Lincoln, Don
2013-01-01
They say that there is no such thing as a stupid question. In a pedagogically pure sense, that's probably true. But some questions do seem to flirt dangerously close to being really quite ridiculous. One such question might well be, "How many dimensions of space are there?" I mean, it's pretty obvious that there are three:…
search of extra space dimensions with ATLAs
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
search of extra space dimensions with ATLAs. AMBREEsH GUPTA (for the ATLAs Collaboration). 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago,. IL 60637, USA. Abstract. If extra spatial dimensions were to exist, they could provide a solution to the hierarchy problem. The studies done by the ...
Space: The Hunt for Hidden Dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hewett, JoAnne
2006-01-01
Extra dimensions of space may be present in our universe. Their discovery would dramatically change our view of the cosmos and would prompt many questions. How do they hide? What is their shape? How many are there? How big are they? Do particles and forces feel their presence? This lecture will explain the concept of dimensions and show that current theoretical models predict the existence of extra spatial dimensions which could be in the discovery reach of present and near-term experiments. The manner by which these additional dimensions reveal their existence will be described. Searches for modifications of the gravitational force, astrophysical effects, and collider signatures already constrain the size of extra dimensions and will be summarized. Once new dimensions are discovered, the technology by which the above questions can be answered will be discussed.
Strings in arbitrary space-time dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fabbrichesi, M.E.; Leviant, V.M.
1988-01-01
A modified approach to the theory of a quantum string is proposed. A discussion of the gauge fixing of conformal symmetry by means of Kac-Moody algebrae is presented. Virasoro-like operators are introduced to cancel the conformal anomaly in any number of space-time dimensions. The possibility of massless states in the spectrum is pointed out. 18 refs
Moduli space for endomorphisms of finite dimension vector spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kanarek, H.
1990-12-01
Consider the set (End n ) of endomorphisms of vector spaces of dimension n n ). What we present here is a decomposition of (End n ) in which each element has a fine moduli space and one of them is composed by the semisimple endomorphisms as D. Mumford shows. (author). 2 refs
Biology relevant to space radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fry, R.J.M.
1996-01-01
The biological effects of the radiations to which mankind on earth are exposed are becoming known with an increasing degree of detail. This knowledge is the basis of the estimates of risk that, in turn, fosters a comprehensive and evolving radiation protection system. The substantial body of information has been, and is being, applied to questions about the biological effects of radiation is space and the associated risk estimates. The purpose of this paper is not to recount all the biological effect of radiation but to concentrate on those that may occur as a result from exposure to the radiations encountered in space. In general, the biological effects of radiation in space are the same as those on earth. However, the evidence that the effects on certain tissues by the heaviest-charged particles can be interpreted on the basis of our knowledge about other high-LET radiation is equivocal. This specific question will be discussed in greater detail later. It is important to point out the that there are only limited data about the effects on humans of two components of the radiations in space, namely protons and heavy ions. Thus predictions of effects on space crews are based on experimental systems exposed on earth at rates and fluences that are higher than those in space and one the effects of gamma or x rays with estimates of the equivalent doses using quality factors
Biology relevant to space radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fry, R.J.M.
1997-01-01
There are only very limited data on the health effects to humans from the two major components of the radiations in space, namely protons and heavy ions. As a result, predictions of the accompanying effects must be based either on (1) data generated through studies of experimental systems exposed on earth at rates and fluences higher than those in space, or (2) extrapolations from studies of gamma and x rays. Better information is needed about the doses, dose rates, and the energy and LET spectra of the radiations at the organ level that are anticipated to be encountered during extended space missions. In particular, there is a need for better estimates of the relationship between radiation quality and biological effects. In the case of deterministic effects, it is the threshold that is important. The possibility of the occurrence of a large solar particle event (SPE) requires that such effects be considered during extended space missions. Analyses suggest, however, that it is feasible to provide sufficient shielding so as to reduce such effects to acceptable levels, particularly if the dose rates can be limited. If these analyses prove correct, the primary biological risks will be the stochastic effects (latent cancer induction). The contribution of one large SPE to the risk of stochastic effects while undesirable will not be large in comparison to the potential total dose on a mission of long duration
Coset space dimension reduction of gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Farakos, K.; Kapetanakis, D.; Koutsoumbas, G.; Zoupanos, G.
1989-01-01
A very interesting approach in the attempts to unify all the interactions is to consider that a unification takes place in higher than four dimensions. The most ambitious program based on the old Kaluza-Klein idea is not able to reproduce the low energy chiral nature of the weak interactions. A suggested way out was the introduction of Yang-Mills fields in the higher dimensional theory. From the particle physics point of view the most important question is how such a theory behaves in four dimensions and in particular in low energies. Therefore most of our efforts concern studies of the properties of an attractive scheme, the Coset-Space-Dimensional-Reduction (C.S.D.R.) scheme, which permits the study of the effective four dimensional theory coming from a gauge theory defined in higher dimensions. Here we summarize the C.S.D.R. procedure the main the rems which are obeyed and to present a realistic model which is the result of the model building efforts that take into account all the C.S.D.R. properties. (orig./HSI)
Extra dimensions in space and time
Bars, Itzhak
2010-01-01
Covers topics such as Einstein and the Fourth Dimension; Waves in a Fifth Dimension; and String Theory and Branes Experimental Tests of Extra Dimensions. This book offers a discussion on Two-Time Physics
Hydrogen equation in spaces of arbitrary dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amusia, M Ya
2015-01-01
We note that presenting Hydrogen atom Schrodinger equation in the case of arbitrary dimensions require simultaneous modification of the Coulomb potential that only in three dimensions has the form Z / r. This was not done in a number of relatively recent papers (see [1] and references therein). Therefore, some results obtained in [1] seem to be doubtful. Several required considerations in the area are mentioned. (paper)
The dimension of the pore space in sponges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silva, L H F; Yamashita, M T
2009-01-01
A simple experiment to reveal the dimension of the pore space in sponges is proposed. This experiment is suitable for the first year of a physics or engineering course. The calculated dimension of the void space in a sponge of density 16 mg cm -3 was 2.948± 0.008
Space - the essential dimension of sustainable development
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Buch-Hansen, Mogens
, economic and social development and their impact on development of space. The structure of space or the territorial structure hereby plays an essential role in the options of further economic and social development and its sustainability. The focus is on support of livelihoods and enhancing human welfare...
Towards sociology of poverty: the relevance of cultural dimensions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
María Cristina Bayón
2013-01-01
Full Text Available mensions affect both the relations between social classes, the public discourse on poverty, the representations and experiences, as policies and institutions that emerge in relation to it. In the contemporary debate on poverty, while recognizing their importance, these dimensions have not been suffi ciently explored in the literature on the subject. In order to investigate possible routes theoretical and empirical implications for their approach, we analyze the concepts of frames and cultural repertoires, symbolic boundaries, narratives and cultural capital, emphasizing its use in various poverty researches. The potential of these concepts lies in its openness to account for the heterogeneity of experiences, meanings and possible responses against similar structural constraints, allowing remove the stigmas and stereotypes about “the poor” and “their culture” emerging from the thesis of the “culture of poverty”. Finally, we emphasize the need to inquire about the mechanisms by which cultural dimensions contribute to generate and reproduce inequality in a particular society.
The missing dimension: the relevance of people's conception of time.
Norgate, Sarah H; Davies, Nigel; Speed, Chris; Cherrett, Tom; Dickinson, Janet
2014-02-01
While a timely conceptual innovation for the digital age, the "map" proposed by Bentley et al. would benefit from strengthening through the inclusion of a non-clock-time perspective. In this way, there could be new hypotheses developed which could be applied and tested relevant to more diverse societies, cultures, and individuals.
Nonlinear damped Schrodinger equation in two space dimensions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tarek Saanouni
2015-04-01
Full Text Available In this article, we study the initial value problem for a semi-linear damped Schrodinger equation with exponential growth nonlinearity in two space dimensions. We show global well-posedness and exponential decay.
Inside School Spaces: Rethinking the Hidden Dimension.
Sitton, Thad
1980-01-01
Considers the spatial arrangements of public schools as culturally derived characteristics that reflect particular traditional expectations in regard to the learning process and teacher student interactions. Discusses fixed spatial arrangements as well as the territorial manipulation of school space by students. (GC)
Relevant dimensions for proactive environmental assessment of urban mobility
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Julio Alberto Soria Lara
2015-02-01
for proactive environmental instruments design. Accordingly to this strategy, EA instruments must fulfill two key criteria: i be spatial integration-oriented; ii be performance and threshold-based. The strategy is presented here as a complementary vision to traditional instruments. To illustrate and assess the worth of this strategy, the Environmental Thresholds Values Model (‘ETV-model’ was developed following these criteria and applied to evaluate alternative plans for a transit corridor in the city of Granada, Spain. This Spanish case is very illustrative of the described problems. The development of ETV-Model and its application to MAG permitted to test the proactive dimension of the EA process with respect to: i interaction level between EAmakers and transport planners; ii the Abstraction level of the EA process with respect to traditional EA instruments; iii the Role of the EA in urban transport planning; The reduction of abstraction level from the evaluation was a highlighted aspect to foster a more holistic dimension during the process. This meant to develop an integrated conceptual framework between the EA-makers and transport planners. The identification of ‘mobility environments’ in the first stage of the ‘ETV-model’ was very significant in this respect. Under these geographical units, the involved practitioners not only established the first criteria for the evaluation, but prescriptions on the final design of alternatives were emitted by EA-makers taking into account these spatial references. The estimation of an aggregated environmental performance value was considered by transport planners as an excellent way to obtain comprehensive conclusions, as well as, the adoption of reference values facilitated the understanding of specific environmental problems of alternatives between the two focus groups. Another highlighted aspect during the application of the ‘ETV-Model’ was the fact that the evaluation had a central role not only during the
Weyl-Wigner correspondence in two space dimensions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dahl, Jens Peder; Varro, S.; Wolf, A.
2007-01-01
We consider Wigner functions in two space dimensions. In particular, we focus on Wigner functions corresponding to energy eigenstates of a non-relativistic particle moving in two dimensions in the absence of a potential. With the help of the Weyl-Wigner correspondence we first transform...... the eigenvalue equations for energy and angular momentum into phase space. As a result we arrive at partial differential equations in phase space which determine the corresponding Wigner function. We then solve the resulting equations using appropriate coordinates....
Correlation dimension and phase space contraction via extreme value theory
Faranda, Davide; Vaienti, Sandro
2018-04-01
We show how to obtain theoretical and numerical estimates of correlation dimension and phase space contraction by using the extreme value theory. The maxima of suitable observables sampled along the trajectory of a chaotic dynamical system converge asymptotically to classical extreme value laws where: (i) the inverse of the scale parameter gives the correlation dimension and (ii) the extremal index is associated with the rate of phase space contraction for backward iteration, which in dimension 1 and 2, is closely related to the positive Lyapunov exponent and in higher dimensions is related to the metric entropy. We call it the Dynamical Extremal Index. Numerical estimates are straightforward to obtain as they imply just a simple fit to a univariate distribution. Numerical tests range from low dimensional maps, to generalized Henon maps and climate data. The estimates of the indicators are particularly robust even with relatively short time series.
Fermions in odd space-time dimensions: back to basics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anguiano Jesus de, Ma.; Bashir, A.
2005-01-01
It is a well-known feature of odd space-time dimensions d that there exist two inequivalent fundamental representations A and B of the Dirac gamma matrices. Moreover, the parity transformation swaps the fermion fields living in A and B. As a consequence, a parity-invariant Lagrangian can only be constructed by incorporating both the representation. Based upon these ideas and contrary to long-held belief, we show that in addition to a discrete exchange symmetry for the massless case, we can also define chiral symmetry provided the Lagrangian contains fields corresponding to both the inequivalent representations. We also study the transformation properties of the corresponding chiral currents under parity and charge-conjugation operations. We work explicitly in 2 + 1 dimensions and later show how some of these ideas generalize to an arbitrary number of odd dimensions. (author)
GLOBAL AND INSULAR DIMENSIONS: SPACE IN SARDINIA BLUES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ana Maria Chiarini
2010-11-01
Full Text Available The aim of this work is to focus attention on the dimension of space in Sardinia Blues (Publisher Bompiani, 2008, by Flavio Soriga. This is justified by the centrality of space throughout the novel and by the title itself. The island of Sardinia is not just a mere setting, but it is most importantly the articulating and conducting thread for all the themes related to the characters’ self-identity and existential issues. The regional Sardinian space, perceived as stereotyped and folkloristic, and the global space, seen as a source of both desire and fear, are problematized by the three young self-proclaimed “pirates of the island” in their long hours of idleness. It is our intention to highlight the conflicts of this marginal insular condition, heavily contaminated by an inevitable process of change, in Soriga’s simultaneously innovative and nostalgic fragmented text, filled with songs’ extracts and languages hybrids.
TVD schemes in one and two space dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leveque, R.J.; Goodman, J.B.; New York Univ., NY)
1985-01-01
The recent development of schemes which are second order accurate in smooth regions has made it possible to overcome certain difficulties which used to arise in numerical computations of discontinuous solutions of conservation laws. The present investigation is concerned with scalar conservation laws, taking into account the employment of total variation diminishing (TVD) schemes. The concept of a TVD scheme was introduced by Harten et al. (1976). Harten et al. first constructed schemes which are simultaneously TVD and second order accurate on smooth solutions. In the present paper, a summary is provided of recently conducted work in this area. Attention is given to TVD schemes in two space dimensions, a second order accurate TVD scheme in one dimension, and the entropy condition and spreading of rarefaction waves. 19 references
Vacuum polarization energy for general backgrounds in one space dimension
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Weigel
2017-03-01
Full Text Available For field theories in one time and one space dimensions we propose an efficient method to compute the vacuum polarization energy of static field configurations that do not allow a decomposition into symmetric and anti-symmetric channels. The method also applies to scenarios in which the masses of the quantum fluctuations at positive and negative spatial infinity are different. As an example we compute the vacuum polarization energy of the kink soliton in the ϕ6 model. We link the dependence of this energy on the position of the soliton to the different masses.
Fermi states of Bose systems in three space dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garbaczewski, P.
1985-01-01
Recently an exact spectral solution was constructed by Sudarshan and Tata for the (NTHETA) Fermi version of the Lee model. We demonstrate that it provides a partial solution for the related pure Bose spectral problems. Moreover, the (NTHETA) Bose (Bolsterli--Nelson) version of the Lee model is shown to possess Fermi partners, both exhibiting the partial solubility interplay: finding solutions in the Fermi case would presumably be easier than in the original Bose model. Fermi states of the underlying Bose systems in three space dimensions are explicitly identified
Continuum Vlasov Simulation in Four Phase-space Dimensions
Cohen, B. I.; Banks, J. W.; Berger, R. L.; Hittinger, J. A.; Brunner, S.
2010-11-01
In the VALHALLA project, we are developing scalable algorithms for the continuum solution of the Vlasov-Maxwell equations in two spatial and two velocity dimensions. We use fourth-order temporal and spatial discretizations of the conservative form of the equations and a finite-volume representation to enable adaptive mesh refinement and nonlinear oscillation control [1]. The code has been implemented with and without adaptive mesh refinement, and with electromagnetic and electrostatic field solvers. A goal is to study the efficacy of continuum Vlasov simulations in four phase-space dimensions for laser-plasma interactions. We have verified the code in examples such as the two-stream instability, the weak beam-plasma instability, Landau damping, electron plasma waves with electron trapping and nonlinear frequency shifts [2]^ extended from 1D to 2D propagation, and light wave propagation.^ We will report progress on code development, computational methods, and physics applications. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LLNL under contract no. DE-AC52-07NA27344. This work was funded by the Lab. Dir. Res. and Dev. Prog. at LLNL under project tracking code 08-ERD-031. [1] J.W. Banks and J.A.F. Hittinger, to appear in IEEE Trans. Plas. Sci. (Sept., 2010). [2] G.J. Morales and T.M. O'Neil, Phys. Rev. Lett. 28,417 (1972); R. L. Dewar, Phys. Fluids 15,712 (1972).
Symmetric Space Cartan Connections and Gravity in Three and Four Dimensions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Derek K. Wise
2009-08-01
Full Text Available Einstein gravity in both 3 and 4 dimensions, as well as some interesting generalizations, can be written as gauge theories in which the connection is a Cartan connection for geometry modeled on a symmetric space. The relevant models in 3 dimensions include Einstein gravity in Chern-Simons form, as well as a new formulation of topologically massive gravity, with arbitrary cosmological constant, as a single constrained Chern-Simons action. In 4 dimensions the main model of interest is MacDowell-Mansouri gravity, generalized to include the Immirzi parameter in a natural way. I formulate these theories in Cartan geometric language, emphasizing also the role played by the symmetric space structure of the model. I also explain how, from the perspective of these Cartan-geometric formulations, both the topological mass in 3d and the Immirzi parameter in 4d are the result of non-simplicity of the Lorentz Lie algebra so(3,1 and its relatives. Finally, I suggest how the language of Cartan geometry provides a guiding principle for elegantly reformulating any 'gauge theory of geometry'.
Effect of prolonged space flight on cardiac function and dimensions
Henry, W. L.; Epstein, S. E.; Griffith, J. M.; Goldstein, R. E.; Redwood, D. R.
1974-01-01
Echocardiographic studies were performed preflight 5 days before launch and on recovery day and 1, 2, 4, 11, 31 and 68 days postflight. From these echocardiograms measurements were made. From these primary measurements, left ventricular end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, stroke volume, and mass were derived using the accepted assumptions. Findings in the Scientist Pilot and Pilot resemble those seen in trained distance runners. Wall thickness measurements were normal in all three crewmembers preflight. Postflight basal studies were unchanged in the Commander on recovery day through 68 days postflight in both the Scientist Pilot and Pilot, however, the left ventricular end-diastolic volume, stroke volume, and mass were decreased slightly. Left ventricular function curves were constructed for the Commander and Pilot by plotting stroke volume versus end-diastolic volume. In both astronauts, preflight and postflight data fell on the same straight line demonstrating that no deterioration in cardiac function had occurred. These data indicate that the cardiovascular system adapts well to prolonged weightlessness and suggest that alterations in cardiac dimensions and function are unlikely to limit man's future in space.
The Integrative Dimension of the Economic Globalization in European Space
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniela Mariana Alexandrache
2010-06-01
Full Text Available We believe that globalization and its socio-economic implications of the world and world economic crisis is one of the most debated issues from several years. The publication "The Economist’’ named globalization as the most used word of the century. The most relevant dimension of globalization is the economy with the more dynamic factors: technological development, the hegemony of liberal conceptions (closely linked to the triumph of the ideology of market economy and explosive development of countries or regions. Economic globalization has manifested a series of visible effects such as: the emergence of new markets and foreign trade (interconnected at global level, the appearance of: transnational companies, multilateral agreements on trade, broadening the scope of WTO, transformation of multinational companies in transnational companies and the emergence of global economic markets. Regionally, we noticed that the trendof concentration of economic activity is more pronounced and advanced in the European continent. Expanding globalization in Europe was achieved because of the fall of communism, and the neoliberal reformation which took place in Western European countries. Events like the fall of the Berlin Wall, followed by the fall of communism eradicated many political, economic, religious or cultural barriers. There were born new relations between state and market, public and private. European Union is, in our view, a regional office ofglobalization, representing the best performing integrative system in the world (by creating free trade area, customs union, common market, the Economic and Monetary Union. In terms of the European Commission,European model is a third way towards globalization, a middle path between protectionism and uncontrolled economy. To understand why the EU is an advanced approximation of globalization, perhaps a regional model of globalization, we must first understand the link between globalization and regional
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Todor Arpad
2014-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper I analyze the positioning of Romanian political competitor for the European elections 2014 on most relevant dimensions of political conflict relevant to all European Union member countries. I analyze the political programs of the Romanian political parties realized within the euandi project. Even though not all dimensions are considered relevant in the context of political debate in Romania, the mapping provides a detailed picture of the current positioning of the main political competitors in the context of breaking USL and the creation of a new coalition government.
Bohr-Sommerfeld orbits in the moduli space of flat connections and the Verlinde dimension formula
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jeffrey, L.C.; Weitsman, J.
1992-01-01
We show how the moduli space of flat SU(2) connections on a two-manifold can be quantized. The dimension of the quantization, given by the number of integral fibres of the polarization, matches the Verlinde formula, which is known to give the dimension of the quantization of this space in a Kaehler polarization. (orig./HSI)
Analysis of all dimensionful parameters relevant in gravitational dressing of conformal theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dorn, H.; Otto, H.J.
1992-01-01
Starting from a covariant and background independent definition of normal ordered vertex operators we give an alternative derivation of the KPZ relation between conformal dimensions and their gravitational dressed partners. With our method we are able to study for arbitrary genus the dependence of N-point functions on all dimensionful parameters. Implications for the interpretation of gravitational dressed dimensions are discussed. (orig.)
Space-based societal applications—Relevance in developing countries
Bhaskaranarayana, A.; Varadarajan, C.; Hegde, V. S.
2009-11-01
(ISRO) is already a part of the International initiative called Satellite Aided Search and Rescue System. The programme to set up satellite-based Village Resource Centres (VRCs) across India, for providing a variety of services relevant to the rural communities, is also a unique societal application of space technology. The VRCs are envisaged as single window delivery mechanism for a variety of space-based products and services, such as tele-education; telemedicine; information on natural resources for planning and development at local level; interactive advisories on agriculture, fisheries, land and water resources management, livestock management, etc.; interactive vocational training towards alternative livelihood; e-governance; weather information; etc. This paper describes the various possibilities and potentials of Satcom and Remote Sensing technologies for societal applications. The initiatives taken by Indian Space Research Organisation in this direction are highlighted.
FIRST experiment: Fragmentation of Ions Relevant for Space and Therapy
Agodi, C.; Abou-Haidar, Z.; Alvarez, M. A. G.; Aumann, T.; Balestra, F.; Battistoni, G.; Bocci, A.; Bohlen, T. T.; Bondì, M.; Boudard, A.; Brunetti, A.; Carpinelli, M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Cavallaro, M.; Carbone, D.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cortes-Giraldo, M. A.; Cuttone, G.; De Napoli, M.; Durante, M.; Fernandez-Garcia, J. P.; Finck, C.; Foti, A.; Gallardo, M. I.; Golosio, B.; Iarocci, E.; Iazzi, F.; Ickert, G.; Introzzi, R.; Juliani, D.; Krimmer, J.; Kurz, N.; Labalme, M.; Lavagno, A.; Leifels, Y.; Le Fevre, A.; Leray, S.; Marchetto, F.; Monaco, V.; Morone, M. C.; Nicolosi, D.; Oliva, P.; Paoloni, A.; Patera, V.; Piersanti, L.; Pleskac, R.; Quesada, J. M.; Randazzo, N.; Romano, F.; Rossi, D.; Rosso, V.; Rousseau, M.; Sacchi, R.; Sala, P.; Sarti, A.; Scheidenberger, C.; Schuy, C.; Sciubba, A.; Sfienti, C.; Simon, H.; Sipala, V.; Spiriti, E.; Stuttge, L.; Tropea, S.; Younis, H.
2013-03-01
Nuclear fragmentation processes are relevant in different fields of basic research and applied physics and are of particular interest for tumor therapy and for space radiation protection applications. The FIRST (Fragmentation of Ions Relevant for Space and Therapy) experiment at SIS accelerator of GSI laboratory in Darmstadt, has been designed for the measurement of different ions fragmentation cross sections at different energies between 100 and 1000 MeV/nucleon. The experiment is performed by an international collaboration made of institutions from Germany, France, Italy and Spain. The experimental apparatus is partly based on an already existing setup made of the ALADIN magnet, the MUSIC IV TPC, the LAND2 neutron detector and the TOFWALL scintillator TOF system, integrated with newly designed detectors in the interaction Region (IR) around the carbon removable target: a scintillator Start Counter, a Beam Monitor drift chamber, a silicon Vertex Detector and a Proton Tagger for detection of light fragments emitted at large angles (KENTROS). The scientific program of the FIRST experiment started on summer 2011 with the study of the 400 MeV/nucleon 12C beam fragmentation on thin (8mm) carbon target.
FIRST experiment: Fragmentation of Ions Relevant for Space and Therapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agodi, C; Bondì, M; Cavallaro, M; Carbone, D; Cirrone, G A P; Cuttone, G; Abou-Haidar, Z; Alvarez, M A G; Bocci, A; Aumann, T; Durante, M; Balestra, F; Battistoni, G; Bohlen, T T; Boudard, A; Brunetti, A; Carpinelli, M; Cappuzzello, F; Cortes-Giraldo, M A; Napoli, M De
2013-01-01
Nuclear fragmentation processes are relevant in different fields of basic research and applied physics and are of particular interest for tumor therapy and for space radiation protection applications. The FIRST (Fragmentation of Ions Relevant for Space and Therapy) experiment at SIS accelerator of GSI laboratory in Darmstadt, has been designed for the measurement of different ions fragmentation cross sections at different energies between 100 and 1000 MeV/nucleon. The experiment is performed by an international collaboration made of institutions from Germany, France, Italy and Spain. The experimental apparatus is partly based on an already existing setup made of the ALADIN magnet, the MUSIC IV TPC, the LAND2 neutron detector and the TOFWALL scintillator TOF system, integrated with newly designed detectors in the interaction Region (IR) around the carbon removable target: a scintillator Start Counter, a Beam Monitor drift chamber, a silicon Vertex Detector and a Proton Tagger for detection of light fragments emitted at large angles (KENTROS). The scientific program of the FIRST experiment started on summer 2011 with the study of the 400 MeV/nucleon 12C beam fragmentation on thin (8 mm) carbon target.
Male involvement: the missing dimension in promoting child spacing ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Greater sensitivity to information needs for men, the training of male medical staff in child spacing and orienting them to the concept could to such staff acting as counsellors for fellow men beside their other responsibilities. There is great scope in the country for involving men in child spacing and the number of agencies ...
On the dimension of Chowla–Milnor space
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. In a recent work, Gun, Murty and Rath defined the Chowla–Milnor space and proved a non-trivial lower bound for these spaces. They also obtained a conditional improvement of this lower bound and noted that an unconditional improvement of their lower bound will lead to irrationality of ζ(k)/πk for odd positive ...
The social dimension of modern media space and its content
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V L Mouzykant
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The article describes the nature of the relationships between subjects of the modern media space as a part of an open social system. The authors analyze the consequences of growth of media consumption, the Internet influence on the behavior of Russians and methods to measure the emerging media space and social networks.
Are perceived sensory dimensions a reliable tool for urban green space assessment and planning?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Qiu, Ling; Nielsen, Anders Busse
2015-01-01
, nature, rich in species, space, prospect, refuge, social and culture. Using an onsite questionnaire distributed to green space visitors in Helsingborg, Sweden, this study is the first to examine the representation of the eight sensory dimensions in different types of urban green spaces as experienced...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lena Fiebig
2009-11-01
Full Text Available Ongoing economic losses by and exposure of humans to highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI in poultry flocks across Asia and parts of Africa and Europe motivate also outbreak-free countries such as Switzerland to invest in preparedness planning. Country-specific population data on between-farm contacts are required to anticipate probable patterns of pathogen spread. Information is scarce; in particular on how strongly small, non-commercial poultry farms are involved in between-farm contacts. We aimed to identify between-farm contacts of interest for HPAI spread at both commercial and non-commercial farms in a non-outbreak situation: whether or not commercial and non-commercial farms were involved in poultry and person movements and shared resources by company integration. Focus was on poultry movements for the purpose of purchase, sale and poultry show visits, their spatial dimension, their frequencies and the farm types they connected. Of the total 49,437 recorded poultry farms in Switzerland, 95% had less than 500 birds. The farm number resulted in densities of up to 8 poultry farms per km2 and a median number of 47 neighbour farms within a 3 km radius around the farms. Person movements and shared resources were identified in 78% of the surveyed farms (93% among commercials, 67% among non-commercials. Poultry trading movements over extensive spatial ranges were stated at 65% (79% among commercials, 55% among non-commercials. Movement frequencies depended on farm specialization and were higher for commercial than for non-commercial farms except for poultry show visits. Estimates however for the entire population revealed 3.5 times higher chances of a poultry purchase, and 14.6 times higher chances of exhibiting birds at poultry shows occurring in a given time by a farm smaller than 500 birds (non-commercial farm than by a larger (commercial farm. These findings indicate that both commercial and non-commercial farms are involved in
New dimensions for man. [human functions in future space missions
Louviere, A. J.
1978-01-01
The functions of man in space have been in a state of constant change since the first manned orbital flight. Initially, the onboard crewmen performed those tasks essential to piloting and navigating the spacecraft. The time devoted to these tasks has steadily decreased and the crewman's time is being allotted to functions other than orbital operations. The evolving functions include added orbital operational capabilities, experimentation, spacecraft maintenance, and fabrication of useful end items. The new functions will include routine utilization of the crewman to extend mission life, satellite retrieval and servicing, remote manipulator systems operations, and piloting of free-flying teleoperator systems. The most demanding tasks are anticipated to be associated with construction of large space structures. The projected changes will introduce innovative designs and revitalize the concepts for utilizing man in space.
Electrostatic energies of crystals in space of arbitrary dimension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takemoto, Hiroki; Tohsaki, Akihiro
2005-01-01
We present a new method to evaluate electrostatic energies under periodic boundary conditions. The lattice sum of Coulomb potentials is expressed through the elliptic Q function of the third kind. This enables us to evaluate electrostatic energies of ionic crystals very accurately and with very rapid convergence. In particular, we study the dimensionality of the electrostatic energies of NaCl-type and CsCl-type crystals, whose expressions are functions of the spatial dimension treated as a real number. Furthermore, the expressions we obtain are applicable to computational simulations using molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo methods. We generate random distributions of point charges under periodic boundary conditions, and we analyze the randomness and its anisotropy on the basis of potential distributions. (author)
Effects of space-relevant radiation on pre-osteoblasts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu, Yueyuan
2014-01-01
Until now limited research has been conducted to address the mechanisms leading ionizing radiation exposure induced bone loss. This is relevant for cancer radiotherapy and human spaceflight. Exposure to radiation can result in elevated bone fracture risk in patients receiving cancer radiotherapy. In human spaceflight, astronauts are exposed to space radiation which is a very complex mixture consisting primarily of high-energy charged particles. Osteoblasts are of mesenchymal origin and responsible for creating and maintaining skeletal architecture; these cells produce extracellular matrix proteins and regulators of matrix mineralization during initial bone formation and later bone remodeling. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of ionizing radiation on pre-osteoblasts including cellular survival, cell cycle regulation and differentiation modification. Experiments with the pre-osteoblast cell line OCT-1 and the mesenchymal stem cell line C3H10T1/2 showed that radiation cell killing depends on dose and linear energy transfer (LET) and is most effective at an LET of ∝150 keV/μm. High-LET radiation has a much more pronounced ability to induce cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. After both X-rays and heavy ions exposure, expression of the cell cycle regulator CDKN1A was significantly up-regulated in a dose-dependent manner. The findings suggest that cell cycle regulation is more sensitive to high-LET radiation than cell survival, which is not solely regulated through elevated CDKN1A expression. Radiation exposure enhances osteoblastic differentiation and maturation, and mediates Runx2 and TGF-β1 expression during early differentiation of pre-osteoblasts. Osteogenic differentiation did not alter cellular radiosensitivity, DNA repair of radiation-induced damages and the effects of radiation on proliferation. Further experiments are needed to elucidate possible synergistic effects of microgravity and radiation on osteoblast differentiation. This may
Effects of space-relevant radiation on pre-osteoblasts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hu, Yueyuan
2014-02-12
Until now limited research has been conducted to address the mechanisms leading ionizing radiation exposure induced bone loss. This is relevant for cancer radiotherapy and human spaceflight. Exposure to radiation can result in elevated bone fracture risk in patients receiving cancer radiotherapy. In human spaceflight, astronauts are exposed to space radiation which is a very complex mixture consisting primarily of high-energy charged particles. Osteoblasts are of mesenchymal origin and responsible for creating and maintaining skeletal architecture; these cells produce extracellular matrix proteins and regulators of matrix mineralization during initial bone formation and later bone remodeling. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of ionizing radiation on pre-osteoblasts including cellular survival, cell cycle regulation and differentiation modification. Experiments with the pre-osteoblast cell line OCT-1 and the mesenchymal stem cell line C3H10T1/2 showed that radiation cell killing depends on dose and linear energy transfer (LET) and is most effective at an LET of ∝150 keV/μm. High-LET radiation has a much more pronounced ability to induce cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. After both X-rays and heavy ions exposure, expression of the cell cycle regulator CDKN1A was significantly up-regulated in a dose-dependent manner. The findings suggest that cell cycle regulation is more sensitive to high-LET radiation than cell survival, which is not solely regulated through elevated CDKN1A expression. Radiation exposure enhances osteoblastic differentiation and maturation, and mediates Runx2 and TGF-β1 expression during early differentiation of pre-osteoblasts. Osteogenic differentiation did not alter cellular radiosensitivity, DNA repair of radiation-induced damages and the effects of radiation on proliferation. Further experiments are needed to elucidate possible synergistic effects of microgravity and radiation on osteoblast differentiation. This may
Space, time, and the third dimension (model error)
Moss, Marshall E.
1979-01-01
The space-time tradeoff of hydrologic data collection (the ability to substitute spatial coverage for temporal extension of records or vice versa) is controlled jointly by the statistical properties of the phenomena that are being measured and by the model that is used to meld the information sources. The control exerted on the space-time tradeoff by the model and its accompanying errors has seldom been studied explicitly. The technique, known as Network Analyses for Regional Information (NARI), permits such a study of the regional regression model that is used to relate streamflow parameters to the physical and climatic characteristics of the drainage basin.The NARI technique shows that model improvement is a viable and sometimes necessary means of improving regional data collection systems. Model improvement provides an immediate increase in the accuracy of regional parameter estimation and also increases the information potential of future data collection. Model improvement, which can only be measured in a statistical sense, cannot be quantitatively estimated prior to its achievement; thus an attempt to upgrade a particular model entails a certain degree of risk on the part of the hydrologist.
The Multigroup Neutron Diffusion Equations/1 Space Dimension
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Linde, Sven
1960-06-15
A description is given of a program for the Ferranti Mercury computer which solves the one-dimensional multigroup diffusion equations in plane, cylindrical or spherical geometry, and also approximates automatically a two-dimensional solution by separating the space variables. In section A the method of calculation is outlined and the preparation of data for two group problems is described. The spatial separation of two-dimensional equations is considered in section B. Section C covers the multigroup equations. These parts are self contained and include all information required for the use of the program. Details of the numerical methods are given in section D. Three sample problems are solved in section E. Punching and operating instructions are given in an appendix.
The Quantum Hydrodynamics System in Two Space Dimensions
Antonelli, Paolo
2011-09-16
In this paper we study global existence of weak solutions for the quantum hydrodynamics system in two-dimensional energy space. We do not require any additional regularity and/or smallness assumptions on the initial data. Our approach replaces the WKB formalism with a polar decomposition theory which is not limited by the presence of vacuum regions. In this way we set up a self consistent theory, based only on particle density and current density, which does not need to define velocity fields in the nodal regions. The mathematical techniques we use in this paper are based on uniform (with respect to the approximating parameter) Strichartz estimates and the local smoothing property. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.
The Multigroup Neutron Diffusion Equations/1 Space Dimension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Linde, Sven
1960-06-01
A description is given of a program for the Ferranti Mercury computer which solves the one-dimensional multigroup diffusion equations in plane, cylindrical or spherical geometry, and also approximates automatically a two-dimensional solution by separating the space variables. In section A the method of calculation is outlined and the preparation of data for two group problems is described. The spatial separation of two-dimensional equations is considered in section B. Section C covers the multigroup equations. These parts are self contained and include all information required for the use of the program. Details of the numerical methods are given in section D. Three sample problems are solved in section E. Punching and operating instructions are given in an appendix
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nishioka, S., E-mail: nishioka@ppl.appi.keio.ac.jp; Goto, I.; Hatayama, A. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Miyamoto, K. [School of Natural and Living Sciences Education, Naruto University of Education, 748 Nakashima, Takashima, Naruto-cho, Naruto-shi, Tokushima 772-8502 (Japan); Okuda, S.; Fukano, A. [Toshiba, 33 Isogo-chou, Isogo-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa 235-001 (Japan)
2014-02-15
Our previous study by two dimension in real space and three dimension in velocity space-particle in cell model shows that the curvature of the plasma meniscus causes the beam halo in the negative ion sources. The negative ions extracted from the periphery of the meniscus are over-focused in the extractor due to the electrostatic lens effect, and consequently become the beam halo. The purpose of this study is to verify this mechanism with the full 3D model. It is shown that the above mechanism is essentially unchanged even in the 3D model, while the fraction of the beam halo is significantly reduced to 6%. This value reasonably agrees with the experimental result.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishioka, S.; Goto, I.; Hatayama, A.; Miyamoto, K.; Okuda, S.; Fukano, A.
2014-01-01
Our previous study by two dimension in real space and three dimension in velocity space-particle in cell model shows that the curvature of the plasma meniscus causes the beam halo in the negative ion sources. The negative ions extracted from the periphery of the meniscus are over-focused in the extractor due to the electrostatic lens effect, and consequently become the beam halo. The purpose of this study is to verify this mechanism with the full 3D model. It is shown that the above mechanism is essentially unchanged even in the 3D model, while the fraction of the beam halo is significantly reduced to 6%. This value reasonably agrees with the experimental result
Picture this! grasping the dimensions of time and space
Carroll, Michael
2016-01-01
Astronomical concepts can be truly hard to comprehend, especially those of planetary sizes and distances from Earth and from each other. These concepts are made more comprehensible by the group of illustrations in this book, which put, in scale, side by side extraterrestrial objects with objects on Earth we can more easily relate to. For example, study the pictures of Earth floating above Jupiter’s Great Red Spot and the asteroid Itokawa resting beside Toronto’s CN Tower. These mind-bending images bring things better into perspective and will help you understand the size and scale of our Solar System. In later chapters, you will be told how close the visionaries of the past came to guessing what today’s explorers would find. Astronomer/painter Lucien Rudaux’s masterpieces of Mars dust storms anticipated Viking and Mars rover images by nearly a century. Space artist Ludek Pesek envisioned astronauts setting up camp on the lunar surface in scenes hauntingly similar to photos taken by Apollo a...
