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  1. Download

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-09

    Apr 9, 2014 ... Seasonings are used as food additive for the ... products in the human diet, some of them exceptionally ..... capable of damaging biologically relevant molecules such .... lipoprotein oxidation by active principles from spices.

  2. Stress and adaptation : Toward ecologically relevant animal models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Boer, Sietse F. de; Buwalda, Bauke

    Animal models have contributed considerably to the current understanding of mechanisms underlying the role of stress in health and disease. Despite the progress made already, much more can be made by more carefully exploiting animals' and humans' shared biology, using ecologically relevant models.

  3. Solidarity with Animals: Assessing a Relevant Dimension of Social Identification with Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiot, Catherine E; Bastian, Brock

    2017-01-01

    Interactions with animals are pervasive in human life, a fact that is reflected in the burgeoning field of human-animal relations research. The goal of the current research was to examine the psychology of our social connection with other animals, by specifically developing a measure of solidarity with animals. In 8 studies using correlational, experimental, and longitudinal designs, solidarity with animals predicted more positive attitudes and behaviors toward animals, over and above existing scales of identification, and even when this implied a loss of resources and privileges for humans relative to animals. Solidarity with animals also displayed predicted relationships with relevant variables (anthropomorphism, empathy). Pet owners and vegetarians displayed higher levels of solidarity with animals. Correlational and experimental evidence confirmed that human-animal similarity heightens solidarity with animals. Our findings provide a useful measure that can facilitate important insights into the nature of our relationships with animals.

  4. The development of animal personality : relevance, concepts and perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stamps, Judy; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies of animal personality have focused on its proximate causation and its ecological and evolutionary significance, but have mostly ignored questions about its development, although an understanding of the latter is highly relevant to these other questions. One possible reason for this

  5. Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) per County Downloadable Package, US, 2013, US EPA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This downloadable data package contains the following map layer: An ESRI polygon layer which depicts the boundaries of each US county. It has been joined with a US...

  6. Relevance of animal symbolism in corporate communications and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of animals as symbol in communication and other corporate organization was carried out for a period of five months in the year 2001, by the use of structured questionnaire in three local governments within Ibadan metropolis; Ibadan North West, North East and South West. Simple percentage and student T tests ...

  7. Small Animal Massage Therapy: A Brief Review and Relevant Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formenton, Maira Rezende; Pereira, Marco Aurélio Amador; Fantoni, Denise Tabacchi

    2017-12-01

    Massage therapy is becoming increasingly popular in human and animal physiotherapy and rehabilitation. Wider application of the technique led to research efforts aimed at providing scientific support to anecdotal beneficial effects, particularly pain relief. Recent studies have shown that massage therapy alters dopamine and serotonin levels, decreases noradrenaline levels, and modulates the immune system. Psychological effects such as reduction of stress and anxiety, with improvement of depressive patients, have been reported in humans. This article set out to review the major aspects of massage therapy based on recent publications on the topic, and to extrapolate concepts and practical aspects described in human physiotherapy to the veterinary patient, particularly the applicability of different techniques in Small Animal Medicine. Indications of massage therapy in small animals include pain relief, orthopedic rehabilitation, Canine Sports Medicine, intensive care, and management of nonspecific edema. Techniques described in this article were originally intended for use in humans and scientific data supporting anecdotal, beneficial effects in domestic animals are still lacking; this fruitful area for research is therefore open to veterinary professionals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Relevance of animal studies to the human experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Animal experiments are being used to examine a number of physical and biological factors that influence risk estimations, though not usually in coordination with epidemiologists. It is clear that the different mechanisms involved in different types of tumors are reflected in the diversity of dose-response relationships. The forms of the dose-response relationships are influenced by both the initial events and their expression. Evidence is accumulating that many initiated cells do not get expressed as overt cancers and that host factors may play a major role in the expression of potential tumor cells. There is a need for information about the relationship of the natural incidence and susceptibility to radiation induction for more tumor types. Such experiments will help answer the question of which risk estimate models are appropriate for different tumor types, and they can be carried out on animals. Perhaps because of the importance of host factors, risk estimates as a percentage of the natural incidence appear to be similar for human beings and mice for a small number of tumor types. Animal experiments must remain a major approach to the investigation of mechanisms of carcinogenesis. 22 references, 5 figures, 2 tables

  9. Relevance of experimental animal studies to the human experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Animal experiments are being used to examine a number of physical and biological factors that influence risk estimations though not usually in coordination with epidemiologists. It is clear that the different mechanisms involved in different types of tumors are reflected in the diversity of dose-response relationships. The forms of the dose-response relationships are influenced by both the initial events and their expression. Evidence is accumulating that many initiated cells do not get expressed as overt cancers and host factors may play a major role in the expression of potential tumor cells. There is a need for information about the relationship of the natural incidence and susceptibility to radiation induction for more tumor types. Such experiments will help answer the question of which risk estimate models are appropriate for different tumor types and can be carried out on animals. Perhaps because of the importance of host factors risk estimates as a percentage of the natural incidence appear to be similar for human beings and mice for a small number of tumor types. The elucidation of the mechanisms involved in different tissues while a slow business remains an important role of animal experiments

  10. Morally relevant differences between animals and human beings justifying the use of animals in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, J U

    1997-03-01

    I have attempted to show that the differential qualities of animals and human beings indeed to have bearing on moral rules and the derivation of rights, including rights established on the basis of reason and utilitarianism. Special rights for members of our species are not simply a consequence of human domination and self-interest. I also have tried to show that rights arise from values and that the qualities we value most highly often are the ones that distinguish human beings from other species. I maintain that giving more value to human lives over animal lives achieves reflective balance with the commonsense notions that most of us have developed. Because utilitarianism, contractualism, and the classical philosophical methods of Kant and Aristotle all may allow favoring human interests over animal interests, it seems reasonable to suspect that animal rights activists embrace narrow, extremist views. There are many uniquely human experiences to which we ascribe high value-deep interpersonal relationships, achieving a life's goal, enjoying a complex cultural event such as a play or an opera, or authoring a manuscript. Therefore, it would seem improper that social and ethical considerations regarding animals be centered entirely on the notion of a biological continuum, because there are many kinds of human experience-moral, religious, aesthetic, and otherwise-that appear to be outside the realm of biology. Knowledge about the biology of animals is helpful for making moral decisions about our obligations to them. Why, then, is there a substantial population of animal rights activists in Europe, the United States, and throughout the world, who would not agree with my conclusions? Certain habitual ways of thinking may encourage anthropomorphism and equating animal interests with human interests. Certain metaphysical beliefs, such as a belief in reincarnation, also might favor animal rights. It also is possible that a number of people are being deceived and misled by

  11. Technological Advances in Cardiovascular Safety Assessment Decrease Preclinical Animal Use and Improve Clinical Relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berridge, Brian R; Schultze, A Eric; Heyen, Jon R; Searfoss, George H; Sarazan, R Dustan

    2016-12-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) safety liabilities are significant concerns for drug developers and preclinical animal studies are predominately where those liabilities are characterized before patient exposures. Steady progress in technology and laboratory capabilities is enabling a more refined and informative use of animals in those studies. The application of surgically implantable and telemetered instrumentation in the acute assessment of drug effects on CV function has significantly improved historical approaches that involved anesthetized or restrained animals. More chronically instrumented animals and application of common clinical imaging assessments like echocardiography and MRI extend functional and in-life structural assessments into the repeat-dose setting. A growing portfolio of circulating CV biomarkers is allowing longitudinal and repeated measures of cardiac and vascular injury and dysfunction better informing an understanding of temporal pathogenesis and allowing earlier detection of undesirable effects. In vitro modeling systems of the past were limited by their lack of biological relevance to the in vivo human condition. Advances in stem cell technology and more complex in vitro modeling platforms are quickly creating more opportunity to supplant animals in our earliest assessments for liabilities. Continuing improvement in our capabilities in both animal and nonanimal modeling should support a steady decrease in animal use for primary liability identification and optimize the translational relevance of the animal studies we continue to do. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. A step-by-step guide to systematically identify all relevant animal studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenaars, Marlies; Hooijmans, Carlijn R; van Veggel, Nieky; ter Riet, Gerben; Leeflang, Mariska; Hooft, Lotty; van der Wilt, Gert Jan; Tillema, Alice; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel

    2012-01-01

    Before starting a new animal experiment, thorough analysis of previously performed experiments is essential from a scientific as well as from an ethical point of view. The method that is most suitable to carry out such a thorough analysis of the literature is a systematic review (SR). An essential first step in an SR is to search and find all potentially relevant studies. It is important to include all available evidence in an SR to minimize bias and reduce hampered interpretation of experimental outcomes. Despite the recent development of search filters to find animal studies in PubMed and EMBASE, searching for all available animal studies remains a challenge. Available guidelines from the clinical field cannot be copied directly to the situation within animal research, and although there are plenty of books and courses on searching the literature, there is no compact guide available to search and find relevant animal studies. Therefore, in order to facilitate a structured, thorough and transparent search for animal studies (in both preclinical and fundamental science), an easy-to-use, step-by-step guide was prepared and optimized using feedback from scientists in the field of animal experimentation. The step-by-step guide will assist scientists in performing a comprehensive literature search and, consequently, improve the scientific quality of the resulting review and prevent unnecessary animal use in the future. PMID:22037056

  13. Stem cell therapy for joint problems using the horse as a clinically relevant animal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Thomas Gadegaard; Betts, Dean H.

    2007-01-01

    of experimentally induced lesions. The horse lends itself as a good animal model of spontaneous joint disorders that are clinically relevant to similar human disorders. Equine stem cell and tissue engineering studies may be financially feasible to principal investigators and small biotechnology companies...

  14. Turbulent dispersivity under conditions relevant to airborne disease transmission between laboratory animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, Siobhan; Ristenpart, William

    2013-11-01

    Virologists and other researchers who test pathogens for airborne disease transmissibility often place a test animal downstream from an inoculated animal and later determine whether the test animal became infected. Despite the crucial role of the airflow in pathogen transmission between the animals, to date the infectious disease community has paid little attention to the effect of airspeed or turbulent intensity on the probability of transmission. Here we present measurements of the turbulent dispersivity under conditions relevant to experimental tests of airborne disease transmissibility between laboratory animals. We used time lapse photography to visualize the downstream transport and turbulent dispersion of smoke particulates released from a point source downstream of an axial fan, thus mimicking the release and transport of expiratory aerosols exhaled by an inoculated animal. We show that for fan-generated turbulence the plume width is invariant with the mean airspeed and, close to the point source, increases linearly with downstream position. Importantly, the turbulent dispersivity is insensitive to the presence of meshes placed downstream from the point source, indicating that the fan length scale dictates the turbulent intensity and corresponding dispersivity.

  15. Campylobacter species in animal, food, and environmental sources, and relevant testing programs in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongsheng; Brooks, Brian W; Lowman, Ruff; Carrillo, Catherine D

    2015-10-01

    Campylobacter species, particularly thermophilic campylobacters, have emerged as a leading cause of human foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide, with Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari responsible for the majority of human infections. Although most cases of campylobacteriosis are self-limiting, campylobacteriosis represents a significant public health burden. Human illness caused by infection with campylobacters has been reported across Canada since the early 1970s. Many studies have shown that dietary sources, including food, particularly raw poultry and other meat products, raw milk, and contaminated water, have contributed to outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in Canada. Campylobacter spp. have also been detected in a wide range of animal and environmental sources, including water, in Canada. The purpose of this article is to review (i) the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in animals, food, and the environment, and (ii) the relevant testing programs in Canada with a focus on the potential links between campylobacters and human health in Canada.

  16. Animal thermoregulation: a review of insulation, physiology and behaviour relevant to temperature control in buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCafferty, D J; Pandraud, G; Gilles, J; Fabra-Puchol, M; Henry, P-Y

    2017-12-28

    Birds and mammals have evolved many thermal adaptations that are relevant to the bioinspired design of temperature control systems and energy management in buildings. Similar to many buildings, endothermic animals generate internal metabolic heat, are well insulated, regulate their temperature within set limits, modify microclimate and adjust thermal exchange with their environment. We review the major components of animal thermoregulation in endothermic birds and mammals that are pertinent to building engineering, in a world where climate is changing and reduction in energy use is needed. In animals, adjustment of insulation together with physiological and behavioural responses to changing environmental conditions fine-tune spatial and temporal regulation of body temperature, while also minimizing energy expenditure. These biological adaptations are characteristically flexible, allowing animals to alter their body temperatures to hourly, daily, or annual demands for energy. They exemplify how buildings could become more thermally reactive to meteorological fluctuations, capitalising on dynamic thermal materials and system properties. Based on this synthesis, we suggest that heat transfer modelling could be used to simulate these flexible biomimetic features and assess their success in reducing energy costs while maintaining thermal comfort for given building types.

  17. Animal to human translational paradigms relevant for approach avoidance conflict decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirlic, Namik; Young, Jared; Aupperle, Robin L

    2017-09-01

    Avoidance behavior in clinical anxiety disorders is often a decision made in response to approach-avoidance conflict, resulting in a sacrifice of potential rewards to avoid potential negative affective consequences. Animal research has a long history of relying on paradigms related to approach-avoidance conflict to model anxiety-relevant behavior. This approach includes punishment-based conflict, exploratory, and social interaction tasks. There has been a recent surge of interest in the translation of paradigms from animal to human, in efforts to increase generalization of findings and support the development of more effective mental health treatments. This article briefly reviews animal tests related to approach-avoidance conflict and results from lesion and pharmacologic studies utilizing these tests. We then provide a description of translational human paradigms that have been developed to tap into related constructs, summarizing behavioral and neuroimaging findings. Similarities and differences in findings from analogous animal and human paradigms are discussed. Lastly, we highlight opportunities for future research and paradigm development that will support the clinical utility of this translational work. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Malaria in pregnancy: the relevance of animal models for vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doritchamou, Justin; Teo, Andrew; Fried, Michal; Duffy, Patrick E

    2017-10-06

    Malaria during pregnancy due to Plasmodium falciparum or P. vivax is a major public health problem in endemic areas, with P. falciparum causing the greatest burden of disease. Increasing resistance of parasites and mosquitoes to existing tools, such as preventive antimalarial treatments and insecticide-treated bed nets respectively, is eroding the partial protection that they offer to pregnant women. Thus, development of effective vaccines against malaria during pregnancy is an urgent priority. Relevant animal models that recapitulate key features of the pathophysiology and immunology of malaria in pregnant women could be used to accelerate vaccine development. This review summarizes available rodent and nonhuman primate models of malaria in pregnancy, and discusses their suitability for studies of biologics intended to prevent or treat malaria in this vulnerable population.

  19. Clinical and Neurobiological Relevance of Current Animal Models of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Chan; Gonzales, Edson Luck; Lázaro, María T.; Choi, Chang Soon; Bahn, Geon Ho; Yoo, Hee Jeong; Shin, Chan Young

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social and communication impairments, as well as repetitive and restrictive behaviors. The phenotypic heterogeneity of ASD has made it overwhelmingly difficult to determine the exact etiology and pathophysiology underlying the core symptoms, which are often accompanied by comorbidities such as hyperactivity, seizures, and sensorimotor abnormalities. To our benefit, the advent of animal models has allowed us to assess and test diverse risk factors of ASD, both genetic and environmental, and measure their contribution to the manifestation of autistic symptoms. At a broader scale, rodent models have helped consolidate molecular pathways and unify the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying each one of the various etiologies. This approach will potentially enable the stratification of ASD into clinical, molecular, and neurophenotypic subgroups, further proving their translational utility. It is henceforth paramount to establish a common ground of mechanistic theories from complementing results in preclinical research. In this review, we cluster the ASD animal models into lesion and genetic models and further classify them based on the corresponding environmental, epigenetic and genetic factors. Finally, we summarize the symptoms and neuropathological highlights for each model and make critical comparisons that elucidate their clinical and neurobiological relevance. PMID:27133257

  20. Measuring reinforcement learning and motivation constructs in experimental animals: relevance to the negative symptoms of schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markou, Athina; Salamone, John D.; Bussey, Timothy; Mar, Adam; Brunner, Daniela; Gilmour, Gary; Balsam, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The present review article summarizes and expands upon the discussions that were initiated during a meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS; http://cntrics.ucdavis.edu). A major goal of the CNTRICS meeting was to identify experimental procedures and measures that can be used in laboratory animals to assess psychological constructs that are related to the psychopathology of schizophrenia. The issues discussed in this review reflect the deliberations of the Motivation Working Group of the CNTRICS meeting, which included most of the authors of this article as well as additional participants. After receiving task nominations from the general research community, this working group was asked to identify experimental procedures in laboratory animals that can assess aspects of reinforcement learning and motivation that may be relevant for research on the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, as well as other disorders characterized by deficits in reinforcement learning and motivation. The tasks described here that assess reinforcement learning are the Autoshaping Task, Probabilistic Reward Learning Tasks, and the Response Bias Probabilistic Reward Task. The tasks described here that assess motivation are Outcome Devaluation and Contingency Degradation Tasks and Effort-Based Tasks. In addition to describing such methods and procedures, the present article provides a working vocabulary for research and theory in this field, as well as an industry perspective about how such tasks may be used in drug discovery. It is hoped that this review can aid investigators who are conducting research in this complex area, promote translational studies by highlighting shared research goals and fostering a common vocabulary across basic and clinical fields, and facilitate the development of medications for the treatment of symptoms mediated by reinforcement learning and motivational deficits. PMID:23994273

  1. Measuring reinforcement learning and motivation constructs in experimental animals: relevance to the negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markou, Athina; Salamone, John D; Bussey, Timothy J; Mar, Adam C; Brunner, Daniela; Gilmour, Gary; Balsam, Peter

    2013-11-01

    The present review article summarizes and expands upon the discussions that were initiated during a meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS; http://cntrics.ucdavis.edu) meeting. A major goal of the CNTRICS meeting was to identify experimental procedures and measures that can be used in laboratory animals to assess psychological constructs that are related to the psychopathology of schizophrenia. The issues discussed in this review reflect the deliberations of the Motivation Working Group of the CNTRICS meeting, which included most of the authors of this article as well as additional participants. After receiving task nominations from the general research community, this working group was asked to identify experimental procedures in laboratory animals that can assess aspects of reinforcement learning and motivation that may be relevant for research on the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, as well as other disorders characterized by deficits in reinforcement learning and motivation. The tasks described here that assess reinforcement learning are the Autoshaping Task, Probabilistic Reward Learning Tasks, and the Response Bias Probabilistic Reward Task. The tasks described here that assess motivation are Outcome Devaluation and Contingency Degradation Tasks and Effort-Based Tasks. In addition to describing such methods and procedures, the present article provides a working vocabulary for research and theory in this field, as well as an industry perspective about how such tasks may be used in drug discovery. It is hoped that this review can aid investigators who are conducting research in this complex area, promote translational studies by highlighting shared research goals and fostering a common vocabulary across basic and clinical fields, and facilitate the development of medications for the treatment of symptoms mediated by reinforcement learning and motivational deficits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  2. Bacterial Whack-a-Mole: Reconsidering the Public Health Relevance of Using Carbadox in Food Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance B. Price

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbadox is an antibiotic used to control dysentery and promote growth in swine in the United States; however, the drug also causes tumors and birth defects in laboratory animals. Despite this and because the drug has no analogs in human medicine, it is not considered “medically important” and can be used in livestock without veterinarian oversight. In their recent study, T. A. Johnson et al. (mBio 8:e00709-17, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00709-17 demonstrated that carbadox has profound effects on the swine gut microbiome, including the induction of transducing phage carrying tetracycline, aminoglycoside, and beta-lactam resistance genes. In swine production, carbadox can be used in conjunction with other antibiotics (e.g., oxytetracycline that could fuel the emergence of strains carrying phage-encoded resistance determinants. Johnson et al.’s findings underscore the potential unforeseen consequences of using antibiotics in livestock production and call into question our current methods for classifying whether or not a veterinary drug has relevance to human health.

  3. Service and Emotional Support Animals on Campus: The Relevance and Controversy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    Service and emotional support animals (ESA) have recently been a topic of conversation on college campuses, despite decades of controversy related to the interpretation of federal law. The distinction between an Emotional Support Animal and Service Animals, and the rights of the student regarding accommodations under FHA and ADA have been debated…

  4. Fidelity in Animal Modeling: Prerequisite for a Mechanistic Research Front Relevant to the Inflammatory Incompetence of Acute Pediatric Malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Bill

    2016-04-11

    Inflammatory incompetence is characteristic of acute pediatric protein-energy malnutrition, but its underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Perhaps substantially because the research front lacks the driving force of a scholarly unifying hypothesis, it is adrift and research activity is declining. A body of animal-based research points to a unifying paradigm, the Tolerance Model, with some potential to offer coherence and a mechanistic impetus to the field. However, reasonable skepticism prevails regarding the relevance of animal models of acute pediatric malnutrition; consequently, the fundamental contributions of the animal-based component of this research front are largely overlooked. Design-related modifications to improve the relevance of animal modeling in this research front include, most notably, prioritizing essential features of pediatric malnutrition pathology rather than dietary minutiae specific to infants and children, selecting windows of experimental animal development that correspond to targeted stages of pediatric immunological ontogeny, and controlling for ontogeny-related confounders. In addition, important opportunities are presented by newer tools including the immunologically humanized mouse and outbred stocks exhibiting a magnitude of genetic heterogeneity comparable to that of human populations. Sound animal modeling is within our grasp to stimulate and support a mechanistic research front relevant to the immunological problems that accompany acute pediatric malnutrition.

  5. Fidelity in Animal Modeling: Prerequisite for a Mechanistic Research Front Relevant to the Inflammatory Incompetence of Acute Pediatric Malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory incompetence is characteristic of acute pediatric protein-energy malnutrition, but its underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Perhaps substantially because the research front lacks the driving force of a scholarly unifying hypothesis, it is adrift and research activity is declining. A body of animal-based research points to a unifying paradigm, the Tolerance Model, with some potential to offer coherence and a mechanistic impetus to the field. However, reasonable skepticism prevails regarding the relevance of animal models of acute pediatric malnutrition; consequently, the fundamental contributions of the animal-based component of this research front are largely overlooked. Design-related modifications to improve the relevance of animal modeling in this research front include, most notably, prioritizing essential features of pediatric malnutrition pathology rather than dietary minutiae specific to infants and children, selecting windows of experimental animal development that correspond to targeted stages of pediatric immunological ontogeny, and controlling for ontogeny-related confounders. In addition, important opportunities are presented by newer tools including the immunologically humanized mouse and outbred stocks exhibiting a magnitude of genetic heterogeneity comparable to that of human populations. Sound animal modeling is within our grasp to stimulate and support a mechanistic research front relevant to the immunological problems that accompany acute pediatric malnutrition. PMID:27077845

  6. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus associated with animals and its relevance to human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa ePantosti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a typical human pathogen. Some animal S. aureus lineages have derived from human strains following profound genetic adaptation determining a change in host specificity. Due to the close relationship of animals with the environmental microbioma and resistoma, animal staphylococcal strains also represent a source of resistance determinants. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA emerged fifty years ago as a nosocomial pathogen but in the last decade it has also become a frequent cause of infections in the community. The recent finding that MRSA frequently colonizes animals, especially livestock, has been a reason for concern, as it has revealed an expanded reservoir of MRSA. While MRSA strains recovered from companion animals are generally similar to human nosocomial MRSA, MRSA strains recovered from food animals appear to be specific animal-adapted clones. Since 2005, MRSA belonging to ST398 was recognized as a colonizer of pigs and human subjects professionally exposed to pig farming. The pig MRSA was also found to colonize other species of farmed animals, including horses, cattle and poultry and was therefore designated livestock-associated (LA-MRSA. LA-MRSA ST398 can cause infections in humans in contact with animals, and can infect hospitalized people, although at the moment this occurrence is relatively rare. Other animal-adapted MRSA clones have been detected in livestock, such as ST1 and ST9. Recently, ST130 MRSA isolated from bovine mastitis has been found to carry a novel mecA gene that eludes detection by conventional PCR tests. Similar ST130 strains have been isolated from human infections in UK, Denmark and Germany at low frequency. It is plausible that the increased attention to animal MRSA will reveal other strains with peculiar characteristics that can pose a risk to human health.

  7. The relevance of animal experimental results for the assessment of radiation genetic risks in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, G.

    1981-01-01

    No suitable data are available from man for the quantitative assessment of genetic radiation risk. Therefore, the results from experiments on animals must be utilized. Two hypotheses are presented here in drawing analogical conclusions from one species to another. Although the extrapolation of results from animal experiments remains an open question, the use of experimental results from mice seems to be justified for an assessment of the genetic radiation risk in man. (orig.) [de

  8. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Egerton, Kenya. 2Department of Animal Science, Egerton University, P.O Box 536, Egerton, Kenya .... screened through affective tests and acuity test on relevant sensory attributes. An orientation was .... their genetic makeup. The time of ...

  9. Prospects for new information relevant to radiation protection from studies of experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClellan, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    The theory underlying radiation protection was developed from studies of people, laboratory animals, tissues, cells and macromolecules. Data on people were obtained from opportunistic studies of individuals previously exposed to radiation. Rarely has it been possible to conduct prospective studies of people exposed to known quantities of radiation, which sharply restricts the nature of questions that they can address. In contrast, studies using laboratory animals and simpler biological systems can be designed to address specific questions, using controlled exposure conditions. In-vitro research with macromolecules, cells and tissues leads to understanding normal and disease processes in isolated biological components. Studies of the intact animals provide opportunities to study in vivo interactive mechanisms observed in vitro and their role in development of radiation-induced diseases such as cancer. In the future, studies of intact animals should prove increasingly valuable in linking new knowledge at the subanimal level with the more fragmentary information obtained from direct observations on people. This will provide insight into important issues such as (a) effects of low-level radiation exposures, (b) mechanism of cancer induction at high versus low radiation doses, and (c) influence of factors such as nutrition and exposure to chemicals on radiation-induced cancer. This presentation describes strategies for conducting and integrating results of research using macromolecules, cells, tissues, laboratory animals and people to improve our understanding of radiation-induced cancer. It will also emphasize the problems encountered in studies at all levels of biological organization when the disease is observed in low excess incidence long after exposure to the toxicant

  10. Maintaining the clinical relevance of animal models in translational studies of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Hagit; Matar, Michael A; Zohar, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is conditional on directly experiencing or witnessing a significantly threatening event and the presence of a certain minimal number of symptoms from each of four symptom clusters (re-experiencing, avoidance, negative cognition and mood, and hyperarousal) at least one month after the event (DSM 5) (American Psychiatric Association 2013). Only a proportion of the population exposed develops symptoms fulfilling the criteria. The individual heterogeneity in responses of stress-exposed animals suggested that adapting clearly defined and reliably reproducible "diagnostic", i.e. behavioral, criteria for animal responses would augment the clinical validity of the analysis of study data. We designed cut-off (inclusion/exclusion) behavioral criteria (CBC) which classify study subjects as being severely, minimally or partially affected by the stress paradigm, to be applied retrospectively in the analysis of behavioral data. Behavioral response classification enables the researcher to correlate (retrospectively) specific anatomic, bio-molecular and physiological parameters with the degree and pattern of the individual behavioral response, and also introduces "prevalence rates" as a valid study-parameter. The cumulative results of our studies indicate that, by classifying the data from individual subjects according to their response patterns, the animal study can more readily be translated into clinical "follow-up" studies and back again. This article will discuss the concept of the model and its background, and present a selection of studies employing and examining the model, alongside the underlying translational rationale of each. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Dose effect relationships for radiation induced cancer: relevance of animal evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coggle, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    This article is based upon a paper which was presented at the SRP meeting on the Biological Bases of Radiation Protection Standards, October 1981. It is suggested that experimental radiation carcinogenesis data derived from animal studies will probably never provide numerical evidence of risk that is applicable to man. The uncertainties involved in any extrapolation of risk estimates from mice to men surely outweigh the uncertainties in the human epidemiological data. It is also suggested that at least in the foreseeable future animal data will not solve the perennial problem of the shape at low doses of the dose response curve for radiogenic cancer. At most the data may clarify the debate over linearity-non linearity and over the existence or otherwise of a threshold. However, the paper does suggest a very positive role for animal data in providing semi-quantitative generalisations for radiological protection concerning such variables as dose rate, radiation quality, partial body/organ exposure and in situations where the dose is received in a highly inhomogeneous fashion, e.g. the special problems of internal emitters. (author)

  12. Experimental Animal Models of Pancreatic Carcinogenesis for Prevention Studies and Their Relevance to Human Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Nakagama

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is difficult to cure, so its prevention is very important. For this purpose, animal model studies are necessary to develop effective methods. Injection of N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropylamine (BOP into Syrian golden hamsters is known to induce pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, the histology of which is similar to human tumors. Moreover, K-ras activation by point mutations and p16 inactivation by aberrant methylation of 5’ CpG islands or by homozygous deletions have been frequently observed in common in both the hamster and humans. Thus, this chemical carcinogenesis model has an advantage of histopathological and genetic similarity to human pancreatic cancer, and it is useful to study promotive and suppressive factors. Syrian golden hamsters are in a hyperlipidemic state even under normal dietary conditions, and a ligand of peroxizome proliferator-activated receptor gamma was found to improve the hyperlipidemia and suppress pancreatic carcinogenesis. Chronic inflammation is a known important risk factor, and selective inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 also have protective effects against pancreatic cancer development. Anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperlipidemic agents can thus be considered candidate chemopreventive agents deserving more attention.

