamental laws of elementary particle intersection
Experimental Studies of Elementary Particle Interactions at High Energies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goulianos, Konstantin [Rockefeller Univ., New York, NY (United States)
2013-07-30
This is the final report of a program of research on "Experimental Studies of Elementary Particle Interactions at High Energies'' of the High Energy Physics (HEP) group of The Rockefeller University. The research was carried out using the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) and the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Three faculty members, two research associates, and two postdoctoral associates participated in this project. At CDF, we studied proton-antiproton collisions at an energy of 1.96 TeV. We focused on diffractive interactions, in which the colliding antiproton loses a small fraction of its momentum, typically less than 1%, while the proton is excited into a high mass state retaining its quantum numbers. The study of such collisions provides insight into the nature of the diffractive exchange, conventionally referred to as Pomeron exchange. In studies of W and Z production, we found results that point to a QCD-based interpretation of the diffractive exchange, as predicted in a data-driven phenomenology developed within the Rockefeller HEP group. At CMS, we worked on diffraction, supersymmetry (SUSY), dark matter, large extra dimensions, and statistical applications to data analysis projects. In diffraction, we extended our CDF studies to higher energies working on two fronts: measurement of the single/double diffraction and of the rapidity gap cross sections at 7 TeV, and development of a simulation of diffractive processes along the lines of our successful model used at CDF. Working with the PYTHIA8 Monte Carlo simulation authors, we implemented our model as a PYTHIA8-MBR option in PYTHIA8 and used it in our data analysis. Preliminary results indicate good agreement. We searched for SUSY by measuring parameters in the Constrained Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (CMSSM) and found results which, combined with other experimental constraints and theoretical considerations, indicate
On the number of elementary particles in a resolution dependent fractal spacetime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He Jihuan
2007-01-01
We reconsider the fundamental question regarding the number of elementary particles in a minimally extended standard model. The main conclusion is that since the dimension of E-infinity spacetime is resolution dependent, then the number of elementary particles is also resolution dependent. For D = 10 of superstrings, D = 11 of M theory and D = 12 of F theory one finds N(SM) equal to (6)(10) = 60 (6)(11) = 66 and (6)(12) = 72 particles, respectively. This is in perfect agreement with prediction made previously by Mohamed Saladin El-Naschie and Marek-Crnjac
100 years of elementary particles [Beam Line, vol. 27, issue 1, Spring 1997
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pais, Abraham; Weinberg, Steven; Quigg, Chris; Riordan, Michael; Panofsky, Wolfgang K.H.; Trimble, Virginia
1997-04-01
This issue of Beam Line commemorates the 100th anniversary of the April 30, 1897 report of the discovery of the electron by J.J. Thomson and the ensuing discovery of other subatomic particles. In the first three articles, theorists Abraham Pais, Steven Weinberg, and Chris Quigg provide their perspectives on the discoveries of elementary particles as well as the implications and future directions resulting from these discoveries. In the following three articles, Michael Riordan, Wolfgang Panofsky, and Virginia Trimble apply our knowledge about elementary particles to high-energy research, electronics technology, and understanding the origin and evolution of our Universe.
100 years of elementary particles [Beam Line, vol. 27, number 1, Spring 1997
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pais, Abraham; Weinberg, Steven; Quigg, Chris; Riordan, Michael; Panofsky, Wolfgang K.H.; Trimble, Virginia
1997-01-01
This issue of Beam Line commemorates the 100th anniversary of the April 30, 1897 report of the discovery of the electron by J.J. Thomson and the ensuing discovery of other subatomic particles. In the first three articles, theorists Abraham Pais, Steven Weinberg, and Chris Quigg provide their perspectives on the discoveries of elementary particles as well as the implications and future directions resulting from these discoveries. In the following three articles, Michael Riordan, Wolfgang Panofsky, and Virginia Trimble apply our knowledge about elementary particles to high-energy research, electronics technology, and understanding the origin and evolution of our Universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leite Lopes, J.
1984-01-01
A report is given on the theoretical prediction and the experimental discovery of elementary particles from the electron to the weak intermediate vector bosons. The work of Lattes, Occhialini and Powell which put in evidence the pions predicted by Yukawa was the starting point of the modern experimental particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lopes, J.L.
1984-01-01
A report is given on the theoretical prediction and the experimental discovery of elementary particles from the electron to the weak intermediate vector bosons. The work of Lattes, Occhialini and Powell which put in evidence the pions predicted by Yukawa was the starting point of the modern experimental particle physics. (Author) [pt
Research program in elementary particle theory. Progress report, 1984
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Dicus, D.A.
1984-04-01
Research progress is reported on the following topics: gauge theory and monopole physics; supersymmetry and proton decay; strong interactions and model of particles; quantum rotator and spectrum generating group models of particles; geometric foundations of particle physics and optics; and application of particle physics to astrophysics. The titles of DOE reports are listed, and research histories of the scientific staff of the Center for Particle Theory are included
Reframing conceptual physics: Improving relevance to elementary education and sonography majors
LaFazia, David Gregory
This study outlines the steps taken to reframe the Waves and Periodicity unit within a conceptual physics course. Beyond this unit reframing process, this paper explores the activities that made up the reframed unit and how each was developed and revised. The unit was reframed to improve relevance of the activities to the Elementary Education and Diagnostic Medical Sonography majors who make up the bulk of the course roster. The unit was reframed around ten design principles that were built on best practices from the literature, survey responses, and focused interviews. These principles support the selection of a biology-integrated themed approach to teaching physics. This is done through active and highly kinesthetic learning across three realms of human experience: physical, social, and cognitive. The unit materials were designed around making connections to students' future careers while requiring students to take progressively more responsibility in activities and assessments. Several support strategies are employed across these activities and assessments, including an energy-first, guided-inquiry approach to concept scaffolding and accommodations for diverse learners. Survey responses were solicited from physics instructors experienced with this population, Elementary Education and Sonography program advisors, and curriculum design, learning strategies, and educational technology experts. The reframed unit was reviewed by doctoral-level science education experts and revised to further improve the depth and transparency with which the design principles reframe the unit activities. The reframed unit contains a full unit plan, lesson plans, and full unit materials. These include classroom and online activities, assessments, and templates for future unit and lesson planning. Additional supplemental materials are provided to support Elementary Education and Sonography students and program advisors and also further promote the reframed unit materials and design
Research program in elementary-particle theory, 1981. Progress report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Ne'eman, Y.
1981-01-01
Progress is reported for research in the physics of ultra high energies and cosmology, the phenomenology of particle physics, composite models of particles and quantum field theory, quantum mechanics, geometric formulations, fiber bundles, and other algebraic models
[Studies of interactions between elementary particles and nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fortney, L.R.; Goshaw, A.T.; Walker, W.D.
1990-08-01
This report discusses the following research: Particle production in p bar p collision at √s = 1.8 TeV; SSC subsystems R ampersand D; the solenoid detector collaboration particle nucleus collisions; task expenditure statement. Hadroproduction using 300 GeV particle beams Fermilab; hadroproduction of beauty Fermilab; and vector meson photo production
Remarks on search methods for stable, massive, elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perl, Martin L.
2001-01-01
This paper was presented at the 69th birthday celebration of Professor Eugene Commins, honoring his research achievements. These remarks are about the experimental techniques used in the search for new stable, massive particles, particles at least as massive as the electron. A variety of experimental methods such as accelerator experiments, cosmic ray studies, searches for halo particles in the galaxy and searches for exotic particles in bulk matter are described. A summary is presented of the measured limits on the existence of new stable, massive particle
Mass spectrum of elementary particles in a temperature-dependent model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malik, G.P.; Singh, Santokh; Varma, V.S.
1994-01-01
It is shown that the temperature-generalization of a popular model of quark-confinement seems to provide a rather interesting insight into the origin of mass of elementary particles: as the universe cooled, there was an era when particles did not have an identity since their masses were variable; the temperature at which the conversion of these 'nomadic' particles into 'elementary' particles took place seems to have been governed by the value of a dimensionless coupling constant C c . For C c =0.001(0.1) this temperature is of the order of 10 9 K (10 11 K), below which the particle masses do not change. (author). 27 refs., 1 tab
ON THE STRUCTURE OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES IN CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prigogine, I.; Henin, F.
1963-06-15
For particles that can be characterized by three scalars bare mass, electromagnetic mass, and electric charge), it is noted that there can be constructed a theory that is finite, relativistic, strictly causal, and that permits the definition of an energy tensor for the particle. (T.F.H.)
Research program in elementary-particle theory, 1983. Progress report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Ne'eman, Y.
1983-08-01
Progress is reviewed on the following topics: physics of ultra high energies and cosmology; phenomenology of particle physics; quantum field theory, supersymmetry and models of particles; and geometric formulations and algebraic models. Recent DOE reports resulting from the contract are listed
Research program in elementary-particle theory, 1983. Progress report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sudarshan, E C.G.; Ne& #x27; eman, Y
1983-08-01
Progress is reviewed on the following topics: physics of ultra high energies and cosmology; phenomenology of particle physics; quantum field theory, supersymmetry and models of particles; and geometric formulations and algebraic models. Recent DOE reports resulting from the contract are listed. (WHK)
Halyo; Kim; Lee; Lee; Loomba; Perl
2000-03-20
We have carried out a direct search in bulk matter for free fractional electric charge elementary particles using the largest mass single sample ever studied-about 17.4 mg of silicone oil. The search used an improved and highly automated Millikan oil drop technique. No evidence for fractional charge particles was found. The concentration of particles with fractional charge more than 0. 16e ( e being the magnitude of the electron charge) from the nearest integer charge is less than 4.71x10(-22) particles per nucleon with 95% confidence.
[Studies of elementary particles and high energy phenomena: [Progress report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cumalat, J.P.
1989-01-01
The scope of work under this contract is unclassified and shall consist of experimental, theoretical, and phenomenological research on the fundamental properties of high energy subnuclear particles at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, the Los Alamos National Laboratory, the SSC laboratory, and the University of Colorado with emphasis on photon beam experiments, electron-positron interactions, charmed particles, production of new vector bosons, advanced data acquisition systems, two photon physics, particle lifetimes, supergravity, supersymmetry, superstrings, quantum chromodynamics, nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, cosmology, phase transitions, lattice gauge theory, anomaly-free theories, gravity and instrumentation development. These topics are covered in this report
Elementary particles as micro-universes or micro-black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodrigues Junior, W.A.
1985-01-01
The idea that elementary particles can be presented as micro-universes and/or micro-black holes (Lorentzian manifolds) is presented and the fundamental mathematical problem associated with the simplest world manifold that 'contains' both the macrocosm and the microcosmes is discussed. (Author) [pt
Research in elementary particle physics. Technical progress report, May 1, 1980-April 30, 1981
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirsch, L.E.; Schnitzer, H.J.
1981-01-01
Research in theoretical and experimental properties of elementary particles is described. This includes measurements made at the multiparticle spectrometer facility at Brookhaven, studies of baryonium production, inclusive hyperon production, and E 0 production. Theroetical work included extended field theories, subconstituent models, finite temperature QCD, grand unified theories, and calculational techniques in gauge theories
Toward unification of elementary particle physics and cosmology in 10-dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chapline, G.; Gibbons, G.
1984-01-01
Ten-dimensions seem to be a unique setting for unifying at the classical level cosmology and elementary particle physics. Some interesting results along these lines are obtained starting with a Yang-Mills coupled to supergravity theory in 10-dimensions. However, further progress will require finding an underlying quantum theory
Teaching the Conceptual Scheme "The Particle Nature of Matter" in the Elementary School.
Pella, Milton O.; And Others
Conclusions of an extensive project aimed to prepare lessons and associated materials related to teaching concepts included in the scheme "The Particle Nature of Matter" for grades two through six are presented. The hypothesis formulated for the project was that children in elementary schools can learn theoretical concepts related to the particle…
CERN and the Hunt for Elementary Particles and Forces
AUTHOR|(CDS)2051276
2008-01-01
CERN is the European Laboratory for Particle Physics, the world's largest particle physics research centre. Founded in 1954, the Laboratory was one of Europe's first joint ventures and has become a premier example of international collaboration. CERN's subject of study is pure science and is concentrated on exploring the Universe's most fundamental questions, such as What is it made of? and How did it come to be the way it is? The Laboratory's tools, the particle accelerators and particle detectors, are amongst the world's largest and most complex scientific instruments. The Laboratory's primary aims will be presented and a look at past achievements and present endeavours, particularly the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), will be reviewed. A brief look into the future will also be given.
A re-examination of symmetry/Group relationships as applied ot the elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Byrd, K.; Cole R.
1993-01-01
The purpose of this investigation is to apply Group Theory to the elementary particles. Group Theory is a mathematical discipline used to predict the existence of elementary particles by physicists. Perhaps, the most famous application of Group Theory to the elementary particles was by Murray Gell-Mann in 1964. Gell-Mann used the theory to predict the existence and characteristics of the then undiscovered Omega Minus Particle. Group Theory relies heavily on symmetry relationships and expresses them in terms of geometry. Existence and the characteristics of a logical intuitable, but unobserved member of a group are given by extrapolation of the geometric relationships and characteristics of the known members of the group. In this study, the Delta, Sigma, Chi and Omega baryons are used to illustrate how physicists apply geometry and symmetrical relationships to predict new particles. The author's hypothesis is that by using the D3 crystal symmetry group and Gell-Mann's baryons, three new particles will be predicted. The results of my new symmetry predicts the Omega 2, Omega 3, and Chi 3. However, the Chi 3 does not have characteristics consistent with those of the other known group members
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nussbaumer, Thomas
2005-01-01
Biomass combustion is a relevant source of particle emissions. In Switzerland, wood combustion contributes with 2% to the energy supply but with more than 4% to Particulate Matter smaller 10 microns (PM 10) in the ambient air. In areas with high density of residential wood heating (e.g. in the south of Chile), wood particles are the dominant source of PM 10 resulting in heavy local smog situations. Since combustion particles are regarded as health relevant and since immission limit values on PM 10 are widely exceeded, measures for particle reduction from biomass combustion are of high priority. With respect to aerosols from biomass combustion, two sources of particles are distinguished: 1. an incomplete combustion can lead to soot and organic matter contained in the particles, 2. ash constituents in the fuel lead to the formation of inorganic fly ash particles mainly consisting of salts such as chlorides and oxides. The theory of aerosol formation from fuel constituents is described and two hypotheses to reduce inorganic particles from biomass combustion are proposed: 1. a reduced oxygen content in the solid fuel conversion zone (glow bed in a fixed bed combustion) is assumed to reduce the particle mass concentration due to three mechanisms: a) reduced oxidation of fuel constituents to compounds with higher volatility, b) reduced local temperature for solid fuel conversion, c) a reduced entrainmed of fuel constituents 2. a reduced total excess air can reduce the particle number due to enhanced coagulation. The proposed low-particle concept has been implemented for an automatic furnace for wood pellets in the size range from 100 kW to 500 kW. Furthermore, the furnace design was optimised to enable a part load operation without increased emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and particles. In a 100 kW prototype furnace the low-particle conditions resulted in particle emissions between 6 mg/m n 3 to 11 mg/m n 3 at 13 vol.-% O2 and CO emissions below 70 mg/m n 3 in the
An improved search for elementary particles with fractional electric charge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, E.R.
1996-08-01
The SLAC Quark Search Group has demonstrated successful operation of a low cost, high mass throughput Millikan apparatus designed to search for fractionally charged particles. About six million silicone oil drops were measured with no evidence of fractional charges. A second experiment is under construction with 100 times greater throughput which will utilize optimized search fluids
Research program in elementary-particle theory. Progress report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Ne'eman, Y.
1982-08-01
This progress report of the Center for Particle Theory of the University of Texas at Austin reviews the work done over the past year and is part of the renewal proposal for the period from January 1, 1983 to December 31, 1983
The penta-quark: a new kind of elementary particle?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goeke, K.; Praszatowicz, M.
2005-01-01
The discovery of the exotic Θ + with minimal quark structure uudds-bar may provide a sensation since, if confirmed, it is the first baryonic particle that cannot be composed of three quarks. The chiral quark soliton description of baryons has predicted the mass and an upper limit for the decay width of this particle prior to the experiments and in agreement with the present data. The model corresponds to a relativistic mean field description of the nucleon, where the quarks move in a self-consistent mean field of pionic and kaonic character. It uses an effective chiral Lagrangian based on spontaneously broken chiral symmetry of the QCD. In a natural way the chiral quark soliton model describes the well known lowest two multiplets (8, 1 + /2), (10, 3 + /2) and it predicts two more exotic particles being members of an anti-decuplet (10-bar, 1 + /2) consisting of penta-quarks. The very narrow width of the Θ + can be explained by the small overlap of the 5-quark light cone wave function of the Θ + with the small 5-quark light cone component of the wave function of the nucleon. If confirmed, Θ + will not only be a new kind of subatomic particle but will seriously influence our understanding of the structure of ordinary nucleons. (authors)
Research program in elementary particle theory, 1980. Progress report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Ne'eman, Y.
1980-01-01
Research is reported for these subject areas: particle physics in relativistic astrophysics and cosmology; phenomenology of weak and electromagnetic interactions; strong interaction physics, QCD, and quark-parton physics; quantum field theory, quantum mechanics and fundamental problems; groups, gauges, and grand unified theories; and supergeometry, superalgebra, and unification
Research program in elementary particle theory, 1980. Progress report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sudarshan, E. C.G.; Ne' eman, Y.
1980-01-01
Research is reported for these subject areas: particle physics in relativistic astrophysics and cosmology; phenomenology of weak and electromagnetic interactions; strong interaction physics, QCD, and quark-parton physics; quantum field theory, quantum mechanics and fundamental problems; groups, gauges, and grand unified theories; and supergeometry, superalgebra, and unification. (GHT)
Research in elementary particle physics. [Ohio State Univ. , Columbus
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1992-01-01
Experimental and theoretical work on high energy physics is reviewed. Included are preparations to study high-energy electron-proton interactions at HERA, light-cone QCD, decays of charm and beauty particles, neutrino oscillation, electron-positron interactions at CLEO II, detector development, and astrophysics and cosmology.
Unity of elementary particles and forces in higher dimensions.
Gogoladze, Ilia; Mimura, Yukihiro; Nandi, S
2003-10-03
The idea of unifying all the gauge and Yukawa forces as well as the gauge, Higgs, and fermionic matter particles naturally leads us to a simple gauge symmetry in higher dimensions with supersymmetry. We present a model in which, for the first time, such a unification is achieved in the framework of quantum field theory.
Martinus Veltman, the Electroweak Theory, and Elementary Particle Physics
Particle Physics Resources with Additional Information Martinus Veltman Courtesy University of Michigan Martinus J.G. Veltman, the John D. MacArthur Professor Emeritus of Physics at the University of Michigan , was awarded the 1999 Nobel Prize in physics "for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak
A Simple Mathematical Model for Standard Model of Elementary Particles and Extension Thereof
Sinha, Ashok
2016-03-01
An algebraically (and geometrically) simple model representing the masses of the elementary particles in terms of the interaction (strong, weak, electromagnetic) constants is developed, including the Higgs bosons. The predicted Higgs boson mass is identical to that discovered by LHC experimental programs; while possibility of additional Higgs bosons (and their masses) is indicated. The model can be analyzed to explain and resolve many puzzles of particle physics and cosmology including the neutrino masses and mixing; origin of the proton mass and the mass-difference between the proton and the neutron; the big bang and cosmological Inflation; the Hubble expansion; etc. A novel interpretation of the model in terms of quaternion and rotation in the six-dimensional space of the elementary particle interaction-space - or, equivalently, in six-dimensional spacetime - is presented. Interrelations among particle masses are derived theoretically. A new approach for defining the interaction parameters leading to an elegant and symmetrical diagram is delineated. Generalization of the model to include supersymmetry is illustrated without recourse to complex mathematical formulation and free from any ambiguity. This Abstract represents some results of the Author's Independent Theoretical Research in Particle Physics, with possible connection to the Superstring Theory. However, only very elementary mathematics and physics is used in my presentation.
Gauge evolution of elementary particles physics during the last fifty years
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khodjaev, L.Sh
2002-01-01
Gauge evolution of the elementary particle physics has been remarked by outstanding and exiting discoveries during the last fifty years of X X century. We review a new tendency in the development of the modern elementary particle physics. The phenomenological basis for the formulation of Standard Model has been reviewed. The Standard Model based on the fundamental postulates has been formulated. The concept of the fundamental symmetries has been introduced to look for not fundamental particles but fundamental symmetries. The Standard Model is renormalizable and therefore potentially consistent in all energy scales. The Standard Model in principle can describe the properties of the Universe beginning at 10 -43 sec. after Big Bang. In searching of more general theory obvious program is to searching the first of all global symmetries and then learn consequences connected with the localization of these global symmetries
Detailed examination of 'standard elementary particle theories' based on measurement with Tristan
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamae, Tsuneyoshi
1989-01-01
The report discusses possible approaches to detailed analysis of 'standard elementary particle theories' on the basis of measurements made with Tristan. The first section of the report addresses major elementary particles involved in the 'standard theories'. The nature of the gauge particles, leptons, quarks and Higgs particle are briefly outlined. The Higgs particle and top quark have not been discovered, though the Higgs particle is essential in the Weiberg-Salam theory. Another important issue in this field is the cause of the collapse of the CP symmetry. The second section deals with problems which arise in universalizing the concept of the 'standard theories'. What are required to solve these problems include the discovery of supersymmetric particles, discovery of conflicts in the 'standard theories', and accurate determination of fundamental constants used in the 'standard theories' by various different methods. The third and fourth sections address the Weinberg-Salam theory and quantum chromodynamics (QCD). There are four essential parameters for the 'standard theories', three of which are associated with the W-S theory. The mass of the W and Z bosons measured in proton-antiproton collision experiments is compared with that determined by applying the W-S theory to electron-positron experiments. For QCD, it is essential to determine the lambda constant. (N.K.)
A guide to data in elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yost, G.P.; Rittenberg, A.; Armstrong, B.
1986-09-01
We present an indexed guide to experimental high energy physics literature for the years 1977 through 1985. While no actual data are included, approximately 9000 papers are indexed by Beam/Target/Momentum, Reaction/Momentum (including the final state), Particle, and Accelerator/Detector. All indices are cross-referenced via an ID to the paper's title and references in the ID/Reference/Title Index. Black marks (bleeder tabs) at the side of the page enable each section to be located quickly, using the Table of Contents on the back cover. The information presented in this guide is also publicly available on a regularly updated SLAC-SPIRES database called DATAGUIDE
Elementary particles and high energy phenomena: Progress report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cumalat, J.P.
1988-01-01
This paper reviews the research being done at the University of Colorado in High Energy Physics. Topics discussed in this paper are: Charmed Photoproduction; Hadronic Production of Charm Particles; Photoproduction of States Containing Heavy Quarks; Electron-Positron Physics with the MAC Detector at PEP; Electron-Positron Physics with the Upgraded Mark II Detector at SLC; The SLD Detector at SLC; Nonperturbative Studies of QCD; Hadron Phenomenology - Application to Experiment; Perturbative QCD and Weak Matrix Elements; Quarkonium Physics; Supersymmetry, Supergravity, and Superstrings; and Experimental Gravity. 50 refs., 13 figs
Final report. [Research in theoretical and experimental elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1998-01-01
This report gives summaries of particle physics research conducted by different group members for Task A. A summary of work on the CLEO experiment and detector is included for Task B along with a list of CLEO publications. During the present grant period for Task C, the authors had responsibility for the design, assembly, and programming of the high-resolution spectrometer which looks for narrow peaks in the output of the cavity in the LLNL experiment. They successfully carried out this task. Velocity peaks are expected in the spectrum of dark matter axions on Earth. The computing proposal (Task S) is submitted in support of the High Energy Experiment (CLEO, Fermilab, CMS) and the Theory tasks
Modern elementary particle physics explaining and extending the standard model
Kane, Gordon
2017-01-01
This book is written for students and scientists wanting to learn about the Standard Model of particle physics. Only an introductory course knowledge about quantum theory is needed. The text provides a pedagogical description of the theory, and incorporates the recent Higgs boson and top quark discoveries. With its clear and engaging style, this new edition retains its essential simplicity. Long and detailed calculations are replaced by simple approximate ones. It includes introductions to accelerators, colliders, and detectors, and several main experimental tests of the Standard Model are explained. Descriptions of some well-motivated extensions of the Standard Model prepare the reader for new developments. It emphasizes the concepts of gauge theories and Higgs physics, electroweak unification and symmetry breaking, and how force strengths vary with energy, providing a solid foundation for those working in the field, and for those who simply want to learn about the Standard Model.
Non-potential interactions and the origin of masses of elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun, J.
1982-01-01
We propose a fundamental assumption on internal states of particles. It follows from the fundamental assumption that: (1) the constituents of particles become non-particle objects; and (2) there appear naturally non-potential interactions. This non-potential interaction leads to a series of interesting results, one of which is that it yields the origin of masses of elementary particles. All mass values are given by the theory without pre-assumed mass values of the constituents (except the rest mass of the electron; mass is a physical quantity which appears only in particles but not in their constituents). The theoretically calculated mass values are in excellent agreement with the experimental values. In all calculations, only one constant b = 0.99935867 is introduced (bc being the speed of internal motion)
The Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Experimental Physics of Elementary Particles
Bednyakov, V. A.; Russakovich, N. A.
2018-05-01
The year 2016 marks the 60th anniversary of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna, an international intergovernmental organization for basic research in the fields of elementary particles, atomic nuclei, and condensed matter. Highly productive advances over this long road clearly show that the international basis and diversity of research guarantees successful development (and maintenance) of fundamental science. This is especially important for experimental research. In this review, the most significant achievements are briefly described with an attempt to look into the future (seven to ten years ahead) and show the role of JINR in solution of highly important problems in elementary particle physics, which is a fundamental field of modern natural sciences. This glimpse of the future is full of justified optimism.
Ellwanger, Ulrich
2012-01-01
In this book, the author leads the reader, step by step and without any advanced mathematics, to a clear understanding of the foundations of modern elementary particle physics and cosmology. He also addresses current and controversial questions on topics such as string theory. The book contains gentle introductions to the theories of special and general relativity, and also classical and quantum field theory. The essential aspects of these concepts are understood with the help of simple calculations; for example, the force of gravity as a consequence of the curvature of the space-time. Also treated are the Big Bang, dark matter and dark energy, as well as the presently known interactions of elementary particles: electrodynamics, the strong and the weak interactions including the Higgs boson. Finally, the book sketches as yet speculative theories: Grand Unification theories, supersymmetry, string theory and the idea of additional dimensions of space-time. Since no higher mathematical or physics expertise is r...
Research in elementary particle physics. Technical progress report, June 1, 1985-May 31, 1986
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirsch, L.E.; Schnitzer, H.J.; Bensinger, J.R.; Abbott, L.F.; Blocker, C.A.
1986-01-01
Progress is reported in both experimental and theoretical elementary particle research. Experimental activities include: construction of the Forward Electromagnetic Shower Counters for the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF); a test run in the CDF, involving observation of a small number of proton-antiproton collisions; design of a self-contained single wire proportional chamber with pressure and temperature sensing for monitoring the gain of gases used by various components of the CDF; data acquisition, and calibration. Also included are a search for a dibaryon of strangeness=-1; hyperon weak radiative decay. Theoretical research is reported in the areas of quantum field theory, string theory, elementary particle phenomenology, cosmology, field theory in curved spacetimes, and cosmology. 34 refs
Proceedings of the 28. international symposium Ahrenshoop on the theory of elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luest, D.; Weigt, G.
1995-03-01
The following topics were dealt with: elementary particle theory, string theory, algebra, group theory, symmetries, Lie groups, unified field theories, topology and theories of gravitation.ok place from August 30 to September 3, 1994 at Wendisch-Rietz near Berlin. The Symposium was organized jointly by the Institute for Elementary Particle Physics of the Humboldt University of Berlin, the Institute for Theoretical Physics of the University Hannover, the Section of Physics of the University Munich, and DESY Institute for High Energy Physics Zeuthen. It was made possible thanks to the financial support of the Bundesland Brandenburg, the DESY Institute for High Energy Physics Zeuthen, the Walter and Eva Andrejewski Stiftung, and last but not least the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG). We also would like to thank Karin Pipke for her dedicated assistance to prepare this manuscript. (orig.)
Models for Quarks and Elementary Particles --- Part IV: How Much Do We Know of This Universe?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ulrich K. W. Neumann
2008-07-01
Full Text Available Essential laws and principles of the natural sciences were discovered at the high aggregation levels of matter such as molecules, metal crystals, atoms and elementary particles. These principles reappear in these models in modified form at the fundamental level of the quarks. However, the following is probably true: since the principles apply at the fundamental level of the quarks they also have a continuing effect at the higher aggregation levels. In the manner of the law of mass action, eight processes for weak interaction are formulated, which are also called Weak Processes here. Rules for quark exchange of the reacting elementary particles are named and the quasi-Euclidian or complex spaces introduced in Part I associated with the respective particles. The weak processes are the gateway to the second strand of this universe which we practically do not know. The particles with complex space, e.g. the neutrino, form this second strand. According to the physical model of gravitation from Part III the particles of both strands have fields and are thus subject to the superposition, which results in the attraction by gravity of the particles of both strands. The weak processes (7 and (8 offer a fair chance for the elimination of highly radioactive waste.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Collins, J.C.
1987-01-01
Theoretical research on elementary particles is reported, with progress discussed in these areas: heavy quark production, the cosmic rays observed from Cygnus X-3, hadron-hadron collisions at small values of x, Monte Carlo event generators for hadron-hadron collisions, review of perturbative QCD theorems, direct computation of helicity amplitudes for tree diagrams, and application of the factorization of helicity amplitudes to the effective W approximation
Research in elementary particle physics. Technical progress report, June 1, 1984-May 31, 1985
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirsch, L.E.; Schnitzer, H.J.; Bensinger, J.R.; Abbott, L.F.