The large dimension limit of a small black hole instability in anti-de Sitter space
Herzog, Christopher P.; Kim, Youngshin
2018-02-01
We study the dynamics of a black hole in an asymptotically AdS d × S d space-time in the limit of a large number of dimensions, d → ∞. Such a black hole is known to become dynamically unstable below a critical radius. We derive the dispersion relation for the quasinormal mode that governs this instability in an expansion in 1 /d. We also provide a full nonlinear analysis of the instability at leading order in 1 /d. We find solutions that resemble the lumpy black spots and black belts previously constructed numerically for small d, breaking the SO( d + 1) rotational symmetry of the sphere down to SO( d). We are also able to follow the time evolution of the instability. Due possibly to limitations in our analysis, our time dependent simulations do not settle down to stationary solutions. This work has relevance for strongly interacting gauge theories; through the AdS/CFT correspondence, the special case d = 5 corresponds to maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on a spatial S 3 in the microcanonical ensemble and in a strong coupling and large number of colors limit.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kelen Greta
2008-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibiotics are widely-used medicines for which a more prudent use has been advocated to minimize development of resistance. There are considerable cross-national differences that can only partially be explained by epidemiological difference and variations in health care structure. The aim of this study was to explore whether cross-national differences in use of antibiotics (prescribed and non-prescribed are associated with differences between national cultures as described in Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions (Power Distance, Individualism, Masculinity, Uncertainty Avoidance and Long-Term Orientation. Methods Country-level data of prescribed antibiotic use and self-medication with antibiotics were correlated to country-specific scores of cultural dimensions obtained from Hofstede. Data on use of antibiotics were provided by three European studies, based on different methods and/or countries: Self-medication with Antibiotics and Resistance in Europe (SAR, based on a survey in 2003 on reported use of antibiotics in 19 countries, the European Surveillance on Antimicrobial Consumption, based on distribution and reimbursement of antibiotics in ambulatory care (1997–2002, and the 2002 interview-based Eurobarometer study, asking whether respondents had taken antibiotics in the previous 12 months. These studies provided data on antibiotics use for 27 European countries in total, for which scores of cultural dimensions were also available. The SAR-study differentiated between prescribed antibiotics and self-medication with antibiotics. Results Significant positive correlations were found for Power Distance Index with use of prescribed antibiotics in the three studies (rho between 0.59 and 0.62 and with self-medication (rho = 0.54 in the SAR study. Positive significant correlations were found for the Uncertainty Avoidance Index with the use of antibiotics as reported in two studies (rho between 0.57 and 0.59; for the SAR study
Deschepper, Reginald; Grigoryan, Larissa; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby; Hofstede, Geert; Cohen, Joachim; Kelen, Greta Van Der; Deliens, Luc; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M
2008-06-06
Antibiotics are widely-used medicines for which a more prudent use has been advocated to minimize development of resistance. There are considerable cross-national differences that can only partially be explained by epidemiological difference and variations in health care structure. The aim of this study was to explore whether cross-national differences in use of antibiotics (prescribed and non-prescribed) are associated with differences between national cultures as described in Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions (Power Distance, Individualism, Masculinity, Uncertainty Avoidance and Long-Term Orientation). Country-level data of prescribed antibiotic use and self-medication with antibiotics were correlated to country-specific scores of cultural dimensions obtained from Hofstede. Data on use of antibiotics were provided by three European studies, based on different methods and/or countries: Self-medication with Antibiotics and Resistance in Europe (SAR), based on a survey in 2003 on reported use of antibiotics in 19 countries, the European Surveillance on Antimicrobial Consumption, based on distribution and reimbursement of antibiotics in ambulatory care (1997-2002), and the 2002 interview-based Eurobarometer study, asking whether respondents had taken antibiotics in the previous 12 months. These studies provided data on antibiotics use for 27 European countries in total, for which scores of cultural dimensions were also available. The SAR-study differentiated between prescribed antibiotics and self-medication with antibiotics. Significant positive correlations were found for Power Distance Index with use of prescribed antibiotics in the three studies (rho between 0.59 and 0.62) and with self-medication (rho = 0.54) in the SAR study. Positive significant correlations were found for the Uncertainty Avoidance Index with the use of antibiotics as reported in two studies (rho between 0.57 and 0.59; for the SAR study the correlations were insignificant). Masculinity
Grimm, Lisa R; Maddox, W Todd
2013-11-01
Research has identified multiple category-learning systems with each being "tuned" for learning categories with different task demands and each governed by different neurobiological systems. Rule-based (RB) classification involves testing verbalizable rules for category membership while information-integration (II) classification requires the implicit learning of stimulus-response mappings. In the first study to directly test rule priming with RB and II category learning, we investigated the influence of the availability of information presented at the beginning of the task. Participants viewed lines that varied in length, orientation, and position on the screen, and were primed to focus on stimulus dimensions that were relevant or irrelevant to the correct classification rule. In Experiment 1, we used an RB category structure, and in Experiment 2, we used an II category structure. Accuracy and model-based analyses suggested that a focus on relevant dimensions improves RB task performance later in learning while a focus on an irrelevant dimension improves II task performance early in learning. © 2013.
Pelagic habitat visualization: the need for a third (and fourth) dimension: HabitatSpace
Beegle-Krause, C; Vance, Tiffany; Reusser, Debbie; Stuebe, David; Howlett, Eoin
2009-01-01
Habitat in open water is not simply a 2-D to 2.5-D surface such as the ocean bottom or the air-water interface. Rather, pelagic habitat is a 3-D volume of water that can change over time, leading us to the term habitat space. Visualization and analysis in 2-D is well supported with GIS tools, but a new tool was needed for visualization and analysis in four dimensions. Observational data (cruise profiles (xo, yo, z, to)), numerical circulation model fields (x,y,z,t), and trajectories (larval fish, 4-D line) need to be merged together in a meaningful way for visualization and analysis. As a first step toward this new framework, UNIDATA’s Integrated Data Viewer (IDV) has been used to create a set of tools for habitat analysis in 4-D. IDV was designed for 3-D+time geospatial data in the meteorological community. NetCDF JavaTM libraries allow the tool to read many file formats including remotely located data (e.g. data available via OPeNDAP ). With this project, IDV has been adapted for use in delineating habitat space for multiple fish species in the ocean. The ability to define and visualize boundaries of a water mass, which meets specific biologically relevant criteria (e.g., volume, connectedness, and inter-annual variability) based on model results and observational data, will allow managers to investigate the survival of individual year classes of commercially important fisheries. Better understanding of the survival of these year classes will lead to improved forecasting of fisheries recruitment.
THE CYBER DIMENSION OF MODERN HYBRID WARFARE AND ITS RELEVANCE FOR NATO
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sorin DUCARU
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The technological development and the instant communication possibilities advanced not only economic and social developments, but also evolving threats from those who exploit the vulnerabilities of communication and information systems. The cyber threat landscape points to a significant increase of the frequency, intensity, duration and sophistication of cyber-attacks. One of the new and concerning trends is the use of cyber capabilities in relation with military of hybrid operations – the so-called cyber dimension of hybrid warfare. NATO’s strategy on countering hybrid warfare is based on the triad: prepare-deter-defend, which also applies to cyber. Nations represent the first line of defence in countering hybrid strategies. International cooperation is also a key factor in this sense. It is in this context that NATO’s response to cyber-attacks in the context of hybrid warfare must be further refined.
The dimensions of urban public space in user’s mental image
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matej Nikšič
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The article presents a method for recognising qualitative and quantitative dimensions of open urban space in the user’s perceptual image. It stems from the hypothesis that the open urban space in mental perception isn’t a uniform continuum, which in general applies to its physical phenomenon. It discloses where and how users experience the limits of real open public space that they occupy and what they perceive as the neighbourhood of such a place. Therefore it researches rules applied by the user to mentally structure physically continuous space into smaller units and then reassemble these into a network. Knowledge of such rules enables expansion of open urban public spaces, which user’s experience as positive, into the wider area, thus revitalising those neighbouring spaces that are perceived as negative or are completely absent in the mental image and consequentially unused. The presence of people is in fact the essential component of quality public spaces.
Arbitrary Dimension Convection-Diffusion Schemes for Space-Time Discretizations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bank, Randolph E. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Vassilevski, Panayot S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zikatanov, Ludmil T. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria)
2016-01-20
This note proposes embedding a time dependent PDE into a convection-diffusion type PDE (in one space dimension higher) with singularity, for which two discretization schemes, the classical streamline-diffusion and the EAFE (edge average finite element) one, are investigated in terms of stability and error analysis. The EAFE scheme, in particular, is extended to be arbitrary order which is of interest on its own. Numerical results, in combined space-time domain demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach.
On mass-shell parametric space renormalization of PHI3 theory in six dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, A.W.
1977-05-01
An on mass shell, parametric space renormalization procedure for phi 3 theory in six dimensions is defined and its formal equivalence to the usual Lagrangian counter procedure demonstrated. Two loop contributions to the self-energy are used as an illustration of the method. (author)
Analytic smoothing effect for the cubic hyperbolic Schrodinger equation in two space dimensions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gaku Hoshino
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We study the Cauchy problem for the cubic hyperbolic Schrodinger equation in two space dimensions. We prove existence of analytic global solutions for sufficiently small and exponential decaying data. The method of proof depends on the generalized Leibniz rule for the generator of pseudo-conformal transform acting on pseudo-conformally invariant nonlinearity.
Dimension elevation in Müntz spaces: A new emergence of the Müntz condition
Ait-Haddou, Rachid
2014-01-01
We show that the limiting polygon generated by the dimension elevation algorithm with respect to the Müntz space span(1,tr1,tr2,trm,. . .), with 0 < r1 < r2 < ⋯ < r m < ⋯ and lim n →∞r n = ∞, over an interval [a, b] ⊂ ] 0
Solidarity with Animals: Assessing a Relevant Dimension of Social Identification with Animals.
Amiot, Catherine E; Bastian, Brock
2017-01-01
Interactions with animals are pervasive in human life, a fact that is reflected in the burgeoning field of human-animal relations research. The goal of the current research was to examine the psychology of our social connection with other animals, by specifically developing a measure of solidarity with animals. In 8 studies using correlational, experimental, and longitudinal designs, solidarity with animals predicted more positive attitudes and behaviors toward animals, over and above existing scales of identification, and even when this implied a loss of resources and privileges for humans relative to animals. Solidarity with animals also displayed predicted relationships with relevant variables (anthropomorphism, empathy). Pet owners and vegetarians displayed higher levels of solidarity with animals. Correlational and experimental evidence confirmed that human-animal similarity heightens solidarity with animals. Our findings provide a useful measure that can facilitate important insights into the nature of our relationships with animals.
Life-space mobility and dimensions of depressive symptoms among community-dwelling older adults.
Polku, Hannele; Mikkola, Tuija M; Portegijs, Erja; Rantakokko, Merja; Kokko, Katja; Kauppinen, Markku; Rantanen, Taina; Viljanen, Anne
2015-01-01
To examine the association between life-space mobility and different dimensions of depressive symptoms among older community-dwelling people. Cross-sectional analyses of baseline data of the 'Life-Space Mobility in Old Age' cohort study were carried out. The participants were community-dwelling women and men aged 75-90 years (N = 848). Data were gathered via structured interviews in participants' home. Life-space mobility (the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) Life-Space Assessment - questionnaire) and depressive symptoms (Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, CES-D) were assessed. Other factors examined included sociodemographic factors, difficulties walking 500 m, number of chronic diseases and the sense of autonomy in participation outdoors (subscale of Impact on Participation and Autonomy questionnaire). Poorer life-space mobility was associated with higher prevalence of different dimensions of depressive symptoms. The associations were partially mediated through walking difficulties, health and the sense of autonomy in participation outdoor activities. Poorer life-space mobility interrelates with higher probability for depressive symptoms, thus compromising older adults' mental wellbeing. A focus on older adults' life-space mobility may assist early identification of persons, who have elevated risk for depressive symptoms. The association between life-space mobility and depressive symptoms should be studied further utilizing longitudinal study designs to examine temporality and potential causality.
Prototypes and matrix relevance learning in complex fourier space
Straat, M.; Kaden, M.; Gay, M.; Villmann, T.; Lampe, Alexander; Seiffert, U.; Biehl, M.; Melchert, F.
2017-01-01
In this contribution, we consider the classification of time-series and similar functional data which can be represented in complex Fourier coefficient space. We apply versions of Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) which are suitable for complex-valued data, based on the so-called Wirtinger
The Spacing Effect and Its Relevance to Second Language Acquisition
Rogers, John
2017-01-01
This commentary discusses some theoretical and methodological issues related to research on the spacing effect in second language acquisition research (SLA). There has been a growing interest in SLA in how the temporal distribution of input might impact language development. SLA research in this area has frequently drawn upon the rich field of…
Time-Homogeneous Parabolic Wick-Anderson Model in One Space Dimension: Regularity of Solution
Kim, Hyun-Jung; Lototsky, Sergey V
2017-01-01
Even though the heat equation with random potential is a well-studied object, the particular case of time-independent Gaussian white noise in one space dimension has yet to receive the attention it deserves. The paper investigates the stochastic heat equation with space-only Gaussian white noise on a bounded interval. The main result is that the space-time regularity of the solution is the same for additive noise and for multiplicative noise in the Wick-It\\^o-Skorokhod interpretation.
Quantum phase space for an ideal relativistic gas in d spatial dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayashi, M.; Vera Mendoza, H.
1992-01-01
We present the closed formula for the d-dimensional invariant phase-space integral for an ideal relativistic gas in an exact integral form. In the particular cases of the nonrelativistic and the extreme relativistic limits the phase-space integrals are calculated analytically. Then we consider the d-dimensional invariant phase space with quantum statistic and derive the cluster decomposition for the grand canonical and canonical partition functions as well as for the microcanonical and grand microcanonical densities of states. As a showcase, we consider the black-body radiation in d dimensions (Author)
Infrared behaviour of massless QED in space-time dimensions 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitra, Indrajit; Ratabole, Raghunath; Sharatchandra, H.S.
2005-01-01
We show that the logarithmic infrared divergences in electron self-energy and vertex function of massless QED in 2+1 dimensions can be removed at all orders of 1/N by an appropriate choice of a non-local gauge. Thus the infrared behaviour given by the leading order in 1/N is not modified by higher order corrections. Our analysis gives a computational scheme for the Amati-Testa model, resulting in a non-trivial conformal invariant field theory for all space-time dimensions 2< d<4
Infrared behaviour of massless QED in space-time dimensions 2
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mitra, Indrajit [The Institute of Mathematical Sciences, C.I.T. Campus, Taramani P.O., Chennai 600113 (India) and Theory Group, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan-Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)]. E-mail: indra@theory.saha.ernet.in; Ratabole, Raghunath [The Institute of Mathematical Sciences, C.I.T. Campus, Taramani P.O., Chennai 600113 (India)]. E-mail: raghu@imsc.res.in; Sharatchandra, H.S. [The Institute of Mathematical Sciences, C.I.T. Campus, Taramani P.O., Chennai 600113 (India)]. E-mail: sharat@imsc.res.in
2005-04-07
We show that the logarithmic infrared divergences in electron self-energy and vertex function of massless QED in 2+1 dimensions can be removed at all orders of 1/N by an appropriate choice of a non-local gauge. Thus the infrared behaviour given by the leading order in 1/N is not modified by higher order corrections. Our analysis gives a computational scheme for the Amati-Testa model, resulting in a non-trivial conformal invariant field theory for all space-time dimensions 2
Exposure-Relevant Ozone Chemistry in Occupied Spaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Coleman, Beverly Kaye [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
2009-04-01
Ozone, an ambient pollutant, is transformed into other airborne pollutants in the indoor environment. In this dissertation, the type and amount of byproducts that result from ozone reactions with common indoor surfaces, surface residues, and vapors were determined, pollutant concentrations were related to occupant exposure, and frameworks were developed to predict byproduct concentrations under various indoor conditions. In Chapter 2, an analysis is presented of secondary organic aerosol formation from the reaction of ozone with gas-phase, terpene-containing consumer products in small chamber experiments under conditions relevant for residential and commercial buildings. The full particle size distribution was continuously monitored, and ultrafine and fine particle concentrations were in the range of 10 to>300 mu g m^{-3}. Particle nucleation and growth dynamics were characterized.Chapter 3 presents an investigation of ozone reactions with aircraft cabin surfaces including carpet, seat fabric, plastics, and laundered and worn clothing fabric. Small chamber experiments were used to determine ozone deposition velocities, ozone reaction probabilities, byproduct emission rates, and byproduct yields for each surface category. The most commonly detected byproducts included C1?C10 saturated aldehydes and skin oil oxidation products. For all materials, emission rates were higher with ozone than without. Experimental results were used to predict byproduct exposure in the cabin and compare to other environments. Byproduct levels are predicted to be similar to ozone levels in the cabin, which have been found to be tens to low hundreds of ppb in the absence of an ozone converter. In Chapter 4, a model is presented that predicts ozone uptake by and byproduct emission from residual chemicals on surfaces. The effects of input parameters (residue surface concentration, ozone concentration, reactivity of the residue and the surface, near-surface airflow conditions, and
Dimension elevation in Müntz spaces: A new emergence of the Müntz condition
Ait-Haddou, Rachid
2014-05-01
We show that the limiting polygon generated by the dimension elevation algorithm with respect to the Müntz space span(1,tr1,tr2,trm,. . .), with 0 < r1 < r2 < ⋯ < r m < ⋯ and lim n →∞r n = ∞, over an interval [a, b] ⊂ ] 0, ∞ [ converges to the underlying Chebyshev-Bézier curve if and only if the Müntz condition ∑i=1∞1ri=∞ is satisfied. The surprising emergence of the Müntz condition in the problem raises the question of a possible connection between the density questions of nested Chebyshev spaces and the convergence of the corresponding dimension elevation algorithms. The question of convergence with no condition of monotonicity or positivity on the pairwise distinct real numbers r i remains an open problem. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
An integrodifferential Dirac equation with quantized charge in one space dimension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ranada, A.F.
1985-01-01
An integrodifferential Dirac equation in one space dimension is proposed, such that there is a close correspondence between its solutions and a subset of those of the sine-Gordon equation. It has solitonic solutions, quantized charge and positive definite energy density, so that it can be considered a spinorial version of sine-Gordon. Accordingly, it could be named the sine-Dirac equation. (orig.)
Phases of a stack of membranes in a large number of dimensions of configuration space
Borelli, M. E.; Kleinert, H.
2001-05-01
The phase diagram of a stack of tensionless membranes with nonlinear curvature energy and vertical harmonic interaction is calculated exactly in a large number of dimensions of configuration space. At low temperatures, the system forms a lamellar phase with spontaneously broken translational symmetry in the vertical direction. At a critical temperature, the stack disorders vertically in a meltinglike transition. The critical temperature is determined as a function of the interlayer separation l.
Space: The Final Frontier-Research Relevant to Mars.
Boice, John D
2017-04-01
A critically important gap in knowledge surrounds the health consequences of exposure to radiation received gradually over time. Much is known about the health effects of brief high-dose exposures, such as from the atomic bombings in Japan, but the concerns today focus on the frequent low-dose exposures received by members of the public, workers, and, as addressed in this paper, astronauts. Additional guidance is needed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for planning long-term missions where the rate of radiation exposure is gradual over years and the cumulative amounts high. The direct study of low doses and low-dose rates is of immeasurable value in understanding the possible range of health effects from gradual exposures and in providing guidance for radiation protection, not only of workers and the public but also astronauts. The ongoing Million Person Study (MPS) is 10 times larger than the study of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors of 86,000 survivors with estimated doses. The number of workers with >100 mSv career dose is substantially greater. The large study size, broad range of doses, and long follow-up indicate substantial statistical ability to quantify the risk of exposures that are received gradually over time. The study consists of 360,000 U.S. Department of Energy workers from the Manhattan Project; 150,000 nuclear utility workers from the inception of the nuclear age; 115,000 atomic veterans who participated in above-ground atmospheric tests at the Nevada Test Site and the Bikini and Enewetak Atolls and Johnston Island in the Pacific Proving Grounds (PPG); 250,000 radiologists and medical workers; and 130,000 industrial radiographers. NASA uses an individual risk-based system for radiation protection in contrast to the system of dose limits for occupational exposures used by terrestrial-based organizations. The permissible career exposure limit set by NASA for each astronaut is a 3% risk of exposure-induced death (REID
Reality and dimension of space and the complexity of quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mirman, R.
1988-01-01
The dimension (and signature) of space is a result of distances being real numbers and quantum mechanical state functions being complex ones; it is an inescapable consequence of quantum mechanics and group theory. So nonrelativistic quantum mechanics cannot be complete (it requires ad hoc additional assumptions) and consistent (nor can classical physics), leading to relativity, quantum mechanics, and field theory. Implications of the constraints of consistency and physical reasonableness and of group theory for the structure of these theories are considered. It appears that there are simple, perhaps unavoidable reasons for the laws of physics, the nature of the world they describe, and the space in which they act
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Le Wang
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Based on phase space reconstruction and fractal dynamics in nonlinear dynamics, a method is proposed to extract and analyze the dynamics of the rotating stall in the impeller of centrifugal compressor, and some numerical examples are given to verify the results as well. First, the rotating stall of an existing low speed centrifugal compressor (LSCC is numerically simulated, and the time series of pressure in the rotating stall is obtained at various locations near the impeller outlet. Then, the phase space reconstruction is applied to these pressure time series, and a low-dimensional dynamical system, which the dynamics properties are included in, is reconstructed. In phase space reconstruction, C–C method is used to obtain the key parameters, such as time delay and the embedding dimension of the reconstructed phase space. Further, the fractal characteristics of the rotating stall are analyzed in detail, and the fractal dimensions are given for some examples to measure the complexity of the flow in the post-rotating stall. The results show that the fractal structures could reveal the intrinsic dynamics of the rotating stall flow and could be considered as a characteristic to identify the rotating stall.
Jin Shi
2003-01-01
Chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) process is an important technology to fabricate ceramic matrix composites (CMC's). In this paper, a three-dimension numerical model is presented to describe pore microstructure evolution during the CVI process. We extend the two-dimension model proposed in [S. Jin, X.L. Wang, T.L. Starr, J. Mater. Res. 14 (1999) 3829; S. Jin. X.L. Wang, T.L. Starr, X.F. Chen, J. Comp. Phys. 162 (2000) 467], where the fiber surface is modeled as an evolving interface, to the three space dimension. The 3D method keeps all the virtue of the 2D model: robust numerical capturing of topological changes of the interface such as the merging, and fast detection of the inaccessible pores. For models in the kinetic limit, where the moving speed of the interface is constant, some numerical examples are presented to show that this three-dimension model will effectively track the change of porosity, close-off time, location and shape of all pores.
Categorical dimensions of human odor descriptor space revealed by non-negative matrix factorization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chennubhotla, Chakra [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh PA; Castro, Jason [Bates College
2013-01-01
In contrast to most other sensory modalities, the basic perceptual dimensions of olfaction remain un- clear. Here, we use non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) - a dimensionality reduction technique - to uncover structure in a panel of odor profiles, with each odor defined as a point in multi-dimensional descriptor space. The properties of NMF are favorable for the analysis of such lexical and perceptual data, and lead to a high-dimensional account of odor space. We further provide evidence that odor di- mensions apply categorically. That is, odor space is not occupied homogenously, but rather in a discrete and intrinsically clustered manner. We discuss the potential implications of these results for the neural coding of odors, as well as for developing classifiers on larger datasets that may be useful for predicting perceptual qualities from chemical structures.
Wells, Laura; Nermo, Magnus; Östberg, Viveca
2017-01-01
As physical inactivity may track from adolescence to adulthood, it is important to identify social determinants of physical inactivity in early life. However, most studies have measured socioeconomic position as one dimension. We examine whether multiple dimensions of socioeconomic position, in addition to other dimensions of inequality (i.e.,…
Variability of ischiofemoral space dimensions with changes in hip flexion: an MRI study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, Adam C.; Howe, Benjamin M.; Hollman, John H.; Finnoff, Jonathan T.
2017-01-01
The primary aim of this study was to determine if ischiofemoral space (IFS) dimensions vary with changes in hip flexion as a result of placing a bolster behind the knees during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A secondary aim was to determine if IFS dimensions vary between supine and prone hip neutral positions. The study employed a prospective design. Sports medicine center within a tertiary care institution. Five male and five female adult subjects (age mean = 29.2, range = 23-35; body mass index [BMI] mean = 23.5, range = 19.5-26.6) were recruited to participate in the study. An axial, T1-weighted MRI sequence of the pelvis was obtained of each subject in a supine position with their hips in neutral and flexed positions, and in a prone position with their hips in neutral position. Supine hip flexion was induced by placing a standard, 9-cm-diameter MRI knee bolster under the subject's knees. The order of image acquisition (supine hip neutral, supine hip flexed, prone hip neutral) was randomized. The IFS dimensions were then measured on a separate workstation. The investigator performing the IFS measurements was blinded to the subject position for each image. The main outcome measurements were the IFS dimensions acquired with MRI. The mean IFS dimensions in the prone position were 28.25 mm (SD 5.91 mm, standard error mean 1.32 mm). In the supine hip neutral position, the IFS dimensions were 25.1 (SD 5.6) mm. The mean difference between the two positions of 3.15 (3.6) mm was statistically significant (95 % CI of the difference = 1.4 to 4.8 mm, t_1_9 = 3.911, p =.001). The mean IFS dimensions in the hip flexed position were 36.9 (SD 5.7) mm. The mean difference between the two supine positions of 11.8 (4.1) mm was statistically significant (95 % CI of the difference = 9.9 to 13.7 mm, t_1_9 = 12.716, p <.001). Our findings demonstrate that the IFS measurements obtained with MRI are dependent upon patient positioning with respect to hip flexion and supine versus
Variability of ischiofemoral space dimensions with changes in hip flexion: an MRI study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, Adam C.; Howe, Benjamin M. [Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Hollman, John H.; Finnoff, Jonathan T. [Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Rochester, MN (United States)
2017-01-15
The primary aim of this study was to determine if ischiofemoral space (IFS) dimensions vary with changes in hip flexion as a result of placing a bolster behind the knees during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A secondary aim was to determine if IFS dimensions vary between supine and prone hip neutral positions. The study employed a prospective design. Sports medicine center within a tertiary care institution. Five male and five female adult subjects (age mean = 29.2, range = 23-35; body mass index [BMI] mean = 23.5, range = 19.5-26.6) were recruited to participate in the study. An axial, T1-weighted MRI sequence of the pelvis was obtained of each subject in a supine position with their hips in neutral and flexed positions, and in a prone position with their hips in neutral position. Supine hip flexion was induced by placing a standard, 9-cm-diameter MRI knee bolster under the subject's knees. The order of image acquisition (supine hip neutral, supine hip flexed, prone hip neutral) was randomized. The IFS dimensions were then measured on a separate workstation. The investigator performing the IFS measurements was blinded to the subject position for each image. The main outcome measurements were the IFS dimensions acquired with MRI. The mean IFS dimensions in the prone position were 28.25 mm (SD 5.91 mm, standard error mean 1.32 mm). In the supine hip neutral position, the IFS dimensions were 25.1 (SD 5.6) mm. The mean difference between the two positions of 3.15 (3.6) mm was statistically significant (95 % CI of the difference = 1.4 to 4.8 mm, t{sub 19} = 3.911, p =.001). The mean IFS dimensions in the hip flexed position were 36.9 (SD 5.7) mm. The mean difference between the two supine positions of 11.8 (4.1) mm was statistically significant (95 % CI of the difference = 9.9 to 13.7 mm, t{sub 19} = 12.716, p <.001). Our findings demonstrate that the IFS measurements obtained with MRI are dependent upon patient positioning with respect to hip flexion and
Scalar one-loop vertex integrals as meromorphic functions of space-time dimension d
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bluemlein, Johannes; Phan, Khiem Hong; Vietnam National Univ., Ho Chi Minh City; Riemann, Tord; Silesia Univ., Chorzow
2017-11-01
Representations are derived for the basic scalar one-loop vertex Feynman integrals as meromorphic functions of the space-time dimension d in terms of (generalized) hypergeometric functions 2 F 1 and F 1 . Values at asymptotic or exceptional kinematic points as well as expansions around the singular points at d=4+2n, n non-negative integers, may be derived from the representations easily. The Feynman integrals studied here may be used as building blocks for the calculation of one-loop and higher-loop scalar and tensor amplitudes. From the recursion relation presented, higher n-point functions may be obtained in a straightforward manner.
Approximating second-order vector differential operators on distorted meshes in two space dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hermeline, F.
2008-01-01
A new finite volume method is presented for approximating second-order vector differential operators in two space dimensions. This method allows distorted triangle or quadrilateral meshes to be used without the numerical results being too much altered. The matrices that need to be inverted are symmetric positive definite therefore, the most powerful linear solvers can be applied. The method has been tested on a few second-order vector partial differential equations coming from elasticity and fluids mechanics areas. These numerical experiments show that it is second-order accurate and locking-free. (authors)
Z4-symmetric factorized S-matrix in two space-time dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zamolodchikov, A.B.
1979-01-01
The factorized S-matrix with internal symmetry Z 4 is constructed in two space-time dimensions. The two-particle amplitudes are obtained by means of solving the factorization, unitarity and analyticity equations. The solution of factorization equations can be expressed in terms of elliptic functions. The S-matrix cotains the resonance poles naturally. The simple formal relation between the general factorized S-matrices and the Baxter-type lattice transfer matrices is found. In the sense of this relation the Z 4 -symmetric S-matrix corresponds to the Baxter transfer matrix itself. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alvarez-Estrada, R.F.
1979-01-01
A comprehensive review of the inverse scattering solution of certain non-linear evolution equations of physical interest in one space dimension is presented. We explain in some detail the interrelated techniques which allow to linearize exactly the following equations: (1) the Korteweg and de Vries equation; (2) the non-linear Schrodinger equation; (3) the modified Korteweg and de Vries equation; (4) the Sine-Gordon equation. We concentrate in discussing the pairs of linear operators which accomplish such an exact linearization and the solution of the associated initial value problem. The application of the method to other non-linear evolution equations is reviewed very briefly
A discrete classical space-time could require 6 extra-dimensions
Guillemant, Philippe; Medale, Marc; Abid, Cherifa
2018-01-01
We consider a discrete space-time in which conservation laws are computed in such a way that the density of information is kept bounded. We use a 2D billiard as a toy model to compute the uncertainty propagation in ball positions after every shock and the corresponding loss of phase information. Our main result is the computation of a critical time step above which billiard calculations are no longer deterministic, meaning that a multiverse of distinct billiard histories begins to appear, caused by the lack of information. Then, we highlight unexpected properties of this critical time step and the subsequent exponential evolution of the number of histories with time, to observe that after certain duration all billiard states could become possible final states, independent of initial conditions. We conclude that if our space-time is really a discrete one, one would need to introduce extra-dimensions in order to provide supplementary constraints that specify which history should be played.
Scalable implicit methods for reaction-diffusion equations in two and three space dimensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Veronese, S.V.; Othmer, H.G. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)
1996-12-31
This paper describes the implementation of a solver for systems of semi-linear parabolic partial differential equations in two and three space dimensions. The solver is based on a parallel implementation of a non-linear Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) scheme which uses a Cartesian grid in space and an implicit time-stepping algorithm. Various reordering strategies for the linearized equations are used to reduce the stride and improve the overall effectiveness of the parallel implementation. We have successfully used this solver for large-scale reaction-diffusion problems in computational biology and medicine in which the desired solution is a traveling wave that may contain rapid transitions. A number of examples that illustrate the efficiency and accuracy of the method are given here; the theoretical analysis will be presented.
Space-time supersymmetry of extended fermionic strings in 2 + 2 dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ketov, S.V.
1993-04-01
The N = 2 fermionic string theory is revisited in light of its recently proposed equivalence to the non-compact N = 4 fermionic string model. The issues of space-time Lorentz covariance and supersymmetry for the BRST quantized N = 2 strings living in uncompactified 2 + 2 dimensions are discussed. The equivalent local quantum supersymmetric field theory appears to be the most transparent way to represent the space-time symmetries of the extended fermionic strings and their interactions. Our considerations support the Siegel's ideas about the presence of SO(2,2) Lorentz symmetry as well as at least two self-dual space-time supersymmetries in the theory of the N = 2(4) fermionic strings, though we do not have a compelling reason to argue about the necessity of the maximal space-time supersymmetry. The world-sheet arguments about the absence of all string massive modes in the physical spectrum, and the vanishing of all string-loop amplitudes in the Polyakov approach, are given on the basis of general consistency of the theory. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodriguez, Ricardo; Lewis, Winston G
2014-01-01
Adequately identifying and managing hazards at the workplace can be a tedious task which extends into the realm of uncertainty, probability and prediction models in order to fully comprehend the nature of the hazard. As such, organizations cannot be blamed for knowledge gaps in the training of personnel they contract to ensure a safe and healthy work environment, especially where there are latent hazards. Electromagnetic wave propagation at frequencies in the SAR (specific absorption rate) region is a special concern to authorities involved in setting RF (radiofrequency) and microwave exposure guidelines. Despite that there is no conclusive evidence to suggest that non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation causes adverse health effects other than thermal, no effort should be lost to ensure that workers and the public at large are adequately protected from unnecessary exposure to radiation. Standards however set exposure limits for free space, plane wave propagation but fall short in compiling information on intensities of these waves after they undergo reflection and diffraction from wall surfaces. Waveguide technology has managed to constrain microwaves to remain within set boundaries, with fixed frequencies that force the waves to behave differently to if they were moving in free space. This technology has offered the ability to transport more energy for communication purposes other than transmission lines. The size of a waveguide may be to the order of a few centimetres and can guide RF of wavelengths of the order of centimetres also but what if spaces of larger dimensions are capable of being waveguides and can guide waves of larger wavelengths such as those that correspond to frequencies between 30MHz to 300MHz? Such RF waves belong to the SAR region of the spectrum where strict exposure limits are set for health and safety protection since a standing man acts as a dipole antenna for this radiation and can absorb maximum energy from propagating RF waves. This
Rodriguez, Ricardo; Lewis, Winston G.
2014-07-01
Adequately identifying and managing hazards at the workplace can be a tedious task which extends into the realm of uncertainty, probability and prediction models in order to fully comprehend the nature of the hazard. As such, organizations cannot be blamed for knowledge gaps in the training of personnel they contract to ensure a safe and healthy work environment, especially where there are latent hazards. Electromagnetic wave propagation at frequencies in the SAR (specific absorption rate) region is a special concern to authorities involved in setting RF (radiofrequency) and microwave exposure guidelines. Despite that there is no conclusive evidence to suggest that non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation causes adverse health effects other than thermal, no effort should be lost to ensure that workers and the public at large are adequately protected from unnecessary exposure to radiation. Standards however set exposure limits for free space, plane wave propagation but fall short in compiling information on intensities of these waves after they undergo reflection and diffraction from wall surfaces. Waveguide technology has managed to constrain microwaves to remain within set boundaries, with fixed frequencies that force the waves to behave differently to if they were moving in free space. This technology has offered the ability to transport more energy for communication purposes other than transmission lines. The size of a waveguide may be to the order of a few centimetres and can guide RF of wavelengths of the order of centimetres also but what if spaces of larger dimensions are capable of being waveguides and can guide waves of larger wavelengths such as those that correspond to frequencies between 30MHz to 300MHz? Such RF waves belong to the SAR region of the spectrum where strict exposure limits are set for health and safety protection since a standing man acts as a dipole antenna for this radiation and can absorb maximum energy from propagating RF waves. This
Dimensions of design space: a decision-theoretic approach to optimal research design.
Conti, Stefano; Claxton, Karl
2009-01-01
Bayesian decision theory can be used not only to establish the optimal sample size and its allocation in a single clinical study but also to identify an optimal portfolio of research combining different types of study design. Within a single study, the highest societal payoff to proposed research is achieved when its sample sizes and allocation between available treatment options are chosen to maximize the expected net benefit of sampling (ENBS). Where a number of different types of study informing different parameters in the decision problem could be conducted, the simultaneous estimation of ENBS across all dimensions of the design space is required to identify the optimal sample sizes and allocations within such a research portfolio. This is illustrated through a simple example of a decision model of zanamivir for the treatment of influenza. The possible study designs include: 1) a single trial of all the parameters, 2) a clinical trial providing evidence only on clinical endpoints, 3) an epidemiological study of natural history of disease, and 4) a survey of quality of life. The possible combinations, samples sizes, and allocation between trial arms are evaluated over a range of cost-effectiveness thresholds. The computational challenges are addressed by implementing optimization algorithms to search the ENBS surface more efficiently over such large dimensions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rostoker, Norman; Qerushi, Artan
2002-01-01
Self-consistent solutions of the Vlasov-Maxwell equations are obtained. They involve rigid rotor distributions. This selection is justified on physical grounds. For this selection the Vlasov equation can be replaced by moment equations which terminate without any additional assumptions. For one-dimensional equilibria with one type of ion these equations have exact solutions. A complete equilibrium solution appropriate to a field reversed configuration with rotation can be obtained by solving a generalized Grad-Shafranov equation for the flux function. From this solution all other physical quantities can be determined. A Green's function method is developed to solve this equation, which provides a basis for an iterative solution. This method has the advantage that at every iteration the boundary conditions are satisfied. In this paper cylindrical geometry with one space dimension and one type of ion is considered, where analytic solutions are available. The convergence of the Green's function method is established. For this nonlinear problem there is usually more than one solution for completely specified boundary conditions (bifurcation). The present method selects one solution. It is applicable to equilibria with many ion species and to two dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qerushi, Artan; Rostoker, Norman
2002-01-01
In a previous paper [N. Rostoker and A. Qerushi, Phys. Plasmas 9, 3057 (2002)] it was shown that a complete description of equilibria of field reversed configurations with rotation can be obtained by solving a generalized Grad-Shafranov equation for the flux function. In this paper we show how to solve this equation in the case of one space dimension and many ion species. The following fusion fuels are considered: D-T, D-He 3 , and p-B 11 . Using a Green's function the generalized Grad-Shafranov equation is converted to an equivalent integral equation. The integral equation can be solved by iteration. Approximate analytic solutions for a plasma with many ion species are found. They are used as starting trial functions of the iterations. They turn out to be so close to the true solutions that only a few iterations are needed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qerushi, Artan; Rostoker, Norman
2003-01-01
In a previous paper [N. Rostoker and A. Qerushi, Phys. Plasmas 9, 3057 (2002)] a generalized Grad-Shafranov equation for the plasma flux function was derived which provides a complete description of equilibria of field reversed configurations with rotation. In this paper this fundamental equation is solved for two space dimensions and many ion species. The following fusion fuels are considered: D-T, D-He 3 , and p-B 11 . Using periodic boundary conditions the original differential equation is converted to an equivalent integral equation which involves a Green's function. The integral equation is solved by iteration. Approximate solutions are found for all the fusion fuels considered using a two-dimensional equilibrium model for one type of ion [A. Qerushi and N. Rostoker, Phys. Plasmas 9, 5001 (2002)]. They are used as starting trial functions of the iterations. They turn out to be so close to the real solutions that only a few iterations are needed
Gerencsér, Máté; Jentzen, Arnulf; Salimova, Diyora
2017-11-01
In a recent article (Jentzen et al. 2016 Commun. Math. Sci. 14 , 1477-1500 (doi:10.4310/CMS.2016.v14.n6.a1)), it has been established that, for every arbitrarily slow convergence speed and every natural number d ∈{4,5,…}, there exist d -dimensional stochastic differential equations with infinitely often differentiable and globally bounded coefficients such that no approximation method based on finitely many observations of the driving Brownian motion can converge in absolute mean to the solution faster than the given speed of convergence. In this paper, we strengthen the above result by proving that this slow convergence phenomenon also arises in two ( d =2) and three ( d =3) space dimensions.
Principles of space-time-matter cosmology, particles and waves in five dimensions
Overduin, James
2018-01-01
This book is a summing up of the prospects for unification between relativity and particle physics based on the extension of Einstein's theory of General Relativity to five dimensions. This subject was first established by Paul Wesson in his previous best-seller, Space-Time-Matter, and discussed from a different perspective in Five-Dimensional Physics, both published by World Scientific in 1999 and 2006 respectively. This third book brings the field up to date and details many new developments and connections to particle theory and wave mechanics in particular. It was in largely finished form at the time of Paul Wesson's untimely death in 2015, and has been completed and expanded by his former student and longtime collaborator, James Overduin.
Scalar one-loop vertex integrals as meromorphic functions of space-time dimension d
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bluemlein, Johannes [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Phan, Khiem Hong [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Vietnam National Univ., Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam). Univ. of Science; Riemann, Tord [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Silesia Univ., Chorzow (Poland). Inst. of Physics
2017-11-15
Representations are derived for the basic scalar one-loop vertex Feynman integrals as meromorphic functions of the space-time dimension d in terms of (generalized) hypergeometric functions {sub 2}F{sub 1} and F{sub 1}. Values at asymptotic or exceptional kinematic points as well as expansions around the singular points at d=4+2n, n non-negative integers, may be derived from the representations easily. The Feynman integrals studied here may be used as building blocks for the calculation of one-loop and higher-loop scalar and tensor amplitudes. From the recursion relation presented, higher n-point functions may be obtained in a straightforward manner.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shin, Y.W.; Wiedermann, A.H.
1979-10-01
A solution method is presented for transient, homogeneous, equilibrium, two-phase flows of a single-component fluid in one space dimension. The method combines a direct finite-difference procedure and the method of characteristics. The finite-difference procedure solves the interior points of the computing domain; the boundary information is provided by a separate procedure based on the characteristics theory. The solution procedure for boundary points requires information in addition to the physical boundary conditions. This additional information is obtained by a new procedure involving integration of characteristics in the hodograph plane. Sample problems involving various combinations of basic boundary types are calculated for two-phase water/steam mixtures and single-phase nitrogen gas, and compared with independent method-of-characteristics solutions using very fine characteristic mesh. In all cases, excellent agreement is demonstrated
Connection between Feynman integrals having different values of the space-time dimension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tarasov, O.V.
1996-05-01
A systematic algorithm for obtaining recurrence relations for dimensionally regularized Feynman integrals w.r.t. the space-time dimension d is proposed. The relation between d and d-2 dimensional integrals is given in terms of a differential operator for which an explicit formula can be obtained for each Feynman diagram. We show how the method works for one-, two- and three-loop integrals. The new recurrence relations w.r.t. d are complementary to the recurrence relations which derive from the method of integration by parts. We find that the problem of the irreducible numerators in Feynman integrals can be naturally solved in the framework of the proposed generalized recurrence relations. (orig.)