  13. Experimental Animal Models of Pancreatic Carcinogenesis for Prevention Studies and Their Relevance to Human Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Mami; Hori, Mika; Mutoh, Michihiro; Wakabayashi, Keiji; Nakagama, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is difficult to cure, so its prevention is very important. For this purpose, animal model studies are necessary to develop effective methods. Injection of N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine (BOP) into Syrian golden hamsters is known to induce pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, the histology of which is similar to human tumors. Moreover, K-ras activation by point mutations and p16 inactivation by aberrant methylation of 5′ CpG islands or by homozygous deletions have been frequently observed in common in both the hamster and humans. Thus, this chemical carcinogenesis model has an advantage of histopathological and genetic similarity to human pancreatic cancer, and it is useful to study promotive and suppressive factors. Syrian golden hamsters are in a hyperlipidemic state even under normal dietary conditions, and a ligand of peroxizome proliferator-activated receptor gamma was found to improve the hyperlipidemia and suppress pancreatic carcinogenesis. Chronic inflammation is a known important risk factor, and selective inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 also have protective effects against pancreatic cancer development. Anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperlipidemic agents can thus be considered candidate chemopreventive agents deserving more attention

  14. Experimental Animal Models of Pancreatic Carcinogenesis for Prevention Studies and Their Relevance to Human Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Mami, E-mail: mtakahas@ncc.go.jp; Hori, Mika; Mutoh, Michihiro [Division of Cancer Development System, Carcinogenesis Research Group, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 1-1, Tsukiji 5-chome, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Wakabayashi, Keiji [Graduate School of Nutritional and Environmental Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Yada 52-1, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan); Nakagama, Hitoshi [Division of Cancer Development System, Carcinogenesis Research Group, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 1-1, Tsukiji 5-chome, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan)

    2011-02-09

    Pancreatic cancer is difficult to cure, so its prevention is very important. For this purpose, animal model studies are necessary to develop effective methods. Injection of N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine (BOP) into Syrian golden hamsters is known to induce pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, the histology of which is similar to human tumors. Moreover, K-ras activation by point mutations and p16 inactivation by aberrant methylation of 5′ CpG islands or by homozygous deletions have been frequently observed in common in both the hamster and humans. Thus, this chemical carcinogenesis model has an advantage of histopathological and genetic similarity to human pancreatic cancer, and it is useful to study promotive and suppressive factors. Syrian golden hamsters are in a hyperlipidemic state even under normal dietary conditions, and a ligand of peroxizome proliferator-activated receptor gamma was found to improve the hyperlipidemia and suppress pancreatic carcinogenesis. Chronic inflammation is a known important risk factor, and selective inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 also have protective effects against pancreatic cancer development. Anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperlipidemic agents can thus be considered candidate chemopreventive agents deserving more attention.

  15. Pharmacokinetic models relevant to toxicity and metabolism for uranium in humans and animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrenn, M.E.; Lipsztein, J.; Bertelli, L.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to summarize pharmacokinetic models of uranium metabolism. Fortunately, others have recently reviewed metabolic models of all types, not just pharmacokinetic models. Their papers should be consulted for greater biological detail than is possible here. Improvements in the models since these other papers are noted. Models for assessing the biological consequences of exposure should account for the kinetics of intake by ingestion, inhalation, and injection, and the chemical form of uranium; predict the time dependent concentration in red blood cells, plasma, urine, kidney, bone and other organs (or compartments); and be adaptable to calculating these concentrations for varying regimens of intake. The biological parameters in the models come from metabolic data in humans and animals. Some of these parameters are reasonably well defined. For example, the cumulative urinary excretion at 24 hours post injection of soluble uranium in man is about 70%, the absorbed fraction for soluble uranium ingested by man in drinking water during normal dietary conditions is about 1%, and the half time in the mammalian kidney is several days. 17 refs., 8 figs

  16. Review: To be or not to be an identifiable model. Is this a relevant question in animal science modelling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Tamayo, R; Puillet, L; Daniel, J B; Sauvant, D; Martin, O; Taghipoor, M; Blavy, P

    2018-04-01

    What is a good (useful) mathematical model in animal science? For models constructed for prediction purposes, the question of model adequacy (usefulness) has been traditionally tackled by statistical analysis applied to observed experimental data relative to model-predicted variables. However, little attention has been paid to analytic tools that exploit the mathematical properties of the model equations. For example, in the context of model calibration, before attempting a numerical estimation of the model parameters, we might want to know if we have any chance of success in estimating a unique best value of the model parameters from available measurements. This question of uniqueness is referred to as structural identifiability; a mathematical property that is defined on the sole basis of the model structure within a hypothetical ideal experiment determined by a setting of model inputs (stimuli) and observable variables (measurements). Structural identifiability analysis applied to dynamic models described by ordinary differential equations (ODEs) is a common practice in control engineering and system identification. This analysis demands mathematical technicalities that are beyond the academic background of animal science, which might explain the lack of pervasiveness of identifiability analysis in animal science modelling. To fill this gap, in this paper we address the analysis of structural identifiability from a practitioner perspective by capitalizing on the use of dedicated software tools. Our objectives are (i) to provide a comprehensive explanation of the structural identifiability notion for the community of animal science modelling, (ii) to assess the relevance of identifiability analysis in animal science modelling and (iii) to motivate the community to use identifiability analysis in the modelling practice (when the identifiability question is relevant). We focus our study on ODE models. By using illustrative examples that include published

  17. Recent developments in chemical treatment of roughages and their relevance to animal production in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, E.

    1989-01-01

    Recent research in developed regions, at laboratory level, has investigated acids, amines and the oxidizing agents sulphur dioxide, ozone and alkaline hydrogen peroxide as reagents for upgrading roughages. In vivo experiments with sheep show improvements in digestibility from treating with 40 g SO 2 per kg wheat straw DM for 3 d at 70 deg. C, comparable to responses normally gained by treating with NaOH. Alkaline H 2 O 2 (pH11.5) treatment in one study increased wheat straw DM digestibility in sheep fed ad libitum, from 467 to 659 g/kg. However this treatment used large inputs (260 g H 2 O 2 and 180 g NaOH/kg straw DM in 26 L solution for 16 h, followed by drying); subsequent studies showed possible input reductions. The techniques are not relevant for use in developing countries except possibly at centralized processing plants, but greater commercial viability will need to be demonstrated before then. The NaOH dip method is the most effective current, low technology upgrading technique and is capable of further development to produce treated roughage of improved digestibility and optimum content of N and required minerals. There are no major new developments in urea ammonia treatment. The recent 'AGRI-AM' method produces NH 3 by hydrating a mixture of CaO and (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 fertilizers, but the method requires much chemical input. 'Ensiling' barley straw for 60 d with 60 g Ca(OH) 2 and 30 g urea per kg straw DM improves intake and digestibility in sheep, with little loss of N from the system. This is due to reduced urea hydrolysis caused by high pH. Other research shows that the quantity of straw needing to be treated can be halved by allowing goats (or sheep) to 'graze' untreated straw (to allow 50% refusals) followed by treatment and refeeding. 92 refs, 11 tabs

  18. Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P.; Howard, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  19. Animator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  20. Oxidative Stress Implications in the Affective Disorders: Main Biomarkers, Animal Models Relevance, Genetic Perspectives, and Antioxidant Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmus, Ioana Miruna; Ciobica, Alin; Antioch, Iulia; Dobrin, Romeo; Timofte, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The correlation between the affective disorders and the almost ubiquitous pathological oxidative stress can be described in a multifactorial way, as an important mechanism of central nervous system impairment. Whether the obvious changes which occur in oxidative balance of the affective disorders are a part of the constitutive mechanism or a collateral effect yet remains as an interesting question. However it is now clear that oxidative stress is a component of these disorders, being characterized by different aspects in a disease-dependent manner. Still, there are a lot of controversies regarding the relevance of the oxidative stress status in most of the affective disorders and despite the fact that most of the studies are showing that the affective disorders development can be correlated to increased oxidative levels, there are various studies stating that oxidative stress is not linked with the mood changing tendencies. Thus, in this minireview we decided to describe the way in which oxidative stress is involved in the affective disorders development, by focusing on the main oxidative stress markers that could be used mechanistically and therapeutically in these deficiencies, the genetic perspectives, some antioxidant approaches, and the relevance of some animal models studies in this context.

  1. Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Inst. of Terrestrial Ecology (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG). 68 refs.

  2. The Relationship between Intuitive Action Choices and Moral Reasoning on Animal Ethics Issues in Students of Veterinary Medicine and Other Relevant Professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrinder, Joy M; Phillips, Clive J C

    2018-01-01

    With growing understanding of animals' capabilities, and public and organizational pressures to improve animal welfare, moral action by veterinarians and other relevant professionals to address animal issues is increasingly important. Little is known about how their action choices relate to their moral reasoning on animal ethics issues. A moral judgment measure, the VetDIT, with three animal and three non-animal scenarios, was used to investigate the action choices of 619 students in five animal- and two non-animal-related professional programs in one Australian university, and how these related to their moral reasoning based on Personal Interest (PI), Maintaining Norms (MN), or Universal Principles (UP) schemas. Action choices showed significant relationships to PI, MN, and UP questions, and these varied across program groups. Having a previous degree or more experience with farm animals had a negative relationship, and experience with horses or companion animals a positive relationship, with intuitive action choices favoring life and bodily integrity of animals. This study helps to explain the complex relationship between intuitive moral action choices and moral reasoning on animal ethics issues. As a useful research and educational tool for understanding this relationship, the VetDIT can enhance ethical decision making.

  3. Animal models of Central Diabetes Insipidus: Human relevance of acquired beyond hereditary syndromes and the role of oxytocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Antonio; Mahía, Javier; Puerto, Amadeo

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to review different animal models of Central Diabetes Insipidus, a neurobiological syndrome characterized by the excretion of copious amounts of diluted urine (polyuria), a consequent water intake (polydipsia), and a rise in the serum sodium concentration (hypernatremia). In rodents, Central Diabetes Insipidus can be caused by genetic disorders (Brattleboro rats) but also by various traumatic/surgical interventions, including neurohypophysectomy, pituitary stalk compression, hypophysectomy, and median eminence lesions. Regardless of its etiology, Central Diabetes Insipidus affects the neuroendocrine system that secretes arginine vasopressin, a neurohormone responsible for antidiuretic functions that acts trough the renal system. However, most Central Diabetes Insipidus models also show disorders in other neurobiological systems, specifically in the secretion of oxytocin, a neurohormone involved in body sodium excretion. Although the hydromineral behaviors shown by the different Central Diabetes Insipidus models have usually been considered as very similar, the present review highlights relevant differences with respect to these behaviors as a function of the individual neurobiological systems affected. Increased understanding of the relationship between the neuroendocrine systems involved and the associated hydromineral behaviors may allow appropriate action to be taken to correct these behavioral neuroendocrine deficits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Merganser Download Package

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data download package contains an Esri 10.0 MXD, file geodatabase and copy of this FGDC metadata record. The data in this package are used in support of the...

  5. Relevance of various animal models of human infections to establish therapeutic equivalence of a generic product of piperacillin/tazobactam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo, Maria; Rodriguez, Carlos A; Zuluaga, Andres F; Vesga, Omar

    2015-02-01

    After demonstrating with diverse intravenous antibacterials that pharmaceutical equivalence (PE) does not predict therapeutic equivalence, we tested a single generic product of piperacillin/tazobactam (TZP) in terms of PE, pharmacokinetics and in vitro/vivo pharmacodynamics against several pathogens in neutropenic mouse thigh, lung and brain infection models. A generic product was compared head-to-head against the innovator. PE was evaluated by microbiological assay. Single-dose serum pharmacokinetics were determined in infected mice, and the MIC/MBC were determined by broth microdilution. In vivo experiments were done in a blind fashion. Reproducibility was tested on different days using different infecting organisms and animal models. Neutropenic MPF mice were infected in the thighs with Staphylococcus aureus GRP-0057 or Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 and in the lungs or brain with Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 10031. Treatment started 2h (thigh and brain) or 14 h (lung) after infection and was administered every 3h over 24h (thigh and lung) or 48 h (brain). Both products exhibited the same MIC/MBC against each strain, yielded overlaid curves in the microbiological assay (P>0.21) and were bioequivalent (IC90 83-117% for AUC test/reference ratio). In vivo, the generic product and innovator were again undistinguishable in all models and against the different bacterial pathogens involved. The relevance of these neutropenic murine models of infection was established by demonstrating their accuracy to predict the biological response following simultaneous treatment with a generic product or the innovator of TZP. Therapeutic equivalence of the generic product was proved in every model and against different pathogens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  6. Animal Ownership and Touching Enrich the Context of Social Contacts Relevant to the Spread of Human Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kifle, Yimer Wasihun; Goeyvaerts, Nele; Van Kerckhove, Kim; Willem, Lander; Kucharski, Adam; Faes, Christel; Leirs, Herwig; Hens, Niel; Beutels, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Many human infectious diseases originate from animals or are transmitted through animal vectors. We aimed to identify factors that are predictive of ownership and touching of animals, assess whether animal ownership influences social contact behavior, and estimate the probability of a major zoonotic outbreak should a transmissible influenza-like pathogen be present in animals, all in the setting of a densely populated European country. A diary-based social contact survey (n = 1768) was conducted in Flanders, Belgium, from September 2010 until February 2011. Many participants touched pets (46%), poultry (2%) or livestock (2%) on a randomly assigned day, and a large proportion of participants owned such animals (51%, 15% and 5%, respectively). Logistic regression models indicated that larger households are more likely to own an animal and, unsurprisingly, that animal owners are more likely to touch animals. We observed a significant effect of age on animal ownership and touching. The total number of social contacts during a randomly assigned day was modeled using weighted-negative binomial regression. Apart from age, household size and day type (weekend versus weekday and regular versus holiday period), animal ownership was positively associated with the total number of social contacts during the weekend. Assuming that animal ownership and/or touching are at-risk events, we demonstrate a method to estimate the outbreak potential of zoonoses. We show that in Belgium animal-human interactions involving young children (0-9 years) and adults (25-54 years) have the highest potential to cause a major zoonotic outbreak.

  7. The terrestrial isopod microbiome: An all-in-one toolbox for animal-microbe interactions of ecological relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Bouchon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial symbionts represent essential drivers of arthropod ecology and evolution, influencing host traits such as nutrition, reproduction, immunity and speciation. However, the majority of work on arthropod microbiota has been conducted in insects and more studies in non-model species across different ecological niches will be needed to complete our understanding of host-microbiota interactions. In this review, we present terrestrial isopod crustaceans as an emerging model organism to investigate symbiotic associations with potential relevance to ecosystem functioning. Terrestrial isopods comprise a group of crustaceans that have evolved a terrestrial lifestyle and represent keystone species in terrestrial ecosystems, contributing to the decomposition of organic matter and regulating the microbial food web. Since their nutrition is based on plant detritus, it has long been suspected that bacterial symbionts located in the digestive tissues might play an important role in host nutrition via the provisioning of digestive enzymes, thereby enabling the utilization of recalcitrant food compounds (e.g. cellulose or lignins. If this were the case, then (i the acquisition of these bacteria might have been an important evolutionary prerequisite for the colonization of land by isopods, and (ii these bacterial symbionts would directly mediate the role of their hosts in ecosystem functioning. Several bacterial symbionts have indeed been discovered in the midgut caeca of terrestrial isopods and some of them might be specific to this group of animals (i.e. Candidatus Hepatoplasma crinochetorum, Candidatus Hepatincola porcellionum and Rhabdochlamydia porcellionis, while others are well-known intracellular pathogens (Rickettsiella spp. or reproductive parasites (Wolbachia sp.. Moreover, a recent investigation of the microbiota in Armadillidium vulgare has revealed that this species harbors a highly diverse bacterial community which varies between host

  8. The Terrestrial Isopod Microbiome: An All-in-One Toolbox for Animal-Microbe Interactions of Ecological Relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchon, Didier; Zimmer, Martin; Dittmer, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial symbionts represent essential drivers of arthropod ecology and evolution, influencing host traits such as nutrition, reproduction, immunity, and speciation. However, the majority of work on arthropod microbiota has been conducted in insects and more studies in non-model species across different ecological niches will be needed to complete our understanding of host-microbiota interactions. In this review, we present terrestrial isopod crustaceans as an emerging model organism to investigate symbiotic associations with potential relevance to ecosystem functioning. Terrestrial isopods comprise a group of crustaceans that have evolved a terrestrial lifestyle and represent keystone species in terrestrial ecosystems, contributing to the decomposition of organic matter and regulating the microbial food web. Since their nutrition is based on plant detritus, it has long been suspected that bacterial symbionts located in the digestive tissues might play an important role in host nutrition via the provisioning of digestive enzymes, thereby enabling the utilization of recalcitrant food compounds (e.g., cellulose or lignins). If this were the case, then (i) the acquisition of these bacteria might have been an important evolutionary prerequisite for the colonization of land by isopods, and (ii) these bacterial symbionts would directly mediate the role of their hosts in ecosystem functioning. Several bacterial symbionts have indeed been discovered in the midgut caeca of terrestrial isopods and some of them might be specific to this group of animals (i.e., Candidatus Hepatoplasma crinochetorum, Candidatus Hepatincola porcellionum, and Rhabdochlamydia porcellionis ), while others are well-known intracellular pathogens ( Rickettsiella spp.) or reproductive parasites ( Wolbachia sp.). Moreover, a recent investigation of the microbiota in Armadillidium vulgare has revealed that this species harbors a highly diverse bacterial community which varies between host populations

  9. Atribuições da carne de frango relevantes ao consumidor: foco no bem-estar animal Broiler meat characteristics relevant to the consumer: focus on animal welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Bonamigo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho estudar o comportamento dos consumidores de carne de frango em relação ao bem-estar animal e à disposição em pagar mais por produtos com certificação para esse atributo de qualidade. Para isso foi realizada uma pesquisa de mercado com consumidores de carne de frango da cidade de Curitiba, Paraná. Uma análise prévia foi realizada com peritos da cadeia avícola para estruturação do questionário. Após esta fase, 481 consumidores foram entrevistados. Perguntas objetivas resultaram em informações gerais e imagens de produtos hipotéticos geraram informações sobre a atitude de compra utilizando análise conjunta e posterior simulação de mercado. Os atributos mais observados na hora da compra foram validade, preço, cor e odor. O bem-estar animal inicialmente foi considerado pela minoria (3,7%. Dos entrevistados, 68,5% não conhecem o sistema de produção, porém, depois de observar fotos dos sistemas, acreditam que o modelo semiintensivo proporciona melhor bem-estar e resulte em produtos de melhor qualidade. Na análise conjunta, preço baixo, produção com melhores condições de bem-estar animal, carne firme e rosada e produção sem antibióticos são, respectivamente, as características com maiores valores de utilidade. O atributo de maior importância foi o preço (34,1%, seguido do tipo de carne (24,6%, bem-estar animal (24,1% e utilização de antibióticos (17,0%. Na simulação de mercado, 70,9% dos consumidores pagariam mais por produtos que com certificação de bem-estar animal e carne firme e rosada. A baixa importância inicial do bem-estar animal para o consumidor pode estar relacionada à falta de conhecimento acerca dos sistemas produtivos, portanto o acesso a informações a respeito pode incentivar o pagamento por esse atributo.The objective of this experiment was to study the behavior of chicken consumer, with emphasis on animal welfare and on the willingness to pay a higher value

  10. ANIMAL BEHAVIOR AND WELL-BEING SYMPOSIUM: Interaction between coping style/personality, stress, and welfare: Relevance for domestic farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolhaas, J M; Van Reenen, C G

    2016-06-01

    This paper will argue that understanding animal welfare and the individual vulnerability to stress-related disease requires a fundamental understanding of functional individual variation as it occurs in nature as well as the underlying neurobiology and neuroendocrinology. Ecological studies in feral populations of mice, fish, and birds start to recognize the functional significance of phenotypes that individually differ in their behavioral and neuroendocrine response to environmental challenge. Recent studies indicate that the individual variation within a species may buffer the species for strong fluctuations in the natural habitat. Similarly, evolutionary ancient behavioral trait characteristics have now been identified in a range of domestic farm animals including cattle, pigs, and horses. Individual variation in behavior can be summarized in a 3-dimensional model with coping style, emotionality, and sociality as independent dimensions. These dimensions can be considered trait characteristics that are stable over time and across situations within the individual. This conceptual model has several consequences. First, the coping style dimension is strongly associated with differential stress vulnerability. Social stress studies show that proactive individuals are resilient under stable environmental conditions but vulnerable when outcome expectancies are violated. Reactive individuals are, in fact, rather flexible and seem to adapt more easily to a changing environment. A second consequence relates to genetics and breeding. Genetic selection for one trait usually implies selection for other traits as well. It is discussed that a more balanced breeding program that takes into account biologically functional temperamental traits will lead to more robust domestic farm animals. Finally, the relationship between temperamental traits, animal production, fitness, and welfare is discussed.

  11. Food and animal characteristics relevant to the prediction of forage consumption and nutrient use in productive ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldham, J.D.; Eayres, H.; Emmans, G.C.; Hou, X.Z.; Illius, A.W.; Jessop, N.S.; Matthewman, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    A general model is presented of the relationships between animal and food characteristics which help lead to predictions of food consumption and animal performance. It is an important part of this scheme that equal weight is given to the description of food and animal characteristics. The results of some experiments are given suggesting that ruminants can select between feeds to meet their nutrient needs and that, in growing animals, the physical capacity to bite is an important determinant of grazing efficiency and ecology. Studies with growing lambs of the energetic efficiency of growth suggest that variation in the energy cost of protein accretion may be a more important determinant of overall energetic efficiency of growth than is conventionally supposed. In lactating animals that also exercise, milk protein and lactose yields fall during exercise and this effect is difficult to counteract by protein and/or starch supplementation of straw diets. Studies of forage substitution by supplements have not revealed differences in substitution rate with age in sheep. (author). 22 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  12. Animal models of nicotine exposure: relevance to second-hand smoking, electronic cigarette use and compulsive smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ami eCohen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Much evidence indicates that individuals use tobacco primarily to experience the psychopharmacological properties of nicotine and that a large proportion of smokers eventually become dependent on nicotine. In humans, nicotine acutely produces positive reinforcing effects, including mild euphoria, whereas a nicotine abstinence syndrome with both somatic and affective components is observed after chronic nicotine exposure. Animal models of nicotine self-administration and chronic exposure to nicotine have been critical in unveiling the neurobiological substrates that mediate the acute reinforcing effects of nicotine and emergence of a withdrawal syndrome during abstinence. However, important aspects of the transition from nicotine abuse to nicotine dependence, such as the emergence of increased motivation and compulsive nicotine intake following repeated exposure to the drug, have only recently begun to be modeled in animals. Thus, the neurobiological mechanisms that are involved in these important aspects of nicotine addiction remain largely unknown. In this review, we describe the different animal models available to date and discuss recent advances in animal models of nicotine exposure and nicotine dependence. This review demonstrates that novel animal models of nicotine vapor exposure and escalation of nicotine intake provide a unique opportunity to investigate the neurobiological effects of second-hand nicotine exposure, electronic cigarette use and the mechanisms that underlie the transition from nicotine use to compulsive nicotine intake.

  13. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2014-08-14

    Aug 14, 2014 ... earth imagery were then downloaded and used as baseline data for mapping the wetlands using the ... indirect impact on the wetlands areas within the city's boundary. However ... Environment and Natural Resources gazetted ... had a low cloud cover of > 10% which is ..... models, WETLANDS, Vol. 26, No.

  14. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-15

    Jun 15, 2011 ... d'administrer le CP et l'application de CP sur les parties du corps des élèves qui ... June 15, 2011, IP: 41.185.171.19] || Click here to download free Android application for this journal .... and physical effects of CP on children.

  15. Potentially toxic contamination of sediments, water and two animal species in Lake Kalimanci, FYR Macedonia: Relevance to human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrhovnik, Petra; Arrebola, Juan P.; Serafimovski, Todor; Dolenec, Tadej; Šmuc, Nastja Rogan; Dolenec, Matej; Mutch, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the research were: (1) to examine the concentrations of metals in Vimba melanops and Rana temporaria and (2) to evaluate the potential risks of the contaminated organisms to human health in Makedonska Kamenica region. Analyses identified high levels of Cr, Hg, Ni and Pb in studied animals, which also exceeded their permissible levels in food. In sediment and soil samples, levels of Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn and As were perceived, while Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se and As were increased in water samples. Results of transfer factor revealed that the examined animals had higher bioaccumulation rate from surrounding waters than from sediments or soils. The accomplished Health Risk Index disclosed that studied animals can have considerably high health risks for inhabitants. Conclusively, they could be considered as highly contaminated with metals and can consequently harm human health, especially children in their early development stages. -- Highlights: •The study merges the accumulation of PTE in animal species, sediments, soils and water. •Correlation between different media and their impact to living organisms'. •Considerably high health risks for inhabitants. -- In the Makedonska Kamenica region had been described several potential sources of exposure therefore exists the potential threat to human health

  16. Increased mitochondrial energy efficiency in skeletal muscle after long-term fasting: its relevance to animal performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourguignon, Aurore; Rameau, Anaïs; Toullec, Gaëlle; Romestaing, Caroline; Roussel, Damien

    2017-07-01

    In the final stage of fasting, skeletal muscle mass and protein content drastically decrease when the maintenance of efficient locomotor activity becomes crucial for animals to reactivate feeding behaviour and survive a very long period of starvation. As mitochondrial metabolism represents the main physiological link between the endogenous energy store and animal performance, the aim of this study was to determine how a very long, natural period of fasting affected skeletal muscle mitochondrial bioenergetics in king penguin ( Aptenodytes patagonicus ) chicks. Rates of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation were measured in pectoralis permeabilized fibres and isolated mitochondria. Mitochondrial ATP synthesis efficiency and the activities of respiratory chain complexes were measured in mitochondria isolated from pectoralis muscle. Results from long-term (4-5 months) naturally fasted chicks were compared with those from short-term (10 day) fasted birds. The respiratory activities of muscle fibres and isolated mitochondria were reduced by 60% and 45%, respectively, on average in long-term fasted chicks compared with short-term fasted birds. Oxidative capacity and mitochondrial content of pectoralis muscle were lowered by long-term fasting. Bioenergetic analysis of pectoralis muscle also revealed that mitochondria were, on average, 25% more energy efficient in the final stage of fasting (4-5 months) than after 10 days of fasting (short-term fasted birds). These results suggest that the strong reduction in respiratory capacity of pectoralis muscle was partly alleviated by increased mitochondrial ATP synthesis efficiency. Such oxidative phosphorylation optimization can impact animal performance, e.g. the metabolic cost of locomotion or the foraging efficiency. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Antimicrobial use in aquaculture re-examined: its relevance to antimicrobial resistance and to animal and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Felipe C; Godfrey, Henry P; Tomova, Alexandra; Ivanova, Larisa; Dölz, Humberto; Millanao, Ana; Buschmann, Alejandro H

    2013-07-01

    The worldwide growth of aquaculture has been accompanied by a rapid increase in therapeutic and prophylactic usage of antimicrobials including those important in human therapeutics. Approximately 80% of antimicrobials used in aquaculture enter the environment with their activity intact where they select for bacteria whose resistance arises from mutations or more importantly, from mobile genetic elements containing multiple resistance determinants transmissible to other bacteria. Such selection alters biodiversity in aquatic environments and the normal flora of fish and shellfish. The commonality of the mobilome (the total of all mobile genetic elements in a genome) between aquatic and terrestrial bacteria together with the presence of residual antimicrobials, biofilms, and high concentrations of bacteriophages where the aquatic environment may also be contaminated with pathogens of human and animal origin can stimulate exchange of genetic information between aquatic and terrestrial bacteria. Several recently found genetic elements and resistance determinants for quinolones, tetracyclines, and β-lactamases are shared between aquatic bacteria, fish pathogens, and human pathogens, and appear to have originated in aquatic bacteria. Excessive use of antimicrobials in aquaculture can thus potentially negatively impact animal and human health as well as the aquatic environment and should be better assessed and regulated. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Extinction of drug- and withdrawal-paired cues in animal models: relevance to the treatment of addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Karyn M; Carlezon, William A

    2010-11-01

    Conditioned drug craving and withdrawal elicited by cues paired with drug use or acute withdrawal are among the many factors contributing to compulsive drug taking. Understanding how to stop these cues from having these effects is a major goal of addiction research. Extinction is a form of learning in which associations between cues and the events they predict are weakened by exposure to the cues in the absence of those events. Evidence from animal models suggests that conditioned responses to drug cues can be extinguished, although the degree to which this occurs in humans is controversial. Investigations into the neurobiological substrates of extinction of conditioned drug craving and withdrawal may facilitate the successful use of drug cue extinction within clinical contexts. While this work is still in the early stages, there are indications that extinction of drug- and withdrawal-paired cues shares neural mechanisms with extinction of conditioned fear. Using the fear extinction literature as a template, it is possible to organize the observations on drug cue extinction into a cohesive framework. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Memory-rescuing effects of cannabidiol in an animal model of cognitive impairment relevant to neurodegenerative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagherazzi, Elen V; Garcia, Vanessa A; Maurmann, Natasha; Bervanger, Thielly; Halmenschlager, Luis H; Busato, Stefano B; Hallak, Jaime E; Zuardi, Antônio W; Crippa, José A; Schröder, Nadja

    2012-02-01

    Cannabidiol, the main nonpsychotropic constituent of Cannabis sativa, possesses a large number of pharmacological effects including anticonvulsive, sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic, antipsychotic, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective, as demonstrated in clinical and preclinical studies. Many neurodegenerative disorders involve cognitive deficits, and this has led to interest in whether cannabidiol could be useful in the treatment of memory impairment associated to these diseases. We used an animal model of cognitive impairment induced by iron overload in order to test the effects of cannabidiol in memory-impaired rats. Rats received vehicle or iron at postnatal days 12-14. At the age of 2 months, they received an acute intraperitoneal injection of vehicle or cannabidiol (5.0 or 10.0 mg/kg) immediately after the training session of the novel object recognition task. In order to investigate the effects of chronic cannabidiol, iron-treated rats received daily intraperitoneal injections of cannabidiol for 14 days. Twenty-four hours after the last injection, they were submitted to object recognition training. Retention tests were performed 24 h after training. A single acute injection of cannabidiol at the highest dose was able to recover memory in iron-treated rats. Chronic cannabidiol improved recognition memory in iron-treated rats. Acute or chronic cannabidiol does not affect memory in control rats. The present findings provide evidence suggesting the potential use of cannabidiol for the treatment of cognitive decline associated with neurodegenerative disorders. Further studies, including clinical trials, are warranted to determine the usefulness of cannabidiol in humans suffering from neurodegenerative disorders.