1985-01-01
Research performed on both the experimental and theoretical properties of elementary particles is briefly described, including: construction of forward electromagnetic shower counters; BO test facility; gas monitor development and production; off-line simulation work for trigger studies; hyperon weak radiative decay; search for dibaryons of strangeness = -1; study of the Skyrme model; collider physics; quarkonium spectroscopy; some theoretical studies of the standard model; and studies of cosmology, the cosmological constant, and scalar fields in curved space-time. 37 refs
A full computation-relevant topological dynamics classification of elementary cellular automata.
Schüle, Martin; Stoop, Ruedi
2012-12-01
Cellular automata are both computational and dynamical systems. We give a complete classification of the dynamic behaviour of elementary cellular automata (ECA) in terms of fundamental dynamic system notions such as sensitivity and chaoticity. The "complex" ECA emerge to be sensitive, but not chaotic and not eventually weakly periodic. Based on this classification, we conjecture that elementary cellular automata capable of carrying out complex computations, such as needed for Turing-universality, are at the "edge of chaos."
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamamoto, Akira
2011-01-01
The construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) was started in 1994 and completed in 2008. The LHC consists of more than seven thousand superconducting magnets and cavities, which play an essential role in elementary particle physics and its energy frontier. Since 2010, physics experiments at the new energy frontier have been carried out to investigate the history and elementary particle phenomena in the early universe. The superconducting technology applied in the energy frontier physics experiments is briefly introduced. (author)
Models for Quarks and Elementary Particles. Part IV: How Much do We Know of This Universe?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Neumann U. K. W.
2008-07-01
Full Text Available Essential laws and principles of the natural sciences were discovered at the high aggre- gation levels of matter such as molecules, metal crystals, atoms and elementary parti- cles. These principles reappear in these models in modified form at the fundamental level of the quarks. However, the following is probably true: since the principles apply at the fundamental level of the quarks they also have a continuing effect at the higher aggregation levels. In the manner of the law of mass action, eight processes for weak interaction are formulated, which are also called Weak Processes here. Rules for quark exchange of the reacting elementary particles are named and the quasi-Euclidian or complex spaces introduced in Part I associated with the respective particles. The weak processes are the gateway to the “second” strand of this universe which we practically do not know. The particles with complex space, e.g. the neutrino, form this second strand. According to the physical model of gravitation from Part III the particles of both strands have >-fields and are thus subject to the superposition, which results in the attraction by gravity of the particles of both strands. The weak processes (7 and (8 offer a fair chance for the elimination of highly radioactive waste.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cherepanov, E.O.; Skachkov, N.B.
2002-01-01
The software tool is developed for detailed and evident displaying of information about energy and space distribution of secondary particles produced in the processes of elementary particles collisions. As input information the data on the components of 4-momenta of secondary particles is used. As for these data the information obtained from different parts of physical detector (for example, from the calorimeter or tracker) as well as the information obtained with the help of event generator is taken. The tool is intended for use in Windows operation system and is developed on the basis of Borland Delphi. Mathematical architecture of the software tool allows user to receive complete information without making additional calculations. The program automatically performs analysis of structure and distributions of signals and displays the results in a transparent form which allows their quick analysis. To display the information the three-dimensional graphic methods as well as colour decisions based on intuitive associations are also used. (author)
Interference of two-particle states in elementary particle physics and in astronomy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kopylov, G.I.; Podgoretskij, M.I.
1975-01-01
Comparison is given of two versions of an experiment for observing of the interference of two-particle states of identical particles: time - space and momentum - energy versions. Both versions are considered in detail and make it possible to measure dimensions of particle souces. An interesting symmetry has been found. Expressions for the phase of interfering states in both versions of the experiment are obtained by mutual replacement of particle sources on their detector. An imaginary experiment is suggested which makes it possible to follow how these mutually exclusive versions of the experiment turn one into another
Gholibeigian, Hassan; Gholibeigian, Zeinab
2015-04-01
Understanding the internal structure of the proton is crucial challenge for QCD, and one important aspect of this is to understand how the spin of the nucleon is build-up from the angular momentum of its quarks and gluons. In this way, what's the origin of differences between angular momentums of fundamental particles? It may be from their substructures. It seems there are four sub-particles of mater, plant, animal and human in substructure of each fundamental particle (string) as the origins of life and cause of differences between spins of those elementary particles. Material's sub-particle always is on and active. When the environmental conditions became ready for creation of each field of the plant, animal and human, sub-particles of their elementary particles became on and active and then, those elementary particles participated in processes of creation in their own field. God, as the main source of information, has been communicated with their sub-particles and transfers a package (bit) of information and laws (plus standard ethics for human sub-particles) to each of them for process and selection (mutation) of the next step of motion and interaction of their fundamental particles with each other in each Plank's time. This is causality for particles' motion in quantum area.
The momentum degree of freedom of elementary particles and the gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tati, Takao.
1978-01-01
A universal time-like vector has been introduced into the momentum space of elementary particles, in a quantum field theory with a finite degree of freedom, in order to specify the Lorentz-system in which the cutoff function of momentum is given. In this paper, the relationship between quantum field theory and general relativity is considered and it is argued that, when the effect of gravitation on the momentum degree of freedom is taken into account, the universal time-like vector depends on the position of macroscopic space-time and can be considered, in a cosmological model, to coincide, on an average, with the Weyl's cosmic time. (auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silva, H.V. da.
1984-01-01
The results of investigations in parastatistical theories and in their applications to the internal symmetries of elementary particles are present. The paraquantization and the 'generalized paraquantization' (of Levine and Tomozawa) of the relativistic Schroedinger wave equations for non-zero mass and arbitrary spin (s), involving locally covariant wave functions, Ψ o,s + Ψ s,o are executed, and the restrictions resulting from the criterion of microscopic causality and the manner of establishment of the connection between spin and statistics in these quantizations are explicitly demonstrated. (Author) [pt
Proceedings of the fifth workshop on elementary-particle picture of the universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukugita, Masataka; Suzuki, Atsuto
1991-01-01
The Fifth Workshop on the Elementary-Particle of the Universe was held at Minami-Izu, from 19 to 21, November, 1990. The 80 participants included high-energy physicists, nuclear physicists, cosmic-ray physicists and astrophysicists, both from the theoretic and experimental fields. In this workshop most of the time was given to reviews of the present status and prospects of the subjects of the present project as well as some others, in order to find future directions. A detector symposium was held to explore the applicability of new technologies. This publication collects the presented papers and transparencies. (J.P.N.)
Vol. 1: Physics of Elementary Particles and Quantum Field Theory. General Problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sitenko, A.
1993-01-01
Problems of modern physics and the situation with physical research in Ukraine are considered. Programme of the conference includes scientific and general problems. Its proceedings are published in 6 volumes. The papers presented in this volume refer to elementary particle physics and quantum field theory. The main attention is paid to the following problems: - development of science in Ukraine and its role in the state structures; - modern state of scientific research in Ukraine; - education and training of specialists; - history of Ukrainian physics and contribution of Ukrainian scientists in the world science; - problems of the Ukrainian scientific terminology
MEG studies prohibited muon decays to explore grand unified theories of elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mori, Toshinori
2009-01-01
The MEG experiment, designed and proposed by Japanese physicists, is being carried out at Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland, in collaboration with physicists from Italy, Switzerland, Russia and U.S.A. The experiment will make an extensive search for a muon's two-body decay into an electron and a gamma ray, μ→eγ, which is prohibited in the Standard Model of elementary particles, to explore Supersymmetric Grand Unified Theories. This article gives a brief description of the MEG experiment with an emphasis on the innovative experimental techniques developed to achieve the unprecedented experimental sensitivity. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cleland, W.E.; Coon, D.D.; Engels, E. Jr.; Shepard, P.F.; Thompson, J.A.
1987-12-01
This paper discusses research activity at the University of Pittsburgh in experimental elementary particle physics. The three main tasks included are: Study of lepton production at the SPS and study of large P/sub T/ direct photon production at the ISR; Direct photon production at the Fermi Tevatron; and Search for fractional charge particles in semiconductors
Albijanic, Boris; Ozdemir, Orhan; Nguyen, Anh V; Bradshaw, Dee
2010-08-11
Bubble-particle attachment in water is critical to the separation of particles by flotation which is widely used in the recovery of valuable minerals, the deinking of wastepaper, the water treatment and the oil recovery from tar sands. It involves the thinning and rupture of wetting thin films, and the expansion and relaxation of the gas-liquid-solid contact lines. The time scale of the first two processes is referred to as the induction time, whereas the time scale of the attachment involving all the processes is called the attachment time. This paper reviews the experimental studies into the induction and attachment times between minerals and air bubbles, and between oil droplets and air bubbles. It also focuses on the experimental investigations and mathematical modelling of elementary processes of the wetting film thinning and rupture, and the three-phase contact line expansion relevant to flotation. It was confirmed that the time parameters, obtained by various authors, are sensitive enough to show changes in both flotation surface chemistry and physical properties of solid surfaces of pure minerals. These findings should be extended to other systems. It is proposed that measurements of the bubble-particle attachment can be used to interpret changes in flotation behaviour or, in conjunction with other factors, such as particle size and gas dispersion, to predict flotation performance. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Field, R.D.; Ramond, P.M.; Thorn, C.B.
1982-01-01
The first two years of operation of the Theoretical Particle Physics group at the University of Florida are discussed. At present our group consists of three full professors, one assistant professor, one DOE Outstanding Junior Instructor, three post-docs and one graduate student. The group has been very productive during the first two years of its existence resulting in the publication of over 30 papers covering a broad range of topics in theoretical high energy physics. In addition, members of our group have traveled and given important talks at national and international physics conferences. The research we have accomplished in such subjects as quantum field theory, quantum chromodynamics, and grand unified theories has increased mankind's understanding of elementary particle physics. It is the intention of our group to continue to actively participate in the further development of high energy physics
Research in elementary particle physics: Technical progress report, June 1, 1986-May 31, 1987
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirsch, L.E.; Schnitzer, H.J.; Abbott, L.F.; Bensinger, J.R.; Blocker, C.A.
1987-01-01
Work is reported in the areas of: design, construction, and testing of components of the CDF, including shower counters, electronics, and electron identification algorithms; contributions to the design and construction of the Brookhaven MultiParticle Spectrometer; search for charm and K*'s and baryonium; measurement of differential cross section and polarization in the Lambda-antiLambda channel; a study of Xi states which measured the Xi asymmetry parameter; and dibaryon searches using the Brookhaven Hypernuclear Spectrometer. Theoretical efforts are reported in the areas of string theory, the Skyrme model applied to elementary particle phenomenology, quantum field theory, cosmology, galaxy formation, supernova 187A, field theory in curved space-times, and spin-glasses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellwanger, Ulrich
2012-01-01
In this book, the author leads the reader, step by step and without any advanced mathematics, to a clear understanding of the foundations of modern elementary particle physics and cosmology. He also addresses current and controversial questions on topics such as string theory. The book contains gentle introductions to the theories of special and general relativity, and also classical and quantum field theory. The essential aspects of these concepts are understood with the help of simple calculations; for example, the force of gravity as a consequence of the curvature of the space-time. Also treated are the Big Bang, dark matter and dark energy, as well as the presently known interactions of elementary particles: electrodynamics, the strong and the weak interactions including the Higgs boson. Finally, the book sketches as yet speculative theories: Grand Unification theories, supersymmetry, string theory and the idea of additional dimensions of space-time. Since no higher mathematical or physics expertise is required, the book is also suitable for college and university students at the beginning of their studies. Hobby astronomers and other science enthusiasts seeking a deeper insight than can be found in popular treatments will also appreciate this unique book.
Proceedings of the fourth workshop on elementary-particle picture of the universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hikasa, Ken-ichi; Nakamura, Takashi; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Suzuki, Atsuo
1990-01-01
The Fourth Workshop on Elementary-Particle Picture of the Universe was held at Tateyama National Rest House from November 22 to 25, 1989. The main purpose of this workshop focuses on most of current experimental and theoretical activities in non-accelerator particle physics and astrophysics. It is also aimed to promote effective collaborations between experimentalists and theorists in these fields. The solar neutrino problem and the dark matter problem are the most exciting subjects in the astroparticle physics. They threw some doubts on the standard theories of astrophysics and also particle physics. We picked up both problems in this workshop as main themes, and discussed what they are at present and how they can be solved. Cosmology gives stringent constraints on particle properties which are frequently plausible candidates to solve the astrophysical problems. However, it is scarce to argue about how to determine the cosmological parameters and their ambiguities. We had some talks for this subject given by astronomers. New experimental results and detector developments were also presented. The atmosphere of workshop was informal, and there were extensive discussions on the above subjects. We got the confirm response that experimental and theoretical research activities in astroparticle physics were increasing here in Japan. (J.P.N.)
Elementary Particle Physics and High Energy Phenomena: Final Report for FY2010-13
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cumalat, John P.; de Alwis, Senarath P.; DeGrand, Thomas A.; DeWolfe, Oliver; Ford, William T.; Hasenfratz, Anna; Mahanthappa, K. T.; Marino, Alysia D.; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James G.; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen R.; Zimmerman, Eric D.
2013-06-27
The work under this grant consists of experimental, theoretical, and phenomenological research on the fundamental properties of high energy subnuclear particles. The work is conducted at the University of Colorado, the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC), Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and other facilities, employing neutrino-beam experiments, test beams of various particles, and proton-proton collider experiments. It emphasizes mass generation and symmetry-breaking, neutrino oscillations, bottom particle production and decay, detector development, supergravity, supersymmetry, superstrings, quantum chromodynamics, nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, cosmology, phase transitions, lattice gauge theory, and anomaly-free theories. The goals are to improve our understanding of the basic building blocks of matter and their interactions. Data from the Large Hadron Collider at CERN have revealed new interactions responsible for particle mass, and perhaps will lead to a more unified picture of the forces among elementary material constituents. To this end our research includes searches for manifestations of theories such as supersymmetry and new gauge bosons, as well as the production and decay of heavy-flavored quarks. Our current work at J-PARC, and future work at new facilities currently under conceptual design, investigate the specifics of how the neutrinos change flavor. The research is integrated with the training of students at all university levels, benefiting both the manpower and intellectual base for future technologies.
Relevance of axionlike particles for very-high-energy astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Angelis, Alessandro; Galanti, Giorgio; Roncadelli, Marco
2011-01-01
Several extensions of the standard model and, in particular, superstring theories suggest the existence of axionlike particles (ALPs), which are very light spin-zero bosons with a two-photon coupling. As a consequence, photon-ALP oscillations occur in the presence of an external magnetic field, and ALPs can lead to observable effects on the measured photon spectrum of astrophysical sources. An intriguing situation arises when blazars are observed in the very-high-energy (VHE) band--namely, above 100 GeV--as it is the case with the presently operating Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes H.E.S.S, Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov telescope, Collaboration of Australia and Nippon for a Gamma Ray Observatory in the Outback III, and VERITAS. The extragalactic background light produced by galaxies during cosmic evolution gives rise to a source dimming which becomes important in the VHE band and increases with energy, since hard photons from a blazar scatter off soft extragalactic background light photons thereby disappearing into e + e - pairs. This dimming can be considerably reduced by photon-ALP oscillations, and since they are energy independent the resulting blazar spectra become harder than expected. We consider throughout a scenario first proposed by De Angelis, Roncadelli, and Mansutti in which the above strategy is implemented with photon-ALP oscillations triggered by large-scale magnetic fields, and we systematically investigate its implications for VHE blazars. We find that for ALPs lighter than 5·10 -10 eV the photon survival probability is larger than predicted by conventional physics above a few hundred GeV. Specifically, a boost factor of 10 can easily occur for sources at large distance and large energy, e.g. at 8 TeV for the blazar 1ES 0347-121 at redshift z=0.188. This is a clear-cut prediction which can be tested with the planned Cherenkov Telescope Array and the High Altitude Water Cherenkov Experiment (HAWC) water Cherenkov
Stamhuis, Eize J.
2006-01-01
Particle image velocimetry (PIV) has proven to be a very useful technique in mapping animal-generated flows or flow patterns relevant to biota. Here, theoretical background is provided and experimental details of 2-dimensional digital PIV are explained for mapping flow produced by or relevant to
Fibre bundle varieties and the number of generations of elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ross, D.K.
1985-01-01
The idea is presented that the number of generations of elementary particles in a gauge theory characterised by a given Lie algebra is the same as the number of topologically distinct principal fibre bundles with a structure group having the same Lie algebra and R 3 -(0) as base space. Two different generations thus have a different global structure or 'twist' to their fibre bundles. It is found that at most three generations are allowed for groups with the same Lie algebra as E 6 , at most four generations for groups with the same Lie algebra as SOsub(41+2) with 1>=2, and at most n generations for groups with the same Lie algebra as SUsub(n). (author)
12th DESY Workshop on Elementary Particle Physics: Loops and Legs in Quantum Field Theory
LL2014
2014-01-01
The bi-annual international conference “Loops and Legs in Quantum Field Theory” has been held at Weimar, Germany, from April 27 to May 02, 2014. It has been the 12th conference of this series, started in 1992. The main focus of the conference are precision calculations of multi- loop and multi-leg processes in elementary particle physics for processes at present and future high-energy facilities within and beyond the Standard Model. At present many physics questions studied deal with processes at the LHC and future facilities like the ILC. A growing number of contributions deals with important developments in the field of computational technologies and algorithmic methods, including large-scale computer algebra, efficient methods to compute large numbers of Feynman diagrams, analytic summation and integration methods of various kinds, new related function spaces, precise numerical methods and Monte Carlo simulations. The present conference has been attended by more than 110 participants from all over the ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greenberger, D.M.
1978-01-01
We take two rather abstract concepts from elementary particle physics, and show that there actually exist analogs to both of them in undergraduate physics. In the case of spontaneous symmetry breaking, we provide an example where the most symmetrical state of a simple system suddenly becomes unstable, while a less symmetrical state develops lower energy and becomes stable. In the case of scale invariance, we consider an example with no natural scale determined, and show that a straightforward dimensional analysis of the problem leads to incorrect results, because of the occurrence of infinities, even though they would appear to be irrelevant infinities that might not be expected to affect the dimensions of the answer. We then show how a simple use of the scale invariance of the problem leads to the correct answer
Contribution to a study of real time information systems for elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meyer, J.-M.
1977-01-01
The structure of data acquisition systems used in elementary particle physics experiments is formulated. The experiments and the equipment used from a data processing point of view are characterized and the acquisition system is modeled to obtain an optimal architecture. Practical compromises are implemented, leading to a system with a new structure, now being used at the CERN SPS in a hyperon experiment. The realization of this system (FAS) is described using three computers: a NORD-10, a DDP and GESPRO. The latter is an original device built using INTEL-3000 integrated circuits. GESPRO can be microprogramed with instructions specialized for use with CAMAC. Finally, the software for the entire FAS system is given. This includes the assembler, test programs for CAMAC, management programs for the memory, etc [fr
Superstrings, entropy and the elementary particles content of the standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El Naschie, M.S.
2006-01-01
A number of interconnected issues involving superstring theory, entropy and the particle content of the standard model of high energy physics are discussed in the present work. It is found that within a non-transfinite approximation, the number of elementary particles is given by DimSU(8) in full agreement with the prediction gained from dividing the total number of the massless level of Heterotic string theory (256)(16)=8064 by the spin representation 2 7 =128 which gives DimSU(8)=(8) 2 -1=(8064)/(128)=63 particles. For the exact transfinite case however, one finds our previously established E-infinity result:N=(336+16k)(3/2+k)(16+k)/(128+8k)=α-bar o /2,where k=φ 3 (1-φ 3 ), φ=(5-1)/2 and α-bar o /2=68.54101965. Setting k=0 one finds that n=63 exactly as in the non-transfinite case
Review of the Elementary Particles Physics in the External Electromagnetic Fields Studies at KEK
Konstantinova, O. Tanaka
2017-03-01
High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK [1]) is a world class accelerator-based research laboratory. The field of its scientific interests spreads widely from the study of fundamental properties of matter, particle physics, nuclear physics to materials science, life science, technical researches, and industrial applications. Research outcomes from the laboratory achieved making use of high-energy particle beams and synchrotron radiation. Two synchrotron facilities of KEK, the Photon Factory (PF) ring and the Photon Factory Advanced Ring (PF-AR) are the second biggest synchrotron light source in Japan. A very wide range of the radiated light, from visible light to X-ray, is provided for a variety of materials science, biology, and life science [2]. KEK strives to work closely with national and international research institutions, promoting collaborative research activities. Advanced research and facilities provision are key factors to be at the frontier of the accelerator science. In this review I am going to discuss KEK overall accelerator-based science, and to consider light sources research and development. The state of arts of the current projects with respect to the elementary particles physics in the external electromagnetic fields is also stressed here.
Beyond Mathematics, a Standard Elementary Particle, and the Unified Field of Energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sourial, A.S.
2008-01-01
Teaching methods are presented based on a theoretical logical thesis of: A Standard Elementary Particle, i nstead of the current 200 odd different subatomic particles, and their plausible derivation from such a standard particle, similar to the derivation of our body cells from a multi potential S tem Cell, T he thesis reintroduces the theory of A Material Ether a s a necessary medium for the transmission of the Electro-Magnetic-Gravitational Waves. It solves and demystifies the following riddles: 1. The A ether Vacuum, by offering a plausible composition of A n elastic solid medium, t hat meets the specific physical requirements needed for the transmission of the electro magnetic gravitational waves, Explains the vast amount of Potential Energy that such an A ether can carry, That there is No Action at a Distance, 2. It explains Q uantum Mechanics, o n simple Newtonian principles, It nullifies the H eisenberg Uncertainty Principle, s howing that there is no uncertainty whatsoever, for individual particle interactions, and the existence of F unctional Barriers f or the disc like aggregates of contiguous particles representing I ntra-atomic Electrons, a nd A full P hysical e xplanation of the their quantum numbers, their electronic shells, as well as: The Pauli Exclusion Principle. 3. The possible explanation of Hubbell's Law without an expansion of the Universe, that the C osmic Red Shift g ives the illusion of an expanding Universe similar to that of the B ent Stick i n the water due to refraction. 4. That the Big Bang I nflation Theory, f or the origin of the Universe is: a Figment of Imagination similar to Aladdin's D jinni out of the bottle. a nd a Fantasy of Mathematics with complete lack of touch with reality. The thesis suggests a plausible explanation - Modus Operandi - for, and composition of: i) Gravity, II) The structure of nucleons, III) The nature of the strong force, IV) The structure of the string of The String Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Belyakov A. V.
2010-04-01
Full Text Available Frequent distributions of the databases of the numerical values obtained by resolving algorithms, which describe physical and other processes, give a possibility for bonding the probability of that results the algorithms get. In the frequent distribution of the fractions of integers (rational numbers, local maxima which meet the ratios of masses of the elementary particles have been found.
Proceedings of International Symposium TEPA 2016: Thunderstorms and Elementary Particle Acceleration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chilingarian, A.
2017-03-01
The problem of the thundercloud electrification and how particle fluxes and lightning flashes are initiated inside thunderclouds are among the biggest unsolved problems in atmospheric sciences. The relationship between thundercloud electrification, lightning initiation, and particle fluxes from the clouds has not been yet unambiguously established. Cosmic Ray Division of Yerevan Physics Institute (YerPhI), Armenia and Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of Moscow State University (SINP), Russia already 6th year are organizing Thunderstorms and Elementary Particle Acceleration (TEPA) annual meeting, creating environment for leading scientists and students to meet each other and discuss last discoveries in these fields (see reports of previous TEPA symposia in Fishman and Chilingarian, 2010, Chilingarian, 2013, 2014, 2016). The CRD have an impressing profile of the investigations in the emerging field of high- energy physics in the atmosphere. New designed particle detector networks and unique geographical location of Aragats station allows observation in last 8 years near 500 intensive particle fluxes from the thunderclouds, which were called TGEs – Thunderstorm ground enhancements. Aragats physicists enlarge the TGE research by coherent detection of the electrical and geomagnetic fields, temperature, relative humidity and other meteorological parameters, as well as by detection of the lightning flashes. An adopted multivariate approach allows interrelate particle fluxes, electric fields, and lightning occurrences and finally come to a comprehensive model of the TGE. One of most intriguing opportunities opening by observation of the high-energy processes in the atmosphere is their relation to lightning initiation. C.T.R. Wilson postulated acceleration of electrons in the strong electric fields inside thunderclouds in 1924. In 1992 Gurevich et al. developed the theory of the runaway breakdown (RB), now mostly referred to as relativistic runaway electron
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lind, O.C.; Salbu, B. (Norwegian Univ. of Life Sciences (Norway)); Nygren, U.; Thaning, L.; Ramebaeck, H. (Swedish Defense Research Agency (FOI) (Sweden)); Sidhu, S. (Inst. for Energy Technology (Norway)); Roos, P. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. Risoe DTU, Roskilde (Denmark)); Poellaenen, R. (STUK (Finland)); Ranebo, Y.; Holm, E. (Univ. Lund (Sweden))
2008-10-15
The present overview report show that there are many existing and potential sources of radioactive particle contamination of relevance to the Nordic countries. Following their release, radioactive particles represent point sources of short- and long-term radioecological significance, and the failure to recognise their presence may lead to significant errors in the short- and long-term impact assessments related to radioactive contamination at a particular site. Thus, there is a need of knowledge with respect to the probability, quantity and expected impact of radioactive particle formation and release in case of specified potential nuclear events (e.g. reactor accident or nuclear terrorism). Furthermore, knowledge with respect to the particle characteristics influencing transport, ecosystem transfer and biological effects is important. In this respect, it should be noted that an IAEA coordinated research project was running from 2000-2006 (IAEA CRP, 2001) focussing on characterisation and environmental impact of radioactive particles, while a new IAEA CRP focussing on the biological effects of radioactive particles will be launched in 2008. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lind, O.C.; Salbu, B.; Nygren, U.; Thaning, L.; Ramebaeck, H.; Sidhu, S.; Roos, P.; Poellaenen, R.; Ranebo, Y.; Holm, E.
2008-10-01
The present overview report show that there are many existing and potential sources of radioactive particle contamination of relevance to the Nordic countries. Following their release, radioactive particles represent point sources of short- and long-term radioecological significance, and the failure to recognise their presence may lead to significant errors in the short- and long-term impact assessments related to radioactive contamination at a particular site. Thus, there is a need of knowledge with respect to the probability, quantity and expected impact of radioactive particle formation and release in case of specified potential nuclear events (e.g. reactor accident or nuclear terrorism). Furthermore, knowledge with respect to the particle characteristics influencing transport, ecosystem transfer and biological effects is important. In this respect, it should be noted that an IAEA coordinated research project was running from 2000-2006 (IAEA CRP, 2001) focussing on characterisation and environmental impact of radioactive particles, while a new IAEA CRP focussing on the biological effects of radioactive particles will be launched in 2008. (au)
Incremental discovery of hidden structure: Applications in theory of elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zytkow, J.M.; Fischer, P.J.
1996-01-01
Discovering hidden structure is a challenging, universal research task in Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and other disciplines. Not only must the elements of hidden structure be postulated by the discoverer, but they can only be verified by indirect evidence, at the level of observable objects. In this paper we describe a framework for hidden structure discovery, built on a constructive definition of hidden structure. This definition leads to operators that build models of hidden structure step by step, postulating hidden objects, their combinations and properties, reactions described in terms of hidden objects, and mapping between the hidden and the observed structure. We introduce the operator dependency diagram, which shows the order of operator application and model evaluation. Different observational knowledge supports different evaluation criteria, which lead to different search systems with verifiable sequences of operator applications. Isomorph-free structure generation is another issue critical for efficiency of search. We apply our framework in the system GELL-MANN, that hypothesizes hidden structure for elementary particles and we present the results of a large scale search for quark models
Kinematic algebras, groups for elementary particles, and the geometry of momentum space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Izmest'ev, A.A.
1986-01-01
It is shown that to each n-dimensional (n≥2) homogeneous isotropic Riemannian momentum (coordinate) space there corresponds a definite kinematic local algebra of operators N/sub a/, M/sub a//sub b/, P/sub a//sub ,/ ω(a,b = 1,2,...,n). In the three-dimensional case this gives the possibility of classifying particles in accordance with the algebras of the types of momentum space. The approach developed also makes it possible to obtain generalized equations describing particles of the different types. The operators under consideration satisfy not only the relevant algebra but also relations independent of the algebra that coincide in form with the Maxwell equations
The Ising model in the scaling limit as model for the description of elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weinzierl, W.
1981-01-01
In this thesis a possible way is stepped over which starts from the derivation of a quantum field theory from simplest statistical degrees of freedom, as for instance in a two-level system. On a model theory, the Ising model in (1+1) dimensions the idea is explained. In this model theory two particle-interpretable quantum fields arise which can be constructed by a basic field which parametrizes the local dynamics in a simplest way. This so called proliferation is further examined. For the proliferation of the basic field a conserved quantity, a kind of parity is necessary. The stability of both particle fields is a consequence of this conservation law. For the identification of the ''particle-interpretable'' fields the propagators of the order and disorder parameter field are calculated and discussed. An effective Hamiltonian in this particle fields is calculated. As further aspect of this transition from the statistical system to quantum field theory the dimensional transmutation and the closely to this connected mass renormalization is examined. The relation between spin systems in the critical region and fermionic field theories is explained. Thereby it results that certain fermionic degrees of freedom of the spin system vanish in the scaling limit. The ''macroscopically'' relevant degrees of freedom constitute a relativistic Majorana field. (orig./HSI) [de
Proceedings of International Symposium TEPA 2015: Thunderstorms and Elementary Particle Acceleration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chilingarian, A.