Barsten, Kristina; Hurst, Victor, IV; Scheuring, Richard; Baumann, David K.; Johnson-Throop, Kathy
2010-01-01
Introduction: Analogue environments assist the NASA Human Research Program (HRP) in developing capabilities to mitigate high risk issues to crew health and performance for space exploration. The Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) is an analogue habitat used to assess space-related products for planetary missions. The Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) was tasked with developing planetary-relevant medical scenarios to evaluate the concept of operations for mitigating medical issues in such an environment. Methods: Two medical scenarios were conducted within the simulated planetary habitat with the crew executing two space flight-relevant procedures: Eye Examination with a corneal injury and Skin Laceration. Remote guidance for the crew was provided by a flight surgeon (FS) stationed at a console outside of the habitat. Audio and video data were collected to capture the communication between the crew and the FS, as well as the movements of the crew executing the procedures. Questionnaire data regarding procedure content and remote guidance performance also were collected from the crew immediately after the sessions. Results: Preliminary review of the audio, video, and questionnaire data from the two scenarios conducted within the HDU indicate that remote guidance techniques from an FS on console can help crew members within a planetary habitat mitigate planetary-relevant medical issues. The content and format of the procedures were considered concise and intuitive, respectively. Discussion: Overall, the preliminary data from the evaluation suggest that use of remote guidance techniques by a FS can help HDU crew execute space exploration-relevant medical procedures within a habitat relevant to planetary missions, however further evaluations will be needed to implement this strategy into the complete concept of operations for conducting general space medicine within similar environments
Zhang, William W.
2010-01-01
The International X-ray Observatory (IXO) is the next major space X-ray observatory, performing both imaging and spectroscopic studies of all kinds of objects in the Universe. It is a collaborative mission of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the United States, the European Space Agency, and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. It is to be launched into a Sun-Earth L2 orbit in 2021. One of the most challenging aspects of the mission is the construction of a flight mirror assembly capable focusing X-rays in the band of 0.1 to 40 keY with an angular resolution of better than 5 arc-seconds and with an effective collection area of more than 3 sq m. The mirror assembly will consist of approximately 15,000 parabolic and hyperbolic mirror segments, each of which is approximately 200mm by 300mm with a thickness of 0.4mm. The manufacture and qualification of these mirror segments and their integration into the giant mirror assembly have been the objectives of a vigorous technology development program at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Each of these mirror segments needs to be measured and qualified for both optical figure and mechanical dimensions. In this talk, I will describe the technology program with a particular emphasis on a measurement system we are developing to meet those requirements, including the use of coordinate measuring machines, Fizeau interferometers, and custom-designed, and -built null lens. This system is capable of measuring highly off-axis aspherical or cylindrical mirrors with repeatability, accuracy, and speed.
Unsplit schemes for hyperbolic conservation laws with source terms in one space dimension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Papalexandris, M.V.; Leonard, A.; Dimotakis, P.E.
1997-01-01
The present work is concerned with an application of the theory of characteristics to conservation laws with source terms in one space dimension, such as the Euler equations for reacting flows. Space-time paths are introduced on which the flow/chemistry equations decouple to a characteristic set of ODE's for the corresponding homogeneous laws, thus allowing the introduction of functions analogous to the Riemann invariants in classical theory. The geometry of these paths depends on the spatial gradients of the solution. This particular decomposition can be used in the design of efficient unsplit algorithms for the numerical integration of the equations. As a first step, these ideas are implemented for the case of a scalar conservation law with a nonlinear source term. The resulting algorithm belongs to the class of MUSCL-type, shock-capturing schemes. Its accuracy and robustness are checked through a series of tests. The stiffness of the source term is also studied. Then, the algorithm is generalized for a system of hyperbolic equations, namely the Euler equations for reacting flows. A numerical study of unstable detonations is performed. 57 refs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Valdir Anhucci
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The consolidation of the political dimension of the Councils of Rights is linked to its understanding as plural public spaces, divergence and the constant struggle of ideas. The political dimension becomes crucial, especially in the process of defining and managing the public budget for both planning and to expand the debate on the allocation of financial resources for the implementation of public policies. It is this space that the different interests manifest themselves, becoming a field of political struggle for the appropriation of public resources in ensuring the rights and social protection of the most disenfranchised segments of society. The public budget in the spaces of advice gained a political dimension, the prospect of mere instrument accounting
KOBRA 3 - a code for the calculation of space-charge-influenced trajectories in 3-dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spaedtke, P.; Wipf, S.
1989-06-01
KOBRA3 is a three-dimensional multi-purpose program, written in standard FORTRAN77. The main purpose of the program is to calculate the trajectories of charged particles through a static electro-magnetic field in three dimensions. If space charge is not negligible its influence is taken into account by an iterative process. The Laplace equation is solved for the scalar potential. During the ray tracing, in which the equations of motion for charged particles are solved, the space charge term in the Poisson equation is distributed onto the mesh. By repeating this procedure the steady-state Vlasov equation is solved: ∇ 2 φ+∫∫∫f p dxdydz = 0, where φ is the electro-static potential and f p (r vector, v vector) describes the distribution of the charged particles in space. KOBRA3 can handle finite plasma boundaries, which are found by the program automatically. Special features are included within the program to investigate the beam quality (emittance, transverse energy), and to display the geometry, the trajectories and the potential and magnetic fields graphically. The modular structure of the program enables the user to create his (her) own diagnostic programs or interfaces to the main program. This report is intended to facilitate the use of KOBRA3 by describing the theory, structure and numerical methods used. At GSI (Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung) the program runs on an IBM 3090-40E. The program has been installed on other machines e.g. CRAY XM-P, CRAY II, VAX 8600, IBM 3090-200, IBM 3033, ATARI ST, IBM-AT. (orig./HSI)
Smits, Ilse; Soenens, Bart; Luyckx, Koen; Duriez, Bart; Berzonsky, Michael; Goossens, Luc
2008-01-01
This study examined the relationships between crucial dimensions of perceived parenting (support, behavioral control, and psychological control) and the three identity styles defined by Berzonsky [Berzonsky, M. D. (1990). "Self-construction over the life span: A process perspective on identity formation." "Advances in Personal Construct…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marianna Forleo
2012-10-01
Full Text Available In the last centuries, the relationship between science and literature has had numerous manifestations. One of the most interesting aspects was the use of the scientific language in utopian Victorian texts. The analysis of Flatland, a Romance of Many Dimensions by Edwin Abbott is a starting point for the description of utopian cities, where literature uses science as a technical tool for the explanation of the world. Science becomes a clear metaphor of a rational organization and strategic element for spreading “subliminal” messages. The combination between utopia and science can seem exclusively a theoretical and philosophical relationship, but in reality, it is only a tool to approach the utopian practice. The main feature of utopian texts is its criticism of society, which is made possible only if hidden in metaphorical terms. Indeed, Flatland, as many other mathematical utopias, presents itself as a multidimensional text. The use of geometric structures for the description of utopian spaces allows several interpretations. Science and literature intertwine throughout the text but nevertheless keep their own distinct features.
Adaptive mesh refinement with spectral accuracy for magnetohydrodynamics in two space dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosenberg, D; Pouquet, A; Mininni, P D
2007-01-01
We examine the effect of accuracy of high-order spectral element methods, with or without adaptive mesh refinement (AMR), in the context of a classical configuration of magnetic reconnection in two space dimensions, the so-called Orszag-Tang (OT) vortex made up of a magnetic X-point centred on a stagnation point of the velocity. A recently developed spectral-element adaptive refinement incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code is applied to simulate this problem. The MHD solver is explicit, and uses the Elsaesser formulation on high-order elements. It automatically takes advantage of the adaptive grid mechanics that have been described elsewhere in the fluid context (Rosenberg et al 2006 J. Comput. Phys. 215 59-80); the code allows both statically refined and dynamically refined grids. Tests of the algorithm using analytic solutions are described, and comparisons of the OT solutions with pseudo-spectral computations are performed. We demonstrate for moderate Reynolds numbers that the algorithms using both static and refined grids reproduce the pseudo-spectral solutions quite well. We show that low-order truncation-even with a comparable number of global degrees of freedom-fails to correctly model some strong (sup-norm) quantities in this problem, even though it satisfies adequately the weak (integrated) balance diagnostics
El Naschie's ε (∞) space-time and scale relativity theory in the topological dimension D = 4
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agop, M.; Murgulet, C.
2007-01-01
In the topological dimension D = 4 of the scale relativity theory, the self-structuring of a coherent quantum fluid implies the Golden mean renormalization group. Then, the transfinite set of El Naschie's ε (∞) space-time becomes the background of a new physics (the transfinite physics)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fradkin, E.S.; Metsaev, R.R.
1996-02-01
Using the language of highest weight representations and the light cone formalism we construct a full list of cubic amplitudes of scattering for all bosonic massless representations of the Poincare group in any even space-time dimension. (author). 29 refs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Clausen, Anders; Hu, Hao; Ye, Feihong
2015-01-01
Increasing the capacity of optical networks while have the objective of lowering the total consumed energy per bit is challenging. By exploiting several dimensions, i.e. wavelength, space, time, polarisation and multilevel modulation simultaneously, a single laser can offer formidable capacity pe...... performance with potentially reduced energy consumption per bit. Up to 43 Tbit/s has been demonstrated....
Staff, space, and time as dimensions of organizational slack: a psychometric assessment.
Mallidou, Anastasia A; Cummings, Greta G; Ginsburg, Liane R; Chuang, You-Ta; Kang, Sunghyun; Norton, Peter G; Estabrooks, Carole A
2011-01-01
: In the theoretical and research literature, organizational slack has been largely described in terms of financial resources and its impact on organizational outcomes. However, empirical research is limited by unclear definitions and lack of standardized measures. : The aim of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of a new organizational slack measure in health care settings. : A total of 752 nurses and 197 allied health care professionals (AHCPs) employed in seven pediatric Canadian hospitals completed the Alberta Context Tool, an instrument measuring organizational context, which includes the newly developed organizational slack measure. The nine-item, 5-point Likert organizational slack measure includes items assessing staff perceptions of available human resources (staffing), time, and space. We report psychometric assessments, bivariate analyses, and data aggregation indices for the measure. : The findings indicate that the measure has three subscales (staff, space, and time) with acceptable internal consistency reliability (alphas for staff, space, and time, respectively:.83,.63, and.74 for nurses;.81,.52, and.76 for AHCPs), links theory and hypotheses (construct validity), and is related to other relevant variables. Within-group reliability measures indicate stronger agreement among nurses than AHCPs, more reliable aggregation results in all three subscales at the unit versus facility level, and higher explained variance and validity of aggregated scores at the unit level. : The proposed organizational slack measure assesses modifiable organizational factors in hospitals and has the potential to explain variance in important health care system outcomes. Further assessments of the psychometric properties of the organizational slack measure in acute and long-term care facilities are underway.
Computer program to fit a hyperellipse to a set of phase-space points in as many as six dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wadlinger, E.A.
1980-03-01
A computer program that will fit a hyperellipse to a set of phase-space points in as many as 6 dimensions was written and tested. The weight assigned to the phase-space points can be varied as a function of their distance from the centroid of the distribution. Varying the weight enables determination of whether there is a difference in ellipse orientation between inner and outer particles. This program should be useful in studying the effects of longitudinal and transverse phase-space couplings
Smits, Ilse; Soenens, Bart; Luyckx, Koen; Duriez, Bart; Berzonsky, Michael; Goossens, Luc
2008-04-01
This study examined the relationships between crucial dimensions of perceived parenting (support, behavioral control, and psychological control) and the three identity styles defined by Berzonsky [Berzonsky, M. D. (1990). Self-construction over the life span: A process perspective on identity formation. Advances in Personal Construct Psychology, 1, 155-186.]. Each identity style was hypothesized to relate to a specific pattern of perceived parenting dimensions. Hypotheses were examined in a sample of middle and late adolescents (n=674). An information-oriented style was positively predicted by parental support. Contrary to expectations, however, an information-oriented style was also positively predicted by psychological control. A normative identity style was positively predicted by support and behavioral control. In line with expectations, a diffuse-avoidant identity style was positively predicted by psychological control and negatively by maternal (but not paternal) behavioral control. Findings are discussed in light of the literature on the socialization of identity formation and directions for future research are outlined.
Research on intercultural effectiveness and its relevance to multicultural crews in space.
Kealey, Daniel J
2004-07-01
The planning for and managing of missions in space is changing dramatically due to, among other things, the involvement of more and more national cultures. In light of the need to better understand the influence and management of cultural differences among the crewmembers who will live and work in space in the future, the aim of this paper is threefold. First, some of the key research findings on intercultural effectiveness on Earth are presented and their relevance to the functioning of multicultural crews in space is discussed. Second, issues that will need to be addressed in order to maximize the effective functioning of multicultural teams in space are identified. These include improving the procedures for the screening and selection, intercultural training, monitoring and support, and debriefing and re-entry of astronauts and their families. Finally, the paper concludes with the presentation and discussion of some of the key activities that will need to be undertaken to address these issues and, thereby, enhance the overall functioning of multicultural teams living and working in space.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gui Xuewen; Cai Qi; Luo Bangqi
2007-01-01
A two-group three-dimension space-time neutron kinetics model is applied to the RELAP5 code, which replaces the point reactor kinetics model. A visual operation interface is designed to convenience interactive operation between operator and computer. The calculation results and practical applications indicate that the functions and precision of improved RELAP5 are enhanced and can be easily used. The improved RELAP5 has a good application perspective in nuclear power plant simulation. (authors)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Furkan Erol Karabekmez
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to assess the velopharyngeal dimensions using cephalometric variables of the nasopharynx and oropharynx as well as to compare the Le Fort I osteotomy technique to Zisser’s anterior maxillary osteotomy technique based on patients’ outcomes within early and late postoperative follow-ups. 15 patients with severe maxillary deficiency treated with Le Fort I osteotomy and maxillary segmental osteotomy were assessed. Preoperative, early postoperative, and late postoperative follow-up lateral cephalograms, patient histories, and operative reports are reviewed with a focus on defined cephalometric landmarks for assessing velopharyngeal space dimension and maxillary movement (measured for three different tracing points. A significant change was found between preoperative and postoperative lateral cephalometric measurements regarding the distance between the posterior nasal spine and the posterior pharyngeal wall in Le Fort I osteotomy cases. However, no significant difference was found between preoperative and postoperative measurements in maxillary segmental osteotomy cases regarding the same measurements. The velopharyngeal area calculated for the Le Fort I osteotomy group showed a significant difference between the preoperative and postoperative measurements. Le Fort I osteotomy for advancement of upper jaw increases velopharyngeal space. On the other hand, Zisser’s anterior maxillary segmental osteotomy does not alter the dimension of the velopharyngeal space significantly.
A k-space method for acoustic propagation using coupled first-order equations in three dimensions.
Tillett, Jason C; Daoud, Mohammad I; Lacefield, James C; Waag, Robert C
2009-09-01
A previously described two-dimensional k-space method for large-scale calculation of acoustic wave propagation in tissues is extended to three dimensions. The three-dimensional method contains all of the two-dimensional method features that allow accurate and stable calculation of propagation. These features are spectral calculation of spatial derivatives, temporal correction that produces exact propagation in a homogeneous medium, staggered spatial and temporal grids, and a perfectly matched boundary layer. Spectral evaluation of spatial derivatives is accomplished using a fast Fourier transform in three dimensions. This computational bottleneck requires all-to-all communication; execution time in a parallel implementation is therefore sensitive to node interconnect latency and bandwidth. Accuracy of the three-dimensional method is evaluated through comparisons with exact solutions for media having spherical inhomogeneities. Large-scale calculations in three dimensions were performed by distributing the nearly 50 variables per voxel that are used to implement the method over a cluster of computers. Two computer clusters used to evaluate method accuracy are compared. Comparisons of k-space calculations with exact methods including absorption highlight the need to model accurately the medium dispersion relationships, especially in large-scale media. Accurately modeled media allow the k-space method to calculate acoustic propagation in tissues over hundreds of wavelengths.
Hydrogen atom in space with a compactified extra dimension and potential defined by Gauss' law
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Bureš, M.; Siegl, Petr
2015-01-01
Roč. 354, MAR (2015), s. 316-327 ISSN 0003-4916 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GD202/08/H072 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : extra dimensions * hydrogen atom * quantum stability Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 2.375, year: 2015
Re-Imagining Spaces, Collectivity, and the Political Dimension of Contemporary Art
Peters, Clorinde
2015-01-01
In a neoliberal moment of cultural production marked by commodification and the dominance of economic values, it is necessary to investigate the cultural, social, and aesthetic value of art. By examining Herbert Marcuse's aesthetic dimension, this article seeks to locate the political and pedagogic potential both in the aesthetics and in the…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suddle, Shahid; Ale, Ben
2005-01-01
Buildings above roads and railways are examples of multiple use of space. Safety is one of the critical issues for such projects. Risk analyses can be undertaken to investigate what safety measures that are required to realise these projects. The results of these analyses can also be compared to risk acceptance criteria, if they are applicable. In The Netherlands, there are explicit criteria for acceptability of individual risk and societal risk. Traditionally calculations of individual risk result in contours of equal risk on a map and thus are considered in two-dimensional space only. However, when different functions are layered the third spatial dimension, height, becomes an important parameter. The various activities and structures above and below each other impose mutual risks. There are no explicit norms or policies about how to deal with the individual or group risk approach in the third dimension. This paper proposes an approach for these problems and gives some examples. Finally, the third dimension risk approach is applied in a case study of Bos en Lommer, Amsterdam
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hollmuller, P.; Lachal, B. [Universite de Geneve, Centre Universitaire d' Etude des Problemes de l' Energie (CUEPE), Geneve (Switzerland); Pahud, D. [Scuola Universitaria Professionale della Svizzera Italiana (SUPSI), Laboratorio Energia Ecologia ed Economia (LEEE), Trevano-Canobbio (Switzerland)
2005-07-01
The study performed by two Swiss universities considers two types of passive systems for space cooling: geocooling using vertical underground borehole heat exchangers and geocooling by means of horizontal underground heat exchangers placed at low depth ('canadian wells'). The goal of the study was to summarize the experience gained from ten existing Swiss geocooling installations in order to establish a basis for a dimensioning manual for future projects. For both types of geothermal probes, rules of the thumb were derived. Methods for dimensioning the heat exchangers based on computer simulation of various complexity are also presented. Presently, the least known factor is the coupling of the building to the cooling source. Therefore, future geocooling systems should be considered as an integral part of a building and not just as an additional cooling system.
Gauge-Higgs Unification Models in Six Dimensions with S2/Z2 Extra Space and GUT Gauge Symmetry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cheng-Wei Chiang
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We review gauge-Higgs unification models based on gauge theories defined on six-dimensional spacetime with S2/Z2 topology in the extra spatial dimensions. Nontrivial boundary conditions are imposed on the extra S2/Z2 space. This review considers two scenarios for constructing a four-dimensional theory from the six-dimensional model. One scheme utilizes the SO(12 gauge symmetry with a special symmetry condition imposed on the gauge field, whereas the other employs the E6 gauge symmetry without requiring the additional symmetry condition. Both models lead to a standard model-like gauge theory with the SU(3×SU(2L×U(1Y(×U(12 symmetry and SM fermions in four dimensions. The Higgs sector of the model is also analyzed. The electroweak symmetry breaking can be realized, and the weak gauge boson and Higgs boson masses are obtained.
Madgin, Rebecca; Bradley, Lisa; Hastings, Annette
2016-01-01
This paper is concerned with the ways in which people form attachments to recreational spaces. More specifically it examines the relationship between recreational spaces associated with sporting activity in urban neighbourhoods and place attachment. The focus is on the ways in which changes to these spaces exposes the affective bonds between people and their surroundings. The paper applies a qualitative methodology, namely focus groups and photo elicitation, to the case study of Parkhead, a neighbourhood in the East End of Glasgow. Parkhead has historically been subjected to successive waves of redevelopment as a result of deindustrialization in the late twentieth century. More recently redevelopment associated with the 2014 Commonwealth Games involved further changes to neighbourhood recreational spaces, including refurbishing of existing sports facilities and building new ones. This paper reflects on the cumulative impacts of this redevelopment to conclude (a) that recreational sports spaces provoke multi-layered and complex attachments that are inextricably connected to both temporal and spatial narratives and (b) that research on neighbourhood recreational spaces can develop our understanding of the intricate relationship between the social and physical dimensions of place attachment.
Ob the Froissart-Martin bound in spaces with compact dimensions
Petrov, V A
2002-01-01
It is shown by the example of the 5-dimensional space-time, that by availability of the additional compact (space-time-like) measurements to the general Minkowski space all the conditions for proving the Froissart-Martin bound retain their force. Thus, by the circumference R -> 0 the theory smoothly transfers to the theory of the neutral scalar field in the 4-dimensional Minkowski space-time. It was assumed in this work, that the masses are bound from below by the non-zero value. The bounds for elastic scattering by absence of the mass gap are trivial, however in this case it is obviously possible to obtain also nontrivial bounds for complete inelastic cross sections. It takes place in the Regge-eikonal approach though there exist no strong proof for it
Asymptotic behavior of solutions of the damped Boussinesq equation in two space dimensions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vladimir V. Varlamov
1999-01-01
classical solution is proved and the solution is constructed in the form of a series. The major term of its long-time asymptotics is calculated explicitly and a uniform in space estimate of the residual term is given.
Niemi, Antti; Collier, Nathan; Calo, Victor M.
2013-01-01
We revisit the finite element analysis of convection-dominated flow problems within the recently developed Discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin (DPG) variational framework. We demonstrate how test function spaces that guarantee numerical stability can be computed automatically with respect to the optimal test space norm. This makes the DPG method not only stable but also robust, that is, uniformly stable with respect to the Péclet number in the current application. We employ discontinuous piecewise Bernstein polynomials as trial functions and construct a subgrid discretization that accounts for the singular perturbation character of the problem to resolve the corresponding optimal test functions. We also show that a smooth B-spline basis has certain computational advantages in the subgrid discretization. The overall effectiveness of the algorithm is demonstrated on two problems for the linear advection-diffusion equation. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Niemi, Antti
2013-05-01
We revisit the finite element analysis of convection-dominated flow problems within the recently developed Discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin (DPG) variational framework. We demonstrate how test function spaces that guarantee numerical stability can be computed automatically with respect to the optimal test space norm. This makes the DPG method not only stable but also robust, that is, uniformly stable with respect to the Péclet number in the current application. We employ discontinuous piecewise Bernstein polynomials as trial functions and construct a subgrid discretization that accounts for the singular perturbation character of the problem to resolve the corresponding optimal test functions. We also show that a smooth B-spline basis has certain computational advantages in the subgrid discretization. The overall effectiveness of the algorithm is demonstrated on two problems for the linear advection-diffusion equation. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grosche, C.
1993-10-01
In this paper path integration in two- and three-dimensional spaces of constant curvature is discussed: i.e. the flat spaces R 2 and R 3 , the two- and three-dimensional sphere and the two- and three dimensional pseudosphere. The Laplace operator in these spaces admits separation of variables in various coordinate systems. In all these coordinate systems the path integral formulation will be stated, however in most of them an explicit solution in terms of the spectral expansion can be given only on a formal level. What can be stated in all cases, are the propagator and the corresponding Green function, respectively, depending on the invariant distance which is a coordinate independent quantity. This property gives rise to numerous identities connecting the corresponding path integral representations and propagators in various coordinate systems with each other. (orig.)
Waalkens, Holger; Burbanks, Andrew; Wiggins, Stephen
2004-01-01
The three-dimensional hydrogen cyanide/isocyanide isomerization problem is taken as an example to present a general theory for computing the phase space structures which govern classical reaction dynamics in systems with an arbitrary (finite) number of degrees of freedom. The theory, which is
Dimensions of Learning: Community College Students and Their Perceptions of Learning Spaces
Bowers, Hugh Hawes, III
2016-01-01
Classrooms, both by design and by accident, have been used to teach and reinforce certain ethics and ideologies. Examining the actual structures of a classroom one can recognize forces often hidden or considered background revealing how students and instructors together are culturally bound by educational spaces. Considerable research exists that…
An improvement of dimension-free Sobolev imbeddings in r spaces
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Fiorenza, A.; Krbec, Miroslav; Schmeisser, H.-J.
2014-01-01
Roč. 267, č. 1 (2014), s. 243-261 ISSN 0022-1236 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/1920 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : imbedding theorem * small Lebesgue space * rearrangement-invariant Banach Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.322, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022123614001724
Schwinger functions for the Yukawa model in two dimensions with space-time cutoff
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seiler, E.
1975-01-01
It is shown that a Euclidean version of the formulae of Matthews and Salam for the Green's functions of a two-dimensional Yukawa model with interaction in a finite space-time volume makes sense, if renormalized correctly. (orig.) [de
Infinite-parametric extension of the conformal algebra in D>2 space-time dimension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fradkin, E.S.; Linetsky, V.Ya.
1990-09-01
On the basis of the analytic continuations of semisimple Lie algebras discovered recently by us we construct manifestly quasiconformal infinite-dimensional algebras AC(so(4,1)) and PAC(so(3,2)) extending the conformal algebras in three-dimensional Euclidean and Minkowski space-time like the Virasoro algebra extends so(2,1). Their higher spin generalizations are also constructed. A counterpart of the central extension for D>2 and possible applications in exactly solvable conformal quantum field models in D>2 are discussed. (author). 31 refs, 2 figs
Moduli space of self-dual connections in dimension greater than four for abelian Gauge groups
Cappelle, Natacha
2018-01-01
In 1954, C. Yang and R. Mills created a Gauge Theory for strong interaction of Elementary Particles. More generally, they proved that it is possible to define a Gauge Theory with an arbitrary compact Lie group as Gauge group. Within this context, it is interesting to find critical values of a functional defined on the space of connections: the Yang-Mills functional. If the based manifold is four dimensional, there exists a natural notion of (anti-)self-dual 2-form, which gives a natural notio...
Skeleton series and multivaluedness of the self-energy functional in zero space-time dimensions
Rossi, Riccardo; Werner, Félix
2015-12-01
Recently, Kozik, Ferrero and Georges discovered numerically that for a family of fundamental models of interacting fermions, the self-energy {{Σ }}[G] is a multi-valued functional of the fully dressed single-particle propagator G, and that the skeleton diagrammatic series {{{Σ }}}{{bold}}[G] converges to the wrong branch above a critical interaction strength. We consider the zero space-time dimensional case, where the same mathematical phenomena appear from elementary algebra. We also find a similar phenomenology for the fully bold formalism built on the fully dressed single-particle propagator and pair propagator.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Martin Lachmair
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to test the functional relevance of the spatial concepts UP or DOWN for words that use these concepts either literally (space or metaphorically (time, valence. A functional relevance would imply a symmetrical relationship between the spatial concepts and words related to these concepts, showing that processing words activate the related spatial concepts on one hand, but also that an activation of the concepts will ease the retrieval of a related word on the other. For the latter, the rotation angle of participant's body position was manipulated either to an upright or a head-down tilted body position to activate the related spatial concept. Afterwards participants produced in a within-subject design previously memorized words of the concepts space, time and valence according to the pace of a metronome. All words were related either to the spatial concept UP or DOWN. The results including Bayesian analyses show (1 a significant interaction between body position and words using the concepts UP and DOWN literally, (2 a marginal significant interaction between body position and temporal words and (3 no effect between body position and valence words. However, post-hoc analyses suggest no difference between experiments. Thus, the authors concluded that integrating sensorimotor experiences is indeed of functional relevance for all three concepts of space, time and valence. However, the strength of this functional relevance depends on how close words are linked to mental concepts representing vertical space.
Rabal, Obdulia; Oyarzabal, Julen
2012-05-25
The definition and pragmatic implementation of biologically relevant chemical space is critical in addressing navigation strategies in the overlapping regions where chemistry and therapeutically relevant targets reside and, therefore, also key to performing an efficient drug discovery project. Here, we describe the development and implementation of a simple and robust method for representing biologically relevant chemical space as a general reference according to current knowledge, independently of any reference space, and analyzing chemical structures accordingly. Underlying our method is the generation of a novel descriptor (LiRIf) that converts structural information into a one-dimensional string accounting for the plausible ligand-receptor interactions as well as for topological information. Capitalizing on ligand-receptor interactions as a descriptor enables the clustering, profiling, and comparison of libraries of compounds from a chemical biology and medicinal chemistry perspective. In addition, as a case study, R-groups analysis is performed to identify the most populated ligand-receptor interactions according to different target families (GPCR, kinases, etc.), as well as to evaluate the coverage of biologically relevant chemical space by structures annotated in different databases (ChEMBL, Glida, etc.).
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Müller, Emmanuel; Assent, Ira; Günnemann, Stephan
2009-01-01
Subspace clustering aims at detecting clusters in any subspace projection of a high dimensional space. As the number of possible subspace projections is exponential in the number of dimensions, the result is often tremendously large. Recent approaches fail to reduce results to relevant subspace...... clusters. Their results are typically highly redundant, i.e. many clusters are detected multiple times in several projections. In this work, we propose a novel model for relevant subspace clustering (RESCU). We present a global optimization which detects the most interesting non-redundant subspace clusters...... achieves top clustering quality while competing approaches show greatly varying performance....
CERN. Geneva
2018-01-01
This talk presents an approach to identify those characteristics of the neural network inputs that are most relevant for the response and therefore provides essential information to determine the systematic uncertainties.
Liu, Yurong; Buckley, Conor Timothy; Almeida, Henrique V; Mulhall, Kevin J; Kelly, Daniel John
2014-11-01
A therapy for regenerating large cartilaginous lesions within the articular surface of osteoarthritic joints remains elusive. While tissue engineering strategies such as matrix-assisted autologous chondrocyte implantation can be used in the repair of focal cartilage defects, extending such approaches to the treatment of osteoarthritis will require a number of scientific and technical challenges to be overcome. These include the identification of an abundant source of chondroprogenitor cells that maintain their chondrogenic capacity in disease, as well as the development of novel approaches to engineer scalable cartilaginous grafts that could be used to resurface large areas of damaged joints. In this study, it is first demonstrated that infrapatellar fat pad-derived stem cells (FPSCs) isolated from osteoarthritic (OA) donors possess a comparable chondrogenic capacity to FPSCs isolated from patients undergoing ligament reconstruction. In a further validation of their functionality, we also demonstrate that FPSCs from OA donors respond to the application of physiological levels of cyclic hydrostatic pressure by increasing aggrecan gene expression and the production of sulfated glycosaminoglycans. We next explored whether cartilaginous grafts could be engineered with diseased human FPSCs using a self-assembly or scaffold-free approach. After examining a range of culture conditions, it was found that continuous supplementation with both transforming growth factor-β3 (TGF-β3) and bone morphogenic protein-6 (BMP-6) promoted the development of tissues rich in proteoglycans and type II collagen. The final phase of the study sought to scale-up this approach to engineer cartilaginous grafts of clinically relevant dimensions (≥2 cm in diameter) by assembling FPSCs onto electrospun PLLA fiber membranes. Over 6 weeks in culture, it was possible to generate robust, flexible cartilage-like grafts of scale, opening up the possibility that tissues engineered using FPSCs
Relevance of the futron/zogby survey conclusions to the current space tourism industry
Ziliotto, Véronique
2010-06-01
Thanks to recent technological achievements such as Burt Rutan's SpaceShipOne in 2004, Bigelow's Genesis I in July 2006 and Genesis II in July 2007 and the success of space adventures' flights to the ISS, space tourism is leaving the realm of science-fiction. It is now becoming increasingly familiar to the general public and even recognized by institutional bodies. The Futron/Zogby survey, revised in 2006 and completed with the 2006. Adventurers survey constitutes a good basis to understanding the characteristics of the nascent suborbital market and the profile of the potential customers for both suborbital and orbital travel. The previsions of these studies will be contrasted with recent market and customers' data that was not available at the time.
Low-energy ion bombardment of frozen bacterial spores and its relevance to interplanetary space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tuleta, M.; Gabla, L.; Szkarlat, A.
2005-01-01
The panspermia hypothesis is concerned with the dissemination of life in space in the form of simple micro-organisms. During an interplanetary journey the micro-organisms are subjected to the action of, among others, the solar wind. We have simulated experimentally such conditions bombarding frozen bacterial spores with low-energy hydrogen ions. On the basis of the results obtained and our earlier research, a new look at the panspermia hypothesis is discussed. The general conclusion is that unprotected naked spores, their conglomerates and protected spores can survive attack of the solar wind, although to various degrees. (authors)
Low-energy ion bombardment of frozen bacterial spores and its relevance to interplanetary space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tuleta, M.; Gabla, L. [Jagiellonian Univ., Institute of Physics, Cracow (Poland); Szkarlat, A. [Clinical Children' s Hospital of the Jagiellonian Univ., Medical College, Lab. of Microbiology, Cracow (Poland)
2005-04-01
The panspermia hypothesis is concerned with the dissemination of life in space in the form of simple micro-organisms. During an interplanetary journey the micro-organisms are subjected to the action of, among others, the solar wind. We have simulated experimentally such conditions bombarding frozen bacterial spores with low-energy hydrogen ions. On the basis of the results obtained and our earlier research, a new look at the panspermia hypothesis is discussed. The general conclusion is that unprotected naked spores, their conglomerates and protected spores can survive attack of the solar wind, although to various degrees. (authors)
Krull dimension in modal logic
Bezhanishvili, G.; Bezhanishvili, N.; Lucero-Bryan, J.; van Mill, J.
2017-01-01
We develop the theory of Krull dimension for S4-algebras and Heyting algebras. This leads to the concept of modal Krull dimension for topological spaces. We compare modal Krull dimension to other well-known dimension functions, and show that it can detect differences between topological spaces that
Accelerator-Based Studies of Heavy Ion Interactions Relevant to Space Biomedicine
Miller, J.; Heilbronn, L.; Zeitlin, C.
1999-01-01
Evaluation of the effects of space radiation on the crews of long duration space missions must take into account the interactions of high energy atomic nuclei in spacecraft and planetary habitat shielding and in the bodies of the astronauts. These heavy ions (i.e. heavier than hydrogen), while relatively small in number compared to the total galactic cosmic ray (GCR) charged particle flux, can produce disproportionately large effects by virtue of their high local energy deposition: a single traversal by a heavy charged particle can kill or, what may be worse, severely damage a cell. Research into the pertinent physics and biology of heavy ion interactions has consequently been assigned a high priority in a recent report by a task group of the National Research Council. Fragmentation of the incident heavy ions in shielding or in the human body will modify an initially well known radiation field and thereby complicate both spacecraft shielding design and the evaluation of potential radiation hazards. Since it is impractical to empirically test the radiation transport properties of each possible shielding material and configuration, a great deal of effort is going into the development of models of charged particle fragmentation and transport. Accurate nuclear fragmentation cross sections (probabilities), either in the form of measurements with thin targets or theoretical calculations, are needed for input to the transport models, and fluence measurements (numbers of fragments produced by interactions in thick targets) are needed both to validate the models and to test specific shielding materials and designs. Fluence data are also needed to characterize the incident radiation field in accelerator radiobiology experiments. For a number of years, nuclear fragmentation measurements at GCR-like energies have been carried out at heavy ion accelerators including the LBL Bevalac, Saturne (France), the Synchrophasotron and Nuklotron (Dubna, Russia), SIS-18 (GSI, Germany), the
Sidorov, Pavel; Gaspar, Helena; Marcou, Gilles; Varnek, Alexandre; Horvath, Dragos
2015-12-01
Intuitive, visual rendering—mapping—of high-dimensional chemical spaces (CS), is an important topic in chemoinformatics. Such maps were so far dedicated to specific compound collections—either limited series of known activities, or large, even exhaustive enumerations of molecules, but without associated property data. Typically, they were challenged to answer some classification problem with respect to those same molecules, admired for their aesthetical virtues and then forgotten—because they were set-specific constructs. This work wishes to address the question whether a general, compound set-independent map can be generated, and the claim of "universality" quantitatively justified, with respect to all the structure-activity information available so far—or, more realistically, an exploitable but significant fraction thereof. The "universal" CS map is expected to project molecules from the initial CS into a lower-dimensional space that is neighborhood behavior-compliant with respect to a large panel of ligand properties. Such map should be able to discriminate actives from inactives, or even support quantitative neighborhood-based, parameter-free property prediction (regression) models, for a wide panel of targets and target families. It should be polypharmacologically competent, without requiring any target-specific parameter fitting. This work describes an evolutionary growth procedure of such maps, based on generative topographic mapping, followed by the validation of their polypharmacological competence. Validation was achieved with respect to a maximum of exploitable structure-activity information, covering all of Homo sapiens proteins of the ChEMBL database, antiparasitic and antiviral data, etc. Five evolved maps satisfactorily solved hundreds of activity-based ligand classification challenges for targets, and even in vivo properties independent from training data. They also stood chemogenomics-related challenges, as cumulated responsibility
Argyres, Philip; Lotito, Matteo; Lü, Yongchao; Martone, Mario
2018-02-01
We initiate a systematic study of four dimensional N = 2 superconformal field theories (SCFTs) based on the analysis of their Coulomb branch geometries. Because these SCFTs are not uniquely characterized by their scale-invariant Coulomb branch geometries we also need information on their deformations. We construct all inequivalent such deformations preserving N = 2 supersymmetry and additional physical consistency conditions in the rank 1 case. These not only include all the ones previously predicted by S-duality, but also 16 additional deformations satisfying all the known N = 2 low energy consistency conditions. All but two of these additonal deformations have recently been identified with new rank 1 SCFTs; these identifications are briefly reviewed. Some novel ingredients which are important for this study include: a discussion of RG-flows in the presence of a moduli space of vacua; a classification of local N = 2 supersymmetry-preserving deformations of unitary N = 2 SCFTs; and an analysis of charge normalizations and the Dirac quantization condition on Coulomb branches. This paper is the first in a series of three. The second paper [1] gives the details of the explicit construction of the Coulomb branch geometries discussed here, while the third [2] discusses the computation of central charges of the associated SCFTs.
Dimension of chaotic attractors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Farmer, J.D.; Ott, E.; Yorke, J.A.
1982-09-01
Dimension is perhaps the most basic property of an attractor. In this paper we discuss a variety of different definitions of dimension, compute their values for a typical example, and review previous work on the dimension of chaotic attractors. The relevant definitions of dimension are of two general types, those that depend only on metric properties, and those that depend on probabilistic properties (that is, they depend on the frequency with which a typical trajectory visits different regions of the attractor). Both our example and the previous work that we review support the conclusion that all of the probabilistic dimensions take on the same value, which we call the dimension of the natural measure, and all of the metric dimensions take on a common value, which we call the fractal dimension. Furthermore, the dimension of the natural measure is typically equal to the Lyapunov dimension, which is defined in terms of Lyapunov numbers, and thus is usually far easier to calculate than any other definition. Because it is computable and more physically relevant, we feel that the dimension of the natural measure is more important than the fractal dimension.
Selective Attention to Perceptual Dimensions and Switching between Dimensions
Meiran, Nachshon; Dimov, Eduard; Ganel, Tzvi
2013-01-01
In the present experiments, the question being addressed was whether switching attention between perceptual dimensions and selective attention to dimensions are processes that compete over a common resource? Attention to perceptual dimensions is usually studied by requiring participants to ignore a never-relevant dimension. Selection failure…
Castellucci, H I; Arezes, P M; Molenbroek, J F M
2015-01-01
Most of the worldwide standards used for furniture selection suggest the use of the Stature of the school children, assuming that all the other anthropometric characteristics will also be appropriate. However, it is important to consider that students' growth differ with age. The aim of this study is to determine if Popliteal Height can be used as a better, or more adequate, measure for classroom furniture selection when comparing with Stature. This study involved a representative group of 3046 students from the Valparaíso Region, in Chile. Regarding the methodology, eight anthropometric measures were gathered, as well as six furniture dimensions from the Chilean standard. After assigning the level of school furniture using Stature and Popliteal Height to each of the students, six mismatch equations were applied. The results show that when using Popliteal Height, higher levels of match were obtained for the two more important furniture dimensions. Additionally, it also presents a better cumulative fit than Stature. In conclusion, it seems that Popliteal Height can be the most accurate anthropometric measure for classroom furniture selection purposes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruppert, J.; Rahmede, C.; Bleicher, M.
2005-01-01
Within the ADD-model, we elaborate an idea by Vacavant and Hinchliffe [J. Phys. G 27 (2001) 1839] and show quantitatively how to determine the fundamental scale of TeV-gravity and the number of compactified extra dimensions from data at LHC. We demonstrate that the ADD-model leads to strong correlations between the missing E T in gravitons at different center of mass energies. This correlation puts strong constraints on this model for extra dimensions, if probed at s=5.5 TeV and s=14 TeV at LHC
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giluano Torrengo
2018-05-01
Full Text Available Space and time are two obvious candidates as dimensions of reality. Yet, are they the only two dimensions of reality? Famously, David Lewis maintained the doctrine of ―modal realism‖, the thesis that possible worlds exist and are entities as concrete as the actual world that we live in. In this paper, I will explore the idea that modality can be construed as a dimension along with space and time. However, although Lewis‘ modal realism is the main source of inspiration for this construal of modality, I will argue that something else is required for having a modal dimension.