  20. Transfer of elements relevant to nuclear fuel cycle from soil to boreal plants and animals in experimental meso- and microcosms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuovinen, Tiina S., E-mail: tiina.tuovinen@uef.fi [Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Kasurinen, Anne; Häikiö, Elina [Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Tervahauta, Arja [Department of Biology, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box FI-70211, Kuopio (Finland); Makkonen, Sari; Holopainen, Toini; Juutilainen, Jukka [Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2016-01-01

    Uranium (U), cobalt (Co), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), thorium (Th) and zinc (Zn) occur naturally in soil but their radioactive isotopes can also be released into the environment during the nuclear fuel cycle. The transfer of these elements was studied in three different trophic levels in experimental mesocosms containing downy birch (Betula pubescens), narrow buckler fern (Dryopteris carthusiana) and Scandinavian small-reed (Calamagrostis purpurea ssp. Phragmitoides) as producers, snails (Arianta arbostorum) as herbivores, and earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) as decomposers. To determine more precisely whether the element uptake of snails is mainly via their food (birch leaves) or both via soil and food, a separate microcosm experiment was also performed. The element uptake of snails did not generally depend on the presence of soil, indicating that the main uptake route was food, except for U, where soil contact was important for uptake when soil U concentration was high. Transfer of elements from soil to plants was not linear, i.e. it was not correctly described by constant concentration ratios (CR) commonly applied in radioecological modeling. Similar nonlinear transfer was found for the invertebrate animals included in this study: elements other than U were taken up more efficiently when element concentration in soil or food was low. - Highlights: • We studied transfer of elements in boreal food chain using meso- and microcosms. • Elements related to nuclear fuel cycle and mining were examined. • Higher uptake at lower soil concentrations was observed for primary producers. • Snails took up elements mainly from food but for U also soil was an element source. • Non-linear transfer of essential elements was observed for herbivore and decomposer.

  1. Download this PDF file

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    Department of Animal Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, P. O. Box 67, Dschang, CamerOOn. ABSTRACT .... sex ofeach animal, type of rearing system, underlying ... loopfuls ofeach sample were inoculated into Brain.

  2. Drive-by-Downloads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narvaez, Julia; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara E.; Seifert, Christian; Aval, Chiraag U.; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2010-02-01

    Abstract: Drive-by-downloads are malware that push, and then execute, malicious code on a client system without the user's consent. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a discussion of the usefulness of antivirus software for detecting the installation of such malware, providing groundwork for future studies. Client honeypots collected drive-by malware which was then evaluated using common antivirus products. Initial analysis showed that most of such antivirus products identified less than 70% of these highly polymorphic malware programs. Also, it was observed that the antivirus products tested, even when successfully detecting this malware, often failed to classify it, leading to the conclusion that further work could involve not only developing new behavioral detection technologies, but also empirical studies that improve general understanding of these threats. Toward that end, one example of malicious code was analyzed behaviorally to provide insight into next steps for the future direction of this research.

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    En-Joy

    behavior like agitation, excitation, and drooling of saliva. At first there might not be any symptoms, but weeks, or even years after a bite, rabies can cause pain, fatigue, headache, and fever. These are followed by. 1. 2. 3. Department of Animal Health, Federal College of Animal Health and Production Technology, Virology ...

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    The latter are typical of the. Gates (1952) majority of the Kuri animals on the islands. They are thought to be some form of adaptation (i.e. for swimming in the. 2421. 314. Gates (1952) aquatic milieu). Some people consider Kuri animals with this. 1260. Epstein (1971) type of horns as the only pure Kuri. Although the buoy-.

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    marlines

    South African Society for Animal Science. Peer-reviewed paper: Proc. 43rd Congress of the South African Society for Animal Science. 424. Effect of two levels of supplementary feeding and two stocking rates of grazing ostriches on irrigated lucerne dry matter intake and production. M. Strydom. 1,2. , J.M. van Heerden. 3.

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    animal experimentation. its measurable systolic and diastolic levels. The animals were housed in the during a period of 30 minutes. The residue, faculty of medicine under appropriate dissolved in 0.5 ml of saline, was given condition with free access to food and through jugular vein as a bolus injection water. Before surgery ...

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    ansistf-lewis

    South African Society for Animal Science. 159. Male broiler performance and nocturnal feeding under constant 8-h or 16-h photoperiods, and various increasing lighting regimens. P.D. Lewis. #. , R. Danisman and R.M. Gous. Animal and Poultry Science, School of Agricultural Sciences and Agribusiness, University of ...

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    OLUWOLE

    breeds better adapted to exploit specific ecological niches. ... each animal species or breed is therefore, the result of the complex interactions ... being a major component of both plant and animal proteins. Oxygen ...... pollination, reproductive growth, and yield of several globally ..... Transmission cycles, host range, evolution.

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    NESG PUBLICATIONS

    improving its agriculture, its breed of useful animals, and other ... redistribution of productive land. ... holdings, to those who work the land, or the consolidation of small .... the grantee for life, and for his ..... policy that fails to balance the.

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    Nazlı

    2017-12-29

    Dec 29, 2017 ... microbiological tests are highly resistant to EO-TP. ... lives from foods to cosmetics or from aroma therapy to phytotherapy .... experiments were approved by Cumhuriyet University-Medical Faculty, Animal Ethics Committee.

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    GB

    2016-01-01

    Jan 1, 2016 ... Peripheral blood films (PBFs) of the treated animals were performed and stained with ... elevated total cholesterol in the test organisms compared to the untreated negative controls. ..... Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and.

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    user

    2010-11-11

    Nov 11, 2010 ... Key words: Anaemia, Digesta, Immunosuppressed, Rabbits, growth ... Therefore, the relationship between feed ingredient and animal .... The increase in average daily feed intake shows that rabbits eat to satisfy their energy.

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    PRO

    biological characteristics of rivers, wetlands and creeks that drain into the Lagos Lagoon are relatively scanty ..... Washington, D.C.: American Public Health Association. ... Animal Life in Freshwater: A Guide to Freshwater Invertebrates.

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    USER

    Department of Animal Health and Production, Binyaminu Usman College of Agriculture, Hadejia, Jigawa. State. 2. ... Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, postmortem, prevalence, vaccination, .... of Cattle, Pigs, Goats, and Horse. 8th ed.

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    zinmanship

    releasing them in their viable and metabolic active states in the intestine at under specified pH conditions. Various ..... composition and activity of canine intestinal microbiota. Animal Feed ... Dige Liver Disease 38, Supplement 2: S277-S282. 7.

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    Hence, the main objective of the research was to carry out scientific studies on its ... The animals were sacrificed on day 30 after the NIB scoring and blood sample ... effect on locomotion and rearing activities when compared with the control.

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    Dr Olaleye

    traditional management system, lack of business attitude to livestock production ..... Global Veterinaria 11(4): 399-402. Awah-N. J., Kudi .... Animal Supply and Logistics. Activities of Abattoir Chain in Developing Countries: The. Case of Kumasi ...

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    1 Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo .... (1993) reported a likely association of blood factor III ... American. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences. 2(1): 29-. 31. Braun U, Nuss R, Slydler T ...

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    2017-08-08

    Aug 8, 2017 ... lture Science and Biotechnology, Faculty of Bioresources and Food Ind tan Zainal Abidin ... Food Industry, esut, Terengganu, Malaysia ... animal [2]. However, egg yolk runs a higher risk of bacterial contamination [3] and its.

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    Dr Olaleye

    Groups 1 (Control), Groups II, III, and IV had 10, 25,40mg/kg. Imipramine .... laboratory animal care and use. Proposal of ... using the stipulated criteria while percentage ulcer inhibition ..... brain homogenate: Role of lipid peroxidation. Biochem.

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    Dr Olaleye

    has also been shown to contain acids, vitamins, proteins and minerals like ... cancer properties (Fernandez-Cabezudo et al., 2013). It was the aim of ... Groups A, B, C and D were the test animals, while ..... Intravenous Administration of Manuka.

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    hp

    biodiesel produced can be used as jet fuel and as source of fuel in other transportation systems. Finally, since ... These microorganisms then use light energy to convert CO2 and ..... biopolymers, proteins, polysaccharides, pigments, animal ...

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    UFS Campus

    South African Journal of Animal Science 2009, 39 (Supplement 1) ... accuracy by the developed empirical model named lucerne milk value (LMV) consisting of .... A DMI of 25 kg/d were maintained during the simulation to cancel the effect of.

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    Timothy Ademakinwa

    Keywords: Incubator, Biogas, Chicken egg, Temperature, Relative humidity, Hatchability. ABSTRACT. 219 ... hatching results are obtained with normal atmospheric air, which usually ... mixture of animal manures (cow dung, poultry and swine ...

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    2015-01-31

    Jan 31, 2015 ... EFFECT OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF ALLIGATOR PEPPER (AFRAMOMUM ... Blood samples from the experimental animals in group B, C, D and E were ... glucose in alloxan induced diabetic rats faster than the conventional ...

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    USER

    In recent times, veterinarians and animal scientists have ... Fish farming otherwise known as fish culture is a ... farmers identified lack of finance, lack of good ... Vol. 32(3): 2011; 226 - 229. ARTICLE. Fish Production In Nigeria: An Update.

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    USER

    analyzed using temperature and light profiles of the lake respectively. ... can be toxic to both domestic animals and humans that depend on water use from such ..... iron and copper, produce mucilage sheaths .... Patterns and mechanisms.

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    SH

    Disease is defined as inability to perform physiological ... vegetation is a derived savannah region. The animals were ... waste of guinea corn, cassava, yam peeling, soy bean, cowpea ..... epidemiology of PPR in Southern. Nigeria, Tropical ...

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    ... Moreno,J. , Ortiz M. , Marinoni G. , Vita P. , Vidari G. , Mellerio G. (1995) Importancia ... Contribuciones del Instituto Ecuatoriano de Ciencias ... and analgesic properties of Caesalpinia bonducella F. seed oil in experimental animal models.

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    Many animal species benefit from resources provided by other species. ... 98), we observed behavioral interactions at the Punta Lobería Southern Sea-lion ... by Black Vulture Coragyps atratus, Kelp Gull Larus dominicanus and Domestic Dogs.

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    Microbial Biotechnology and Dairy Science Laboratory. Department of Animal ... The mixture of cow milk and recombined milk at various levels. 0% (A), 80% cow milk .... Reconstituted milk is used in the manufacturing of some Egyptian dairy ...

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    cadewumi

    structural “defects” that include specific centres of luminescence; the nuclear proton ... detection system for some microbial illnesses in humans and animals. ... was observed when cultures of Staphylococcus aureus Wood-46 were treated.

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    Onyii Ogbonna

    development of their capabilities in acquiring machines and other things ... responsibility for generating knowledge, advancing teaching and learning in climate ... strategies; and the production of crop/animals that can withstand changes in the.

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    2007-03-01

    Mar 1, 2007 ... most colonies of Cape Vultures have gone extinct; a southern colony is the only one showing ... have disappeared first around Lesotho causing both species' range to retract into ... plants and animals have shifted their.

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    Fr. Ikenga

    production of plants or animals (other than microbiological processes and their .... creations of the mind, such as inventions, industrial designs, symbols, names, ... as 'the discovery or creation of a new material (either a new manufactured.

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    MBI

    2013-12-13

    Dec 13, 2013 ... Palm oil was extracted from palm fruits while animal fat (tallow) from Cow. Various .... unsaturated fats like the essential fatty acids ... Sampling and Sampling Pre-treatment ... machine that consists of a scale, oven, time and a.

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    DR. AMINU

    2008-12-01

    Dec 1, 2008 ... Group C and D animals additionally received calyx extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa twice daily ... have continuous loss of hair and were less active compared with the control. ... attributed to its vitamin C content; the calyces of the.

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    williams

    2016-12-02

    Dec 2, 2016 ... South African Journal of Animal Science 2016, 46 (No. 4) ... systems increasingly incorporate additional feeding such as concentrates or forage crops as ... In Table 1, a comparison is presented of the descriptive statistics of all ...

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    Dr Olaleye

    2Artificial Insemination Unit, National Animal Production Research Institute, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. ... The study has also confirmed the significant effect of herd factor on ... herds I and VII where the calves were separated from.

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    little pockets where drought and war have exacer- bated famine and ... plex of interactions of thousands of others, a slight alteration may ... from bacteria, viruses or animals placed in plants ... girls results in abnormal hormonal levels. RRSwas.

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    pc

    2017-11-10

    Nov 10, 2017 ... This paper focuses on various species of fungi and bacteria used in ... animals, biodegradation of this compound is c ...... Bioremediation techniques for naproxen and carbamazepine elimination: Toxicity evaluation test.

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    The depressing statistics regarding the prevalence, therapy . The year for evaluation ..... Animal studies younger than 5 years and pregnant women the suggest that dichlorvos ... Nosa Uwagiaren assisted in data collection. control programme.

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    User

    Proximate compositions of five economically-important fish species from Lake Victoria and Lake. Tanganyika ... the fish species desirable for consumption during this period. These fish ..... Functional ... Journal of Animal Ecology, 40 : 633-652.

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    Erah

    2008-06-02

    Jun 2, 2008 ... The journal welcomes original research papers, reviews and case reports on current topics of special interest and relevance. .... measles indicating possible antiviral activity. The fatty ... Collection and identification of plants.

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    Prof Kakande

    severity of symptoms, relevant investigations, stage and site of the tumor, hospital stay, mortality, morbidity ... carcinomas involving the esophagus and 4 with benign disease. Intestinal .... Ultrasonography examination of the liver and celiac.

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    Onyii Ogbonna

    Some of the challenges to access and effective usage of instrument/facilities ... Solar radiation/cloud cover and sunshine duration, solar radiation .... Relevance of climate records job/business. Yes. 74. 100.0 ... little or no cost involvement.

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    Irohibe and Agwu

    Climate change is a clear threat to all sectors of the Nigerian socio - ... build the capacities of local institutions to support disaster management policies. ... change agenda and communicating relevant information to the public is very crucial.

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    PROF. MADUKWE

    one to relevant networking team (M = 3.86), exposes one to new arrears in ... related to sustainability as part of the career and professional development program: ... social media; initiating relationships with others that you can continue by ...

  9. Physician Compare National Downloadable File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Physician Compare National Downloadable File is organized at the individual eligible professional level; each line is unique at the professional/enrollment...

  10. Analysis of Sci-Hub downloads of computer science papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andročec Darko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The scientific knowledge is disseminated by research papers. Most of the research literature is copyrighted by publishers and avail- able only through paywalls. Recently, some websites offer most of the recent content for free. One of them is the controversial website Sci-Hub that enables access to more than 47 million pirated research papers. In April 2016, Science Magazine published an article on Sci-Hub activity over the period of six months and publicly released the Sci-Hub’s server log data. The mentioned paper aggregates the view that relies on all downloads and for all fields of study, but these findings might be hiding interesting patterns within computer science. The mentioned Sci-Hub log data was used in this paper to analyse downloads of computer science papers based on DBLP’s list of computer science publications. The top downloads of computer science papers were analysed, together with the geographical location of Sci-Hub users, the most downloaded publishers, types of papers downloaded, and downloads of computer science papers per publication year. The results of this research can be used to improve legal access to the most relevant scientific repositories or journals for the computer science field.

  11. MMCD: Cooperative Downloading for Highway

    OpenAIRE

    OTA, Kaoru; DONG, Mianxiong; CHANG, Shan; ZHU, Hongzi

    2015-01-01

    Advances in low-power wireless communications and micro-electronics make a great impact on a transportation system and pervasive deployment of road-side units (RSU) is promising to provide drive-thru Internet to vehicular users anytime and anywhere. Downloading data packets from the RSU, however, is not always reliable because of high mobility of vehicles and high contention among vehicular users. Using inter-vehicle communication, cooperative downloading can maximize the amount of data packe...

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    userpc

    drained into sewage system, industrial waterborne wastes such as oils, grease, animal and vegetable matter discharged by factories and ground, surface and atmospheric waters that enters the sewage system (Tortoraet al.,. 2010). Domestic wastewater mostly contains waste from home, kitchen and bathroom and consists.

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    Proff.Adewunmi

    locomotor activity of the rota rod test, and in the preliminary acute toxicity test, ... of certain colouring agents, and as an ingredient in cosmetic preparations ... hexanic sub-fraction of turmeric powder (10.3 g) was subjected to animal studies.

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    Image

    ICT. This has been done by showing how Kiswahili, an indigenous African language and a linguistic .... shows and animation effects. ... which is a complete Swahili adaptation of Tux – Paint, a drawing program for children (klnX. 2004). This is ...

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    egyptian hak

    Marcos-García MA (1987) Sobre la presencia de Cheilosia paralobi Malski, 1962 y C.latifacies Loew, 1857 en la peninsula Iberica (Diptera, Syrphidae). Anales de Biologia 11 (Biologia Animal 3): 99-101. Marcos-García MA, Vujic A & Mengual X (2007) Revision of Iberian species of the genus Merodon (Diptera: Syrphidae).

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    major chronic infectious disease among cattle, other domesticated animals, and certain populations of wildlife (Ayele et al., 2004). Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the most common cause of human TB, but an unknown proportion of cases are due to Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis). (Acha & Szyfres, 1987). The principal agent ...

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    Dr Olaleye

    self-representation as male or female, or how that person is responded to by social institutions on the basis of the ..... for supplying and taking care of the animals during the period ... Journal of Pain, Symptom Control and Palliative. Care, 8(1): ...

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    (for animals and themselves), food and other miscellaneous uses (Bailey &. Danin 1981). The botanical exploration ... (1993) collected a total of 114 species of seed plants from Gebel El-Halal in northem Sinai during one season, ... Further investigation and management of the flora in the St. Katherine Protectorate requires ...

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    ARC-IRENE

    2015-08-04

    Aug 4, 2015 ... 2 Department of Microbial, Biochemical and Food Biotechnology, .... animals with 2 permanent incisors, and this effect was more .... that fast growers had an advantage in ageing potential but gave no results on connective tissue properties ..... experiencing a 'bad steak' (specifically referring low connective ...

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    ARC-IRENE

    The lack of flexibility in the traditional way of presenting mutton carcasses in Australia and the ... The South African Journal of Animal Science is available online at http://www.sasas.co.za/sajas.asp .... cuts over five fat scores (x) compared to carcass SCF ..... Regulations regarding the classification and marketing of meat.

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    standard limits for drinking and surface water to indicate the pollution level of the TAR. ... TAR were observed with increasing domestic, industrial and agricultural ... the negative health effects they may cause in humans, animals, and plants [1]. ... rivers and the changes produced by human activities is not only the first step ...

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    Rabies prevention in both humans and animals is possible by vaccination. The domestic dog ... were collected from apparently healthy dogs in. Zaria. The study sites included ... 1Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, A.B.U Zaria. 2 Department of Microbiology, ...

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    Michael

    2014-03-01

    Mar 1, 2014 ... 2 Nutritional Biochemistry, Department of Animal Production and Health, The ... with maize and has equivalent mineral and vitamin density. .... 23.73 g/d on broiler-chicks fed processed pigeon pea meal [16], but surpassed the.

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    Salvo

    From a morphological point of view, the animals are relatively ... cream color with a dark brown line on the back. The abdomen ... In order to achieve this goal, other two groups of ani- ..... multi-origin of the breeds/populations, little subsequent.

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    Everlyne Nafuna

    2017-11-15

    Nov 15, 2017 ... African trypanosomiases impact negatively on the entire economy of Africa by weakening the health of both humans and animals (John, Rachid, ... (KETRI 2454) were obtained from the Biotechnology Research Institute, Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research. Organization, (KALRO) trypanosome bank.

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    Aluminium affects blood elements, cells of the ... overnight but were allowed free access to water. Six animals were used for each group of ... kept on ice until assayed. .... Estimation of TBARS in the liver in homogenates of mice which received ...

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    Daniel

    2016-08-06

    Aug 6, 2016 ... and animal growth, and prevent, control and treat diseases. Chinese ... complex diseases, and relieve or eliminate unfavourable effects of a single CHM caused by toxic or extremely ...... such as the hypothalamus, pituitary gland and adrenal gland, constitute the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA ...

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    state, Nigeria. 2Department of Animal Health, College of Agriculture,Jalingo, Taraba state Nigeria. ... sheep and 569 goats) at Jalingo abattoir, Taraba State, Nigeria based on faecal examination. The objective of .... Africa due to the availability of a wide range of agro- ... Plateau States, south-west by Benue State, north-east.

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    Howard Kaikow

    ... adoptable methodology in view of a preventive maintenance measure for the pipes ... INTRODUCTION ... damage in steel pipes exposed to representative soils. ... surface and subsurface plant and animal life, and ... Hence, in this work, five soil ..... 0.000921. 2.1576. 0.09696. Residual. 113. 0.04823. 0.000427. Total. 116.

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    Dr Olaleye

    (200ppm). After 24hr fast, gastric acid secretion was measured using the continuous perfusion method of. Ghosh and Schild (1958), modified by Amure and. Ginsburg (1964). Animals where anaesthetized with pentobarbital (35 mg/kg i.p) and a midline laparotomy was made to expose the stomach and duodenum. A semi-.

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    develop immunity after a single infection (Tzipori, 1985;. Radostits et al., 1994). Although animals with strong immune system are not so vulnerable to an attack of the disease, the life of immune-deficient hosts is seriously threatened (Current,. 1997). Incidentally, cryptosporidiosis is a zoonosis and capable of causing severe ...

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    poor yield (M=2.08), cluster nature of growth (M=1.91), high incidence of pest and ... reflect in incessant price rises in rural and urban areas. ..... kitchen waste, compost of harvested plants or animal waste; while fertilizer is mostly common in.

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    Basic home range characteristics for the conservation of the African grey parrot in the Korup national park, Cameroon. TAMUNGANG, S.A. "; AYODELE I.A.; AKUMZ.E. 1. Dept of Animal Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang B. P. 285, Dschang, Cameroon. 2. Dept of Wildlife and Fisheries Management, ...

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    PUBLICATIONS1

    The root extract was more effective in controlling both insects, and it was ... food for more than 1.2 billion people in sub-. Saharan Africa and ... beverages and the leaves are fed to animals. MATERIALS AND ..... Marketing Res. Rep. no. 882 ...

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    form so as to prevent/arrest the inevitable extinction common to people's cultural heritage – language ... ascribe to objects - animal in the case of “Salute to the Elephant”. This is ... Causes a tremor in a dense tropical forest who stands sturdy.

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    2004-02-20

    Feb 20, 2004 ... Probiotic organisms have been found pig and albino rat. ... evaluate the safety of using wild type organisms or those ob-. Animals and Diet .... Crude fibre .... The effect of dietary and environmental stress on the. Baron, D.N. ...

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    Dr Olaleye

    Research Article. Effect of high plant (cowpeas) and animal (casein) proteins on .... constituted feeds were made into pellets; rats were grouped based ... 10.38. 6.70. 6.92. 7.25. 7.17. Fiber. 16.35 15.35. 15.32. 15.25. 15.38. Fat/oil. 5.0. 9.9. 10.

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    2018-01-02

    Jan 2, 2018 ... providing 44% of meat in the world market. (FAO, 2001). ... turbinate deformation in growing pigs. (Kumar et al. ... size was calculated to be 227 pigs. The animals ... laboratory as soon as possible using cold pack and sera ...

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    Department of Animal Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria. ABSTRACT. A 56-day feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effect offeeding varying levels of cooked pigeon pea seed meal (PSM) on the performance and carcass characteristics of growing rabbits. Twenty-four,. 7-week old hybrid (Chinchilla x ...

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    Dr Olaleye

    and as the conscious sensation of a need for water. (Robertson, 1991). For these two definitions, studies on thirst mechanisms can only be appreciated in human subjects as animals can neither report the sensation for water nor indicate the motive for its intake. Plasma osmolality (Posm) has been linked inextricably to.

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    aa

    Hatchability of fertile eggs (%) = (Number of poults hatched / Number of fertile eggs) x 100;. Surplus poult rate (%) = (Number of surplus poults / Number of fertile eggs) x 100;. Abnormality rate (%) = (Number of poults with abnormalities / Total number of poults hatched) x 100;. The South African Journal of Animal Science is ...

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    America and other African countries such as Zimbabwe (Brown 11), where .... make cursory reference to the origins of the tradition of animals-as-commentators in ...... “As Whitey Boois op Vergenoeg begrawe word, dan koop hy met sy liggaam ...

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    Dr Olaleye

    Blood is a good medium for diagnosis of various diseases of animals .... MCHC respectively were higher than those of the normal values (Table 1). ... in body defense against invading bacteria, viral and parasitic ... positive influence of training on red blood cell values of horses while .... composition of diary cows. Vet. Rec.

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    foreign body from the oral cavity/oropharynx into the nasopharynx is less common. These foreign bodies may be animate or inanimate, metallic or non metallic, organic or non-organic in nature. Some of the items commonly reported in the nasopharynx include the following: metal curtain rail hook, safety pin, coin, toys, bead, ...

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    Philemon Kaganda

    Psychologically aggression is defined as any purpose physical or verbal that is intended to harm or destroy. It can also be regarded as a strong and vigorous pursuit of preservation to satisfy needs, the latter explanation is more applicable for animals which in most cases become aggressive when are deprived of their needs ...

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    ewes in Treatment 3 received a double dose of the three elements. ..... elevated activities of these enzymes in plasma of animals indicate ... present study reduced (P < 0.05) these enzyme activities in blood, thus protecting the body against tissue .... Trace element requirements, diagnosis and prevention of deficiencies in.

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    admin

    magnitude of genetic progress of economically important traits in Merino sheep, when selection of breeding sires and dams depends largely on ...... Incorporating assessed style, length and strength into breeding objectives for fine and superfine Merino flocks. Proc. Assoc. Advmnt. Anim. Breed. Genet. 13, 177-180. Safari, E.

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    ... purports to improve, to make progress, change for the better, higher income or ... “augmentation and diminution of already formed animals.” It reminisces of .... Development, children form methods of thinking through their ... Stage five is a theoretical .... reality that Aristotle correctly remarks that human beings by nature.

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    Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria; Department of Surgery and Radiology, Ahmadu Bello. University, Zaria, Nigeria; Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, ... presented to the Small Animal Clinic of the. Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Ahmadu. Bello University with history of coughing.

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    Estudio del compostaje de residuos organicos. Volarcion. Agriola. In. Ph.D. Thesis Murcia University (In. Spanish) Spain. Johnson W.F. Jr. and Wolf (1995). Nitrogen transformations in Sills amended with poultry litter under aerobic conditions followed by anaerobic periods. P27 - 34 . In K Steele (ed). Animal wastes and the.

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    Kelvin

    A. baremose had better 'b' value (2.83) than the female counterpart (2.76). ... Of the 160 samples of A. baremose used for this work, while ... balance in grams. ... male counterpart though, no significant difference ..... Animal Life in Freshwater:.

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    abp

    2017-09-22

    Sep 22, 2017 ... protective footwear (boot) while working at the abattoir. This situation is similar to the findings of Swai and Schoonman (2009). [35] who noted that in Tanzania, livestock workers were at great risk of contracting brucellosis because of their practice of handling animal tissues without the use of protective gear.

  13. Large-scale analysis of malware downloaders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossow, Christian; Dietrich, Christian; Bos, Herbert

    2013-01-01

    Downloaders are malicious programs with the goal to subversively download and install malware (eggs) on a victim's machine. In this paper, we analyze and characterize 23 Windows-based malware downloaders. We first show a high diversity in downloaders' communication architectures (e.g., P2P), carrier

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    Proff.Adewunmi

    Background: Malaria infection in children has been of concern in this part of the world - the sub-Saharan Africa. This study was undertaken to determine ... Four major determinants namely the parasite, the vector, the human host and the environment are relevant to the dynamics of malaria transmission (Hommel and Gilles, ...

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    Nubidga

    founded on six major pillars: i) Core values governing the activities of the. Academy, which usually include independence; relevance, integrity, objectivity, and quality; ii) Design of the study within the niche of the. Academies; ... and international mix, gender sensitivity, expertise. (qualification, experience); iv) Absence of ...

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    Janice

    2014-04-07

    Apr 7, 2014 ... We argue that when used in conjunction with relevant social theory aimed at the examination of the determinants of ... resulting from a person-situation interaction, and the environment ..... layout and proximate locations of crime. As noted above .... c rime preve ntion through environme ntal design in South.

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    Yomi

    nally found in the occipital lobe of a patient with. Alzheimer's disease (AD) in 2001 (Hashimoto et al.,. 2001a). It can bind to its specific receptor on the cell membrane and activate the JAK/STAT3 pathway. (Hashimoto et al., 2005). HN has been found to protect neurons from AD-relevant neurotoxicity (Hashimoto et al.,. 2001b ...

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    2009-10-20

    Oct 20, 2009 ... Health care sciences should aim to train more forensic nurses. All relevant ... that practitioners can be exposed to trauma, especially when a sexual assault victim .... 'So, if a doctor has a queue of more than 20 patients waiting for him outside ... many sexual assault victims do not go to the police because of.

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    David Seward

    2005-06-14

    Jun 14, 2005 ... soning of the courts with emphasis on the cassation decision in light of the relevant ... Hussien Ahmed Tura, Uniform Application of Law in Ethiopia: Effects of Cassation Decisions of the ...... divorce.76 Having noted these facts, the issue framed by the FHC was ..... (re)marriage is not the making of the law.

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    more functionally relevant characterization of microbial community (Garland, 1997). w. Therefore, in this study, the effect of different. Sources of nutrient carbon on the functional ability of. Soil bacteria was investigated. The aim was to ascertain the extent to which sole carbon sources in Biolog eco- plates can indicate ...

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    junior doctors at different stages of their pre-registration and compulsory ... intellectual (learning with patients, relevance to practice, evidence-based, ... All of the junior doctors (n=148) in the hospital at the time of the study received ... 2 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, ...

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    McDonald et al., 2002). Up to now, feed formulation for ostriches has been based on principles used in the poultry industry. (Cilliers, 1998; Iji et al., 2003) as very little relevant research has been done with these birds to predict food intake. As the ...

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    debates around affirmative action is whether or not it has a life-span. ... the consideration of issues of race, gender and disability will no longer be required of .... learning; relevant experience; or (d) capacity to acquire, within a reasonable time, .... It has been held that the substantive approach to equality requires a deliberate.