2016-03-01
The problem of how lightning is initiated inside thunderclouds is probably one of the biggest mysteries in the atmospheric sciences. Recently established high energy processes in the atmosphere, i.e. Terrestrial Gamma Flashes (TGF) – brief bursts of gamma rays observed by orbiting gamma ray observatories and Thunderstorm Ground Enhancements (TGEs) – sizable long-lasting fluxes of electrons, gamma rays and neutrons detected on Earth’s surface are correlated with thunderstorms. However, the relationship among thundercloud electrification, lightning activity, and wideband radio emission and enhanced particle fluxes have not been yet unambiguously established. One of the most intriguing opportunities opened by the observation of the high-energy processes in the atmosphere is their relation to lightning initiation and propagation. Lightning discharges and TGEs are alternative mechanisms for the discharging of the atmospheric “electric engine” and synchronized observations of both phenomena help to understand them better. With the objective to discuss these high-energy phenomena, the conference on Thunderstorms and Elementary Particle Acceleration was held at the Nor Amberd International Conference Center of the Yerevan Physics Institute (YerPhI) in Armenia. The Cosmic Ray Division of the YerPhI and Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of Moscow State University organized the workshop; YerPhI and the Armenian State Committee of Science sponsored it. Thirty scientists and students from the United States, Japan, France, Germany, Israel, Russia, and Armenia attended. Presentations focused on observations and models of high-energy emissions in thunderclouds; on the termination of particle fluxes by lightning; multivariate observations of thunderstorms from the Earth’s surface and from space; radio emissions produced by atmospheric discharges and particle fluxes; the influence of the Extensive Air Showers (EASes) on lightning initiation and others. Discussions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El Naschie, M.S.
2008-01-01
The maximal number of elementary particles which could be expected to be found within a modestly extended energy scale of the standard model was found using various methods to be N = 69. In particular using E-infinity theory the present Author found the exact transfinite expectation value to be =α-bar o /2≅69 where α-bar o =137.082039325 is the exact inverse fine structure constant. In the present work we show among other things how to derive the exact integer value 69 from the exceptional Lie symmetry groups hierarchy. It is found that the relevant number is given by dim H = 69 where H is the maximal compact subspace of E 7(-5) so that N = dim H = 69 while dim E 7 = 133
Baldwin, K. A.; Hauge, R.; Dechaine, J. M.; Varrella, G.; Egger, A. E.
2013-12-01
The development and adoption of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) raises a challenge in teacher preparation: few current teacher preparation programs prepare students to teach science the way it is presented in the NGSS, which emphasize systems thinking, interdisciplinary science, and deep engagement in the scientific process. In addition, the NGSS include more geoscience concepts and methods than previous standards, yet this is a topic area in which most college students are traditionally underprepared. Although nationwide, programmatic reform is needed, there are a few targets where relatively small, course-level changes can have a large effect. One of these targets is the 'science methods' course for pre-service elementary teachers, a requirement in virtually all teacher preparation programs. Since many elementary schools, both locally and across the country, have adopted a kit based science curriculum, examining kits is often a part of a science methods course. Unfortunately, solely relying on a kit based curriculum may leave gaps in science content curriculum as one prepares teachers to meet the NGSS. Moreover, kits developed at the national level often fall short in connecting geoscientific content to the locally relevant societal issues that engage students. This highlights the need to train pre-service elementary teachers to supplement kit curriculum with inquiry based geoscience investigations that consider relevant societal issues, promote systems thinking and incorporate connections between earth, life, and physical systems. We are developing a module that teaches geoscience concepts in the context of locally relevant societal issues while modeling effective pedagogy for pre-service elementary teachers. Specifically, we focus on soils, an interdisciplinary topic relevant to multiple geoscience-related societal grand challenges (e.g., water, food) that is difficult to engage students in. Module development is funded through InTeGrate, NSF
CMB and the elementary particles structure deduced from QFT of non-dot model
Chen, Shao-Guang
= ± ( h c / 2 r (3) ) r cos thetaθ for r not equal to 0 and f = 0 for r = 0, f as the magnetic force makes the photons, rest mass and charge quanta automatically come into being and stabilize. CMB photon can be produced from many spin 1 unit photons by its statistical attraction. In the quantized inconsecutive time-space-spin using momentum and turn-quantity as the coordinates drawing the momentum-turn graphics are some points with certain distance. The rest mass m _{0} is the lowest energy state advance-back neutrinos pair nuυ _{0}nuυ (0) , when j direction have 2n nuυ_{0} the i , k directions must have (2n-1), (2n+1) nuυ_{0} for i, j, k three directions all matching into pair to eliminate the external interaction of electric quantity q(0) in nuυ_{0}. The spatial rest mass is quanta (n) m _{0} = (2n - 1) 2n (2n +1) m (0) = 6, 60, 210, 504, 990, 1716 m (0) , m (0) is the rest mass of nuυ_{0} (also anti-mass (n) \\underline{m}_{0} and \\underline{m}(0) ). According to the uncertainty principle n large rest mass layer is more little and at the inside layer of particle. The spatial unit charge quanta e or \\underline{e} is constituted by nine one-dimensional unit charge quanta nuυ_{0}(0) nuυ or _{0}nuυnuυ (0) because of the vertical polarization at each spatial direction there is only three states: the left, the right and the middle of left-right balance. Via photons, rest mass and charge quanta all elementary particles come from _{0}nuυ, nuυ_{0}, (0) nuυ, nuυ (0) . The particle’s momentum is constituted by the photons _{0}nuυnuυ _{0} or (0) nuυnuυ (0) and a few nuυ _{0} or _{0}nuυ. The particle’s charge is constituted by one e or \\underline{e} and one nuυ _{0} or _{0}nuυ. The particle’s rest mass is constituted by one or several (n) m _{0} or (n) \\underline{m} _{0}. According to the uncertainty principle n large rest mass layer is more little and at the inside layer of particle. The left spin 1/2 nu υ _{mu}: 1 _{0}nuυ + 1 (n
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellwanger, Ulrich
2011-01-01
This book serves for a representation of the foundations of modern elementary-particle physics and cosmology as well as the actual open questions up to the string theory. It contains elementary introductions to the special and general relativity theory, the classical and quantum field theory. The essential aspects of these concepts and many phenomena are understood by means of simple calculations like for instance the gravitational force as consequence of the curvature of the space. Treated are the big bang, the dark matter and the dark energy, as well as the contemporarily known interactions of the elementary-particle physics, electrodynamics, the strong and the weak interactions including the Higgs boson. Finally today (still?) speculative theories are sketched: Theories of the grand unification of the interactions, supersymmetry, the string theory, and additional dimensions of the space-time. The second edition contains significantly extended descriptions of the functionality of the LHC accelerator, the search for the Higgs boson, as well as the search for dark matter. No bigger mathematical and physical knowledges are presupposed; the book is also suited for grammar-school absolvents and students of the first semesters.
Synthesis of Co/Co3O4 Nanocomposite Particles Relevant to Magnetic Field Processing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Srivastava, A.K.; Madhavi, S.; Menon, Mohan
2010-01-01
Co/Co3O4 nanocomposite particles of various morphologies were synthesized by the reverse micelle technique. Equiaxed, rod and faceted crystals with rectangular, pentagonal and hexagonal cross sections were observed. Annealing resulted in the formation of a composite of cobalt oxide (Co3O4) and fc...... cobalt (Co). Removal of boron residues from the final product was established by surface characterization. Magnetic moment of these nanocomposite particles is relevant to magnetic field processing.......Co/Co3O4 nanocomposite particles of various morphologies were synthesized by the reverse micelle technique. Equiaxed, rod and faceted crystals with rectangular, pentagonal and hexagonal cross sections were observed. Annealing resulted in the formation of a composite of cobalt oxide (Co3O4) and fcc...
Gravity, particles and astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wesson, P.S.
1980-01-01
The author deals with the relationship between gravitation and elementary particle physics, and the implications of these subjects for astrophysics. The text is split up into two parts. The first part represents a relatively non-technical overview of the subject, while the second part represents a technical examination of the most important aspects of non-Einsteinian gravitational theory and its relation to astrophysics. Relevant references from the fields of gravitation, elementary particle theory and astrophysics are included. (Auth.)
"Loops and Legs in Quantum Field Theory", 12th DESY Workshop on Elementary Particle Physics
The bi-annual international conference "Loops and Legs in Quantum Field Theory" has been held at Weimar, Germany, from April 27 to May 02, 2014. It has been the 12th conference of this series, started in 1992. The main focus of the conference are precision calculations of multi- loop and multi-leg processes in elementary particle physics for processes at present and future high-energy facilities within and beyond the Standard Model. At present many physics questions studied deal with processes at the LHC and future facilities like the ILC. A growing number of contributions deals with important developments in the field of computational technologies and algorithmic methods, including large-scale computer algebra, efficient methods to compute large numbers of Feynman diagrams, analytic summation and integration methods of various kinds, new related function spaces, precise numerical methods and Monte Carlo simulations. The present conference has been attended by more than 110 participants from all over the world, presenting more than 75 contributions, most of which have been written up for these pro- ceedings. The present volume demonstrates in an impressive way the enormous development of the field during the last few years, reaching the level of 5-loop calculations in QCD and a like- wise impressive development in massive next-to-leading order and next-to-next-to-leading order processes. Computer algebraic and numerical calculations require terabyte storage and many CPU years, even after intense parallelization, to obtain state-of-the-art theoretical predictions. The city of Weimar gave a suitable frame to the conference, with its rich history, especially in literature, music, arts, and architecture. Goethe, Schiller, Wieland, Herder, Bach and Liszt lived there and created many of their masterpieces. The many young participants signal that our field is prosperous and faces an exciting future. The conference hotel "Kaiserin Augusta" offered a warm hospitality and
Contact efflorescence as a pathway for crystallization of atmospherically relevant particles.
Davis, Ryan D; Lance, Sara; Gordon, Joshua A; Ushijima, Shuichi B; Tolbert, Margaret A
2015-12-29
Inadequate knowledge of the phase state of atmospheric particles represents a source of uncertainty in global climate and air quality models. Hygroscopic aqueous inorganic particles are often assumed to remain liquid throughout their atmospheric lifetime or only (re)crystallize at low relative humidity (RH) due to the kinetic limitations of efflorescence (salt crystal nucleation and growth from an aqueous solution). Here we present experimental observations of a previously unexplored heterogeneous nucleation pathway that we have termed "contact efflorescence," which describes efflorescence initiated by an externally located solid particle coming into contact with the surface of a metastable aqueous microdroplet. This study demonstrates that upon a single collision, contact efflorescence is a pathway for crystallization of atmospherically relevant aqueous particles at high ambient RH (≤80%). Soluble inorganic crystalline particles were used as contact nuclei to induce efflorescence of aqueous ammonium sulfate [(NH4)2SO4], sodium chloride (NaCl), and ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), with efflorescence being observed in several cases close to their deliquescence RH values (80%, 75%, and 62%, respectively). To our knowledge, these observations represent the highest reported efflorescence RH values for microdroplets of these salts. These results are particularly important for considering the phase state of NH4NO3, where the contact efflorescence RH (∼20-60%) is in stark contrast to the observation that NH4NO3 microdroplets do not homogeneously effloresce, even when exposed to extremely arid conditions (<1% RH). Considering the occurrence of particle collisions in the atmosphere (i.e., coagulation), these observations of contact efflorescence challenge many assumptions made about the phase state of inorganic aerosol.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El Naschie, M.S.
2004-01-01
A careful counting routine of all experimentally confirmed elementary particles plus the theoretically conjectured ones needed for a sound formulation of a mathematically consistent field theory is undertaken within a minimal N=1 super symmetric extension of the standard model of high energy physics. The number arrived at is subsequently linked to certain massless on shell representations connected to the quantized gravity interaction. Finally with the help of number theoretical arguments arising from a rigorous application of the formalism of transfinite Heterotic super string and E-infinity theory, we show that the proposed scheme would lack mathematical consistency and elegant simplicity unless we retain a postulated triplet which is logically identified as the H + , H - and H 0 Higgs particles. Connections to the 11 dimensional M theory and Harari's extended 'sub-quarks' theory is also discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Zhi-Yuan
2014-01-01
A distinct method to show a quantum object behaving both as wave and as particle is proposed and described in some detail. We make a systematic analysis using the elementary methodology of quantum mechanics upon Young's two-slit interferometer and the Mach—Zehnder two-arm interferometer with the focus placed on how to measure the interference pattern (wave nature) and the which-way information (particle nature) of quantum objects. We design several schemes to simultaneously acquire the which-way information for an individual quantum object and the high-contrast interference pattern for an ensemble of these quantum objects by placing two sets of measurement instruments that are well separated in space and whose perturbation of each other is negligibly small within the interferometer at the same time. Yet, improper arrangement and cooperation of these two sets of measurement instruments in the interferometer would lead to failure of simultaneous observation of wave and particle behaviors. The internal freedoms of quantum objects could be harnessed to probe both the which-way information and the interference pattern for the center-of-mass motion. That quantum objects can behave beyond the wave—particle duality and the complementarity principle would stimulate new conceptual examination and exploration of quantum theory at a deeper level. (general)
On the possible types of elementary particles compatible with the canonical formulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng Kaijia
1988-12-01
In a paper D erivation of Dirac's Equation for a Free Particle , it was shown by the author that Dirac's equation can be deduced from a canonical formulation on the ground of relativity and quantum mechanics only. This idea will be further developed to a criterion on the possible forms of particles compatible with these formalism. It is shown in the text that only two types can exist in conformity with the criterion, namely fermions with spin 1/2 and scalars with spin zero. An example is given for a particle with spin unity to show that they do not fall into the present category. Particles that play roles in vector fields belong to different categories. Discussions are made for particles coupled with an external electronmagnetic field, preliminary results show that the essential features for the free particles still retain
The number of elementary particles in a fractal M-theory of 11.2360667977 dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He, J.-H.
2007-01-01
It is generally accepted that there are 60 experimentally found particles. The standard model strongly predicts two more hypothetical particles, the Higgs and the graviton. This paper reveals other possible scenario for predicting 69 particles at different energy scales in 11+φ 3 fractal dimensions of a fractal M theory, where φ=(5-1)/2. A modified Newton's law is suggested to experimentally verify our predictions at extremely small quantum scales. The modified Newton's law is in harmony with Heisenberg's uncertainty principle
Research program in elementary particle theory: Progress report, January 1, 1987-December 1987
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Dicus, D.A.
1987-08-01
Progress is reported in the areas of: strings and gauge theories, mathematical physics and quantum optics, high energy physics phenomenology, quantum chromodynamic sum rules, and application of particle physics to astrophysics. Titles of DOE reports resulting from this research are listed, and the research histories of the scientific staff of the Center for Particle Theory are given
Marek-Crnjac, L
2003-01-01
In the present work we give a classical nested mechanical model and corresponding expressions for the theoretical masses of elementary particles, including the masses of quarks as being the joint eigenvalues of combined vibrating sets using the Southwell and the Dunkerly theorems. The role played by the golden mean in KAM theory and consequently our present model is also discussed.
2003-01-01
"Cornell University will be awarded up to $124 million over the next five years by the National Science Foundation (NSF) to support research at the Laboratory for Elementary-Particle Physics (LEPP) and the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), a national user facility" (1 page).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marek-Crnjac, L.
2003-01-01
In the present work we give a classical nested mechanical model and corresponding expressions for the theoretical masses of elementary particles, including the masses of quarks as being the joint eigenvalues of combined vibrating sets using the Southwell and the Dunkerly theorems. The role played by the golden mean in KAM theory and consequently our present model is also discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El Naschie, M.S.
2005-01-01
Supersymmetry, colours and chirality are utilized to develop three minimally extended versions of the standard model. Based on these models, it is possible to predict that few new elementary particles are likely to be found experimentally at an energy scale which is very modestly above that of the electroweak. Connections to the 8064 massless states of Heterotic string theory are also discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
KARSCH, F.
2006-01-01
At high temperatures or densities matter formed by strongly interacting elementary particles (hadronic matter) is expected to undergo a transition to a new form of matter--the quark gluon plasma--in which elementary particles (quarks and gluons) are no longer confined inside hadrons but are free to propagate in a thermal medium much larger in extent than the typical size of a hadron. The transition to this new form of matter as well as properties of the plasma phase are studied in large scale numerical calculations based on the theory of strong interactions--Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD). Experimentally properties of hot and dense elementary particle matter are studied in relativistic heavy ion collisions such as those currently performed at the relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) at BNL. We review here recent results from studies of thermodynamic properties of strongly interacting elementary particle matter performed on Teraflops-Computer. We present results on the QCD equation of state and discuss the status of studies of the phase diagram at non-vanishing baryon number density
Ziegler, Robert Edward
This study is concerned with determining the relative effectiveness of a static and dynamic theoretical model in teaching elementary school students to use the particle idea of matter when explaining certain physical phenomena. A clinical method of personal individual interview-testing, teaching, and retesting of a random sample population from…
Research program in elementary particle theory. Progress report, 1975--1976
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Ne'eman, Y.
1976-01-01
Research on particle theory is summarized including field theory models, phenomenological applications of field theory, strong interactions, the algebraic approach to weak and electromagnetic interactions, and superdense matter. A list of reports is also included
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Ne' eman, Y.
1976-01-01
Research on particle theory is summarized including field theory models, phenomenological applications of field theory, strong interactions, the algebraic approach to weak and electromagnetic interactions, and superdense matter. A list of reports is also included. (JFP)
Research program in elementary particle theory: Progress report, January 1, 1988-December 1988
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Dicus, D.A.
1988-08-01
This report discusses progress in the following areas: Mathematical Physics, Strings and Gauge Theories; Quantum Optics; High Energy Phenomenology; Angular Momentum, QCD Sum Rules; and Application of Particle Physics to Astrophysics
Research in elementary particle physics. Progress report, March 1, 1994--February 28, 1995
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan, Lai-Him; Haymaker, R.; Imlay, R.; McNeil, R.; Metcalf, W.; Svoboda, R.
1994-01-01
This report discusses the following topics: Low-energy particle dynamics; QCD dynamics on the lattice; lattice QCD Vacuum; phenomenology ampersand cosmology; the ZEUS Experiment at HERA; neutrino physics at LAMPF; non-accelerator physics; and SSC activity
Elementary particle interactions. Progress report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1992
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bugg, W.M.; Condo, G.T.; Handler, T.; Hart, E.L.; Read, K.; Ward, B.F.L.
1992-10-01
Work continues on strange particle production in weak interactions using data from a high-energy neutrino exposure in a freon bubble chamber. Meson photoproduction has also consumed considerable effort. Detector research and development activities have been carried out.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bugg, W.M.; Condo, G.T.; Handler, T.; Hart, E.L.; Read, K.; Ward, B.F.L.
1992-10-01
Work continues on strange particle production in weak interactions using data from a high-energy neutrino exposure in a freon bubble chamber. Meson photoproduction has also consumed considerable effort. Detector research and development activities have been carried out.
A guide to experimental elementary particle physics literature, 1988--1992. Revision
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alekhin, S.I.; Ezhela, V.V.; Filimonov, B.B. [Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)] [and others
1993-09-01
We present an indexed guide to the literature experimental particle physics for the years 1988--1992. About 4,000 papers are indexed by Beam/Target/Momentum, Reaction Momentum (including the final state), Final State Particle, and Accelerator/Detector/Experiment. All indices are cross-referenced to the paper`s title and reference in the ID/Reference/Title Index. The information in this guide is also publicly available from a regularly updated computer database.
Search of unified theory of basic types of elementary particle interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anselm, A.
1981-01-01
Four types of forces are described (strong, weak, electromagnetic and gravitational) mediating the basic interactions of quarks and leptons, and attempts are reported of forming a unified theory of all basic interactions. The concepts are discussed, such as the theory symmetry (eg., invariance in relation to the Lorentz transformations) and isotopic symmetry (based on the interchangeability of particles in a given isotopic multiplet). Described are the gauge character of electromagnetic and gravitational interactions, the violation of the gauge symmetry and the mechanism of particle confinement. (H.S.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Imran
2014-01-01
Full Text Available One of the major challenges for the CBIR is to bridge the gap between low level features and high level semantics according to the need of the user. To overcome this gap, relevance feedback (RF coupled with support vector machine (SVM has been applied successfully. However, when the feedback sample is small, the performance of the SVM based RF is often poor. To improve the performance of RF, this paper has proposed a new technique, namely, PSO-SVM-RF, which combines SVM based RF with particle swarm optimization (PSO. The aims of this proposed technique are to enhance the performance of SVM based RF and also to minimize the user interaction with the system by minimizing the RF number. The PSO-SVM-RF was tested on the coral photo gallery containing 10908 images. The results obtained from the experiments showed that the proposed PSO-SVM-RF achieved 100% accuracy in 8 feedback iterations for top 10 retrievals and 80% accuracy in 6 iterations for 100 top retrievals. This implies that with PSO-SVM-RF technique high accuracy rate is achieved at a small number of iterations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hedberg Yolanda
2010-09-01
after 24 h exposure. Conclusion It is evident that particle and alloy characteristics such as particle size and surface composition are important aspects to consider when assessing particle toxicity and metal release from alloy particles compared to pure metal particles. Generated results clearly elucidate that neither the low released concentrations of metals primarily as a result of protective and poorly soluble surface oxides, nor non-bioavailable chromium complexes, nor the particles themselves of occupational relevance induced significant acute toxic response, with exception of DNA damage from stainless steel.
[A research program in neutrino physics, cosmic rays and elementary particles: Tasks A, B, C, D
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sobel, H.W.
1991-01-01
A Summary of the DOE Supported High Energy Physics Research at The University of California, Irvine. Physics interests of the group are focused primarily on tests of conservation laws and studies of fundamental interactions between particles. There is also a significant interest in astrophysics and cosmic rays. The DOE support has been divided into four tasks briefly describes in this paper
A guide to experimental elementary particle physics literature, 1985--1989
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alekhin, S.I.; Bazeeva, V.V.; Ezhela, V.V.; Filimonov, B.B.; Lugovsky, S.B.; Nikolaev, A.S.; Petrova, N.L.; Slabospitsky, S.R.; Striganov, S.I.; Stroganov, Y.G.; Shelkovenko, A.N.; Yuschenko, O.P.
1990-11-01
We present an indexed guide to experimental high energy physics literature for the years 1985--1989. No actual data are given, but approximately 3500 papers are indexed by Beam/Target/Momentum, Reaction/Momentum (including the final stare), Final State Particle, and Accelerator/Experiment/ Detector
Progress report on research program in elementary particle theory, 1979-1980
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Ne'eman, Y.
1980-01-01
A qualitative description is given of research in the following areas: particle physics in relativistic astrophysics and cosmology; phenomenology of weak and electromagnetic interactions; strong interaction physics and quark-parton physics; quantum mechanics, quantum field theory, and fundamental problems; and groups, gauges, and grand unified theories. Reports on this work have already been published, or will be, when it is completed
Research in elementary particle physics. Annual report, January 1--October 31, 1992
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1992-11-01
Experimental and theoretical work on high energy physics is reviewed. Included are preparations to study high-energy electron-proton interactions at HERA, light-cone QCD, decays of charm and beauty particles, neutrino oscillation, electron-positron interactions at CLEO II, detector development, and astrophysics and cosmology.
Topics in gauge theories and the unification of elementary particle interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Srivastava, Y.N.; Vaughn, M.T.
1992-02-01
We report on work done by the principal investigators and their collaborators on: purely fermionic composite models, gravitational diamagnetism, dynamical Casimir effect, N-particle amplitudes for large N beyond the three approximation, and analysis of classical scalar φ 4 field theory
González-Espada, Wilson; Llerandi-Román, Pablo; Fortis-Santiago, Yaihara; Guerrero-Medina, Giovanna; Ortiz-Vega, Nicole; Feliú-Mójer, Mónica; Colón-Ramos, Daniel
2015-01-01
Although researchers have argued that textbooks should be customized to local cultures and experiences, they rarely are. Ciencia Puerto Rico, a non-profit group interested in promoting science literacy and education among Latino(a)s/Hispanics, identified a need to provide schools with culturally relevant materials. The result was the publication…
Research program in elementary particle theory. Progress report for the period ending June 30, 1983
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1983-01-01
The Syracuse High-Energy Theory group has contributed significantly to many of the current areas of active research in particle physics. Multigenerational grand unified theories have been explored in depth and the predictions of grand unified theories for proton decay have been critically examined. The properties of magnetic monopoles predicted by such theories have been studied. Topological solutions predicted by chiral and other phenomenologically interesting models have been studied. Various properties of glueballs have been explored using the effective Lagrangian approach. Now results of neutrinoless double beta decay in lepton-number-violating gauge theories were found. Aspects of galaxy formation, the nature of phase transitions in general field theories, and properties of supersymmetric theories have been explored. Progress has also been made in the formulation of relativistic particle dynamics. Publications are listed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Field, R.D.; Ramond, P.M.; Sikivie, P.; Thorn, C.B.
1993-11-01
This is the Annual Progress Report of the theoretical particle theory group at the University of Florida under DoE Grant DE-FG05-86ER40272. At present our group consists of four Full Professors (Field, Ramond, Thorn, Sikivie) and three Assistant Professors (Qiu, Woodard, Kennedy). Dallas Kennedy recently joined our group increasing the Particle Theory faculty to seven. In addition, we have three postdoctoral research associates, an SSC fellow, and eight graduate students. The research of our group covers a broad range of topics in theoretical high energy physics with balance between theory and phenomenology. Included in this report is a summary of the last several years of operation of the group and an outline of our current research program.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giovannini, N.
1977-01-01
A complete description of the projective unitary/antiunitary representations of the general covariance group for a charged (relativistic) particle moving in an external (classical), e.m. field is given. This group was derived in a previous paper, independently of any equation of motion, on the basis of some simple physical assumptions. The physical consequences of these results are then discussed and it is shown how they open some new perspectives. (Auth.)
The transformation of elementary particle physics into many-body physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hove, L. van
1986-01-01
The author illustrates the domains of particle physics where the theoretical problems and methods have much in common with many-body and condensed-matter physics. The multitude of diverse physical systems accessible to experimentation in condensed-matter physics, and the numerous concepts developed for their theoretical understanding provide a rich store of ideas and analogies to the particle physicist. This can help him to overcome the great handicap that in his own discipline the experimental facts are very hard to come by and are often extremely incomplete. On the other hand, particle physics brought us such truly fundamental advances as non-Abelian gauge theories, electroweak unification with the heavy weak bosons, and quantum chromodynamics with the confinement principle for the field quanta. As our understanding of these novel schemes deepens, possibly with further progress toward unification, one can expect that they will slowly have an impact on the rest of physics, just as the concepts and techniques of Abelian field theories have gradually invaded most of condensed-matter physics. (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mesquita, Sofia Raquel; Drooge, Barend L. van; Reche, Cristina; Guimarães, Laura; Grimalt, Joan O.; Barata, Carlos; Piña, Benjamin
2014-01-01
Zebrafish embryotoxicity and dioxin-like activity levels were tested for particulate air samples from an urban background site in Barcelona (Spain). Samples were collected during 14 months, and maximal values for both biological activities corresponded to samples collected during late autumn months, correlating with elevated PAH levels. Vehicle and combustion emissions appeared as the potentially most toxic sources, whereas total PM mass and mineral content appeared to be poor predictors of the biological activity of the samples. Samples simultaneously collected at different particle size cut-offs (10, 2.5, and 1 μm) did not differ significantly in dioxin-like PAH levels and biological activity, indicating that the sub-micron particle fraction (PM 1 ) concentrated essentially all observed toxicity. Our results support the need for a tighter control on sub-micron particle emissions and show that total PM mass and, particularly, PM 10 , may not fully characterize the toxic potential of air samples. Highlights: • Dioxin-like activity was found in all air particle samples collected in Barcelona. • 50% of the samples showed different levels of fish embryotoxicity. • Toxic effects associated to PAHs and linked to vehicle and combustion emissions. • The toxicity was not correlated to PM mass or mineral content. • The sub-micron particle fraction PM 1 concentrated essentially all observed toxicity. -- In vivo toxic effects associated to sub-micron urban air particles from combustion and vehicle emissions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Field, R.D.; Ramond, P.M.; Sikivie, P.; Thorn, C.B.
1994-01-01
This is the Annual Progress Report of the theoretical particle theory group at the University of Florida under DOE Grant DE-FG05-86ER40272. At present our group consists of four Full Professors (Field, Ramond, Thorn, Sikivie), one Associate Professor (Woodard), and two Assistant Professors (Qiu, Kennedy). In addition, we have four postdoctoral research associates and seven graduate students. The research of our group covers a broad range of topics in theoretical high energy physics including both theory and phenomenology. Included in this report is a summary of the last several years, an outline of our current research program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bahr, Benjamin; Riebe, Kristin; Resag, Joerg
2013-01-01
''Fascinating physics'' is a picturesque expedition through 140 themes of classical and modern physics. On each one double-page to the reader is thereby offered a compact access in each one theme: From the aurora until the black hole, from the particle accelerator until the GPS system, from the curved space-time until the supersymmetry, from the oscillating dipole until Foucault's pendulum - a large variety of themes is taken up and carefully explained. Thereby the special strength of the book lies in the clear language and the explanations get along mostly without formulas - accompanied by breathtaking pictures, which lead the beauty of our world in front of the eyes.
Research in elementary particle physics. Progress report, March 1, 1985-February 28, 1986
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan, L.H.; Haymaker, R.; Imlay, R.; Metcalf, W.