CERN. Geneva
2006-01-01
Extra dimensions of space might be present in our universe. If so, we want to know 'How do dimensions hide?' and 'Why are three dimensions special?' I'll give potential answers to both these questions in the context of localized gravity. Organiser(s): L. Alvarez-Gaume / PH-THNote: * Tea & coffee will be served at 16:00. Talk is broadcasted in Council Chamber
Abu El-Enen, Mahrous M.; Lorenz, Joachim; Ali, Kamal A.; von Seckendorff, Volker; Okrusch, Martin; Schüssler, Ulrich; Brätz, Helene; Schmitt, Ralf-Thomas
2018-03-01
Imperial Porphyry, a famous dimension stone of spectacular purple color, was quarried in the Mons Porphyrites area north of Jabal Dokhan in the Eastern Desert of Egypt, from the beginning of the first until the middle of the fifth century AD. During this period, the valuable material was processed as decorative stone and was used for objects of art, reserved exclusively for the Imperial court of the Roman Empire. Later on, only antique spoils of smaller or bigger size have been re-used for these purposes. The Imperial Porphyry is a porphyritic rock of trachyandesitic to dacitic composition that occurs in the uppermost levels of shallow subvolcanic sill-like intrusions, forming a member of the Dokhan Volcanic Suite. Its purple color is mainly due to dispersed flakes of hematite, resulting from hydrothermal alteration of a dark green Common Porphyry of similar composition, underlying the Imperial Porphyry. Both, the Common Porphyry and the purple Imperial Porphyry', are extensively exposed in the Roman quarries. Contacts between Common and Imperial Porphyry are irregular and gradational. In both rock types, intrusive breccias are frequent, indicating a complex intrusion history. U-Th-Pb zircon geochronology on two samples of Imperial Porphyry and one sample of the Common Porphyry yielded an age range of 609-600 Ma, thus confirming earlier results of radiometric dating. Geochemical evidence indicates that both the Imperial and the Common Porphyry are of medium- to high-K calc-alkaline affinity. The magmas have formed by partial melting of a subduction-modified upper mantle. The subsequent intrusion took place within a highly extended terrane (HET).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grosche, C.
2007-08-01
In this contribution a path integral approach for the quantum motion on three-dimensional spaces according to Koenigs, for short''Koenigs-Spaces'', is discussed. Their construction is simple: One takes a Hamiltonian from three-dimensional flat space and divides it by a three-dimensional superintegrable potential. Such superintegrable potentials will be the isotropic singular oscillator, the Holt-potential, the Coulomb potential, or two centrifugal potentials, respectively. In all cases a non-trivial space of non-constant curvature is generated. In order to obtain a proper quantum theory a curvature term has to be incorporated into the quantum Hamiltonian. For possible bound-state solutions we find equations up to twelfth order in the energy E. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dobrev, V. K.; Stoimenov, S.
2010-01-01
The singular vectors in Verma modules over the Schroedinger algebra s(n) in (n + 1)-dimensional space-time are found for the case of general representations. Using the singular vectors, hierarchies of equations invariant under Schroedinger algebras are constructed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moore, Peter K.
2003-01-01
Solving systems of reaction-diffusion equations in three space dimensions can be prohibitively expensive both in terms of storage and CPU time. Herein, I present a new incomplete assembly procedure that is designed to reduce storage requirements. Incomplete assembly is analogous to incomplete factorization in that only a fixed number of nonzero entries are stored per row and a drop tolerance is used to discard small values. The algorithm is incorporated in a finite element method-of-lines code and tested on a set of reaction-diffusion systems. The effect of incomplete assembly on CPU time and storage and on the performance of the temporal integrator DASPK, algebraic solver GMRES and preconditioner ILUT is studied
Preimage entropy dimension of topological dynamical systems
Liu, Lei; Zhou, Xiaomin; Zhou, Xiaoyao
2014-01-01
We propose a new definition of preimage entropy dimension for continuous maps on compact metric spaces, investigate fundamental properties of the preimage entropy dimension, and compare the preimage entropy dimension with the topological entropy dimension. The defined preimage entropy dimension holds various basic properties of topological entropy dimension, for example, the preimage entropy dimension of a subsystem is bounded by that of the original system and topologically conjugated system...
Aarts, JM
1993-01-01
Two types of seemingly unrelated extension problems are discussed in this book. Their common focus is a long-standing problem of Johannes de Groot, the main conjecture of which was recently resolved. As is true of many important conjectures, a wide range of mathematical investigations had developed, which have been grouped into the two extension problems. The first concerns the extending of spaces, the second concerns extending the theory of dimension by replacing the empty space with other spaces. The problem of de Groot concerned compactifications of spaces by means of an adjunction of a set of minimal dimension. This minimal dimension was called the compactness deficiency of a space. Early success in 1942 lead de Groot to invent a generalization of the dimension function, called the compactness degree of a space, with the hope that this function would internally characterize the compactness deficiency which is a topological invariant of a space that is externally defined by means of compact extensions of a...
Macías-Díaz, J. E.
2018-06-01
In this work, we investigate numerically a model governed by a multidimensional nonlinear wave equation with damping and fractional diffusion. The governing partial differential equation considers the presence of Riesz space-fractional derivatives of orders in (1, 2], and homogeneous Dirichlet boundary data are imposed on a closed and bounded spatial domain. The model under investigation possesses an energy function which is preserved in the undamped regime. In the damped case, we establish the property of energy dissipation of the model using arguments from functional analysis. Motivated by these results, we propose an explicit finite-difference discretization of our fractional model based on the use of fractional centered differences. Associated to our discrete model, we also propose discretizations of the energy quantities. We establish that the discrete energy is conserved in the undamped regime, and that it dissipates in the damped scenario. Among the most important numerical features of our scheme, we show that the method has a consistency of second order, that it is stable and that it has a quadratic order of convergence. Some one- and two-dimensional simulations are shown in this work to illustrate the fact that the technique is capable of preserving the discrete energy in the undamped regime. For the sake of convenience, we provide a Matlab implementation of our method for the one-dimensional scenario.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Butland, A.T.D.; Putney, J.; Sweet, D.W.
1980-04-01
This report describes work performed to compare two UK neutron diffusion theory codes, TIGAR and SNAP, with published results for eight other codes available abroad. Both mesh edge and mesh centred finite difference diffusion theory codes as well as one axial synthesis code are included in the comparison and a range of iteration procedures are used by them. Comparison is made of calculations for a model of the sodium cooled fast reactor SNR-300 in both triangular and rectangular geometry and for a range of spatial meshes, enabling extrapolations to infinite mesh to be made. Calculated values of the effective multiplication constant, keff, for all the codes, agree very well when extrapolated to infinite mesh, indicating that no significant errors arising from the finite difference approximation but independent of mesh spacing are present in the calculations. The variation of keff with mesh area is found to be linear for the small meshes considered here, with the gradients for the mesh centred and mesh edged codes being of opposite sign. The results obtained using the mesh centred codes TIGAR, SNAP and CITATION agree closely with one another for all the meshes considered; the mesh edge codes agree less closely. (author)
Rucker, Rudy
2014-01-01
""This is an invigorating book, a short but spirited slalom for the mind."" - Timothy Ferris, The New York Times Book Review ""Highly readable. One is reminded of the breadth and depth of Hofstadter's Gödel, Escher, Bach."" - Science""Anyone with even a minimal interest in mathematics and fantasy will find The Fourth Dimension informative and mind-dazzling... [Rucker] plunges into spaces above three with a zest and energy that is breathtaking."" - Martin Gardner ""Those who think the fourth dimension is nothing but time should be encouraged to read The Fourth Dimension, along with anyone else
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brackley, M.E.; Curry, J.; Glickman, B.W.
1999-01-01
We discuss the relevance to space medicine of studies concerning human genetic variation and consequent variable disease susceptibility or sensitivity between individuals. The size of astronaut and cosmonaut populations is both presently and cumulatively small, and despite the launch of the International Space Station, unlikely to increase by orders of magnitude within the foreseeable future. In addition, astronauts-cosmonauts constitute unrepresentative samples of their national populations. While the context of exposure for the astronaut-cosmonaut group is one unlikely to be replicated elsewhere than in space, aspects of specific exposures may be simulated by events such as occupational radiation exposure or radiation therapy. Hence, population-based studies of genetic susceptibility or sensitivity to disease, especially where it is precipitated by events that may simulate consequences of the space environment, likely will prove of value in assessing long-term health risks
Inhomogeneous compact extra dimensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bronnikov, K.A. [Center of Gravity and Fundamental Metrology, VNIIMS, 46 Ozyornaya st., Moscow 119361 (Russian Federation); Budaev, R.I.; Grobov, A.V.; Dmitriev, A.E.; Rubin, Sergey G., E-mail: kb20@yandex.ru, E-mail: buday48@mail.ru, E-mail: alexey.grobov@gmail.com, E-mail: alexdintras@mail.ru, E-mail: sergeirubin@list.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation)
2017-10-01
We show that an inhomogeneous compact extra space possesses two necessary features— their existence does not contradict the observable value of the cosmological constant Λ{sub 4} in pure f ( R ) theory, and the extra dimensions are stable relative to the 'radion mode' of perturbations, the only mode considered. For a two-dimensional extra space, both analytical and numerical solutions for the metric are found, able to provide a zero or arbitrarily small Λ{sub 4}. A no-go theorem has also been proved, that maximally symmetric compact extra spaces are inconsistent with 4D Minkowski space in the framework of pure f ( R ) gravity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohen, A.G.
2003-01-01
Extra-dimensional physics is realized as the low-energy limit of lower-dimensional gauge theories. This 'deconstruction' of dimensions provides a UV completion of higher-dimensional theories, and has been used to investigate the physics of extra-dimensions. This technique has also led to a variety of interesting phenomenological applications, especially a new class of models of electroweak superconductivity, called the 'little Higgs'. (author)
Standard(-like) Model from an SO(12) Grand Unified Theory in six-dimensions with S2 extra-space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nomura, Takaaki; Sato, Joe
2009-01-01
We analyze a gauge-Higgs unification model which is based on a gauge theory defined on a six-dimensional spacetime with an S 2 extra-space. We impose a symmetry condition for a gauge field and non-trivial boundary conditions of the S 2 . We provide the scheme for constructing a four-dimensional theory from the six-dimensional gauge theory under these conditions. We then construct a concrete model based on an SO(12) gauge theory with fermions which lie in a 32 representation of SO(12), under the scheme. This model leads to a Standard Model(-like) gauge theory which has gauge symmetry SU(3)xSU(2) L xU(1) Y (xU(1) 2 ) and one generation of SM fermions, in four-dimensions. The Higgs sector of the model is also analyzed, and it is shown that the electroweak symmetry breaking and the prediction of W-boson and Higgs-boson masses are obtained
Lee, Ryonfa; Nasonova, Elena; Sommer, Sylvester; Hartel, Carola; Ritter, Sylvia
During space missions astronauts are exposed to cosmic radiations which are different from natural background radiation on Earth in both quantity and quality. Dose rate in space environment is at least 100 times higher than that on Earth. In addition, the natural radiation on Earth consists mainly of X-, γ-rays and α-emitters, while in space charged particles from protons to iron ions are predominant. The composition of radiation environment of outer space is well understood, however, due to a lack of data on the biological effects of dose, dose-rate and especially HZE (high charge Z and energy E) particles, large uncertainties exist in estimating the health risks for long-term space mission. To contribute to this issue, we investigated cytogenetic damage induced by heavy charged particles in human lymphocytes, since chromosome aberration yield is a biomarker showing an association with cancer risk. Lymphocytes collected from a healthy donor were irradiated with carbon ions (C-ions) in vitro with various energies (11.4 to 400 MeV/u; LET values 11 to 175 keV/µm) at either UNILAC or SIS facility (GSI, Germany) or exposed to X-rays. Additionally, peripheral blood was obtained from prostate cancer patients, treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or IMRT combined with C-ion boost. Samples were taken before, during and after the radiotherapy. Chromosome samples were stained with FPG-technique to enable aberration analysis in 1st cycle metaphases. After in vitro exposure to C-ions, RBE values for the induction of chromosome aberrations increased with sampling time. The effect was most pronounced in samples exposed to 175 keV/µm C-ions and can be attributed to a pronounced cell cycle delay of heavily damaged cells. Thus, for a reliable risk assessment, the effect of selective cell cycle delay following particle exposure should be taken into account. M-FISH analysis of selected samples to assess aberration quality revealed higher frequencies of
Alt, Shannon
2016-01-01
Electronic integrated circuits are considered one of the most significant technological advances of the 20th century, with demonstrated impact in their ability to incorporate successively higher numbers transistors and construct electronic devices onto a single CMOS chip. Photonic integrated circuits (PICs) exist as the optical analog to integrated circuits; however, in place of transistors, PICs consist of numerous scaled optical components, including such "building-block" structures as waveguides, MMIs, lasers, and optical ring resonators. The ability to construct electronic and photonic components on a single microsystems platform offers transformative potential for the development of technologies in fields including communications, biomedical device development, autonomous navigation, and chemical and atmospheric sensing. Developing on-chip systems that provide new avenues for integration and replacement of bulk optical and electro-optic components also reduces size, weight, power and cost (SWaP-C) limitations, which are important in the selection of instrumentation for specific flight projects. The number of applications currently emerging for complex photonics systems-particularly in data communications-warrants additional investigations when considering reliability for space systems development. This Body of Knowledge document seeks to provide an overview of existing integrated photonics architectures; the current state of design, development, and fabrication ecosystems in the United States and Europe; and potential space applications, with emphasis given to associated radiation effects and reliability.
1983-01-01
A document containing a forecast of satellite traffic and revelant technology trends to the year 2000 was prepared which includes those space station capabilities and characteristics that should be provided to make the station useful to commercial satellite owners. The document was circulated to key representative organizations within the commercial telecommunications satellite and related communities of interest, including spacecraft manufacturers, commercial satellite owners, communications carriers, networks and risk insurers. The prospectus document is presented as well as the transmittal letter and the mailing list of the people and companies that were asked to review it. Key commercial telecommunications comments are summarized the actual response letters from the industry are included.
Extra dimensions and color confinement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pleitez, V
1995-04-01
An extension of the ordinary four dimensional Minkowski space by introducing additional dimensions which have their own Lorentz transformation is considered. Particles can transform in a different way under each Lorentz group. It is shown that only quark interactions are slightly modified and that color confinement automatic since these degrees of freedom run only in the extra dimensions. No compactification of the extra dimensions is needed. (author). 4 refs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wadlinger, E.A.
1980-03-01
A computer program that will fit a hyperellipse to a set of phase-space points in as many as 6 dimensions was written and tested. The weight assigned to the phase-space points can be varied as a function of their distance from the centroid of the distribution. Varying the weight enables determination of whether there is a difference in ellipse orientation between inner and outer particles. This program should be useful in studying the effects of longitudinal and transverse phase-space couplings.
Correlation dimension of financial market
Nie, Chun-Xiao
2017-05-01
In this paper, correlation dimension is applied to financial data analysis. We calculate the correlation dimensions of some real market data and find that the dimensions are significantly smaller than those of the simulation data based on geometric Brownian motion. Based on the analysis of the Chinese and US stock market data, the main results are as follows. First, by calculating three data sets for the Chinese and US market, we find that large market volatility leads to a significant decrease in the dimensions. Second, based on 5-min stock price data, we find that the Chinese market dimension is significantly larger than the US market; this shows a significant difference between the two markets for high frequency data. Third, we randomly extract stocks from a stock set and calculate the correlation dimensions, and find that the average value of these dimensions is close to the dimension of the original set. In addition, we analyse the intuitional meaning of the relevant dimensions used in this paper, which are directly related to the average degree of the financial threshold network. The dimension measures the speed of the average degree that varies with the threshold value. A smaller dimension means that the rate of change is slower.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ralph A. Pietrofesa
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Spaceflight occasionally requires multiple extravehicular activities (EVA that potentially subject astronauts to repeated changes in ambient oxygen superimposed on those of space radiation exposure. We thus developed a novel in vitro model system to test lung cell damage following repeated exposure to radiation and hyperoxia. Non-tumorigenic murine alveolar type II epithelial cells (C10 were exposed to >95% O2 for 8 h only (O2, 0.25 Gy ionizing γ-radiation (IR only, or a double-hit combination of both challenges (O2 + IR followed by 16 h of normoxia (ambient air containing 21% O2 and 5% CO2 (1 cycle = 24 h, 2 cycles = 48 h. Cell survival, DNA damage, apoptosis, and indicators of oxidative stress were evaluated after 1 and 2 cycles of exposure. We observed a significant (p < 0.05 decrease in cell survival across all challenge conditions along with an increase in DNA damage, determined by Comet analysis and H2AX phosphorylation, and apoptosis, determined by Annexin-V staining, relative to cells unexposed to hyperoxia or radiation. DNA damage (GADD45α and cleaved-PARP, apoptotic (cleaved caspase-3 and BAX, and antioxidant (HO-1 and Nqo1 proteins were increased following radiation and hyperoxia exposure after 1 and 2 cycles of exposure. Importantly, exposure to combination challenge O2 + IR exacerbated cell death and DNA damage compared to individual exposures O2 or IR alone. Additionally levels of cell cycle proteins phospho-p53 and p21 were significantly increased, while levels of CDK1 and Cyclin B1 were decreased at both time points for all exposure groups. Similarly, proteins involved in cell cycle arrest was more profoundly changed with the combination challenges as compared to each stressor alone. These results correlate with a significant 4- to 6-fold increase in the ratio of cells in G2/G1 after 2 cycles of exposure to hyperoxic conditions. We have characterized a novel in vitro model of double-hit, low-level radiation and hyperoxia
Conformal dimension theory and application
Mackay, John M
2010-01-01
Conformal dimension measures the extent to which the Hausdorff dimension of a metric space can be lowered by quasisymmetric deformations. Introduced by Pansu in 1989, this concept has proved extremely fruitful in a diverse range of areas, including geometric function theory, conformal dynamics, and geometric group theory. This survey leads the reader from the definitions and basic theory through to active research applications in geometric function theory, Gromov hyperbolic geometry, and the dynamics of rational maps, amongst other areas. It reviews the theory of dimension in metric spaces and of deformations of metric spaces. It summarizes the basic tools for estimating conformal dimension and illustrates their application to concrete problems of independent interest. Numerous examples and proofs are provided. Working from basic definitions through to current research areas, this book can be used as a guide for graduate students interested in this field, or as a helpful survey for experts. Background needed ...
Held, Kathryn D; Blakely, Eleanor A; Story, Michael D; Lowenstein, Derek I
2016-06-01
Although clinical studies with carbon ions have been conducted successfully in Japan and Europe, the limited radiobiological information about charged particles that are heavier than protons remains a significant impediment to exploiting the full potential of particle therapy. There is growing interest in the U.S. to build a cancer treatment facility that utilizes charged particles heavier than protons. Therefore, it is essential that additional radiobiological knowledge be obtained using state-of-the-art technologies and biological models and end points relevant to clinical outcome. Currently, most such ion radiotherapy-related research is being conducted outside the U.S. This article addresses the substantial contributions to that research that are possible at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), which is the only facility in the U.S. at this time where heavy-ion radiobiology research with the ion species and energies of interest for therapy can be done. Here, we briefly discuss the relevant facilities at NSRL and how selected charged particle biology research gaps could be addressed using those facilities.
Compactified vacuum in ten dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wurmser, D.
1987-01-01
Since the 1920's, theories which unify gravity with the other fundamental forces have called for more than the four observed dimensions of space-time. According to such a theory, the vacuum consists of flat four-dimensional space-time described by the Minkowski metric M 4 and a compactified space B. The dimensions of B are small, and the space can only be observed at distance scales smaller than the present experimental limit. These theories have had serious difficulties. The equations of gravity severely restrict the possible choices for the space B. The allowed spaces are complicated and difficult to study. The vacuum is furthermore unstable in the sense that a small perturbation causes the compactified dimensions to expand indefinitely. There is an addition a semi-classical argument which implies that the compactified vacuum by annihilated by virtual black holes. It follows that a universe with compactified extra dimensions could not have survived to the present. These results were derived by applying the equations of general relativity to spaces of more than four dimensions. The form of these equations was assumed to be unchanged by an increase in the number of dimensions. The authors illustrate the effect of such terms by considering the example B = S 6 where S 6 is the six-dimensional sphere. Only when the extra terms are included is this choice of the compactified space allowed. He explore the effect of a small perturbation on such a vacuum. The ten-dimensional spherically symmetric potential is examined, and I determine conditions under which the formation of virtual black holes is forbidden. The examples M 4 x S 6 is still plagued by the semi-classical instability, but this result does not hold in general. The requirement that virtual black holes be forbidden provides a test for any theory which predicts a compactified vacuum
Divergence, spacetime dimension and fractal structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakamura, Hiroshi
2000-01-01
With a Cantor spacetime in mind, we assume the dimension of spacetime to be slightly smaller than four. Within the framework of QED, this dimension can be determined by calculating Feynman diagrams. We infer that the dimension of spacetime may be influenced by holes in space. (author)
Positive energy theorem in generalized Kaluza-Klein theories of higher dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moreschi, O.M.
1983-01-01
The technique of using spinors in the proof of positive energy theorems in 4 dimensions is extended to the case of Kaluza-Klein theories in spaces of 4 + n dimensions. First a useful presentation of generalized Kaluza-Klein theories is introduced, in which just from the observation of conformal symmetries it is possible to detect a nice splitting of the Ricci tensor into a 4-dimensional Ricci part and a Yang-Mills part, among others. Consideration of linear dependence among the symmetries is not excluded in this treatment. Relevant to the introduction of spinors, a discussion of Clifford Algebras is presented. In particular a real representation of these algebras is introduced for spaces of higher dimensions and its structure is analyzed. The Lie derivative of spinors is presented probably more clearly than in former treatments. After the introduction of these preliminary themes, a brief review of the relevant aspects of positive energy theorems in 4 dimensions is presented, followed by the extension of these ideas to the case of 5 dimensions. Here an earlier result involving gravitational mass and electromagnetic charges is improved. Finally the results are generalized to spaces of 4 + n dimensions, and a more complicated condition to be satisfied by the usual matter tensor is discovered. This procedure leads to a natural definition of invariant Yang-Mills charges, which is compared with former studies
THE EFFECTS OF PRACTICAL TEACHING ON STUDENTS’ MORPHOLOGICAL DIMENSIONS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ratko Pavlović
2010-03-01
Full Text Available The anthropological space of a human being is multidimensional and as such susceptible to certain transformational processes, especially if these processes serve to accomplish a clearly defined goal. One of the features of anthropological space, rather susceptible to changes, is a morphological space and, in particular, some segments of it. The research is carried out on the sample of ninety freshmen. The effects of practical teaching on students’ morphological dimensions were studied during one semester. It was necessary to use ten different variables for this research, out of which six variables were used to define voluminousness and body mass, and five variables for defining subcutaneous fat tissue. In order to obtain relevant information we applied univariant and multivariante analysis of the variance (ANOVA/MANOVA, which confirmed positive effects of the teaching and statistically relevant transformation of a change in relation to the initial condition of a respondent.
2013-01-01
A few weeks ago, I had a vague notion of what TED was, and how it worked, but now I’m a confirmed fan. It was my privilege to host CERN’s first TEDx event last Friday, and I can honestly say that I can’t remember a time when I was exposed to so much brilliance in such a short time. TEDxCERN was designed to give a platform to science. That’s why we called it Multiplying Dimensions – a nod towards the work we do here, while pointing to the broader importance of science in society. We had talks ranging from the most subtle pondering on the nature of consciousness to an eighteen year old researcher urging us to be patient, and to learn from our mistakes. We had musical interludes that included encounters between the choirs of local schools and will.i.am, between an Israeli pianist and an Iranian percussionist, and between Grand Opera and high humour. And although I opened the event by announcing it as a day off from physics, we had a quite brill...
The search for extra dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abel, Steven; March-Russell, John
2000-01-01
The possibility of extra dimensions, beyond the three dimensions of space of our everyday experience, sometimes crops up as a convenient, if rather vague, plot in science fiction. In science, however, the idea of extra dimensions has a rich history, dating back at least as far as the 1920s. Recently there has been a remarkable renaissance in this area due to the work of a number of theoretical physicists. It now seems possible that we, the Earth and, indeed, the entire visible universe are stuck on a membrane in a higher-dimensional space, like dust particles that are trapped on a soap bubble. In this article the authors look at the major issues behind this new development. Why, for example, don't we see these extra dimensions? If they exist, how can we detect them? And perhaps the trickiest question of all: how did this fanciful idea come to be considered in the first place? (U.K.)
Origin of Everything and the 21 Dimensions of the Universe
Loev, Mark
2009-03-01
The Dimensions of the Universe correspond with the Dimensions of the human body. The emotion that is a positive for every dimension is Love. The negative emotion that effects each dimension are listed. All seven negative emotions effect Peace, Love and Happiness. 21st Dimension: Happiness Groin & Heart 20th Dimension: Love Groin & Heart 19th Dimension: Peace Groin & heart 18th Dimension: Imagination Wave Eyes Anger 17th Dimension: Z Wave / Closed Birth 16th Dimension: Electromagnetic Wave Ears Anger 15th Dimension: Universal Wave Skin Worry 14th Dimension: Lover Wave Blood Hate 13th Dimension: Disposal Wave Buttocks Fear 12th Dimension: Builder Wave Hands Hate 11th Dimension: Energy Wave Arms Fear 10th Dimension: Time Wave Brain Pessimism 9th Dimension: Gravity Wave Legs Fear 8th Dimension: Sweet Wave Pancreas Fear 7th Dimension: File Wave Left Lung Fear 6th Dimension: Breathing Wave Right Lung Fear 5th Dimension: Digestive Wave Stomach Fear 4th Dimension: Swab Wave Liver Guilt 3rd Dimension: Space Wave Face Sadness 2nd Dimension: Line Wave Mouth Revenge 1st Dimension: Dot Wave Nose Sadness The seven deadly sins correspond: Anger Hate Sadness Fear Worry Pessimism Revenge Note: Guilt is fear
Varandas, A J C; Sarkar, B
2011-05-14
Generalized Born-Oppenheimer equations including the geometrical phase effect are derived for three- and four-fold electronic manifolds in Jahn-Teller systems near the degeneracy seam. The method is readily extendable to N-fold systems of arbitrary dimension. An application is reported for a model threefold system, and the results are compared with Born-Oppenheimer (geometrical phase ignored), extended Born-Oppenheimer, and coupled three-state calculations. The theory shows unprecedented simplicity while depicting all features of more elaborated ones.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamazaki, Ryo; Hiura, Yukikazu; Tsuji, Akio; Nishiki, Shigeo; Uchikoshi, Masato
2011-01-01
Sampling perfection with application optimized contrasts using different flip angle evolution (3D-SPACE) sequence enables one to decrease specific absorption rate (SAR) by using variable flip angle refocusing pulse. Therefore, it is expected that the contrast obtained with 3D-SPACE sequences is different from that of spin echo (SE) images and turbo spin echo (TSE) images. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of the signal intensity and central nervous system (CNS) image contrast in T 2 weighted 3D-SPACE. Using 3 different sequences (SE, 3D-TSE and 3D-SPACE) with repetition time (TR)/ echo time (TE)=3500/70, 90 and 115 ms, we obtained T 2 weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images of inhouse phantom and five healthy volunteers' brain. Signal intensity of the phantom which contains various T 1 and T 2 value was evaluated. Tissue contrasts of white/gray matter, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/subcutaneous fat and gray matter/subcutaneous fat were evaluated for a clinical image study. The phantom study showed that signal intensity in 3D-SPACE significantly decreased under a T 1 value of 250 ms. It was markedly decreased in comparison to other sequences, as effective echo time (TE) was extended. White/gray matter contrast of 3D-SPACE was the highest in all sequences. On the other hand, CSF/fat and gray matter/fat contrast of 3D-SPACE was higher than TSE but lower than SE. CNS image contrasts of 3D-SPACE were comparable to that of SE. Signal intensity had decreased in the range where T 1 and T 2 values were extremely short. (author)
Inflation from extra dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barr, S.M.
1984-01-01
Recently there has been growing interest (1) in the possibility that the universe could have more than four dimensions. Aside from any light this may shed on problems in particle physics, if true it would undoubtedly have important implications for early cosmology. A rather speculative but very appealing possibility suggested by D. Sahdev and by E. Alvarez and B. Gavela is that the gravitational collapse of extra spatial dimensions could drive an inflation of ordinary space. This kind of inflationary cosmology would be quite different from the inflationary cosmologies now so intensively studied which are supposed to result from changes in vacuum energy during phase transitions in the early universe. In our work we examine the physics of these Kaluza-Klein inflationary cosmologies and come to three main conclusions. (1) It is desirable to have many extra dimensions, many being of order forty or fifty. (2) For models which give a realistically large inflation almost all of this inflation occurs in a period when quantum gravity is certainly important. This means that Einstein's equations cannot be used to calculate the details of this inflationary period. (3) Under plausible assumptions one may argue from the second law of thermodynamics that given appropriate initial conditions a large inflation will occur even when details of the inflationary phase cannot be calculated classically
Temporal dimension in cognitive models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Decortis, F.; Cacciabue, P.C.
1988-01-01
Increased attention has been given to the role of humans in nuclear power plant safety, but one aspect seldom considered is the temporal dimension of human reasoning. Time is recognized as crucial in human reasoning and has been the subject of empirical studies where cognitive mechanisms and strategies to face the temporal dimension have been studied. The present study shows why temporal reasoning is essential in Human Reliability Analysis and how it could be introduced in a human model. Accounting for the time dimension in human behaviour is discussed first, with reference to proven field studies. Then, theoretical modelling of the temporal dimension in human reasoning and its relevance in simulation of cognitive activities of plant operator is discussed. Finally a Time Experience Model is presented
Davarpanah, A.; Babaie, H. A.
2012-12-01
The interaction of the thermally induced stress field of the Yellowstone hotspot (YHS) with existing Basin and Range (BR) fault blocks, over the past 17 m.y., has produced a new, spatially and temporally variable system of normal faults around the Snake River Plain (SRP) in Idaho and Wyoming-Montana area. Data about the trace of these new cross faults (CF) and older BR normal faults were acquired from a combination of satellite imageries, DEM, and USGS geological maps and databases at scales of 1:24,000, 1:100,000, 1:250,000, 1:1000, 000, and 1:2,500, 000, and classified based on their azimuth in ArcGIS 10. The box-counting fractal dimension (Db) of the BR fault traces, determined applying the Benoit software, and the anisotropy intensity (ellipticity) of the fractal dimensions, measured with the modified Cantor dust method applying the AMOCADO software, were measured in two large spatial domains (I and II). The Db and anisotropy of the cross faults were studied in five temporal domains (T1-T5) classified based on the geologic age of successive eruptive centers (12 Ma to recent) of the YHS along the eastern SRP. The fractal anisotropy of the CF system in each temporal domain was also spatially determined in the southern part (domain S1), central part (domain S2), and northern part (domain S3) of the SRP. Line (fault trace) density maps for the BR and CF polylines reveal a higher linear density (trace length per unit area) for the BR traces in the spatial domain I, and a higher linear density of the CF traces around the present Yellowstone National Park (S1T5) where most of the seismically active faults are located. Our spatio-temporal analysis reveals that the fractal dimension of the BR system in domain I (Db=1.423) is greater than that in domain II (Db=1.307). It also shows that the anisotropy of the fractal dimension in domain I is less eccentric (axial ratio: 1.242) than that in domain II (1.355), probably reflecting the greater variation in the trend of the BR
Thermal dimension of quantum spacetime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni, E-mail: amelino@roma1.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università “La Sapienza” and Sez. Roma1 INFN, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Brighenti, Francesco [Theoretical Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London, SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell' Università di Bologna and Sez. Bologna INFN, Via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Gubitosi, Giulia [Theoretical Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London, SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Santos, Grasiele [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università “La Sapienza” and Sez. Roma1 INFN, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy)
2017-04-10
Recent results suggest that a crucial crossroad for quantum gravity is the characterization of the effective dimension of spacetime at short distances, where quantum properties of spacetime become significant. This is relevant in particular for various scenarios of “dynamical dimensional reduction” which have been discussed in the literature. We are here concerned with the fact that the related research effort has been based mostly on analyses of the “spectral dimension”, which involves an unphysical Euclideanization of spacetime and is highly sensitive to the off-shell properties of a theory. As here shown, different formulations of the same physical theory can have wildly different spectral dimension. We propose that dynamical dimensional reduction should be described in terms of the “thermal dimension” which we here introduce, a notion that only depends on the physical content of the theory. We analyze a few models with dynamical reduction both of the spectral dimension and of our thermal dimension, finding in particular some cases where thermal and spectral dimension agree, but also some cases where the spectral dimension has puzzling properties while the thermal dimension gives a different and meaningful picture.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoekmark, Harald; Faelth, Billy
2003-12-01
The report addresses the problem of the minimum spacing required between neighbouring canisters in the deep repository. That spacing is calculated for a number of assumptions regarding the conditions that govern the temperature in the nearfield and at the surfaces of the canisters. The spacing criterion is that the temperature at the canister surfaces must not exceed 100 deg C .The results are given in the form of nomographic charts, such that it is in principle possible to determine the spacing as soon as site data, i.e. the initial undisturbed rock temperature and the host rock heat transport properties, are available. Results of canister spacing calculations are given for the KBS-3V concept as well as for the KBS-3H concept. A combination of numerical and analytical methods is used for the KBS-3H calculations, while the KBS-3V calculations are purely analytical. Both methods are described in detail. Open gaps are assigned equivalent heat conductivities, calculated such that the conduction across the gaps will include also the heat transferred by radiation. The equivalent heat conductivities are based on the emissivities of the different gap surfaces. For the canister copper surface, the emissivity is determined by back-calculation of temperatures measured in the Prototype experiment at Aespoe HRL. The size of the different gaps and the emissivity values are of great importance for the results and will be investigated further in the future
Spectral dimension of quantum geometries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calcagni, Gianluca; Oriti, Daniele; Thürigen, Johannes
2014-01-01
The spectral dimension is an indicator of geometry and topology of spacetime and a tool to compare the description of quantum geometry in various approaches to quantum gravity. This is possible because it can be defined not only on smooth geometries but also on discrete (e.g., simplicial) ones. In this paper, we consider the spectral dimension of quantum states of spatial geometry defined on combinatorial complexes endowed with additional algebraic data: the kinematical quantum states of loop quantum gravity (LQG). Preliminarily, the effects of topology and discreteness of classical discrete geometries are studied in a systematic manner. We look for states reproducing the spectral dimension of a classical space in the appropriate regime. We also test the hypothesis that in LQG, as in other approaches, there is a scale dependence of the spectral dimension, which runs from the topological dimension at large scales to a smaller one at short distances. While our results do not give any strong support to this hypothesis, we can however pinpoint when the topological dimension is reproduced by LQG quantum states. Overall, by exploring the interplay of combinatorial, topological and geometrical effects, and by considering various kinds of quantum states such as coherent states and their superpositions, we find that the spectral dimension of discrete quantum geometries is more sensitive to the underlying combinatorial structures than to the details of the additional data associated with them. (paper)
supersymmetry breaking with extra dimensions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
large number of parameters, there is no explanation for the origin and the stability of two different mass .... Theories formulated in more than four space-time dimensions have been discussed for several decades, starting from the historical papers by Kaluza and Klein on. 500 .... For the consistency of the orbifold construction,.
Ye, H.; Liu, F.; Turner, I.; Anh, V.; Burrage, K.
2013-09-01
Fractional partial differential equations with more than one fractional derivative in time describe some important physical phenomena, such as the telegraph equation, the power law wave equation, or the Szabo wave equation. In this paper, we consider two- and three-dimensional multi-term time and space fractional partial differential equations. The multi-term time-fractional derivative is defined in the Caputo sense, whose order belongs to the interval (1,2],(2,3],(3,4] or (0, m], and the space-fractional derivative is referred to as the fractional Laplacian form. We derive series expansion solutions based on a spectral representation of the Laplacian operator on a bounded region. Some applications are given for the two- and three-dimensional telegraph equation, power law wave equation and Szabo wave equation.
Tominaga, Jun-ya; Ozaki, Hiroya; Chiang, Pao-Chang; Sumi, Mayumi; Tanaka, Motohiro; Koga, Yoshiyuki; Bourauel, Christoph; Yoshida, Noriaki
2014-08-01
It has been found that controlled movement of the anterior teeth can be obtained by attaching a certain length of power arm onto an archwire in sliding mechanics. However, the impact of the archwire/bracket play on anterior tooth movement has not been clarified. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of the power arm on anterior tooth movements with different dimensions of bracket slots and archwires. A 3-dimensional finite element method was used to simulate en-masse anterior tooth retraction in sliding mechanics. Displacements of the maxillary central incisor and the archwire deformation were calculated when applying retraction forces from different lengths of power arms. When a 0.017 × 0.022-in archwire was engaged into the 0.018-in slot bracket, bodily movement of the incisor was obtained with 9.1-mm length of the power arm. When a 0.022-in slot system was coupled with a 0.019 × 0.025-in archwire, bodily movement was observed with a power arm length of 11.6 mm. Archwire/bracket play has a remarkable impact on anterior tooth movement. An effective torque application to the anterior teeth becomes clinically difficult in sliding mechanics combined with power arms when the archwire/bracket play is large. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liina Unt
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The comparison between theatre and playing has spread on many levels, from metaphors to sayings, aesthetic concepts to deterministic models. This paper examines scenography as an active play environment. Play, in the context of theatre space, is defined according to the classical characteristic features of playing: spatial and temporal limits, fictionality that runs in parallel with everyday reality, and direct involvement. The paper focuses on the specific aspects of play environment as it appears in the Tartu New Theatre’s performances of „The Death of the Author“ and „The Beatles of Vanemuine“. Both productions are set in fictional locations with a visually static set design. Both are unique in that different locations are created without changing the physical space on stage – places appear and disappear through the performances, created by an odd textual allusion or two, or the audience’s imagination. The changes can be understood through the audience’s corporal perception, which this paper interprets using Merleau-Ponty’s phenomenological concept of corporeity. Using Tartu New Theatre’s stage practice and Hans-Georg Gadamer’s hermeneutic aesthetics, the paper aims to answer the question: what is the aesthetic structure of such stage environments and how can an environmental experience be created, if the direct interference in space is minimal. Gadamer’s aesthetic concept revolves around play, interpreting works of art as a structure, a meaningful whole that can be presented and comprehended repeatedly. However, he qualifies that the structure, itself, is also a play as, despite a theoretic unity, it only exists when it is played. In this case, the scenography becomes an environment with open meanings, where attributing meaning and function happens through the agreements made during the act of playing, which don’t necessarily also imply physical changes to the environment. The environment is an agreed-upon space
Evolution Of The Concept Of Dimension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Journeau, Philippe F.