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    2010-12-04

    Dec 4, 2010 ... This study therefore sought to empirically examine whether in the ... Her research interests focus on human resource management, ... its disproportionate effect on the most productive segment of the ..... learn about relevant new developments. .... some companies might fail to implement policy commitments.

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    This article examines Nigeria's trade profile, with a detailed look at the imports ... manufactured and value added products and export bill, which consists ... is crucial for the survival and relevance of the Nigerian economy in the global ... presented across different audiences to ... vocabulary was synonymous with imitation or.

  6. Toll-like receptor mRNA expression is selectively increased in the colonic mucosa of two animal models relevant to irritable bowel syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Declan P McKernan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is largely viewed as a stress-related disorder caused by aberrant brain-gut-immune communication and altered gastrointestinal (GI homeostasis. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that stress modulates innate immune responses; however, very little is known on the immunological effects of stress on the GI tract. Toll-like receptors (TLRs are critical pattern recognition molecules of the innate immune system. Activation of TLRs by bacterial and viral molecules leads to activation of NF-kB and an increase in inflammatory cytokine expression. It was our hypothesis that innate immune receptor expression may be changed in the gastrointestinal tract of animals with stress-induced IBS-like symptoms.In this study, our objective was to evaluate the TLR expression profile in the colonic mucosa of two rat strains that display colonic visceral hypersensitivity; the stress-sensitive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY rat and the maternally separated (MS rat. Quantitative PCR of TLR2-10 mRNA in both the proximal and distal colonic mucosae was carried out in adulthood. Significant increases are seen in the mRNA levels of TLR3, 4 & 5 in both the distal and proximal colonic mucosa of MS rats compared with controls. No significant differences were noted for TLR 2, 7, 9 & 10 while TLR 6 could not be detected in any samples in both rat strains. The WKY strain have increased levels of mRNA expression of TLR3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9 & 10 in both the distal and proximal colonic mucosa compared to the control Sprague-Dawley strain. No significant differences in expression were found for TLR2 while as before TLR6 could not be detected in all samples in both strains.These data suggest that both early life stress (MS and a genetic predisposition (WKY to stress affect the expression of key sentinels of the innate immune system which may have direct relevance for the molecular pathophysiology of IBS.

  7. South African Journal of Animal Science - Vol 1, No 1 (1971)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impressions of animal production in South Africa with particular reference to biological research · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. I.W. McDonald, 165-167 ...

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    females for having supernumerary teeth. CASE DETAILS: The present case is presented with three permanent central incisors, all of them with normal morphology. On clinical and radiographic examination, it was identified as a case of non- syndromic unilateral left supplemental maxillary central incisor. Treatment plan ...

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    Research and development on orphan drugs is totally uneconomical and require heavy subsidy from international organizations (WHO, UNDP, UNICEF) and foundations such as the Ford, Rockefeller and Bill Gates. A typical example is ivermectin used in treatment of onchocerciasis. Many non- governmental organizations ...

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    X-Linked ichthyosis on the clinical features or pedigree analysis of the family in Egypt and the ... molecular studies to reach the proper diagnosis of X-linked ichthyosis. Key Words: .... case using G-banding technique.17,18,19,20 karyotyping.

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    Measured effect of some socio-demographic factors on depression among breast cancer .... given a rationale for treatment decisions, and often do not ask questions ... such as guilt, worthlessness, hopelessness, thoughts of suicide, and loss of ...

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    Chibuike

    5Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology (UFR SDS), 6 Laboratory of Mycrobiology (UFR SDS), University of Ouagadougou, 03 P.O. Box. 7021 ... present study support the ethnomedicinal uses of Borassus aethiopum for the treatment of fungal diseases. ... the basis for the traditional use of Borassus aethiopum male.

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    O. Senbanjo, Paediatrics Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Unit, ... However, under-nutrition remains a major nutritional problem ...... Diet culture and obesity in North. Africa. ... Mvo Z, Dick J, Steyn K. Perceptions ... J Asian Afr Stud.

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    2012-07-02

    Jul 2, 2012 ... examine the relationship between rewards and nurse motivation on public hospitals administrated by. Addis Ababa ... considering 20% non- response rate, the final .... monetary compensation more than anything else(12,13).

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    Osondu

    2014-05-01

    May 1, 2014 ... Numerous methods for estimating soil saturated hydraulic conductivity exist, ... Soil samples for the study were collected from four sites at varying depths (15cm, 30cm, 45cm and ..... measurements or may take several days or.

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    Bernt Lindtjorn

    1Associate professor, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, P. O. Box 27285/1000, ..... Sex. Male. 181. 68.0. Female. 85. 32.0. Marital status. Single. 95. 35.7. Married .... advantages and disadvantages associated with the use of.

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    Vol. 22, No. 3. November 2012. 196. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. PREVALENCE AND SEVERITY OF IODINE DEFICIENCY. DISORDER ... consequence of iodine deficiency at the early age, there will be ..... Pediatrics Thyroidology, Basel S. Karger.

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    hemolysis, hyperkalemia, hyponatremia and an elevated circulating volume, whereas seawater drowning producesheme concentration, hypernatremia and lower circulating blood volume. These presentations partially depend on the amount of water aspirated. Important concern in aspiration of fresh and saltwater are.

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    Mr Olusoji

    ABSTRACT. Postpartum haemorrhage is a major contributor to maternal morbidity and mortality. Numerous medical and surgical methods have been used to arrest bleeding but none has been uniformly successful. Experience with combined B-Lynch suture(Brace suture) and bilateral uterine artery devascularisation ...

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    raoul

    2011-12-14

    Dec 14, 2011 ... Through the AFENET-Lab initiatives, AFENET has implemented multiple .... importance on various aspects within their individual program such as .... August 2011]; Available from: http://www.who.int/csr/outbreaknetwork/en/.

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    ABSTRACT. A conventional-type PVC membrane electrode which responds ... such as aluminium hydroxide and magnesium trisilicate tablets, as well as in codein ... containing stoichiometric proportion (1:4) of zinc acetate and ammonium.

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    2013-01-25

    2012 ... potentially life-threatening complication of pregnancy, with a quoted incidence of approximately 1 ... induced abortion on 5thadmission. Her condition ... Conclusion ... recurrent episodes during pregnancy complicated by.

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    In the same vein, UNDP (2001:1), argue that “the impact of unethical and criminal practices in ..... of the Nigerian Court of Appeal, Justice Katsina-Alu warned the judges that: .... Abuja, Nigeria. 18. Eni, H. (2009) “Nigerian‟s fear for economy.

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    PEN AR LAN

    4ARC Livestock Business Division: Private Bag X5013, Stellenbosch 7599, South Africa .... Corresponding coefficients of variation in the seven Australian ... Table 1 Descriptive statistics for yearling body weight and fleece traits (after editing) in ...

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    2009-06-18

    Jun 18, 2009 ... e s http://www.hsag.co.za. Health SA Gesondheid. Original Research. A rtic le #. 4. 1. 2. Likert values and item weights from matrices of pairwise ratios. Authors: ..... Neurological. System. 1. Neck & back severe jitteriness hyperextension hypertonia hypotonia mild jitters sensitivity to moro reflex stimulus fright.

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    infected and AIDS patients in South Western Uganda. *Agwu E1, Ihongbe ... Tuberculosis and poverty are among the predisposing factors of ..... A twelve-year study in a referral center in. Mexico. Medicine 2003; 82:39-50. 13. Kearns G, Pogrel ...

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    2015-11-19

    Nov 19, 2015 ... peritoneal factors are responsible for about 30-40% of cases of female infertility and hence ... structural abnormalities of the uterus, endometriosis and fallopian tube patency were sought for. Tubal .... misinterpreted as tubal patency with peritoneal diffusion of contrast material. Another explanation is that, ...

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    deficiencies; eye, ear and skin conditions; and common injuries4. .... warning labels on tobacco products; banning advertising and promotion of .... patient autonomy, prevention of complications of disease, access and ... and social needs.

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    2014-11-03

    Nov 3, 2014 ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies & Management 7 Suppl.: 720 – 730, 2014. ... Ethiopia, as pro-poor sector, significant budget is ... ditches are major causes of gully erosion risk. Culverts are ... cement and concrete to control erosion. However ..... ystem/v2i1/v2i1gully.pdf)(Accessed on. 10 January ...

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    raoul

    2011-11-02

    Nov 2, 2011 ... Published in partnership with the African Field Epidemiology Network ... Malaria is a life threatening parasitic disease transmitted through the bite of infected female anopheles ... getting access to these services due to many barriers hence most .... African Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences.

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    Improved knowledge and communication are key in addressing self stigma among HIV positive individuals. .... economically desperate seek them out because such organizations do not ... tests may not be available, and so it helps if payment.

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    2017-11-01

    Nov 1, 2017 ... Health Economic Evaluation of Home and Hospital-Based Care in. T2D Patients on Insulin .... analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare .... constitutes a potential source of bias in the form of underestimating the ...

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    Abstract. In many resource-limited settings, cryptococcal meningitis (CM) contributes up to 20% of all deaths with further complications due to Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS). We present a case report on a patient who developed CM-. IRIS and then subsequent CM-relapse with a fluconazole-resistant ...

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    AJNS WEBMASTERS

    Study Design and Site ... The most common presentation were visual disturbances reported by 57 (87.7%) of the ... the transsphenoidal route is widely accepted as the approach of choice for intrasellar lesions and some ... had optimal blood pressures while 7.5% and 5% had moderate and severe hypertension (figure 4).

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    Dr. Annku

    2009-10-02

    Oct 2, 2009 ... origin whereas the upper formations are thought to have formed in a warmer stage. ... Basin of Brazil (Bär and Riegel, 1980). 8 ...... He has about 12 years' university teaching ... areas of education, research and consultancy.

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    Winnie

    Phase III microbicide trial methodology: opinions of experienced ... This study involved a survey of South African women participating in an expanded safety trial of the candidate ... Diseases,Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam. ... National Health Laboratory Service Tertiary Microbiology Laboratory for the ...

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    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... CONCLUSION: The perinatal mortality rate was more than two fold higher than the estimated national perinatal mortality;and ... nations (10 per 1000 and 50 per 1000 total births ... In developing countries, obstructed labour,.

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    2013-07-02

    Jul 2, 2013 ... by manual expression into pre-cleaned polyethylene .... mothers in the current study fall within the range of values reported in the .... therapy and disease prevention and control for ... manganese and copper balances in young.

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    shows that application of nitrogen significantly (P<0.05) increase plant height, number of leaflets plant-1, plant stem ... Moringa as vegetable crop and the appropriate ... Nitrogen fertilizer. (urea 46% N) ..... and Biofertilizers on growth of hybrid.

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    2015-02-02

    Feb 2, 2015 ... water distribution pipe network data for the supply zone used as case study was obtained for ... Information System (GIS) tools and possible scenarios were determined based on the tank ... the necessary analysis and design ..... domain. It can also be applied to large .... modelling of delays at traffic warden.

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    yakoub@AHMED

    Aeromonas spp in diřřerent řood sources and human inřections. Thirty řive .... Plasmid Isolation: LB broth plus appropriate antibioticsin culture tubes with each ... [50 mM Tris (pH 8.0); 20 mM Nacl and 5 mM EDTA] plus digestion oř RNA using.

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    2013-11-03

    Nov 3, 2013 ... diagnosis of bacteremia and/or sepsis in burn patients is difficult for a number ... Sensitivity/susceptibility pattern of the isolates was determined by disc ... Nalidixic acid, (70.5%), Penicillin G, (68.2%), and tetracycline, (67.5%).

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    2017-10-19

    Oct 19, 2017 ... As routine microscopic diagnosis cannot differentiate causative ... of amoebiasis and discussed the benefits and disadvantages of the two ... PCR amplification was done in a Perkin Elmer thermocycler and the product was.

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    2009-07-24

    Jul 24, 2009 ... were the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (43.0%) and the tricyclics ... pain (Jacob 2004:350), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (Pliszka ..... to 26% males (sex was not recorded for 46.3% of patients). In.

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    ACSS

    Health management issues are not well understood by fish farmers, with ... concerns for risks of trans-boundary ... a challenge to hatchery operators, causing ... Farmer's perception on diseases .... contribute to food security and income ... Small- scale aquaculture farms growing Nile tilapia (O. niloticus) and/or ornamentals.

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-10-16

    Oct 16, 2015 ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies & Management 8(Suppl. 1): 816 ... to climate change in Ondo State, Nigeria was investigated. .... migration, farming has been left to the very old. ..... Indonesia, for Global Warming.

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    and anaemia was common clinical feature among young children of ten years old with ... This made monitoring of reversibility of pathology in these organs after .... single oral dose of Praziquantel in the field clinic the next day in the morning by ...

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    2014-04-01

    Apr 1, 2014 ... This group also has the tendency to defend self and as such can be involved in fights with the security agents21. A similar finding was reported in Port. Harcourt, Nigeria1. Aetiological profile of otologic injuries seen in Sub-Sahara Africa was similar though there had not been consistency about the leading ...

  9. Downloaded

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    USER

    goats and over 72.8 million poultry (RIM, 1992). Three quarter of the livestock resources are distributed in the northern part of the country. Despite this huge livestock population, the productivity of the livestock industry remains low due to multiplicity of constraints. Some of the constraints range from management, nutrition ...

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    RAGHAVENDRA

    Fire disturbance is one principal conservation tool to im savanna ecosystems, but it can also have the opposite e the growth and establishment of ..... function and poison probability distribution, an appropriate model for count data (Quinn and ...

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    beytullah

    Effects of short chain fatty acid (SCFA) supplementation on performance and egg characteristics .... Mycotoxin binder. 0.20. 0.20 .... benefit of SCFA supplementation for the poultry breeder industry would be an increased number of potentially ...

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    Lefteris

    2016-03-23

    Mar 23, 2016 ... 0.1% (w/v) of both n-propyl gallate and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid ... biotin; 10 mg vitamin C; 480 mg choline chloride; 100 mg Zn; 120 mg Mn; 20 mg Fe; .... Polyunsaturated fatty acids cannot be synthesized by humans.

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    KARO

    2012-02-09

    Feb 9, 2012 ... Soil and water samples collected from Bijar area were analyzed in order ... bearing parent materials) and spread over the lower positions by water pollution and erosion- ... China, Mexico, India, Thailand, Taiwan and Vietnam.

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dermatitis (AD). Emollients. Dry skin is a very common feature of AD and is a diagnostic criterion for the disease. The consequences of dry skin include: .... Psychosocial factors. Although stress and psychological factors appear to influence AD, evidence of their impact is limited.[14]. References. 1. Marks R. How to measure ...

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    Pavle

    2012-06-05

    Jun 5, 2012 ... Total flavonoids were determined according to Brighente et al. (2007). ... Quantification of individual phenolic compounds was performed by reversed phase HPLC analysis, using a modified method of Mišan et al. (2011).

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... roots) were refluxed with MeOH for 3 h, three times. The MeOH extract (4.22 g) was then partitioned with ... repeated three times. The fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index was determined by the .... suppress bacterial resistance mechanisms. The practice of multi-drug therapy worldwide and some in ...

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    Severe bilateral hearing loss in 1 low- birthweight infant resulted ... The dosage schedule for neonates with a birth weight below. 1000 g was 7,5 mg/kg .... Of 537 neonates treated,. 71,3% (383) were premature and 34,6% (186) small for gesta-.

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    Mo

    A detailed analysis of cropping and marketing patterns was undertaken in view of the project context. The analysis of .... Group membership is considered a main social capital asset in .... The gender responsibility for sale varies according to.

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    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... In this work, the expression of the CBM22-2 in transgenic tobacco plants was evaluated. Histological examinations of .... Total RNA was isolated from 3 to 5 g transformed in-vitro shoots as described elsewhere .... PhD thesis, School of Biotechnology, Department of Wood Biotech- nology, Royal Institute of ...

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    userpc

    compounds, potential biofertilizers, and as tools for bioremediation. This therefore ... Isolation of endophytic bacteria was achieved using culture technique, while identification was done .... Biotechnology, biological pesticides and novel plant-.

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    abp

    The malnutrition, weight loss and CD4 count depletion which was the norm pre HAART still exists in the developing countries in the HAART era [7]. The potential ... Cytometry (CyFlow SL Green, Partec GmbH Münster, Germany. 2006) from whole blood samples kept in EDTA bottles. Estimation of serum selenium: Selenium ...

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    FIRST USER

    minimum mesh size of gill nets from 5 to 10 cm for sustainable exploitation of reservoir ...... mortality rates resulting from intense predation by birds and reptiles in some ... of 0.58 and 0.60 year-1, respectively, has earned the former the preference ... Minist. Agric. Fish. Food. G.B. (2 sea fish) 19: 533p. In Introduction to tropical ...

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    promoting healing by protecting the surface of the wound when the ... compound interaction with receptors, in this case. COX-2 ... for Structural Bioinformatics Protein Data Bank. (RCSB-PDB) .... hydrogen bond and electrostatic terms. MolDock.

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-06-24

    Jun 24, 2015 ... left ankle. Skin biopsy showed at the back of the right hand an aspect of PG and at the infiltrated plaques of the ankle an aspect of SS. Prednisone was started with improvement of the skin lesions and a recovery condition. The combination of PG and SS has already been described in cases of hematologic ...

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    salah

    2, Nov. 2009. Copyright: All rights reserved for the Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics ... Technology, Atomic Energy Authority. Background: ... for the inefficient splicing of dystrophin gene during its expression and can be implicated ... caveolin gene family and many signal- ... of its production in muscle could cause.

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chibuike

    1.66%). In conclusion, this work showed the interest to pay more attention on urinary crystals. Indeed this study brought to light crystals with compulsory pathological interest, in particular crystals of bilirubin, cystine, leucine, tyrosine, evidence of ...

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    to humans as a result of consumption of ... Genomic DNA isolation from Milk sample. (phenol ... amplification of all the extracted genomic DNA .... PLATE 1: A two panel agarose gel electrophoresis of PCR amplification of oxyR gene specific.

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    HPLC Method for Determination of Rifaximin in Human Plasma Using Tandem Mass. Spectrometry ... stability studies. This method ... plasma [4, 5] and pharmaceutical dosage forms .... test product Rifaximin tablet 200 mg were used. The test ...

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2013-07-10

    Jul 10, 2013 ... TNF-α level in periodontitis patients have been reported by several groups. The present .... case history was recorded in a specially prepared proforma which ..... Effect of treatment of chronic periodontitis on levels of serum.

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    for its low health facility delivery rate as a result .... provider of the primary level of care in the typical three-tier system ... This was perhaps not unexpected in Gokana LGA as only a ..... health outcomes: Cross-country econometrics study.

  11. Downloading Multiple Records Using Query Strings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Crymble

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Downloading a single record from a website is easy, but downloading many records at a time – an increasingly frequent need for a historian – is much more efficient using a programming language such as Python. In this lesson, we will write a program that will download a series of records from the Old Bailey Online using custom search criteria, and save them to a directory on our computer. This process involves interpreting and manipulating URL Query Strings. In this case, the tutorial will seek to download sources that contain references to people of African descent that were published in the Old Bailey Proceedings between 1700 and 1750.

  12. South African Journal of Animal Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 2 (1974) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa: Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. Transparency in the reporting of in vivo pre-clinical pain research: The relevance and implications of the ARRIVE (Animal Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments) guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Andrew S C; Morland, Rosemary; Huang, Wenlong; Currie, Gillian L; Sena, Emily S; Macleod, Malcolm R

    2017-12-29

    Clear reporting of research is crucial to the scientific process. Poorly designed and reported studies are damaging not only to the efforts of individual researchers, but also to science as a whole. Standardised reporting methods, such as those already established for reporting randomised clinical trials, have led to improved study design and facilitated the processes of clinical systematic review and meta-analysis. Such standards were lacking in the pre-clinical field until the development of the ARRIVE (Animal Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments) guidelines. These were prompted following a survey which highlighted a widespread lack of robust and consistent reporting of pre-clinical in vivo research, with reports frequently omitting basic information required for study replication and quality assessment. The resulting twenty item checklist in ARRIVE covers all aspects of experimental design with particular emphasis on bias reduction and methodological transparency. Influential publishers and research funders have already adopted ARRIVE. Further dissemination and acknowledgement of the importance of these guidelines is vital to their widespread implementation. Conclusions and implications Wide implementation of the ARRIVE guidelines for reporting of in vivo preclinical research, especially pain research, are essential for a much needed increased transparency and quality in publishing such research. ARRIVE will also positively influence improvements in experimental design and quality, assist the conduct of accurate replication studies of important new findings and facilitate meta-analyses of preclinical research.

  15. Downloading and Installing Estuary Data Mapper (EDM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estuary Data Mapper is a tool for geospatial data discovery, visualization, and data download for any of the approximately 2,000 estuaries and associated watersheds in along the five US coastal regions

  16. FDIC Summary of Deposits (SOD) Download File

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation — The FDIC's Summary of Deposits (SOD) download file contains deposit data for branches and offices of all FDIC-insured institutions. The Federal Deposit Insurance...

  17. Understanding Medical Words Tutorial: Download Instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the downloadable files are compressed into a zip format, not all software packages will follow the step-by-step directions below. Save the "zip" file to your hard drive or disk, noting where you saved it. ...

  18. Download - Trypanosomes Database | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us Trypanosomes Database Download First of all, please read the license of this database. Data ...1.4 KB) Simple search and download Downlaod via FTP FTP server is sometimes jammed. If it is, access [here]. About This Database Data...base Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Download - Trypanosomes Database | LSDB Archive ...

  19. Downloading from the OPAC: The Innovative Interfaces Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spore, Stuart

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of downloading from online public access catalogs focuses on downloading to MS-DOS microcomputers from the INNOPAC online catalog system. Tools for capturing and postprocessing downloaded files are described, technical and institutional constraints on downloading are addressed, and an innovative program for overcoming such constraints…

  20. Bible Translation And Relevance Theory | Deist | Stellenbosch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 22 (1992) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Bible Translation And Relevance Theory. F Deist ...

  1. Impressions of animal production in South Africa with particular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impressions of animal production in South Africa with particular reference to biological research. I.W. McDonald. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

  2. Archives: South African Journal of Animal Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 185 ... Archives: South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home > Archives: South African Journal of Animal Science. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue ...

  3. Performance Testing of Download Services of COSMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Horák

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of performance tests of download services of Czech Office of Surveying, Mapping and Cadastre according to INSPIRE  requirements. Methodology of testing is explained, including monitoring performance  of reference servers. 26 millions of random requests were generated for each monitored operation, layer and coordinate system. The temporal development of performance indicators are analyzed and discussed. Results of performance tests approve the compliance with INSPIRE qualitative requirements for download services. All monitored services satisfy requirements of latency, capacity and availability. The latency and availability requirements are fulfilled with an abundant reserve. No problems in structure and content of responses were detected.

  4. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mameli, M; Bortolotti, L

    2006-02-01

    Do non-human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non-human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the scientific studies do not by themselves solve the problem of how to map psychological similarities (and differences) between humans and animals onto a distinction between morally relevant and morally irrelevant mental properties. The current limitations of human mindreading-whether scientifically aided or not-have practical consequences for the rational justification of claims about which rights (if any) non-human animals should be accorded.

  5. The improvement and application of genetic resources in animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 1 (1978) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. Effects of Amendment of Agricultural Bye Products with Animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Amendment of Agricultural Bye Products with Animal Manures on Soil ... Discovery and Innovation ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... into the effectiveness of locally available agricultural by-products as source of nutrient.

  7. Duration of Untreated Cardiac Arrest and Clinical Relevance of Animal Experiments: The Relationship Between the "No-Flow" Duration and the Severity of Post-Cardiac Arrest Syndrome in a Porcine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babini, Giovanni; Grassi, Luigi; Russo, Ilaria; Novelli, Deborah; Boccardo, Antonio; Luciani, Anita; Fumagalli, Francesca; Staszewsky, Lidia; Fiordaliso, Fabio; De Maglie, Marcella; Salio, Monica; Zani, Davide D; Letizia, Teresa; Masson, Serge; Luini, Mario V; Pravettoni, Davide; Scanziani, Eugenio; Latini, Roberto; Ristagno, Giuseppe

    2018-02-01

    The study investigated the effect of untreated cardiac arrest (CA), that is, "no-flow" time, on postresuscitation myocardial and neurological injury, and survival in a pig model to identify an optimal duration that adequately reflects the most frequent clinical scenario. An established model of myocardial infarction followed by CA and cardiopulmonary resuscitation was used. Twenty-two pigs were subjected to three no-flow durations: short (8-10 min), intermediate (12-13 min), and long (14-15 min). Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was assessed together with thermodilution cardiac output (CO) and high sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT). Neurological impairment was evaluated by neurological scores, serum neuron specific enolase (NSE), and histopathology. More than 60% of animals survived when the duration of CA was ≤13 min, compared to only 20% for a duration ≥14 min. Neuronal degeneration and neurological scores showed a trend toward a worse recovery for longer no-flow durations. No animals achieved a good neurological recovery for a no-flow ≥14 min, in comparison to a 56% for a duration ≤13 min (P = 0.043). Serum NSE levels significantly correlated with the no-flow duration (r = 0.892). Longer durations of CA were characterized by lower LVEF and CO compared to shorter durations (P flow time, the higher was the number of defibrillations delivered (P = 0.043). The defibrillations delivered significantly correlated with LVEF and plasma hs-cTnT. Longer no-flow durations caused greater postresuscitation myocardial and neurological dysfunction and reduced survival. An untreated CA of 12-13 min may be an optimal choice for a clinically relevant model.

  8. Downloading the Sounds of a Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China’s online music market continues its meteoric rise, with ring tone downloads leading the revenue stream Gu YINING is a well-known music enthusiast amongst his circle ofriends. The 35-year-old’s collectionf over 2,000 CDs and 500 music

  9. Download - DGBY | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...base Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Download - DGBY | LSDB Archive ...

  10. Download - PSCDB | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...cess [here]. About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Download - PSCDB | LSDB Archive ...

  11. Download - RPSD | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Download - RPSD | LSDB Archive ...

  12. Download - SSBD | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...ion Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Download - SSBD | LSDB Archive ...

  13. Download - ASTRA | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...is Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Download - ASTRA | LSDB Archive ...

  14. Download - SAHG | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Download - SAHG | LSDB Archive ...

  15. Download - RED | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...t This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Download - RED | LSDB Archive ...

  16. Download - GRIPDB | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...t This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Download - GRIPDB | LSDB Archive ...

  17. Download - DMPD | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nd download 1 README README_e.html - 2 Literature list concerning differentiation... and activation of macrophage and pathways found in the literature dmpd.zip (16KB) Simple search and download 3 Pathway data concern

  18. Download - Metabolonote | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ... Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Download - Metabolonote | LSDB Archive ...

  19. Understanding the dynamical control of animal movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Donald

    2008-03-01

    Over the last 50 years, neurophysiologists have described many neural circuits that transform sensory input into motor commands, while biomechanicians and behavioral biologists have described many patterns of animal movement that occur in response to sensory input. Attempts to link these two have been frustrated by our technical inability to record from the necessary neurons in a freely behaving animal. As a result, we don't know how these neural circuits function in the closed loop context of free behavior, where the sensory and motor context changes on a millisecond time-scale. To address this problem, we have developed a software package, AnimatLab (www.AnimatLab.com), that enables users to reconstruct an animal's body and its relevant neural circuits, to link them at the sensory and motor ends, and through simulation, to test their ability to reproduce appropriate patterns of the animal's movements in a simulated Newtonian world. A Windows-based program, AnimatLab consists of a neural editor, a body editor, a world editor, stimulus and recording facilities, neural and physics engines, and an interactive 3-D graphical display. We have used AnimatLab to study three patterns of behavior: the grasshopper jump, crayfish escape, and crayfish leg movements used in postural control, walking, reaching and grasping. In each instance, the simulation helped identify constraints on both nervous function and biomechanical performance that have provided the basis for new experiments. Colleagues elsewhere have begun to use AnimatLab to study control of paw movements in cats and postural control in humans. We have also used AnimatLab simulations to guide the development of an autonomous hexapod robot in which the neural control circuitry is downloaded to the robot from the test computer.

  20. İnternet Download Manager İndir

    OpenAIRE

    İnternet Download

    2018-01-01

    İnternet Download Manager (IDM) indirmek isteyenler için İNDİR bağlantısını sizler için paylaştık. Eğer siz de İnternet Download Manager indirmek istiyorsanız alttaki bağlantı aracılığı ile sorunsuz olarak İnternet Download Manager indirme işlemini gerçekleştirebilirsiniz. İnternet Download Manager İndir bağlantısına tıkladıktan sonra son hızda İnternet Download Manager programının ineceğine emin olabilirsiniz. Sizler için İnternet Download Manager İndir bağlantısı üzerinden son h...

  1. Computer Security: downloading films is no peccadillo

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2015-01-01

    Dear Summer Students, within the Organization, you have many possibilities to pursue your natural curiosity and acquire as much new knowledge as you can siphon into your brain. CERN provides you with the academic freedom to do so, with almost no limitations. But hold on: “free” and “no limitations” don’t mean that you can do whatever you want…   Please note that, when using CERN’s computing facilities, when sending e-mails from your CERN e-mail address, when using your laptop/smartphone/computer, you must follow a basic framework of rules, the CERN Computing Rules. I would like to focus on one particular aspect of those rules: that of accessing music, videos, films or computer games from popular websites like ThePirateBay or using Bittorrent.  CERN has an awesome connection to the Internet, lots of bandwidth and a high capacity for web downloads. However, this does not mean that downloading music, videos...

  2. Download - KEGG MEDICUS | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] English ]; } else if ( url.search(//en//) != -1 ) { url = url.replace(/...switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data List Contact us KEGG MEDI...search and download 1 README README_e.html - 2 Drug kegg_medicus_drug_en.zip (5.2... MB) Simple search and download 3 Environ kegg_medicus_environ_en.zip (79 KB) Simple search and download 4 Disease kegg_medi...nload License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Download - KEGG MEDICUS | LSDB Archive ...

  3. Fibre digestion in the hyrax | Eloff | South African Journal of Animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 13, No 1 (1983) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected ...

  4. South African Journal of Animal Science - Vol 14, No 2 (1984)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. ... The effect of temperature, moisture level and treatment period · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ... Assessment of different selection criteria for reproduction rate in Dormer and S.A. Mutton Merino sheep. 1. Birth type and ...