1985-01-01
We describe theoretical work on an effective low energy theory of hadrons, dynamical symmetry breaking, anomalies, supersymmetry and the phenomenology of Higgs particles. The high energy experimental group at Louisiana State University is participating on a neutrino oscillation experiment at LAMPF. The apparatus is built and almost ready to take test data. LSU is also participating on an electron-positron experiment, AMY, that will run at TRISTAN in Japan. LSU is working on the muon detector for AMY. Data taking may begin by the end of 1986
New directions in elementary particle physics: p anti p from very low to very high energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jacob, M.
1979-01-01
The review covers low energy anti pp physics including annihilation processes, the spectroscopy of baryonium states, quasinuclear states and their relation to baryonium, the spectroscopy of protonium, and access to the whole charmonium family. High energy anti pp physics is reviewed covering total cross section rise, the common shape of cross sections, real part of forward amplitude, particle production, quantum number excitation, high transverse momentum, and high mass lepton pair. Also reviewed are the search for the weak bosons, hadron physics at collider energies, and the anti pp collider program. 47 references
Fritzsch, Harald
2014-01-01
This book provides a broad introduction into the field of particle physics for the general reader through virtual discussions among prominent physicists, Albert Einstein, Murray Gell-Mann, Issac Newton and a modern physicists. Matter is composed of quarks and electrons. The electrons interact with the atomic nuclei by the exchange of photons. The forces between the quarks are generated by the exchange of gluons, which leads to the confinement of the quarks. The weak bosons provide the weak forces among the leptons and quarks. The book is suitable for non-experts in physics. Readership: General readers, students and researchers in physics.
Research in elementary particle physics. Progress report, May 1, 1983-February 29, 1984
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan, L.H.; Haymaker, R.; Imlay, R.; Metcalf, W.
1984-01-01
Theoretical work on an effective low energy theory of hadrons, dynamical symmetry breaking, supersymmetry and the phenomenology of Higgs Particles is described. Also, the high energy experimental group at Louisiana State University is collaborating with Columbia, Stony Brook, and the Max Planck Institute on an experiment in progress at the North Area of CESR. This experiment is the study of electron-positron annihilations in the region of the new upsilon family of particles with an apparatus optimized for detecting leptons and photons. The UPSILON''' has been observed with properties consistent with its being above threshold for B meson production and several decay modes have been studied in detail. The ππ decays of the UPSILON' and UPSILON'' have also been measured as well as electronmagnetic transition among the b anti b bound states. LSU has contributed the muon detector for the experiment. We expect to conclude our participation in this experiment by May 1984. The LSU group has joined a collaboration to measure neutrino oscillations at Los Alamos. We are now building the equipment for this experiment and should be taking data by the end of 1984. Publications are listed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ushida, Noriyuki; Otani, Masashi; Kumazaki, Noriyasu
1984-01-01
This system is composed of precise coordinate measuring apparatuses, a stage controller and various peripherals, employing NOVA 4/C as the host computer. The analyzed results are given as the output to a printer or an XY plotter. The data required for experiment, sent from Nagoya University and others, are received by the host computer through an acoustic coupler, and stored in floppy disks. This paper contains simple explanation on the monitor for the events which occur immediately after the on-line measurement ''MTF 1'', the XY plotter and the acoustic coupler, which hold important position in the system in spite of low cost, due to the development of useful program, as those were not described in the previous paper. The three-dimensional reconstruction of tracks and various errors, corrective processing and analytical processing after corrective processing as off-line processing are also described. In addition, the application of the system was made to the E-531 neutrino experiment in Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, which attempted to measure the life of the charm particles generated in neutrino reaction with a composite equipment composed of nuclear plates and various counters. First, the outline of the equipment, next, the location of neutrino reaction and the surveillance of charm particle decay using MTF program as the analyzing method at the target, and thirdly, the emulsion-counter data fitting are explained, respectively. (Wakatsuki, Y.)
Recent theoretical and experimental evidence on the cold fusion of elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santilli, R.M.
1993-01-01
Recent experiments have shown the apparent existence of the cold fusion/chemical synthesis of protons and electrons into neutrons (plus neutrinos), much along Rutherford's original conception. These findings have received indirect, yet significant experimental confirmations in Bose-Einstein correlations, superconductivity and other fields to warrant additional studies. In this paper we present a quantitative theoretical study of the apparent tendency of all massive particles to form a bound state at small distances which is enhanced at low energy. The study is centrally dependent on the isominkowskian geometrization of the expected nonlocal interactions due to total mutual penetrations, and their causal description via the isopoincare symmetry. The cold fusion considered is then made possible by isorenormalizations of the 'intrinsic' characteristics of particles originating from the contact-nonhamiltonian character of the internal nonlocal effects. This latter feature illustrates the reasons why the cold fusion considered is simply beyond the descriptive capacities of relativistic quantum mechanics, but it is fully predicted by its isotopic covering. 23 refs
Morphology and Optical Properties of Black-Carbon Particles Relevant to Engine Emissions
Michelsen, H. A.; Bambha, R.; Dansson, M. A.; Schrader, P. E.
2013-12-01
Black-carbon particles are believed to have a large influence on climate through direct radiative forcing, reduction of surface albedo of snow and ice in the cryosphere, and interaction with clouds. The optical properties and morphology of atmospheric particles containing black carbon are uncertain, and characterization of black carbon resulting from engines emissions is needed. Refractory black-carbon particles found in the atmosphere are often coated with unburned fuel, sulfuric acid, water, ash, and other combustion by-products and atmospheric constituents. Coatings can alter the optical and physical properties of the particles and therefore change their optical properties and cloud interactions. Details of particle morphology and coating state can also have important effects on the interpretation of optical diagnostics. A more complete understanding of how coatings affect extinction, absorption, and incandescence measurements is needed before these techniques can be applied reliably to a wide range of particles. We have investigated the effects of coatings on the optical and physical properties of combustion-generated black-carbon particles using a range of standard particle diagnostics, extinction, and time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (LII) measurements. Particles were generated in a co-flow diffusion flame, extracted, cooled, and coated with oleic acid. The diffusion flame produces highly dendritic soot aggregates with similar properties to those produced in diesel engines, diffusion flames, and most natural combustion processes. A thermodenuder was used to remove the coating. A scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) was used to monitor aggregate sizes; a centrifugal particle mass analyzer (CPMA) was used to measure coating mass fractions, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to characterize particle morphologies. The results demonstrate important differences in optical measurements between coated and uncoated particles.
Elementary particles and high energy phenomena. Progress report, May 1974--April 1975
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nauenberg, U.; Bartlett, D.F.
1975-05-01
The study of K 0 /sub L/(π 3 ) has now been published in final form. When compared with the matrix elements for the K + (π 3 ) evidence was found for parallel I = 1/2 parallel violation in the linear terms, but not in the quadratic. The data-taking phase of a measurement of K 0 /sub L/ → K 0 /sub S/ p and related reactions at SLAC were completed. The presence of neutrons in the beam permits one to study several new reactions. The apparatus for detecting tachyon monopoles was installed above the Fermilab 15' bubble chamber, and data-taking begun. No evidence yet found for these particles. The theoretical effort was devoted to supporting the kaon experiments and to the study of dynamical symmetry breaking and Higg's symmetry. One has also written two proposals for experiments at Fermilab. A list of publications is included. (U.S.)
Contribution to the study of elementary particles in experiments involving accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baldisseri, A.
2006-05-01
This document reviews the theoretical, experimental and technical achievements of the author since the beginning of his scientific career. Works in 5 fields have been highlighted: 1) rare decays of the η meson, 2) neutrino oscillations in NOMAD experiment, 3) quark and gluon plasma, 4) the PHENIX experiment at RHIC, and 5) the ALICE experiment in LHC. The PHENIX experiment was dedicated to the accurate measuring of photons and dileptons (particularly J/Ψ, Ψ' resonances) produced in heavy ion collisions. The ALICE experiment is devoted to the study of the quark gluon plasma. Its detector must be able to detect charged particles with a broad range of transverse momenta (from 100 MeV/c to 100 GeV/c). This document presented before an academic board will allow his author to manage research works and particularly to tutor thesis students
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santilli, R.M.
1991-03-01
In this paper we study an open historical legacy of nuclear physics, according to which the magnetic moment of nucleons could be altered in the transition from motion in vacuum under external electromagnetic interactions (as measured until now), to motion under joint, external, electromagnetic and strong interactions, with a consequential conceivable fluctuation of the spin. The legacy is studied via the construction of the Lie-isotopic generalization of conventional field equations, i.e., generalized equations that are invariant under the Poincare-isotopic symmetry proposed in a preceding paper. It emerges that in the transition from motion in vacuum under potential interactions, to motion within a physical medium with potential as well as contact non-Hamiltonian interactions, there is, in general, the alteration (called ''mutation'') of all intrinsic characteristics of particles, such as: rest energy, spin, charge, mean life, space and charge parity, electric and magnetic moments, etc. The emerging, generalized, iso-field theory is applied to a direct and quantitative interpretation of Rauch's experimental data according to which thermal neutrons experience a deformation of their charge distributions with consequential alteration of their magnetic moments when under joint, external, electromagnetic and nuclear interactions. We then pass to the review of an intriguing generalization of Dirac's equation proposed by Dirac himself, in which the spin is mutated from 1/2 to zero. We show that the generalized equation possesses an essential isotopic structure precisely of the class submitted in this work. A number of fundamental implications of the open historical legacy are pointed out. The paper ends with the review of several experiments which have been proposed in the literature for some time, but regrettably ignored until now, for the final resolution of the problem, whether the intrinsic characteristics of particles are rigidly immutable, or they can change under
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gulumian Mary
2009-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract In vitro studies with particles are a major staple of particle toxicology, generally used to investigate mechanisms and better understand the molecular events underlying cellular effects. However, there is ethical and financial pressure in nanotoxicology, the new sub-specialty of particle toxicology, to avoid using animals. Therefore an increasing amount of studies are being published using in vitro approaches and such studies require careful interpretation. We point out here that 3 different conventional pathogenic particle types, PM10, asbestos and quartz, which cause diverse pathological effects, have been reported to cause very similar oxidative stress effects in cells in culture. We discuss the likely explanation and implications of this apparent paradox, and its relevance for testing in nanotoxicology.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mar, Nancy
2003-08-18
The authors have devised and demonstrated the successful operation of a low cost, high mass throughput technique capable of performing bulk matter searches for fractionally charged particles based on an improved Millikan liquid drop method. The method uses a stroboscopic lamp and a CCD video camera to image the trajectories of silicone oil drops falling through air in the presence of a vertical, alternating electric field. The images of the trajectories are computer processed in real time, the electric charge on a drop being measured with an rms error of 0.025 of an electron charge. This error is dominated by Brownian motion. In the first use of this method, they have looked at 5,974,941 drops and found no evidence for fractional charges in 1.07 mg of oil. With 95% confidence, the concentration of isolated quarks with {+-} 1/3e or {+-} 2/3e in silicone oil is less than one per 2.14 x 10{sup 20} nucleons.
Research in elementary particle physics. Technical progress report, June 1, 1993--May 31, 1994
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bensinger, J.R.; Blocker, C.A.; Kirsch, L.E.; Schnitzer, H.J.
1995-02-01
The Brandeis experimental particle physics group has for many years pursued an understanding of physical interactions at the highest available energies. To this end they have been active in the development of the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) and in the development of detectors that were planned for the SSC. They have also had an active program of analysis to understand the data and its implications from these detectors. Brandeis remains fully engaged in the understanding of physical interactions at the highest available energies. While pursuing physics analysis, detector support activities and detector upgrades at CDF, they are also exploring the physics potential of the LHC. Pending overall agreements between the Department of Energy and CERN, the authors have joined the ATLAS experiment at CERN. The expertise gained in planning SSC detectors is directly applicable there. During the past year, the theoretical physics group pursued research in quantum field theory, with the 1/N expansion and other non-perturbative methods providing a unifying theme of much of this work. Activities centered on large N limit in scalar field theories, and two-dimensional Yang-Mills theories.
Research in elementary particle physics. Technical progress report, June 1, 1993--May 31, 1994
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bensinger, J.R.; Blocker, C.A.; Kirsch, L.E.; Schnitzer, H.J.
1995-01-01
The Brandeis experimental particle physics group has for many years pursued an understanding of physical interactions at the highest available energies. To this end they have been active in the development of the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) and in the development of detectors that were planned for the SSC. They have also had an active program of analysis to understand the data and its implications from these detectors. Brandeis remains fully engaged in the understanding of physical interactions at the highest available energies. While pursuing physics analysis, detector support activities and detector upgrades at CDF, they are also exploring the physics potential of the LHC. Pending overall agreements between the Department of Energy and CERN, the authors have joined the ATLAS experiment at CERN. The expertise gained in planning SSC detectors is directly applicable there. During the past year, the theoretical physics group pursued research in quantum field theory, with the 1/N expansion and other non-perturbative methods providing a unifying theme of much of this work. Activities centered on large N limit in scalar field theories, and two-dimensional Yang-Mills theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Freytag, Carl; Osterhage, Wolfgang W.
2016-07-01
This book explains the physical foundations and the technology of the elementary-particle research and describes the particle accelerators, the detector, and their concerted acting. On some milestones of the research - from the production of transuranium elements via the discovery of exotic mesons until the Higgs particle - the way from theory via the experiment to the research result is shown.
FInal Report: DE-FG02-04ER41310 "Elementary Particle Physics"
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Izen, Joseph M. [University of Texas at Dallas; Ishak-Boushaki, Mustapha [University of Texas at Dallas
2013-10-18
vATLAS and the LHC are delivering on the promise of discovery physics at the high energy frontier. Using 4.8 fb^-1 of 2011 √s=7 TeV data and the first 5.8 fb?1 of 2012 √s=8 TeV data, ATLAS published the observation of a new particle with a mass of 126 GeV with a significance of 5.9σ that is compatible with a Standard Model (SM) Higgs. The LHC is outperforming intial projections for the 2012 run, and ATLAS is on track to integrate ~20 fb^(-1) of proton-proton collisions in 2012 before Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) begins in Spring 2013. University of Texas at Dallas (UTD) physicists will complete work on two ATLAS analyses this fall. The first is the search for the gauge bosons of a hypothesized dark sector. For 2011 data, UTD is responsible for the ?dark photon?search in the electron-jet channel, and we are looking forward to an expanded leadership role in the dark photon search using the full 2012 data set. Our second analysis interest is the study of X/Y/Z exotic states having cc content, which builds on our experience in this field from the BABAR experiment After completing a measurement of the Xc(3872) production cross section this fall, we will search for evidence of the Z(4430)+ which is reported by Belle but not confirmed by BABAR. The UTD group has played a strong role in ATLAS operations, with group members serving as Pixel Run Coordinator, ATLAS Shift Leader, and Pixel/Inner Detector Shifter. For most of the current 3-year funding cycle, a group member coordinated the development of the Pixel DAQ code, and another continues to build and maintain the data quality monitoring (DQM) application that is used by the Inner Detector control room shifter. Additionally, members of our group take Pixel on-call expert shifts for DQM and DAQ. We led an optoboard lifetime study to assess concerns of premature on-detector VCSEL failure using the Pixel working prototype detector at CERN. Physicists based at UTD participated through Pixel Offline DQM and ATLAS Distributed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marek-Crnjac, L.
2004-01-01
In the present work we give an introduction to the ε (∞) Cantorian space-time theory. In this theory every particle can be interpreted as a scaling of another particle. Some particles are a scaling of the proton and are expressed in terms of phi and α-bar 0 . Following the VAK suggestion of El Naschie, the limit sets of Kleinian groups are Cantor sets with Hausdorff dimension phi or a derivative of phi such as 1/phi, 1/phi 2 , 1/phi 3 , etc. Consequently and using ε (∞) theory, the mass spectrum of elementary particles may be found from the limit set of the Moebius-Klein geometry of quantum space-time as a function of the golden mean phi=(}5-1)/2=0.618033989 as discussed recently by Datta (see Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 17 (2003) 621-630)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marek-Crnjac, L
2004-02-01
In the present work we give an introduction to the {epsilon}{sup ({infinity}}{sup )} Cantorian space-time theory. In this theory every particle can be interpreted as a scaling of another particle. Some particles are a scaling of the proton and are expressed in terms of phi and {alpha}-bar{sub 0}. Following the VAK suggestion of El Naschie, the limit sets of Kleinian groups are Cantor sets with Hausdorff dimension phi or a derivative of phi such as 1/phi, 1/phi{sup 2}, 1/phi{sup 3}, etc. Consequently and using {epsilon}{sup ({infinity}}{sup )} theory, the mass spectrum of elementary particles may be found from the limit set of the Moebius-Klein geometry of quantum space-time as a function of the golden mean phi=({r_brace}5-1)/2=0.618033989 as discussed recently by Datta (see Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 17 (2003) 621-630)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murari, A.; Bertalot, L.; Angelone, M.; Pillon, M.; Ericsson, G.; Conroy, S.; Kaellne, J.; Kiptily, V.; Popovichev, S.; Adams, J.M.; Stork, D.; Afanasyiev, V.; Mironov, M.; Bonheure, G.
2005-01-01
Some recent JET campaigns, with the introduction of trace amount (n T /n D 4 He, provided unique opportunities to test new diagnostic approaches and technologies for the detection of neutrons, alpha particles and fuel mixture. With regard to neutron detection, the recent activity covered all the most essential aspects: calibration and cross validation of the diagnostics, measurement of the spatial distribution of the neutrons, particle transport and finally neutron spectrometry. The first tests of some new neutron detection technologies were also undertaken successfully during the TTE campaign. To improve JET diagnostic capability in the field of alpha particles, a strong development program was devoted to the measurement of their slowing down and imaging with gamma ray spectroscopy. A new approach for the fusion community to measure the fast ion losses, based on the activation technique, was also successfully attempted for the first time on JET. A careful assessment of the NPA potential to determine the fuel mixture and the particle transport coefficients is under way. (author)
Eidi, Housam; David, Marie-Odile; Crépeaux, Guillemette; Henry, Laetitia; Joshi, Vandana; Berger, Marie-Hélène; Sennour, Mohamed; Cadusseau, Josette; Gherardi, Romain K; Curmi, Patrick A
2015-06-17
Aluminum oxyhydroxide (alum) is a crystalline compound widely used as an immunologic adjuvant of vaccines. Concerns linked to alum particles have emerged following recognition of their causative role in the so-called macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) lesion in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis, revealing an unexpectedly long-lasting biopersistence of alum within immune cells and a fundamental misconception of its biodisposition. Evidence that aluminum-coated particles phagocytozed in the injected muscle and its draining lymph nodes can disseminate within phagocytes throughout the body and slowly accumulate in the brain further suggested that alum safety should be evaluated in the long term. However, lack of specific staining makes difficult the assessment of low quantities of bona fide alum adjuvant particles in tissues. We explored the feasibility of using fluorescent functionalized nanodiamonds (mfNDs) as a permanent label of alum (Alhydrogel(®)). mfNDs have a specific and perfectly photostable fluorescence based on the presence within the diamond lattice of nitrogen-vacancy centers (NV centers). As the NV center does not bleach, it allows the microspectrometric detection of mfNDs at very low levels and in the long-term. We thus developed fluorescent nanodiamonds functionalized by hyperbranched polyglycerol (mfNDs) allowing good coupling and stability of alum:mfNDs (AluDia) complexes. Specificities of AluDia complexes were comparable to the whole reference vaccine (anti-hepatitis B vaccine) in terms of particle size and zeta potential. In vivo, AluDia injection was followed by prompt phagocytosis and AluDia particles remained easily detectable by the specific signal of the fND particles in the injected muscle, draining lymph nodes, spleen, liver and brain. In vitro, mfNDs had low toxicity on THP-1 cells and AluDia showed cell toxicity similar to alum alone. Expectedly, AluDia elicited autophagy, and allowed highly specific detection of small amounts of alum
Studies of elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1989-01-01
Some task highlights discussed in this report are: Task B has completed and successfully operated 8 Michigan muon array patches for the UMC experiment; The Task C built luminosity monitor for the MarkII detector is functioning well and fulfilling its key role in the determination of the Z mass and width; Major Task C contributions to the machine diagnostics, the beamstrahlung monitor and wire scanner, have provided critical tuning information for the SLC; Task E (γ*) has recently reported the detection of 200 GeV γ-rays from the Crab Nebula with a statistical significance of 5.8 σ. This observation confirms the importance of imaging techniques for VHE γ-ray astronomy; The Michigan theory group (Task G) has focused on: Working to understand the systematics of gluon dynamics in poorly understood pseudoscalar meson decays, Exploring the consequences of heavy Higgs boson and/or a top quark more massive than the W ± or Z, Surveying the potentially attractive ways of experimentally searching for the Higgs boson of the minimal Standard Model or the spectrum of Higgs bosons to be expected in extensions of the Standard Model, Calculating the radiative corrections for W + W - → W + W - as a precision test of the Standard Model, especially in its sensitivity to the Higgs sector, Investigating the modifications of general relativity arising from quantum fluctuations of matter, Exploring phenomenological test of CP violation dynamics, Developing relations between the strong CP problem and ElectroWeak CP violation, and Investigating 4-Fermi interactions in Technicolor models
[Elementary particle physics research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rutherfoord, J.
1992-01-01
This summary of our activities supported by our DOE contract DE-SC02-91ER40605 covers the period from 1 January to 31 January 1992. The major areas which consumed most of our time are D0 at the Fermilab collider, E800 at the Fermilab fixed target facility and SSC work on major detectors and in detector R ampersand D. The research in these areas is discussed in this report
Studies of elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1989-01-01
This report discusses the following tasks: Task B has completed and successfully operated 8 Michigan muon array patches for the UMC experiment. Data from the detector has already improved the limits on the ratio of gamma rays to hadrons in primary cosmic rays. The Task C built luminosity monitor for the Mark II detector is functioning well and fulfilling its key role in the determination of the Z mass and width. Major Task C contributions to the machine diagnostics, the beamstrahlung monitor and wire scanner, have provided critical tuning information for the SLC. Task E has recently reported the detection of 200 GeV γ-rays from the Crab Nebula with a statistical significance of 5.8 σ. This observation confirms the importance of imaging techniques for VHE γ-ray astronomy. The Michigan theory group (Task G) has focused on: Working to understand the systematics of gluon dynamics in poorly understood pseudoscalar meson decays; Exploring the consequences of heavy Higgs boson and/or a top quark more massive than the W +- or Z; Surveying the potentially attractive ways of experimentally searching for the Higgs boson of the minimal Standard Model or the spectrum of Higgs bosons to be expected in extensions of the Standard Model; Calculating the radiative corrections for W + W - → W + W - as a precision test of the Standard Model, especially in its sensitivity to the Higgs sector; Investigating the modifications of general relativity arising from quantum fluctuations of matter; Exploring phenomenological test of CP violation dynamics; Developing relations between the strong CP problem and ElectroWeak CP violation; and Investigating 4-Fermi interactions in Technicolor models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Izen, J.M.
1994-01-01
Much of the work was connected with experimental measurements made at the Beijing Spectrometer operating at √s = 4.03 GeV. The effort has now moved to investigating the physics derived from the √s = 4.03 GeV data, including D s production, absolute D s branching fractions (hadronic, leptonic, and inclusive semileptonic), D*D and D*D* production, absolute D hadronic branching fractions, D* branching fractions, and an upper limit on the ν τ mass. 2 figs., 11 refs
HZE particle effects in the mammalian brain: relevance to manned space flight
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kraft, L.M.; D'Amelio, F.E.; Benton, E.V.
1980-01-01
The brain of rodents has been studied following high LET neon particle irradiation with doses ranging from 10 to 1000 rad. The changes observed by light microscopy after 1000 rad irradiation, for example, include acute necrosis of interstitial cells within 36 h of exposure, necrotic neurons, hyperchromatic neuroglia, and axonal degeneration beginning at 3 months postexposure. These changes are compared with those reported following exposure to other radiation modalities. Neuronal necrosis following high LET argon particle irradiation was comparable to that with neon. Low doses (25 rad and below) of iron nuclei resulted in no visible necrotic nerve cells. Acute neuroglial cell loss or damage is discussed as to its possible role in chronic neuronal necrosis and in loss of axonal integrity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosa, Bogdan; Parishani, Hossein; Ayala, Orlando; Wang, Lian-Ping; Grabowski, Wojciech W
2011-01-01
In recent years, direct numerical simulation (DNS) approach has become a reliable tool for studying turbulent collision-coalescence of cloud droplets relevant to warm rain development. It has been shown that small-scale turbulent motion can enhance the collision rate of droplets by either enhancing the relative velocity and collision efficiency or by inertia-induced droplet clustering. A hybrid DNS approach incorporating DNS of air turbulence, disturbance flows due to droplets, and droplet equation of motion has been developed to quantify these effects of air turbulence. Due to the computational complexity of the approach, a major challenge is to increase the range of scales or size of the computation domain so that all scales affecting droplet pair statistics are simulated. Here we discuss our on-going work in this direction by improving the parallel scalability of the code, and by studying the effect of large-scale forcing on pair statistics relevant to turbulent collision. New results at higher grid resolutions show a saturation of pair and collision statistics with increasing flow Reynolds number, for given Kolmogorov scales and small droplet sizes. Furthermore, we examine the orientation dependence of pair statistics which reflects an interesting coupling of gravity and droplet clustering.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alonso, J.R.
1980-11-01
In past years particle accelerators have become increasingly important tools for the advancement of medical science. From the pace of advancing technology and current directions in medical research, it is clear that this relationship between accelerators and medicine will only grow stronger in future years. In view of this importance, this relationship is investigated in some detail, with an eye not so much towards the medical uses of the beams produced, but more towards the technology associated with these accelerators and the criteria which make for successful incorporation of these machines into the clinical environment. In order to lay the necessary groundwork, the different kinds of accelerators found in medical use today are reviewed briefly discussing salient points of each
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cecconello, M
1999-05-01
Extrap T2 will be equipped with a neutral particles energy diagnostic based on time of flight technique. In this report, the expected neutral fluxes for Extrap T2 are estimated and discussed in order to determine the feasibility and the limits of such diagnostic. These estimates are based on a 1D model of the plasma. The input parameters of such model are the density and temperature radial profiles of electrons and ions and the density of neutrals at the edge and in the centre of the plasma. The atomic processes included in the model are the charge-exchange and the electron-impact ionization processes. The results indicate that the plasma attenuation length varies from a/5 to a, a being the minor radius. Differential neutral fluxes, as well as the estimated power losses due to CX processes (2 % of the input power), are in agreement with experimental results obtained in similar devices. The expected impurity influxes vary from 10{sup 14} to 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The neutral particles detection and acquisition systems are discussed. The maximum detectable energy varies from 1 to 3 keV depending on the flight distances d. The time resolution is 0.5 ms. Output signals from the waveform recorder are foreseen in the range 0-200 mV. An 8-bit waveform recorder having 2 MHz sampling frequency and 100K sample of memory capacity is the minimum requirement for the acquisition system 20 refs, 19 figs.
The dynamical groups SO0(3.2) and SO0(4.2) as space-time groups of elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heidenreich, W.
1981-01-01
Elementary particles are described by representations of SO 0 (4.2) and SO 0 (3.2). An S-matrix invariant under the corresponding group constrains the possible scattering channels. The simptest used representations have each one gauge freedom, the physical significance of which is discussed. 'Higher' representations can be constructed from the simplest by means of the tensor product; the same is true for the corresponding particles. The simplest objects of the SO 0 (3.2) theory, the SO 0 (3.2) theory, the Dirac singletons correspond to the states of a 2-dimensional harmonic oscillator. The basic states of this are interpreted as urs in the sense of von Weizsaecker. (orig./HSI) [de
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wenliao Du
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Promptly and accurately dealing with the equipment breakdown is very important in terms of enhancing reliability and decreasing downtime. A novel fault diagnosis method PSO-RVM based on relevance vector machines (RVM with particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm for plunger pump in truck crane is proposed. The particle swarm optimization algorithm is utilized to determine the kernel width parameter of the kernel function in RVM, and the five two-class RVMs with binary tree architecture are trained to recognize the condition of mechanism. The proposed method is employed in the diagnosis of plunger pump in truck crane. The six states, including normal state, bearing inner race fault, bearing roller fault, plunger wear fault, thrust plate wear fault, and swash plate wear fault, are used to test the classification performance of the proposed PSO-RVM model, which compared with the classical models, such as back-propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN, ant colony optimization artificial neural network (ANT-ANN, RVM, and support vectors, machines with particle swarm optimization (PSO-SVM, respectively. The experimental results show that the PSO-RVM is superior to the first three classical models, and has a comparative performance to the PSO-SVM, the corresponding diagnostic accuracy achieving as high as 99.17% and 99.58%, respectively. But the number of relevance vectors is far fewer than that of support vector, and the former is about 1/12–1/3 of the latter, which indicates that the proposed PSO-RVM model is more suitable for applications that require low complexity and real-time monitoring.
Elementary Atom Interaction with Matter
Mrowczynski, Stanislaw
1998-01-01
The calculations of the elementary atom (the Coulomb bound state of elementary particles) interaction with the atom of matter, which are performed in the Born approximation, are reviewed. We first discuss the nonrelativistic approach and then its relativistic generalization. The cross section of the elementary atom excitation and ionization as well as the total cross section are considered. A specific selection rule, which applies for the atom formed as positronium by particle-antiparticle pa...
Pulmonary toxicity after exposure to military-relevant heavy metal tungsten alloy particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roedel, Erik Q.; Cafasso, Danielle E.; Lee, Karen W.M.; Pierce, Lisa M.