2007-01-01
Concepts of time elapsing 'in' a space measuring the real emerge over the centuries. But Kant refutes absolute time and defines it, with space, as forms reacting to Newtonian mechanics. Einstein and Minkowski open a 20th century where time is a dimension, a substratum of reality 'with' space rather than 'in' it. Kaluza-Klein and String theories then develop a trend of additional spatial dimensions while de Broglie and Bohm open the possiblity that form, to begin with wave, be a reality together 'with' a space-time particle. Other recent theories, such as spin networks, causal sets and twistor theory, even head to the idea of other 'systems of dimensions'. On the basis of such progresses and recent experiments the paper then considers a background independent fourfold time-form-action-space system of dimensions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Eskjær, Mikkel Fugl
2013-01-01
is largely dependent on regional media systems, yet the role this regional dimension plays has been largely overlooked. This article presents a comparative study of climate-change coverage in three geo-cultural regions, The Middle East, Scandinavia, and North America, and explores the link between global......Global perspectives and national approaches have dominated studies of climate-change communication, reflecting the global nature of climate change as well as the traditional research focus on national media systems. In the absence of a global public sphere, however, transnational issue attention...... climate-change communication and regional media systems. It finds that regional variations in climate-change communication carry important communicative implications concerning perceptions of climate change's relevance and urgency...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ryabov Yuri
2012-03-01
Full Text Available The creation of an area of freedom, security and justice is one of the most rapidly developing aspects of European integration. It this paper, we take a look at the foreign policies involved in this process — aside from the internal development of the European Union, they concern a significant number of third countries, including Russia. In our view, the efforts to manage the flow of migrants and asylum seekers constitute a viable part of the external dimension within the AFSJ policies. Much of this article is based on the theoretical postulates introduced by the scholars of the Paris School, a school within the discipline of security studies that conceptualized the connection between migration, terrorism, asylum, crime and ethnic clashes, and its role as a major threat facing the European Union. Externalization of this complex threat (that is, externalization in relation to the European Union is thus seen as one of the key prerequisites to advancement of migration management activities beyond the EU (i. e. externalization of migration management. In this article, we analyze the role the EU plays at the international scene and categorize the actions it took to manage the influx of migrants and asylum seekers from the 1980s until the time when supranational administrative bodies were granted mandates in the spheres of Justice and Home Affairs (JHA of the EU Member States. We conclude that it was as early as the 1990-s that the EU launched the policy which later allowed to transfer part of its security concerns to third countries.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dudas, Emilian; Papineau, Chloe; Rubakov, Valery
2006-01-01
We analyze the properties of a model with four-dimensional brane-localized Higgs type potential of a six dimensional scalar field satisfying the Dirichlet boundary condition on the boundary of a transverse two-dimensional compact space. The regularization of the localized couplings generates classical renormalization group running. A tachyonic mass parameter grows in the infrared, in analogy with the QCD gauge coupling in four dimensions. We find a phase transition at a critical value of the bare mass parameter such that the running mass parameter becomes large in the infrared precisely at the compactification scale. Below the critical coupling, the theory is in symmetric phase, whereas above it spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs. Close to the phase transition point there is a very light mode in the spectrum. The massive Kaluza-Klein spectrum at the critical coupling becomes independent of the UV cutoff
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wölfel, Christiane; Merritt, T.
2013-01-01
There are many examples of cards used to assist or provide structure to the design process, yet there has not been a thorough articulation of the strengths and weaknesses of the various examples. We review eighteen card-based design tools in order to understand how they might benefit designers....... The card-based tools are explained in terms of five design dimensions including the intended purpose and scope of use, duration of use, methodology, customization, and formal/material qualities. Our analysis suggests three design patterns or archetypes for existing card-based design method tools...... and highlights unexplored areas in the design space. The paper concludes with recommendations for the future development of card-based methods for the field of interaction design....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tauth, T.
1990-01-01
This paper deals with the space charge effects suffered by an ionic beam of homogeneous density, composed with ions of various charges and submitted to crossed electric and magnetic fields. We consider the physical and geometric conditions in the region between an ion source and the extraction electrode. We propose two different methods that allow to reach a numerical solution of the problem. The first one is founded on the idea that the large number of particles of the beam can be replaced in the calculations by a reduced number of highly charged particles. The second one consists in considering the widening of the beam through the evolution of the beam envelope. We apply these two methods to physical situations found in published experimental data. (Author)
Physics with large extra dimensions
Antoniadis, Ignatios
2004-01-01
A theory with such a mathematical beauty cannot be wrong: this was one of the main arguments in favor of string theory, which unifies all known physical theories of fundamental interactions in a single coherent description of the universe. But no one has ever observed strings, not even indirectly, neither the space of extra dimensions where they live. However, there is a hope that the “hidden”dimensions of string theory are much larger than what we thought in the past and they become within experimental reach in the near future, together with the strings themselves.
Gholibeigian, Hassan; Gholibeigian, Ghasem; Amirshahkarami, Azim; Gholibeigian, Kazem
2017-01-01
Four animated sub-particles (sub-strings) as origin of the life and generator of momentum (vibration) of elementary particles (strings) are communicated for transferring information for processing and preparing fundamental particles for the next step. It means that information may be a ``dimension'' of the nature which fundamental particles, dark matter/energy and space-time are floating in it and listening to its whispering and getting quantum information packages about their conditions and laws. So, communication of information which began before the spark to B.B. (Convection Bang), may be a ``Fundamental symmetry'' in the nature because leads other symmetries and supersymmetry as well as other phenomena. The processed information are always carried by fundamental particles as the preserved history and entropy of Universe. So, information wouldn't be destroyed, lost or released by black hole. But the involved fundamental particles of thermal radiation, electromagnetic and gravitational fields carry processed information during emitting from black hole, while they are communicated from fifth dimension for their new movement. AmirKabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
A unified theory in higher dimensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kapetanakis, D. (National Research Centre for the Physical Sciences Democritos, Athens (Greece)); Zoupanos, G. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland))
1990-10-11
We present a grand unified model defined in ten dimensions and based on the group SO(13). The model is dimensionally reduced over the non-simply-connected space (Su(3)/U(1)xU(1))/Z{sub 2} giving in four dimensions the standard model. (orig.).
A unified theory in higher dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kapetanakis, D.; Zoupanos, G.
1990-01-01
We present a grand unified model defined in ten dimensions and based on the group SO(13). The model is dimensionally reduced over the non-simply-connected space [Su(3)/U(1)xU(1)]/Z 2 giving in four dimensions the standard model. (orig.)
Four Essential Dimensions of Workplace Learning
Hopwood, Nick
2014-01-01
Purpose: This conceptual paper aims to argue that times, spaces, bodies and things constitute four essential dimensions of workplace learning. It examines how practices relate or hang together, taking Gherardi's texture of practices or connectedness in action as the foundation for making visible essential but often overlooked dimensions of…
Compacted dimensions and singular plasmonic surfaces
Pendry, J. B.; Huidobro, Paloma Arroyo; Luo, Yu; Galiffi, Emanuele
2017-11-01
In advanced field theories, there can be more than four dimensions to space, the excess dimensions described as compacted and unobservable on everyday length scales. We report a simple model, unconnected to field theory, for a compacted dimension realized in a metallic metasurface periodically structured in the form of a grating comprising a series of singularities. An extra dimension of the grating is hidden, and the surface plasmon excitations, though localized at the surface, are characterized by three wave vectors rather than the two of typical two-dimensional metal grating. We propose an experimental realization in a doped graphene layer.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blakely, Eleanor A.; Chang, Polly Y.
2007-02-26
The future of manned space flight depends on an analysis of the numerous potential risks of travel into deep space. Currently no radiation dose limits have been established for these exploratory missions. To set these standards more information is needed about potential acute and late effects on human physiology from appropriate radiation exposure scenarios, including pertinent radiation types and dose rates. Cancer risks have long been considered the most serious late effect from chronic daily relatively low-dose exposures to the complex space radiation environment. However, other late effects from space radiation exposure scenarios are under study in ground-based accelerator facilities and have revealed some unique particle radiation effects not observed with conventional radiations. A comprehensive review of pertinent literature that considers tissue effects of radiation leading to functional detriments in specific organ systems has recently been published (NCRP National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Information Needed to Make Radiation Protection Recommendations for Space Missions Beyond Low-Earth Orbit, Report 153, Bethesda, MD, 2006). This paper highlights the review of two non-cancer concerns from this report: cardiovascular and immunological effects.
Quantum matrices in two dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ewen, H.; Ogievetsky, O.; Wess, J.
1991-01-01
Quantum matrices in two-dimensions, admitting left and right quantum spaces, are classified: they fall into two families, the 2-parametric family GL p,q (2) and a 1-parametric family GL α J (2). Phenomena previously found for GL p,q (2) hold in this general situation: (a) powers of quantum matrices are again quantum and (b) entries of the logarithm of a two-dimensional quantum matrix form a Lie algebra. (orig.)
Uncertainty dimension and basin entropy in relativistic chaotic scattering
Bernal, Juan D.; Seoane, Jesús M.; Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.
2018-04-01
Chaotic scattering is an important topic in nonlinear dynamics and chaos with applications in several fields in physics and engineering. The study of this phenomenon in relativistic systems has received little attention as compared to the Newtonian case. Here we focus our work on the study of some relevant characteristics of the exit basin topology in the relativistic Hénon-Heiles system: the uncertainty dimension, the Wada property, and the basin entropy. Our main findings for the uncertainty dimension show two different behaviors insofar as we change the relativistic parameter β , in which a crossover behavior is uncovered. This crossover point is related with the disappearance of KAM islands in phase space, which happens for velocity values above the ultrarelativistic limit, v >0.1 c . This result is supported by numerical simulations and by qualitative analysis, which are in good agreement. On the other hand, the computation of the exit basins in the phase space suggests the existence of Wada basins for a range of β relevant in galactic dynamics, and it also has important implications in other topics in physics such as as in the Störmer problem, among others.
Goparaju Purna SUDHAKAR
2013-01-01
Popularity of teams is growing in 21st Century. Organizations are getting their work done through different types of teams. Teams have proved that the collective performance is more than the sum of the individual performances. Thus, the teams have got different dimensions such as quantitative dimensions and qualitative dimensions. The Quantitative dimensions of teams such as team performance, team productivity, team innovation, team effectiveness, team efficiency, team decision making and tea...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cornelia Siebeck
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Given the so-called "spatial turn" in the social sciences and cultural studies, social geographers have rightfully been cautioning against positivist notions of space and place: We cannot simply deduce the social from spatial reality—on the contrary, this reality is in every respect itself socially constituted and mediated. In her highly recommended study on the esthetical and socio-political reshaping of Alexanderplatz in Berlin after 1990, Gisa WESZKALNYS has shown how a radical constructivist concept of place and space can be transformed into practical research. This review essay argues that an ethnographic research perspective is of particular relevance both epistemologically as well as methodologically if the aim is to reconstruct places and spaces beyond their perceived "actuality" in terms of a fundamentally contingent social and essentially political practice. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1103203
Kobayashi, Kensei; Fushimi, Hidehiko; Motoyama, Takuya; Kaneko, Takeo; Obayashi, Yumiko; Yoshida, Satoshi; Mita, Hajime; Yabuta, Hikaru; Okudaira, Kyoko; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yokobori, Shin-Ichi; Yamagishi, Akihiko
A wide variety of organic compounds including amino acid precursors have been detected in such extraterrestrial bodies as carbonaceous chondrites and comets. It was suggested that these organics were formed in quite cold environments. We irradiated frozen mixtures of possible constituents of ice mantles of interstellar dust particles including water, methanol and ammonia with high-energy heavy ions from HIMAC, National Institute of Radiological Science, Japan. Amino acid precursors with complex structures were detected whose molecular weights are up to a few thousands. Such complex amino acid precursors are much stronger than free amino acids against radiation. Such organics could have been incorporated in solar system small bodies after the formation of the solar system and delivered to the primitive Earth. Possible carriers of such organics are meteorites, comets and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) that were formed from comets and meteorites. It is suggested that IDPs brought much more organics than meteorites and comets. However, nature of organics in IDPs is little known, since they have been collected only in terrestrial biosphere. We are planning a space experiments named Tanpopo, where IDPs would be collected in aerogel equipped on the Exposure Facility of the International Space Station. In addition, amino acids and their relating compounds would be exposed to space environments to see their possible alteration processes in the interplanetary space. We will report some preliminary results for the preparation of the mission including the capture of amino acid-containing particles at high velocity with ultra-low density aerogel.
Dimensions of Creative Evaluation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Bo; Ball, Linden J.
2016-01-01
We examined evaluative reasoning taking place during expert ‘design critiques’. We focused on key dimensions of creative evaluation (originality, functionality and aesthetics) and ways in which these dimensions impact reasoning strategies and suggestions offered by experts for how the student could...... continue. Each dimension was associated with a specific underpinning ‘logic’ determining how these dimensions were evaluated in practice. Our analysis clarified how these dimensions triggered reasoning strategies such as running mental simulations or making design suggestions, ranging from ‘go...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kolb, E.W.; Lindley, D.; Seckel, D.
1984-01-01
For a cosmological model with d noncompact and D compact spatial dimensions and symmetry R 1 x S/sup d/ x S/sup D/, we calculate the entropy produced in d dimensions due to the compactification of D dimensions and show it too small to be of cosmological interest. Although insufficient entropy is produced in the model we study, the contraction of extra dimensions does lead to entropy production. We discuss modifications of our assumptions, including changing our condition for decoupling of the extra dimensions, which may lead to a large entropy production and change our conclusions
Toward de Sitter space from ten dimensions
Moritz, Jakob; Retolaza, Ander; Westphal, Alexander
2018-02-01
Using a 10D lift of nonperturbative volume stabilization in type IIB string theory, we study the limitations for obtaining de Sitter vacua. Based on this we find that the simplest Kachru, Kallosh, Linde, and Trivedi vacua with a single Kähler modulus stabilized by a gaugino condensate cannot be uplifted to de Sitter. Rather, the uplift flattens out due to stronger backreaction on the volume modulus than has previously been anticipated, resulting in vacua which are metastable and supersymmetry breaking, but that are always anti-de Sitter (AdS). However, we also show that setups such as racetrack stabilization can avoid this issue. In these models it is possible to obtain supersymmetric AdS vacua with a cosmological constant that can be tuned to zero while retaining finite moduli stabilization. In this regime, it seems that de Sitter uplifts are possible with negligible backreaction on the internal volume. We exhibit this behavior also from the 10D perspective.
Projective Dimension in Filtrated K-Theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bentmann, Rasmus Moritz
2013-01-01
Under mild assumptions, we characterise modules with projective resolutions of length n∈N in the target category of filtrated K-theory over a finite topological space in terms of two conditions involving certain Tor -groups. We show that the filtrated K-theory of any separable C∗dash-algebra over...... any topological space with at most four points has projective dimension 2 or less. We observe that this implies a universal coefficient theorem for rational equivariant KK-theory over these spaces. As a contrasting example, we find a separable C∗dash-algebra in the bootstrap class over a certain five......-point space, the filtrated K-theory of which has projective dimension 3. Finally, as an application of our investigations, we exhibit Cuntz-Krieger algebras which have projective dimension 2 in filtrated K-theory over their respective primitive spectrum....
Extra dimensions round the corner?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abel, S.
1999-01-01
How many dimensions are we living in? This question is fundamental and yet, astonishingly, it remains unresolved. Of course, on the everyday level it appears that we are living in four dimensions three space plus one time dimension. But in recent months theoretical physicists have discovered that collisions between high-energy particles at accelerators may reveal the presence of extra space-time dimensions. On scales where we can measure the acceleration of falling objects due to gravity or study the orbital motion of planets or satellites, the gravitational force seems to be described by a 1/r 2 law. The most sensitive direct tests of the gravitational law are based on torsion-balance experiments that were first performed by Henry Cavendish in 1798. However, the smallest scales on which this type of experiment can be performed are roughly 1 mm (see J C Long, H W Chan and J C Price 1999 Nucl. Phys. B 539 23). At smaller distances, objects could be gravitating in five or more dimensions that are rolled up or ''compactified'' - an idea that is bread-and-butter to string theorists. Most string theorists however believe that the gravitational effects of compact extra dimensions are too small to be observed. Now Nima Arkani-Hamed from the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in the US, Savas Dimopoulos at Stanford University and Gia Dvali, who is now at New York University, suggest differently (Phys. Lett. B 1998 429 263). They advanced earlier ideas from string theory in which the strong, weak and electromagnetic forces are confined to membranes, like dirt particles trapped in soap bubbles, while the gravitational force operates in the entire higher-dimensional volume. In their theory extra dimensions should have observable effects inside particle colliders such as the Tevatron accelerator at Fermilab in the US or at the future Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The effect will show up as an excess of events in which a single jet of particles is produced with no
The Information Infrastructures Design Space
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henningsson, Stefan; Rapti, Charikleia; Jensen, Thomas
2017-01-01
This paper develops a framework for characterising the design space of Information Infrastructures (IIs). Existing research has generally sought to unravel the convergent characteristics and mechanisms uniting IIs across a wide range of manifestations. In this research, we explore this divergence...... within the II design space. We do so by reviewing the II literature, focusing on the two domains of design situation and design resolution. Design situation refers to the relevant dimensions of the context in which an II is employed. Design resolution covers the dimensions along which the socio......-technical constituents can be assembled to form an effective solution. The resulting framework allows for the comparing and contrasting of II initiatives, and contributes towards a cumulative knowledge process aimed at a more refined understanding of how an II can be configured to address the specific problem at hand....
Complex numbers in n dimensions
Olariu, Silviu
2002-01-01
Two distinct systems of hypercomplex numbers in n dimensions are introduced in this book, for which the multiplication is associative and commutative, and which are rich enough in properties such that exponential and trigonometric forms exist and the concepts of analytic n-complex function, contour integration and residue can be defined. The first type of hypercomplex numbers, called polar hypercomplex numbers, is characterized by the presence in an even number of dimensions greater or equal to 4 of two polar axes, and by the presence in an odd number of dimensions of one polar axis. The other type of hypercomplex numbers exists as a distinct entity only when the number of dimensions n of the space is even, and since the position of a point is specified with the aid of n/2-1 planar angles, these numbers have been called planar hypercomplex numbers. The development of the concept of analytic functions of hypercomplex variables was rendered possible by the existence of an exponential form of the n-complex numbe...
Social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grunwald, Armin [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis
2015-07-01
Nuclear waste disposal is a two-faceted challenge: a scientific and technological endeavour, on the one hand, and confronted with social dimensions, on the other. In this paper I will sketch the respective social dimensions and will give a plea for interdisciplinary research approaches. Relevant social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal are concerning safety standards, the disposal 'philosophy', the process of determining the disposal site, and the operation of a waste disposal facility. Overall, cross-cutting issues of justice, responsibility, and fairness are of major importance in all of these fields.
Social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grunwald, Armin
2015-01-01
Nuclear waste disposal is a two-faceted challenge: a scientific and technological endeavour, on the one hand, and confronted with social dimensions, on the other. In this paper I will sketch the respective social dimensions and will give a plea for interdisciplinary research approaches. Relevant social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal are concerning safety standards, the disposal 'philosophy', the process of determining the disposal site, and the operation of a waste disposal facility. Overall, cross-cutting issues of justice, responsibility, and fairness are of major importance in all of these fields.
On the dimension of complex responses in nonlinear structural vibrations
Wiebe, R.; Spottswood, S. M.
2016-07-01
The ability to accurately model engineering systems under extreme dynamic loads would prove a major breakthrough in many aspects of aerospace, mechanical, and civil engineering. Extreme loads frequently induce both nonlinearities and coupling which increase the complexity of the response and the computational cost of finite element models. Dimension reduction has recently gained traction and promises the ability to distill dynamic responses down to a minimal dimension without sacrificing accuracy. In this context, the dimensionality of a response is related to the number of modes needed in a reduced order model to accurately simulate the response. Thus, an important step is characterizing the dimensionality of complex nonlinear responses of structures. In this work, the dimensionality of the nonlinear response of a post-buckled beam is investigated. Significant detail is dedicated to carefully introducing the experiment, the verification of a finite element model, and the dimensionality estimation algorithm as it is hoped that this system may help serve as a benchmark test case. It is shown that with minor modifications, the method of false nearest neighbors can quantitatively distinguish between the response dimension of various snap-through, non-snap-through, random, and deterministic loads. The state-space dimension of the nonlinear system in question increased from 2-to-10 as the system response moved from simple, low-level harmonic to chaotic snap-through. Beyond the problem studied herein, the techniques developed will serve as a prescriptive guide in developing fast and accurate dimensionally reduced models of nonlinear systems, and eventually as a tool for adaptive dimension-reduction in numerical modeling. The results are especially relevant in the aerospace industry for the design of thin structures such as beams, panels, and shells, which are all capable of spatio-temporally complex dynamic responses that are difficult and computationally expensive to
Rosiyadi, Didi; Suryana, Nana; Cahyana, Ade; Nuryani, Nuryani
2007-01-01
Makalah ini mengemukakan E-Government Dimension yang merupakan salah satu hasil TahapanPengumpulan Data, dimana tahapan ini adalah bagian dari penelitian kompetitif di Lembaga Ilmu PengetahuanIndonesia 2007 yang sekarang sedang dilakukan. Data E-Government Dimension ini didapatkan dari berbagaisumber yang meliputi E-Government beberapa Negara di dunia, E-Government yang dibangun oleh beberapapenyedia aplikasi E-Government. E-Government Dimension terdiri dari tiga dimensi yaitu DemocraticDimen...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monthus, Cecile; Garel, Thomas
2008-01-01
We show that an appropriate description of the non-equilibrium dynamics of disordered systems is obtained through a strong disorder renormalization procedure in configuration space that we define for any master equation with transitions rates W(C→C') between configurations. The idea is to eliminate iteratively the configuration with the highest exit rate W out (C)+Σ C' W(C→C') to obtain renormalized transition rates between the remaining configurations. The multiplicative structure of the new generated transition rates suggests that for a very broad class of disordered systems, the distribution of renormalized exit barriers defined as B out (C)≡-ln W out (C) will become broader and broader upon iteration, so that the strong disorder renormalization procedure should become asymptotically exact at large time scales. We have checked numerically this scenario for the non-equilibrium dynamics of a directed polymer in a two-dimensional random medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tylka, Allan J.; Dietrich, William F.
1999-01-01
In more than 25 years of almost continuous observations, the University of Chicago's Cosmic Ray Telescope (CRT) on IMP-8 has amassed a unique database on high-energy solar heavy ions of potential relevance to manned spaceflight. In the very largest particle events, IMP-8/CRT has even observed solar Fe ions above the Galactic cosmic ray background up to ∼800 MeV/nucleon, an energy sufficiently high to penetrate nearly 25 g/cm 2 of shielding. IMP-8/CRT observations show that high-energy heavy-ion spectra are often surprisingly hard power laws, without the exponential roll-offs suggested by stochastic acceleration fits to lower energy measurements alone. Also, in many solar particle events the Fe/O ratio grows with increasing energy, contrary to the notion that ions with higher mass-to-charge ratios should be less abundant at higher energies. Previous studies of radiation hazards for manned spaceflight have often assumed heavy-ion composition and steeply-falling energy spectra inconsistent with these observations. Conclusions based on such studies should therefore be re-assessed. The significant event-to-event variability observed in the high-energy solar heavy ions also has important implications for strategies in building probabilistic models of solar particle radiation hazards
Dimensions of Adolescent Employment.
Mael, Fred A.; Morath, Ray A.; McLellan, Jeffrey A.
1997-01-01
Examines positive and negative correlates of adolescent work as a function of work dimensions. Results indicate that concurrent costs and benefits of adolescent employment may depend on dimensions of work as well as adolescent characteristics. Adolescent employment was generally related to subsequent work motivation and nonacademic performance.…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lykke, Marianne; Jantzen, Christian
2016-01-01
The present study develops a set of 10 dimensions based on a systematic understanding of the concept of experience as a holistic psychological. Seven of these are derived from a psychological conception of what experiencing and experiences are. Three supplementary dimensions spring from the obser...
Dimensions des stabulations 2018
Früh, Barbara; Maurer, Veronika; Schneider, Claudia; Schürmann, Stefan; Spengler Neff, Anet; Werne, Steffen
2018-01-01
Les «Dimensions des stabulations» contiennent toutes les dimensions pour les stabulations et les parcours pour la production animale en agriculture biologique. Cette liste sert d’instrument de planification pour les éleveurs, d’outil de travail pour la vulgarisation et d’ouvrage de référence pour le contrôle bio.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Høskuldsson, Agnar
1996-01-01
Determination of the proper dimension of a given linear model is one of the most important tasks in the applied modeling work. We consider here eight criteria that can be used to determine the dimension of the model, or equivalently, the number of components to use in the model. Four of these cri......Determination of the proper dimension of a given linear model is one of the most important tasks in the applied modeling work. We consider here eight criteria that can be used to determine the dimension of the model, or equivalently, the number of components to use in the model. Four...... the basic problems in determining the dimension of linear models. Then each of the eight measures are treated. The results are illustrated by examples....
Handbook of space security policies, applications and programs
Hays, Peter; Robinson, Jana; Moura, Denis; Giannopapa, Christina
2015-01-01
Space Security involves the use of space (in particular communication, navigation, earth observation, and electronic intelligence satellites) for military and security purposes on earth and also the maintenance of space (in particular the earth orbits) as safe and secure areas for conducting peaceful activities. The two aspects can be summarized as "space for security on earth" and “the safeguarding of space for peaceful endeavors.” The Handbook will provide a sophisticated, cutting-edge resource on the space security policy portfolio and the associated assets, assisting fellow members of the global space community and other interested policy-making and academic audiences in keeping abreast of the current and future directions of this vital dimension of international space policy. The debate on coordinated space security measures, including relevant 'Transparency and Confidence-Building Measures,' remains at a relatively early stage of development. The book offers a comprehensive description of the variou...
The fourth dimension simply explained
Manning, Henry P
2005-01-01
To remove the contents of an egg without puncturing its shell or to drink the liquor in a bottle without removing the cork is clearly unthinkable - or is it? Understanding the world of Einstein and curved space requires a logical conception of the fourth dimension.This readable, informative volume provides an excellent introduction to that world, with 22 essays that employ a minimum of mathematics. Originally written for a contest sponsored by Scientific American, these essays are so well reasoned and lucidly written that they were judged to merit publication in book form. Their easily unders
Dimension from covariance matrices.
Carroll, T L; Byers, J M
2017-02-01
We describe a method to estimate embedding dimension from a time series. This method includes an estimate of the probability that the dimension estimate is valid. Such validity estimates are not common in algorithms for calculating the properties of dynamical systems. The algorithm described here compares the eigenvalues of covariance matrices created from an embedded signal to the eigenvalues for a covariance matrix of a Gaussian random process with the same dimension and number of points. A statistical test gives the probability that the eigenvalues for the embedded signal did not come from the Gaussian random process.
CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit
2002-01-01
Recent progress in the formulation of fundamental theories for a Universe with more than 4 dimensions will be reviewed. Particular emphasis will be given to theories predicting the existence of extra dimensions at distance scales within the reach of current or forthcoming experiments. The phenomenological implications of these theories, ranging from detectable deviations from Newton's law at sub-millimeter scales, to phenomena of cosmological and astrophysical interest, as well as to high-energy laboratory experiments, will be discussed.
Gender Dimensions Framework Application
Rubin, D.
2011-01-01
This is a presentation of the The Gender Dimensions Framework (GDF). The GDF was developed to provide guidance to USAID staff and partner organizations for working with USAID projects looking at promoting equitable opportunities in agricultural value chains. The GDF contemplates four dimensions: access to and control over key productive assets (tangible and intangible); beliefs and perceptions; practices and participation, and legal frameworks. CCRA-7 (Gendered Knowledge)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ryu, S.; Furusaki, A.; Ludwig, A.W.W.; Mudry, C.
2007-01-01
We extend the analysis of the conductance fluctuations in disordered metals by Altshuler, Kravtsov, and Lerner (AKL) to disordered superconductors with broken time-reversal symmetry in d=(2+ε) dimensions (symmetry classes C and D of Altland and Zirnbauer). Using a perturbative renormalization group analysis of the corresponding non-linear sigma model (NLσM) we compute the anomalous scaling dimensions of the dominant scalar operators with 2s gradients to one-loop order. We show that, in analogy with the result of AKL for ordinary, metallic systems (Wigner-Dyson classes), an infinite number of high-gradient operators would become relevant (in the renormalization group sense) near two dimensions if contributions beyond one-loop order are ignored. We explore the possibility to compare, in symmetry class D, the ε=(2-d) expansion in d<2 with exact results in one dimension. The method we use to perform the one-loop renormalization analysis is valid for general symmetric spaces of Kaehler type, and suggests that this is a generic property of the perturbative treatment of NLσMs defined on Riemannian symmetric target spaces
Intersection democracy for winding branes and stabilization of extra dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rador, Tonguc
2005-01-01
We show that, in the context of pure Einstein gravity, a democratic principle for intersection possibilities of branes winding around extra dimensions in a given partitioning yield stabilization, while what the observed space follows is matter-like dust evolution. Here democracy is used in the sense that, in a given decimation of extra dimensions, all possible wrappings and hence all possible intersections are allowed. Generally, the necessary and sufficient condition for this is that the dimensionality m of the observed space dimensions obey 3= =3, where N is the decimation order of the extra dimensions
Incommensurate crystallography without additional dimensions.
Kocian, Philippe
2013-07-01
It is shown that the Euclidean group of translations, when treated as a Lie group, generates translations not only in Euclidean space but on any space, curved or not. Translations are then not necessarily vectors (straight lines); they can be any curve compatible with the parameterization of the considered space. In particular, attention is drawn to the fact that one and only one finite and free module of the Lie algebra of the group of translations can generate both modulated and non-modulated lattices, the modulated character being given only by the parameterization of the space in which the lattice is generated. Moreover, it is shown that the diffraction pattern of a structure is directly linked to the action of that free and finite module. In the Fourier transform of a whole structure, the Fourier transform of the electron density of one unit cell (i.e. the structure factor) appears concretely, whether the structure is modulated or not. Thus, there exists a neat separation: the geometrical aspect on the one hand and the action of the group on the other, without requiring additional dimensions.
Xu, Ye; Lee, Michael C.; Boroczky, Lilla; Cann, Aaron D.; Borczuk, Alain C.; Kawut, Steven M.; Powell, Charles A.
2009-02-01
Features calculated from different dimensions of images capture quantitative information of the lung nodules through one or multiple image slices. Previously published computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) systems have used either twodimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) features, though there has been little systematic analysis of the relevance of the different dimensions and of the impact of combining different dimensions. The aim of this study is to determine the importance of combining features calculated in different dimensions. We have performed CADx experiments on 125 pulmonary nodules imaged using multi-detector row CT (MDCT). The CADx system computed 192 2D, 2.5D, and 3D image features of the lesions. Leave-one-out experiments were performed using five different combinations of features from different dimensions: 2D, 3D, 2.5D, 2D+3D, and 2D+3D+2.5D. The experiments were performed ten times for each group. Accuracy, sensitivity and specificity were used to evaluate the performance. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were applied to compare the classification results from these five different combinations of features. Our results showed that 3D image features generate the best result compared with other combinations of features. This suggests one approach to potentially reducing the dimensionality of the CADx data space and the computational complexity of the system while maintaining diagnostic accuracy.
A variational principle for the Hausdorff dimension of fractal sets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Lars; Cutler, Colleen D.
1994-01-01
Matematik, fraktal (fractal), Hausdorff dimension, Renyi dimension, pakke dimension (packing dimension)......Matematik, fraktal (fractal), Hausdorff dimension, Renyi dimension, pakke dimension (packing dimension)...
Perceptual dimensions differentiate emotions.
Cavanaugh, Lisa A; MacInnis, Deborah J; Weiss, Allen M
2015-08-26
Individuals often describe objects in their world in terms of perceptual dimensions that span a variety of modalities; the visual (e.g., brightness: dark-bright), the auditory (e.g., loudness: quiet-loud), the gustatory (e.g., taste: sour-sweet), the tactile (e.g., hardness: soft vs. hard) and the kinaesthetic (e.g., speed: slow-fast). We ask whether individuals use perceptual dimensions to differentiate emotions from one another. Participants in two studies (one where respondents reported on abstract emotion concepts and a second where they reported on specific emotion episodes) rated the extent to which features anchoring 29 perceptual dimensions (e.g., temperature, texture and taste) are associated with 8 emotions (anger, fear, sadness, guilt, contentment, gratitude, pride and excitement). Results revealed that in both studies perceptual dimensions differentiate positive from negative emotions and high arousal from low arousal emotions. They also differentiate among emotions that are similar in arousal and valence (e.g., high arousal negative emotions such as anger and fear). Specific features that anchor particular perceptual dimensions (e.g., hot vs. cold) are also differentially associated with emotions.
Trembach, Vera
2014-01-01
Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sarkar, Utpal
2001-05-01
We live in a four dimensional world. But the idea of unification of fundamental interactions lead us to higher dimensional theories. Recently a new theory with extra dimensions has emerged where only gravity propagates in the extra dimension and all other interactions are confined to only four dimensions. This theory gives us many new hopes. In earlier theories unification of strong, weak and the electromagnetic forces was possible at around 10 16 GeV in a grand unified theory (GUT) and it could get unified with gravity at around the Planck scale of 10 19 GeV. With this new idea it is possible to bring down all unification scales within the reach of the new generation accelerators, i.e., around 10 4 GeV. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Høskuldsson, Agnar
1996-01-01
Determination of the proper dimension of a given linear model is one of the most important tasks in the applied modeling work. We consider here eight criteria that can be used to determine the dimension of the model, or equivalently, the number of components to use in the model. Four...... the basic problems in determining the dimension of linear models. Then each of the eight measures are treated. The results are illustrated by examples....... of these criteria are widely used ones, while the remaining four are ones derived from the H-principle of mathematical modeling. Many examples from practice show that the criteria derived from the H-principle function better than the known and popular criteria for the number of components. We shall briefly review...
Determination of the Lyapunov exponents and the information dimension in some dynamical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ziar, A.
1992-01-01
Classical phase space for some dynamical systems relevant in nuclear physics are studied. The nuclei is described by convex billiards or in the mean field theory. In both cases, besides the Poincare surface of sections which gives a qualitative description, each trajectory is characterized by its maximum Lyapunov exponent. The analytic monodromy matrix for a free particle in convex billiards rotating around an axis perpendicular to the plan of billiards, is determined, generalizing a previous result obtained for static billiards. In the frame of the mean field theory, it is shown an interesting alternative to the Lyapunov exponent, which is the dimension of the manifold in the phase space associated to the trajectory, leading to the evaluation of the relative chaotic volume in phase space as a function of the different parameters. The dimension appears as a character which could be determined easily for the rotating mean field, where the dimension of the manifold on which the trajectory is lying could be equal to 5 or 4 for chaotic trajectories, and less or equal to 3 for regular ones
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marmo, A.R.
1980-01-01
A pellet dimension checker was developed for use in making nuclear-fuel pellets. This checker eliminates operator handling of the pellet but permits remote-monitoring of the operation, and is thus suitable for mass production of green fuel pellets particularly in reprocessing plants handling irradiated uranium or plutonium. It comprises a rotatable arm for transferring a pellet from a conveyor to several dimensional measuring stations and back to the conveyor if the dimensions of the pellet are within predetermined limits. If the pellet is not within the limits, the arm removes the pellet from the process stream. (DN)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antoniadis, I
2006-01-01
Lowering the string scale in the TeV region provides a theoretical framework for solving the mass hierarchy problem and unifying all interactions. The apparent weakness of gravity can then be accounted by the existence of large internal dimensions, in the submillimeter region, and transverse to a braneworld where our universe must be confined. I review the main properties of this scenario and its implications for observations at both particle colliders, and in non-accelerator gravity experiments. Such effects are for instance the production of Kaluza-Klein resonances, graviton emission in the bulk of extra dimensions, and a radical change of gravitational forces in the submillimeter range
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, W.; Bak, P.
1986-01-01
At a critical point the golden-mean Kolmogorov-Arnol'd-Moser trajectory of Chirikov's standard map breaks up into a fractal orbit called a cantorus. The transition describes a pinning of the incommensurate phase of the Frenkel-Kontorowa model. We find that the fractal dimension of the cantorus is D = 0 and that the transition from the Kolmogorov-Arnol'd-Moser trajectory with dimension D = 1 to the cantorus is governed by an exponent ν = 0.98. . . and a universal scaling function. It is argued that the exponent is equal to that of the Lyapunov exponent
Higher spin gauge theories in any dimension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vasiliev, M.A.
2004-01-01
Some general properties of higher spin (HS) gauge theories are summarized, with the emphasize on the nonlinear theories in any dimension. The main conclusion is that nonlinear HS theories exist in any dimension. Note that HS gauge symmetries in the nonlinear HS theory differ from the Yang-Mills gauging of the global HS symmetry of a free theory one starts with by HS field strength dependent nonlinear corrections resulting from the partial gauge fixing of spontaneously broken HS symmetries in the extended non-commutative space. The HS geometry is that of the fuzzy hyperboloid in the auxiliary (fiber) non-commutative space. Its radius depends on the Weyl 0-forms which take values in the infinitive-dimensional module dual to the space of single-particle states in the system
Scalar field cosmology in three-dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oliveira Neto, G.
2001-01-01
We study an analytical solution to the Einstein's equations in 2 + 1-dimensions. The space-time is dynamical and has a line symmetry. The matter content is a minimally coupled, massless, scalar field. Depending on the value of certain parameters, this solution represents three distinct space-times. The first one is at space-time. Then, we have a big bang model with a negative curvature scalar and a real scalar field. The last case is a big bang model with event horizons where the curvature scalar vanishes and the scalar field changes from real to purely imaginary. (author)
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Zapletal, Jindřich
2014-01-01
Roč. 167, April 15 (2014), s. 31-35 ISSN 0166-8641 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Cohen real * infinite dimension * calibrated ideal Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.551, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166864114001151
ACCURACY DIMENSIONS IN REMOTE SENSING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Á. Barsi
2018-04-01
selected, practice-oriented approaches are evaluated too, finally widely-used dimension metrics like Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE or confusion matrix are discussed. The authors present data quality features of well-defined and poorly defined object. The central part of the study is the land cover mapping, describing its accuracy management model, presented relevance and uncertainty measures of its influencing quality dimensions. In the paper theory is supported by a case study, where the remote sensing technology is used for supporting the area-based agricultural subsidies of the European Union, in Hungarian administration.
Accuracy Dimensions in Remote Sensing
Barsi, Á.; Kugler, Zs.; László, I.; Szabó, Gy.; Abdulmutalib, H. M.
2018-04-01
-oriented approaches are evaluated too, finally widely-used dimension metrics like Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) or confusion matrix are discussed. The authors present data quality features of well-defined and poorly defined object. The central part of the study is the land cover mapping, describing its accuracy management model, presented relevance and uncertainty measures of its influencing quality dimensions. In the paper theory is supported by a case study, where the remote sensing technology is used for supporting the area-based agricultural subsidies of the European Union, in Hungarian administration.
Measure and dimension functions: measurability and densities
Mattila, Pertti; Mauldin, R. Daniel
1997-01-01
During the past several years, new types of geometric measure and dimension have been introduced; the packing measure and dimension, see [Su], [Tr] and [TT1]. These notions are playing an increasingly prevalent role in various aspects of dynamics and measure theory. Packing measure is a sort of dual of Hausdorff measure in that it is defined in terms of packings rather than coverings. However, in contrast to Hausdorff measure, the usual definition of packing measure requires two limiting procedures, first the construction of a premeasure and then a second standard limiting process to obtain the measure. This makes packing measure somewhat delicate to deal with. The question arises as to whether there is some simpler method for defining packing measure and dimension. In this paper, we find a basic limitation on this possibility. We do this by determining the descriptive set-theoretic complexity of the packing functions. Whereas the Hausdorff dimension function on the space of compact sets is Borel measurable, the packing dimension function is not. On the other hand, we show that the packing dimension functions are measurable with respect to the [sigma]-algebra generated by the analytic sets. Thus, the usual sorts of measurability properties used in connection with Hausdorff measure, for example measures of sections and projections, remain true for packing measure.
Chromatic Dimensions Earthy, Watery, Airy, and Fiery.
Albertazzi, Liliana; Koenderink, Jan J; van Doorn, Andrea
2015-01-01
In our study, for a small number of antonyms, we investigate whether they are cross-modally or ideaesthetically related to the space of colors. We analyze the affinities of seven antonyms (cold-hot, dull-radiant, dead-vivid, soft-hard, transparent-chalky, dry-wet, and acid-treacly) and their intermediate connotations (cool-warm, matt-shiny, numb-lively, mellow-firm, semi-transparent-opaque, semi-dry-moist, and sour-sweet) as a function of color. We find that some antonyms relate to chromatic dimensions, others to achromatic ones. The cold-hot antonym proves to be the most salient dimension. The dry-wet dimension coincides with the cold-hot dimension, with dry corresponding to hot and wet to cold. The acid-treacly dimension proves to be transversal to the cold-hot dimension; hence, the pairs mutually span the chromatic domain. The cold-hot and acid-treacly antonyms perhaps recall Hering's opponent color system. The dull-radiant, transparent-chalky, and dead-vivid pairs depend little upon chromaticity. Of all seven antonyms, only the soft-hard one turns out to be independent of the chromatic structure. © The Author(s) 2015.
Gravitational lensing and extra dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He, X-G.; University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC; Joshi, G.C.; McKellar, B.H.J.