  5. Phenotypic variation in metabolism and morphology correlating with animal swimming activity in the wild: relevance for the OCLTT (oxygen- and capacity-limitation of thermal tolerance), allocation and performance models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baktoft, Henrik; Jacobsen, Lene; Skov, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing climate change is affecting animal physiology in many parts of the world. Using metabolism, the oxygen- and capacitylimitation of thermal tolerance (OCLTT) hypothesis provides a tool to predict the responses of ectothermic animals to variation in temperature, oxygen availability and p......H in the aquatic environment. The hypothesis remains controversial, however, and has been questioned in several studies. A positive relationship between aerobic metabolic scope and animal activity would be consistent with the OCLTT but has rarely been tested. Moreover, the performance model and the allocation...... model predict positive and negative relationships, respectively, between standard metabolic rate and activity. Finally, animal activity could be affected by individual morphology because of covariation with cost of transport. Therefore, we hypothesized that individual variation in activity is correlated...

  6. Archives: Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 60 ... Archives: Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. Journal Home > Archives: Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ...

  7. Plantibodies in human and animal health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwayelu, Daniel O; Adebiyi, Adebowale I

    2016-06-01

    Antibodies are essential part of vertebrates' adaptive immune system; they can now be produced by transforming plants with antibody-coding genes from mammals/humans. Although plants do not naturally make antibodies, the plant-derived antibodies (plantibodies) have been shown to function in the same way as mammalian antibodies. PubMed and Google search engines were used to download relevant publications on plantibodies in medical and veterinary fields; the papers were reviewed and findings qualitatively described. The process of bioproduction of plantibodies offers several advantages over the conventional method of antibody production in mammalian cells with the cost of antibody production in plants being substantially lesser. Contrary to what is possible with animal-derived antibodies, the process of making plantibodies almost exclusively precludes transfer of pathogens to the end product. Additionally, plants not only produce a relatively high yield of antibodies in a comparatively faster time, they also serve as cost-effective bioreactors to produce antibodies of diverse specificities. Plantibodies are safe, cost-effective and offer more advantages over animal-derived antibodies. Methods of producing them are described with a view to inspiring African scientists on the need to embrace and harness this rapidly evolving biotechnology in solving human and animal health challenges on the continent where the climate supports growth of diverse plants.

  8. Animal research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the ethical issues in animal research using a combined approach of ethical theory and analysis of scientific findings with bearing on the ethical analysis. The article opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. The use of animals...... in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals...... are faring. From the utilitarian perspective, the use of sentient animals in research that may harm them is an ethical issue, but harm done to animals can be balanced by benefit generated for humans and other animals. The animal rights view, when thoroughgoing, is abolitionist as regards the use of animals...

  9. Download - RPD | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data .... If it is, access [here]. About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Download - RPD | LSDB Archive ...

  10. Download - JSNP | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data .... If it is, access [here]. About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Download - JSNP | LSDB Archive ...

  11. Download - Plabrain DB | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data List Contact us Plabrain...s Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Download - Plabrain DB | LSDB Archive ...

  12. Academic Software Downloads from Google Code: Useful Usage Indicators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelwall, Mike; Kousha, Kayvan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Computer scientists and other researchers often make their programs freely available online. If this software makes a valuable contribution inside or outside of academia then its creators may want to demonstrate this with a suitable indicator, such as download counts. Methods: Download counts, citation counts, labels and licenses…

  13. Should we reject animal source foods to save the planet? A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 43, No 3 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. The impact of animal source food products on human nutrition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 43, No 3 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. Phenotypic variation in metabolism and morphology correlating with animal swimming activity in the wild: relevance for the OCLTT (oxygen- and capacity-limitation of thermal tolerance), allocation and performance models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baktoft, Henrik; Jacobsen, Lene; Skov, Christian; Koed, Anders; Jepsen, Niels; Berg, Søren; Boel, Mikkel; Aarestrup, Kim; Svendsen, Jon C

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing climate change is affecting animal physiology in many parts of the world. Using metabolism, the oxygen- and capacity-limitation of thermal tolerance (OCLTT) hypothesis provides a tool to predict the responses of ectothermic animals to variation in temperature, oxygen availability and pH in the aquatic environment. The hypothesis remains controversial, however, and has been questioned in several studies. A positive relationship between aerobic metabolic scope and animal activity would be consistent with the OCLTT but has rarely been tested. Moreover, the performance model and the allocation model predict positive and negative relationships, respectively, between standard metabolic rate and activity. Finally, animal activity could be affected by individual morphology because of covariation with cost of transport. Therefore, we hypothesized that individual variation in activity is correlated with variation in metabolism and morphology. To test this prediction, we captured 23 wild European perch (Perca fluviatilis) in a lake, tagged them with telemetry transmitters, measured standard and maximal metabolic rates, aerobic metabolic scope and fineness ratio and returned the fish to the lake to quantify individual in situ activity levels. Metabolic rates were measured using intermittent flow respirometry, whereas the activity assay involved high-resolution telemetry providing positions every 30 s over 12 days. We found no correlation between individual metabolic traits and activity, whereas individual fineness ratio correlated with activity. Independent of body length, and consistent with physics theory, slender fish maintained faster mean and maximal swimming speeds, but this variation did not result in a larger area (in square metres) explored per 24 h. Testing assumptions and predictions of recent conceptual models, our study indicates that individual metabolism is not a strong determinant of animal activity, in contrast to individual morphology, which is

  16. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  17. Animal experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Laz, Alak; Cholakova, Tanya Stefanova; Vrablova, Sofia; Arshad, Naverawaheed

    2016-01-01

    Animal experimentation is a crucial part of medical science. One of the ways to define it is any scientific experiment conducted for research purposes that cause any kind of pain or suffering to animals. Over the years, the new discovered drugs or treatments are first applied on animals to test their positive outcomes to be later used by humans. There is a debate about violating ethical considerations by exploiting animals for human benefits. However, different ethical theories have been made...

  18. Download - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data List Contact us FANTOM... and CAGE TSS aggregation fantom5_new_experimental_details.zip (273 KB) basic (1.3 TB) Simple search and dow...nload 3 (reprocessed)HeliscopeCAGE sequencing, Delve mapping and CAGE TSS aggregation fantom5_rp_exp_details...access [here]. About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Download - FANTOM5 | LSDB Archive ...

  19. Animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...

  20. Animal Deliberation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, C.P.G.

    2014-01-01

    While much has been written on environmental politics on the one hand, and animal ethics and welfare on the other, animal politics, as the interface of the two, is underexamined. There are key political implications in the increase of animal protection laws, the rights of nature, and political

  1. 76 FR 50220 - Availability of Draft ICCVAM Recommendations on Using Fewer Animals to Identify Chemical Eye...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... per test from 6 to 3. The Animal Welfare Act (7 U.S.C. 2131 et seq) and the Public Health Service (PHS....niehs.nih.gov/go/167 . References AWA. 2010. Animal Welfare Act. 7 U.S.C. 2131 et seq. Public Law 89- 544. Available: http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_welfare/downloads/awa/awa.pdf . CPSC. 2010. Hazardous...

  2. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): Facility Interests Dataset - Intranet Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This downloadable data package consists of location and facility identification information from EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS) for all sites that are...

  3. USGS National Transportation Dataset (NTD) Downloadable Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Transportation downloadable data from The National Map (TNM) is based on TIGER/Line data provided through U.S. Census Bureau and supplemented with HERE road...

  4. FDIC Institution Directory (ID) -- Insured Insitution Download File

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation — The FDIC's Institution Directory (ID) download file provides a list of all FDIC-insured institutions. The file includes demographic information related to the...

  5. National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) - USGS National Map Downloadable Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) Downloadable Data Collection from The National Map (TNM) is a comprehensive set of digital spatial data that encodes...

  6. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): Facility Interests Dataset Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This downloadable data package consists of location and facility identification information from EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS) for all sites that are...

  7. US EPA Nonattainment Areas and Designations - Download Package

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This downloadable data package contains the following state level layers: Ozone 8-hr (1997 standard), Ozone 8-hr (2008 standard), Lead (2008 standard), SO2 1-hr...

  8. DownloadAccess to Information Request form

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    PC Forms Inc. 834-4048

    To apply for information under the Access to. Information Act, complete this form or a written request mentioning the Act. Describe the information being sought and provide any relevant details necessary to help the International. Development Research Centre (IDRC) find it. If you require assistance, refer to Info Source.

  9. Resíduos de anabolizantes na produção animal: importância e métodos de detecção Anabolic residues in livestock prodution: relevancy and detection methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keila Maria Roncato Duarte

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o desenvolvimento da indústria farmacêutica e o conseqüente surgimento de novas substâncias promotoras do crescimento animal, o setor agropecuário necessita de tecnologias cada vez mais eficientes e sensíveis para detectar possíveis resíduos deixados por este vasto número de substâncias anabolizantes, principalmente esteróides com atividades estrogênicas, androgênicas e progestogênicas. Tais substâncias, quando presentes na carne, gordura, ovos, entre outros, podem ser detectadas e quantificadas por uma série de métodos, dentre os quais, descrevemos os cromatográficos, baseados principalmente em cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massa (CG-EM, cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE, cromatografia em camada delgada de alta eficiência (CCDAE e os métodos imunológicos, como radioomunoensaio (RIA e ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA. Estes métodos têm como vantagens o elevado número de amostras que podem ser analisadas por período de tempo, aliadas à alta sensibilidade na detecção de resíduos.With the development of the pharmaceutical industry, and consequently appearance of new substances which promote animal growth, the agricultural sector needs technologies more and more efficient and sensitive to detect possible residues left by this vast number of anabolic substances, mainly steroids with estrogenic, androgenic and progesterogenics activities. Such substances, when present in meat, fat, and eggs among others, can be detected and quantified by a series of methods, among the ones which we described the chromatographic methods, based mainly on gaseous chromatography coupled to the mass espectrometry (CG-MS, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, thin layer chromatography (HPTLC and the immunological methods, as radioimmunoassay (RIA and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. These methods have as advantages the high number of samples that can be analyzed by period of time, toghether

  10. The Freedoms and Capabilities of Farm Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabaret, Jacques; Chylinski, Caroline; Vaarst, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Organic farming promotes animal husbandry practices that consider the welfare of the animals on the farm. The concept of animal welfare and the standards that should encompass this concept have in many cases been largely generalised in practice, which leaves relevant aspects of animal freedom...

  11. Why relevance theory is relevant for lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothma, Theo; Tarp, Sven

    2014-01-01

    This article starts by providing a brief summary of relevance theory in information science in relation to the function theory of lexicography, explaining the different types of relevance, viz. objective system relevance and the subjective types of relevance, i.e. topical, cognitive, situational...... that is very important for lexicography as well as for information science, viz. functional relevance. Since all lexicographic work is ultimately aimed at satisfying users’ information needs, the article then discusses why the lexicographer should take note of all these types of relevance when planning a new...... dictionary project, identifying new tasks and responsibilities of the modern lexicographer. The article furthermore discusses how relevance theory impacts on teaching dictionary culture and reference skills. By integrating insights from lexicography and information science, the article contributes to new...

  12. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... More in Antimicrobial Resistance National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System ... If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading ...

  13. Animated Asphalt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Camilla Skovbjerg

    2015-01-01

    to be understood? How does animation differ in different media? And in particular by focusing on and questioning the gender positions inherent in Mitchell’s theory. Animation has an erotic component of seduction and desire, and what pictures want, becomes for Mitchell, what women want. There is of course no simple...

  14. Animal magic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Writing a popular-science book about animal biophysics is hard work. Authors must read through hundreds of research papers as the subject is so multidisciplinary. On both counts of research and writing, Matin Durrani and Liz Kalaugher have done a good to excellent job with their book Furry Logic: the Physics of Animal Life

  15. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...

  16. ANIMAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemuth, I.R.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables

  17. Animal Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly

    2015-01-01

    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  18. Animation & Neurocinematics*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpe Pérez, Inmaculada Concepción

    2015-01-01

    , indeed, can be considered a social/ emotional learning media, which goes beyond the limitations of live action movies. This is due to the diversity of techniques, and its visual plasticity that constructs the impossible. Animators are not real actors but more like the midwife who brings the anima...... into aliveness, which requires knowing how emotions work. Ed Hooks as an expert in training animators and actors, always remarks: “emotions tend to lead to action”. In this paper we want to argue that by producing animated films, as we watch them, cause a stronger effect, not only in our brains, but also in our...... bodies. By using animation as a learning tool we can explore the world of emotions and question beliefs, feelings and actions in order to express our voices and enhance our communication, and well-being, both, internally and with others. Animation can be the visual expression of the emotions in movement...

  19. Animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation.

  20. Animal Transports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ludrovcová

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The research is aimed to the animal transports issue, from two points of view – first is the animal cruelty and second is the policy and economic consideration. The goal is to acquaint the readers with the transports risks and its cruelty and evaluation of the economic, political aspects for he involved countries. The study is oriented on more points of view, what is rare in works with a similar theme. Method: This paper examines many issues and examinations from different authors and subsequently summarized the findings with authors own knowledge to one expanded unit. Results: Results proves, that livestock transports have negative impact on animal´s health, environment. Number of transported animals is rising every year. Society: Research familiarize the society with the animal transports, cruelty against animals during them, and influence of transports on some countries, their economy, policy. People get better informed and can form their own opinion on this topic. They may start acting, undertaking some steps to improve the present situation, what could help a lot to animals and environment. Limitations / further research: Future research could show progress and improvement of transports, quality of food supply and economics.

  1. Nigerian Journal of Animal Production - Vol 19, No 1 (1992)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Animal Production. ... Application of a real-time linear array ultrasound system to the evaluation of live cattle · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Prediction of carcass lean content in live pigs using scanoprobe ultrasonic machine · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  2. Mastitis en kuddebestuur | Smith | South African Journal of Animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5, No 2 (1975) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Mastitis en kuddebestuur. A Smith, H.G.J. Coetzee ...

  3. Deep learning relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Petersen, Casper

    2016-01-01

    train a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) on existing relevant information to that query. We then use the RNN to "deep learn" a single, synthetic, and we assume, relevant document for that query. We design a crowdsourcing experiment to assess how relevant the "deep learned" document is, compared...... to existing relevant documents. Users are shown a query and four wordclouds (of three existing relevant documents and our deep learned synthetic document). The synthetic document is ranked on average most relevant of all....

  4. Animal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillette, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    There are few trained veterinary radiation oncologists and the expense of facilities has limited the extent to which this modality is used. In recent years, a few cobalt teletherapy units and megavoltage x-ray units have been employed in larger veterinary institutions. In addition, some radiation oncologists of human medical institutions are interested and willing to cooperate with veterinarians in the treatment of animal tumors. Carefully designed studies of the response of animal tumors to new modalities serve two valuable purposes. First, these studies may lead to improved tumor control in companion animals. Second, these studies may have important implications to the improvement of therapy of human tumors. Much remains to be learned of animal tumor biology so that appropriate model systems can be described for such studies. Many of the latter studies can be sponsored by agencies interested in the improvement of cancer management

  5. Mentalizing animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Ethicists have tended to treat the psychology of attributing mental states to animals as an entirely separate issue from the moral importance of animals’ mental states. In this paper I bring these two issues together. I argue for two theses, one descriptive and one normative. The descriptive thesis...... holds that ordinary human agents use what are generally called phenomenal mental states (e.g., pain and other emotions) to assign moral considerability to animals. I examine recent empirical research on the attribution of phenomenal states and agential states (e.g., memory and intelligence) to argue...... that phenomenal mental states are the primary factor, psychologically, for judging an animal to be morally considerable. I further argue that, given the role of phenomenal states in assigning moral considerability, certain theories in animal ethics will meet significant psychological resistance. The normative...

  6. Animal Research International

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the use of pentazocine in combination with diazepam and ketamine for surgical anaesthesia in rabbits · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Rita Ijeoma Udegbunam, Sunday Ositadimma Udegbunam, Austine Chukwudum Onuba, Nnenna Ebere Ugwu ...

  7. Commodifying animals: ethical issues in genetic engineering of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, B

    2000-03-01

    The genetic modification of living beings raises special ethical concerns which go beyond general discussion of animal rights or welfare. Although the goals may be similar, biotechnology has accelerated the process of modification of types traditionally carried out by cross-breeding. These changes are discussed in relation to two areas: biomedicine, and animal husbandry. Alternative ethical approaches are reviewed, and it is argued that the teleological thesis underlying virtue ethics has special relevance here. The case for and the case against genetic engineering and patenting of life-forms are examined, and conclusions are drawn which favour regulation, caution and respect for animals and animal species.

  8. Animated Reconstruction of Forensic Animation

    OpenAIRE

    Hala, Albert; Unver, Ertu

    1998-01-01

    An animated accident display in court can be significant evidentiary tool. Computer graphics animation reconstructions which can be shown in court are cost effective, save valuable time and illustrate complex and technical issues, are realistic and can prove or disprove arguments or theories with reference to the perplexing newtonian physics involved in many accidents: this technology may well revolutionise accident reconstruction, thus enabling prosecution and defence to be more effective in...

  9. Animal toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amdur, M.

    1996-12-31

    The chapter evaluates results of toxicological studies on experimental animals to investigate health effects of air pollutants and examines the animal data have predicted the response to human subject. Data are presented on the comparative toxicity of sulfur dioxide and sulfuric acid. The animal data obtained by measurement of airway resistance in guinea pigs and of bronchial clearance of particles in donkeys predicted clearly that sulfuric acid was more irritant than sulfur dioxide. Data obtained on human subjects confirmed this prediction. These acute studies also correctly predicted the comparative toxicity of the two compounds in two year studies of monkeys. Such chronic studies are not possible in human subjects but it is a reasonable to assume that sulfuric acid would be more toxic than sulfur dioxide. Current findings in epidemiological studies certainly support this assumption.

  10. Evolutionary relevance facilitates visual information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Russell E; Calvillo, Dusti P

    2013-11-03

    Visual search of the environment is a fundamental human behavior that perceptual load affects powerfully. Previously investigated means for overcoming the inhibitions of high perceptual load, however, generalize poorly to real-world human behavior. We hypothesized that humans would process evolutionarily relevant stimuli more efficiently than evolutionarily novel stimuli, and evolutionary relevance would mitigate the repercussions of high perceptual load during visual search. Animacy is a significant component to evolutionary relevance of visual stimuli because perceiving animate entities is time-sensitive in ways that pose significant evolutionary consequences. Participants completing a visual search task located evolutionarily relevant and animate objects fastest and with the least impact of high perceptual load. Evolutionarily novel and inanimate objects were located slowest and with the highest impact of perceptual load. Evolutionary relevance may importantly affect everyday visual information processing.

  11. Evolutionary Relevance Facilitates Visual Information Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell E. Jackson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Visual search of the environment is a fundamental human behavior that perceptual load affects powerfully. Previously investigated means for overcoming the inhibitions of high perceptual load, however, generalize poorly to real-world human behavior. We hypothesized that humans would process evolutionarily relevant stimuli more efficiently than evolutionarily novel stimuli, and evolutionary relevance would mitigate the repercussions of high perceptual load during visual search. Animacy is a significant component to evolutionary relevance of visual stimuli because perceiving animate entities is time-sensitive in ways that pose significant evolutionary consequences. Participants completing a visual search task located evolutionarily relevant and animate objects fastest and with the least impact of high perceptual load. Evolutionarily novel and inanimate objects were located slowest and with the highest impact of perceptual load. Evolutionary relevance may importantly affect everyday visual information processing.

  12. Animal evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus

    This book provides a comprehensive analysis of evolution in the animal kingdom. It reviews the classical, morphological information from structure and embryology, as well as the new data gained from studies using immune stainings of nerves and muscles and blastomere markings, which makes it possi......This book provides a comprehensive analysis of evolution in the animal kingdom. It reviews the classical, morphological information from structure and embryology, as well as the new data gained from studies using immune stainings of nerves and muscles and blastomere markings, which makes...

  13. NCBI Mass Sequence Downloader–Large dataset downloading made easy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Pina-Martins

    2016-01-01

    Source code is licensed under the GPLv3, and is supported on Linux, Windows and Mac OSX. Available at https://github.com/ElsevierSoftwareX/SOFTX-D-15-00072.git, https://github.com/StuntsPT/NCBI_Mass_Downloader

  14. Animal Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanCleave, Janice

    2001-01-01

    Presents a set of hands-on, outdoor science experiments designed to teach elementary school students about animal adaptation. The experiments focus on: how color camouflage affects an insect population; how spiderlings find a home; and how chameleons camouflage themselves by changing color. (SM)

  15. Animal radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This chapter presents historical x rays of a wide variety of animals taken within 5 years of the discovery of x radiation. Such photos were used as tests or as illustrations for radiographic publications. Numerous historical photographs are included. 10 refs

  16. Animal impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbert V. DeByle

    1985-01-01

    The aspen ecosystem is rich in number and species of animals, especially in comparison to associated coniferous forest types. This natural species diversity and richness has been both increased and influenced by the introduction of domestic livestock. The high value of the aspen type as a forage resource for livestock and as forage and cover for wildlife makes the...

  17. Animated symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2008-01-01

    an analytic working model called Animated Symbols concerning critical reflection in a dialogic learning process. The model shows dialogue as interactions that involve two types of transformation: inner ‘learning processes' and outer signs and symbols. The classroom-based research study is part of a Ph...

  18. Content Downloading with the Assistance of Roadside Cars for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haigang Gong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plenty of multimedia contents such as traffic images, music, and movies pose great challenges for content downloading due to the high mobility of vehicles and intermittent connectivity for vehicular ad hoc networks. Roadside units or APs can improve the efficiency of content downloading but with the cost of large investments. In this paper, an efficient content downloading scheme is proposed with the assistance of parking clusters, which are formed by roadside parked cars. After receiving the downloading request, the parking clusters, which the downloader will travel through according to the estimated trajectory, will make a download scheduling for the downloader. Then the downloader acquires the content chunks while it drives through the parking clusters. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme achieves better performance than intervehicle approach and RSU based approach.

  19. Download - fRNAdb | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Download - fRNAdb | LSDB Archive ...

  20. Download - Open TG-GATEs | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Download - Open TG-GATEs | LSDB Archive ...

  1. Download - GenLibi | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...access [here]. About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Download - GenLibi | LSDB Archive ...

  2. Download - eSOL | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Download - eSOL | LSDB Archive ...

  3. Download - TogoTV | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ... Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Download - TogoTV | LSDB Archive ...

  4. Biotecnologia animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candidatos e sequenciamento de DNA e mRNA - e cada uma tem suas vantagens e limitações. O mapeamento de QTL permite determinar as regiões genômicas que contêm genes, mas o intervalo de confiança do QTL pode ser grande e conter muitos genes. A estratégia de genes candidatos é limitada por causa do conhecimento ainda restrito das funções de todos os genes. Os sequenciamentos de genomas e de sequências expressas podem auxiliar na identificação da posição de genes e de vias metabólicas associadas à característica de interesse. A integração dessas estratégias por meio do desenvolvimento de programas de bioinformática permitirá a identificação de novos genes de interesse zootécnico. Assim, os programas de melhoramento genético se beneficiarão pela inclusão da informação obtida diretamente do DNA na avaliação do mérito genético dos plantéis disponíveis.Animal biotechnology is providing new tools for animal breeding and genetics and thus contributing to advances in production efficiency and quality of animal products. However, the progress is slower than anticipated, mainly because of the difficulty involved in identifying genes that control phenotypic characteristics of importance to the animal industry. Three main strategies: QTL mapping, candidate genes and DNA and mRNA sequencing have been used to identify genes of economic interest to animal breeding and each has advantages and disadvantages. QTL mapping allows

  5. The portal hypertension syndrome: etiology, classification, relevance, and animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Jaime; Iwakiri, Yasuko

    2018-02-01

    Portal hypertension is a key complication of portal hypertension, which is responsible for the development of varices, ascites, bleeding, and hepatic encephalopathy, which, in turn, cause a high mortality and requirement for liver transplantation. This review deals with the present day state-of-the-art preventative treatments of portal hypertension in cirrhosis according to disease stage. Two main disease stages are considered, compensated and decompensated cirrhosis, the first having good prognosis and being mostly asymptomatic, and the second being heralded by the appearance of bleeding or non-bleeding complications of portal hypertension. The aim of treatment in compensated cirrhosis is preventing clinical decompensation, the more frequent event being ascites, followed by variceal bleeding and hepatic encephalopathy. Complications are mainly driven by an increase of hepatic vein pressure gradient (HVPG) to values ≥10 mmHg (defining the presence of Clinically Significant Portal Hypertension, CSPH). Before CSPH, the treatment is limited to etiologic treatment of cirrhosis and healthy life style (abstain from alcohol, avoid/correct obesity…). When CSPH is present, association of a non-selective beta-blocker (NSBB), including carvedilol should be considered. NSBBs are mandatory if moderate/large varices are present. Patients should also enter a screening program for hepatocellular carcinoma. In decompensated patients, the goal is to prevent further bleeding if the only manifestation of decompensation was a bleeding episode, but to prevent liver transplantation and death in the common scenario where patients have manifested first non-bleeding complications. Treatment is based on the same principles (healthy life style..) associated with administration of NSBBs in combination if possible with endoscopic band ligation if there has been variceal bleeding, and complemented with simvastatin administration (20-40 mg per day in Child-Pugh A/B, 10-20 mg in Child C). Recurrence shall be treated with TIPS. TIPS might be indicated earlier in patients with: 1) Difficult/refractory ascites, who are not the best candidates for NSBBs, 2) patients having bleed under NSBBs or showing no HVPG response (decrease in HVPG of at least 20% of baseline or to values equal or below 12 mmHg). Decompensated patients shall all be considered as potential candidates for liver transplantation. Treatment of portal hypertension has markedly improved in recent years. The present day therapy is based on accurate risk stratification according to disease stage.

  6. Neurophysiological findings relevant to echolocation in marine animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, T. H.; Ridgway, S. H.

    1972-01-01

    A review of echolocation mechanisms in marine mammals, chiefly porpoises, is given. Data cover peripheral auditory and central neurophysiological specializations favorable to the analysis of echolocating clicks and their echoes. Conclusions show (1) signals are received from 50 up to at least 135 kHz, (2) sound is received through the mandible skin, and (3) the midbrain sites are insensitive to low frequencies (below 6 kHz).

  7. Strategies for positioning animal welfare as personally relevant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemsdijk, van Lenka; Ingenbleek, Paul T.M.; Houthuijs, Marleen; Trijp, van Hans C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Next to organic food products, an assortment of ethical products is emerging in the supermarket that targets the large market segment of consumers that are open for ethical product choices but do not restrict themselves to them. The purpose of this paper is to examine the positioning

  8. Animal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, T.E.; Angerman, J.M.; Keenan, W.G.; Linsley, J.G.; Poole, C.M.; Sallese, A.; Simkins, R.C.; Tolle, D.

    1981-01-01

    The animal facilities in the Division are described. They consist of kennels, animal rooms, service areas, and technical areas (examining rooms, operating rooms, pathology labs, x-ray rooms, and 60 Co exposure facilities). The computer support facility is also described. The advent of the Conversational Monitor System at Argonne has launched a new effort to set up conversational computing and graphics software for users. The existing LS-11 data acquisition systems have been further enhanced and expanded. The divisional radiation facilities include a number of gamma, neutron, and x-ray radiation sources with accompanying areas for related equipment. There are five 60 Co irradiation facilities; a research reactor, Janus, is a source for fission-spectrum neutrons; two other neutron sources in the Chicago area are also available to the staff for cell biology studies. The electron microscope facilities are also described

  9. Animal Locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Graham K; Tropea, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a wide-ranging snapshot of the state-of-the-art in experimental research on the physics of swimming and flying animals. The resulting picture reflects not only upon the questions that are of interest in current pure and applied research, but also upon the experimental techniques that are available to answer them. Doubtless, many new questions will present themselves as the scope and performance of our experimental toolbox develops over the coming years.

  10. Download - PGDBj - Ortholog DB | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Download - PGDBj - Ortholog DB | LSDB Archive ... ...List Contact us PGDBj - Ortholog DB Download First of all, please read the license of this database. Data na...switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data

  11. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

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    Full Text Available ... 23/2018 Note: If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading ... Flickr FDA Archive Combination Products Advisory Committees Regulatory Information Safety Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training & ...

  12. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ...

  13. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ...

  14. Animated war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    in production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses...... DIY multimedia storytellers explore new ways to tell and to ‘animate’ stories. The article contains four parts: introduction to machinima and the notions of resemiosis and authorial practice, presentation of DIY filmmaking as a practice that intertwines with new networked economics, analysis...

  15. Download - KAIKOcDNA | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rch and download 1 README README_e.html - 2 EST Table kaiko_cdna_main.zip (157 MB...) Simple search and download 3 Cluster Table kaiko_cdna_cluster.zip (453 KB) Simple search and download 4 ORF Table kaiko_cdna..._orf.zip (11 MB) Simple search and download 5 InterProScan Result kaiko_cdna_interpro.zip ...(3.1 MB) Simple search and download 6 cDNA library Table kaiko_cdna_library.zip (

  16. ``The Legal Bit's in Russian'': Making Sense of Downloaded Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibby, Marjorie D.

    Peer-to-peer sharing of music files grew in the face of consumer dissatisfaction with the compact disc and the absence of any real alternative. Many users were more or less “forced” to turn to illegal file sharing to access single tracks, back catalogues, and niche genres. Recently the almost simultaneous arrival of broadband internet and the iPod has seen music downloading become a respectable activity and a multi-billion dollar industry.

  17. Animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ellen A

    2010-01-01

    As clinical studies reveal that chemotherapeutic agents may impair several different cognitive domains in humans, the development of preclinical animal models is critical to assess the degree of chemotherapy-induced learning and memory deficits and to understand the underlying neural mechanisms. In this chapter, the effects of various cancer chemotherapeutic agents in rodents on sensory processing, conditioned taste aversion, conditioned emotional response, passive avoidance, spatial learning, cued memory, discrimination learning, delayed-matching-to-sample, novel-object recognition, electrophysiological recordings and autoshaping is reviewed. It appears at first glance that the effects of the cancer chemotherapy agents in these many different models are inconsistent. However, a literature is emerging that reveals subtle or unique changes in sensory processing, acquisition, consolidation and retrieval that are dose- and time-dependent. As more studies examine cancer chemotherapeutic agents alone and in combination during repeated treatment regimens, the animal models will become more predictive tools for the assessment of these impairments and the underlying neural mechanisms. The eventual goal is to collect enough data to enable physicians to make informed choices about therapeutic regimens for their patients and discover new avenues of alternative or complementary therapies that reduce or eliminate chemotherapy-induced cognitive deficits.