2012-01-01
Significant controversy over the environmental and public health impact of depleted uranium use in the Gulf War and the war in the Balkans has prompted the investigation and use of other materials including heavy metal tungsten alloys (HMTAs) as nontoxic alternatives. Interest in the health effects of HMTAs has peaked since the recent discovery that rats intramuscularly implanted with pellets containing 91.1% tungsten/6% nickel/2.9% cobalt rapidly developed aggressive metastatic tumors at the implantation site. Very little is known, however, regarding the cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with the effects of inhalation exposure to HMTAs despite the recognized risk of this route of exposure to military personnel. In the current study military-relevant metal powder mixtures consisting of 92% tungsten/5% nickel/3% cobalt (WNiCo) and 92% tungsten/5% nickel/3% iron (WNiFe), pure metals, or vehicle (saline) were instilled intratracheally in rats. Pulmonary toxicity was assessed by cytologic analysis, lactate dehydrogenase activity, albumin content, and inflammatory cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid 24 h after instillation. The expression of 84 stress and toxicity-related genes was profiled in lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage cells using real-time quantitative PCR arrays, and in vitro assays were performed to measure the oxidative burst response and phagocytosis by lung macrophages. Results from this study determined that exposure to WNiCo and WNiFe induces pulmonary inflammation and altered expression of genes associated with oxidative and metabolic stress and toxicity. Inhalation exposure to both HMTAs likely causes lung injury by inducing macrophage activation, neutrophilia, and the generation of toxic oxygen radicals. -- Highlights: ► Intratracheal instillation of W–Ni–Co and W–Ni–Fe induces lung inflammation in rats. ► W–Ni–Co and W–Ni–Fe alter expression of oxidative stress and toxicity genes. ► W
Assessment of potential advantages of relevant ions for particle therapy: A model based study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grün, Rebecca, E-mail: r.gruen@gsi.de [Department of Biophysics, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt 64291 (Germany); Institute of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, University of Applied Sciences Gießen, Gießen 35390 (Germany); Medical Faculty of Philipps-University Marburg, Marburg 35032 (Germany); Friedrich, Thomas; Krämer, Michael; Scholz, Michael [Department of Biophysics, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt 64291 (Germany); Zink, Klemens [Institute of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, University of Applied Sciences Gießen, Gießen 35390, Germany and Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Giessen and Marburg, Marburg 35043 (Germany); Durante, Marco [Department of Biophysics, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt 64291, Germany and Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Darmstadt University of Technology, Darmstadt 64289 (Germany); Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita [Medical Faculty of Philipps-University Marburg, Marburg 35032, Germany and Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Giessen and Marburg, Marburg 35043 (Germany)
2015-02-15
Purpose: Different ion types offer different physical and biological advantages for therapeutic applications. The purpose of this work is to assess the advantages of the most commonly used ions in particle therapy, i.e., carbon ({sup 12}C), helium ({sup 4}He), and protons ({sup 1}H) for different treatment scenarios. Methods: A treatment planning analysis based on idealized target geometries was performed using the treatment planning software TRiP98. For the prediction of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) that is required for biological optimization in treatment planning the local effect model (LEM IV) was used. To compare the three ion types, the peak-to-entrance ratio (PER) was determined for the physical dose (PER{sub PHY} {sub S}), the RBE (PER{sub RBE}), and the RBE-weighted dose (PER{sub BIO}) resulting for different dose-levels, field configurations, and tissue types. Further, the dose contribution to artificial organs at risk (OAR) was assessed and a comparison of the dose distribution for the different ion types was performed for a patient with chordoma of the skull base. Results: The study showed that the advantages of the ions depend on the physical and biological properties and the interplay of both. In the case of protons, the consideration of a variable RBE instead of the clinically applied generic RBE of 1.1 indicates an advantage in terms of an increased PER{sub RBE} for the analyzed configurations. Due to the fact that protons show a somewhat better PER{sub PHY} {sub S} compared to helium and carbon ions whereas helium shows a higher PER{sub RBE} compared to protons, both protons and helium ions show a similar RBE-weighted dose distribution. Carbon ions show the largest variation of the PER{sub RBE} with tissue type and a benefit for radioresistant tumor types due to their higher LET. Furthermore, in the case of a two-field irradiation, an additional gain in terms of PER{sub BIO} is observed when using an orthogonal field configuration
Accelerators of atomic particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sarancev, V.
1975-01-01
A brief survey is presented of accelerators and methods of accelerating elementary particles. The principle of collective accelerating of elementary particles is clarified and the problems are discussed of its realization. (B.S.)
1989-06-15
The Pennsylvania State University 2 1. Smith. G.A.: The elementary structure of matter. Richard, J.-M.. College of Science Aslanides . E., Boccara. N...1987) J.-M. Richard, E. Aslanides and N. Boccara, Springer p. 149. ~ il - c r D f C Z o C- S C W 3: c x 2 0 a : at~ a ,a TC jc g, cm m, 0 a, w 0 0C C
Elementary excitations in nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lemmer, R.H.
1987-01-01
The role of elementary quasi-particle and quasi-hole excitations is reviewed in connection with the analysis of data involving high-lying nuclear states. This article includes discussions on: (i) single quasi-hole excitations in pick-up reactions, (ii) the formation of single quasi-hole and quasi-particle excitations (in different nuclei) during transfer reactions, followed by (iii) quasi-particle quasi-hole excitations in the same nucleus that are produced by photon absorption. Finally, the question of photon absorption in the vicinity of the elementary Δ resonance is discussed, where nucleonic as well as nuclear degrees of freedom can be excited
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lemmer, Boris
2014-01-01
There where's becomes small the world suddenly becomes suddenly totally crazy: From pure energy particles are produced, matter particles get siblings of antimatter, particles, which actually should not exist, are created from scratch. The nature borrows energy, which is actually not there. Forces act, which behave completely differently than anything, what we know from everyday life. This is the world of particle physics. Particle physicist build the largest experiments of all time, in order to study the smallest particles of the universe. They go to the limits of the technically feasible and exceed thereby the limits of our countries. Who finds that all also so exciting - as the particle physicists - is heartily invited to read this book. Who believes that without a study of particle physics nothing is understood, also. Quantum field theories, particle accelerators, Higgs mechanisms etc. are instead by nasty formulas explained by means of monkeys, ants, hedgehogs, beavers, and illustrative pictures. And by means of linked videos in can be directly submerged into the world of CERN, the LHC particle accelerator, and the ATLAS experiment.
Pensis, Ingeborg; Luetzenkirchen, Frank; Friede, Bernd
2014-05-01
In accordance with the European regulation for classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures (CLP) as well as the criteria as set out in the Globally Harmonized System (GHS), fine fraction of crystalline silica (CS) has been classified as a specific target organ toxicity, the specific organ in this case being the lung. Generic cut-off values for products containing a fine fraction of CS trigger the need for a method for the quantification of the fine fraction of CS in bulk materials. This article describes the so-called SWeRF method, the size-weighted relevant fine fraction. The SWeRF method combines the particle size distribution of a powder with probability factors from the EN 481 standard and allows the relevant fine fraction of a material to be calculated. The SWeRF method has been validated with a number of industrial minerals. This will enable manufacturers and blenders to apply the CLP and GHS criteria for the classification of mineral products containing RCS a fine fraction of CS.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Deep Agnani
Full Text Available P-glycoprotein, a human multidrug resistance transporter, has been extensively studied due to its importance to human health and disease. In order to understand transport kinetics via P-gp, confluent cell monolayers overexpressing P-gp are widely used. The purpose of this study is to obtain the mass action elementary rate constants for P-gp's transport and to functionally characterize members of P-gp's network, i.e., other transporters that transport P-gp substrates in hMDR1-MDCKII confluent cell monolayers and are essential to the net substrate flux. Transport of a range of concentrations of amprenavir, loperamide, quinidine and digoxin across the confluent monolayer of cells was measured in both directions, apical to basolateral and basolateral to apical. We developed a global optimization algorithm using the Particle Swarm method that can simultaneously fit all datasets to yield accurate and exhaustive fits of these elementary rate constants. The statistical sensitivity of the fitted values was determined by using 24 identical replicate fits, yielding simple averages and standard deviations for all of the kinetic parameters, including the efflux active P-gp surface density. Digoxin required additional basolateral and apical transporters, while loperamide required just a basolateral tranporter. The data were better fit by assuming bidirectional transporters, rather than active importers, suggesting that they are not MRP or active OATP transporters. The P-gp efflux rate constants for quinidine and digoxin were about 3-fold smaller than reported ATP hydrolysis rate constants from P-gp proteoliposomes. This suggests a roughly 3∶1 stoichiometry between ATP hydrolysis and P-gp transport for these two drugs. The fitted values of the elementary rate constants for these P-gp substrates support the hypotheses that the selective pressures on P-gp are to maintain a broad substrate range and to keep xenobiotics out of the cytosol, but not out of the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deshpande, N.G.
1987-01-01
This paper discusses the work done in high energy physics at the University of Oregon over the post year. Some of the topics briefly discussed are: string phenomenology, horizontal symmetry, heavy quark decays, neutrino counting and new quarks and leptons, treatment of heavy particles and w-bosons as constituents of hadrons, higher twist corrections to heavy particle production, factorization in the Drell-Yan process, jets and compositeness at the SSC, minimum-bias physics in hadronic collisions, and quark-gluon plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1987-01-01
In this document the High Energy Physics Group reviews its accomplishments and progress during the past year and presents plans for continuing research during the next several years. Reviewed are the experimental programs such as the collider experiments, the particle theory programs such as vector boson production in supersymmetric QCD and miscellaneous program projects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Ne' eman, Y.
1980-01-01
A qualitative description is given of research in the following areas: particle physics in relativistic astrophysics and cosmology; phenomenology of weak and electromagnetic interactions; strong interaction physics and quark-parton physics; quantum mechanics, quantum field theory, and fundamental problems; and groups, gauges, and grand unified theories. Reports on this work have already been published, or will be, when it is completed. (RWR)
Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; Nieuwenhuizen, G. J. Van; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.
2006-08-01
The PHOBOS experiment at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider has measured the total multiplicity of primary charged particles as a function of collision centrality in Au+Au collisions at sNN= 19.6, 130, and 200 GeV. An approximate independence of / on the number of participating nucleons is observed, reminiscent of “wounded nucleon” scaling (Nch∝Npart) observed in proton-nucleus collisions. Unlike p+A, the constant of proportionality does not seem to be set by the pp/p¯p data at the same energy. Rather, there seems to be a surprising correspondence with the total multiplicity measured in e+e- annihilations, as well as the rapidity shape measured over a large range. The energy dependence of the integrated multiplicity per participant pair shows that e+e- and A+A data agree over a large range of center-of-mass energies (s>20 GeV), and pp/p¯p data can be brought to agree approximately with the e+e- data by correcting for the typical energy taken away by leading particles. This is suggestive of a mechanism for soft particle production that depends mainly on the amount of available energy. It is conjectured that the dominant distinction between A+A and p+p collisions is the multiple collisions per participant, which appears to be sufficient to substantially reduce the energy taken away by leading particles.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lostaglio, Matteo; Alhambra, Álvaro M.; Perry, Christopher
2018-01-01
To what extent do thermodynamic resource theories capture physically relevant constraints? Inspired by quantum computation, we define a set of elementary thermodynamic gates that only act on 2 energy levels of a system at a time. We show that this theory is well reproduced by a Jaynes-Cummings in......To what extent do thermodynamic resource theories capture physically relevant constraints? Inspired by quantum computation, we define a set of elementary thermodynamic gates that only act on 2 energy levels of a system at a time. We show that this theory is well reproduced by a Jaynes...
Elementary operators - still not elementary?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Martin Mathieu
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Properties of elementary operators, that is, finite sums of two-sided multiplications on a Banach algebra, have been studied under a vast variety of aspects by numerous authors. In this paper we review recent advances in a new direction that seems not to have been explored before: the question when an elementary operator is spectrally bounded or spectrally isometric. As with other investigations, a number of subtleties occur which show that elementary operators are still not elementary to handle.
Kanji, Z. A.; Mahrt, F.; David, R.; Marcolli, C.; Lohmann, U.; Fahrni, J.; Brühwiler, D.
2017-12-01
Heterogeneous ice nucleation (HIN) onto soot particles from previous studies have produced inconsistent results of temperature and relative humidity conditions required for freezing depending on the source of soot particle investigated. The ability of soot to act as HIN depended on the type of soot and size of particle. Often homogenous freezing conditions or water saturation conditions were required to freeze soot particles, rendering HIN irrelevant. Using synthesised mesoporous silica particles, we show pore condensation and freezing works with experiments performed in the Zurich Ice Nucleation Chamber (ZINC). By testing a variety of soot particles in parallel in the Horizontal Ice Nucleation Chamber (HINC), we suggest that previously observed HIN on soot particles is not the responsible mechanism for ice formation. Laboratory generated CAST brown and black soot, commercially available soot and acid treated soot were investigated for their ice nucleation abilities in the mixed-phase and cirrus cloud temperature regimes. No heterogeneous ice nucleation activity is inferred at T > -38 °C (mixed-phase cloud regime), however depending on particle size and soot type, HIN was observed for T nucleation of ice in the pores or cavities that are ubiquitous in soot particles between the primary spherules. The ability of some particles to freeze at lower relative humidity compared to others demonstrates why hydrophobicity plays a role in ice nucleation, i.e. controlling the conditions at which these cavities fill with water. Thus for more hydrophobic particles pore filling occurs at higher relative humidity, and therefore freezing of pore water and ice crystal growth. Future work focusses on testing the cloud processing ability of soot particles and water adsorption isotherms of the different soot samples to support the hydrophobicity inferences from the ice nucleation results.
Final Report for 3-year grant no. DE-FG05-85ER40226. Investigations in Elementary Particle Theory.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kephart, Thomas W. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Scherrer, Robert J. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Weiler, Thomas J. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)
2014-11-23
The research interests of our three Co-PI’s complement each other very well. Kephart works mainly on models of particle unification in four or higher dimensions, on aspects of gravity such as inflation, black-holes, and the very early Universe, and on applications of knot theory and topology to various physical systems (including gluon dynamics). Scherrer works mainly on aspects of the intermediate-aged Universe, including dark matter and dark energy, and particle physics in the early Universe. Weiler works mainly on neutrino physics, dark matter signatures, and extreme particle-astrophysics in the late Universe, including origins of the highest-energy cosmic-rays and gamma-rays, and the future potential of neutrino astrophysics. Kephart and Weiler have lately devoted some research attention to the LHC and its reach for probing physics beyond the Standard Model. During the 3-year funding period, our grant supported one postdoc (Chiu Man Ho) and partially supported two students, Peter Denton and Lingjun Fu. Chiu Man collaborated with all three of the Co-PI’s during the 3-year funding period and published 16 refereed papers. Chiu Man has gone on to a postdoc with Steve Hsu at Michigan State University. Denton and Fu will both receive their PhDs during the 2014-15 academic year. The total number of our papers published in refereed journals by the three co-PIs during the period of this grant (2011-present) is 54. The total number of talks given by the group members during this time period, including seminars, colloquia, and conference presentations, is 47. Some details of the accomplishments of our DOE funded researchers during the grant period include Weiler being named a Simons Fellow in 2013. He presented an invited TEDx talk in 2012. His paper on closed timelike curves (2013) garnered a great deal of national publicity. Scherrer’s paper on the “little rip” (2011) fostered a new area of cosmological research, and the name “little rip” has now entered
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaracz, P.; Mirowski, S.; Piasecki, E.; Wilhelmi, Z.
2004-01-01
Paper reviews some radiative characteristics of 'hot particles' (HP) - a particulate fraction of the Chernobyl fallout. The work is based mostly on results of HP investigations of the Warsaw group. A classification of hot particles in their γ activity contents as well as some suggestions about possible mechanisms of their formation are provided. A comparison between activities of the Chernobyl hot particles and the ones from nuclear weapon tests of the early 60-ties is made. Some comments on health detriment caused by HPs are included. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loucas, B.D.; Geard, C.R.
1994-01-01
To determine the efficiency at which α particles at LETs chosen to simulate exposure to radon progeny break chromosomes, the premature chromosome condensation technique was used to measure breaks soon after irradiation. Noncycling human fibroblasts were irradiated with graded doses of monoenergetic α particles accelerated to produce LETs of 90, 120, 150, 180 and 200 keV/pm at the midpoint of the cell nuclei. Premature chromosome condensation was initiated immediately after irradiation and cells were scored for the total number of prematurely condensed chromosomes and fragments per cell. Similar experiments were conducted with 250 kVp X rays for comparison. Irradiation with α particles produced 8.6 to 13.1 excess fragments per gray, while X rays produced 5.8 excess fragments, resulting in RBEs around 2. Calculations of the number of breaks produced on average by a single particle traversal of a cell nucleus indicated that at the LETs tested more than one break was produced by each traversal, the maximum being that produced by 180 keV/μm α particles. When chromosome aberrations are scored at metaphase after high-LET irradiation, RBEs considerably greater than those recorded here have been reported. These results showing relatively small differences in initial break levels for α particles in the LET range of the radon progeny relative to X rays indicate that the great aberration frequencies are not due principally to an increase in breakage efficiency, but interactions between breaks along the same particle track are important. 16 refs., 4 figs
Held, Kathryn D; Blakely, Eleanor A; Story, Michael D; Lowenstein, Derek I
2016-06-01
Although clinical studies with carbon ions have been conducted successfully in Japan and Europe, the limited radiobiological information about charged particles that are heavier than protons remains a significant impediment to exploiting the full potential of particle therapy. There is growing interest in the U.S. to build a cancer treatment facility that utilizes charged particles heavier than protons. Therefore, it is essential that additional radiobiological knowledge be obtained using state-of-the-art technologies and biological models and end points relevant to clinical outcome. Currently, most such ion radiotherapy-related research is being conducted outside the U.S. This article addresses the substantial contributions to that research that are possible at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), which is the only facility in the U.S. at this time where heavy-ion radiobiology research with the ion species and energies of interest for therapy can be done. Here, we briefly discuss the relevant facilities at NSRL and how selected charged particle biology research gaps could be addressed using those facilities.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klippel, N.; Nussbaumer, T.
2007-03-15
This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the relevance of fine-dust particles (PM10, particulate matter smaller than 10 microns) emitted from wood-fired boilers in comparison with soot from diesel engines. Medicinal basics with reference to the particles concerned are explained, including the physiology of the human respiratory system, its defence mechanisms against fine dust as well as detrimental health effects to the nose, lungs and cardio-vascular system. Also, allergic reactions and effects at cell level are discussed. The mechanisms involved in the emission of the particles in ovens and diesel engines are examined and compared. The methods used to take samples of the particles are explained and the results of cell-tests are presented and discussed. Estimates of the particle concentrations in the lung are presented and comparisons are made of loading during smog-periods. The report is rounded off with a comprehensive list of literature on the subject.
Research in elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirsch, L.E.; Schnitzer, H.J.; Abbott, L.F.; Bensinger, J.R.; Blocker, C.A.
1990-01-01
This paper discusses: CDF analysis; CDF system support; SSC laboratory development; solenoidal detector collaboration program; meson spectroscopy; conformal field theory; wormholes in quantum gravity; neural networks. (FI)
Geometrical approach to elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elbaz, E.; Meyer, J.
Starting with an isospin doublet R = (T/V) with spin 1/2 and hypercharge 1/3, the rishon considered as a vector in the color-space, we define the dirishon R* rank-one tensor product with spin 0 and hypercharge 2/3. Leptons and quarks of the first generation are then obtained as the scalar and dot product l = R*. R and f vector = R* Λ R'. The internal quantum numbers are then expressed with the rishon number. The lepton and quark generations are then defined and a quark mass formula proposed. Baryon magnetic moments are calculated and compared to experiment [fr
Research in elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan, L.H.; Haymaker, R.; Imlay, R.; McNeil, R.; Metcalf, W.; Svoboda, R.
1992-01-01
Theoretical work on effective action expansion on an effective low; energy theory of hadron, dynamical symmetry breaking, and lattice gauge theories is described. The high-energy experimental group at Louisiana State University has analyzed data on a neutrino oscillation experiment at LAMPF. Preparations for the LSND neutrino experiment have stated. IMB data have also been analyzed. On the ZEUS electron n-proton colliding bean experiment, the production of the barrel calorimeter has been completed. Several modules of the calorimeter have been tested at Fermilab, and preparations for data taking are underway
Elementary Particles and the Universe
Schwarz, John H.
2005-07-01
1. Excess baggage J. Hartle; 2. Through the clouds E. Witten; 3. Covariant foundations of the superparticle L. Brink; 4. Chiral symmetry and confinement T. Goldman; 5. The original fifth interaction Y. Neeman; 6. The mass hierarchy of leptons and quarks H. Fritzsch; 7. Spacetime duality in string theory J. H. Schwarz; 8. Symmetry and quasi-symmetry Y. Nambu; 9. On an exceptional non-associative superspace M. Gunaydin; 10. Algebra of reparametrization-invariant and normal ordered operators in open string field theory P. Ramond; 11. Superconductivity of an ideal charged boson system T. D. Lee; 12. Some remarks on the symmetry approach to nuclear rotational motion L. C. Biedebharn and P. Truini; 13. Uncomputability, intractability and the efficiency of heat engines S. Lloyd; 14. The new mathematical physics I. Singer; 15. For the birds V. Telegdi; 16. Gell-Mann's approach to physics A. Salam; 17. Remarks M. Goldberger.
Research in elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan, Lai-Him; Haymaker, R.; Imlay, R.; McNeil, R.; Metcalf, W.
1991-01-01
We describe theoretical work on effective action expansion of an effective low energy theory of hadrons, dynamical symmetry breaking, and lattice gauge theories. The high energy experimental group at Louisiana State University finished taking data on a neutrino oscillation experiment at LAMPF in 1989 and expects to complete the data analysis soon. LSU is also participating on an electron-positron experiment, AMY, that is running at TRISTAN in Japan. We plan to leave as of March 1, 1990 to concentrate on ZEUS and SSC activities. For ZEUS we are presently building the EMC waveshifters for the barrel calorimeter and participating on the calorimeter beam tests at Fermilab
Research in elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirsch, L.E.; Schnitzer, H.J.; Bensinger, J.R.; Blocker, C.A.
1992-01-01
This report discusses research in the following areas of high energy physics: B meson mixing; CDF response to low energy jets; jet scaling behavior; search for pair produced leptoquarks at CDF; SSC program; quantum field theory; and neural networks. (LSP)
Research in elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan, Lai-Him; Haymaker, R.; Imlay, R.; McNeil, R.; Metcalf, W.; Svoboda, R.
1992-01-01
We describe theoretical work on effective action expansion on an effective low energy theory of hadrons and lattice gauge theories. The high energy experimental group at Louisiana State University has analyzed data on a neutrino oscillation experiment at LAMPF. The LSND neutrino experiment is preparing to take data in 1993. IMB data has been analyzed. Preparations for a beam test at KEK for IMB are in progress. Dumand is preparing to test one string of the detector early next summer. The ZEUS electron proton colliding beam experiment has started to take data. Early results have been reported
Research in elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirsch, L.E.; Schnitzer, H.J.; Abbott, L.F.; Bensinger, J.R.; Blocker, C.A.
1991-01-01
This report discusses the following topics: Z neutral boson decay asymmetry; B-anti-B mixing; top quark search; measurement of the inclusive central jet cross section; search for pair produced leptoquarks at cdf; direct photon production; calibration of cdf; hadronic energy scale for the cdf central calorimeters; skyrme model; two and three dimensional field theory; the path integral on a branched manifold; and mean-field theory of neural networks
Research in elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan, Lai-Him; Haymaker, R.; Imlay, R.; McNeil, R.; Metcalf, W.; Svoboda, R.
1993-01-01
Theoretical work on effective action expansion, low-energy models of hadrons and lattice gauge theories is reported. The progress on the electron-proton experiment ZEUS in Germany, LSND neutrino experiment at LAMPF, the Dumand experiment in Hawaii, and the Super Kamiokande experiment in Japan is described. Results from IMB are described
Medium energy elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1991-01-01
This report discusses the following topics: muon beam development at LAMPF; muon physics; a new precision measurement of the muon g-2 value; measurement of the spin-dependent structure functions of the neutron and proton; and meson factories
Research in elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan, Lai-Him; Haymaker, R.; Imlay, R.; McNeil, R.; Metcalf, W.
1990-01-01
We describe theoretical work on effective action expansion of an effective low energy theory of hadrons, dynamical symmetry breaking, and lattice gauge theories. The high energy experimental group at Louisiana State University has finished taking data on a neutrino oscillation experiment at LAMPF. Results for the 1987 data have been published. Analysis of 1988 and 1989 data is in progress. LSU is also participating in an electron-positron experiment, AMY, that is running at TRISTAN in Japan. LSU is responsible for the muon detector for AMY. Many results have been published. We have recently joined an electron-proton experiment, ZEUS
Research on elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holloway, L.E.; O'Halloran, T.A.
1992-05-01
This report describes the activities of the University of Illinois Experimental High Energy Physics Group. The physicists in the University of Illinois High Energy Physics Group are engaged in a wide variety of experiments at current and future accelerator laboratories. These include: (1) The CDF experiment at the Fermilab Tevetron p bar p collider. (2) Design and developmental work for the SDC group at SSCL. (3) Experiments at the wide band photon beam at Fermilab. (4) The SLD experiment at SLAC and design studies for a τ-charm factor. (5) CP violation experiments at Fermilab. (6) The HiRes cosmic ray experiment at Dugway Proving Grounds, Utah. (7) Computational facilities. (8) Electronics systems development
[Elementary particle physics. Annual report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Izen, J.M.; Lou, X.
1998-01-01
The BABAR construction phase is ending and first data is expected during May, 1999. During construction, UTD has developed analysis framework software, contributed to the BABAR Physics Book, assembled a first rate computing facility, and pioneered Internet-based video techniques for the collaboration. The authors are now defining the physics goals, and are participating in the formation physics analysis groups. They are starting to use their computing facility for BABAR production jobs
Wittig, Anja; Gehrke, Helge; Del Favero, Giorgia; Fritz, Eva-Maria; Al-Rawi, Marco; Diabaté, Silvia; Weiss, Carsten; Sami, Haider; Ogris, Manfred; Marko, Doris
2017-01-13
Nanostructured silica particles are commonly used in biomedical and biotechnical fields, as well as, in cosmetics and food industry. Thus, their environmental and health impacts are of great interest and effects after oral uptake are only rarely investigated. In the present study, the toxicological effects of commercially available nano-scaled silica with a nominal primary diameter of 12 nm were investigated on the human gastric carcinoma cell line GXF251L. Besides the analysis of cytotoxic and proliferative effects and the comparison with effects of particles with a nominal primary diameter of 200 nm, emphasis was also given to their influence on the cellular epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathways-both of them deeply involved in the regulation of cellular processes like cell cycle progression, differentiation or proliferation. The investigated silica nanoparticles (NPs) were found to stimulate cell proliferation as measured by microscopy and the sulforhodamine B assay. In accordance, the nuclear level of the proliferation marker Ki-67 was enhanced in a concentration-dependent manner. At high particle concentrations also necrosis was induced. Finally, silica NPs affected the EGFR and MAPK pathways at various levels dependent on concentration and time. However, classical activation of the EGFR, to be reflected by enhanced levels of phosphorylation, could be excluded as major trigger of the proliferative stimulus. After 45 min of incubation the level of phosphorylated EGFR did not increase, whereas enhanced levels of total EGFR protein were observed. These results indicate interference with the complex homeostasis of the EGFR protein, whereby up to 24 h no impact on the transcription level was detected. In addition, downstream on the level of the MAP kinases ERK1/2 short term incubation appeared to affect total protein levels without clear increase in phosphorylation. Depending on the concentration
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anja Wittig
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Nanostructured silica particles are commonly used in biomedical and biotechnical fields, as well as, in cosmetics and food industry. Thus, their environmental and health impacts are of great interest and effects after oral uptake are only rarely investigated. In the present study, the toxicological effects of commercially available nano-scaled silica with a nominal primary diameter of 12 nm were investigated on the human gastric carcinoma cell line GXF251L. Besides the analysis of cytotoxic and proliferative effects and the comparison with effects of particles with a nominal primary diameter of 200 nm, emphasis was also given to their influence on the cellular epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK signaling pathways—both of them deeply involved in the regulation of cellular processes like cell cycle progression, differentiation or proliferation. The investigated silica nanoparticles (NPs were found to stimulate cell proliferation as measured by microscopy and the sulforhodamine B assay. In accordance, the nuclear level of the proliferation marker Ki-67 was enhanced in a concentration-dependent manner. At high particle concentrations also necrosis was induced. Finally, silica NPs affected the EGFR and MAPK pathways at various levels dependent on concentration and time. However, classical activation of the EGFR, to be reflected by enhanced levels of phosphorylation, could be excluded as major trigger of the proliferative stimulus. After 45 min of incubation the level of phosphorylated EGFR did not increase, whereas enhanced levels of total EGFR protein were observed. These results indicate interference with the complex homeostasis of the EGFR protein, whereby up to 24 h no impact on the transcription level was detected. In addition, downstream on the level of the MAP kinases ERK1/2 short term incubation appeared to affect total protein levels without clear increase in phosphorylation. Depending on the
Lee, Ryonfa; Nasonova, Elena; Sommer, Sylvester; Hartel, Carola; Ritter, Sylvia
During space missions astronauts are exposed to cosmic radiations which are different from natural background radiation on Earth in both quantity and quality. Dose rate in space environment is at least 100 times higher than that on Earth. In addition, the natural radiation on Earth consists mainly of X-, γ-rays and α-emitters, while in space charged particles from protons to iron ions are predominant. The composition of radiation environment of outer space is well understood, however, due to a lack of data on the biological effects of dose, dose-rate and especially HZE (high charge Z and energy E) particles, large uncertainties exist in estimating the health risks for long-term space mission. To contribute to this issue, we investigated cytogenetic damage induced by heavy charged particles in human lymphocytes, since chromosome aberration yield is a biomarker showing an association with cancer risk. Lymphocytes collected from a healthy donor were irradiated with carbon ions (C-ions) in vitro with various energies (11.4 to 400 MeV/u; LET values 11 to 175 keV/µm) at either UNILAC or SIS facility (GSI, Germany) or exposed to X-rays. Additionally, peripheral blood was obtained from prostate cancer patients, treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or IMRT combined with C-ion boost. Samples were taken before, during and after the radiotherapy. Chromosome samples were stained with FPG-technique to enable aberration analysis in 1st cycle metaphases. After in vitro exposure to C-ions, RBE values for the induction of chromosome aberrations increased with sampling time. The effect was most pronounced in samples exposed to 175 keV/µm C-ions and can be attributed to a pronounced cell cycle delay of heavily damaged cells. Thus, for a reliable risk assessment, the effect of selective cell cycle delay following particle exposure should be taken into account. M-FISH analysis of selected samples to assess aberration quality revealed higher frequencies of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Potters, J.H.H.M.; Goedheer, W.J.