1999-08-01
We study gravitational tensing and the bending of light in low energy scale (M s ) gravity theories with extra space-time dimensions 'n'. We find that due to the presence of spin-2 Kaluza-Klein states from compactification, a correction to the deflection angle with a strong quadratic dependence on the photon energy is introduced. No deviation from the Einstein General Relativity prediction for the deflection angle for photons grazing the Sun in the visible band with 15% accuracy (90% c.l.) implies that the scale M s has to be larger than 1.4(2/(n-2)) 1/4 TeV and approximately 4 TeV for n=2. This lower bound is comparable with that from collider physics constraints. Gravitational tensing experiments with higher energy photons can provide stronger constraints. (authors)
Accessible solitons of fractional dimension
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhong, Wei-Ping, E-mail: zhongwp6@126.com [Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, Shunde Polytechnic, Guangdong Province, Shunde 528300 (China); Texas A& M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); Belić, Milivoj [Texas A& M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); Zhang, Yiqi [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education & Shaanxi Key Lab of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)
2016-05-15
We demonstrate that accessible solitons described by an extended Schrödinger equation with the Laplacian of fractional dimension can exist in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media. The soliton solutions of the model are constructed by two special functions, the associated Legendre polynomials and the Laguerre polynomials in the fraction-dimensional space. Our results show that these fractional accessible solitons form a soliton family which includes crescent solitons, and asymmetric single-layer and multi-layer necklace solitons. -- Highlights: •Analytic solutions of a fractional Schrödinger equation are obtained. •The solutions are produced by means of self-similar method applied to the fractional Schrödinger equation with parabolic potential. •The fractional accessible solitons form crescent, asymmetric single-layer and multilayer necklace profiles. •The model applies to the propagation of optical pulses in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media.
Risk factors for small pharyngeal airway dimensions in preorthodontic children
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Anandarajah, Seerone; Dudhia, Raahib; Sandham, Andrew
2017-01-01
Objective: To analyze which parameters, gathered from standard orthodontic diagnostic material, were most relevant for identifying small pharyngeal airway dimensions in preorthodontic children. Materials and Methods: The sample was composed of 105 cone beam computed tomography scans of healthy......, skeletal maturity and gender significant associations were found between pharyngeal airway dimensions and craniofacial morphology. Airway volume was positively associated with maxillary and mandibular width (P ... and sagittal jaw relationship were the most relevant factors for minimal cross-sectional area (r2 = 0.16). Conclusion: Pharyngeal airway dimensions were significantly associated with age, skeletal maturity, and craniofacial morphology in all three planes. Children with a reduced mandibular width and increased...
Exploring extra dimensions through inflationary tensor modes
Im, Sang Hui; Nilles, Hans Peter; Trautner, Andreas
2018-03-01
Predictions of inflationary schemes can be influenced by the presence of extra dimensions. This could be of particular relevance for the spectrum of gravitational waves in models where the extra dimensions provide a brane-world solution to the hierarchy problem. Apart from models of large as well as exponentially warped extra dimensions, we analyze the size of tensor modes in the Linear Dilaton scheme recently revived in the discussion of the "clockwork mechanism". The results are model dependent, significantly enhanced tensor modes on one side and a suppression on the other. In some cases we are led to a scheme of "remote inflation", where the expansion is driven by energies at a hidden brane. In all cases where tensor modes are enhanced, the requirement of perturbativity of gravity leads to a stringent upper limit on the allowed Hubble rate during inflation.
A first course in topology continuity and dimension
McCleary, John
2006-01-01
How many dimensions does our universe require for a comprehensive physical description? In 1905, Poincar� argued philosophically about the necessity of the three familiar dimensions, while recent research is based on 11 dimensions or even 23 dimensions. The notion of dimension itself presented a basic problem to the pioneers of topology. Cantor asked if dimension was a topological feature of Euclidean space. To answer this question, some important topological ideas were introduced by Brouwer, giving shape to a subject whose development dominated the twentieth century. The basic notions in topology are varied and a comprehensive grounding in point-set topology, the definition and use of the fundamental group, and the beginnings of homology theory requires considerable time. The goal of this book is a focused introduction through these classical topics, aiming throughout at the classical result of the Invariance of Dimension. This text is based on the author's course given at Vassar College and is intended fo...
Why relevance theory is relevant for lexicography
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bothma, Theo; Tarp, Sven
2014-01-01
This article starts by providing a brief summary of relevance theory in information science in relation to the function theory of lexicography, explaining the different types of relevance, viz. objective system relevance and the subjective types of relevance, i.e. topical, cognitive, situational...... that is very important for lexicography as well as for information science, viz. functional relevance. Since all lexicographic work is ultimately aimed at satisfying users’ information needs, the article then discusses why the lexicographer should take note of all these types of relevance when planning a new...... dictionary project, identifying new tasks and responsibilities of the modern lexicographer. The article furthermore discusses how relevance theory impacts on teaching dictionary culture and reference skills. By integrating insights from lexicography and information science, the article contributes to new...
Interactive Dimensioning of Parametric Models
Kelly, T.
2015-06-22
We propose a solution for the dimensioning of parametric and procedural models. Dimensioning has long been a staple of technical drawings, and we present the first solution for interactive dimensioning: A dimension line positioning system that adapts to the view direction, given behavioral properties. After proposing a set of design principles for interactive dimensioning, we describe our solution consisting of the following major components. First, we describe how an author can specify the desired interactive behavior of a dimension line. Second, we propose a novel algorithm to place dimension lines at interactive speeds. Third, we introduce multiple extensions, including chained dimension lines, controls for different parameter types (e.g. discrete choices, angles), and the use of dimension lines for interactive editing. Our results show the use of dimension lines in an interactive parametric modeling environment for architectural, botanical, and mechanical models.
Dimension 7 operators in the b{yields}s transition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chalons, G. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik; Domingo, F. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2013-03-15
We extend the low-energy effective field theory relevant for b{yields}s transitions up to operators of mass-dimension 7 and compute the associated anomalous-dimension matrix. We then compare our findings to the known results for dimension 6 operators and derive a solution for the renormalization group equations involving operators of dimension 7. We finally apply our analysis to a particularly simple case where the Standard Model is extended by an electroweak-magnetic operator and consider limits on this scenario from the decays B{sub s}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} and B{yields}K{nu} anti {nu}.
Search for Extra Dimensions With ATLAS at LHC
Benslama, Kamal
2004-01-01
Theories with extra space time dimensions aiming at resolving the hierarchy problem have recently been developed. These scenarios have provided exciting new grounds for experimental probes. A review of the studies done by the ATLAS collaboration on the sensitivity of the detector to various extra dimension models is reported in this document
A simpler and elegant algorithm for computing fractal dimension in ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Chaotic systems are now frequently encountered in almost all branches of sciences. Dimension of such systems provides an important measure for easy characterization of dynamics of the systems. Conventional algorithms for computing dimension of such systems in higher dimensional state space face an unavoidable ...
Cultural dimensions of learning
Eyford, Glen A.
1990-06-01
How, what, when and where we learn is frequently discussed, as are content versus process, or right brain versus left brain learning. What is usually missing is the cultural dimension. This is not an easy concept to define, but various aspects can be identified. The World Decade for Cultural Development emphasizes the need for a counterbalance to a quantitative, economic approach. In the last century poets also warned against brutalizing materialism, and Sorokin and others have described culture more recently in terms of cohesive basic values expressed through aesthetics and institutions. Bloom's taxonomy incorporates the category of affective learning, which internalizes values. If cultural learning goes beyond knowledge acquisition, perhaps the surest way of understanding the cultural dimension of learning is to examine the aesthetic experience. This can use myths, metaphors and symbols, and to teach and learn by using these can help to unlock the human potential for vision and creativity.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dalsgaard, Christian; Thestrup, Klaus
2015-01-01
The objective of the paper is to present a pedagogical approach to openness. The paper develops a framework for understanding the pedagogical opportunities of openness in education. Based on the pragmatism of John Dewey and sociocultural learning theory, the paper defines openness in education...... as a matter of engaging educational activities in sociocultural practices of a surrounding society. Openness is not only a matter of opening up the existing, but of developing new educational practices that interact with society. The paper outlines three pedagogical dimensions of openness: transparency...... practices. Openness as joint engagement in the world aims at establishing interdependent collaborative relationships between educational institutions and external practices. To achieve these dimensions of openness, educational activities need to change and move beyond the course as the main format...
Introduction to Extra Dimensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rizzo, Thomas G.; /SLAC
2010-04-29
Extra dimensions provide a very useful tool in addressing a number of the fundamental problems faced by the Standard Model. The following provides a very basic introduction to this very broad subject area as given at the VIII School of the Gravitational and Mathematical Physics Division of the Mexican Physical Society in December 2009. Some prospects for extra dimensional searches at the 7 TeV LHC with {approx}1 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity are provided.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Emery, V.J.
1981-03-01
This article is a qualitative account of some aspects of physics in few dimensions, and its relationship to nonlinear field theories. After a survey of materials and some of the models that have been used to describe them, the various methods of solution are compared and contrasted. The roles of exact results, operator representations and the renormalization group transformation are described, and a uniform picture of the behavior of low-dimensional systems is presented
Marshall, R. H.; Gabrys, R.
2016-12-01
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has developed a systemic educator professional development model for the integration of NASA climate change resources into the K-12 classroom. The desired outcome of this model is to prepare teachers in STEM disciplines to be globally engaged and knowledgeable of current climate change research and its potential for content relevancy alignment to standard-based curriculum. The application and mapping of the model is based on the state education needs assessment, alignment to the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), and implementation framework developed by the consortium of district superintendents and their science supervisors. In this presentation, we will demonstrate best practices for extending the concept of inquiry-based and project-based learning through the integration of current NASA climate change research into curriculum unit lessons. This model includes a significant teacher development component focused on capacity development for teacher instruction and pedagogy aimed at aligning NASA climate change research to related NGSS student performance expectations and subsequent Crosscutting Concepts, Science and Engineering Practices, and Disciplinary Core Ideas, a need that was presented by the district steering committee as critical for ensuring sustainability and high-impact in the classroom. This model offers a collaborative and inclusive learning community that connects classroom teachers to NASA climate change researchers via an ongoing consultant/mentoring approach. As a result of the first year of implementation of this model, Maryland teachers are implementing NGSS unit lessons that guide students in open-ended research based on current NASA climate change research.
The "fourth dimension" of gene transcription.
O'Malley, Bert W
2009-05-01
The three dimensions of space provide our relationship to position on the earth, but the fourth dimension of time has an equally profound influence on our lives. Everything from light and sound to weather and biology operate on the principle of measurable temporal periodicity. Consequently, a wide variety of time clocks affect all aspects of our existence. The annual (and biannual) cycles of activity, metabolism, and mating, the monthly physiological clocks of women and men, and the 24-h diurnal rhythms of humans are prime examples. Should it be surprising to us that the fourth dimension also impinges upon gene expression and that the genome itself is regulated by the fastest running of all biological clocks? Recent evidence substantiates the existence of such a ubiquitin-dependent transcriptional clock that is based upon the activation and destruction of transcriptional coactivators.
Brane-world motion in compact dimensions
Greene, Brian; Levin, Janna; Parikh, Maulik
2011-08-01
The topology of extra dimensions can break global Lorentz invariance, singling out a globally preferred frame even in flat spacetime. Through experiments that probe global topology, an observer can determine her state of motion with respect to the preferred frame. This scenario is realized if we live on a brane universe moving through a flat space with compact extra dimensions. We identify three experimental effects due to the motion of our universe that one could potentially detect using gravitational probes. One of these relates to the peculiar properties of the twin paradox in multiply-connected spacetimes. Another relies on the fact that the Kaluza-Klein modes of any bulk field are sensitive to boundary conditions. A third concerns the modification to the Newtonian potential on a moving brane. Remarkably, we find that even small extra dimensions are detectable by brane observers if the brane is moving sufficiently fast. Communicated by P R L V Moniz
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Petersen, Casper
2016-01-01
train a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) on existing relevant information to that query. We then use the RNN to "deep learn" a single, synthetic, and we assume, relevant document for that query. We design a crowdsourcing experiment to assess how relevant the "deep learned" document is, compared...... to existing relevant documents. Users are shown a query and four wordclouds (of three existing relevant documents and our deep learned synthetic document). The synthetic document is ranked on average most relevant of all....
Fast multi-output relevance vector regression
Ha, Youngmin
2017-01-01
This paper aims to decrease the time complexity of multi-output relevance vector regression from O(VM^3) to O(V^3+M^3), where V is the number of output dimensions, M is the number of basis functions, and V
The Relevance Aura of Bibliographic Records.
Brooks, Terrence A.
1997-01-01
Analyzes relevance assessments of topical descriptors for bibliographic records for two dimensions: (1) a vertical conceptual hierarchy of broad to narrow descriptors, and (2) a horizontal linkage of related terms. The data were analyzed for a semantic distance and semantic direction effect as postulated by the Semantic Distance Model. (Author/LRW)
Fermion current algebras and Schwinger terms in (3+1)-dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Langmann, E.
1994-01-01
We discuss the restricted linear group in infinite dimensions modeled by the Schatten class of rank 2p=4 which contains the (3+1)-dimensional analogs of the loop groups and is closely related to Yang-Mills theory with fermions in (3+1)-dimensions. We give an alternative to the construction of the ''highest weight'' representation of this group found by Mickelsson and Rajeev. Our approach is close to quantum field theory, with the elements of this group regarded as Bogoliubov transformations for fermions in an external Yang-Mills field. Though these cannot be unitarily implemented in the physically relevant representation of the fermion field algebra, we argue that they can be implemented by sesquilinear forms, and that there is a (regularized) product of forms providing an appropriate group structure. On the Lie algebra level, this gives an explicit, non-perturbative construction of fermion current algebras in (3+1) space-time dimensions which explicitly shows that the ''wave function renormalization'' required for a consistent definition of the currents and their Lie bracket naturally leads to the Schwinger term identical with the Mickelsson-Rajeev cocycle. Though the explicit form of the Schwinger term is given only for the case p=2, our arguments apply also to the restricted linear groups modeled by Schatten classes of rank 2p=6, 8, .. corresponding to current algebras in (d+1)-dimensions, d=5, 7, .. (orig.)
Tensionless branes and the null string critical dimension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bozhilov, P.
1998-01-01
BRST quantization is carried out for a model of p-branes with second class constraints. After extension of the phase space the constraint algebra coincides with the one of null string when p=1. It is shown that in this case one can or cannot obtain critical dimension for the null string, depending on the choice of the operator ordering and corresponding vacuum states. When p>1, operator orderings leading to critical dimension in the p=1 case are not allowed. Admissible orderings give no restrictions on the dimension of the embedding space-time. Finally, a generalization to supersymmetric null branes is proposed
Accelerated Dimension-Independent Adaptive Metropolis
Chen, Yuxin
2016-10-27
This work describes improvements by algorithmic and architectural means to black-box Bayesian inference over high-dimensional parameter spaces. The well-known adaptive Metropolis (AM) algorithm [H. Haario, E. Saksman, and J. Tamminen, Bernoulli, (2001), pp. 223--242] is extended herein to scale asymptotically uniformly with respect to the underlying parameter dimension for Gaussian targets, by respecting the variance of the target. The resulting algorithm, referred to as the dimension-independent adaptive Metropolis (DIAM) algorithm, also shows improved performance with respect to adaptive Metropolis on non-Gaussian targets. This algorithm is further improved, and the possibility of probing high-dimensional (with dimension $d \\\\geq 1000$) targets is enabled, via GPU-accelerated numerical libraries and periodically synchronized concurrent chains (justified a posteriori). Asymptotically in dimension, this GPU implementation exhibits a factor of four improvement versus a competitive CPU-based Intel MKL (math kernel library) parallel version alone. Strong scaling to concurrent chains is exhibited, through a combination of longer time per sample batch (weak scaling) with fewer necessary samples to convergence. The algorithm performance is illustrated on several Gaussian and non-Gaussian target examples, in which the dimension may be in excess of one thousand.
Massively Parallel Dimension Independent Adaptive Metropolis
Chen, Yuxin
2015-05-14
This work considers black-box Bayesian inference over high-dimensional parameter spaces. The well-known and widely respected adaptive Metropolis (AM) algorithm is extended herein to asymptotically scale uniformly with respect to the underlying parameter dimension, by respecting the variance, for Gaussian targets. The result- ing algorithm, referred to as the dimension-independent adaptive Metropolis (DIAM) algorithm, also shows improved performance with respect to adaptive Metropolis on non-Gaussian targets. This algorithm is further improved, and the possibility of probing high-dimensional targets is enabled, via GPU-accelerated numerical libraries and periodically synchronized concurrent chains (justified a posteriori). Asymptoti- cally in dimension, this massively parallel dimension-independent adaptive Metropolis (MPDIAM) GPU implementation exhibits a factor of four improvement versus the CPU-based Intel MKL version alone, which is itself already a factor of three improve- ment versus the serial version. The scaling to multiple CPUs and GPUs exhibits a form of strong scaling in terms of the time necessary to reach a certain convergence criterion, through a combination of longer time per sample batch (weak scaling) and yet fewer necessary samples to convergence. This is illustrated by e ciently sampling from several Gaussian and non-Gaussian targets for dimension d 1000.
Graviton collider effects in one and more large extra dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giudice, Gian F.; Plehn, Tilman; Strumia, Alessandro
2005-01-01
Astrophysical bounds severely limit the possibility of observing collider signals of gravity with less than 3 flat extra dimensions. However, small distortions of the compactified space can lift the masses of the lightest graviton excitations, evading astrophysical bounds without affecting collider signals of quantum gravity. Following this procedure we reconsider theories with one large extra dimension. A slight space warping gives a model which is safe in the infrared against astrophysical and observational bounds, and which has the ultraviolet properties of gravity with a single flat extra dimension. We extend collider studies to the case of one extra dimension, pointing out its peculiarities. Finally, for a generic number of extra dimensions, we compare different channels in LHC searches for quantum gravity, introducing an ultraviolet cutoff as an additional parameter besides the Planck mass
[Christian dimension of suffering].
Kubik, K
1999-01-01
Human existence is marked by imperfection, whose expression--among other things--is suffering. The problem of answering the question about the meaning of suffering for human life in its entirety is of great significance in philosophy and theology. In the Old Testament it meant God's punishment for the evil done by man. In Christianity this bleak notion of suffering has found a new dimension--suffering is creative, redemptive in character; it enables a man to surpass his limits. The understanding of suffering and its sense has a profound meaning in building a suitable attitude of a sick person towards his own weakness.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, lotte bøgh; Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Kjeldsen, Anne-Mette
2012-01-01
Further integration of the public value literature with other strands of literature within Public Administration necessitates a more specific classification of public values. This paper applies a typology linked to organizational design principles, because this is useful for empirical public...... administration studies. Based on an existing typology of modes of governance, we develop a classification and test it empirically, using survey data from a study of the values of 501 public managers. We distinguish between seven value dimensions (the public at large, rule abidance, societal interests, budget...... the integration between the public value literature and other parts of the Public Administration discipline....
Dimensions of energy efficiency
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramani, K.V.
1992-01-01
In this address the author describes three dimensions of energy efficiency in order of increasing costs: conservation, resource and technology substitution, and changes in economic structure. He emphasizes the importance of economic rather than environmental rationales for energy efficiency improvements in developing countries. These countries do not place high priority on the problems of global climate change. Opportunities for new technologies may exist in resource transfer, new fuels and, possibly, small reactors. More research on economic and social impacts of technologies with greater sensitivity to user preferences is needed
One dimension harmonic oscillator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohen-Tannoudji, Claude; Diu, Bernard; Laloe, Franck.
1977-01-01
The importance of harmonic oscillator in classical and quantum physics, eigenvalues and eigenstates of hamiltonian operator are discussed. In complement are presented: study of some physical examples of harmonic oscillators; study of stationnary states in the /x> representation; Hermite polynomials; resolution of eigenvalue equation of harmonic oscillator by polynomial method; isotope harmonic oscillator with three dimensions; charged harmonic oscillator in uniform electric field; quasi classical coherent states of harmonic oscillator; eigenmodes of vibration of two coupled harmonic oscillators; vibration modus of a continuous physical system (application to radiation: photons); vibration modus of indefinite linear chain of coupled harmonic oscillators (phonons); one-dimensional harmonic oscillator in thermodynamic equilibrium at temperature T [fr
Quantum vortex fluid in two dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chudnovsky, E.M.
1995-01-01
It is argued that in two dimensions the high-field zero-temperature phase of a type-II superconductor can be quantum vortex fluid. The average intervortex spacing in this phase takes discrete values, leading to macroscopic steps in the total flux through the superconductor on the applied magnetic field. In the absence of dissipation, the Hall conductivity is quantized in units of 4e 2 /πℎ
1. Dimensions of sustainable development
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Repetto, R.
1992-01-01
This chapter discusses the following topics: the concept of sustainable development; envisioning sustainable development (economic dimensions, human dimensions, environmental dimensions, technological dimensions); policy implications (economic policies, people-oriented policies, environmental policies, creating sustainable systems); and global issues (effect of war on development and the environment and the debt burden). This chapter also introduces the case studies by discussing the levels of economic development and comparing key trends (economic growth, human development, population growth, and energy use)
Inferring relevance in a changing world
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert C Wilson
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Reinforcement learning models of human and animal learning usually concentrate on how we learn the relationship between different stimuli or actions and rewards. However, in real world situations stimuli are ill-defined. On the one hand, our immediate environment is extremely multi-dimensional. On the other hand, in every decision-making scenario only a few aspects of the environment are relevant for obtaining reward, while most are irrelevant. Thus a key question is how do we learn these relevant dimensions, that is, how do we learn what to learn about? We investigated this process of representation learning experimentally, using a task in which one stimulus dimension was relevant for determining reward at each point in time. As in real life situations, in our task the relevant dimension can change without warning, adding ever-present uncertainty engendered by a constantly changing environment. We show that human performance on this task is better described by a suboptimal strategy based on selective attention and serial hypothesis testing rather than a normative strategy based on probabilistic inference. From this, we conjecture that the problem of inferring relevance in general scenarios is too computationally demanding for the brain to solve optimally. As a result the brain utilizes approximations, employing these even in simplified scenarios in which optimal representation learning is tractable, such as the one in our experiment.
Chern-Simons gravity in four dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morales, Ivan; Neves, Bruno; Piguet, Olivier; Oporto, Zui
2017-01-01
Five-dimensional Chern-Simons theory with (anti-)de Sitter SO(1,5) or SO(2,4) gauge invariance presents an alternative to general relativity with cosmological constant. We consider the zero modes of its Kaluza-Klein compactification to four dimensions. Solutions with vanishing torsion are obtained in the cases of a spherically symmetric 3-space and of a homogeneous and isotropic 3-space, which reproduce the Schwarzshild-de Sitter and ΛCDM cosmological solutions of general relativity. We also check that vanishing torsion is a stable feature of the solutions. (orig.)
Chern-Simons gravity in four dimensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morales, Ivan; Neves, Bruno; Piguet, Olivier [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), Departamento de Fisica, Vicosa, MG (Brazil); Oporto, Zui [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), Departamento de Fisica, Vicosa, MG (Brazil); Universidad Mayor de San Andres, Carrera de Fisica, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of)
2017-02-15
Five-dimensional Chern-Simons theory with (anti-)de Sitter SO(1,5) or SO(2,4) gauge invariance presents an alternative to general relativity with cosmological constant. We consider the zero modes of its Kaluza-Klein compactification to four dimensions. Solutions with vanishing torsion are obtained in the cases of a spherically symmetric 3-space and of a homogeneous and isotropic 3-space, which reproduce the Schwarzshild-de Sitter and ΛCDM cosmological solutions of general relativity. We also check that vanishing torsion is a stable feature of the solutions. (orig.)
No Hawking-Page phase transition in three dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Myung, Y.S.
2005-01-01
We investigate whether or not the Hawking-Page phase transition is possible to occur in three dimensions. Starting with the simplest class of Lanczos-Lovelock action, thermodynamic behavior of all AdS-type black holes without charge falls into two classes: Schwarzschild-AdS black holes in even dimensions and Chern-Simons black holes in odd dimensions. The former class can provide the Hawking-Page transition between Schwarzschild-AdS black holes and thermal AdS space. On the other hand, the latter class is exceptional and thus the Hawking-Page transition is hard to occur. In three dimensions, a second-order phase transition might occur between the non-rotating BTZ black hole and the massless BTZ black hole (thermal AdS space), instead of the first-order Hawking-Page transition between the non-rotating BTZ black hole and thermal AdS space
Relativistic phase space: dimensional recurrences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delbourgo, R; Roberts, M L
2003-01-01
We derive recurrence relations between phase space expressions in different dimensions by confining some of the coordinates to tori or spheres of radius R and taking the limit as R→∞. These relations take the form of mass integrals, associated with extraneous momenta (relative to the lower dimension), and produce the result in the higher dimension
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frederiksen, Morten
2012-01-01
Georg Simmel is the seminal author on trust within sociology, but though inspired by Simmel, subsequent studies of intersubjective trust have failed to address Simmel’s suggestion that trust is as differentiated as the social relations of which it is part. Rather, trust has been studied within...... limited sets of exchange or work relations. This article revisits Simmel’s concept of trust as social form in order to investigate this differentiation. From an interview study, the differentiation and limits of trust are analysed within different types of social relations. Trust is found to vary greatly...... in scope and mode influenced by the intersecting dimensions of relations, objects and situations. Furthermore, trust exists between an outer threshold of expected deceit and an inner threshold of confident reliance. The findings from the qualitative study contribute new knowledge on the diversity of trust...
Gravitating multidefects from higher dimensions
Giovannini, Massimo
2007-01-01
Warped configurations admitting pairs of gravitating defects are analyzed. After devising a general method for the construction of multidefects, specific examples are presented in the case of higher-dimensional Einstein-Hilbert gravity. The obtained profiles describe diverse physical situations such as (topological) kink-antikink systems, pairs of non-topological solitons and bound configurations of a kink and of a non-topological soliton. In all the mentioned cases the geometry is always well behaved (all relevant curvature invariants are regular) and tends to five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space-time for large asymptotic values of the bulk coordinate. Particular classes of solutions can be generalized to the framework where the gravity part of the action includes, as a correction, the Euler-Gauss-Bonnet combination. After scrutinizing the structure of the zero modes, the obtained results are compared with conventional gravitating configurations containing a single topological defect.
Four-fermi anomalous dimension with adjoint fermions
Del Debbio, Luigi; Ruano, Carlos Pena
2014-01-01
The four-fermi interaction can play an important role in models of strong dynamical EW sym- metry breaking if the anomalous dimensions of the four-fermi operators become large in the IR. We discuss a number of issues that are relevant for the nonperturbative computation of the four- fermi anomalous dimensions for the SU(2) gauge theory with two flavors of Dirac fermions in the adjoint representation, using a Schrödinger functional formalism.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Welzel, J
2006-11-15
Even if the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics meets an extraordinary experimental success, some fundamental questions remain unanswered (origin of hierarchies, observed mixing pattern in neutrino and quark sectors...). We need to go beyond the SM and to find new principles/symmetries. The aim of this thesis is to study the phenomenology of supersymmetric and/or extra-dimensional models and to look at deviations from the SM, in the flavour sector. First, we addressed the question of baryon- and lepton-number conservation through R-parity in low-energy supersymmetric models. Precisely, we studied its violation using experimental data and the rare kaon decay K {yields} {pi}{nu}{nu}-bar to derive upper limits on R-parity violating couplings involved in it. In this context we have pointed out the importance of R-parity conserving contributions and their interferences with R-parity violating ones. In the second part, we studied effects of an extra dimension (space-like and compactified) on several examples: quantum electrodynamics and gauge invariance, strong and electroweak unification, neutrino masses and mixing angles. Typically, adding an extra dimension reduces the predictive power. However, we are still able to know generic behaviours (order of magnitude predictions). In particular, we pointed out the possibility of a weak neutrino mixing pattern (CKM-like) at high energy for a relevant and reasonable parameter space. This opens up new perspectives in the study of flavour symmetries and bonds between quark and leptons. (author)
SOCIAL, HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL DIMENSIONS OF TUBERCULOSIS.
Mason, Paul H; Roy, Anupom; Spillane, Jayden; Singh, Puneet
2016-03-01
Tuberculosis (TB) researchers and clinicians, by virtue of the social disease they study, are drawn into an engagement with ways of understanding illness that extend beyond the strictly biomedical model. Primers on social science concepts directly relevant to TB, however, are lacking. The particularities of TB disease mean that certain social science concepts are more relevant than others. Concepts such as structural violence can seem complicated and off-putting. Other concepts, such as gender, can seem so familiar that they are left relatively unexplored. An intimate familiarity with the social dimensions of disease is valuable, particularly for infectious diseases, because the social model is an important complement to the biomedical model. This review article offers an important introduction to a selection of concepts directly relevant to TB from health sociology, medical anthropology and social cognitive theory. The article has pedagogical utility and also serves as a useful refresher for those researchers already engaged in this genre of work. The conceptual tools of health sociology, medical anthropology and social cognitive theory offer insightful ways to examine the social, historical and cultural dimensions of public health. By recognizing cultural experience as a central force shaping human interactions with the world, TB researchers and clinicians develop a more nuanced consideration of how health, illness and medical treatment are understood, interpreted and confronted.
Flatland a romance of many dimensions
Abbott, Edwin Abbott
2015-01-01
In 1884, Edwin Abbott Abbott wrote a mathematical adventure set in a two-dimensional plane world, populated by a hierarchical society of regular geometrical figures-who think and speak and have all too human emotions. Since then Flatland has fascinated generations of readers, becoming a perennial science-fiction favorite. By imagining the contact of beings from different dimensions, the author fully exploited the power of the analogy between the limitations of humans and those of his two-dimensional characters. A first-rate fictional guide to the concept of multiple dimensions of space, the book will also appeal to those who are interested in computer graphics. This field, which literally makes higher dimensions seeable, has aroused a new interest in visualization. We can now manipulate objects in four dimensions and observe their three-dimensional slices tumbling on the computer screen. But how do we interpret these images? In his introduction, Thomas Banchoff points out that there is no better way to begin ...
Aesthetic dimension about tropical forest in ecology teaching
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tatiana Seniciato
2009-08-01
Full Text Available The research analyzes the aesthetic dimension on teaching about natural environment on Ecology disciplines. The semiotics of Charles Sanders Peirce guided data analysis, regarding to suggested values on the answers of interviewees. The analysis has revealed that, in terms of methodological approaches, Ecology instructors tend to valorize scientific and objective criteria, demonstrating a certain embarrassment on including aesthetic dimension in their teaching, although they recognize the relevance of aesthetic dimension for ethic implications on teaching and for the conservation of natural environment.
Rare events in finite and infinite dimensions
Reznikoff, Maria G.
domains, in one spatial dimension. We introduce a natural reference measure through which to analyze the invariant measure of stochastically perturbed, nonlinear partial differential equations. Also, for noisy reaction diffusion equations with an asymmetric potential, we discover how to rescale space and time in order to map the dynamics in the zero temperature limit to the Poisson Model, a simple version of the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov model for nucleation and growth.
Statistical Evaluation of Causal Factors Associated with Astronaut Shoulder Injury in Space Suits.
Anderson, Allison P; Newman, Dava J; Welsch, Roy E
2015-07-01
Shoulder injuries due to working inside the space suit are some of the most serious and debilitating injuries astronauts encounter. Space suit injuries occur primarily in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) underwater training facility due to accumulated musculoskeletal stress. We quantitatively explored the underlying causal mechanisms of injury. Logistic regression was used to identify relevant space suit components, training environment variables, and anthropometric dimensions related to an increased propensity for space-suited injury. Two groups of subjects were analyzed: those whose reported shoulder incident is attributable to the NBL or working in the space suit, and those whose shoulder incidence began in active duty, meaning working in the suit could be a contributing factor. For both groups, percent of training performed in the space suit planar hard upper torso (HUT) was the most important predictor variable for injury. Frequency of training and recovery between training were also significant metrics. The most relevant anthropometric dimensions were bideltoid breadth, expanded chest depth, and shoulder circumference. Finally, record of previous injury was found to be a relevant predictor for subsequent injury. The first statistical model correctly identifies 39% of injured subjects, while the second model correctly identifies 68% of injured subjects. A review of the literature suggests this is the first work to quantitatively evaluate the hypothesized causal mechanisms of all space-suited shoulder injuries. Although limited in predictive capability, each of the identified variables can be monitored and modified operationally to reduce future impacts on an astronaut's health.
Dimensions of ecosystem theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
O'Neill, R.V.; Reichle, D.E.
1979-01-01
Various dimensions of ecosystem structure and behavior that seem to develop from the ubiquitous phenomena of system growth and persistence were studied. While growth and persistence attributes of ecosystems may appear to be simplistic phenomena upon which to base a comprehensive ecosystem theory, these same attributes have been fundamental to the theoretical development of other biological disciplines. These attributes were explored at a hierarchical level in a self-organizing system, and adaptive system strategies that result were analyzed. Previously developed causative relations (Reichle et al., 1975c) were examined, their theoretical implications expounded upon, and the assumptions tested with data from a variety of forest types. The conclusions are not a theory in themselves, but a state of organization of concepts contributing towards a unifying theory, along the lines promulgated by Bray (1958). The inferences drawn rely heavily upon data from forested ecosystems of the world, and have yet to be validated against data from a much more diverse range of ecosystem types. Not all of the interpretations are logically tight - there is room for other explanations, which it is hoped will provide fruitful grounds for further speculation
Preheating with extra dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsujikawa, S.
2000-01-01
We investigate preheating in a higher-dimensional generalized Kaluza-Klein theory with a quadratic inflaton potential V(/φ) = /frac12 m 2 /φ 2 including metric perturbations explicitly. The system we consider is the multi-field model where there exists a dilaton field /σ which corresponds to the scale of compactifications and another scalar field /χ coupled to inflaton with the interaction frac12 g 2 /φ 2 /χ 2 +/g-tilde 2 /φ 3 /χ. In the case of g-tilde=0, we find that the perturbation of dilaton does not undergo parametric amplification while the χ field fluctuation can be enhanced in the usual manner by parametric resonance. In the presence of the /g-tilde 2 /φ 3 /χ coupling, the dilaton fluctuation in sub-Hubble scales is modestly amplified by the growth of metric perturbations for the large coupling g-tilde. In super-Hubble scales, the enhancement of the dilaton fluctuation as well as metric perturbations is weak, taking into account the backreaction effect of created /χ particles. We argue that not only is it possible to predict the ordinary inflationary spectrum in large scales but extra dimensions can be held static during preheating in our scenario. (author)
Supersymmetric gauged scale covariance in ten and lower dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishino, Hitoshi; Rajpoot, Subhash
2004-01-01
We present globally supersymmetric models of gauged scale covariance in ten, six, and four dimensions. This is an application of a recent similar gauging in three dimensions for a massive self-dual vector multiplet. In ten dimensions, we couple a single vector multiplet to another vector multiplet, where the latter gauges the scale covariance of the former. Due to scale covariance, the system does not have a Lagrangian formulation, but has only a set of field equations, like Type IIB supergravity in ten dimensions. As by-products, we construct similar models in six dimensions with N=(2,0) supersymmetry, and four dimensions with N=1 supersymmetry. We finally get a similar model with N=4 supersymmetry in four dimensions with consistent interactions that have never been known before. We expect a series of descendant theories in dimensions lower than ten by dimensional reductions. This result also indicates that similar mechanisms will work for other vector and scalar multiplets in space-time lower than ten dimensions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ryabov Yury
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The creation of an area of freedom, security and justice is one of the most rapidly developing aspects of European integration. It this paper, we take a look at the foreign policies involved in this process — aside from the internal development of the European Union, they concern a significant number of third countries, including Russia. In our view, the efforts to manage the flow of migrants and asylum seekers constitute a viable part of the external dimension within the AFSJ policies. Much of this article is based on the theoretical postulates introduced by the scholars of the Paris School, a school within the discipline of security studies that conceptualized the connection between migration, terrorism, asylum, crime and ethnic clashes, and its role as a major threat facing the European Union. Externalization of this complex threat (that is, externalization in relation to the European Union is thus seen as one of the key prerequisites to advancement of migration management activities beyond the EU (i. e. externalization of migration management. In this article, we analyze the role the EU plays at the international scene and categorize the actions it took to manage the influx of migrants and asylum seekers from the 1980s until the time when supranational administrative bodies were granted mandates in the spheres of Justice and Home Affairs (JHA of the EU Member States. We conclude that it was as early as the 1990-s that th
Constructive Dimension and Turing Degrees
Bienvenu, Laurent; Doty, David; Stephan, Frank
2007-01-01
This paper examines the constructive Hausdorff and packing dimensions of Turing degrees. The main result is that every infinite sequence S with constructive Hausdorff dimension dim_H(S) and constructive packing dimension dim_P(S) is Turing equivalent to a sequence R with dim_H(R) 0. Furthermore, if dim_P(S) > 0, then dim_P(R) >= 1 - epsilon. The reduction thus serves as a *randomness extractor* that increases the algorithmic randomness of S, as measured by constructive dimension. A number of...
Johnson, R. D.
1977-01-01
Organic cosmochemistry, organic materials in space exploration, and biochemistry of man in space are briefly surveyed. A model of Jupiter's atmosphere is considered, and the search for organic molecules in the solar system and in interstellar space is discussed. Materials and analytical techniques relevant to space exploration are indicated, and the blood and urine analyses performed on Skylab are described.
Grandes nouvelles dimensions et gravité quantique au coin
Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Dimopoulos, Savas; Dvali, Gia
2003-04-01
The electroweak unification mass may be the only fundamental scale in nature. If so, the visible universe may lie on a membrane floating within a higher dimensional space; new dimensions, black holes, quantum gravity, and string theory may become experimentally accessible in this decade. The dark matter could reside on parallel universes inside the extra dimensions. To cite this article: N. Arkani-Hamed et al., C. R. Physique 4 (2003).
Dimensions of patient safety culture in family practice.
Palacios-Derflingher, Luz; O'Beirne, Maeve; Sterling, Pam; Zwicker, Karen; Harding, Brianne K; Casebeer, Ann
2010-01-01
Safety culture has been shown to affect patient safety in healthcare. While the United States and United Kingdom have studied the dimensions that reflect patient safety culture in family practice settings, to date, this has not been done in Canada. Differences in the healthcare systems between these countries and Canada may affect the dimensions found to be relevant here. Thus, it is important to identify and compare the dimensions from the United States and the United Kingdom in a Canadian context. The objectives of this study were to explore the dimensions of patient safety culture that relate to family practice in Canada and to determine if differences and similarities exist between dimensions found in Canada and those found in previous studies undertaken in the United States and the United Kingdom. A qualitative study was undertaken applying thematic analysis using focus groups with family practice offices and supplementary key stakeholders. Analysis of the data indicated that most of the dimensions from the United States and United Kingdom are appropriate in our Canadian context. Exceptions included owner/managing partner/leadership support for patient safety, job satisfaction and overall perceptions of patient safety and quality. Two unique dimensions were identified in the Canadian context: disclosure and accepting responsibility for errors. Based on this early work, it is important to consider differences in care settings when understanding dimensions of patient safety culture. We suggest that additional research in family practice settings is critical to further understand the influence of context on patient safety culture.