  18. Farm animal proteomics - A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Emøke; Danielsen, Marianne; Hollung, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    In agricultural sciences as in all other areas of life science, the implementation of proteomics and other post-genomic tools is an important step towards more detailed understanding of the complex biological systems that control physiology and pathology of living beings. Farm animals are raised...... and cattle are relevant not only for farm animal sciences, but also for adding to our understanding of complex biological mechanisms of health and disease in humans. The aim of this review is to present an overview of the specific topics of interest within farm animal proteomics, and to highlight some...... of the areas where synergy between classic model organism proteomics and farm animal proteomics is rapidly emerging. Focus will be on introducing the special biological traits that play an important role in food production, and on how proteomics may help optimize farm animal production...

  19. Making Deferred Taxes Relevant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Arjan; Naarding, Ewout

    2018-01-01

    We analyse the conceptual problems in current accounting for deferred taxes and provide solutions derived from the literature in order to make International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) deferred tax numbers value-relevant. In our view, the empirical results concerning the value relevance of

  20. Parsimonious relevance models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, E.; Weerkamp, W.; Balog, K.; de Rijke, M.; Myang, S.-H.; Oard, D.W.; Sebastiani, F.; Chua, T.-S.; Leong, M.-K.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a method for applying parsimonious language models to re-estimate the term probabilities assigned by relevance models. We apply our method to six topic sets from test collections in five different genres. Our parsimonious relevance models (i) improve retrieval effectiveness in terms of

  1. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  2. Animal welfare: an animal science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

    2013-12-01

    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The most downloaded and most cited articles in radiology journals: a comparative bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Sora; Yoon, Dae Young; Lim, Kyoung Ja; Cho, Young Kwon; Seo, Young Lan; Yun, Eun Joo

    2018-05-07

    To evaluate and compare the characteristics of the most downloaded and most cited articles in radiology journals. We selected 41 radiology journals that provided lists of both the most downloaded and most cited articles on their websites, and identified the 596 most downloaded articles and 596 most cited articles. We compared the following characteristics of the most downloaded and most cited articles: year of publication, journal title, department of the first author, country of origin, publication type, radiologic subspecialty, radiologic technique and accessibility. Compared to the most cited articles, the most downloaded articles were more frequently review articles (36.1% vs 17.1%, p articles, the most downloaded articles more frequently originated from the UK (8.7% vs 5.0%, p articles (46.0% vs 39.4%, p articles are more frequent among the most downloaded articles. • There was only small overlap between the most downloaded and most cited articles. • Educational articles were more frequent among the most downloaded articles. • Free-access articles are more frequent among the most downloaded articles.

  4. Culturally Relevant Cyberbullying Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Gregory John

    2017-01-01

    In this action research study, I, along with a student intervention committee of 14 members, developed a cyberbullying intervention for a large urban high school on the west coast. This high school contained a predominantly African American student population. I aimed to discover culturally relevant cyberbullying prevention strategies for African American students. The intervention committee selected video safety messages featuring African American actors as the most culturally relevant cyber...

  5. Best iPad Apps The Guide for Discriminating Downloaders

    CERN Document Server

    Meyers, Peter

    2010-01-01

    What really wows iPad fans is when their touchscreen does what's impossible on other gadgets: the finger-painting app that turns a cross-country flight into a moving art class, the mini music studio (two-dozen instruments strong, each with motion-induced warble effects), and the portable fireworks display that you sculpt by swiping. Problem is, with tens of thousands of apps available for your iPad, who knows what to download? You can try to sort through a gazillion customer reviews with a mix of 5- and 1-star ratings, but that's a head-hurting time-waster. The stakes are getting higher, too

  6. Mitigating Drive-By Download Attacks: Challenges and Open Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egele, Manuel; Kirda, Engin; Kruegel, Christopher

    Malicious web sites perform drive-by download attacks to infect their visitors with malware. Current protection approaches rely on black- or white-listing techniques that are difficult to keep up-to-date. As todays drive-by attacks already employ encryption to evade network level detection we propose a series of techniques that can be implemented in web browsers to protect the user from such threats. In addition, we discuss challenges and open problems that these mechanisms face in order to be effective and efficient.

  7. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... video) Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (text version) Arabic Translation of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Chinese Translation of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance French Translation of ...

  8. The wild animal as a research animal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, JAA

    2004-01-01

    Most discussions on animal experimentation refer to domesticated animals and regulations are tailored to this class of animals. However, wild animals are also used for research, e. g., in biological field research that is often directed to fundamental ecological-evolutionary questions or to

  9. Recommendations to Improve Downloads of Large Earth Observation Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Ramachandran

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With the volume of Earth observation data expanding rapidly, cloud computing is quickly changing the way these data are processed, analyzed, and visualized. Collocating freely available Earth observation data on a cloud computing infrastructure may create opportunities unforeseen by the original data provider for innovation and value-added data re-use, but existing systems at data centers are not designed for supporting requests for large data transfers. A lack of common methodology necessitates that each data center handle such requests from different cloud vendors differently. Guidelines are needed to support enabling all cloud vendors to utilize a common methodology for bulk-downloading data from data centers, thus preventing the providers from building custom capabilities to meet the needs of individual vendors. This paper presents recommendations distilled from use cases provided by three cloud vendors (Amazon, Google, and Microsoft and are based on the vendors’ interactions with data systems at different Federal agencies and organizations. These specific recommendations range from obvious steps for improving data usability (such as ensuring the use of standard data formats and commonly supported projections to non-obvious undertakings important for enabling bulk data downloads at scale. These recommendations can be used to evaluate and improve existing data systems for high-volume data transfers, and their adoption can lead to cloud vendors utilizing a common methodology.

  10. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health ... Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  11. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & ... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  12. Learning Anime Studio

    CERN Document Server

    Troftgruben, Chad

    2014-01-01

    Anime Studio is your complete animation program to help you create 2D movies, cartoons, anime, and cut out animations. You can create your own animated shorts and use Anime Studio to produce cartoon animations for film, video, or streaming over the Web, which can be enjoyed on YouTube, Vimeo, and other popular sites. Anime Studio is great for hobbyists and professionals alike, combining tools for both illustration and animation. With Anime Studio's easy-to-use interface, you will be creating an animated masterpiece in no time. This practical, step-by-step guide will provide you with a structur

  13. The Limits to Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averill, M.; Briggle, A.

    2006-12-01

    Science policy and knowledge production lately have taken a pragmatic turn. Funding agencies increasingly are requiring scientists to explain the relevance of their work to society. This stems in part from mounting critiques of the "linear model" of knowledge production in which scientists operating according to their own interests or disciplinary standards are presumed to automatically produce knowledge that is of relevance outside of their narrow communities. Many contend that funded scientific research should be linked more directly to societal goals, which implies a shift in the kind of research that will be funded. While both authors support the concept of useful science, we question the exact meaning of "relevance" and the wisdom of allowing it to control research agendas. We hope to contribute to the conversation by thinking more critically about the meaning and limits of the term "relevance" and the trade-offs implicit in a narrow utilitarian approach. The paper will consider which interests tend to be privileged by an emphasis on relevance and address issues such as whose goals ought to be pursued and why, and who gets to decide. We will consider how relevance, narrowly construed, may actually limit the ultimate utility of scientific research. The paper also will reflect on the worthiness of research goals themselves and their relationship to a broader view of what it means to be human and to live in society. Just as there is more to being human than the pragmatic demands of daily life, there is more at issue with knowledge production than finding the most efficient ways to satisfy consumer preferences or fix near-term policy problems. We will conclude by calling for a balanced approach to funding research that addresses society's most pressing needs but also supports innovative research with less immediately apparent application.

  14. Relevant Subspace Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Emmanuel; Assent, Ira; Günnemann, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    Subspace clustering aims at detecting clusters in any subspace projection of a high dimensional space. As the number of possible subspace projections is exponential in the number of dimensions, the result is often tremendously large. Recent approaches fail to reduce results to relevant subspace...... clusters. Their results are typically highly redundant, i.e. many clusters are detected multiple times in several projections. In this work, we propose a novel model for relevant subspace clustering (RESCU). We present a global optimization which detects the most interesting non-redundant subspace clusters...... achieves top clustering quality while competing approaches show greatly varying performance....

  15. New technologies and animal improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    The simplification of genetic selection to the pragmatic choice of an appropriate base population, together with the adoption of such techniques as multiple ovulation and embryo transfer to accelerate the rate of response within the chosen population, would increase the contribution of genetic methods to the improvement of the performance of domestic animals. This is particularly relevant to developing countries where limited funds may constrain the opportunities for husbandry improvement, where it is important to select animals under the local conditions and where the infrastructure might limit the use of extensive programmes such as those based on progeny testing. (author). 5 refs, 1 tab

  16. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... formats, see Instructions for Downloading Viewers and Players . Language Assistance Available: Español | 繁體ä¸æ–‡ | Tiếng Việt | ... Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New ...

  17. Is Information Still Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The term "information" in information science does not share the characteristics of those of a nomenclature: it does not bear a generally accepted definition and it does not serve as the bases and assumptions for research studies. As the data deluge has arrived, is the concept of information still relevant for information…

  18. Clinical Relevance of Adipokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Blüher

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of obesity has increased dramatically during recent decades. Obesity increases the risk for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and may therefore contribute to premature death. With increasing fat mass, secretion of adipose tissue derived bioactive molecules (adipokines changes towards a pro-inflammatory, diabetogenic and atherogenic pattern. Adipokines are involved in the regulation of appetite and satiety, energy expenditure, activity, endothelial function, hemostasis, blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, energy metabolism in insulin sensitive tissues, adipogenesis, fat distribution and insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. Therefore, adipokines are clinically relevant as biomarkers for fat distribution, adipose tissue function, liver fat content, insulin sensitivity, chronic inflammation and have the potential for future pharmacological treatment strategies for obesity and its related diseases. This review focuses on the clinical relevance of selected adipokines as markers or predictors of obesity related diseases and as potential therapeutic tools or targets in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.

  19. Information Needs/Relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Wildemuth, Barbara M.

    2009-01-01

    A user's interaction with a DL is often initiated as the result of the user experiencing an information need of some kind. Aspects of that experience and how it might affect the user's interactions with the DL are discussed in this module. In addition, users continuously make decisions about and evaluations of the materials retrieved from a DL, relative to their information needs. Relevance judgments, and their relationship to the user's information needs, are discussed in this module. Draft

  20. Animal Models in Burn Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullahi, A.; Amini-Nik, S.; Jeschke, M.G

    2014-01-01

    Burn injury is a severe form of trauma affecting more than two million people in North America each year. Burn trauma is not a single pathophysiological event but a devastating injury that causes structural and functional deficits in numerous organ systems. Due to its complexity and the involvement of multiple organs, in vitro experiments cannot capture this complexity nor address the pathophysiology. In the past two decades, a number of burn animal models have been developed to replicate the various aspects of burn injury; to elucidate the pathophysiology and explore potential treatment interventions. Understanding the advantages and limitations of these animal models is essential for the design and development of treatments that are clinically relevant to humans. This review paper aims to highlight the common animal models of burn injury in order to provide investigators with a better understanding of the benefits and limitations of these models for translational applications. While many animal models of burn exist, we limit our discussion to the skin healing of mouse, rat, and pig. Additionally, we briefly explain hypermetabolic characteristics of burn injury and the animal model utilized to study this phenomena. Finally, we discuss the economic costs associated with each of these models in order to guide decisions of choosing the appropriate animal model for burn research. PMID:24714880

  1. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, H

    2013-10-01

    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals.

  2. Public Attitudes toward Animal Research: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth H. Ormandy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The exploration of public attitudes toward animal research is important given recent developments in animal research (e.g., increasing creation and use of genetically modified animals, and plans for progress in areas such as personalized medicine, and the shifting relationship between science and society (i.e., a move toward the democratization of science. As such, public engagement on issues related to animal research, including exploration of public attitudes, provides a means of achieving socially acceptable scientific practice and oversight through an understanding of societal values and concerns. Numerous studies have been conducted to explore public attitudes toward animal use, and more specifically the use of animals in research. This paper reviews relevant literature using three categories of influential factors: personal and cultural characteristics, animal characteristics, and research characteristics. A critique is given of survey style methods used to collect data on public attitudes, and recommendations are given on how best to address current gaps in public attitudes literature.

  3. The creation and dissemination of downloadable information on dementia and driving from a social health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Yumiko; Arai, Asuna; Mizuno, Yoko; Kamimura, Naoto; Ikeda, Manabu

    2017-07-01

    Driving cessation is a likely consequence of progressive dementia. Patients and families can benefit from support through this transition, both to safeguard the patient and public and to help preserve healthy social activity of the patient. To provide appropriate supportive information, we developed a 35-page manual ('Supporting family caregivers of older drivers with dementia') available as a free download from our department website. We then informed municipal governments of its availability, tracked website access metrics, and followed up 7 months later with a postal survey to the heads of each municipal government's department of welfare for older citizens. From February to September 2010, the manual was accessed 33 494 times. Of the 1750 municipalities sent surveys, we received 1067 responses (61%). The responses showed that 943 professionals (94.6%) were able to obtain information they needed from the manual, 247 (23%) had used the manual to help residents during the 7 months, and 89% of those who used the manual used it to provide relevant advice to family caregivers. The responses also showed that significantly more use occurred in towns and villages as opposed to cities, consistent with the limited public transportation options in smaller municipalities (P = 0.002). We anticipate that use of this manual will raise general awareness of this social health issue and facilitate collaborations to provide more social support for those with dementia and their family members. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  4. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  5. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance More in Antimicrobial ... Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System About NARMS 2015 NARMS Integrated ...

  6. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over ...

  7. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  8. Animal Feeding Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Animal Feeding Operations Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) What are Animal Feeding Operations (AFOs)? According to the United States ...

  9. [Relevant public health enteropathogens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, Maribel; Ochoa, Theresa J

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea remains the third leading cause of death in children under five years, despite recent advances in the management and prevention of this disease. It is caused by multiple pathogens, however, the prevalence of each varies by age group, geographical area and the scenario where cases (community vs hospital) are recorded. The most relevant pathogens in public health are those associated with the highest burden of disease, severity, complications and mortality. In our country, norovirus, Campylobacter and diarrheagenic E. coli are the most prevalent pathogens at the community level in children. In this paper we review the local epidemiology and potential areas of development in five selected pathogens: rotavirus, norovirus, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), Shigella and Salmonella. Of these, rotavirus is the most important in the pediatric population and the main agent responsible for child mortality from diarrhea. The introduction of rotavirus vaccination in Peru will have a significant impact on disease burden and mortality from diarrhea. However, surveillance studies are needed to determine the impact of vaccination and changes in the epidemiology of diarrhea in Peru following the introduction of new vaccines, as well as antibiotic resistance surveillance of clinical relevant bacteria.

  10. Seeing the animal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harfeld, Jes Lynning; Cornou, Cecile; Kornum, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the notion that the invisibility of the animalness of the animal constitutes a fundamental obstacle to change within current production systems. It is discussed whether housing animals in environments that resemble natural habitats could lead to a re-animalization...... of the animals, a higher appreciation of their moral significance, and thereby higher standards of animal welfare. The basic claim is that experiencing the animals in their evolutionary and environmental context would make it harder to objectify animals as mere bioreactors and production systems. It is argued...... that the historic objectification of animals within intensive animal production can only be reversed if animals are given the chance to express themselves as they are and not as we see them through the tunnel visions of economy and quantifiable welfare assessment parameters....

  11. Other relevant biological papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, M.

    1989-01-01

    A considerable number of CRESP-relevant papers concerning deep-sea biology and radioecology have been published. It is the purpose of this study to call attention to them. They fall into three general categories. The first is papers of general interest. They are mentioned only briefly, and include text references to the global bibliography at the end of the volume. The second are papers that are not only mentioned and referenced, but for various reasons are described in abstract form. The last is a list of papers compiled by H.S.J. Roe specifically for this volume. They are listed in bibliographic form, and are also included in the global bibliography at the end of the volume

  12. The globalisation of farm animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, D

    2014-04-01

    Animal welfare has achieved significant global prominence for perhaps three reasons. First, several centuries of scientific research, especially in anatomy, evolutionary biology and animal behaviour, have led to a gradual narrowing of the gap that people perceive between humans and other species; this altered perception has prompted grass-roots attention to animals and their welfare, initially in Western countries but now more globally asthe influence of science has expanded. Second, scientific research on animal welfare has provided insights and methods for improving the handling, housing and management of animals; this 'animal welfare science' is increasingly seen as relevant to improving animal husbandry worldwide. Third, the development and use of explicit animal welfare standards has helped to integrate animal welfare as a component of national and international public policy, commerce and trade. To date, social debate about animal welfare has been dominated bythe industrialised nations. However, as the issue becomes increasingly global, it will be important for the non-industrialised countries to develop locally appropriate approaches to improving animal welfare, for example, by facilitating the provision of shelter, food, water and health care, and by improving basic handling, transportation and slaughter.

  13. Why doctors should care about animal cruelty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherley, Miranda

    2007-01-01

    Animal cruelty is a significant problem for society, and there are good reasons why doctors should be particularly concerned by it. Increasing evidence for links between animal cruelty and child or spousal abuse is an area of growing concern internationally and of real importance to health professionals. This article aims to raise awareness of the relevance of animal cruelty to medical practice. The links between animal cruelty and human health are discussed broadly and some wider ethical issues raised. Animal cruelty impacts on human health in disparate ways: intentional and unintentional acts of cruelty may reflect underlying mental health problems that need to be addressed. Cruelty within the family setting is an important sentinel for domestic violence and should prompt an assessment for possible child abuse. Furthermore, animal cruelty raises important questions about the nature of empathy, and the type of society that we wish to live in.

  14. Animal Production Research Advances

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal Production Research Advances is a peer-review journal established expressly to promote the production of all animal species utilized as food. The journal has an international scope and is intended for professionals in animal production and related sciences. We solicit contributions from animal production and ...

  15. Animal Bites: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Animal bites: First aid Animal bites: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff These guidelines can help you care for a minor animal bite, such ... 26, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-animal-bites/basics/ART-20056591 . Mayo ...

  16. Ian Ingram: Next Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015.......Ian Ingram: Next Animals is an exhibition catalogue presenting research on the work by Ian Ingram in relation to his exhibition Next Animals at Nikolaj Kunsthal in 2015....

  17. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, ... Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of ...

  18. First Aid: Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... last rabies vaccination, if known any recent unusual behavior by the animal the animal's location, if known if the animal ... Scratches First Aid: Cuts First Aid: Skin Infections Cat Scratch ... Safe Around Animals Cuts, Scratches, and Abrasions Rabies Cuts, Scratches, and ...

  19. Physics for Animation Artists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    2011-01-01

    Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing…

  20. Inferring relevance in a changing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Wilson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement learning models of human and animal learning usually concentrate on how we learn the relationship between different stimuli or actions and rewards. However, in real world situations stimuli are ill-defined. On the one hand, our immediate environment is extremely multi-dimensional. On the other hand, in every decision-making scenario only a few aspects of the environment are relevant for obtaining reward, while most are irrelevant. Thus a key question is how do we learn these relevant dimensions, that is, how do we learn what to learn about? We investigated this process of representation learning experimentally, using a task in which one stimulus dimension was relevant for determining reward at each point in time. As in real life situations, in our task the relevant dimension can change without warning, adding ever-present uncertainty engendered by a constantly changing environment. We show that human performance on this task is better described by a suboptimal strategy based on selective attention and serial hypothesis testing rather than a normative strategy based on probabilistic inference. From this, we conjecture that the problem of inferring relevance in general scenarios is too computationally demanding for the brain to solve optimally. As a result the brain utilizes approximations, employing these even in simplified scenarios in which optimal representation learning is tractable, such as the one in our experiment.

  1. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade. PMID:21566799

  2. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine a...

  3. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000: 220-235

  4. Animal experiments in radiotherapy. II. Large animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Probert, J C; Hughes, D B

    1975-03-01

    A review has been made of factors of importance when using large animals for organ or partial body irradiation research. The problem has been considered from the viewpoint of the clinician. The rabbit, cat, dog, pig and monkey have been examined in detail for suitability as laboratory animals. Dosimetric and volume features have been reviewed.

  5. User perspectives on relevance criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maglaughlin, Kelly L.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2002-01-01

    , partially relevant, or not relevant to their information need; and explained their decisions in an interview. Analysis revealed 29 criteria, discussed positively and negatively, that were used by the participants when selecting passages that contributed or detracted from a document's relevance......This study investigates the use of criteria to assess relevant, partially relevant, and not-relevant documents. Study participants identified passages within 20 document representations that they used to make relevance judgments; judged each document representation as a whole to be relevant...... matter, thought catalyst), full text (e.g., audience, novelty, type, possible content, utility), journal/publisher (e.g., novelty, main focus, perceived quality), and personal (e.g., competition, time requirements). Results further indicate that multiple criteria are used when making relevant, partially...

  6. Possessives and relevance | Taylor | Stellenbosch Papers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 26 (1993) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. Animal Models of Chemotherapy-induced Mucositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangild, Per T; Shen, René Liang; Pontoppidan, Peter Erik Lotko

    2018-01-01

    constitution). Here, we briefly describe CIM pathophysiology, particularly the basic knowledge that has been obtained from CIM animal models. These model studies have indicated potential new preventive and ameliorating interventions, including supplementation with natural bioactive diets (e.g. milk fractions...... easier make clinically-relevant treatment regimens possible. In synergy, animal models improve the basic pathophysiological understanding of CIM and provide new ideas for treatment that are required to make competent decisions in clinical practice....

  8. Download - tRNADB-CE | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data List Contact us tRNAD...f This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Download - tRNADB-CE | LSDB Archive ...

  9. Black Open Access in Ukraine: Analysis of Downloading Sci-Hub Publications by Ukrainian Internet Users

    OpenAIRE

    Nazarovets, Serhii

    2018-01-01

    Introduction. High subscription fees to scholarly research journals provoke researchers to use illegal channels of access to scientific information. Analysis of statistical data on downloads of scholarly research papers by Ukrainian Internet users from illegal web resource can help to define gaps in information provision at the institutional or the state level for each scientific field. Problem Statement. To conduct an analysis of behavior and geography of downloads of scholarly research p...

  10. [Pigeon sport and animal rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warzecha, M

    2007-03-01

    To begin, a short overview of the organization and the realization of the racing pigeon sport. Some physiological facts, relevant to racing pigeons, will be touched on. Lastly, a focus on the flights, their completion and the problems involved with the, in some cases, high number of lost pigeons. The German Club of Pigeon Breeders, has made improvements but, it is certainly not enough. The topic of "City Pigeons" will be briefed. The final part deals with pertinent animal rights issues, causes of mishaps, and some rectifying possibilities, which are available to the government veterinarian. Special emphasis will be placed on the international uniformity of this issue. The lecture should prove that there is a need for every government veterinarian to become actively involved, because the described problematic has a major effect on a very large number of animals.

  11. Associative learning and animal cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Anthony

    2012-10-05

    Associative learning plays a variety of roles in the study of animal cognition from a core theoretical component to a null hypothesis against which the contribution of cognitive processes is assessed. Two developments in contemporary associative learning have enhanced its relevance to animal cognition. The first concerns the role of associatively activated representations, whereas the second is the development of hybrid theories in which learning is determined by prediction errors, both directly and indirectly through associability processes. However, it remains unclear whether these developments allow associative theory to capture the psychological rationality of cognition. I argue that embodying associative processes within specific processing architectures provides mechanisms that can mediate psychological rationality and illustrate such embodiment by discussing the relationship between practical reasoning and the associative-cybernetic model of goal-directed action.

  12. Factors influencing interactions in zoos: animal-keeper relationship, animal-public interactions and solitary animals groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Quintavalle Pastorino

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Interactions that animals experience can have a significant influence on their health and welfare. These interactions can occur between animals themselves, but also between animals and keepers, and animals and the public. Human and non-human animals come into contact with each other in a variety of settings, and wherever there is contact there is the opportunity for interaction to take place. Interaction with companion animals are well known, but human–animal interaction (HAR (Hosey, 2008 also occurs in the context of farms (Hemsworth and Gonyou, 1997; Hemsworth, 2003, laboratories (Chang and Hart, 2002, zoos (Kreger and Mench, 1995 and even the wild (e.g. Cassini, 2001. This project proposes a permanent monitoring scheme to record animal-human interactions and animal-animal interactions in zoos. This will be accompanied by a survey of animal personality for welfare, husbandry, breeding programs and reintroduction purposes. The pilot project is currently based on direct monitoring of animal behaviour, use of time lapse cameras and animal personality questionnaires completed by experienced keepers. The goal of this project is to create a network between zoos to explore the aforementioned interactions to produce husbandry protocols and explore personality and behavioural traits in multiple species. We present provisional data regarding polar bear (Fasano Zoosafari, Italy, Sumatran tigers, Amur tigers and Asiatic lion (ZSL London and Whipsnade zoo interactions with humans and conspecifics. This data is collected across a broad range of environmental conditions and outlines the monitoring protocols developed to collect this data. The first year data show the great adaptability of these species to ex situ environments, low or absent negative impact of visitors’ presence and the relevance of individual personality in these interactions.

  13. Limiting Data Friction by Reducing Data Download Using Spatiotemporally Aligned Data Organization Through STARE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, K. S.; Rilee, M. L.

    2017-12-01

    Current data processing practice limits the volume and variety of relevant geoscience data that can practically be applied to important problems. File archives in centralized data centers are the principal means by which Earth Science data are accessed. This approach, however, requires laborious search, retrieval, and eventual customization/adaptation for the data to be used. Such fractionation makes it even more difficult to share outcomes, i.e. research artifacts and data products, hampering reusability and repeatability, since end users generally have their own research agenda and preferences as well as scarce resources. Thus, while finding and downloading data files from central data centers are already costly for end users working in their own field, using data products from other disciplines rapidly becomes prohibitive. This curtails scientific productivity, limits avenues of study, and endangers quality and reproducibility. The Spatio-Temporal Adaptive Resolution Encoding ( STARE ) is a unifying scheme that facilitates the indexing, access, and fusion of diverse Earth Science data. STARE implements an innovative encoding of geo-spatiotemporal information, originally developed for aligning datasets with diverse spatiotemporal characteristics in an array database. The spatial component of STARE recursively quadfurcates a root polyhedron, producing a hierarchical scheme for addressing geographic locations and regions. The temporal component of STARE uses conventional date-time units as an indexing hierarchy. The additional encoding of spatial and temporal resolution information in STARE enables comparisons and conditional selections across diverse datasets. Moreover, spatiotemporal set-operations, e.g. union and intersection, are mapped to efficient integer operations with STARE. Applied to existing data models (point, grid, spacecraft swath) and corresponding granules, STARE indexes provide a streamlined description usable as geo-spatiotemporal metadata. When

  14. Ethics of animal research in human disease remediation, its institutional teaching; and alternatives to animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheluvappa, Rajkumar; Scowen, Paul; Eri, Rajaraman

    2017-08-01

    Animals have been used in research and teaching for a long time. However, clear ethical guidelines and pertinent legislation were instated only in the past few decades, even in developed countries with Judeo-Christian ethical roots. We compactly cover the basics of animal research ethics, ethical reviewing and compliance guidelines for animal experimentation across the developed world, "our" fundamentals of institutional animal research ethics teaching, and emerging alternatives to animal research. This treatise was meticulously constructed for scientists interested/involved in animal research. Herein, we discuss key animal ethics principles - Replacement/Reduction/Refinement. Despite similar undergirding principles across developed countries, ethical reviewing and compliance guidelines for animal experimentation vary. The chronology and evolution of mandatory institutional ethical reviewing of animal experimentation (in its pioneering nations) are summarised. This is followed by a concise rendition of the fundamentals of teaching animal research ethics in institutions. With the advent of newer methodologies in human cell-culturing, novel/emerging methods aim to minimise, if not avoid the usage of animals in experimentation. Relevant to this, we discuss key extant/emerging alternatives to animal use in research; including organs on chips, human-derived three-dimensional tissue models, human blood derivates, microdosing, and computer modelling of various hues. © 2017 The Authors. Pharmacology Research & Perspectives published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd, British Pharmacological Society and American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  15. Residues in food derived from animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossklaus, D.

    1989-01-01

    The first chapter presents a survey of fundamentals and methods of the detection and analysis of residues in food derived from animals, also referring to the resulting health hazards to man, and to the relevant legal provisions. The subsequent chapters have been written by experts of the Federal Health Office, each dealing with particular types of residues such as those of veterinary drugs, additives to animal feeds, pesticide residues, and with environmental pollutants and the contamination of animal products with radionuclides. (MG) With 35 figs., 61 tabs [de

  16. RETHINKING THE ANIMATE, RE-ANIMATING THOUGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Ingold

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Animism is often described as the imputation of life to inert objects. Such imputation is more typical of people in western societies who dream of finding life on other planets than of indigenous peoples to whom the label of animism has classically been applied. These peoples are united not in their beliefs but in a way of being that is alive and open to a world in continuous birth. In this animic ontology, beings do not propel themselves across a ready-made world but rather issue forth through a world-in-formation, along the lines of their relationships. To its inhabitants this weather-world, embracing both sky and earth, is a source of astonishment but not surprise. Re-animating the ‘western’ tradition of thought means recovering the sense of astonishment banished from offi cial science.

  17. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ... by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ...