1982-04-01
A summary is given of the atomic processes which are relevant for the ionization balance and for the transport in a plasma consisting of hydrogen with a small admixture of helium. Attention is paid mainly to processes in plasmas with temperatures below 100 eV and electron densities between 3x10 13 and 3x10 14 cm -3 conditions which prevail in a so-called cold plasma blanket. The species considered are electrons, protons, hydrogen atoms (ground state and excited), α-particles, He + -ions (ground state and excited), and helium atoms (ground state and excited). The discussed processes are charge exchange, ionization, recombination, (de-) excitation, and elastic scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bleck-Neuhaus, Joern [Bremen Univ. (Germany)
2013-07-01
The current state of knowledge of nuclear and elementary-particle physics has a checkered history, often characterized by shocking new concept formations, which also opens up to the present day students of physics only with difficulty. This book uses those controversial yet educational development in order to enable learners to improve access to the new concepts. It helps to understand how the physical picture of the smallest particles is today, and why it is so and not otherwise originated: Beginning in the detection of the atoms up to the current standard model of elementary-particle physics and the Higgs boson. So readers gain an impression of that great field, which is originated in the constant interplay between established theoretical models, confirmatory or contradictory findings, sometimes controversial new concept formations, and improved experiments - a process, that surely continues in the future. Guideline of the presentation is a comprehensible also in detail as possible reasoning argumentation. Students of physics before their B.Sc. degree will thus be able to acquire knowledge of the subatomic physics relating to general knowledge in their field. Also for physics teachers at schools or colleges, this new representation should be interesting. The second edition has been updated to the newest state of knowledge, in particular first results of the LHC have been incorporated.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. R. Zamora
2013-09-01
Full Text Available The hygroscopic growth of atmospheric particles affects atmospheric chemistry and Earth's climate. Water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC constitutes a significant fraction of the dry submicron mass of atmospheric aerosols, thus affecting their water uptake properties. Although the WSOC fraction is comprised of many compounds, a set of model substances can be used to describe its behavior. For this study, mixtures of Nordic aquatic fulvic acid reference (NAFA and Fluka humic acid (HA, with various combinations of inorganic salts (sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate and other representative organic compounds (levoglucosan and succinic acid, were studied. We measured the equilibrium water vapor pressure over bulk solutions of these mixtures as a function of temperature and solute concentration. New water activity (aw parameterizations and hygroscopic growth curves at 25 °C were calculated from these data for particles of equivalent composition. We examined the effect of temperature on the water activity and found a maximum variation of 9% in the 0–30 °C range, and 2% in the 20–30 °C range. Five two-component mixtures were studied to understand the effect of adding a humic substance (HS, such as NAFA and HA, to an inorganic salt or a saccharide. The deliquescence point at 25 °C for HS-inorganic mixtures did not change significantly from that of the pure inorganic species. However, the hygroscopic growth of HA / inorganic mixtures was lower than that exhibited by the pure salt, in proportion to the added mass of HA. The addition of NAFA to a highly soluble solute (ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride or levoglucosan in water had the same effect as the addition of HA to the inorganic species for most of the water activity range studied. Yet, the water uptake of these NAFA mixtures transitioned to match the growth of the pure salt or saccharide at high aw values. The remaining four mixtures were based on chemical composition data for different
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Svenningsson
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The organic fraction of atmospheric aerosols contains a multitude of compounds and usually only a small fraction can be identified and quantified. However, a limited number of representative organic compounds can be used to describe the water-soluble organic fraction. In this work, initiated within the EU 5FP project SMOCC, four mixtures containing various amounts of inorganic salts (ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, and sodium chloride and three model organic compounds (levoglucosan, succinic acid and fulvic acid were studied. The interaction between water vapor and aerosol particles was studied at different relative humidities: at subsaturation using a hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA and at supersaturation using a cloud condensation nuclei spectrometer (CCN spectrometer. Surface tensions as a function of carbon concentrations were measured using a bubble tensiometer. Parameterizations of water activity as a function of molality, based on hygroscopic growth, are given for the pure organic compounds and for the mixtures, indicating van't Hoff factors around 1 for the organics. The Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR mixing rule was tested on the hygroscopic growth of the mixtures and it was found to adequately explain the hygroscopic growth for 3 out of 4 mixtures, when the limited solubility of succinic acid is taken into account. One mixture containing sodium chloride was studied and showed a pronounced deviation from the ZSR mixing rule. Critical supersaturations calculated using the parameterizations of water activity and the measured surface tensions were compared with those determined experimentally.
Aguilar, M; Alpat, B; Ambrosi, G; Arruda, L; Attig, N; Aupetit, S; Azzarello, P; Bachlechner, A; Barao, F; Barrau, A; Barrin, L; Bartoloni, A; Basara, L; Başeǧmez-du Pree, S; Battarbee, M; Battiston, R; Bazo, J; Becker, U; Behlmann, M; Beischer, B; Berdugo, J; Bertucci, B; Bindi, V; Boella, G; de Boer, W; Bollweg, K; Bonnivard, V; Borgia, B; Boschini, M J; Bourquin, M; Bueno, E F; Burger, J; Cadoux, F; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Caroff, S; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cernuda, I; Cervelli, F; Chae, M J; Chang, Y H; Chen, A I; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Cheng, L; Chou, H Y; Choumilov, E; Choutko, V; Chung, C H; Clark, C; Clavero, R; Coignet, G; Consolandi, C; Contin, A; Corti, C; Coste, B; Creus, W; Crispoltoni, M; Cui, Z; Dai, Y M; Delgado, C; Della Torre, S; Demirköz, M B; Derome, L; Di Falco, S; Dimiccoli, F; Díaz, C; von Doetinchem, P; Dong, F; Donnini, F; Duranti, M; D'Urso, D; Egorov, A; Eline, A; Eronen, T; Feng, J; Fiandrini, E; Finch, E; Fisher, P; Formato, V; Galaktionov, Y; Gallucci, G; García, B; García-López, R J; Gargiulo, C; Gast, H; Gebauer, I; Gervasi, M; Ghelfi, A; Giovacchini, F; Goglov, P; Gómez-Coral, D M; Gong, J; Goy, C; Grabski, V; Grandi, D; Graziani, M; Guerri, I; Guo, K H; Habiby, M; Haino, S; Han, K C; He, Z H; Heil, M; Hoffman, J; Hsieh, T H; Huang, H; Huang, Z C; Huh, C; Incagli, M; Ionica, M; Jang, W Y; Jinchi, H; Kang, S C; Kanishev, K; Kim, G N; Kim, K S; Kirn, Th; Konak, C; Kounina, O; Kounine, A; Koutsenko, V; Krafczyk, M S; La Vacca, G; Laudi, E; Laurenti, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lebedev, A; Lee, H T; Lee, S C; Leluc, C; Li, H S; Li, J Q; Li, Q; Li, T X; Li, W; Li, Z H; Li, Z Y; Lim, S; Lin, C H; Lipari, P; Lippert, T; Liu, D; Liu, Hu; Lu, S Q; Lu, Y S; Luebelsmeyer, K; Luo, F; Luo, J Z; Lv, S S; Majka, R; Mañá, C; Marín, J; Martin, T; Martínez, G; Masi, N; Maurin, D; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Meng, Q; Mo, D C; Morescalchi, L; Mott, P; Nelson, T; Ni, J Q; Nikonov, N; Nozzoli, F; Nunes, P; Oliva, A; Orcinha, M; Palmonari, F; Palomares, C; Paniccia, M; Pauluzzi, M; Pensotti, S; Pereira, R; Picot-Clemente, N; Pilo, F; Pizzolotto, C; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Poireau, V; Putze, A; Quadrani, L; Qi, X M; Qin, X; Qu, Z Y; Räihä, T; Rancoita, P G; Rapin, D; Ricol, J S; Rodríguez, I; Rosier-Lees, S; Rozhkov, A; Rozza, D; Sagdeev, R; Sandweiss, J; Saouter, P; Schael, S; Schmidt, S M; Schulz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Seo, E S; Shan, B S; Shi, J Y; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Song, J W; Sun, W H; Tacconi, M; Tang, X W; Tang, Z C; Tao, L; Tescaro, D; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tomassetti, N; Torsti, J; Türkoğlu, C; Urban, T; Vagelli, V; Valente, E; Vannini, C; Valtonen, E; Vázquez Acosta, M; Vecchi, M; Velasco, M; Vialle, J P; Vitale, V; Vitillo, S; Wang, L Q; Wang, N H; Wang, Q L; Wang, X; Wang, X Q; Wang, Z X; Wei, C C; Weng, Z L; Whitman, K; Wienkenhöver, J; Willenbrock, M; Wu, H; Wu, X; Xia, X; Xiong, R Q; Xu, W; Yan, Q; Yang, J; Yang, M; Yang, Y; Yi, H; Yu, Y J; Yu, Z Q; Zeissler, S; Zhang, C; Zhang, J; Zhang, J H; Zhang, S D; Zhang, S W; Zhang, Z; Zheng, Z M; Zhu, Z Q; Zhuang, H L; Zhukov, V; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, N; Zuccon, P
2016-01-01
A precision measurement by AMS of the antiproton flux and the antiproton-to-proton flux ratio in primary cosmic rays in the absolute rigidity range from 1 to 450 GV is presented based on 3.49×105 antiproton events and 2.42×109 proton events. The fluxes and flux ratios of charged elementary particles in cosmic rays are also presented. In the absolute rigidity range ∼60 to ∼500 GV, the antiproton p¯, proton p, and positron e+ fluxes are found to have nearly identical rigidity dependence and the electron e− flux exhibits a different rigidity dependence. Below 60 GV, the (p¯/p), (p¯/e+), and (p/e+) flux ratios each reaches a maximum. From ∼60 to ∼500 GV, the (p¯/p), (p¯/e+), and (p/e+) flux ratios show no rigidity dependence. These are new observations of the properties of elementary particles in the cosmos.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lostaglio, Matteo; Alhambra, Álvaro M.; Perry, Christopher
2018-01-01
To what extent do thermodynamic resource theories capture physically relevant constraints? Inspired by quantum computation, we define a set of elementary thermodynamic gates that only act on 2 energy levels of a system at a time. We show that this theory is well reproduced by a Jaynes-Cummings in......To what extent do thermodynamic resource theories capture physically relevant constraints? Inspired by quantum computation, we define a set of elementary thermodynamic gates that only act on 2 energy levels of a system at a time. We show that this theory is well reproduced by a Jaynes......-Cummings interaction in rotating wave approximation and draw a connection to standard descriptions of thermalisation. We then prove that elementary thermal operations present tighter constraints on the allowed transformations than thermal operations. Mathematically, this illustrates the failure at finite temperature...... to do so, including necessary and sufficient conditions for a given change of the population to be possible. As an example, we describe the resource theory of the Jaynes-Cummings model. Finally, we initiate an investigation into how our resource theories can be applied to Heat Bath Algorithmic Cooling...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamal, Anwar
2014-01-01
Provides step-by-step derivations. Contains numerous tables and diagrams. Supports learning and teaching with numerous worked examples, questions and problems with answers. Sketches also the historical development of the subject. This textbook teaches particle physics very didactically. It supports learning and teaching with numerous worked examples, questions and problems with answers. Numerous tables and diagrams lead to a better understanding of the explanations. The content of the book covers all important topics of particle physics: Elementary particles are classified from the point of view of the four fundamental interactions. The nomenclature used in particle physics is explained. The discoveries and properties of known elementary particles and resonances are given. The particles considered are positrons, muon, pions, anti-protons, strange particles, neutrino and hadrons. The conservation laws governing the interactions of elementary particles are given. The concepts of parity, spin, charge conjugation, time reversal and gauge invariance are explained. The quark theory is introduced to explain the hadron structure and strong interactions. The solar neutrino problem is considered. Weak interactions are classified into various types, and the selection rules are stated. Non-conservation of parity and the universality of the weak interactions are discussed. Neutral and charged currents, discovery of W and Z bosons and the early universe form important topics of the electroweak interactions. The principles of high energy accelerators including colliders are elaborately explained. Additionally, in the book detectors used in nuclear and particle physics are described. This book is on the upper undergraduate level.
College and Career Readiness in Elementary Schools
Pulliam, Nicole; Bartek, Samantha
2018-01-01
This conceptual article will provide an in-depth exploration of the relevant literature focused on college and career readiness interventions in elementary schools. Beginning with a theoretical framework, a rationale is provided for early intervention by elementary school counselors. While professional guidelines and standards exist supporting…
Properties of potential eco-friendly gas replacements for particle detectors in high-energy physics
Saviano, G.; Ferrini, M.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Piccolo, D.; Colafranceschi, S.; KjØlbro, J.; Sharma, A.; Yang, D.; Chen, G.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Grassini, S.; Parvis, M.
2018-03-01
Gas detectors for elementary particles require F-based gases for optimal performance. Recent regulations demand the use of environmentally unfriendly F-based gases to be limited or banned. This work studies properties of potential eco-friendly gas replacements by computing the physical and chemical parameters relevant for use as detector media, and suggests candidates to be considered for experimental investigation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okun, L.B.
1991-01-01
This book presents papers on elementary particle physics, relations between various particles, and the connections between particle physics with other branches of physics. The papers include: Contemporary status and prospects of high-energy physics; Particle physics prospects; and High energy physics
Kazem, Sayyed M.
1992-01-01
Materials and Processes 1 (MET 141) is offered to freshmen by the Mechanical Engineering Department at Purdue University. The goal of MET 141 is to broaden the technical background of students who have not had any college science courses. Hence, applied physics, chemistry, and mathematics are included and quantitative problem solving is involved. In the elementary metallography experiment of this course, the objectives are: (1) introduce the vocabulary and establish outlook; (2) make qualitative observations and quantitative measurements; (3) demonstrate the proper use of equipment; and (4) review basic mathematics and science.
Wolstenholme, E Œ
1978-01-01
Elementary Vectors, Third Edition serves as an introductory course in vector analysis and is intended to present the theoretical and application aspects of vectors. The book covers topics that rigorously explain and provide definitions, principles, equations, and methods in vector analysis. Applications of vector methods to simple kinematical and dynamical problems; central forces and orbits; and solutions to geometrical problems are discussed as well. This edition of the text also provides an appendix, intended for students, which the author hopes to bridge the gap between theory and appl
Snell, K S; Langford, W J; Maxwell, E A
1966-01-01
Elementary Analysis, Volume 2 introduces several of the ideas of modern mathematics in a casual manner and provides the practical experience in algebraic and analytic operations that lays a sound foundation of basic skills. This book focuses on the nature of number, algebraic and logical structure, groups, rings, fields, vector spaces, matrices, sequences, limits, functions and inverse functions, complex numbers, and probability. The logical structure of analysis given through the treatment of differentiation and integration, with applications to the trigonometric and logarithmic functions, is
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yongliang Lin
2016-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a multiple kernel relevance vector machine (RVM method based on the adaptive cloud particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm to map landslide susceptibility in the low hill area of Sichuan Province, China. In the multi-kernel structure, the kernel selection problem can be solved by adjusting the kernel weight, which determines the single kernel contribution of the final kernel mapping. The weights and parameters of the multi-kernel function were optimized using the PSO algorithm. In addition, the convergence speed of the PSO algorithm was increased using cloud theory. To ensure the stability of the prediction model, the result of a five-fold cross-validation method was used as the fitness of the PSO algorithm. To verify the results, receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC and landslide dot density (LDD were used. The results show that the model that used a heterogeneous kernel (a combination of two different kernel functions had a larger area under the ROC curve (0.7616 and a lower prediction error ratio (0.28% than did the other types of kernel models employed in this study. In addition, both the sum of two high susceptibility zone LDDs (6.71/100 km2 and the sum of two low susceptibility zone LDDs (0.82/100 km2 demonstrated that the landslide susceptibility map based on the heterogeneous kernel model was closest to the historical landslide distribution. In conclusion, the results obtained in this study can provide very useful information for disaster prevention and land-use planning in the study area.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1988-01-01
This paper briefly discusses research being done on the following topics. Particle decay of Z bosons and B mesons; multiparticle production; relativistic heavy-ion collisions; determination of electromagnetic form factors; factorization in the Drell-Yan process; and Jet cross sections
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kirst, H [Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Berlin-Zeuthen. Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik
1977-01-01
The measuring and evaluating system includes pattern recognition and measuring instruments as well as a processor for data evaluation and checking procedures. The program chart and the application to evaluating photographs of particle tracks from high energy physics experiments are mentioned. The time-sharing effect of such systems in data evaluation is emphasized.
Kulkarni, Gourihar; China, Swarup; Liu, Shang; Nandasiri, Manjula; Sharma, Noopur; Wilson, Jacqueline; Aiken, Allison C.; Chand, Duli; Laskin, Alexander; Mazzoleni, Claudio; Pekour, Mikhail; Shilling, John; Shutthanandan, Vaithiyalingam; Zelenyuk, Alla; Zaveri, Rahul A.
2016-04-01
Ice formation by diesel soot particles was investigated at temperatures ranging from -40 to -50°C. Size-selected soot particles were physically and chemically aged in an environmental chamber, and their ice nucleating properties were determined using a continuous flow diffusion type ice nucleation chamber. Bare (freshly formed), hydrated, and compacted soot particles, as well as α-pinene secondary organic aerosol (SOA)-coated soot particles at high relative humidity conditions, showed ice formation activity at subsaturation conditions with respect to water but below the homogeneous freezing threshold conditions. However, SOA-coated soot particles at dry conditions were observed to freeze at homogeneous freezing threshold conditions. Overall, our results suggest that heterogeneous ice nucleation activity of freshly emitted diesel soot particles are sensitive to some of the aging processes that soot can undergo in the atmosphere.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bahr, Benjamin [Albert-Einstein-Institut (Max-Planck Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik), Golm (Germany); Riebe, Kristin [Potsdam Univ. (Germany). Leibniz-Institut fuer Astrophysik; Resag, Joerg
2013-07-01
''Fascinating physics'' is a picturesque expedition through 140 themes of classical and modern physics. On each one double-page to the reader is thereby offered a compact access in each one theme: From the aurora until the black hole, from the particle accelerator until the GPS system, from the curved space-time until the supersymmetry, from the oscillating dipole until Foucault's pendulum - a large variety of themes is taken up and carefully explained. Thereby the special strength of the book lies in the clear language and the explanations get along mostly without formulas - accompanied by breathtaking pictures, which lead the beauty of our world in front of the eyes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baldisseri, A
2006-05-15
This document reviews the theoretical, experimental and technical achievements of the author since the beginning of his scientific career. Works in 5 fields have been highlighted: 1) rare decays of the {eta} meson, 2) neutrino oscillations in NOMAD experiment, 3) quark and gluon plasma, 4) the PHENIX experiment at RHIC, and 5) the ALICE experiment in LHC. The PHENIX experiment was dedicated to the accurate measuring of photons and dileptons (particularly J/{psi}, {psi}' resonances) produced in heavy ion collisions. The ALICE experiment is devoted to the study of the quark gluon plasma. Its detector must be able to detect charged particles with a broad range of transverse momenta (from 100 MeV/c to 100 GeV/c). This document presented before an academic board will allow his author to manage research works and particularly to tutor thesis students.
Elementary Mathematics Leaders
Fennell, Francis; Kobett, Beth McCord; Wray, Jonathan A.
2013-01-01
Elementary school mathematics leaders often come to the realization that their position, however titled and determined, although dedicated to addressing needs in math teaching and learning, also entails and directly involves leadership. Elementary school math specialists/instructional leaders (referenced here as elementary mathematics leaders, or…
Lederman, Leon M
2013-01-01
On July 4, 2012, the long-sought Higgs Boson--aka "the God Particle"--was discovered at the world's largest particle accelerator, the LHC, in Geneva, Switzerland. On March 14, 2013, physicists at CERN confirmed it. This elusive subatomic particle forms a field that permeates the entire universe, creating the masses of the elementary particles that are the basic building blocks of everything in the known world--from viruses to elephants, from atoms to quasars.
Particle physics and cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Srednicki, M.
1990-01-01
At least eighty percent of the mass of the universe consists of some material which, unlike ordinary matter, neither emits nor absorbs light. This book collects key papers related to the discovery of this astonishing fact and its profound implications for astrophysics, cosmology, and the physics of elementary particles. The book focusses on the likely possibility that the dark matter is composed of an as yet undiscovered elementary particle, and examines the boundaries of our present knowledge of the properties such a particle must possess. (author). refs.; figs.; tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drell, S.D.
1978-01-01
The concept of elementary constituents or ultimate building blocks of nature in recent years is reviewed. The quark hypothesis, neutrinos, color, hard collisions, psi and other recent resonances, flavor, quantum chromodynamics, the tau particle, and particle structure are among the ideas considered. 22 references
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gottfried, K.; Weisskopf, V.F.
1984-01-01
This volume elucidates basic and well-established concepts of particle physics for the autodidact who is curious about recent developments in fundamental physics. Elementary quantum mechanics is a background must. Contents, abridged: The evolution of the particle concept before the advent of quantum mechanics. Nonrelativistic quantum mechanics and atomic physics. Relativistic quantum theory. Nuclear phenomena. Subnuclear phenomena. Index
Introduction to particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zitoun, R.
2000-01-01
This book proposes an introduction to particle physics that requires only a high-school level mathematical knowledge. Elementary particles (leptons, quarks, bosons) are presented according to a modern view taking into account of their symmetries and interactions. The author shows how physicists have elaborated the standard model and what are its implications in cosmology. (J.S.)
Conferenza internazionale di Siena sulle particelle elementari
1964-01-01
Last year the editor of CERN Courier was privileged to be able to attend the Sienna international conference on elementary particles, held in the historic Italian city at the beginning of October. The following article is a personal recollection of the conference activities, both formal and informal, and of the physics that was discussed there.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. J. Murray
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Iodine oxide particles are known to nucleate in the marine boundary layer where gas phase molecular iodine and organoiodine species are produced by macroalgae. These ultra-fine particles may then grow through the condensation of other materials to sizes where they may serve as cloud condensation nuclei. There has been some debate over the chemical identity of the initially nucleated particles. In laboratory simulations, hygroscopic measurements have been used to infer that they are composed of insoluble I_{2}O_{4}, while elemental analysis of laboratory generated particles suggests soluble I_{2}O_{5} or its hydrated form iodic acid, HIO_{3} (I_{2}O_{5}·H_{2}O. In this paper we explore the response of super-micron sized aqueous iodic acid solution droplets to varying humidity using both Raman microscopy and single particle electrodynamic traps. These measurements reveal that the propensity of an iodic acid solution droplet to crystallise is negligible on drying to ~0% relative humidity (RH. On applying mechanical pressure to these droplets they shatter in a manner consistent with an ultra-viscous liquid or a brittle glass. Water retention in amorphous material at low RH is important for understanding the hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles and uptake of other condensable material. Subsequent water uptake between 10 and 20% RH causes their viscosity to reduce sufficiently that the cracked droplets flow and merge. The persistence of iodic acid solution in an amorphous state, rather than a crystalline state, suggests they will more readily accommodate other condensable material and are therefore more likely to grow to sizes where they may serve as cloud condensation nuclei. On increasing the humidity to ~90% the mass of the droplets only increases by ~20% with a corresponding increase in radius of only 6%, which is remarkably small for a highly soluble material. We suggest that the
Selective Mutism in Elementary School: Multidisciplinary Interventions.
Giddan, Jane J.; And Others
1997-01-01
Presents the symptoms of selective mutism and historical background for treatment. It provides a case study which illustrates successful multidisciplinary treatment outcomes for a child who was selectively mute. Issues relevant to speech-language pathologists working with elementary school children are discussed and treatment guidelines provided.…
Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 3. The Anti-particle
Franck Close
2008-01-01
Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". 3. The Anti-particle. It appears to be the stuff of science fiction. Associated with every elementary particle is an antiparticle which has the same mass and opposite charge. Should the two meet and combine, the result is annihilation - and a flash of light. Thanks to mysterious processes that occurred after the Big Bang there are a vastly greater number of particles than anti-particles. So how could their elusive existence be proved? At CERN particle physicists are crashing together subatomic particles at incredibly high speeds to create antimatter, which they hope will finally reveal what happened at the precise moment of the Big Bang to create the repertoire of elementary particles and antiparticles in existence today.
Higgs Particle: The Origin of Mass
Okada, Yasuhiro
2007-01-01
The Higgs particle is a new elementary particle predicted in the Standard Model of the elementary particle physics. It plays a special role in the theory of mass generation of quarks, leptons, and gauge bosons. In this article, theoretical issues on the Higgs mechanism are first discussed, and then experimental prospects on the Higgs particle study at the future collider experiments, LHC and ILC, are reviewed. The Higgs coupling determination is an essential step to establish the mass generat...
Research in theoretical and elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitselmakher, G.
1996-01-01
In 1995 the University of Florida started a major expansion of the High Energy Experimental Physics group (HEE) with the goal of adding four new faculty level positions to the group in two years. This proposal covers the second year of operation of the new group and gives a projection of the planned research program for the next five years, when the group expects their activities to be broader and well defined. The expansion of the HEE group started in the Fall of 1995 when Guenakh Mitselmakher was hired from Fermilab as a Full Professor. A search was then performed for two junior faculty positions. The first being a Research Scientist/Scholar position which is supported for 9 months by the University on a faculty line at the same level as Assistant Professor but without the teaching duties. The second position is that of an Assistant Professor. The search has been successfully completed and Jacobo Konigsberg from Harvard University has accepted the position of Research Scientist and Andrey Korytov from MIT has accepted the position of Assistant Professor. They will join the group in August 1996. The physics program for the new group is focused on hadron collider physics. G. Mitselmakher has been leading the CMS endcap muon project since 1994. A Korytov is the coordinator of the endcap muon chamber effort for CMS and a member of the CDF collaboration and J. Konigsberg is a member of CDF where he has participated in various physics analyses and has been coordinator of the gas calorimetry group. The group at the U. of Florida has recently been accepted as an official collaborating institution on CDF. They have been assigned the responsibility of determining the collider beam luminosity at CDF and they will also be an active participant in the design and operation of the muon detectors for the intermediate rapidity region. In addition they expect to continue their strong participation in the present and future physics analysis of the CDF data
[Theoretical studies in elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Collins, J.
1992-01-01
Work on the following topics is summarized: polarized hard scattering, hard diffraction, gauge-invariant operators, fundamental QCD, heavy quarks, strongly interacting Ws, and instanton-induced effects in QCD. Some attention is given to the factorization theorem
Theoretical studies in elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Collins, J.
1994-01-01
This is a report on research conducted at Penn State University under grant number DE-FG02-90ER-40577, from November 1992 to present. The author is a member of the CTEQ collaboration (Coordinated Theoretical and Experimental Project on Quantitative QCD). Some of the work in CTEQ is described in this report. Topics which the authors work has touched include: polarized hard scattering; hard diffraction; small x and perturbative pomeron physics; gauge-invariant operators; fundamental QCD; heavy quarks; instantons and deep inelastic scattering; non-perturbative corrections to τ decay
Task A: Theory of elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deshpande, N.G.; Soper, D.E.
1992-01-01
Brief summaries of work are given in the following areas: grandunification, properties of neutrinos, rare decays of heavy quarks, jet production in hadron collisions (theory, structure, two-jet cross section, null-plane field theory), neutrino physics, and QCD calculations of annihilation of e + e - into hadrons
Accelerators for elementary particle physics in Europe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schopper, H.
1983-01-01
The European accelerator programme provides for physicists from Europe and other continents facilities to carry out an exciting physics programme both in the medium- and long-term future. During the last decade a concentration of activities took place. The major high energy physics laboratory in Europe is CERN which, with its 13 Member States, is the only international laboratory in the field of high energy physics. About 2.500 physicists carry out their research there and they come not only from the Member States but also from the United States, USSR, Japan, China, Israel etc. Its attraction stems from the fact that most of its facilities are unique. The second laboratory for high energy physics is DESY in Hamburg. Although being a national laboratory it has always been open to physicists from other countries.In particular, since the operation of PETRA started, it has attracted many physicists from Europe and other regions. All high energy experiments at DESY are carried out in international collaborations: there are about 400 physicists involved, some 180 come from foreign universities and research institutes and about 150 from German universities and research laboratories. (author)
Exceptional groups and elementary-particle structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biedenharn, L.C.; Truini, P.