Discrete quantum geometries and their effective dimension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thuerigen, Johannes
2015-01-01
In several approaches towards a quantum theory of gravity, such as group field theory and loop quantum gravity, quantum states and histories of the geometric degrees of freedom turn out to be based on discrete spacetime. The most pressing issue is then how the smooth geometries of general relativity, expressed in terms of suitable geometric observables, arise from such discrete quantum geometries in some semiclassical and continuum limit. In this thesis I tackle the question of suitable observables focusing on the effective dimension of discrete quantum geometries. For this purpose I give a purely combinatorial description of the discrete structures which these geometries have support on. As a side topic, this allows to present an extension of group field theory to cover the combinatorially larger kinematical state space of loop quantum gravity. Moreover, I introduce a discrete calculus for fields on such fundamentally discrete geometries with a particular focus on the Laplacian. This permits to define the effective-dimension observables for quantum geometries. Analysing various classes of quantum geometries, I find as a general result that the spectral dimension is more sensitive to the underlying combinatorial structure than to the details of the additional geometric data thereon. Semiclassical states in loop quantum gravity approximate the classical geometries they are peaking on rather well and there are no indications for stronger quantum effects. On the other hand, in the context of a more general model of states which are superposition over a large number of complexes, based on analytic solutions, there is a flow of the spectral dimension from the topological dimension d on low energy scales to a real number between 0 and d on high energy scales. In the particular case of 1 these results allow to understand the quantum geometry as effectively fractal.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nguyen-Ngoc, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1969-07-01
In order to reduce computing time, two and three-dimensional multigroup neutron diffusion equations in cylindrical, rectangular (X, Y), (X, Y, Z) and hexagonal geometries are solved by the method of synthesis using an appropriate variational principle (stationary principle). The basic idea is to reduce the number of independent variables by constructing two or three-dimensional solutions from solutions of fewer variables, hence the name 'synthesis method'. Whatever the geometry, we are led to solve a system of ordinary differential equations with matrix coefficients to which one can apply well-known numerical methods: CHEBYSHEV's polynomial method, Gaussian elimination. Numerical results furnished by synthesis programs written for the IBM 7094, the IBM 360-75 and the CDC 6600 computers, are confronted with those which are given by programs employing the classical finite difference method. [French] En vue de reduire le-temps de calcul, les equations de diffusion neutronique, multigroupe, a deux et trois dimensions d'espace dans les geometries cylindrique, rectangulaire (X, Y), (X, Y, Z) et hexagonale sont resolues par la methode de synthese utilisant un principe variationnel approprie (principe stationnaire). L'idee consiste a reduire le nombre de variables independantes par construction d'une solution bi ou tridimensionnelle au moyen de solutions dependant d'un nombre inferieur de variables, d'ou le nom de la methode. Dans tous les cas de geometrie, nous sommes conduits a resoudre un systeme d'equations differentielles a coefficients matriciels auquel peuvent s'appliquer les methodes numeriques courantes; methode polynomiale de TCHEBYCHEFF et methode d'elimination de GAUSS. Les resultats numeriques obtenus par nos codes de synthese programmes sur IBM 7094, IBM 360-75 et CDC 6600, sont confrontes avec ceux que fournissent les programmes adoptant la methode classique des differences finies. (auteur)
On the Penrose inequality for dust null shells in the Minkowski spacetime of arbitrary dimension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mars, Marc; Soria, Alberto
2012-01-01
A particular, yet relevant, case of the Penrose inequality involves null shells propagating in the Minkowski spacetime. Despite previous claims in the literature, the validity of this inequality remains open. In this paper, we rewrite this inequality in terms of the geometry of the surface obtained by intersecting the past null cone of the original surface S with a constant time hyperplane and the 'time height' function of S over this hyperplane. We also specialize to the case when S lies in the past null cone of a point and show the validity of the corresponding inequality in any dimension (in four dimensions this inequality was proved by Tod (1985 Class. Quantum Grav. 2 L65-8). Exploiting properties of convex hypersurfaces in the Euclidean space, we write down the Penrose inequality in the Minkowski spacetime of an arbitrary dimension n + 2 as an inequality for two smooth functions on the sphere S n . We finally obtain a sufficient condition for the validity of the Penrose inequality in the four-dimensional Minkowski spacetime and show that this condition is satisfied by a large class of surfaces. (paper)
Plateau onset for correlation dimension: When does it occur?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ding, M.; Grebogi, C.; Ott, E.; Sauer, T.; Yorke, J.A.
1993-01-01
Chaotic experimental systems are often investigated using delay coordinates. Estimated values of the correlation dimension in delay coordinate space typically increase with the number of delays and eventually reach a plateau (on which the dimension estimate is relatively constant) whose value is commonly taken as an estimate of the correlation dimension D 2 of the underlying chaotic attractor. We report a rigorous result which implies that, for long enough data sets, the plateau begins when the number of delay coordinates first exceeds D 2 . Numerical experiments are presented. We also discuss how lack of sufficient data can produce results that seem to be inconsistent with the theoretical prediction
Saliency of social comparison dimensions
Kuyper, H.
2007-01-01
The present article discusses a theory of the saliency of social comparison dimensions and presents the results of an experiment about the effects of two different experimental situations on the saliency of exterior, task-related and socio-emotional dimensions. Saliency was operationalized with a
Physics with large extra dimensions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
can then be accounted by the existence of large internal dimensions, in the sub- ... strongly coupled heterotic theory with one large dimension is described by a weakly ..... one additional U(1) factor corresponding to an extra 'U(1)' D-brane is ...
Klein, Bruce
1982-01-01
Describes an art program for preschool children that includes four social dimensions of art in order to heighten aesthetic perception, improve artistic creativity, and nurture self-esteem. The social dimensions are children having power, children acting on norms legitimate in their own eyes, children functioning "nonestrangedly," and children…
Anomalous Dimensions of Conformal Baryons
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco
2016-01-01
We determine the anomalous dimensions of baryon operators for the three color theory as function of the number of massless flavours within the conformal window to the maximum known order in perturbation theory. We show that the anomalous dimension of the baryon is controllably small, within...
Geography From Another Dimension
2002-01-01
The GEODESY software program is intended to promote geographical awareness among students with its remote sensing capabilities to observe the Earth's surface from distant vantage points. Students and teachers using GEODESY learn to interpret and analyze geographical data pertaining to the physical attributes of their community. For example, the program provides a digital environment of physical features, such as mountains and bodies of water, as well as man-made features, such as roads and parks, using aerial photography, satellite imagery, and geographic information systems data in accordance with National Geography Standards. The main goal is to have the students and teachers gain a better understanding of the unique forces that drive their coexistence. GEODESY was developed with technical assistance and financial support from Stennis Space Center's Commercial Remote Sensing Program Office, now known as the Earth Science Applications Directorate.
Efficient Retrieval of the Top-k Most Relevant Spatial Web Objects
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cong, Gao; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Wu, Dingming
2009-01-01
The conventional Internet is acquiring a geo-spatial dimension. Web documents are being geo-tagged, and geo-referenced objects such as points of interest are being associated with descriptive text documents. The resulting fusion of geo-location and documents enables a new kind of top-k query...... that takes into account both location proximity and text relevancy. To our knowledge, only naive techniques exist that are capable of computing a general web information retrieval query while also taking location into account. This paper proposes a new indexing framework for location-aware top-k text...... both text relevancy and location proximity to prune the search space. Results of empirical studies with an implementation of the framework demonstrate that the paper’s proposal offers scalability and is capable of excellent performance....
Amir-Moez, A R; Sneddon, I N
1962-01-01
Elements of Linear Space is a detailed treatment of the elements of linear spaces, including real spaces with no more than three dimensions and complex n-dimensional spaces. The geometry of conic sections and quadric surfaces is considered, along with algebraic structures, especially vector spaces and transformations. Problems drawn from various branches of geometry are given.Comprised of 12 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to real Euclidean space, followed by a discussion on linear transformations and matrices. The addition and multiplication of transformations and matrices a
An introduction to extra dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perez-Lorenzana, Abdel
2005-01-01
Models that involve extra dimensions have introduced completely new ways of looking up on old problems in theoretical physics. The aim of the present notes is to provide a brief introduction to the many uses that extra dimensions have found over the last few years, mainly following an effective field theory point of view. Most parts of the discussion are devoted to models with flat extra dimensions, covering both theoretical and phenomenological aspects. We also discuss some of the new ideas for model building where extra dimensions may play a role, including symmetry breaking by diverse new and old mechanisms. Some interesting applications of these ideas are discussed over the notes, including models for neutrino masses and proton stability. The last part of this review addresses some aspects of warped extra dimensions, and graviton localization
Quantum gravity in more than four dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vaz, C.
1987-01-01
Ever since its inception, Einstein's general relativity has been considered a most remarkable theory. It is generally believed today, that the classical theory is well understood. Nevertheless, in the pursuit of a deeper understanding of physics in terms of a grand unification of forces, one would like to quantize the theory, thus bringing it under the known forces of nature. The author will address the possibility that space-time is of dimension greater that four. In the pursuit of Einstein's dream of a unification of physical interactions, many interesting ideas have been developed. Beginning with Weyl and Kaluza, we have progressed to strings and superstrings. The thing that is common to all these theories is the requirement of a space-time of more than four dimensions. While Kaluza's theory implicitly assumes that Einstein's gravity is classically correct in any number of dimensions, superstring phenomenology may suggest otherwise. Generalizations to Einstein's gravity are indicated, and the gravitational Casimir energy is explicitly approximate on a background configuration M 4 x S 6 , on a ten dimensional space-time. Weyl invariance is particularly interesting to the quantum gravitationalist. One finds that energy momentum tensor of the Weyl invariant quantum field picks up an anomalous trace, which is related to particle production by the curved background. He therefore computes the conformal anomaly for a conformally coupled scalar field and considers some of its consequences. He then suggest that the conformal anomaly, when combined with the perfect fluid hypothesis, can be used to determine the complete energy momentum tensor of the quantum field in certain backgrounds
Brand Personality Dimensions in the Brazilian Context
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karlan Muller Muniz
2012-04-01
Full Text Available Brands may be perceived as possessing a set of distinct traits or characteristics, i.e., a personality, similar to aperson. Thus, the personality of a brand is relevant as a source of differentiation in an increasingly competitivemarket environment. In this study, the authors explore the dimensions of brand personality proposed by J. Aaker(1997, seeking to discover the particular evaluation dimensions of the Brazilian context. The study wasconducted in exploratory stages, beginning with a preparatory stage that was carried out by professionals andacademics from the fields of communication and marketing. This was followed by stages of conclusive researchusing an online survey with a sample of 1,302 Brazilian consumers. Two sub-samples were extracted: onecalibration sample for exploratory factor analysis and a validation sample to perform confirmatory factoranalysis in order to verify the convergent and discriminant validities of the final scale. Five dimensions of brandpersonality in Brazil were detected: credibility, joy, audacity, sophistication and sensitivity. These dimensionsshowed some differences in comparison with similar studies that had been carried out in other countries. Thestudy led to a scale of 28 items for measuring brand personality and made it possible to compare competingbrands in terms of brand personality.
Goedel-type metrics in various dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guerses, Metin; Karasu, Atalay; Sarioglu, Oezguer
2005-01-01
Goedel-type metrics are introduced and used in producing charged dust solutions in various dimensions. The key ingredient is a (D - 1)-dimensional Riemannian geometry which is then employed in constructing solutions to the Einstein-Maxwell field equations with a dust distribution in D dimensions. The only essential field equation in the procedure turns out to be the source-free Maxwell's equation in the relevant background. Similarly the geodesics of this type of metric are described by the Lorentz force equation for a charged particle in the lower dimensional geometry. It is explicitly shown with several examples that Goedel-type metrics can be used in obtaining exact solutions to various supergravity theories and in constructing spacetimes that contain both closed timelike and closed null curves and that contain neither of these. Among the solutions that can be established using non-flat backgrounds, such as the Tangherlini metrics in (D - 1)-dimensions, there exists a class which can be interpreted as describing black-hole-type objects in a Goedel-like universe
Supersymmetry in singular spaces
Bergshoeff, Eric
2002-01-01
We discuss supersymmetry in spaces with a boundary, i.e. singular spaces. In particular, we discuss the situation in ten and five dimensions. In both these cases we review the construction of supersymmetric domain wall actions situated at the boundary. These domain walls act as sources inducing a
FRACTAL DIMENSION OF URBAN EXPANSION BASED ON REMOTE SENSING IMAGES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
IACOB I. CIPRIAN
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Fractal Dimension of Urban Expansion Based on Remote Sensing Images: In Cluj-Napoca city the process of urbanization has been accelerated during the years and implication of local authorities reflects a relevant planning policy. A good urban planning framework should take into account the society demands and also it should satisfy the natural conditions of local environment. The expansion of antropic areas it can be approached by implication of 5D variables (time as a sequence of stages, space: with x, y, z and magnitude of phenomena into the process, which will allow us to analyse and extract the roughness of city shape. Thus, to improve the decision factor we take a different approach in this paper, looking at geometry and scale composition. Using the remote sensing (RS and GIS techniques we manage to extract a sequence of built-up areas (from 1980 to 2012 and used the result as an input for modelling the spatialtemporal changes of urban expansion and fractal theory to analysed the geometric features. Taking the time as a parameter we can observe behaviour and changes in urban landscape, this condition have been known as self-organized – a condition which in first stage the system was without any turbulence (before the antropic factor and during the time tend to approach chaotic behaviour (entropy state without causing an disequilibrium in the main system.
Dimension-Independent Likelihood-Informed MCMC
Cui, Tiangang; Law, Kody; Marzouk, Youssef
2015-01-01
Many Bayesian inference problems require exploring the posterior distribution of high-dimensional parameters, which in principle can be described as functions. By exploiting low-dimensional structure in the change from prior to posterior [distributions], we introduce a suite of MCMC samplers that can adapt to the complex structure of the posterior distribution, yet are well-defined on function space. Posterior sampling in nonlinear inverse problems arising from various partial di erential equations and also a stochastic differential equation are used to demonstrate the e ciency of these dimension-independent likelihood-informed samplers.
Geometry, relativity and the fourth dimension
Rucker, Rudolf
1977-01-01
This is a highly readable, popular exposition of the fourth dimension and the structure of the universe. A remarkable pictorial discussion of the curved space-time we call home, it achieves even greater impact through the use of 141 excellent illustrations. This is the first sustained visual account of many important topics in relativity theory that up till now have only been treated separately.Finding a perfect analogy in the situation of the geometrical characters in Flatland, Professor Rucker continues the adventures of the two-dimensional world visited by a three-dimensional being to expl
Signatures of extra dimensions in gravitational waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andriot, David; Gómez, Gustavo Lucena, E-mail: andriotphysics@gmail.com, E-mail: glucenag@aei.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Mühlenberg 1, 14467 Potsdam-Golm (Germany)
2017-06-01
Considering gravitational waves propagating on the most general 4+ N -dimensional space-time, we investigate the effects due to the N extra dimensions on the four-dimensional waves. All wave equations are derived in general and discussed. On Minkowski{sub 4} times an arbitrary Ricci-flat compact manifold, we find: a massless wave with an additional polarization, the breathing mode, and extra waves with high frequencies fixed by Kaluza-Klein masses. We discuss whether these two effects could be observed.
Dimension-Independent Likelihood-Informed MCMC
Cui, Tiangang
2015-01-07
Many Bayesian inference problems require exploring the posterior distribution of high-dimensional parameters, which in principle can be described as functions. By exploiting low-dimensional structure in the change from prior to posterior [distributions], we introduce a suite of MCMC samplers that can adapt to the complex structure of the posterior distribution, yet are well-defined on function space. Posterior sampling in nonlinear inverse problems arising from various partial di erential equations and also a stochastic differential equation are used to demonstrate the e ciency of these dimension-independent likelihood-informed samplers.
Static solitons in more than one dimension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
O'Raifeartaigh, L.
1978-01-01
The most important development of the last decade in particle physics and field theory has undoubtedly been the advent of hidden-symmetric gauge theories. One of the more interesting by-products of this development has been the discovery that hidden-symmetric gauge theories admit static solutions to the field equations which are regular everywhere and for which the energy is finite. Such solutions will be called solitons. The hidden-symmetric gauge solutions exist for n space dimensions, where 1 [de
Quantum mechanics in Grassmann space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mankoc Borstnik, N.
1991-10-01
The representations of the infinitesimal operators of Lorentz rotations and translation and the corresponding carriers for a scalar, spinor and vector case in the Grassmann space as well as the eigenfunctions of the Hamilton function for a free particle, are presented. Functions are orthogonalized. The mass appears after compactification from 5 to 4 dimensions in the ordinary space-time, while in the Grassmann space the particle lives in five dimensions, so that a boost can be performed. (author). 5 refs
Making Deferred Taxes Relevant
Brouwer, Arjan; Naarding, Ewout
2018-01-01
We analyse the conceptual problems in current accounting for deferred taxes and provide solutions derived from the literature in order to make International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) deferred tax numbers value-relevant. In our view, the empirical results concerning the value relevance of
Meij, E.; Weerkamp, W.; Balog, K.; de Rijke, M.; Myang, S.-H.; Oard, D.W.; Sebastiani, F.; Chua, T.-S.; Leong, M.-K.
2008-01-01
We describe a method for applying parsimonious language models to re-estimate the term probabilities assigned by relevance models. We apply our method to six topic sets from test collections in five different genres. Our parsimonious relevance models (i) improve retrieval effectiveness in terms of
Physics of flavor beyond the standard model and extra-dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Welzel, J.
2006-11-01
Even if the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics meets an extraordinary experimental success, some fundamental questions remain unanswered (origin of hierarchies, observed mixing pattern in neutrino and quark sectors...). We need to go beyond the SM and to find new principles/symmetries. The aim of this thesis is to study the phenomenology of supersymmetric and/or extra-dimensional models and to look at deviations from the SM, in the flavour sector. First, we addressed the question of baryon- and lepton-number conservation through R-parity in low-energy supersymmetric models. Precisely, we studied its violation using experimental data and the rare kaon decay K → πνν-bar to derive upper limits on R-parity violating couplings involved in it. In this context we have pointed out the importance of R-parity conserving contributions and their interferences with R-parity violating ones. In the second part, we studied effects of an extra dimension (space-like and compactified) on several examples: quantum electrodynamics and gauge invariance, strong and electroweak unification, neutrino masses and mixing angles. Typically, adding an extra dimension reduces the predictive power. However, we are still able to know generic behaviours (order of magnitude predictions). In particular, we pointed out the possibility of a weak neutrino mixing pattern (CKM-like) at high energy for a relevant and reasonable parameter space. This opens up new perspectives in the study of flavour symmetries and bonds between quark and leptons. (author)
Mass generation and related issues from exotic higher dimensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Colatto, Luiz Paulo [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica Celso Suckow da Fonseca (CEFET), Petropolis, RJ (Brazil); Andrade, Marco Antonio de [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Resende, RJ (Brazil); Assis, Leonardo Paulo Guimaraes de; Helayel-Neto, Jose Abdalla [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas(LAFEX/CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Fisica Experimental de Altas Energias; Matheus-Valle, Jose Luiz [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil); Rojas, Moises [Universidade Federal de Lavras, MG (Brazil)
2011-07-01
Full text: he main purpose of this work is to show that massless Dirac equation formulated for non-interacting Majorana-Weyl spinors in higher dimensions, particularly in D = 1 + 9 and D = 5 + 5, may yield to an interpretation of massive Majorana and Dirac spinors in D = 1 + 3 dimensions. The particular case of a dimensional reduction from D = 4 + 4 to D = 1 + 3 has already been fairly-well discussed in the literature. By adopting suitable representations of the Dirac matrices in higher dimensions, we pursue the investigation of which higher dimensional space-times and which metric signatures concerning massless Dirac equations in highermay induce massive spinors in D = 1+3 dimensions. The mixing of the chiral fermions in higher dimensions may induce a mechanism such that four massive Majorana fermions may show up and, at an appropriate limit an almost zero and a huge mass show up with corresponding left-handed and right-handed eigenstates. This mechanism could reassess a peculiar connection with the See-Saw scheme associated to neutrino with Majorana-type masses. The masses of the particle are fixed by the dimensional reduction scheme, which the decoupled dimensions contribute coordinates and depend on the mass invariants in lower dimensions. This proposal should allow us to understand the generation of hierarchies for the fermionic masses in D = 1 + 3, or in lower dimensions in general, starting from the constraints between the energy and the momentum in (n; n) dimensions. For the initial D = 5 + 5 Majorana-Weyl spinors framework using the Weyl representation to the Dirac matrices we observe an intriguing decomposition of space-time that result in two equivalent D = 1 + 4 massive spinors which mass term, in D = 1 + 3 included, is originated from the remained component and that could induce a Brane-World mechanism. (author)
Nonlinear self-duality in even dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aschieri, Paolo; Brace, Daniel; Morariu, Bogdan; Zumino, Bruno
2000-01-01
We show that the Born-Infeld theory with n complex abelian gauge fields written in an auxiliary field formulation has a U(n, n) duality group. We conjecture the form of the Lagrangian obtained by eliminating the auxiliary fields and then introduce a new reality structure leading to a Born-Infeld theory with n real gauge fields and an Sp(2n, IR) duality symmetry. The real and complex constructions are extended to arbitrary even dimensions. The maximal noncompact duality group is U(n, n) for complex fields. For real fields the duality group is Sp(2n, IR) if half of the dimension of space-time is even and O(n, n) if it is odd. We also discuss duality under the maximal compact subgroup, which is the self-duality group of the theory obtained by fixing the expectation value of a scalar field. Supersymmetric versions of self-dual theories in four dimensions are also discussed
FONT DISCRIMINATIO USING FRACTAL DIMENSIONS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Mozaffari
2014-09-01
Full Text Available One of the related problems of OCR systems is discrimination of fonts in machine printed document images. This task improves performance of general OCR systems. Proposed methods in this paper are based on various fractal dimensions for font discrimination. First, some predefined fractal dimensions were combined with directional methods to enhance font differentiation. Then, a novel fractal dimension was introduced in this paper for the first time. Our feature extraction methods which consider font recognition as texture identification are independent of document content. Experimental results on different pages written by several font types show that fractal geometry can overcome the complexities of font recognition problem.
Supersymmetry breaking with extra dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zwirner, Fabio
2004-01-01
This talk reviews some aspects of supersymmetry breaking in the presence of extra dimensions. The first part is a general introduction, recalling the motivations for supersymmetry and extra dimensions, as well as some unsolved problems of four-dimensional models of supersymmetry breaking. The central part is a more focused introduction to a mechanism for (super)symmetry breaking, proposed first by Scherk and Schwarz, where extra dimensions play a crucial role. The last part is devoted to the description of some recent results and of some open problems. (author)
Dimensions of Organisational Culture in Quantity Surveying Firms in Nigeria
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ayokunle Olubunmi Olanipekun
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The functionalist paradigm of organisational culture (OC views culture as a variable subject to conscious manipulation and control in order to solve organisational challenges. Therefore, this paper provides information on how OC is a solution to the challenges in Quantity Surveying firms (QSFs. This was achieved by eliciting the dimensions of OC in forty two QSFs in Lagos, Nigeria, which are the business, people and external environment dimensions. The paper concludes that OC is a relevant solution to the identity and management related challenges in QSFs. Specifically, the paper informs on the implications of business and people dimensions of OC as a solution to the identity challenges, as well as on the implication of the external environment dimension of OC to the management challenges. Based on the findings, practical implications and recommendations were directed at the management and employees QSs in QSFs and Quantity Surveying researchers.
Flipped SU(6) from ten dimensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Panagiotakopoulos, C. (Bartol Research Inst., Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (US))
1990-06-20
The authors study the compactification of the heterotic supersting on the only known three generation Calabi-Yau space with flux breakings leading to SU(6) {times} U(1) as the gauge group in four dimensions. We compute the massless spectrum and identify the discrete symmetries of the internal space that survive flux breaking. The possible four-dimensional models are classified according to their honest discrete symmetries. The allowed breaking chains of SU(6) {times} U(1) are listed. Model building with SU(6) {times} U(1) is discussed in general and a concrete realistic model is constructed which does not suffer from the gauge hierarchy problem, fast proton decay or any other obvious phenomenological disaster. A distinct experimental signature of this class of models is the presence in the low energy spectrum of vector-like quarks and antiquarks, outside the three known families, with masses of the order of the supersymmetry breaking scale.
ANTHROPOLOGY DIMENSIONS AS INDEPENDENT AEROBIC ENDURANCE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ratko Pavlović
2009-11-01
Full Text Available Endurance as human capability is treated in two ways. Some authors define it as mobility capability, while others deny this theory. The denying of this theory lies in attitude that endurance is saturated with psychological factors (motivation and cardio- vascular factors as well and is often identified with aero power, typical dimension of fun- ctional diagnostics. Having that in mind this research enabled the obtaining of necessary informations which could contribute to the clearing up of these uncoordinated opinions. The research included 110 student of the III year Phisical Education in East Sarajevo, male gender. Nine (9 predictors has been applied (4 variables for mobility space estima- te, 5 variables for morphology and functional space estimate and variable used for the estimate of endurance race 1500m. Obtained results confirmed statistical significance of two functional capability variable of Harvard step test, Margarija test and mobility variable race 4x15 meters with the race results.
Казыдуб, Надежда
2013-01-01
Discourse space is a complex structure that incorporates different levels and dimensions. The paper focuses on developing a multidisciplinary approach that is congruent to the complex character of the modern discourse. Two models of discourse space are proposed here. The Integrated Model reveals the interaction of different categorical mechanisms in the construction of the discourse space. The Evolutionary Model describes the historical roots of the modern discourse. It also reveals historica...
Inflation from periodic extra dimensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Higaki, Tetsutaro [Department of Physics, Keio University, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); Tatsuta, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: thigaki@rk.phys.keio.ac.jp, E-mail: y_tatsuta@akane.waseda.jp [Department of Physics, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)
2017-07-01
We discuss a realization of a small field inflation based on string inspired supergravities. In theories accompanying extra dimensions, compactification of them with small radii is required for realistic situations. Since the extra dimension can have a periodicity, there will appear (quasi-)periodic functions under transformations of moduli of the extra dimensions in low energy scales. Such a periodic property can lead to a UV completion of so-called multi-natural inflation model where inflaton potential consists of a sum of multiple sinusoidal functions with a decay constant smaller than the Planck scale. As an illustration, we construct a SUSY breaking model, and then show that such an inflaton potential can be generated by a sum of world sheet instantons in intersecting brane models on extra dimensions containing orbifold. We show also predictions of cosmic observables by numerical analyzes.
Physics with large extra dimensions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 62; Issue 2 ... The recent understanding of string theory opens the possibility that the string scale can be as ... by the existence of large internal dimensions, in the sub-millimeter region.
Interactive Dimensioning of Parametric Models
Kelly, T.; Wonka, Peter; Mueller, P.
2015-01-01
that adapts to the view direction, given behavioral properties. After proposing a set of design principles for interactive dimensioning, we describe our solution consisting of the following major components. First, we describe how an author can specify
Learning to Change: New Dimensions.
Loughlin, Kathleen
1996-01-01
Change involves thoughts, emotions, values, and actions but thought gets the most attention. Learning to change necessitates an integration of rational and nonrational ways of knowing. Nonrational ways and human care are important dimensions of the learning process. (SK)
On the UV Dimensions of Loop Quantum Gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michele Ronco
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Planck-scale dynamical dimensional reduction is attracting more and more interest in the quantum-gravity literature since it seems to be a model independent effect. However, different studies base their results on different concepts of space-time dimensionality. Most of them rely on the spectral dimension; others refer to the Hausdorff dimension; and, very recently, the thermal dimension has also been introduced. We here show that all these distinct definitions of dimension give the same outcome in the case of the effective regime of Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG. This is achieved by deriving a modified dispersion relation from the hypersurface-deformation algebra with quantum corrections. Moreover, we also observe that the number of UV dimensions can be used to constrain the ambiguities in the choice of these LQG-based modifications of the Dirac space-time algebra. In this regard, introducing the polymerization of connections, that is, K→sinδK/δ, we find that the leading quantum correction gives dUV=2.5. This result may indicate that the running to the expected value of two dimensions is ongoing, but it has not been completed yet. Finding dUV at ultrashort distances would require going beyond the effective approach we here present.
Topological magnetoelectric pump in three dimensions
Fukui, Takahiro; Fujiwara, Takanori
2017-11-01
We study the topological pump for a lattice fermion model mainly in three spatial dimensions. We first calculate the U(1) current density for the Dirac model defined in continuous space-time to review the known results as well as to introduce some technical details convenient for the calculations of the lattice model. We next investigate the U(1) current density for a lattice fermion model, a variant of the Wilson-Dirac model. The model we introduce is defined on a lattice in space but in continuous time, which is suited for the study of the topological pump. For such a model, we derive the conserved U(1) current density and calculate it directly for the (1 +1 )-dimensional system as well as (3 +1 )-dimensional system in the limit of the small lattice constant. We find that the current includes a nontrivial lattice effect characterized by the Chern number, and therefore the pumped particle number is quantized by the topological reason. Finally, we study the topological temporal pump in 3 +1 dimensions by numerical calculations. We discuss the relationship between the second Chern number and the first Chern number, the bulk-edge correspondence, and the generalized Streda formula which enables us to compute the second Chern number using the spectral asymmetry.
Culturally Relevant Cyberbullying Prevention
Phillips, Gregory John
2017-01-01
In this action research study, I, along with a student intervention committee of 14 members, developed a cyberbullying intervention for a large urban high school on the west coast. This high school contained a predominantly African American student population. I aimed to discover culturally relevant cyberbullying prevention strategies for African American students. The intervention committee selected video safety messages featuring African American actors as the most culturally relevant cyber...
Perceptual dimensions of style in paintings
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marković Slobodan
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to specify the basic perceptual dimensions underlying the judgments of the physical features which define the style in paintings (e.g. salient form, colorful surface, oval contours etc.. The other aim of the study is to correlate these dimensions with the subjective (affective dimensions of the experience of paintings. In the preliminary study a set of 25 pairs of elementary perceptual descriptors were empirically specified, and a set of 25 bipolar scales were made (e.g. uncolored-multicolored. In the experiment 30 subjects judged 24 paintings (paintings were taken from the study of Radonjić and Marković, 2004 on 25 scales. Factor analysis revealed the four factors: form (scales: precise, neat, salient form etc., color (color contrast, lightness contrast, vivid colors, space (voluminosity, depth and oval contours and complexity (multicolored, ornate, detailed. Obtained factors reflected the nature of the phenomenological and neural segregation of form, color, depth processing, and partially of complexity processing (e.g. spatial frequency processing within both the form and color subsystem. The aim of the next step of analysis was to specify the correlations between two groups of judgments: (a mean judgments of 24 paintings on perceptual factors and (b mean judgments of the same set of 24 paintings on subjective (affective experience factors, i.e. regularity, attraction, arousal and relaxation (judgments taken from Radonjić and Marković, 2005. The following significant correlations were obtained: regularity-form, regularity-space, attraction-form and arousal-complexity (negative correlation. The reasons for the unexpected negative correlation between arousal and complexity should be specified in further studies.
Floating of Black Holes in Dimension of Information
Gholibeigian, Hassan; Gholibeigian, Ghasem; Gholibeigian, Kazem
2016-10-01
In our vision, there is dimension of information in addition of space-time's dimensions as the fifth dimension of the universe. All of the space-time, mater, and dark mater/energy are always floating in this dimension and whispering to its communication as well as black holes. Communication of information (CI) is done with each fundamental particle (string) from fifth dimension via its four animated sub-particles (sub-strings) for transferring a package of complete information of its quantum state in a Planck time. Fundamental particle after process of information by its sub-particles goes to its next stage while carries the stored processed information. CI as the ``fundamental symmetry'' leads all processes of the black holes as well as other phenomena. Every point of space-time needs on time to its new package, because duration of each processing is a Planck time. So, stored soft super-translation hairs in terms of soft gravitons or photons on black hole's horizon, or stored information on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon [Hawking et al.] can be only accessible for particles which are in those positions (horizon and its boundary), not for other locations of black hole for their fast processing. AmirKabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
Why do we live in 3+1 dimensions?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nielsen, H.B.; Rugh, S.E.
1993-01-01
Noticing that really the fermions of the Standard Model are best thought of a Weyl - rather than Dirac - particles (relative to fundamental scales located at some presumably very high energies) it becomes interesting that the experimental space-time dimension is singled out by the Weyl equation: It is observed that precisely in the experimentally true space-time dimensionality 4=3+1 the number of linearly independent matrices n 2 Weyl dimensionized as the matrices in the Weyl equation equals the dimension d. So just in this dimension (in fact, also in a trivial case d = 1) do the sigma-matrices of the Weyl-equation form a basis. It is also characteristic for this dimension that there is no degeneracy of helicity states of the Weyl spinor for all nonzero momenta. We would like to interpret these features to signal a special 'form stability' of the Weyl equation in the phenomenologically true dimension of space-time. In an attempt of making this stability to occur in an as large as possible basin of allowed modifications we discuss whether it is possible to define what we could possibly mean by 'stability of Natural laws'. (orig.)
Deformed Spacetime Geometrizing Interactions in Four and Five Dimensions
Cardone, Fabio
2007-01-01
This volume provides a detailed discussion of the mathematical aspects and the physical applications of a new geometrical structure of space-time, based on a generalization ("deformation") of the usual Minkowski space, as supposed to be endowed with a metric whose coefficients depend on the energy. Such a formalism (Deformed Special Relativity, DSR) allows one to account for breakdown of local Lorentz invariance in the usual, special-relativistic meaning (however, Lorentz invariance is recovered in a generalized sense) to provide an effective geometrical description of the four fundamental interactions (electromagnetic, weak, strong and gravitational) Moreover, the four-dimensional energy-dependent space-time is just a manifestation of a larger, five-dimensional space in which energy plays the role of a fifth (non-compactified) dimension. This new five-dimensional scheme (Deformed Relativity in Five Dimensions, DR5) represents a true generalization of the usual Kaluza-Klein (KK) formalism. The mathematical pr...
a New Method for Calculating Fractal Dimensions of Porous Media Based on Pore Size Distribution
Xia, Yuxuan; Cai, Jianchao; Wei, Wei; Hu, Xiangyun; Wang, Xin; Ge, Xinmin
Fractal theory has been widely used in petrophysical properties of porous rocks over several decades and determination of fractal dimensions is always the focus of researches and applications by means of fractal-based methods. In this work, a new method for calculating pore space fractal dimension and tortuosity fractal dimension of porous media is derived based on fractal capillary model assumption. The presented work establishes relationship between fractal dimensions and pore size distribution, which can be directly used to calculate the fractal dimensions. The published pore size distribution data for eight sandstone samples are used to calculate the fractal dimensions and simultaneously compared with prediction results from analytical expression. In addition, the proposed fractal dimension method is also tested through Micro-CT images of three sandstone cores, and are compared with fractal dimensions by box-counting algorithm. The test results also prove a self-similar fractal range in sandstone when excluding smaller pores.
Supersymmetry, p-brane duality, and hidden spacetime dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bars, I.
1996-01-01
A global superalgebra with 32 supercharges and all possible central extensions is studied in order to extract some general properties of duality and hidden dimensions in a theory that treats p-branes democratically. The maximal number of dimensions is 12, with signature (10,2), containing one space and one time dimension that are hidden from the point of view of perturbative ten-dimensional string theory or its compactifications. When the theory is compactified on R d-1,1 circle-times T c+1,1 with d+c+2=12, there are isometry groups that relate to the hidden dimensions as well as to duality. Their combined intersecting classification schemes provide some properties of nonperturbative states and their couplings. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Distance Learning in Einstein’s Fourth Dimension
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robin Throne
2007-01-01
Full Text Available This article blends the concepts of space-time from theoretical physics and Einstein’s Relativity Theory to discuss the spatio-temporal nature of distance education. By comparing and contrasting speed-of-light space travel with the speed of computer processing, the leap is made to consider the fourth dimension and its phenomena for the Web traveler. Learning events are compared with events in time to depict the theory presented.
Fractal dimension evolution and spatial replacement dynamics of urban growth
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Yanguang
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► The fractal dimension growth can be modeled by Boltzmann’s equation. ► Boltzmann’s model suggests urban spatial replacement dynamics. ► If the rate of urban growth is too high, periodic oscillations or chaos will arise. ► Chaos is associated with fractals by the fractal dimension evolution model. ► The fractal dimension of urban form implies the space-filling ratio of a city. - Abstract: This paper presents a new perspective of looking at the relation between fractals and chaos by means of cities. Especially, a principle of space filling and spatial replacement is proposed to interpret the fractal dimension of urban form. The fractal dimension evolution of urban growth can be empirically modeled with Boltzmann’s equation. For the normalized data, Boltzmann’s equation is just equivalent to the logistic function. The logistic equation can be transformed into the well-known 1-dimensional logistic map, which is based on a 2-dimensional map suggesting spatial replacement dynamics of city development. The 2-dimensional recurrence relations can be employed to generate the nonlinear dynamical behaviors such as bifurcation and chaos. A discovery is thus made in this article that, for the fractal dimension growth following the logistic curve, the normalized dimension value is the ratio of space filling. If the rate of spatial replacement (urban growth) is too high, the periodic oscillations and chaos will arise. The spatial replacement dynamics can be extended to general replacement dynamics, and bifurcation and chaos mirror a process of complex replacement.
Escaping the recent past: which stimulus dimensions influence proactive interference?
Craig, Kimberly S; Berman, Marc G; Jonides, John; Lustig, Cindy
2013-07-01
Proactive interference occurs when information from the past disrupts current processing and is a major source of confusion and errors in short-term memory (STM; Wickens, Born, & Allen, Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 2:440-445, 1963). The present investigation examines potential boundary conditions for interference, testing the hypothesis that potential competitors must be similar along task-relevant dimensions to influence proactive interference effects. We manipulated both the type of task being completed (Experiments 1, 2, and 3) and dimensions of similarity irrelevant to the current task (Experiments 4 and 5) to determine how the recent presentation of a probe item would affect the speed with which participants could reject that item. Experiments 1, 2, and 3 contrasted STM judgments, which require temporal information, with semantic and perceptual judgments, for which temporal information is irrelevant. In Experiments 4 and 5, task-irrelevant information (perceptual similarity) was manipulated within the recent probes task. We found that interference from past items affected STM task performance but did not affect performance in semantic or perceptual judgment tasks. Conversely, similarity along a nominally irrelevant perceptual dimension did not affect the magnitude of interference in STM tasks. Results are consistent with the view that items in STM are represented by noisy codes consisting of multiple dimensions and that interference occurs when items are similar to each other and, thus, compete along the dimensions relevant to target selection.
Which Dimensions of Patient-Centeredness Matter? - Results of a Web-Based Expert Delphi Survey.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jördis M Zill
Full Text Available Present models and definitions of patient-centeredness revealed a lack of conceptual clarity. Based on a prior systematic literature review, we developed an integrative model with 15 dimensions of patient-centeredness. The aims of this study were to 1 validate, and 2 prioritize these dimensions.A two-round web-based Delphi study was conducted. 297 international experts were invited to participate. In round one they were asked to 1 give an individual rating on a nine-point-scale on relevance and clarity of the dimensions, 2 add missing dimensions, and 3 prioritize the dimensions. In round two, experts received feedback about the results of round one and were asked to reflect and re-rate their own results. The cut-off for the validation of a dimension was a median < 7 on one of the criteria.105 experts participated in round one and 71 in round two. In round one, one new dimension was suggested and included for discussion in round two. In round two, this dimension did not reach sufficient ratings to be included in the model. Eleven dimensions reached a median ≥ 7 on both criteria (relevance and clarity. Four dimensions had a median < 7 on one or both criteria. The five dimensions rated as most important were: patient as a unique person, patient involvement in care, patient information, clinician-patient communication and patient empowerment.11 out of the 15 dimensions have been validated through experts' ratings. Further research on the four dimensions that received insufficient ratings is recommended. The priority order of the dimensions can help researchers and clinicians to focus on the most important dimensions of patient-centeredness. Overall, the model provides a useful framework that can be used in the development of measures, interventions, and medical education curricula, as well as the adoption of a new perspective in health policy.
Weakly infinite-dimensional spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fedorchuk, Vitalii V
2007-01-01
In this survey article two new classes of spaces are considered: m-C-spaces and w-m-C-spaces, m=2,3,...,∞. They are intermediate between the class of weakly infinite-dimensional spaces in the Alexandroff sense and the class of C-spaces. The classes of 2-C-spaces and w-2-C-spaces coincide with the class of weakly infinite-dimensional spaces, while the compact ∞-C-spaces are exactly the C-compact spaces of Haver. The main results of the theory of weakly infinite-dimensional spaces, including classification via transfinite Lebesgue dimensions and Luzin-Sierpinsky indices, extend to these new classes of spaces. Weak m-C-spaces are characterised by means of essential maps to Henderson's m-compacta. The existence of hereditarily m-strongly infinite-dimensional spaces is proved.
Unified SU(4) color models in ten dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanlon, B.E.; Joshi, G.C.
1992-01-01
Some aspects of constructing unified models with SU(4) as the color group via a unifying group defined in ten dimensions are examined. Four dimensional theories are recovered using the Coset Space Dimensional Reduction scheme. Candidate models are considered in order to highlight some of the difficulties in constructing realistic four dimensional theories. 30 refs
The cosmological ‘constant’ and quantization in five dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wesson, Paul S.
2011-01-01
Campbell's theorem ensures that all vacuum space-times in general relativity can be embedded in five dimensions, with the 4D scalar curvature expressed as an effective cosmological ‘constant’ Λ which depends on the extra coordinate. This Λ-landscape can be used to give insight to certain physical phenomena, such as the big bang and quantized particles.
Sphaleron rate at high temperature in 1+1 dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smit, Jan; Tang, W.H.