  18. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  19. Occupational Animal Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stave, Gregg M

    2018-02-16

    This review explores animal allergen exposure in research laboratories and other work settings, focusing on causes and prevention. (1) Consistent with the hygiene hypothesis, there is new evidence that early childhood exposure to pets produces changes in the gut microbiome that likely lead to a lower risk of allergy. (2) Anaphylaxis from laboratory animal bites occurs more frequently than suggested by prior literature. (3) Animal allergens represent an occupational hazard in a wide variety of work settings ranging from fields that work with animals to public settings like schools and public transportation where allergens are brought into or are present in the workplace. Exposure to animal allergens can result in allergy, asthma, and anaphylaxis. Animal allergy has been most studied in the research laboratory setting, where exposure reduction can prevent the development of allergy. Similar prevention approaches need to be considered for other animal work environments and in all settings where animal allergens are present.

  20. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... produced material may be copied, reproduced, and distributed as long as FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance ( ...

  1. Animal Science Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Researches carried out in the 'Animal Science Project' of the Agricultural Nuclear Energy Center, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, are described. Such researches comprise : immunology and animal nutrition. Tracer techniques are employed in this study. (M.A.) [pt

  2. "Name" that Animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a texture and pattern project. Students started by doing an outline contour drawing of an animal. With the outline drawn, the students then write one of their names to fit "inside" the animal.

  3. Morris Animal Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Yours Today » Give the Gift of Health to Animals This Holiday Season. Until December 31, your gift ... bizarre molecules. Learn More » A Tireless Advocate for Animals and Science. “If it has a heartbeat, I ...

  4. Ethics in Animal-Based Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Dominik; Tolba, René H

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there have been a number of new demands and regulations which have reignited the discussion on ethics in animal-based research. In the light of this development, the present review first presents an overview of underlying core ethical questions and issues. This is followed by an outline of the current discussion on whether animals (used for experimentation) should have rights ascribed to them and whether animals need to have certain characteristics in order to be the beneficiaries of rights. The discourse on concepts of sentience and the 'sociozoological scale' in particular is mapped out in this regard. There follows an outline of relevant ethical positions and current moral approaches to animal-based research (animal rights position, utilitarianism, 'convergence position', intrinsic cultural value of fundamental research, 'contractarianism', anthropocentrism, principle of the three Rs). 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Microsporidiosis in Vertebrate Companion Exotic Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Vergneau-Grosset

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Veterinarians caring for companion animals may encounter microsporidia in various host species, and diagnosis and treatment of these fungal organisms can be particularly challenging. Fourteen microsporidial species have been reported to infect humans and some of them are zoonotic; however, to date, direct zoonotic transmission is difficult to document versus transit through the digestive tract. In this context, summarizing information available about microsporidiosis of companion exotic animals is relevant due to the proximity of these animals to their owners. Diagnostic modalities and therapeutic challenges are reviewed by taxa. Further studies are needed to better assess risks associated with animal microsporidia for immunosuppressed owners and to improve detection and treatment of infected companion animals.

  6. PROTECTIVE COLORATION IN ANIMALS

    OpenAIRE

    Leena Lakhani

    2017-01-01

    Animals have range of defensive markings which helps to the risk of predator detection (camouflage), warn predators of the prey’s unpalatability (aposematism) or fool a predator into mimicry, masquerade. Animals also use colors in advertising, signalling services such as cleaning to animals of other species, to signal sexual status to other members of the same species. Some animals use color to divert attacks by startle (dalmatic behaviour), surprising a predator e.g. with eyespots or other f...

  7. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet ...

  8. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... menu Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  9. Who likes circus animals?

    OpenAIRE

    Zanola, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Using a sample based on 268 questionnaires submitted to people attending the Acquatico Bellucci circus, Italy, this paper analyzes the circusgoers's preferences for circus animals. Results show that higher preferences for circus animals are related to frequency of consumption. However, differently from what commonly expected, more educated and younger people seem to be less sensitive to the claims of animal welfare organizations.

  10. Animal violence demystified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta

    2010-01-01

    Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior

  11. Animal models of dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I. Anna S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter aims to encourage scientists and others interested in the use of animal models of disease – specifically, in the study of dementia – to engage in ethical reflection. It opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. Three ethical approaches...... are here distinguished. These serve as points of orientation in the following discussion of four more specific ethical questions: Does animal species matter? How effective is disease modelling in delivering the benefits claimed for it? What can be done to minimize potential harm to animals in research? Who...... bears responsibility for the use of animals in disease models?...

  12. [Animal drugs quality status and reason analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Qing; Qiu, Ya-jing; Fang, Ke-hui; Hu, Hao-bin; Wu, Yue

    2015-11-01

    In order to reaction the quality present situation, problems on the current quality of animal sources of drugs are summed up by using test data analysis, literature search and marketing research. This paper can also help the improvement of the quality management, the revision of the relevant department policy system and the improvement of standards.

  13. Cancer immunotherapy : insights from transgenic animal models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLaughlin, PMJ; Kroesen, BJ; Harmsen, MC; de Leij, LFMH

    2001-01-01

    A wide range of strategies in cancer immunotherapy has been developed in the last decade, some of which are currently being used in clinical settings. The development of these immunotherapeutical strategies has been facilitated by the generation of relevant transgenic animal models. Since the

  14. Animal models of chronic wound care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trøstrup, Hannah; Thomsen, Kim; Calum, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    on nonhealing wounds. Relevant hypotheses based on clinical or in vitro observations can be tested in representative animal models, which provide crucial tools to uncover the pathophysiology of cutaneous skin repair in infectious environments. Disposing factors, species of the infectious agent(s), and time...

  15. Ethical Responsibilities to Animals and the Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Do animals and the environment deserve moral standing and consideration? This article attempts to answer this question by surveying the relevant ethical theories. Discussed are the traditional environmentally-related philosophies of bio-centrism, eco-centrism, deep ecology, and Buddhist thought, and the more generalist views of ethical relativism, utilitarianism, deontology and ethics of care. An Ethic of Family is introduced.

  16. Animal welfare impact assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Gamborg, Christian

    2017-01-01

    aimed at dealing with wild animals. McCulloch and Reiss argue that this could be remedied by means of a “mandatory application of formal and systematic Animal Welfare Impact Assessment (AWIA)”. Optimistically, they consider that an AWIA could help to resolve controversies involving wild animals. The aim...... is a welfare issue. Furthermore, we argue that AWIA is unlikely to prevent serious moral disagreements over how to weigh concerns about wild animals against priorities in human health, the health of domestic and farm animals, and biodiversity, but that it may nonetheless serve to limit harms imposed......Control of wild animals may give rise to controversy, as is seen in the case of badger control to manage TB in cattle in the UK. However, it is striking that concerns about the potential suffering of the affected animals themselves are often given little attention or completely ignored in policies...

  17. The Effect of Steps to Promote Higher Levels of Farm Animal Welfare across the EU. Societal versus Animal Scientists’ Perceptions of Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averós, Xavier; Aparicio, Miguel A.; Ferrari, Paolo; Guy, Jonathan H.; Hubbard, Carmen; Schmid, Otto; Ilieski, Vlatko; Spoolder, Hans A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary We studied different EU production standards and initiatives to determine whether there is still room or not for further animal welfare improvement, and which should be the best way to achieve it. Many of the adopted measures in these standards and initiatives are scientifically supported, but other aspects that are equally important for animal welfare are not included in any of them. Animal welfare improvement should consider, for each country, those aspects actually benefiting animals, but also the social expectations within each country. Economic constraints might explain the gap between what society demands, and what farm animals actually need. Abstract Information about animal welfare standards and initiatives from eight European countries was collected, grouped, and compared to EU welfare standards to detect those aspects beyond minimum welfare levels demanded by EU welfare legislation. Literature was reviewed to determine the scientific relevance of standards and initiatives, and those aspects going beyond minimum EU standards. Standards and initiatives were assessed to determine their strengths and weaknesses regarding animal welfare. Attitudes of stakeholders in the improvement of animal welfare were determined through a Policy Delphi exercise. Social perception of animal welfare, economic implications of upraising welfare levels, and differences between countries were considered. Literature review revealed that on-farm space allowance, climate control, and environmental enrichment are relevant for all animal categories. Experts’ assessment revealed that on-farm prevention of thermal stress, air quality, and races and passageways’ design were not sufficiently included. Stakeholders considered that housing conditions are particularly relevant regarding animal welfare, and that animal-based and farm-level indicators are fundamental to monitor the progress of animal welfare. The most notable differences between what society offers and what

  18. Performance Evaluation of Peer-to-Peer Progressive Download in Broadband Access Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Megumi; Ogishi, Tomohiko; Yamamoto, Shu

    P2P (Peer-to-Peer) file sharing architectures have scalable and cost-effective features. Hence, the application of P2P architectures to media streaming is attractive and expected to be an alternative to the current video streaming using IP multicast or content delivery systems because the current systems require expensive network infrastructures and large scale centralized cache storage systems. In this paper, we investigate the P2P progressive download enabling Internet video streaming services. We demonstrated the capability of the P2P progressive download in both laboratory test network as well as in the Internet. Through the experiments, we clarified the contribution of the FTTH links to the P2P progressive download in the heterogeneous access networks consisting of FTTH and ADSL links. We analyzed the cause of some download performance degradation occurred in the experiment and discussed about the effective methods to provide the video streaming service using P2P progressive download in the current heterogeneous networks.

  19. The Effects of Consumer Innovativeness on Mobile App Download: Focusing on Comparison of Innovators and Noninnovators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junseop Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the new market for mobile apps, innovators, that is, early adopters of new products, have drawn attention from various researchers for their role in contributing to the success of a product. Due to the discrepancies between findings in these studies, a research framework and empirical model must be established to demonstrate how innovators affect the market for mobile apps in comparison to other types of users. To clarify the empirical basis on which innovators contribute to market development, we compare mobile app download patterns between innovators and noninnovators. Using the app download data of actual users in one of the largest app markets in Korea, we compare and analyze download behavior for a period of less than two years following their subscription to the market. The empirical analysis reveals that the download volume of innovators remains constant over a long period, while for noninnovators, volume is initially high, reflecting their interest in downloading, but it rapidly decreases thereafter. The results of this study have practical implications for companies seeking to assess the market value of innovators.

  20. Drivers for animal welfare policies in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molomo, M; Mumba, T

    2014-04-01

    Livestock in Africa represent on average 30% of the agricultural gross domestic product (GDP) and about 10% of the national GDP. Up to 300 million people depend on livestock for their income and livelihood. Accordingly, livestock are considered to be important for the African continent. Despite this, little or no provision for animal welfare is made in the laws and regulations of most African countries. However, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Performance of Veterinary Services (PVS) Tool includes animal welfare as a critical competency in Veterinary Services, and most African countries have now conducted PVS appraisals. The development of a Regional Animal Welfare Strategy in Africa is also important because it will provide opportunities for full engagement by all relevant parties. Key elements in this process should include collaboration and coordination in information dissemination to all stakeholders, who should include all those in the value chain. The roles played by the OIE Member Delegates and Focal Points, and non-governmental organisations (NGOs), in driving animal welfare policy in most African countries are notable. Without a level of understanding of animal welfare that is sufficient to support clear animal welfare policy development and implementation, problems may appear in the near future which could jeopardise the attainment of increased animal productivity and product quality. This may have negative implications for economic growth and for national and international trade.

  1. Animals as disgust elicitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain how and why nonhuman animals elicit disgust in human beings. I argue that animals elicit disgust in two ways. One is by triggering disease–protection mechanisms, and the other is by eliciting mortality salience, or thoughts of death. I discuss how these two types...... of disgust operate and defend their conceptual and theoretical coherence against common objections. I also outline an explanatory challenge for disgust researchers. Both types of disgust indicate that a wide variety of animals produce aversive and avoidant reactions in human beings. This seems somewhat odd......, given the prominence of animals in human lives. The challenge, then, is explaining how humans cope with the presence of animals. I propose, as a hypothesis for further exploration, that we cope with animals, and our disgust responses to them, by attributing mental states that mark them as inferior...

  2. Draught animals and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, N S

    1994-03-01

    In fifty developing countries, which contain half of the total human population of the world, there is a heavy dependence on draught animals as an energy source. These animals are used for agriculture operations in 52% of cultivated areas of the world, as well as for hauling 25 million carts. This situation is likely to continue for at least another fifty years. The work performed annually by these draught animals would require 20 million tons of petroleum, valued at US$6 billion, if it were performed by motorized vehicles. The poor working conditions of these animals often adversely affect their productivity. The application of improved technology and better management (i.e. through better feed and health services, and improved design of agricultural implements and carts) could considerably improve the welfare of these animals. Improved systems would generate sufficient benefits for the economy to justify the required investment. High priority should therefore be given to draught animal power in the economic development agenda.

  3. The Effect of Steps to Promote Higher Levels of Farm Animal Welfare across the EU. Societal versus Animal Scientists' Perceptions of Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averós, Xavier; Aparicio, Miguel A; Ferrari, Paolo; Guy, Jonathan H; Hubbard, Carmen; Schmid, Otto; Ilieski, Vlatko; Spoolder, Hans A M

    2013-08-14

    Information about animal welfare standards and initiatives from eight European countries was collected, grouped, and compared to EU welfare standards to detect those aspects beyond minimum welfare levels demanded by EU welfare legislation. Literature was reviewed to determine the scientific relevance of standards and initiatives, and those aspects going beyond minimum EU standards. Standards and initiatives were assessed to determine their strengths and weaknesses regarding animal welfare. Attitudes of stakeholders in the improvement of animal welfare were determined through a Policy Delphi exercise. Social perception of animal welfare, economic implications of upraising welfare levels, and differences between countries were considered. Literature review revealed that on-farm space allowance, climate control, and environmental enrichment are relevant for all animal categories. Experts' assessment revealed that on-farm prevention of thermal stress, air quality, and races and passageways' design were not sufficiently included. Stakeholders considered that housing conditions are particularly relevant regarding animal welfare, and that animal-based and farm-level indicators are fundamental to monitor the progress of animal welfare. The most notable differences between what society offers and what farm animals are likely to need are related to transportation and space availability, with economic constraints being the most plausible explanation.

  4. Valerian: No Evidence for Clinically Relevant Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Kelber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent popular publications as well as in widely used information websites directed to cancer patients, valerian is claimed to have a potential of adverse interactions with anticancer drugs. This questions its use as a safe replacement for, for example, benzodiazepines. A review on the interaction potential of preparations from valerian root (Valeriana officinalis L. root was therefore conducted. A data base search and search in a clinical drug interaction data base were conducted. Thereafter, a systematic assessment of publications was performed. Seven in vitro studies on six CYP 450 isoenzymes, on p-glycoprotein, and on two UGT isoenzymes were identified. However, the methodological assessment of these studies did not support their suitability for the prediction of clinically relevant interactions. In addition, clinical studies on various valerian preparations did not reveal any relevant interaction potential concerning CYP 1A2, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4. Available animal and human pharmacodynamic studies did not verify any interaction potential. The interaction potential of valerian preparations therefore seems to be low and thereby without clinical relevance. We conclude that there is no specific evidence questioning their safety, also in cancer patients.

  5. Lightning safety of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Chandima

    2012-11-01

    This paper addresses a concurrent multidisciplinary problem: animal safety against lightning hazards. In regions where lightning is prevalent, either seasonally or throughout the year, a considerable number of wild, captive and tame animals are injured due to lightning generated effects. The paper discusses all possible injury mechanisms, focusing mainly on animals with commercial value. A large number of cases from several countries have been analyzed. Economically and practically viable engineering solutions are proposed to address the issues related to the lightning threats discussed.

  6. Our love for animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruton, Roger

    2013-12-01

    Love does not necessarily benefit its object, and cost-free love may damage both object and subject. Our love of animals mobilises several distinct human concerns and should not be considered always as a virtue or always as a benefit to the animals themselves. We need to place this love in its full psychological, cultural, and moral context in order to assess what form it ought to take if animals are to benefit from it.

  7. ANIMALS IN RESOCIALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Czerw, Monika

    2017-01-01

    The benefits of relations between humans and animals have encouraged both scientists and members of other communities to popularize the knowledge in the field of animal-assisted therapy. Currently, animal-assisted therapy has been used not only in therapy, but also in resocialization. The increasing popularity of this form of supporting maladjusted people who are isolated from society or people with disabilities encouraged both practitioners and researchers to organize knowledge, thus reducin...

  8. Animal Health and Welfare Planning in Organic Dairy Cattle Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Winckler, Christoph; Roderick, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Continuous development is needed within the farm to reach the goal of good animal health and welfare in organic livestock farming. The very different conditions between countries call for models that are relevant for different farming types and can be integrated into local practice and be relevant...... for each type of farming context. This article reviews frameworks, principles and practices for animal health and welfare planning which are relevant for organic livestock farming. This review is based on preliminary analyses carried out within a European project (acronym ANIPLAN) with participants from...... as well as animal health and welfare professionals (veterinarians and advisors) is paramount. This paper provides an overview of some current animal health and welfare planning initiatives and explains the principles of animal health and welfare planning which are being implemented in ANIPLAN partner...

  9. 3D Animation Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Beane, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The essential fundamentals of 3D animation for aspiring 3D artists 3D is everywhere--video games, movie and television special effects, mobile devices, etc. Many aspiring artists and animators have grown up with 3D and computers, and naturally gravitate to this field as their area of interest. Bringing a blend of studio and classroom experience to offer you thorough coverage of the 3D animation industry, this must-have book shows you what it takes to create compelling and realistic 3D imagery. Serves as the first step to understanding the language of 3D and computer graphics (CG)Covers 3D anim

  10. Animal MRI Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Animal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Core develops and optimizes MRI methods for cardiovascular imaging of mice and rats. The Core provides imaging expertise,...

  11. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Inst. of Lab. Animal Resources.

    This report describes National Institute of Health policies on animal welfare, the 1976 amendment to the Animal Welfare Act, and relevant portions of the Endangered Species Act of 1973. It is divided into four sections on the following topics: (1) laboratory animal management; (2) laboratory animal quality and health; (3) institutional policies;…

  12. Survey of animal welfare, animal behavior, and animal ethics courses in the curricula of AVMA Council on Education-accredited veterinary colleges and schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivley, Chelsey B; Garry, Franklyn B; Kogan, Lori R; Grandin, Temple

    2016-05-15

    OBJECTIVE To explore the extent to which veterinary colleges and schools accredited by the AVMA Council on Education (COE) have incorporated specific courses related to animal welfare, behavior, and ethics. DESIGN Survey and curriculum review. SAMPLE All 49 AVMA COE-accredited veterinary colleges and schools (institutions). PROCEDURES The study consisted of 2 parts. In part 1, a survey regarding animal welfare, behavior, and ethics was emailed to the associate dean of academic affairs at all 49 AVMA COE-accredited institutions. In part 2, the curricula for the 30 AVMA COE-accredited institutions in the United States were reviewed for courses on animal behavior, ethics, and welfare. RESULTS Seventeen of 49 (35%) institutions responded to the survey of part 1, of which 10 offered a formal animal welfare course, 9 offered a formal animal behavior course, 8 offered a formal animal ethics course, and 5 offered a combined animal welfare, behavior, and ethics course. The frequency with which courses on animal welfare, behavior, and ethics were offered differed between international and US institutions. Review of the curricula for the 30 AVMA COE-accredited US institutions revealed that 6 offered a formal course on animal welfare, 22 offered a formal course on animal behavior, and 18 offered a formal course on animal ethics. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that AVMA COE-accredited institutions need to provide more formal education on animal welfare, behavior, and ethics so veterinarians can be advocates for animals and assist with behavioral challenges.

  13. Endangered Animals. Second Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Marcia

    This second grade teaching unit centers on endangered animal species around the world. Questions addressed are: What is an endangered species? Why do animals become extinct? How do I feel about the problem? and What can I do? Students study the definition of endangered species and investigate whether it is a natural process. They explore topics…

  14. Animals in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Use of animals in middle school science classrooms is a curriculum component worthy of consideration, providing proper investigation and planning are addressed. A responsible approach to this action, including safety, must be adopted for success. In this month's column, the author provides some suggestions on incorporating animals into the…

  15. Urban Animals and Us

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    species. But instead of teaching animals like the parrot to mimic and understand people, the sound conducted by humans become translated into non-human message through the ‘BirdFlute’. 3) The experiment 'InterFed' explores power relationships through the device ‘PhotoTwin’ - that traps both animal...

  16. Plant or Animal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Frank; Matthews, Catherine E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities that use marine organisms with plant-like appearances to help students build classification skills and illustrate some of the less obvious differences between plants and animals. Compares mechanisms by which sessile plants and animals deal with common problems such as obtaining energy, defending themselves, successfully…

  17. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...

  18. Cocombustion of animal meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggen, M.

    2001-01-01

    The electricity production companies are prepared to co-fire animal meal in their coal-fired power stations. Tests conducted at the Maasvlakte power station, Netherlands, demonstrate that adding animal meal to the coal has no negative influence on human beings, the environment, the plant or the fly ash quality

  19. Companion Animals. [Information Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Anti-Vivisection Society, Chicago, IL.

    This collection of articles reprinted from other National Anti-Vivisection Society (NAVS) publications was compiled to educate the public on issues of importance to NAVS concerning companion animals. Topics covered include spaying and neutering, animal safety, pet theft, and the use of cats and dogs in research. The article on spaying and…

  20. Animal damage to birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Jordan; Francis M. Rushmore

    1969-01-01

    A relatively few animal species are responsible for most of the reported damage to the birches. White-tailed deer, yellow-bellied sapsuckers, porcupines, moose, and hares are the major animals involved. We will review reports of damage, discuss the underlying causes, and describe possible methods of control. For example, heavy deer browsing that eliminates birch...

  1. Animal damage management handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugh C. Black

    1994-01-01

    This handbook treats animal damage management (ADM) in the West in relation to forest, range, and recreation resources; predator management is not addressed. It provides a comprehensive reference of safe, effective, and practical methods for managing animal damage on National Forest System lands. Supporting information is included in references after each chapter and...

  2. The Classroom Animal: Snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, David S.

    1985-01-01

    Points out that snails are interesting and easily-managed classroom animals. One advantage of this animal is that it requires no special attention over weekends or holidays. Background information, anatomy, reproduction, and feeding are discussed, along with suggestions for housing aquatic and/or land snails. (DH)

  3. Political Communication with Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.

    2013-01-01

    In this article I sketch the outlines of a theory of political human-animal conversations, based on ideas about language that I borrow from Ludwig Wittgenstein’s later work, in particular his notion of language-games. I present this theory as a supplement to the political theory of animal rights Sue

  4. Indian draught animals power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Phaniraja

    Full Text Available With the modernization of agriculture, the use of mechanical power in agriculture has increased but draught animal power (DAP continues to be used on Indian farms due to small holdings and hill agriculture. More than 55% of the total cultivated area is still being managed by using draught animals as against about 20% by tractors. India possessed the finest breeds of draught animals. Bullocks, buffaloes and camels are the major draught animals for field operations. Horses, mules, donkeys, yak and mithun are the pack animals for transport. The quality of work from the draught animals depends upon the power developed by them. The design of traditional implements is based on long experience and these have served the purpose of the farmers. However there is plenty of scope to improve the design based on animal-machine-environment interaction so as to have more output and increased efficiency without jeopardizing animal health. [Vet World 2009; 2(10.000: 404-407

  5. Profiles of Dialogue for Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Walton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses argument diagrams, argumentation schemes, and some tools from formal argumentation systems developed in artificial intelligence to build a graph-theoretic model of relevance shown to be applicable (with some extensions as a practical method for helping a third party judge issues of relevance or irrelevance of an argument in real examples. Examples used to illustrate how the method works are drawn from disputes about relevance in natural language discourse, including a criminal trial and a parliamentary debate.

  6. Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal..

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grum, Charlotte; Svabo, Connie

    reading of a particular historical subject and to explore the messy constituents of the very categories of women and animals. In general she is occupied with how to animate and perform the intra-active entanglement of subjectivity and materiality.The “Becoming Sheep” project produced a variety of visual......-acting and becoming with the heath habitat, the other by-passing human and non-human animals, the changing weather and their fluctuating biological needs. She wanted to explore the discursive and material effects of a site specific human-nonhuman animal intra-action, to challenge the gendered and anthropocentric...... practice.Continuing explorations of how to undo authorship, activate multiple subject positions and animate the very resources through which we practice and continuously become, for this conference artist Charlotte Grum has invited Connie Svabo, Associate Professor in Performance-Design at Roskilde...

  7. Sketching with animation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter

    This book offers a contribution to the theory, method and techniques involved in the use of animation as a tool for temporal design sketching. Lifted from its traditional role as a genre of entertainment and art and reframed in the design domain, animation offers support during the early phases...... of exploring and assessing the potential of new and emerging digital technologies. This approach is relatively new and has been touched upon by few academic contributions in the past. Thus, the aim of the text is not to promote a claim that sketching with animation is an inherently new phenomenon. Instead......, the aim is to present a range of analytical arguments and experimental results that indicate the need for a systematic approach to realising the potential of animation within design sketching. This will establish the foundation for what we label animation-based sketching....

  8. Is animal experimentation fundamental?

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Acampora, Armando José; Rossi, Lucas Félix; Ely, Jorge Bins; de Vasconcellos, Zulmar Acciolli

    2009-01-01

    The understanding about the utilization of experimental animals in scientific research and in teaching is many times a complex issue. Special attention needs to be paid to attain the understanding by the general public of the importance of animal experimentation in experimental research and in undergraduate medical teaching. Experimental teaching and research based on the availability of animals for experimentation is important and necessary for the personal and scientific development of the physician-to-be. The technological arsenal which intends to mimic experimentation animals and thus fully replace their use many times does not prove to be compatible with the reality of the living animal. The purpose of this paper is to discuss aspects concerning this topic, bringing up an issue which is complex and likely to arouse in-depth reflections.

  9. Animal ethics dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Trine; Hansen, Tina; Algers, Anne

    2006-01-01

    ) the blind hens; (2) ANDi the genetically modified monkey; (3) euthanasia of a healthy dog; (4) animal slaughter; and (5) rehabilitation of seals. Special consideration has been given to enhancing the pedagogic value of the program. Students can control their learning by selecting a variety of ways......'Animal Ethics Dilemma' is a freely available computer-supported learning tool (www.animalethicsdilemma.net or www.aedilemma.net) which has been developed primarily for veterinary undergraduates but is applicable also to students in other fields of animal science. The objectives of the computer...... program are to promote students' understanding of the ethics related to animal use, to illustrate ethical dilemmas that arise in animal use, to broaden students' moral imagination, and to enable students to differentiate between types of ethical argument. The program comprises five case studies: (1...

  10. The flaws and human harms of animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Aysha

    2015-10-01

    Nonhuman animal ("animal") experimentation is typically defended by arguments that it is reliable, that animals provide sufficiently good models of human biology and diseases to yield relevant information, and that, consequently, its use provides major human health benefits. I demonstrate that a growing body of scientific literature critically assessing the validity of animal experimentation generally (and animal modeling specifically) raises important concerns about its reliability and predictive value for human outcomes and for understanding human physiology. The unreliability of animal experimentation across a wide range of areas undermines scientific arguments in favor of the practice. Additionally, I show how animal experimentation often significantly harms humans through misleading safety studies, potential abandonment of effective therapeutics, and direction of resources away from more effective testing methods. The resulting evidence suggests that the collective harms and costs to humans from animal experimentation outweigh potential benefits and that resources would be better invested in developing human-based testing methods.

  11. Principles of animal extrapolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabrese, E.J.

    1991-01-01

    Animal Extrapolation presents a comprehensive examination of the scientific issues involved in extrapolating results of animal experiments to human response. This text attempts to present a comprehensive synthesis and analysis of the host of biomedical and toxicological studies of interspecies extrapolation. Calabrese's work presents not only the conceptual basis of interspecies extrapolation, but also illustrates how these principles may be better used in selection of animal experimentation models and in the interpretation of animal experimental results. The book's theme centers around four types of extrapolation: (1) from average animal model to the average human; (2) from small animals to large ones; (3) from high-risk animal to the high risk human; and (4) from high doses of exposure to lower, more realistic, doses. Calabrese attacks the issues of interspecies extrapolation by dealing individually with the factors which contribute to interspecies variability: differences in absorption, intestinal flora, tissue distribution, metabolism, repair mechanisms, and excretion. From this foundation, Calabrese then discusses the heterogeneticity of these same factors in the human population in an attempt to evaluate the representativeness of various animal models in light of interindividual variations. In addition to discussing the question of suitable animal models for specific high-risk groups and specific toxicological endpoints, the author also examines extrapolation questions related to the use of short-term tests to predict long-term human carcinogenicity and birth defects. The book is comprehensive in scope and specific in detail; for those environmental health professions seeking to understand the toxicological models which underlay health risk assessments, Animal Extrapolation is a valuable information source.

  12. Genomics of coloration in natural animal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Jose, Luis M; Roulin, Alexandre

    2017-07-05

    Animal coloration has traditionally been the target of genetic and evolutionary studies. However, until very recently, the study of the genetic basis of animal coloration has been mainly restricted to model species, whereas research on non-model species has been either neglected or mainly based on candidate approaches, and thereby limited by the knowledge obtained in model species. Recent high-throughput sequencing technologies allow us to overcome previous limitations, and open new avenues to study the genetic basis of animal coloration in a broader number of species and colour traits, and to address the general relevance of different genetic structures and their implications for the evolution of colour. In this review, we highlight aspects where genome-wide studies could be of major utility to fill in the gaps in our understanding of the biology and evolution of animal coloration. The new genomic approaches have been promptly adopted to study animal coloration although substantial work is still needed to consider a larger range of species and colour traits, such as those exhibiting continuous variation or based on reflective structures. We argue that a robust advancement in the study of animal coloration will also require large efforts to validate the functional role of the genes and variants discovered using genome-wide tools.This article is part of the themed issue 'Animal coloration: production, perception, function and application'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. Relevance theory: pragmatics and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wearing, Catherine J

    2015-01-01

    Relevance Theory is a cognitively oriented theory of pragmatics, i.e., a theory of language use. It builds on the seminal work of H.P. Grice(1) to develop a pragmatic theory which is at once philosophically sensitive and empirically plausible (in both psychological and evolutionary terms). This entry reviews the central commitments and chief contributions of Relevance Theory, including its Gricean commitment to the centrality of intention-reading and inference in communication; the cognitively grounded notion of relevance which provides the mechanism for explaining pragmatic interpretation as an intention-driven, inferential process; and several key applications of the theory (lexical pragmatics, metaphor and irony, procedural meaning). Relevance Theory is an important contribution to our understanding of the pragmatics of communication. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Clinical relevance in anesthesia journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Jakob; Møller, Ann M

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present the latest knowledge and research on the definition and distribution of clinically relevant articles in anesthesia journals. It will also discuss the importance of the chosen methodology and outcome of articles.......The purpose of this review is to present the latest knowledge and research on the definition and distribution of clinically relevant articles in anesthesia journals. It will also discuss the importance of the chosen methodology and outcome of articles....