1981-09-01
A new finite-dimensional quantum mechanical space is constructed over the complex octonionic plane using the recently developed algebraic techniques of Jordan pairs and inner ideals. The automorphism group of this structure is E 6 x U(1), realized on precisely two E 6 irreps which is abstracted as a (topless) model for grand unification
Research program in elementary particle theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balachandran, A.P.; Rosenzweig, C.; Schechter, J.; Wali, K.C.
1990-01-01
Discussed in this paper is a brief account of the research work of the principal investigators and their co-workers during the past few years. The topics covered include: Topology in Physics; Skyrme Model; High Temperature Superconductivity; fractional statistics, and generalized spin statistics theorem; QCD as a dual chromomagnetic superconductor; confinement and string picture in QCD; quark gluon plasmas; cosmic strings; effective Lagrangians for QCD; ''proton spin,'' ''strange content'' and related topics; physical basis of the Skyrme model; gauge theories and weak interactions; grand unification; Universal ''see saw mechanism''; abelian and non-abelian interactions of a test string
Elementary particle physics and high energy phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barker, A.R.; Cumalat, J.P.; De Alwis, S.P.; DeGrand, T.A.; Ford, W.T.; Mahanthappa, K.T.; Nauenberg, U.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.
1992-06-01
Experimental and theoretical high-energy physics programs at the University of Colorado are reported. Areas of concentration include the following: study of the properties of the Z 0 with the SLD detector; fixed-target K-decay experiments; the R ampersand D program for the muon system: the SDC detector; high-energy photoproduction of states containing heavy quarks; electron--positron physics with the CLEO II detector at CESR; lattice QCD; and spin models and dynamically triangulated random surfaces. 24 figs., 2 tabs., 117 refs
Properties and Interactions of Elementary Particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amidei, Dante; Campbell, Myron; Huterer, Dragan; Kane, Gordon; Liu, James; Qian, Jianming; Tarle, Gregory; Zhou, Bing
2012-08-25
We summarize the accomplishments over the last renewal period in a broad program of research in experimental and theoretical High Energy Physics, conducted at the University of Michigan, and supported by the U.S. Department of Energy.
FINAL REPORT: GEOMETRY AND ELEMENTARY PARTICLE PHYSICS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singer, Isadore M.
2008-03-04
The effect on mathematics of collaborations between high-energy theoretical physics and modern mathematics has been remarkable. Mirror symmetry has revolutionized enumerative geometry, and Seiberg-Witten invariants have greatly simplified the study of four manifolds. And because of their application to string theory, physicists now need to know cohomology theory, characteristic classes, index theory, K-theory, algebraic geometry, differential geometry, and non-commutative geometry. Much more is coming. We are experiencing a deeper contact between the two sciences, which will stimulate new mathematics essential to the physicists’ quest for the unification of quantum mechanics and relativity. Our grant, supported by the Department of Energy for twelve years, has been instrumental in promoting an effective interaction between geometry and string theory, by supporting the Mathematical Physics seminar, postdoc research, collaborations, graduate students and several research papers.
Elementary particle physics. Progress report, 1993 - 1995
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Izen, J.M.
1997-10-01
A brief summary is given for each of the following topics: (1) Beijing Spectrometer (BES) run history and plans; (2) BES physics topics; (3) UTD BES personnel; (4) UTD physics analysis of 4.03 GeV data; (5) BES software and data processing; (5) UTD computing upgrade; (6) PEPII b Factory; and (7) budget justification
Elementary particles as micro-universes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recami, E.; Zanchin, V.T.; Vasconcelos, M.T.
1993-09-01
A panoramic view is presented as a proposed unified, bi-scale theory of gravitational and strong interactions (which is mathematically analogous to the last version of N. Rosen's bi-metric theory; and yields physical results similar to strong gravity's). This theory is purely geometrical in nature, adopting the methods of General Relativity for the description of hadron structure and strong interactions. In particular, hadrons are associated with strong black-roles, from the external point of view and with micro-universes from the internal point of view. Among the results herein presented, it should be mentioned the derivation of confinement and asymptotic freedom from the hadron constituents; of the Yukawa behaviour for the potential at the static limit; of the strong coupling constant, and of mesonic mass spectra. (author)
Research program in elementary particle theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balachandran, A.P.; Rosenzweig, C.; Schechter, J.; Wali, K.C.
1992-01-01
In this paper we give a brief account of the work of the group during the past year. The topics covered here include (1) Effective Lagrangians and Solitons; (2) Chern-Simons and Conformal Field Theories; (3) Spin and Statistics; (4) The Standard Model and Beyond; (5) Non-Abelian Monopoles; (6) The Inflationary Universe; (7) The Hubbard Model, and (8) Miscellaneous
The Mathematical Structure of Elementary Particles.
1983-10-01
Physical Mathematics) *Instituto de Matematica Pura e Aplicada, Estrada Dona Castorina 110, 22460 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Sponsored by the United...is the basic method of analysis to be employed in this work. *Instituto de Matematica Pura e Aplicada, Estrada Dona Castorina 110, 22460 Rio de Janeiro
Elementary particle physics and high energy phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barker, A.R.; Cumalat, J.P.; de Alwis, S.P.; DeGrand, T.A.; Ford, W.T.; Mahanthappa, K.T.; Nauenberg, U.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.
1992-06-01
This report discusses the following research in high energy physics: the properties of the z neutral boson with the SLD detector; the research and development program for the SDC muon detector; the fixed-target k-decay experiments; the Rocky Mountain Consortium for HEP; high energy photoproduction of states containing heavy quarks; and electron-positron physics with the CLEO II and Mark II detectors. (LSP)
Elementary Particles and the Forces of Nature
Hawking, Stephen W.
2017-01-01
Stephen W. Hawking, who was born in 1942 on the anniversary of Galileo’s death, holds Isaac Newton’s chair as Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge. Widely regarded as the most brilliant theoretical physicist since Einstein, he is also the author of Black Holes and Baby Universes, published in 1993, as well as numerous scientific papers and books.Посилання:Stephen W. Hawking, A Brief History of Time From the Big Bang to Black Holes, 1988.Kratkaja istorija vremeni. O...
Theoretical nuclear physics---elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuti, J.
1989-01-01
This report briefly discusses the following topics: Thermodynamics with Wilson Fermions; beta function with Wilson Fermions; grand challenge; light flavors and nonperturbative QCD; the spin structure of the proton; the heavy Higgs Meson Problem; the heavy top quark problem; SU(2) Higgs Model; nontrivial quantum electrodynamics; vortex sheet dynamics; random surfaces and quantum gravity; strange baryon matter; supersymmetric model with the Higgs as a lepton; and Hamilton equations on group manifolds
Elementary Particle Physics at Baylor (Final Report)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dittmann, J.R.
2012-08-25
This report summarizes the activities of the Baylor University Experimental High Energy Physics (HEP) group on the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) experiment from August 15, 2005 to May 31, 2012. Led by the Principal Investigator (Dr. Jay R. Dittmann), the Baylor HEP group has actively pursued a variety of cutting-edge measurements from proton-antiproton collisions at the energy frontier.
Exceptional groups and elementary-particle structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Biedenharn, L.C.; Truini, P.
1981-09-01
A new finite-dimensional quantum mechanical space is constructed over the complex octonionic plane using the recently developed algebraic techniques of Jordan pairs and inner ideals. The automorphism group of this structure is E/sub 6/ x U(1), realized on precisely two E/sub 6/ irreps which is abstracted as a (topless) model for grand unification.
Elementary Particle Physics in Belgium Exhibition
2000-01-01
The experimental activities of the Belgian Universities and Institutes are performed within the framework of large international collaborations. Moreover, the universities whose name is colored in light blue with * on the map of Belgium also take part into theoretical work. (All these activities are mainly supported by the FNRS-FWO research foundations.)
Elementary particles in the service of man
1966-01-01
This article was prepared by the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, and the Rutherford Laboratory in the U.K., for a Physics Exhibition in March of this year and is reproduced here with acknowledgement. It is an account of how some of the knowledge gained in the previous generation of our research has already been applied 'in the service of man'.
Elementary particle physics - where is it going
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schopper, H.
1982-01-01
The author presents a review about the research in high energy physics. Especially he describes the development of accelerators and storage rings with special regards to the CERN proton-antiproton project and the LEP storage ring. Then he considers the fundamental constituents of matter and the fundamental interactions. In this connection color is discussed by comparing quantum electrodynamics and quantum chromodynamics. Finally the connections between the modern search for unification of the fundamental interactions on the base of symmetry principles and the natural philosophy of Democritus and Plato is considered. (HSI)
Elementary particle physics and high energy phenomena
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barker, A.R.; Cumalat, J.P.; de Alwis, S.P.; DeGrand, T.A.; Ford, W.T.; Mahanthappa, K.T.; Nauenberg, U.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.
1992-06-01
This report discusses the following research in high energy physics: the properties of the z neutral boson with the SLD detector; the research and development program for the SDC muon detector; the fixed-target k-decay experiments; the Rocky Mountain Consortium for HEP; high energy photoproduction of states containing heavy quarks; and electron-positron physics with the CLEO II and Mark II detectors. (LSP).
Nuclear energy levels and elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
de Wet, J.A.
1982-01-01
Considering only exchange forces, the binding energies and excited states of nuclei up to 24 Mg are predicted to within charge independence, and there is no reason why the model should not be extended to cover all of the elements. A comparison of theory with experiment shows that the energy of one exchange is 2.56 MeV. Moreover, there is an attractive well of depth 30 MeV, corresponding to the helium nucleus. before exchange forces become operative. A possible explanation of the origin of mesons is also presented
Is the electron an elementary particle?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gareev, F.A.
1997-01-01
Simple phenomenological rules are suggested for the calculation of dihadron and dilepton resonance masses. A general interpretation is given for the different exotic resonances in nuclear physics: ABC- and Darmstadt-effect, dibaryon and so on resonances. Information about the inner structure of e ± , proton, neutron, pions and so on can be obtained from the usual reactions of type e + + e - => γγ, e ± + γ => e ± γ, e ± μ ± , e ± N... from elastic scattering at low and intermediate energies using existing experimental devices. (author)
Final Report: Geometry And Elementary Particle Physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singer, Isadore M.
2008-01-01
The effect on mathematics of collaborations between high-energy theoretical physics and modern mathematics has been remarkable. Mirror symmetry has revolutionized enumerative geometry, and Seiberg-Witten invariants have greatly simplified the study of four manifolds. And because of their application to string theory, physicists now need to know cohomology theory, characteristic classes, index theory, K-theory, algebraic geometry, differential geometry, and non-commutative geometry. Much more is coming. We are experiencing a deeper contact between the two sciences, which will stimulate new mathematics essential to the physicists quest for the unification of quantum mechanics and relativity. Our grant, supported by the Department of Energy for twelve years, has been instrumental in promoting an effective interaction between geometry and string theory, by supporting the Mathematical Physics seminar, postdoc research, collaborations, graduate students and several research papers.
Research on elementary particle physics: Part 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holloway, L.E.
1993-05-01
This report describes the activities of the University of Illinois Experimental High Energy Physics Group. The physicists in the University of Illinois High Energy Physics Group are engaged in a wide variety of experiments at current and future accelerator laboratories. These include: (1) The CDF experiment at the Fermilab Tevetron p bar p collider. (2) Design and developmental work for the SDC group at SSCL. (3) Experiments at the wide band photon beam at Fermilab. (4) e + e - experiments, the Mark III and SLD at SLAC and CLEO at Cornell. (5) CP violation experiments at Fermilab. (6) The HiRes cosmic ray experiment at Dugway Proving Grounds, Utah. (7) Computational facilities. (8) Electronics systems development
[Theoretical studies in elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Collins, J.
1990-01-01
This report discusses the following topics: Factorization for hard processes in QCD; Sudakov form factors and transverse momentum distributions; Semi-hard processes; otter QCD issues; Cosmic rays from point sources; Higgs and other collider phenomenology; and cosmology
Topics in elementary scattering theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Imrie, D.C.
1980-01-01
In these lectures a summary is given of some of the fundamental ideas and formalism used to describe and understand the interactions of elementary particles. A brief review of relativistic kinematics is followed by a discussion of Lorentz-invariant variables for describing two-body processes, phase space and plots, such as the Dalitz plot, which can be used to study some aspects of the dynamics of an interaction, relatively free from kinematic complications. A general description of scattering and decay is given and then, more specifically, some aspects of two-body interactions in the absence of spin are discussed. Finally, complications that arise when particle spin has to be taken into account are considered. (U.K.)
Elementary Environmental Activities.
Larson, Robert J.
This guide presents suggestions for field trips, out-of-doors activities, material for centers, and individualized activities in the teaching of elementary school science and particularly environmental education at the elementary level. The guide includes a section on preparation and procedures for conducting field trips, including sample…
Departmentalize Elementary Schools
Chan, Tak Cheung; Jarman, Delbert
2004-01-01
In elementary schools today, most students receive their education in a single classroom from one teacher who is responsible for teaching language arts, social studies, math, and science. The self-contained classroom organization is predicated on the assumption that an elementary school teacher is a Jack (or Jill)-of-all-trades who is equally…
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khare, A.
1980-07-01
Current state of art in the discovery of new elementary particles is reviewed. At present, quarks and mesons are accepted as the basic constituents of matter. The charmonium model (canti-c system), and the 'open charm' are discussed. Explanations are offered for the recent discovery of the heavy lepton tau. Quark states such as the beauty and taste are also dealt with at length. The properties of the tanti-t bound system are speculated. It is concluded that the understanding of canti-c and banti-b families is facilitated by the assumption of the quarkonium model. Implications at the astrophysical level are indicated.
Collinson, Chris
1995-01-01
* Assumes no prior knowledge* Adopts a modelling approach* Numerous tutorial problems, worked examples and exercises included* Elementary topics augmented by planetary motion and rotating framesThis text provides an invaluable introduction to mechanicsm confining attention to the motion of a particle. It begins with a full discussion of the foundations of the subject within the context of mathematical modelling before covering more advanced topics including the theory of planetary orbits and the use of rotating frames of reference. Truly introductory , the style adoped is perfect for those u
Masson, M; Angot, H; Le Bescond, C; Launay, M; Dabrin, A; Miège, C; Le Coz, J; Coquery, M
2018-05-10
Monitoring hydrophobic contaminants in surface freshwaters requires measuring contaminant concentrations in the particulate fraction (sediment or suspended particulate matter, SPM) of the water column. Particle traps (PTs) have been recently developed to sample SPM as cost-efficient, easy to operate and time-integrative tools. But the representativeness of SPM collected with PTs is not fully understood, notably in terms of grain size distribution and particulate organic carbon (POC) content, which could both skew particulate contaminant concentrations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the representativeness of SPM characteristics (i.e. grain size distribution and POC content) and associated contaminants (i.e. polychlorinated biphenyls, PCBs; mercury, Hg) in samples collected in a large river using PTs for differing hydrological conditions. Samples collected using PTs (n = 74) were compared with samples collected during the same time period by continuous flow centrifugation (CFC). The grain size distribution of PT samples shifted with increasing water discharge: the proportion of very fine silts (2-6 μm) decreased while that of coarse silts (27-74 μm) increased. Regardless of water discharge, POC contents were different likely due to integration by PT of high POC-content phytoplankton blooms or low POC-content flood events. Differences in PCBs and Hg concentrations were usually within the range of analytical uncertainties and could not be related to grain size or POC content shifts. Occasional Hg-enriched inputs may have led to higher Hg concentrations in a few PT samples (n = 4) which highlights the time-integrative capacity of the PTs. The differences of annual Hg and PCB fluxes calculated either from PT samples or CFC samples were generally below 20%. Despite some inherent limitations (e.g. grain size distribution bias), our findings suggest that PT sampling is a valuable technique to assess reliable spatial and temporal trends of particulate
Interaction of relativistic elementary atoms with matter. I. General formulas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mrowczyn'ski, S.
1987-01-01
The problem of the interaction of relativistic elementary atoms (Coulomb bound states of elementary particles such as positronium, pionium, etc.) with matter is studied in the reference frame where the atom is initially at rest. An atom of matter is treated as a spinless structureless fast particle. The amplitudes of elementary-atom interaction are derived in the Born approximation under the assumption that a momentum transfer to the atom does not significantly exceed an inverse Bohr radius of the atom. The elementary-atom excitation and ionization processes are considered. The transitions where the spin projection of the atom component is reversed are also studied. In particular the matrix elements for para-ortho and ortho-para transitions are given. The spin structure of the amplitudes is discussed in detail. The sum rules, which allow the calculation of the cross sections summed over atom final states are found. Finally the formulas of the atom interaction cross sections are presented
Olympiads for Elementary Schools.
Lenchner, George
1985-01-01
The goals and history of the Mathematical Olympiads for Elementary Schools are described. Teams, levels, and gender are discussed, as well as teacher training, administration, scoring, and awards. Sample problems are included. (MNS)
Particle physics experiments 1986
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stuart, G.W.
1987-01-01
The paper presents research work carried out in 1986 on 52 elementary particle experiments approved by the Particle Physics Experiments Selection Panel. Most of the experiments were collaborative and involved research groups from different countries. About half of the experiments were conducted at CERN, the remaining experiments employed the accelerators: LAMPT, LEP, PETRA, SLAC, and HERA. The contents consist of unedited contributions from each experiment. (U.K.)
Reg geology: An elementary introduction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carreras, B.; Fernandez, E.
1973-01-01
The purpose of these notes is to given an elementary introduction to the ideas underlying the Regge-type models. In lectures 1 and 2 the connection between the exchange models and the Regge form of the amplitude is shown. In lecture 3 the analytic continuation of the amplitude from the t-channel to the s-schanel is considered, leading to the Regge-type expression, and then (lecture 4), some phenomenological applications are discussed. Lectures 5 and 6 are a generalization of 3 and 4 to the scattering of non-zero spin particles. finally (lectures 7,8 and 9) Regge cuts are introduced and new phenomenological applications are discussed. (Author)
Violation of Particle Anti-particle Symmetry
CERN. Geneva
2001-01-01
Symmetry is a fundamental concept which can be found in the whole range of human activities e. g. from arts to science. The beauty of a statues is often related to its symmetric form. In physics, all the laws are related to some sort of symmetry. Equally important is a small breakdown ofsymmetry. Even for the case of a statue, its beauty might be enhanced by introducing small distortions. In this course, we investigate the role symmetry in the world of elementary particles. Some symmetries found there are very similar to those which can be seen in our daily life, while others are more exotic and related to the quantum nature of the elementary particles. Our particular focus ismade on symmetry and its violation between the matter and anti-matter, known as CP violation. It is experimentally well established that particleand anti-particle behave a tiny bit differently in the world of elementary particles. We discuss how this would be explained and how we can extendour knowledge. Evolution of our universe is stro...
Induced gravity with Higgs potential. Elementary interactions and quantum processes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bezares Roder, Nils Manuel
2010-07-01
This work is intended to first serve as introduction in fundamental subjects of physics in order to be then able to review the mechanism of symmetry breakdown and its essential character in physics. It introduces the concept of scalar-tensor theories of gravity based on Bergmann-Wagoner models with a Higgs potential. The main physical context aimed is the problem of Dark Matter and Dark Energy. On the one hand, there is gravitation. Within this context, we have Dark Matter as an especially relevant concept. This work entails the following main contributions: - General features of Einstein's theory are introduced together with generalities of the different elementary interactions of physics from which the concepts of dark sectors and Higgs Mechanism are derived. - The concept of symmetry breaking and especially the Higgs Mechanism of mass generation are discussed in their relevance for the most different subjects of physics, especially in relation to the Standard Model of elementary particle physics with elementary Higgs fields. - Scalar-Tensor Theories are introduced in order to build in them the process of Higgs Mechanism. This is then fulfilled with a theory of induced gravity with a Higgs potential which seems renormalizable according to deWitt's power counting criterion, and with mass-generating Higgs fields which only couple gravitationally as well as with Higgs fields which act analogously to cosmon fields. - Further, the energy density of the gravitational field is derived for the specific model of induced gravity from an analogy to electrodynamics. It is shown that a nonvanishing value of pressure related to the scalar field is necessary in order to reproduce standard linear solar-relativistic dynamics. Within astrophysical considerations for flat rotation curves of galaxies, a possible dark-matter behavior is concluded within spherical symmetry. The scalar field and the dark-matter profile of total energy density are derived. An analogous
Induced gravity with Higgs potential. Elementary interactions and quantum processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bezares Roder, Nils Manuel
2010-01-01
This work is intended to first serve as introduction in fundamental subjects of physics in order to be then able to review the mechanism of symmetry breakdown and its essential character in physics. It introduces the concept of scalar-tensor theories of gravity based on Bergmann-Wagoner models with a Higgs potential. The main physical context aimed is the problem of Dark Matter and Dark Energy. On the one hand, there is gravitation. Within this context, we have Dark Matter as an especially relevant concept. This work entails the following main contributions: - General features of Einstein's theory are introduced together with generalities of the different elementary interactions of physics from which the concepts of dark sectors and Higgs Mechanism are derived. - The concept of symmetry breaking and especially the Higgs Mechanism of mass generation are discussed in their relevance for the most different subjects of physics, especially in relation to the Standard Model of elementary particle physics with elementary Higgs fields. - Scalar-Tensor Theories are introduced in order to build in them the process of Higgs Mechanism. This is then fulfilled with a theory of induced gravity with a Higgs potential which seems renormalizable according to deWitt's power counting criterion, and with mass-generating Higgs fields which only couple gravitationally as well as with Higgs fields which act analogously to cosmon fields. - Further, the energy density of the gravitational field is derived for the specific model of induced gravity from an analogy to electrodynamics. It is shown that a nonvanishing value of pressure related to the scalar field is necessary in order to reproduce standard linear solar-relativistic dynamics. Within astrophysical considerations for flat rotation curves of galaxies, a possible dark-matter behavior is concluded within spherical symmetry. The scalar field and the dark-matter profile of total energy density are derived. An analogous relation between
Widick, Paul R.
1969-01-01
Described are activities that are designed to help elementary children understand the possibility of the particle theory of matter. Children work with beads, marbles, B-B shot and sand; by mixing these materials and others they are led to see that it is highly possible for the existence of particles which are not visible. (BR)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lemmer, Boris
2014-06-01
There where's becomes small the world suddenly becomes suddenly totally crazy: From pure energy particles are produced, matter particles get siblings of antimatter, particles, which actually should not exist, are created from scratch. The nature borrows energy, which is actually not there. Forces act, which behave completely differently than anything, what we know from everyday life. This is the world of particle physics. Particle physicist build the largest experiments of all time, in order to study the smallest particles of the universe. They go to the limits of the technically feasible and exceed thereby the limits of our countries. Who finds that all also so exciting - as the particle physicists - is heartily invited to read this book. Who believes that without a study of particle physics nothing is understood, also. Quantum field theories, particle accelerators, Higgs mechanisms etc. are instead by nasty formulas explained by means of monkeys, ants, hedgehogs, beavers, and illustrative pictures. And by means of linked videos in can be directly submerged into the world of CERN, the LHC particle accelerator, and the ATLAS experiment.
Elementary topology problem textbook
Viro, O Ya; Netsvetaev, N Yu; Kharlamov, V M
2008-01-01
This textbook on elementary topology contains a detailed introduction to general topology and an introduction to algebraic topology via its most classical and elementary segment centered at the notions of fundamental group and covering space. The book is tailored for the reader who is determined to work actively. The proofs of theorems are separated from their formulations and are gathered at the end of each chapter. This makes the book look like a pure problem book and encourages the reader to think through each formulation. A reader who prefers a more traditional style can either find the pr
Elementary classical hydrodynamics
Chirgwin, B H; Langford, W J; Maxwell, E A; Plumpton, C
1967-01-01
Elementary Classical Hydrodynamics deals with the fundamental principles of elementary classical hydrodynamics, with emphasis on the mechanics of inviscid fluids. Topics covered by this book include direct use of the equations of hydrodynamics, potential flows, two-dimensional fluid motion, waves in liquids, and compressible flows. Some general theorems such as Bernoulli's equation are also considered. This book is comprised of six chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the fundamental principles of fluid hydrodynamics, with emphasis on ways of studying the motion of a fluid. Basic c
Dudley, Underwood
2008-01-01
Ideal for a first course in number theory, this lively, engaging text requires only a familiarity with elementary algebra and the properties of real numbers. Author Underwood Dudley, who has written a series of popular mathematics books, maintains that the best way to learn mathematics is by solving problems. In keeping with this philosophy, the text includes nearly 1,000 exercises and problems-some computational and some classical, many original, and some with complete solutions. The opening chapters offer sound explanations of the basics of elementary number theory and develop the fundamenta
Higgs Particle: The Origin of Mass
Okada, Yasuhiro
2007-11-01
The Higgs particle is a new elementary particle predicted in the Standard Model of the elementary particle physics. It plays a special role in the theory of mass generation of quarks, leptons, and gauge bosons. In this article, theoretical issues on the Higgs mechanism are first discussed, and then experimental prospects on the Higgs particle study at the future collider experiments, LHC and ILC, are reviewed. The Higgs coupling determination is an essential step to establish the mass generation mechanism, which could lead to a deeper understanding of particle physics.
Higgs particle. The origin of mass
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okada, Yasuhiro
2007-01-01
The Higgs particle is a new elementary particle predicted in the Standard Model of the elementary particle physics. It plays a special role in the theory of mass generation of quarks, leptons, and gauge bosons. In this article, theoretical issues on the Higgs mechanism are first discussed, and then experimental prospects on the Higgs particle study at the future collider experiments. LHC and ILC, are reviewed. The Higgs coupling determination is an essential step to establish the mass generation mechanism, which could lead to a deeper understanding of particle physics. (author)
Chapter 8. Elementary notions on the quantum theory of potential scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1977-01-01
Elementary notions in quantum theory of potential scattering are exposed: stationary states of scattering, calculus of cross section, scattering by central potential, phase shift method. In complement, these questions are studied: free particle (stationary states of well defined kinetic momentum); phenomenological description of collisions with absorption; elementary examples of application of the scattering theory [fr
Particles colliders at the Large High Energy Laboratories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aguilar, M.
1996-01-01
In this work we present an elementary introduction to particle accelerators, a basic guide of existing colliders and a description of the large european laboratories devoted to Elementary Particle Physics. This work is a large, corrected and updated version of an article published in: Ciencia-Tecnologia-Medio Ambiente Annual report 1996 Edition el Pais (Author)
Radiation education in elementary school
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harima, Yoshiko; Matsuda, Teruo; Ootake, Shigehiro; Ikeda, Masamichi
1999-01-01
Lessons to measure natural radiation have been given at the fourth elementary school of Hikari-gaoka, Nerima-ku, Tokyo, for three years. The Method of Lessons: After hearing a brief explanation about natural radiation and usage of a simple instrument of gamma ray named 'Hakaru-kun' by a lecturer (Fig. 1), every child participates to measure dose rate at several measured points within the range of school campus (Figs. 5 - 14). They calculate the average value of measured dose rate (Fig. 2) and affix tags written the average value (Fig. 3). In addition, by looking at the photographs, through the imaging plate, of radiations released from vegetables and pork, they are surprised at the fact that all the food have such activities. Finally, they watch marks of alpha particles released from the ore of samarskite in a cloud chamber. The alpha particles fly in alcohol vapor over saturated cooled with dry ice (Fig. 15). They express their impression of lesson for finding out the existence of natural radiation in their reports. (Table 1 and Fig. 4). (author)
DEPARTMENTALIZATION IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.
American Association of School Administrators, Washington, DC.
THE RESULTS OF A SURVEY CONCERNED WITH DEPARTMENTALIZATION IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS ARE REPORTED IN STATISTICAL TABLES WHICH ARE ACCOMPANIED BY DESCRIPTIVE COMMENTARY. FOR THE PURPOSE OF THE SURVEY, THE DEFINITION OF DEPARTMENTALIZATION IS RESTRICTED TO INCLUDE ONLY THOSE SITUATIONS IN WHICH STUDENTS RECEIVE INSTRUCTION IN THE VARIOUS ACADEMIC…
Elementary Science Resource Guide.
Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Curriculum Development.
This guide for elementary teachers provides information on getting ideas into action, designing and implementing the right situation, ways in which to evaluate science process activities with students, and seven sample units. The units cover using the senses, magnets, forces, weather forecasting, classification of living things, and the physical…
Elementary School Mathematics Priorities
Wilson, W. Stephen
2009-01-01
This article first describes some of the basic skills and knowledge that a solid elementary school mathematics foundation requires. It then elaborates on several points germane to these practices. These are then followed with a discussion and conclude with final comments and suggestions for future research. The article sets out the five…
Vision in elementary mathematics
Sawyer, W W
2003-01-01
Sure-fire techniques of visualizing, dramatizing, and analyzing numbers promise to attract and retain students' attention and understanding. Topics include basic multiplication and division, algebra, word problems, graphs, negative numbers, fractions, many other practical applications of elementary mathematics. 1964 ed. Answers to Problems.
Goldman, Jill S.; Pfluge, Kevin F.
2010-01-01
Golf is a lifelong activity that people of all ages can enjoy if they experience success and have fun. Early involvement in the sport facilitates the development of the ability to strike an object with an implement. Striking with implements can be challenging for young children and teachers, but golf can be taught in all elementary school settings…
Generalized elementary functions
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Monteiro, Giselle Antunes; Slavík, A.
2014-01-01
Roč. 411, č. 2 (2014), s. 838-852 ISSN 0022-247X Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : elementary functions * Kurzweil-Stieltjes integral * generalized linear ordinary differential equations * time scale calculus Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.120, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022247X13009141
Chittenden, Edward A.