  15. 25 CFR 547.12 - What are the minimum technical standards for downloading on a Class II gaming system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... on a Class II gaming system? 547.12 Section 547.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM TECHNICAL STANDARDS FOR GAMING EQUIPMENT USED WITH THE PLAY... gaming system? This section provides standards for downloading on a Class II gaming system. (a) Downloads...

  16. Computer facial animation

    CERN Document Server

    Parke, Frederic I

    2008-01-01

    This comprehensive work provides the fundamentals of computer facial animation and brings into sharper focus techniques that are becoming mainstream in the industry. Over the past decade, since the publication of the first edition, there have been significant developments by academic research groups and in the film and games industries leading to the development of morphable face models, performance driven animation, as well as increasingly detailed lip-synchronization and hair modeling techniques. These topics are described in the context of existing facial animation principles. The second ed

  17. Environmentally friendly animal litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chett, Boxley; McKelvie, Jessica

    2013-08-20

    A method of making an animal litter that includes geopolymerized ash, wherein, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with a sufficient quantity of water and an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it is dried, broken into particulates, and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates are used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter. Odor control may be accomplished with the addition of a urease inhibitor, pH buffer, an odor eliminating agent, and/or fragrance.

  18. Supporting Business Students' Transition into Higher Education: The Case of Marketing Downloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Deborah; Wason, Hilary; Southall, Jane

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses a student-centred learning and teaching approach, "Marketing Downloads", designed to support students in transition into Higher Education. The move from secondary to tertiary education can be stressful for students and it impacts on their academic performance, their social life and general sense of well-being.…

  19. Digital movie piracy: A perspective on downloading behavior through social cognitive theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Ruud; Heuvelman, A.; Tan, Maurice; Peters, O.

    2012-01-01

    This study refined and specified a model based on the application (e.g. LaRose & Kim, 2007) of social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986) to analyze and compare the behavior and attitudes exhibited by movie downloaders and to compare the number of movies they consume. The model is tested against data

  20. Music for free? How free ad-funded downloads affect consumer choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papies, Dominik; Eggers, Felix; Wloemert, Nils

    2011-01-01

    The market for digital content (e.g., music or movies) has been affected by large numbers of Internet users downloading content for free from illegitimate sources. The music industry has been exposed most severely to these developments and has reacted with several different online business models

  1. Ecological principles relevant to nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, T.C.; Cropper, W.P. Jr.; Grover, H.D.

    1985-01-01

    The ecological principles outlined are very basic ones; the authors anticipate a readership trained in a broad range of disciplines, including those unfamiliar with the academic discipline of ecology. The authors include substantial discussion on ecophysiology (i.e., the responses of organisms to their environment) because this is relevant to the new understanding of the potential climatic consequences of nuclear war. In particular, the physiological sensitivity of organisms to reduced levels of light and temperature are a key part of the analysis of the potential ecological effects and agricultural effects of nuclear war. Much of the ecological analysis has been organized around major biological units called biomes. The authors describe the biome concept and discuss some of the environmental-climatic factors that are believed to control biome distribution. Emphasis is given to plants because of their controlling influence on ecosystem functions through their role as primary producers. Future reports are needed to address more fully the potential effects on animals. Much more research needs to be done on both plant and animal responses to the types of perturbations possible for the aftermath of a nuclear war. Another important element for analysis of the potential ecological consequences of nuclear war concerns recovery processes. As the post-nuclear war environmental extremes ameliorate, ecological communities in devastated regions would begin to reorganize. It is not possible to predict the course of such a succession precisely, but some principles concerning post-perturbation replacement (such as seed banks and germination), relevant successional patterns, and organism strategies are discussed

  2. Ethical guidelines, animal profile, various animal models used in periodontal research with alternatives and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasupuleti, Mohan Kumar; Molahally, Subramanya Shetty; Salwaji, Supraja

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory animal models serve as a facilitator to investigate the etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease, are used to know the efficacy of reconstructive and regenerative procedures, and are also helpful in evaluation of newer therapeutic techniques including laser and implant therapies prior to application in the human beings. The aim of this review is to know the different animal models used in various specialties of dental research and to know the ethical guidelines prior to the usage of experimental models with main emphasis on how to refine, replace, and reduce the number of animal models usage in the laboratory. An online search for experimental animal models used in dental research was performed using MEDLINE/PubMed database. Publications from 2009 to May 2013 in the specialty of periodontics were included in writing this review. A total of 652 references were published in PubMed/MEDLINE databases based on the search terms used. Out of 245 studies, 241 were related to the periodontal research published in English from 2009 to 2013. Relevant papers were chosen according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. After extensive electronic and hand search on animal models, it has been observed that various animal models were used in dental research. Search on animal models used for dental research purpose revealed that various animals such as rats, mice, guinea pigs, rabbit, beagle dogs, goats, and nonhuman primates were extensively used. However, with the new advancement of ex vivo animal models, it has become easy to investigate disease pathogenesis and to test the efficacy of newer therapeutic modalities with the reduced usage of animal models. This review summarized the large amount of literature on animal models used in periodontal research with main emphasis on ethical guidelines and on reducing the animal model usage in future perspective.

  3. Ethical guidelines, animal profile, various animal models used in periodontal research with alternatives and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Kumar Pasupuleti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory animal models serve as a facilitator to investigate the etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease, are used to know the efficacy of reconstructive and regenerative procedures, and are also helpful in evaluation of newer therapeutic techniques including laser and implant therapies prior to application in the human beings. The aim of this review is to know the different animal models used in various specialties of dental research and to know the ethical guidelines prior to the usage of experimental models with main emphasis on how to refine, replace, and reduce the number of animal models usage in the laboratory. An online search for experimental animal models used in dental research was performed using MEDLINE/PubMed database. Publications from 2009 to May 2013 in the specialty of periodontics were included in writing this review. A total of 652 references were published in PubMed/MEDLINE databases based on the search terms used. Out of 245 studies, 241 were related to the periodontal research published in English from 2009 to 2013. Relevant papers were chosen according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. After extensive electronic and hand search on animal models, it has been observed that various animal models were used in dental research. Search on animal models used for dental research purpose revealed that various animals such as rats, mice, guinea pigs, rabbit, beagle dogs, goats, and nonhuman primates were extensively used. However, with the new advancement of ex vivo animal models, it has become easy to investigate disease pathogenesis and to test the efficacy of newer therapeutic modalities with the reduced usage of animal models. This review summarized the large amount of literature on animal models used in periodontal research with main emphasis on ethical guidelines and on reducing the animal model usage in future perspective.

  4. Animal Telemetry Network (ATN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data (updated daily) are from the Animal Telemetry Network (ATN) program. Begun as one of the field projects in the international Census of Marine Life, the...

  5. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... search Popular ... produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will ...

  6. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains of ... and other key audiences. We hope this animation will make the concept more understandable to non-scientists ...

  7. Animal-free toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2013-01-01

    Human data on exposure and adverse effects are the most appropriate for human risk assessment, and modern toxicology focuses on human pathway analysis and the development of human biomarkers. Human biomonitoring and human placental transport studies provide necessary information for human risk...... assessment, in accordance with the legislation on chemical, medicine and food safety. Toxicology studies based on human mechanistic and exposure information can replace animal studies. These animal-free approaches can be further supplemented by new in silico methods and chemical structure......-activity relationships. The inclusion of replacement expertise in the international Three Rs centres, the ongoing exploration of alternatives to animal research, and the improvement of conditions for research animals, all imply the beginning of a paradigm shift in toxicology research toward the use of human data....

  8. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how ... efforts are underway in both veterinary and human medicine to preserve the effectiveness of these drugs. One ...

  9. Animal health and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallfelz, F.A.; Lengemann, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    Some applications of the use of radioisotopes and radiation in animal health and production research are reviewed. These include various techniques associated with both the qualitative localization and quantitative measurements of isotopes in animals; comparator studies in which measurement of the radioactivity in one part of a system will allow computation of the mass or volume in another part; in vivo and in vitro applications of isotope dilution studies; and the use of isotopes in dynamic systems analyses. The use of stable isotopes in mass spectrometry, activation analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance in animal research is also briefly reviewed. Finally some of the successful uses of radiation produced by radioactive sources or various types of generators of electromagnetic radiations in animal production and health studies are described. (U.K.)

  10. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About FDA Contact FDA Browse by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  11. Animal Product Safety Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Product Safety Information Product Safety Information Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... to report adverse experiences with veterinary drugs. Additional Product Information Questions and Answers: Evanger’s Dog and Cat ...

  12. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... complex. This video was designed to make the concept of antimicrobial resistance more real and understandable to ... audiences. We hope this animation will make the concept more understandable to non-scientists by showing how ...

  13. Animal transportation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Andrea; Latty, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Many group-living animals construct transportation networks of trails, galleries and burrows by modifying the environment to facilitate faster, safer or more efficient movement. Animal transportation networks can have direct influences on the fitness of individuals, whereas the shape and structure of transportation networks can influence community dynamics by facilitating contacts between different individuals and species. In this review, we discuss three key areas in the study of animal transportation networks: the topological properties of networks, network morphogenesis and growth, and the behaviour of network users. We present a brief primer on elements of network theory, and then discuss the different ways in which animal groups deal with the fundamental trade-off between the competing network properties of travel efficiency, robustness and infrastructure cost. We consider how the behaviour of network users can impact network efficiency, and call for studies that integrate both network topology and user behaviour. We finish with a prospectus for future research. PMID:25165598

  14. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lawmakers, consumer representatives and other key audiences. We hope this animation will make the concept more understandable ... English FDA Accessibility Careers FDA Basics FOIA No FEAR Act Site Map Nondiscrimination Website Policies U.S. Food ...

  15. [Alternatives to animal testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Isabelle

    2009-11-01

    The use of alternative methods to animal testing are an integral part of the 3Rs concept (refine, reduce, replace) defined by Russel & Burch in 1959. These approaches include in silico methods (databases and computer models), in vitro physicochemical analysis, biological methods using bacteria or isolated cells, reconstructed enzyme systems, and reconstructed tissues. Emerging "omic" methods used in integrated approaches further help to reduce animal use, while stem cells offer promising approaches to toxicologic and pathophysiologic studies, along with organotypic cultures and bio-artificial organs. Only a few alternative methods can so far be used in stand-alone tests as substitutes for animal testing. The best way to use these methods is to integrate them in tiered testing strategies (ITS), in which animals are only used as a last resort.

  16. Trade, Environment & Animal Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Peter; Nielsen, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights.......Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights....

  17. Nanotechnology and animal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Kumar

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology, although still in the early stages of its development, is beginning to equip scientists, engineers and biologists to work at the cellular and molecular levels for significant benefits in healthcare and animal medicine. It is reasonable to presume over the next couple of decades that nanobiotechnology industries and unique developments will be revolutionising animal health and medicine. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(12.000: 567-569

  18. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lisa M.; Part, Chérie E.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In this review paper we discuss the different modeling techniques that have been used in animal welfare research to date. We look at what questions they have been used to answer, the advantages and pitfalls of the methods, and how future research can best use these approaches to answer some of the most important upcoming questions in farm animal welfare. Abstract The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively) based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested. PMID:26487411

  19. Animal and human influenzas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris, M; Yen, H-L

    2014-08-01

    Influenza type A viruses affect humans and other animals and cause significant morbidity, mortality and economic impact. Influenza A viruses are well adapted to cross species barriers and evade host immunity. Viruses that cause no clinical signs in wild aquatic birds may adapt in domestic poultry to become highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses which decimate poultry flocks. Viruses that cause asymptomatic infection in poultry (e.g. the recently emerged A/H7N9 virus) may cause severe zoonotic disease and pose a major pandemic threat. Pandemic influenza arises at unpredictable intervals from animal viruses and, in its global spread, outpaces current technologies for making vaccines against such novel viruses. Confronting the threat of influenza in humans and other animals is an excellent example of a task that requires a One Health approach. Changes in travel, trade in livestock and pets, changes in animal husbandry practices, wet markets and complex marketing chains all contribute to an increased risk of the emergence of novel influenza viruses with the ability to cross species barriers, leading to epizootics or pandemics. Coordinated surveillance at the animal- human interface for pandemic preparedness, risk assessment, risk reduction and prevention at source requires coordinated action among practitioners in human and animal health and the environmental sciences. Implementation of One Health in the field can be challenging because of divergent short-term objectives. Successful implementation requires effort, mutual trust, respect and understanding to ensure that long-term goals are achieved without adverse impacts on agricultural production and food security.

  20. Does size matter? Animal units and animal unit months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamar Smith; Joe Hicks; Scott Lusk; Mike Hemmovich; Shane Green; Sarah McCord; Mike Pellant; John Mitchell; Judith Dyess; Jim Sprinkle; Amanda Gearhart; Sherm Karl; Mike Hannemann; Ken Spaeth; Jason Karl; Matt Reeves; Dave Pyke; Jordan Spaak; Andrew Brischke; Del Despain; Matt Phillippi; Dave Weixelmann; Alan Bass; Jessie Page; Lori Metz; David Toledo; Emily Kachergis

    2017-01-01

    The concepts of animal units, animal unit months, and animal unit equivalents have long been used as standards for range management planning, estimating stocking rates, reporting actual use, assessing grazing fees, ranch appraisal, and other purposes. Increasing size of cattle on rangelands has led some to suggest that the definition of animal units and animal unit...

  1. Meaning in animal and human communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Phillips, Thomas C

    2015-05-01

    What is meaning? While traditionally the domain of philosophy and linguistics, this question, and others related to it, is critical for cognitive and comparative approaches to communication. This short essay provides a concise and accessible description of how the term meaning can and should be used, how it relates to 'intentional communication', and what would constitute good evidence of meaning in animal communication, in the sense that is relevant for comparisons with human language.

  2. Shippingport: A relevant decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crimi, F.P.

    1988-01-01

    Because of Shippingport's low electrical power rating (72 MWe), there has been some misunderstanding on the relevancy of the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP) to a modern 1175 MWe commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR) power station. This paper provides a comparison of the major components of the reactor plant of the 72 MWe Shippingport Atomic Power Station and an 1175 MWe nuclear plant and the relevancy of the Shippingport decommissioning as a demonstration project for the nuclear industry. For the purpose of this comparison, Portland General Electric Company's 1175 MWe Trojan Nuclear Plant at Rainier, Oregon, has been used as the reference nuclear power plant. 2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  3. Who is downloading the free AIDA v4.3a interactive educational diabetes computer software? A 1-year survey of 3864 downloads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Eldon D

    2003-01-01

    AIDA is a free diabetes computer program that permits the interactive simulation of plasma insulin and blood glucose profiles for educational, demonstration, self-learning, and research purposes. To date over 70000 copies of the software have been downloaded from the AIDA Website, www.2aida.org. This column documents a survey of downloaders of the latest release of the program (AIDA v4.3a). The Internet-based survey methodology was confirmed to be robust and reliable. Over a 1-year period (from March 2001 to February 2002) in total 3864 responses were received. During the corresponding period some 8578 actual downloads of the software were independently logged via the same route at the AIDA Website, giving a response rate for this survey of 45%. Responses were received from participants in 66 countries - over half of these (n = 2,137; 55.3%) were from the United States and the United Kingdom. There were 2318 responses (60.0%) received from patients with diabetes and 443 (11.5%) from relatives of patients, with fewer responses from doctors, students, diabetes educators, nurses, pharmacists, and other end users. This study highlights considerable interest amongst patients and their relatives to learn more about balancing insulin and diet in diabetes, as well as possibly to get more involved in self-management of insulin dosages. More computer applications that can cater for this interest in diabetes patient self-care need to be developed and made available. The Internet provides an ideal medium for the distribution of such educational tools.

  4. The necessity of animal models in pain research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogil, Jeffrey S; Davis, Karen D; Derbyshire, Stuart W

    2010-10-01

    There exists currently a fair degree of introspection in the pain research community about the value of animal research. This review represents a defense of animal research in pain. We discuss the inherent advantage of animal models over human research as well as the crucial complementary roles animal studies play vis-à-vis human imaging and genetic studies. Finally, we discuss recent developments in animal models of pain that should improve the relevance and translatability of findings using laboratory animals. We believe that pain research using animal models is a continuing necessity-to understand fundamental mechanisms, identify new analgesic targets, and inform, guide and follow up human studies-if novel analgesics are to be developed for the treatment of chronic pain. Copyright © 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Relevance of the formal red meat classification system to the South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relevance of the formal red meat classification system to the South African ... to market information make them less willing to sell their animals through the formal market. ... Keywords: Communal farmers, marketing system, meat industry ...

  6. Differential UCS expectancy bias in spider fearful individuals : Evidence toward an association between spiders and disgust-relevant outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Overveld, M; de Jong, PJ; Peters, ML

    Recently, differential UCS expectancies were found for high- and low-predatory fear-relevant animals [Davey, G. C. L., Cavanagh, K., & Lamb, A. (2003). Differential aversive outcome expectancies for high- and low-predation fear-relevant animals. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental

  7. Basic mechanisms of MCD in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Giorgio; Becker, Albert J; LoTurco, Joseph; Represa, Alfonso; Baraban, Scott C; Roper, Steven N; Vezzani, Annamaria

    2009-09-01

    Epilepsy-associated glioneuronal malformations (malformations of cortical development [MCD]) include focal cortical dysplasias (FCD) and highly differentiated glioneuronal tumors, most frequently gangliogliomas. The neuropathological findings are variable but suggest aberrant proliferation, migration, and differentiation of neural precursor cells as essential pathogenetic elements. Recent advances in animal models for MCDs allow new insights in the molecular pathogenesis of these epilepsy-associated lesions. Novel approaches, presented here, comprise RNA interference strategies to generate and study experimental models of subcortical band heterotopia and study functional aspects of aberrantly shaped and positioned neurons. Exciting analyses address impaired NMDA receptor expression in FCD animal models compared to human FCDs and excitatory imbalances in MCD animal models such as lissencephaly gene ablated mice as well as in utero irradiated rats. An improved understanding of relevant pathomechanisms will advance the development of targeted treatment strategies for epilepsy-associated malformations.

  8. Dramatic lives and relevant becomings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ann-Karina; Miller, Jody

    2012-01-01

    of marginality into positions of relevance. The analysis builds on empirical data from Copenhagen, Denmark, gained through ethnographic fieldwork with the participation of 20 female informants aged 13–22. The theoretical contribution proposes viewing conflicts as multi-linear, multi-causal and non...

  9. Regularization in Matrix Relevance Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, Petra; Bunte, Kerstin; Stiekema, Han; Hammer, Barbara; Villmann, Thomas; Biehl, Michael

    A In this paper, we present a regularization technique to extend recently proposed matrix learning schemes in learning vector quantization (LVQ). These learning algorithms extend the concept of adaptive distance measures in LVQ to the use of relevance matrices. In general, metric learning can

  10. Naturalness and Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, James

    2018-04-05

    Naturalness is considered important for animals, and is one criterion for assessing how we care for them. However, it is a vague and ambiguous term, which needs definition and assessments suitable for scientific and ethical questions. This paper makes a start on that aim. This paper differentiates the term from other related concepts, such as species-typical behaviour and wellbeing. It identifies contingent ways in which naturalness might be used, as: (i) prompts for further welfare assessment; (ii) a plausible hypothesis for what safeguards wellbeing; (iii) a threshold for what is acceptable; (iv) constraints on what improvements are unacceptable; and (v) demarcating what is not morally wrong, because of a lack of human agency. It then suggests an approach to evaluating animals' behaviour that is quantitative, is based on reality, and which assesses naturalness by degrees. It proposes classing unaffected wild populations as natural by definition. Where animals might have been affected by humans, they should be compared to the closest population(s) of unaffected animals. This approach could allow us both to assess naturalness scientifically, and to make practical decisions about the behaviour of domestic animals.

  11. ANIMAL ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubreuil, J. Daniel; Isaacson, Richard E.; Schifferli, Dieter M.

    2016-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the most common cause of E. coli diarrhea in farm animals. ETEC are characterized by the ability to produce two types of virulence factors; adhesins that promote binding to specific enterocyte receptors for intestinal colonization and enterotoxins responsible for fluid secretion. The best-characterized adhesins are expressed in the context of fimbriae, such as the F4 (also designated K88), F5 (K99), F6 (987P), F17 and F18 fimbriae. Once established in the animal small intestine, ETEC produces enterotoxin(s) that lead to diarrhea. The enterotoxins belong to two major classes; heat-labile toxin that consist of one active and five binding subunits (LT), and heat-stable toxins that are small polypeptides (STa, STb, and EAST1). This chapter describes the disease and pathogenesis of animal ETEC, the corresponding virulence genes and protein products of these bacteria, their regulation and targets in animal hosts, as well as mechanisms of action. Furthermore, vaccines, inhibitors, probiotics and the identification of potential new targets identified by genomics are presented in the context of animal ETEC. PMID:27735786

  12. Animal models of sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yijie; Yibrehu, Betel; Zabini, Diana; Kuebler, Wolfgang M

    2017-03-01

    Sarcoidosis is a debilitating, inflammatory, multiorgan, granulomatous disease of unknown cause, commonly affecting the lung. In contrast to other chronic lung diseases such as interstitial pulmonary fibrosis or pulmonary arterial hypertension, there is so far no widely accepted or implemented animal model for this disease. This has hampered our insights into the etiology of sarcoidosis, the mechanisms of its pathogenesis, the identification of new biomarkers and diagnostic tools and, last not least, the development and implementation of novel treatment strategies. Over past years, however, a number of new animal models have been described that may provide useful tools to fill these critical knowledge gaps. In this review, we therefore outline the present status quo for animal models of sarcoidosis, comparing their pros and cons with respect to their ability to mimic the etiological, clinical and histological hallmarks of human disease and discuss their applicability for future research. Overall, the recent surge in animal models has markedly expanded our options for translational research; however, given the relative early stage of most animal models for sarcoidosis, appropriate replication of etiological and histological features of clinical disease, reproducibility and usefulness in terms of identification of new therapeutic targets and biomarkers, and testing of new treatments should be prioritized when considering the refinement of existing or the development of new models.

  13. Blood glucose monitoring and glycemic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes: meter downloads versus self-report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilfoyle, Shanna M; Crimmins, Nancy A; Hood, Korey K

    2011-09-01

    Reported frequencies of blood glucose monitoring (BGM) by both adolescents and their caregivers serve as adherence proxies when meter downloads are not available. Yet, correlates of reported BGM frequencies and their predictive utility are understudied. To identify sociodemographic, psychological, and disease-specific correlates of reported BGM frequencies in adolescents with type 1 diabetes and to explore the predictive utility of BGM indices on glycemic control. Study participants included caregivers and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (N=143, 13-18 yr) receiving diabetes treatment at a tertiary care setting. At the initial visit, adolescents and caregivers reported on daily BGM frequencies. A sub-sample provided meter downloads. Adolescents also completed a depression inventory. Three months later, adolescents provided blood sampling for A1c assessment. Multivariate general linear modeling identified that older adolescent age and more depressive symptoms were associated with reports of less frequent BGM. Two stepwise multivariate regression models examined the predictive utility of BGM indices (i.e., adolescent-reported BGM, caregiver-reported BGM, meter download) on glycemic control. Caregiver-reported BGM frequency predicted glycemic control in the absence of meter download data (pmeter download data were the most robust predictor of glycemic control (pMeter downloads have the most robust association with glycemic control when contextual variables are considered. Caregiver-reported BGM frequencies can serve as reliable substitutes in the absence of meter download, but they may not be as reliable in adolescents with depressive symptoms. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Animals and ICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hemmen, J Leo; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Carr, Catherine E

    2016-01-01

    experimental and mathematical foundation, it is known that there is a low-frequency regime where the internal time difference (iTD) as perceived by the animal may well be 2-5 times higher than the external ITD, the interaural time difference, and that there is a frequency plateau over which the fraction i......TD/ITD is constant. There is also a high-frequency regime where the internal level (amplitude) difference iLD as perceived by the animal is much higher than the interaural level difference ILD measured externally between the two ears. The fundamental tympanic frequency segregates the two regimes. The present special...... issue devoted to "internally coupled ears" provides an overview of many aspects of ICE, be they acoustic, anatomical, auditory, mathematical, or neurobiological. A focus is on the hotly debated topic of what aspects of ICE animals actually exploit neuronally to localize a sound source....

  15. Theriocide: Naming Animal Killing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piers Beirne

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this essay I recommend ‘theriocide’ as the name for those diverse human actions that cause the deaths of animals. Like the killing of one human by another, theriocide may be socially acceptable or unacceptable, legal or illegal. It may be intentional or unintentional and may involve active maltreatment or passive neglect. Theriocide may occur one-on-one, in small groups or in large-scale social institutions. The numerous and sometimes intersecting sites of theriocide include intensive rearing regimes; hunting and fishing; trafficking; vivisection; militarism; pollution; and human-induced climate change. If the killing of animals by humans is as harmful to them as homicide is to humans, then the proper naming of such deaths offers a remedy, however small, to the extensive privileging of human lives over those of other animals. Inevitably, the essay leads to a shocking question: Is theriocide murder?

  16. Animal Poetry and Empathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirza Brüggemann

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses how our ideas of empathy are influenced by the dichotomy of mind versus body, also known as Cartesian dualism. Within the aesthetic field, this dichotomy is seen when researchers define narrative empathy as imaginatively reconstructing the fictional character’s thoughts and feelings. Conversely, the empathy aroused by a non-narrative work of art is seen as an unconscious bodily mirroring of movements, postures or moods. Thinking dualistically does not only have consequences for what we consider human nature; it also affects our view on animals. To show the untenability of dualistic thinking, this article focuses on the animal poetry genre. Using the ideas of the French phenomenologist Maurice Merleau-Ponty, I analyze two animal poems: “Inventing a Horse” by Meghan O’Rourke and “Spermaceti” by Les Murray. The analysis of these two poems suggests that the presiding ideas about aesthetic empathy and empathy in general need re-evaluation.

  17. Animal violence demystified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta

    2010-01-01

    Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (an escalated, pathological and abnormal form of aggression characterized primarily by short attack latencies, and prolonged and frequent harm-oriented conflict behaviors) or a qualitative one (characterized by attack bites aimed at vulnerable parts of the opponent's body and context independent attacks regardless of the environment or the sex and type of the opponent). Identification of an operational definition for violence thus not only helps in understanding its potential differences from adaptive forms of aggression but also in the selection of appropriate animal models for both. We address this issue theoretically by drawing parallels from research on aggression and appeasement in humans and other animals. We also provide empirical evidences for violence in mice selected for high aggression by comparing our findings with other currently available potentially violent rodent models. The following violence-specific features namely (1) Display of low levels of pre-escalatory/ritualistic behaviors. (2) Immediate and escalated offense durations with low withdrawal rates despite the opponent's submissive supine and crouching/defeat postures. (3) Context independent indiscriminate attacks aimed at familiar/unfamiliar females, anaesthetized males and opponents and in neutral environments. (4) Orientation of attack-bites toward vulnerable body parts of the opponent resulting in severe wounding. (5) Low prefrontal serotonin (5-HT) levels upon repeated aggression. (6) Low basal heart rates and hyporesponsive hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis were identified uniquely in the short attack latency (SAL) mice suggesting a qualitative difference between violence and

  18. Animal violence demystified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Natarajan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/ biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (an escalated, pathological and abnormal form of aggression characterized primarily by short attack latencies, and prolonged and frequent harm-oriented conflict behaviors or a qualitative one (characterized by attack bites aimed at vulnerable parts of the opponent’s body and context independent attacks regardless of the environment or the sex and type of the opponent. Identification of an operational definition for violence thus not only helps in understanding its potential differences from adaptive forms of aggression but also in the selection of appropriate animal models for both. To begin with, we address this issue theoretically by drawing parallels from research on aggression and appeasement in humans and other animals. We also provide empirical evidences for violence in mice selected for high aggression by comparing our findings with other currently available potentially violent rodent models. The following violence-specific features namely 1. Display of low levels of pre-escalatory/ritualistic behaviors. 2. Immediate and escalated offense durations with low withdrawal rates despite the opponent’s submissive supine and crouching/defeat postures. 3. Context independent indiscriminate attacks aimed at familiar/unfamiliar females, anaesthetized males and opponents and in neutral environments. 4. Orientation of attack-bites toward vulnerable body parts of the opponent resulting in severe wounding 5. Low pre-frontal serotonin (5-HT levels upon repeated aggression. 6. Low basal heart rates and hyporesponsive hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis were identified uniquely in the short attack latency (SAL mice suggesting a qualitative

  19. Animals exposed to radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masse, R.; Morin, M.; Lafuma, J.; Morlier, J.P.; Chameaud, J.; Bredon, P.

    1992-01-01

    'There is sufficient evidence that 222 Rn is a carcinogen in animals': this statement was important for the classification of radon as carcinogenic to man, outside of uranium mine atmospheres, clearly identified by epidemiology as causing lung cancer. Since recent reviews of animal experiments have been given by NCRP and by IARC, this review will be mainly limited to the recent results which came from two laboratories in the last 20 years. Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL), USA, and COGEMA Laboratoire de Pathologie Professionnelle (LPP) France. (author)

  20. Antibiotics in Animal Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcão, Amílcar C.

    The administration of antibiotics to animals to prevent or treat diseases led us to be concerned about the impact of these antibiotics on human health. In fact, animal products could be a potential vehicle to transfer drugs to humans. Using appropri ated mathematical and statistical models, one can predict the kinetic profile of drugs and their metabolites and, consequently, develop preventive procedures regarding drug transmission (i.e., determination of appropriate withdrawal periods). Nevertheless, in the present chapter the mathematical and statistical concepts for data interpretation are strictly given to allow understanding of some basic pharma-cokinetic principles and to illustrate the determination of withdrawal periods