1970-01-01
Describes the intellectual development stages ascribed to children by Jean Piaget. Characteristics and examples are given for sensori-motor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational thinking periods. Implications are given for elementary school science education, including (1) formal instruction does not accelerate acquisition…
Cosmology and particle physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Steigman, G [California Univ., Santa Barbara (USA). Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Bartol Research Foundation, Newark, Delaware (USA))
1982-01-29
The cosmic connections between physics on the very largest and very smallest scales are reviewed with an emphasis on the symbiotic relation between elementary particle physics and cosmology. After a review of the early Universe as a cosmic accelerator, various cosmological and astrophysical constraints on models of particle physics are outlined. To illustrate this approach to particle physics via cosmology, reference is made to several areas of current research: baryon non-conservation and baryon asymmetry; free quarks, heavy hadrons and other exotic relics; primordial nucleosynthesis and neutrino masses.
On the scattering of composite particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garsevanishvili, V.R.
1975-01-01
The ''light front'' form of the quasipotential approach is applied to the study of interactions of relativistic composite objects. The expression for the scattering amplitude of the composite particle on the elementary one is obtained and analysed
Aspects of experimental particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McCubbin, N.A.
1986-11-01
The paper contains three lectures on Experimental Particle Physics which were given at the 16th British Universities Summer School for Theoretical and Elementary Particle Physics, Durham, 1986. The first lecture briefly reviews the physics which underpins all particle detectors, and the second lecture describes how this physics influences a modern detector. The last lecture is concerned with the topics of beams and computers, and includes the physics of stochastic cooling and the Halting theorem. (U.K.)
Particle physics 2012. Highlights and annual report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fleischer, Manfred; Kasemann, Matthias; Medinnis, Michael
2013-01-01
The following topics are dealt with: Particle physics at DESY, the work of the Helmholtz alliance concerning the LHC and the ILC, bringing particle physics into people's mind, research at HERA, LHC, and the linear accelerators, plasma wakefield acceleration, astroparticle physics, theory of elementary particles, research projects and scientific infrastructure. (HSI)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tárkányi, F. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary); Hermanne, A., E-mail: aherman@vub.ac.be [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Ditrói, F.; Takács, S. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary); Ignatyuk, A. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk (Russian Federation)
2017-05-15
The main goals of this investigations were to expand and consolidate reliable activation cross-section data for the {sup nat}Mo(α,x) reactions in connection with production of medically relevant {sup 97,103}Ru and the use of the {sup nat}Mo(α,x){sup 97}Ru reaction for monitoring beam parameters. The excitation functions for formation of the gamma-emitting radionuclides {sup 94}Ru, {sup 95}Ru, {sup 97}Ru, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 93m}Tc, {sup 93g}Tc(m+), {sup 94m}Tc, {sup 94g}Tc, {sup 95m}Tc, {sup 95g}Tc, {sup 96g}Tc(m+), {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 93m}Mo, {sup 99}Mo(cum), {sup 90}Nb(m+) and {sup 88}Zr were measured up to 40 MeV alpha-particle energy by using the stacked foil technique and activation method. Data of our earlier similar experiments were re-evaluated and resulted in corrections on the reported results. Our experimental data were compared with critically analyzed literature data and with the results of model calculations, obtained by using the ALICE-IPPE, EMPIRE 3.1 (Rivoli) and TALYS codes (TENDL-2011 and TENDL-2015 on-line libraries). Nuclear data for different production routes of {sup 97}Ru and {sup 103}Ru are compiled and reviewed.
Trent, Allen; Riley, Jorge-Ayn
2009-01-01
This article describes a collaborative action research project aimed at deliberately "re-placing" art in the elementary curriculum through targeted planning, implementation, and assessment of an art integrated unit in an urban 4th grade classroom. Findings and implications should be relevant to elementary teachers, administrators, art specialists,…
Dark matter and particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peskin, Michael E.
2007-01-01
Astrophysicists now know that 80% of the matter in the universe is 'dark matter', composed of neutral and weakly interacting elementary particles that are not part of the Standard Model of particle physics. I will summarize the evidence for dark matter. I will explain why I expect dark matter particles to be produced at the CERN LHC. We will then need to characterize the new weakly interacting particles and demonstrate that they the same particles that are found in the cosmos. I will describe how this might be done. (author)
Increasing the Rate of Presentation and Use of Signals in Elementary Classroom Teachers
Carnine, Douglas W.; Fink, William T.
1978-01-01
Two issues relevant to competency-based teacher training were investigated with 13 elementary teachers--the specification of acceptable implementation levels for validated techniques and the necessity and feasibility of providing training on those techniques. (Author)
Self-assembled structures of Gaussian nematic particles.
Nikoubashman, Arash; Likos, Christos N
2010-03-17
We investigate the stable crystalline configurations of a nematic liquid crystal made of soft parallel ellipsoidal particles interacting via a repulsive, anisotropic Gaussian potential. For this purpose, we use genetic algorithms (GA) in order to predict all relevant and possible solid phase candidates into which this fluid can freeze. Subsequently we present and discuss the emerging novel structures and the resulting zero-temperature phase diagram of this system. The latter features a variety of crystalline arrangements, in which the elongated Gaussian particles in general do not align with any one of the high-symmetry crystallographic directions, a compromise arising from the interplay and competition between anisotropic repulsions and crystal ordering. Only at very strong degrees of elongation does a tendency of the Gaussian nematics to align with the longest axis of the elementary unit cell emerge.
Elementary school on the move– moving in elementary school
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Reiner Hildebrandt-Stramann
2008-06-01
Full Text Available Elementary school in Germany has changed during the last five years because, among other reasons, movement has entered it. The title's pun calls attention for two lines of work that characterize school pedagogy contemporary discussion. One of these lines is related to the last 15 years changing process at elementary school: it states that elementary school must be a learning and living place for children. The other line is related to movement pedagogy processes, which has been achieving higher and higher dimensions. Elementary school must be seen from movement point of view and must be transformed in a place for movement.
Theory of particle interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belokurov, V.V.; Shirkov, D.V.
1986-01-01
Development and modern state of the theory of elementary particle interactions is described. The main aim of the paper is to give a picture of quantum field theory development in the form easily available for physicists not occupied in this field of science. Besides the outline of chronological development of main representations, the description of renormalization and renorm-groups, gauge theories, models of electro-weak interactions and quantum chromodynamics, the latest investigations related to joining all interactions and supersymmetries is given
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kommer, Christoph (ed.) [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany); DKFZ, Heidelberg (Germany); Satz, Helmut [Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik; Blanchard, Philippe [Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Abt. Theoretische Physik
2016-07-01
The following topics are dealt with: Research from the highest energies to the smallest particles at CERN, the laborious way to the Large Hadronic Collider, CERN as accelerator of techniques, culture, and society, a philosophical and sociological perspective of questions concerning CERN, quark matter research at CERN, the FAIR facility for antiproton and ion research. (HSI)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peierls, R.
1981-01-01
The particles and forces of matter, found in the Universe, are discussed with especial reference to some of the laws which govern behaviour in the sub-atomic world and which determine the way forces work to give matter its various characteristics. The recent history of the search for elementary constituents of matter in this century is outlined and the replacement of the simplicity anticipated in the 1930s by the proliferation of particle states uncovered in the 1950s and 1960s which led to the quark model is examined. (U.K.)
Elementary heat transfer analysis
Whitaker, Stephen; Hartnett, James P
1976-01-01
Elementary Heat Transfer Analysis provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of the nature of transient heat conduction. This book presents a thorough understanding of the thermal energy equation and its application to boundary layer flows and confined and unconfined turbulent flows. Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the use of heat transfer coefficients in formulating the flux condition at phase interface. This text then explains the specification as well as application of flux boundary conditions. Other chapters consider a derivation of the tra
Neave, Henry R
2012-01-01
This book, designed for students taking a basic introductory course in statistical analysis, is far more than just a book of tables. Each table is accompanied by a careful but concise explanation and useful worked examples. Requiring little mathematical background, Elementary Statistics Tables is thus not just a reference book but a positive and user-friendly teaching and learning aid. The new edition contains a new and comprehensive "teach-yourself" section on a simple but powerful approach, now well-known in parts of industry but less so in academia, to analysing and interpreting process dat
Eves, Howard
1980-01-01
The usefulness of matrix theory as a tool in disciplines ranging from quantum mechanics to psychometrics is widely recognized, and courses in matrix theory are increasingly a standard part of the undergraduate curriculum.This outstanding text offers an unusual introduction to matrix theory at the undergraduate level. Unlike most texts dealing with the topic, which tend to remain on an abstract level, Dr. Eves' book employs a concrete elementary approach, avoiding abstraction until the final chapter. This practical method renders the text especially accessible to students of physics, engineeri
Elementary Goldstone Higgs Boson and Dark Matter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alanne, Tommi; Gertov, Helene; Sannino, Francesco
2015-01-01
We investigate a perturbative extension of the Standard Model featuring elementary pseudo-Goldstone Higgs and dark matter particles. These are two of the five Goldstone bosons parametrising the SU(4)/Sp(4) coset space. They acquire masses, and therefore become pseudo-Goldstone bosons, due...... of the theory, the quantum corrections are precisely calculable. The remaining pseudo-Goldstone boson is identified with the dark matter candidate because it is neutral with respect to the Standard Model and stable. By a direct comparison with the Large Hadron Collider experiments, the model is found...... to be phenomenologically viable. Furthermore the dark matter particle leads to the observed thermal relic density while respecting the most stringent current experimental constraints....
Weak decays of stable particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, R.M.
1988-09-01
In this article we review recent advances in the field of weak decays and consider their implications for quantum chromodynamics (the theory of strong interactions) and electroweak theory (the combined theory of electromagnetic and weak interactions), which together form the ''Standard Model'' of elementary particles. (author)
The Future of Particle Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bjorken, James
2000-06-15
After a very brief review of twentieth century elementary particle physics, prospects for the next century are discussed. First and most important are technological limits of opportunities; next, the future experimental program, and finally the status of the theory, in particular its limitations as well as its opportunities.
Landua, Rolf
2007-01-01
"The appearance of particles dates back to a period physicists find embarrassing, one when the amount of energy active in the Universe was so enormous that they simply cannot descrit it. It is, however, possible to imagine the birth of the elementary building blocks that make up matter and energy."(1 page)
Scintillation Detectors for Charged Particles and Photons
Lecoq, P
2011-01-01
Scintillation Detectors for Charged Particles and Photons in 'Charged Particle Detectors - Particle Detectors and Detector Systems', part of 'Landolt-Börnstein - Group I Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Volume 21B1: Detectors for Particles and Radiation. Part 1: Principles and Methods'. This document is part of Part 1 'Principles and Methods' of Subvolume B 'Detectors for Particles and Radiation' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Subsection '3.1.1 Scintillation Detectors for Charged Particles and Photons' of Section '3.1 Charged Particle Detectors' of Chapter '3 Particle Detectors and Detector Systems' with the content: 3.1.1 Scintillation Detectors for Charged Particles and Photons 3.1.1.1 Basic detector principles and scintillator requirements 3.1.1.1.1 Interaction of ionizing radiation with scintillator material 3.1.1.1.2 Important scint...
Crowdfunding for Elementary Science Educators
Reese, Jessica; Miller, Kurtz
2017-01-01
The inadequate funding of science education in many school districts, particularly in underserved areas, is preventing elementary science educators from realizing the full potential of the "Next Generation Science Standards" ("NGSS"). Yet many elementary science teachers may be unaware that millions of dollars per year are…
Engineering at the Elementary Level
McGrew, Cheryl
2012-01-01
Can engineering technology be taught at the elementary level? Designing and building trebuchets, catapults, solar cars, and mousetrap vehicles in a west central Florida elementary class was considered very unusual in recent years. After a review of current research on failing schools and poor curriculum, the author wondered what her school could…
Assessing Elementary Algebra with STACK
Sangwin, Christopher J.
2007-01-01
This paper concerns computer aided assessment (CAA) of mathematics in which a computer algebra system (CAS) is used to help assess students' responses to elementary algebra questions. Using a methodology of documentary analysis, we examine what is taught in elementary algebra. The STACK CAA system, http://www.stack.bham.ac.uk/, which uses the CAS…
Explorations in Elementary Mathematical Modeling
Shahin, Mazen
2010-01-01
In this paper we will present the methodology and pedagogy of Elementary Mathematical Modeling as a one-semester course in the liberal arts core. We will focus on the elementary models in finance and business. The main mathematical tools in this course are the difference equations and matrix algebra. We also integrate computer technology and…
Elementary School Philosophy: A Response
Wartenberg, Thomas E.
2012-01-01
This article is a response to criticism of my book "Big Ideas for Little Kids." The main topics addressed are: Who is the audience for the book? Can people without formal philosophical training can be good facilitators of elementary school philosophy discussions? Is it important to assess attempts to teach philosophy in elementary school? Should…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Munmuangsaen, Buncha; Srisuchinwong, Banlue
2011-01-01
Highlights: → Five new elementary chaotic snap flows and a generalization of an existing chaotic snap flow have been presented. → Three of all are conservative systems whilst three others are dissipative systems. → Four cases need only a single control parameter and a single nonlinearity. → A cubic case in a jerk representation requires only two terms and a single nonlinearity. - Abstract: Hyperjerk systems with 4th-order derivative of the form x .... =f(x ... ,x .. ,x . ,x) have been referred to as snap systems. Five new elementary chaotic snap flows and a generalization of an existing flow are presented through an extensive numerical search. Four of these flows demonstrate elegant simplicity of a single control parameter based on a single nonlinearity of a quadratic, a piecewise-linear or an exponential type. Two others demonstrate elegant simplicity of all unity-in-magnitude parameters based on either a single cubic nonlinearity or three cubic nonlinearities. The chaotic snap flow with a single cubic nonlinearity requires only two terms and can be transformed to its equivalent dynamical form of only five terms which have a single nonlinearity. An advantage is that such a chaotic flow offers only five terms even though the (four) dimension is high. Three of the chaotic snap flows are characterized as conservative systems whilst three others are dissipative systems. Basic dynamical properties are described.
Standard Model Particles from Split Octonions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gogberashvili M.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We model physical signals using elements of the algebra of split octonions over the field of real numbers. Elementary particles are corresponded to the special elements of the algebra that nullify octonionic norms (zero divisors. It is shown that the standard model particle spectrum naturally follows from the classification of the independent primitive zero divisors of split octonions.
Why relevance theory is relevant for lexicography
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bothma, Theo; Tarp, Sven
2014-01-01
This article starts by providing a brief summary of relevance theory in information science in relation to the function theory of lexicography, explaining the different types of relevance, viz. objective system relevance and the subjective types of relevance, i.e. topical, cognitive, situational...... that is very important for lexicography as well as for information science, viz. functional relevance. Since all lexicographic work is ultimately aimed at satisfying users’ information needs, the article then discusses why the lexicographer should take note of all these types of relevance when planning a new...... dictionary project, identifying new tasks and responsibilities of the modern lexicographer. The article furthermore discusses how relevance theory impacts on teaching dictionary culture and reference skills. By integrating insights from lexicography and information science, the article contributes to new...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nemenov, L.
2001-01-01
The Coulomb interaction which occurs in the final state between two particles with opposite charges allows for creation of the bound state of these particles. In the case when particles are generated with large momentum in lab frame, the Lorentz factors of the bound state will also be much larger than one. The relativistic velocity of the atoms provides the opportunity to observe bound states of (π + μ - ), (π + π - ) and (π + K - ) with a lifetime as short as 10 -16 s, and to measure their parameters. The ultrarelativistic positronium atoms (A 2e ) allow us to observe the e.ect of superpenetration in matter, to study the effects caused by the formation time of A 2e from virtual e + e - pairs and to investigate the process of transformation of two virtual particles into the bound state
Mathematical Properties Relevant to Geomagnetic Field Modeling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sabaka, Terence J.; Hulot, Gauthier; Olsen, Nils
2010-01-01
be directly measured. In this chapter, the mathematical foundation of global (as opposed to regional) geomagnetic field modeling is reviewed, and the spatial modeling of the field in spherical coordinates is focussed. Time can be dealt with as an independent variable and is not explicitly considered......Geomagnetic field modeling consists in converting large numbers of magnetic observations into a linear combination of elementary mathematical functions that best describes those observations.The set of numerical coefficients defining this linear combination is then what one refers.......The relevant elementary mathematical functions are introduced, their properties are reviewed, and how they can be used to describe the magnetic field in a source-free (such as the Earth’s neutral atmosphere) or source-dense (such as the ionosphere) environment is explained. Completeness and uniqueness...
Mathematical Properties Relevant to Geomagnetic Field Modeling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sabaka, Terence J.; Hulot, Gauthier; Olsen, Nils
2014-01-01
be directly measured. In this chapter, the mathematical foundation of global (as opposed to regional) geomagnetic field modeling is reviewed, and the spatial modeling of the field in spherical coordinates is focused. Time can be dealt with as an independent variable and is not explicitly considered......Geomagnetic field modeling consists in converting large numbers of magnetic observations into a linear combination of elementary mathematical functions that best describes those observations. The set of numerical coefficients defining this linear combination is then what one refers....... The relevant elementary mathematical functions are introduced, their properties are reviewed, and how they can be used to describe the magnetic field in a source-free (such as the Earth’s neutral atmosphere) or source-dense (such as the ionosphere) environment is explained. Completeness and uniqueness...
Abe, Keina; Akamatsu, Rie
2013-01-01
Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify the aspects of the Theory of Planned Behavior with the greatest relevance to plate waste (PW) among elementary school children in Tokyo, Japan. Methods: A total of 111 fifth- and sixth-grade students at an elementary school in Tokyo, Japan responded to a self-report questionnaire. The…
Probability and statistics in particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frodesen, A.G.; Skjeggestad, O.
1979-01-01
Probability theory is entered into at an elementary level and given a simple and detailed exposition. The material on statistics has been organised with an eye to the experimental physicist's practical need, which is likely to be statistical methods for estimation or decision-making. The book is intended for graduate students and research workers in experimental high energy and elementary particle physics, and numerous examples from these fields are presented. (JIW)
Summer Workshop on Particle Physics
Chamseddine, A H; Nath, Pran
1984-01-01
These lectures give an elementary introduction to the important recent developments of the applications of N=1 supergravity to the construction of unified models of elementary particle interactions. Topics covered include couplings of supergravity with matter, spontaneous symmetry breaking and the super-higgs effect, construction of supergravity unified models, and the phenomenon of SU(2) x U(1) electroweak-symmetry breaking by supergravity. Experimental consequences of N-1 supergravity unified theory, in particular, the possible supersymmetric decays of the W ± and Z 0 bosons, are also discus
Kleinert, Hagen
2016-01-01
This is an introductory book on elementary particles and their interactions. It starts out with many-body Schrödinger theory and second quantization and leads, via its generalization, to relativistic fields of various spins and to gravity. The text begins with the best known quantum field theory so far, the quantum electrodynamics of photon and electrons (QED). It continues by developing the theory of strong interactions between the elementary constituents of matter (quarks). This is possible due to the property called asymptotic freedom. On the way one has to tackle the problem of removing various infinities by renormalization. The divergent sums of infinitely many diagrams are performed with the renormalization group or by variational perturbation theory (VPT). The latter is an outcome of the Feynman-Kleinert variational approach to path integrals discussed in two earlier books of the author, one representing a comprehensive treatise on path integrals, the other dealing with critial phenomena. Unlike ordin...
On the origin of particle fluxes from thunderclouds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chilingarian, A.; Chilingaryan, S.; Karapetyan, T.; Khanikyants, Y.; Pokhsraryan, D.; Soghomonyan, S.
2017-01-01
We present the observational data on registration of atmospheric discharges simultaneously with the detection of elementary particles performed during thunderstorms at 3200m altitudes above sea level on Mt. Aragats in Armenia. Throughout the 2016 summer campaign on Aragats we monitored lightning occurrences and signals from NaI spectrometers, plastic scintillators, and Neutron Monitor proportional counters, and analyzed the shape of registered pulses. Particle detector signals were synchronized with lightning occurrences on microsecond time scale. Our measurements prove that all signals registered by particle detectors simultaneously with lightning were Electromagnetic interferences (EMI) and not typical responses of particle detectors on the passage of neutral or charged elementary particles. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Petersen, Casper
2016-01-01
train a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) on existing relevant information to that query. We then use the RNN to "deep learn" a single, synthetic, and we assume, relevant document for that query. We design a crowdsourcing experiment to assess how relevant the "deep learned" document is, compared...... to existing relevant documents. Users are shown a query and four wordclouds (of three existing relevant documents and our deep learned synthetic document). The synthetic document is ranked on average most relevant of all....
... Your Health Particle Pollution Public Health Issues Particle Pollution Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Particle pollution — ... see them in the air. Where does particle pollution come from? Particle pollution can come from two ...
Elementary number theory with programming
Lewinter, Marty
2015-01-01
A successful presentation of the fundamental concepts of number theory and computer programming Bridging an existing gap between mathematics and programming, Elementary Number Theory with Programming provides a unique introduction to elementary number theory with fundamental coverage of computer programming. Written by highly-qualified experts in the fields of computer science and mathematics, the book features accessible coverage for readers with various levels of experience and explores number theory in the context of programming without relying on advanced prerequisite knowledge and con
Wiedemann, Helmut
2015-01-01
This book by Helmut Wiedemann is a well-established, classic text, providing an in-depth and comprehensive introduction to the field of high-energy particle acceleration and beam dynamics. The present 4th edition has been significantly revised, updated and expanded. The newly conceived Part I is an elementary introduction to the subject matter for undergraduate students. Part II gathers the basic tools in preparation of a more advanced treatment, summarizing the essentials of electrostatics and electrodynamics as well as of particle dynamics in electromagnetic fields. Part III is an extensive primer in beam dynamics, followed, in Part IV, by an introduction and description of the main beam parameters and including a new chapter on beam emittance and lattice design. Part V is devoted to the treatment of perturbations in beam dynamics. Part VI then discusses the details of charged particle acceleration. Parts VII and VIII introduce the more advanced topics of coupled beam dynamics and describe very intense bea...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bahr, Benjamin [Albert-Einstein-Institut (Max-Planck Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik), Golm (Germany); Riebe, Kristin [Potsdam Univ. (Germany). Leibniz-Institut fuer Astrophysik; Resag, Joerg
2015-07-01
The present book is an expedition across modern physics and simultaneously an illustrated voyage through the solved and unsolved enigmas of our universe. The twentieth century brought a manifold of physical discoveries. The atomic structure of matter was experimentally proved, and stepwise the structure of the atoms was decoded. Alber Einstein revolutionized with his special and general relativity theory our understanding of spca and time and unified so mechanic with electrodynamics and gravitation. Probably the most momentous upheaval learned our worldview by quantum mechanics. In the second half of the twentieth century by ever larger particle accelerators it was increasingly faced deeper penetrated into the structure of matter. Around the year 1967 it succeeded to answer the hereby occurring questions in the framework of the so-called Standard Model. Beside these fields also further partial fields of physics exist,which are not so closely connected with the inquiry of natural laws. We have four of these fields token in our book: Solid-state physics, geophysics, astronomy with astrophysics, as well as cosmology.
Introduction to Particle Physics course
CERN. Geneva HR-RFA
2006-01-01
These lectures are an introduction to the ideas of particle physics, aimed at students and teachers with little or on knowledge of the subject. They form a broad basis that will be developed in more detail by the subsequent lecturers in the school. These four lectures are meant to present an overview of particle physics based on its historical evolution over the past century. It will be shown how concepts have evolved following progress in instrumentation and in theoretical ideas, from atoms to the elementary particles and their interactions, as they are known today.
Spectroscopy after the new particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lipkin, H.J.
1975-06-01
Conventional spectroscopy was reexamined, and the puzzles and paradoxes which have arisen in attempting to describe the properties of the known particles are sought. It is noted that these may offer clues to the missing elements necessary for the description of the new particles. The minimum number of elementary building blocks, charm and color, the colored quark model for saturation, spin splittings in the meson spectrum, three kinds of quarks, the Melosh transformation and the Jackson frame, the Zweig rule mystery, new particles and old symmetries, f--A2 interference, and nonleptonic decay. (U.S.)
Nuclei and particles. An introduction to nuclear and subnuclear physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Serge, E.
1977-01-01
A broad introduction is given to nuclear and subnuclear physics. Major divisions of the book include radiation and tools for studying the nucleus, elements of the structure, properties, and reactions of nuclei, and a semiphenomenological approach to elementary particles
Obituaries: Oreste Piccioni, 86, a leader in particle physics field
2002-01-01
Oreste Piccioni, a leading scientist in the field of elementary particle physics and emeritus professor at the University of California, San Diego, USA, has died of complications from diabetes and lung cancer. He was 86 (1 page).
The Review-of-Particle-Properties system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trippe, T.G.
1984-01-01
The Berkeley Particle Data Group is engaged in a major modernization of its primary project, the Review of Particle Properties, a compilation of experimental data on elementary particles. The goal of this modernization is to develop an integrated system for data storage, manipulation, interactive access and publication using modern technqiues for database management, text processing and phototypesetting. The existing system and the plans for modernization are described. The group's other projects and the computer systems used are also discussed. (orig.)
TransPlanckian Particles and the Quantization of Time
Hooft, G. 't
1999-01-01
Trans-Planckian particles are elementary particles accelerated such that their energies surpass the Planck value. There are several reasons to believe that trans-Planckian particles do not represent independent degrees of freedom in Hilbert space, but they are controlled by the cis-Planckian
Kappelle, Paul J. W. H.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.
2010-01-01
The extent to which atorvastatin treatment affects LDL size, LDL subfraction levels and remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C) was determined in type 2 diabetes. We also compared LDL size and RLP-C in relation to guideline cut-off values for LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein
Kappelle, Paul J.W.H.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.
The extent to which atorvastatin treatment affects LDL size, LDL subfraction levels and remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C) was determined in type 2 diabetes. We also compared LDL size and RLP-C in relation to guideline cut-off values for LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein
磯崎, 三喜年; イソザキ, ミキトシ; Mikitoshi, ISOZAKI
2001-01-01
The relation between self-evaluation maintenance in school performance and school morale among elementary school children was examined. Questionnaires were administered to two hundred and fifteen (113 male, 102 female) elementary schoolchildren. They were asked to name their close classmates and school subjects which they considered both relevant and not relevant to their self-definition. They were also asked to complete the School Morale Test (SMT, Nihon Bunka Kagakusha). The SMT consists of...
Duality and 'particle' democracy
Castellani, Elena
2017-08-01
Weak/strong duality is usually accompanied by what seems a puzzling ontological feature: the fact that under this kind of duality what is viewed as 'elementary' in one description gets mapped to what is viewed as 'composite' in the dual description. This paper investigates the meaning of this apparent 'particle democracy', as it has been called, by adopting an historical approach. The aim is to clarify the nature of the correspondence between 'dual particles' in the light of a historical analysis of the developments of the idea of weak/strong duality, starting with Dirac's electric-magnetic duality and its successive generalizations in the context of (Abelian and non-Abelian) field theory, to arrive at its first extension to string theory. This analysis is then used as evidential basis for discussing the 'elementary/composite' divide and, after taking another historical detour by analyzing an instructive analogy case (DHS duality and related nuclear democracy), drawing some conclusions on the particle-democracy issue.
Quantum principles and particles
Wilcox, Walter
2018-01-01
This textbook offers a unique introduction to quantum mechanics progressing gradually from elementary quantum mechanics to aspects of particle physics. It presents the microscopic world by analysis of the simplest possible quantum mechanical system (spin 1/2). A special feature is the author’s use of visual aids known as process diagrams, which show how amplitudes for quantum mechanical processes are computed. The second edition include a new chapter on time-dependent processes, in addition to many new problems and improved illustrations.
Saxon, David S
2012-01-01
Based on lectures for an undergraduate UCLA course in quantum mechanics, this volume focuses on the formulas of quantum mechanics rather than applications. Widely used in both upper-level undergraduate and graduate courses, it offers a broad self-contained survey rather than in-depth treatments.Topics include the dual nature of matter and radiation, state functions and their interpretation, linear momentum, the motion of a free particle, Schrödinger's equation, approximation methods, angular momentum, and many other subjects. In the interests of keeping the mathematics as simple as possible, m
Elementary functions algorithms and implementation
Muller, Jean-Michel
2016-01-01
This textbook presents the concepts and tools necessary to understand, build, and implement algorithms for computing elementary functions (e.g., logarithms, exponentials, and the trigonometric functions). Both hardware- and software-oriented algorithms are included, along with issues related to accurate floating-point implementation. This third edition has been updated and expanded to incorporate the most recent advances in the field, new elementary function algorithms, and function software. After a preliminary chapter that briefly introduces some fundamental concepts of computer arithmetic, such as floating-point arithmetic and redundant number systems, the text is divided into three main parts. Part I considers the computation of elementary functions using algorithms based on polynomial or rational approximations and using table-based methods; the final chapter in this section deals with basic principles of multiple-precision arithmetic. Part II is devoted to a presentation of “shift-and-add” algorithm...
SYMPOSIUM: Particle identification
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anon.
1989-07-15
Typical elementary particle experiments consist of a source of interactions (an external beam and a fixed target or two colliding beams) and a detector system including most of the following components: a tracking system and analysis magnet, calorimetry (measurement of energy deposition), hadron and electron identification, muon detection, trigger counters and processors, and data acquisition electronics. Experiments aimed at future high luminosity hadron collider (proton-proton or proton-antiproton) projects such as an upgraded Tevatron at Fermilab, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) idea at CERN, and the proposed US Superconducting Supercollider (SSC), must ideally cover the entire solid angle and be capable of not only surviving the collisions, but also providing high resolution event information at incredible interaction rates. The Symposium on Particle Identification at High Luminosity Hadron Colliders held at Fermilab from 5-7 April (sponsored by Fermilab, the US Department of Energy, and the SSC Central Design Group) focused on this single facet of detector technology.