1999-01-01
We resolve the controversy in the high temperature behavior of the sphaleron rate in the abelian Higgs model in 1+1 dimensions. The T 2 behavior at intermediate lattice spacings is found to change into T ((2)/(3)) behavior in the continuum limit. The results are supported by analytic arguments that the classical approximation is good for this model
Higuchi dimension of digital images.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Helmut Ahammer
Full Text Available There exist several methods for calculating the fractal dimension of objects represented as 2D digital images. For example, Box counting, Minkowski dilation or Fourier analysis can be employed. However, there appear to be some limitations. It is not possible to calculate only the fractal dimension of an irregular region of interest in an image or to perform the calculations in a particular direction along a line on an arbitrary angle through the image. The calculations must be made for the whole image. In this paper, a new method to overcome these limitations is proposed. 2D images are appropriately prepared in order to apply 1D signal analyses, originally developed to investigate nonlinear time series. The Higuchi dimension of these 1D signals is calculated using Higuchi's algorithm, and it is shown that both regions of interests and directional dependencies can be evaluated independently of the whole picture. A thorough validation of the proposed technique and a comparison of the new method to the Fourier dimension, a common two dimensional method for digital images, are given. The main result is that Higuchi's algorithm allows a direction dependent as well as direction independent analysis. Actual values for the fractal dimensions are reliable and an effective treatment of regions of interests is possible. Moreover, the proposed method is not restricted to Higuchi's algorithm, as any 1D method of analysis, can be applied.
Averill, M.; Briggle, A.
2006-12-01
Science policy and knowledge production lately have taken a pragmatic turn. Funding agencies increasingly are requiring scientists to explain the relevance of their work to society. This stems in part from mounting critiques of the "linear model" of knowledge production in which scientists operating according to their own interests or disciplinary standards are presumed to automatically produce knowledge that is of relevance outside of their narrow communities. Many contend that funded scientific research should be linked more directly to societal goals, which implies a shift in the kind of research that will be funded. While both authors support the concept of useful science, we question the exact meaning of "relevance" and the wisdom of allowing it to control research agendas. We hope to contribute to the conversation by thinking more critically about the meaning and limits of the term "relevance" and the trade-offs implicit in a narrow utilitarian approach. The paper will consider which interests tend to be privileged by an emphasis on relevance and address issues such as whose goals ought to be pursued and why, and who gets to decide. We will consider how relevance, narrowly construed, may actually limit the ultimate utility of scientific research. The paper also will reflect on the worthiness of research goals themselves and their relationship to a broader view of what it means to be human and to live in society. Just as there is more to being human than the pragmatic demands of daily life, there is more at issue with knowledge production than finding the most efficient ways to satisfy consumer preferences or fix near-term policy problems. We will conclude by calling for a balanced approach to funding research that addresses society's most pressing needs but also supports innovative research with less immediately apparent application.
Savanur, C S; Altekar, C R; De, A
2007-10-01
Children spend one-quarter of a day in school. Of this, 60-80% of time is spent in the classroom. Classroom features, such as workspace and personal space play an important role in children's growth and performance as this age marks the period of anatomical, physiological and psychological developments. Since the classroom is an influential part of a student's life the present study focused on classroom furniture in relation to students' workspace and personal space requirements and standards and was conducted in five schools at Mumbai, India. Dimensions of 104 items of furniture (chairs and desks) were measured as were 42 anthropometric dimensions of 225 students from grade six to grade nine (age: 10-14 years). Questionnaire responses of 292 students regarding the perceived adequacy of their classroom furniture were collected. Results indicated that the seat and desk heights (450 mm, 757 mm respectively) were higher than the comparable students' anthropometric dimensions and that of the recommendations of Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) (340 + 3 mm, 380 + 3 mm seat-heights, 580 + 3 mm 640 + 3 mm desk-heights) as well as Time-Saver Standards (TSS) (381.0 mm seat-height and 660.4 mm desk-height). The depth of the seats and the desks (299 mm, 319 mm, respectively) were less than comparable students' anthropometric dimensions and the recommendations of BIS (IS 4837: 1990). Students reported discomfort in shoulder, wrist, knee and ankle regions. Based on the students' anthropometric data, proposed future designs with fixed table-heights and adjustable seat-heights along with footrests were identified.
Bianchi identities in higher dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pravda, V; Pravdova, A; Coley, A; Milson, R
2004-01-01
A higher dimensional frame formalism is developed in order to study implications of the Bianchi identities for the Weyl tensor in vacuum spacetimes of the algebraic types III and N in arbitrary dimension n. It follows that the principal null congruence is geodesic and expands isotropically in two dimensions and does not expand in n - 4 spacelike dimensions or does not expand at all. It is shown that the existence of such principal geodesic null congruence in vacuum (together with an additional condition on twist) implies an algebraically special spacetime. We also use the Myers-Perry metric as an explicit example of a vacuum type D spacetime to show that principal geodesic null congruences in vacuum type D spacetimes do not share this property
Physics with large extra dimensions
Antoniadis, Ignatios
2004-01-01
The recent understanding of string theory opens the possibility that the string scale can be as low as a few TeV. The apparent weakness of gravitational interactions can then be accounted by the existence of large internal dimensions, in the submillimeter region. Furthermore, our world must be confined to live on a brane transverse to these large dimensions, with which it interacts only gravitationally. In my lecture, I describe briefly this scenario which gives a new theoretical framework for solving the gauge hierarchy problem and the unification of all interactions. I also discuss its main properties and implications for observations at both future particle colliders, and in non-accelerator gravity experiments. Such effects are for instance the production of Kaluza-Klein resonances, graviton emission in the bulk of extra dimensions, and a radical change of gravitational forces in the submillimeter range.
The Existential Dimension of Right
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hartz, Emily
2017-01-01
for discussing the existential dimension of right by bringing central parts of Fichte’s and Arendt’s work into dialogue. By facilitating this – admittedly unusual – dialogue between Fichte and Arendt the author explicates how, for both Fichte and Arendt, the concept of right can only be adequately understood......The following article paves out the theoretical ground for a phenomenological discussion of the existential dimension of right. This refers to a dimension of right that is not captured in standard treatments of right, namely the question of whether – or how the concept of rights relates...... as referring to the existential condition of plurality and uses this insight to draw up a theoretical ground for further phenomenological analysis of right....
Collapse of large extra dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geddes, James
2002-01-01
In models of spacetime that are the product of a four-dimensional spacetime with an 'extra' dimension, there is the possibility that the extra dimension will collapse to zero size, forming a singularity. We ask whether this collapse is likely to destroy the spacetime. We argue, by an appeal to the four-dimensional cosmic censorship conjecture, that--at least in the case when the extra dimension is homogeneous--such a collapse will lead to a singularity hidden within a black string. We also construct explicit initial data for a spacetime in which such a collapse is guaranteed to occur and show how the formation of a naked singularity is likely avoided
Correlated Electrons in Reduced Dimensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bonesteel, Nicholas E [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)
2015-01-31
This report summarizes the work accomplished under the support of US DOE grant # DE-FG02-97ER45639, "Correlated Electrons in Reduced Dimensions." The underlying hypothesis of the research supported by this grant has been that studying the unique behavior of correlated electrons in reduced dimensions can lead to new ways of understanding how matter can order and how it can potentially be used. The systems under study have included i) fractional quantum Hall matter, which is realized when electrons are confined to two-dimensions and placed in a strong magnetic field at low temperature, ii) one-dimensional chains of spins and exotic quasiparticle excitations of topologically ordered matter, and iii) electrons confined in effectively ``zero-dimensional" semiconductor quantum dots.
Cultural prototypes and dimensions of honor.
Cross, Susan E; Uskul, Ayse K; Gerçek-Swing, Berna; Sunbay, Zeynep; Alözkan, Cansu; Günsoy, Ceren; Ataca, Bilge; Karakitapoglu-Aygün, Zahide
2014-02-01
Research evidence and theoretical accounts of honor point to differing definitions of the construct in differing cultural contexts. The current studies address the question "What is honor?" using a prototype approach in Turkey and the Northern United States. Studies 1a/1b revealed substantial differences in the specific features generated by members of the two groups, but Studies 2 and 3 revealed cultural similarities in the underlying dimensions of self-respect, moral behavior, and social status/respect. Ratings of the centrality and personal importance of these factors were similar across the two groups, but their association with other relevant constructs differed. The tripartite nature of honor uncovered in these studies helps observers and researchers alike understand how diverse responses to situations can be attributed to honor. Inclusion of a prototype analysis into the literature on honor cultures can provide enhanced coverage of the concept that may lead to testable hypotheses and new theoretical developments.
Geometric function theory in higher dimension
2017-01-01
The book collects the most relevant outcomes from the INdAM Workshop “Geometric Function Theory in Higher Dimension” held in Cortona on September 5-9, 2016. The Workshop was mainly devoted to discussions of basic open problems in the area, and this volume follows the same line. In particular, it offers a selection of original contributions on Loewner theory in one and higher dimensions, semigroups theory, iteration theory and related topics. Written by experts in geometric function theory in one and several complex variables, it focuses on new research frontiers in this area and on challenging open problems. The book is intended for graduate students and researchers working in complex analysis, several complex variables and geometric function theory.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zimmerman, Chris; Madsen, Rene; Hammer Eliassen, Henrik
2016-01-01
This paper applies urban informatics methods and techniques on big data generated from the concentrated environment of the second largest music festival in the world, Roskilde Festival. First, we explain how to utilize relevant dimensions from human geography theories towards mapping a ‘Geography...
Is Information Still Relevant?
Ma, Lia
2013-01-01
Introduction: The term "information" in information science does not share the characteristics of those of a nomenclature: it does not bear a generally accepted definition and it does not serve as the bases and assumptions for research studies. As the data deluge has arrived, is the concept of information still relevant for information…
On bosonization in 3 dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barci, D.G.; Fosco, C.D.; Oxman, L.E.
1995-08-01
A recently proposed path-integral bosonization scheme for massive fermions in 3 dimensions is extended by keeping the full momentum-dependence of the one-loop vacuum polarization tensor. This makes it possible to discuss both the massive and massless fermion cases on an equal footing, and moreover the results it yields for massless fermions are consistent with the ones of another, seemingly different, canonical quantization approach to the problem of bosonization for a massless fermionic field in 3 dimensions. (author). 10 refs
The Ethical Dimension of Innovation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nogueira, Leticia Antunes; Nogueira, Tadeu Fernando
2014-01-01
The view of innovation as a positive concept has been deeply rooted in business and academic cultures ever since Schumpeter coined the concept of creative destruction. Even though there is a large body of literature on innovation studies, limited attention has been given to its ethical dimension....... In this chapter, the ethical implications of innovations are illustrated with a case study of “destructive creation” in the food industry, and upon which an argumentative analysis is conducted. The main message of this chapter is that innovations have inherent ethical dimensions and that quality innovations...
Quantum control in infinite dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karwowski, Witold; Vilela Mendes, R.
2004-01-01
Accurate control of quantum evolution is an essential requirement for quantum state engineering, laser chemistry, quantum information and quantum computing. Conditions of controllability for systems with a finite number of energy levels have been extensively studied. By contrast, results for controllability in infinite dimensions have been mostly negative, stating that full control cannot be achieved with a finite-dimensional control Lie algebra. Here we show that by adding a discrete operation to a Lie algebra it is possible to obtain full control in infinite dimensions with a small number of control operators
Quantum physics in one dimension
Giamarchi, Thierry
2004-01-01
This book presents in a pedagogical yet complete way correlated systems in one dimension. Recent progress in nanotechnology and material research have made one dimensional systems a crucial part of today's physics. After an introduction to the basic concepts of correlated systems, the book gives a step by step description of the techniques needed to treat one dimension, and discusses the resulting physics. Then specific experimental realizations of one dimensional systems such asspin chains, quantum wires, nanotubes, organic superconductors etc. are examined. Given its progressive and pedagogi
Thermal dimensioning of spent fuel repository
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikonen, K.
2009-09-01
This report contains the temperature dimensioning of the KBS-3V type nuclear fuel repository in Olkiluoto for the BWR, VVER and EPR fuel canisters, which are disposed at vertical position in the horizontal tunnels in a rectangular geometry according to the preliminary Posiva plan. This report concerns only the temperature dimensioning of the repository and does not take into account the possible restrictions caused by the stresses induced in the rock. The maximum temperature on the canister-bentonite interface is limited to the design temperature of +100 deg C. However, due to uncertainties in thermal analysis parameters (like scattering in rock conductivity or in predicted decay power) the allowable calculated maximum canister temperature is set to 90 deg C causing a safety margin of 10 deg C. The allowable temperature is controlled by adjusting the space between adjacent canisters, adjacent tunnels and the pre-cooling time affecting on power of the canisters. The temperature of canister surfaces can be determined by superposing analytic line heat source models much more efficiently than by numerical analysis, if the analytic model is first calibrated by numerical analysis (by control volume method). This was done by comparing the surface temperatures of a single canister calculated numerically and analytically. For the Olkiluoto repository of one panel having 900 canisters of BWR, VVER and EPR spent fuel was analyzed. The analyses were performed with an initial canister power of 1 700 W, 1 370 W and 1 830 W, respectively. These decay heats are obtained when the pre-cooling times of the fuels are 32.9, 29.6 and 50.3 years (the burn-up values 40, 40 and 50 MWd/kgU, respectively). The analyses gave as a result the canister spacing (6.0-10.8 m), when the tunnel spacing was 25 m, 30 m or 40 m. On the edge areas of the panel with constant canister spacing the temperatures of the canisters are lower than in the middle area of the repository. Thus it is possible to pack
Hyperstate matrix models : extending demographic state spaces to higher dimensions
Roth, G.; Caswell, H.
2016-01-01
1. Demographic models describe population dynamics in terms of the movement of individuals among states (e.g. size, age, developmental stage, parity, frailty, physiological condition). Matrix population models originally classified individuals by a single characteristic. This was enlarged to two
Determining the minimum embedding dimension for state space ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The analysis of observed time series from nonlinear systems is usually done by making a time-delay ... for real-world data where such information is not known ... operating. Two methods are commonly adopted at present to get information ...
Correlated-Spaces Regression for Learning Continuous Emotion Dimensions
Nicolaou, M.; Zafeiriou, S.; Pantic, Maja
2013-01-01
Adopting continuous dimensional annotations for affective analysis has been gaining rising attention by researchers over the past years. Due to the idiosyncratic nature of this problem, many subproblems have been identified, spanning from the fusion of multiple continuous annotations to exploiting
Non-relativistic supergravity in three space-time dimensions
Zojer, Thomas
2016-01-01
This year Einstein's theory of general relativity celebrates its one hundredth birthday. It supersedes the non-relativistic Newtonian theory of gravity in two aspects: i) there is a limiting velocity, nothing can move quicker than the speed of light and ii) the theory is valid in arbitrary
The Quantum Hydrodynamics System in Two Space Dimensions
Antonelli, Paolo; Marcati, Pierangelo
2011-01-01
the WKB formalism with a polar decomposition theory which is not limited by the presence of vacuum regions. In this way we set up a self consistent theory, based only on particle density and current density, which does not need to define velocity fields
Continuous dimensions and evanescent couplings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bollini, C.G.; Giambiagi, J.J.
1975-01-01
Analytical solutions for the wave equation in many dimensional calculation, are given. The difference for even or odd number of dimensions is shown. The simplest cases of the lowest order divergent diagrams (self-energy, vacuum polarization) are discussed. Causal solution of Klein-Gordon equation is used [pt
Quantum Gravity in Two Dimensions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ipsen, Asger Cronberg
The topic of this thesis is quantum gravity in 1 + 1 dimensions. We will focus on two formalisms, namely Causal Dynamical Triangulations (CDT) and Dy- namical Triangulations (DT). Both theories regularize the gravity path integral as a sum over triangulations. The difference lies in the class...
Massive particles in five dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Copeland, E.J.
1985-01-01
We consider a five-dimensional model of the universe with a dynamical extra dimension. Calculations of the ratio of the number density of Kolb and Slansky type pyrgons to that of photons show the model to be unacceptable. However by inserting N matter fields into the original action, it becomes possible to reduce the ratio below the observational bound. (orig.)
Teachers' Careers: The Objective Dimension.
Evetts, Julia
1986-01-01
Analyzes the objective dimension of teachers' careers showing how 530 British male/female teachers are distributed throughout the pay scale and promotions making up the formal structure of teaching. Indicates length of experience is the rewarding but not the sole factor in bureaucratic structure and differential male/female career achievements.…
THE DIMENSIONS OF COMPOSITION ANNOTATION.
MCCOLLY, WILLIAM
ENGLISH TEACHER ANNOTATIONS WERE STUDIED TO DETERMINE THE DIMENSIONS AND PROPERTIES OF THE ENTIRE SYSTEM FOR WRITING CORRECTIONS AND CRITICISMS ON COMPOSITIONS. FOUR SETS OF COMPOSITIONS WERE WRITTEN BY STUDENTS IN GRADES 9 THROUGH 13. TYPESCRIPTS OF THE COMPOSITIONS WERE ANNOTATED BY CLASSROOM ENGLISH TEACHERS. THEN, 32 ENGLISH TEACHERS JUDGED…
Unexploited Dimensions of Virtual Humans
Ruttkay, Z.M.; Reidsma, Dennis; Huang, Thomas; Nijholt, Antinus; Pantic, Maja; Pentlant, Alex
Virtual Humans are on the border of fiction and realism: while it is obvious that they do not exist in reality and function on different principles than real people, they have been endowed with human features such as being emotionally sensitive. In this article we argue that many dimensions, both
String theory in four dimensions
1988-01-01
``String Theory in Four Dimensions'' contains a representative collection of papers dealing with various aspects of string phenomenology, including compactifications on smooth manifolds and more general conformal field theories. Together with the lucid introduction by M. Dine, this material gives the reader a good working knowledge of our present ideas for connecting string theory to nature.
The inner dimension of sustainability
Horlings, L.G.
2015-01-01
Transformation to sustainability has been defined as the fundamental alteration of the nature of a system, once the current conditions become untenable or undesirable. Transformation requires a shift in people's values, referred to as the inner dimension of sustainability, or change from the
Effective dimension in flocking mechanisms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baglietto, Gabriel; Albano, Ezequiel V.
2011-01-01
Even in its minimal representation (Vicsek Model, VM [T. Vicsek, A. Czirok, E. Ben-Jacob, I. Cohen and O. Shochet. Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1226 (1995).]), the widespread phenomenon of flocking raises intriguing questions to the statistical physicists. While the VM is very close to the better understood XY Model because they share many symmetry properties, a major difference arises by the fact that the former can sustain long-range order in two dimensions, while the latter can not. Aiming to contribute to the understanding of this feature, by means of extensive numerical simulations of the VM, we study the network structure of clusters showing that they can also sustain purely orientational, mean-field-like, long-range order. We identify the reason of this capability with the key concept of ''effective dimension.'' In fact, by analyzing the behavior of the average path length and the mean degree, we show that this dimension is very close to four, which coincides with the upper critical dimension of the XY Model, where orientational order is also of a mean-field nature. We expect that this methodology could be generalized to other types of dynamical systems.
The Hidden Dimensions of Databases.
Jacso, Peter
1994-01-01
Discusses methods of evaluating commercial online databases and provides examples that illustrate their hidden dimensions. Topics addressed include size, including the number of records or the number of titles; the number of years covered; and the frequency of updates. Comparisons of Readers' Guide Abstracts and Magazine Article Summaries are…
Dimensions of the Composing Process.
Freedman, Aviva
As a by-product of a study concerning how university level writers develop new genres of discourse, a study was undertaken to examine what factors or dimensions affect the composing process of university writers. Six undergraduate students at Carleton University in Ottawa participated, making available to researchers information about how they…
Correlation Dimension-Based Classifier
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Jiřina, Marcel; Jiřina jr., M.
2014-01-01
Roč. 44, č. 12 (2014), s. 2253-2263 ISSN 2168-2267 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG12020 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : classifier * multidimensional data * correlation dimension * scaling exponent * polynomial expansion Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 3.469, year: 2014
Interpretation and the Aesthetic Dimension
Mortensen, Charles O.
1976-01-01
The author, utilizing a synthesis of philosophic comments on aesthetics, provides a discourse on the aesthetic dimension and offers examples of how interpreters can nurture the innate sense of beauty in man. Poetic forms, such as haiku, are used to relate the aesthetic relationship between man and the environment. (BT)
Correlation Dimension Estimation for Classification
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Jiřina, Marcel; Jiřina jr., M.
2006-01-01
Roč. 1, č. 3 (2006), s. 547-557 ISSN 1895-8648 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : correlation dimension * probability density estimation * classification * UCI MLR Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
Gauge and integrable theories in loop spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferreira, L.A.; Luchini, G.
2012-01-01
We propose an integral formulation of the equations of motion of a large class of field theories which leads in a quite natural and direct way to the construction of conservation laws. The approach is based on generalized non-abelian Stokes theorems for p-form connections, and its appropriate mathematical language is that of loop spaces. The equations of motion are written as the equality of a hyper-volume ordered integral to a hyper-surface ordered integral on the border of that hyper-volume. The approach applies to integrable field theories in (1+1) dimensions, Chern-Simons theories in (2+1) dimensions, and non-abelian gauge theories in (2+1) and (3+1) dimensions. The results presented in this paper are relevant for the understanding of global properties of those theories. As a special byproduct we solve a long standing problem in (3+1)-dimensional Yang-Mills theory, namely the construction of conserved charges, valid for any solution, which are invariant under arbitrary gauge transformations.
Clinical Relevance of Adipokines
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matthias Blüher
2012-10-01
Full Text Available The incidence of obesity has increased dramatically during recent decades. Obesity increases the risk for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and may therefore contribute to premature death. With increasing fat mass, secretion of adipose tissue derived bioactive molecules (adipokines changes towards a pro-inflammatory, diabetogenic and atherogenic pattern. Adipokines are involved in the regulation of appetite and satiety, energy expenditure, activity, endothelial function, hemostasis, blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, energy metabolism in insulin sensitive tissues, adipogenesis, fat distribution and insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. Therefore, adipokines are clinically relevant as biomarkers for fat distribution, adipose tissue function, liver fat content, insulin sensitivity, chronic inflammation and have the potential for future pharmacological treatment strategies for obesity and its related diseases. This review focuses on the clinical relevance of selected adipokines as markers or predictors of obesity related diseases and as potential therapeutic tools or targets in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.
Gauging hidden symmetries in two dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Samtleben, Henning; Weidner, Martin
2007-01-01
We initiate the systematic construction of gauged matter-coupled supergravity theories in two dimensions. Subgroups of the affine global symmetry group of toroidally compactified supergravity can be gauged by coupling vector fields with minimal couplings and a particular topological term. The gauge groups typically include hidden symmetries that are not among the target-space isometries of the ungauged theory. The gaugings constructed in this paper are described group-theoretically in terms of a constant embedding tensor subject to a number of constraints which parametrizes the different theories and entirely encodes the gauged Lagrangian. The prime example is the bosonic sector of the maximally supersymmetric theory whose ungauged version admits an affine e 9 global symmetry algebra. The various parameters (related to higher-dimensional p-form fluxes, geometric and non-geometric fluxes, etc.) which characterize the possible gaugings, combine into an embedding tensor transforming in the basic representation of e 9 . This yields an infinite-dimensional class of maximally supersymmetric theories in two dimensions. We work out and discuss several examples of higher-dimensional origin which can be systematically analyzed using the different gradings of e 9
New black holes in five dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lue, H.; Mei Jianwei; Pope, C.N.
2009-01-01
We construct new stationary Ricci-flat metrics of cohomogeneity 2 in five dimensions, which generalise the Myers-Perry rotating black hole metrics by adding a further non-trivial parameter. We obtain them via a construction that is analogous to the construction by Plebanski and Demianski in four dimensions of the most general type D metrics. Limiting cases of the new metrics contain not only the general Myers-Perry black hole with independent angular momenta, but also the single rotation black ring of Emparan and Reall. In another limit, we obtain new static metrics that describe black holes whose horizons are distorted lens spaces L(n;m)=S 3 /Γ(n;m), where m≥n+2≥3. They are asymptotic to Minkowski spacetime factored by Γ(m;n). In the general stationary case, by contrast, the new metrics describe spacetimes with a horizon and with a periodicity condition on the time coordinate; these examples can be thought of as five-dimensional analogues of the four-dimensional Taub-NUT metrics
Wildemuth, Barbara M.
2009-01-01
A user's interaction with a DL is often initiated as the result of the user experiencing an information need of some kind. Aspects of that experience and how it might affect the user's interactions with the DL are discussed in this module. In addition, users continuously make decisions about and evaluations of the materials retrieved from a DL, relative to their information needs. Relevance judgments, and their relationship to the user's information needs, are discussed in this module. Draft
Interacting fermions in one spatial dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wolf, D.
1982-01-01
This thesis contains in its first part a critical survey about the method of the bosonization of fermi fields in one spatial dimension and its application to the Luttinger and the massive Thirring model. The first chapter served for the explanation of the term of the unitary inequivalence. Thereby two generally valid facts could be demonstrated very illustratively by the example of a fermion algebra and its representations, namely first that infinite, direct product space are not separable, and second that weak equivalence of the vacua is equivalent to the unitary equivalence of the corresponding representations of the field algebra. In the second part the statement first studied by Luther (1976) and since then often cited, that the continuum limit of the Heisenberg model is the massive Thirring model. It is concluded that it can up to today not be considered as proved although indications for its validity can be found. (orig./HSI) [de
Null structure groups in eleven dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cariglia, Marco; Mac Conamhna, Oisin A. P.
2006-01-01
We classify all the structure groups which arise as subgroups of the isotropy group (Spin(7)xR 8 )xR, of a single null Killing spinor in 11 dimensions. We construct the spaces of spinors fixed by these groups. We determine the conditions under which structure subgroups of the maximal null structure group (Spin(7)xR 8 )xR may also be embedded in SU(5), and hence the conditions under which a supersymmetric spacetime admits only null, or both timelike and null, Killing spinors. We discuss how this purely algebraic material will facilitate the direct analysis of the Killing spinor equation of 11 dimensional supergravity, and the classification of supersymmetric spacetimes therein
Higgs Phenomenology of Minimal Universal Extra Dimensions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kakizaki Mitsuru
2012-06-01
Full Text Available The minimal model of Universal Extra Dimensions (MUED is briefly reviewed. We explain how the cross-sections for Higgs production via gluon fusion and decay into photons are modified, relative the the Standard Model (SM values, by KK particles running in loops, leading to an enhancement of the gg → h → γγ and gg → h → W+W− cross-sections. ATLAS and CMS searches for the SM Higgs in these channels are reinterpreted in the context of MUED and used to place new limits on the MUED parameter space. Only a small region of between 1 and 3 GeV around mh = 125 GeV for 500 GeV < R−1 < 1600 GeV remains open at the 95 % confidence level.
Phenomenology of symmetry breaking from extra dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alfaro, Jorge; Broncano, Alicia; Belen Gavela, Maria; Rigolin, Stefano; Salvatori, Matteo
2007-01-01
Motivated by the electroweak hierarchy problem, we consider theories with two extra dimensions in which the four-dimensional scalar fields are components of gauge boson in full space. We explore the Nielsen-Olesen instability for SU(N) on a torus, in the presence of a magnetic background. A field theory approach is developed, computing explicitly the minimum of the complete effective potential, including tri-linear and quartic couplings and determining the symmetries of the stable vacua. We also develop appropriate gauge-fixing terms when both Kaluza-Klein and Landau levels are present and interacting, discussing the interplay between the possible six and four dimensional choices. The equivalence between coordinate dependent and constant Scherk-Schwarz boundary conditions - associated to either continuous or discrete Wilson lines - is analyzed
Rezeanu, Cătălina-Ionela; Briciu, Arabela; Briciu, Victor; Repanovici, Angela; Coman, Claudiu
2016-01-01
Background The last two decades have seen a growing trend towards the research of voting behavior in post-communist countries. Urban sociology theorists state that not only space structures influence political participation, but also space structures are changing under the influence of global, local, and individual factors. The growing role played by information in the globalised world has accelerated the paradigm shift in urban sociology: from central place model (based on urban-rural distinction and on monocentric metropolitan areas) to network society (based on space of flows and polycentric metropolitan areas). However, recent studies have mainly focused on countries with solid democracies, rather than on former communist countries. The present study aims to analyze the extent to which a new emerging spatial structure can be envisaged within a metropolitan area of Romania and its consequences for the political dimensions of social capital. Methods The Transilvania University Ethics Commission approved this study (S1 Aprouval). The research is based upon individual and aggregate empirical data, collected from the areas adjacent to the core city in Brașov metropolitan area. Individual data has been collected during October 2012, using the oral survey technique (S1 Survey), based on a standardized questionnaire (stratified simple random sample, N = 600). The National Institute of Statistics and the Electoral Register provided the aggregate data per locality. Unvaried and multivariate analyses (hierarchical regression method) were conducted based on these data. Results Some dimensions of urbanism, identified as predictors of the political dimensions of social capital, suggest that the area under analysis has a predominantly monocentric character, where the rural-urban distinction continues to remain relevant. There are also arguments favoring the dissolution of the rural-urban distinction and the emergence of polycentric spatial structures. The presence of some
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cătălina-Ionela Rezeanu
Full Text Available The last two decades have seen a growing trend towards the research of voting behavior in post-communist countries. Urban sociology theorists state that not only space structures influence political participation, but also space structures are changing under the influence of global, local, and individual factors. The growing role played by information in the globalised world has accelerated the paradigm shift in urban sociology: from central place model (based on urban-rural distinction and on monocentric metropolitan areas to network society (based on space of flows and polycentric metropolitan areas. However, recent studies have mainly focused on countries with solid democracies, rather than on former communist countries. The present study aims to analyze the extent to which a new emerging spatial structure can be envisaged within a metropolitan area of Romania and its consequences for the political dimensions of social capital.The Transilvania University Ethics Commission approved this study (S1 Aprouval. The research is based upon individual and aggregate empirical data, collected from the areas adjacent to the core city in Brașov metropolitan area. Individual data has been collected during October 2012, using the oral survey technique (S1 Survey, based on a standardized questionnaire (stratified simple random sample, N = 600. The National Institute of Statistics and the Electoral Register provided the aggregate data per locality. Unvaried and multivariate analyses (hierarchical regression method were conducted based on these data.Some dimensions of urbanism, identified as predictors of the political dimensions of social capital, suggest that the area under analysis has a predominantly monocentric character, where the rural-urban distinction continues to remain relevant. There are also arguments favoring the dissolution of the rural-urban distinction and the emergence of polycentric spatial structures. The presence of some influences
Rezeanu, Cătălina-Ionela; Briciu, Arabela; Briciu, Victor; Repanovici, Angela; Coman, Claudiu
2016-01-01
The last two decades have seen a growing trend towards the research of voting behavior in post-communist countries. Urban sociology theorists state that not only space structures influence political participation, but also space structures are changing under the influence of global, local, and individual factors. The growing role played by information in the globalised world has accelerated the paradigm shift in urban sociology: from central place model (based on urban-rural distinction and on monocentric metropolitan areas) to network society (based on space of flows and polycentric metropolitan areas). However, recent studies have mainly focused on countries with solid democracies, rather than on former communist countries. The present study aims to analyze the extent to which a new emerging spatial structure can be envisaged within a metropolitan area of Romania and its consequences for the political dimensions of social capital. The Transilvania University Ethics Commission approved this study (S1 Aprouval). The research is based upon individual and aggregate empirical data, collected from the areas adjacent to the core city in Brașov metropolitan area. Individual data has been collected during October 2012, using the oral survey technique (S1 Survey), based on a standardized questionnaire (stratified simple random sample, N = 600). The National Institute of Statistics and the Electoral Register provided the aggregate data per locality. Unvaried and multivariate analyses (hierarchical regression method) were conducted based on these data. Some dimensions of urbanism, identified as predictors of the political dimensions of social capital, suggest that the area under analysis has a predominantly monocentric character, where the rural-urban distinction continues to remain relevant. There are also arguments favoring the dissolution of the rural-urban distinction and the emergence of polycentric spatial structures. The presence of some influences related to the
Algebraically special perturbations of the Schwarzschild solution in higher dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dias, Óscar J C; Reall, Harvey S
2013-01-01
We study algebraically special perturbations of a generalized Schwarzschild solution in any number of dimensions. There are two motivations. First, to learn whether there exist interesting higher-dimensional algebraically special solutions beyond the known ones. Second, algebraically special perturbations present an obstruction to the unique reconstruction of general metric perturbations from gauge-invariant variables analogous to the Teukolsky scalars and it is desirable to know the extent of this non-uniqueness. In four dimensions, our results generalize those of Couch and Newman, who found infinite families of time-dependent algebraically special perturbations. In higher dimensions, we find that the only regular algebraically special perturbations are those corresponding to deformations within the Myers–Perry family. Our results are relevant for several inequivalent definitions of ‘algebraically special’. (paper)
Determination of Gravitational Counterterms Near Four Dimensions from RG Equations
Hamada, Ken-ji
2014-01-01
The finiteness condition of renormalization gives a restriction on the form of the gravitational action. By reconsidering the Hathrell's RG equations for massless QED in curved space, we determine the gravitational counterterms and the conformal anomalies as well near four dimensions. As conjectured for conformal couplings in 1970s, we show that at all orders of the perturbation they can be combined into two forms only: the square of the Weyl tensor in $D$ dimensions and $E_D=G_4 +(D-4)\\chi(D...
High and low dimensions in the black hole negative mode
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Asnin, Vadim; Gorbonos, Dan; Hadar, Shahar; Kol, Barak; Levi, Michele; Miyamoto, Umpei
2007-01-01
The negative mode of the Schwarzschild black hole is central to Euclidean quantum gravity around hot flat space and for the Gregory-Laflamme black string instability. We analyze the eigenvalue as a function of spacetime dimension λ = λ(d) by constructing two perturbative expansions: one for large d and the other for small d - 3, and determining as many coefficients as we are able to compute analytically. By joining the two expansions, we obtain an interpolating rational function accurate to better than 2% through the whole range of dimensions including d = 4
Novel correlations in two dimensions: Some exact solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murthy, M.V.; Bhaduri, R.K.; Sen, D.
1996-01-01
We construct a new many-body Hamiltonian with two- and three-body interactions in two space dimensions and obtain its exact many-body ground state for an arbitrary number of particles. This ground state has a novel pairwise correlation. A class of exact solutions for the excited states is also found. These excited states display an energy spectrum similar to the Calogero-Sutherland model in one dimension. The model reduces to an analog of the well-known trigonometric Sutherland model when projected on to a circular ring. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Space Station Engineering Design Issues
Mcruer, Duane T.; Boehm, Barry W.; Debra, Daniel B.; Green, C. Cordell; Henry, Richard C.; Maycock, Paul D.; Mcelroy, John H.; Pierce, Chester M.; Stafford, Thomas P.; Young, Laurence R.
1989-01-01
Space Station Freedom topics addressed include: general design issues; issues related to utilization and operations; issues related to systems requirements and design; and management issues relevant to design.
Relevance in the science classroom: A multidimensional analysis
Hartwell, Matthew F.
While perceived relevance is considered a fundamental component of adaptive learning, the experience of relevance and its conceptual definition have not been well described. The mixed-methods research presented in this dissertation aimed to clarify the conceptual meaning of relevance by focusing on its phenomenological experience from the students' perspective. Following a critical literature review, I propose an identity-based model of perceived relevance that includes three components: a contextual target, an identity target, and a connection type, or lens. An empirical investigation of this model that consisted of two general phases was implemented in four 9th grade-biology classrooms. Participants in Phase 1 (N = 118) completed a series of four open-ended writing activities focused on eliciting perceived personal connections to academic content. Exploratory qualitative content analysis of a 25% random sample of the student responses was used to identify the main meaning-units of the proposed model as well as different dimensions of student relevance perceptions. These meaning-units and dimensions provided the basis for the construction of a conceptual mapping sentence capturing students' perceived relevance, which was then applied in a confirmatory analysis to all other student responses. Participants in Phase 2 (N = 139) completed a closed survey designed based on the mapping sentence to assess their perceived relevance of a biology unit. The survey also included scales assessing other domain-level motivational processes. Exploratory factor analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling indicated a coherent conceptual structure, which included a primary interpretive relevance dimension. Comparison of the conceptual structure across various groups (randomly-split sample, gender, academic level, domain-general motivational profiles) provided support for its ubiquity and insight into variation in the experience of perceived relevance among students of different
Lucky Basuki, Holiman Chandra Yusita Kusumarini
2013-01-01
Lifestyle of modern people use some time to move out of residence (public space) makes the most of the private activities can not be fulfilled. It is an idea and the idea of creating a space that can meet the needs of the private in public spaces with small dimensions. Private space in the design of the library is housed in Petra Christian University Surabaya as space scope of small private space (minimal private space dimension). The creation of small private space in the interior of the lib...
The anomalous scaling exponents of turbulence in general dimension from random geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eling, Christopher [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Oz, Yaron [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)
2015-09-22
We propose an analytical formula for the anomalous scaling exponents of inertial range structure functions in incompressible fluid turbulence. The formula is a Knizhnik-Polyakov-Zamolodchikov (KPZ)-type relation and is valid in any number of space dimensions. It incorporates intermittency in a novel way by dressing the Kolmogorov linear scaling via a coupling to a lognormal random geometry. The formula has one real parameter γ that depends on the number of space dimensions. The scaling exponents satisfy the convexity inequality, and the supersonic bound constraint. They agree with the experimental and numerical data in two and three space dimensions, and with numerical data in four space dimensions. Intermittency increases with γ, and in the infinite γ limit the scaling exponents approach the value one, as in Burgers turbulence. At large n the nth order exponent scales as √n. We discuss the relation between fluid flows and black hole geometry that inspired our proposal.
Magnetic and low-dissipation applications of WTe2 at limited dimensions
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — My research on WTe2 at limited dimensions seeks to lay the groundwork for the next generation of magnetic sensors and low-dissipation circuitry. These applications...
The policy relevance of global environmental change research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yarnal, Brent
1996-01-01
Many scientists are striving to identify and promote the policy implications of their global change research. Much basic research on global environmental change cannot advance policy directly, but new projects can determine the relevance of their research to decision makers and build policy-relevant products into the work. Similarly, many ongoing projects can alter or add to the present science design to make the research policy relevant. Thus, this paper shows scientists working on global change how to make their research policy relevant. It demonstrates how research on physical global change relates to human dimensions studies and integrated assessments. It also presents an example of how policy relevance can be fit retroactively into a global change project (in this case, SRBEX-the Susquehanna River Basin Experiment) and how that addition can enhance the project's status and science. The paper concludes that policy relevance is desirable from social and scientific perspectives
INTERDEPENDENCE BETWEEN RELATIONSHIP QUALITY DIMENSIONS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mario Pepur
2011-02-01
Full Text Available Tourism-dependent economy, unfavourable structure of accommodation and hotel capacity, seasonality of business and liquidity problems indicate importance of the relationships between hotels and banks in Croatia. Since the capital investments in new and modern capacities are necessity, the quality of their relationship would determine the future of Croatian economy as a whole in the long run. Regarding the capital investments, it is crucially important that cooperation between the employees in both business entities is based on the satisfaction, trust and commitment. In this way, every potential uncertainty as a consequence of the entity’s actions could be minimized. In this paper, 356 tourist objects are hierarchically clustered according to the relationship quality dimensions for the purpose of testing the characteristics according to which the clusters significantly differentiate. Consequently, the interdependence between the observed relationship quality dimensions is examined.
The Creative Dimension of Visuality
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Michelsen, Anders Ib
2013-01-01
This essay reflects critically on the notion of visuality, a centrepiece of current theory on visual culture and its underlying idea of a structural ‘discursive determination’ of visual phenomena. Is the visual really to be addressed through the post-war heritage of discourse and representation...... analysis relying on language/linguistics as a model for explaining culture? More specifically, how can the – creative – novelty of visual culture be addressed by a notion of discourse? This essay will argue that the debate on visual culture is lacking with regard to discerning the creative dimension of its...... and the invisible’ to the notion of collective creativity and ‘the imaginary institution of society’ of Cornelius Castoriadis. In the theoretical relationship between Merleau-Ponty and Castoriadis it is possible to indicate a notion of visuality as a creative dimension....
Flavour physics from extra dimensions
Martinelli, G; Scrucca, C A; Silvestrini, L
2004-01-01
We discuss the possibility of introducing an SU(2) global flavour symmetry in the context of flat extra dimensions. In particular we concentrate on the 5-dimensional case and we study how to obtain the flavour structure of the Standard Model quark sector compacti(ying the fifth dimension on the orbifold St/Z2 a la Scberk-Scbwarz (SS). We show that in this case it is possible to justify the five orders of magnitude among the values of the quark masses with only one parameter: the SS flavour parameter. The non-local nature of the SS symmetry breaking mechanism allows to realize this without introducing new instabilities in the theory.
String theory in four dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dine, M.
1988-01-01
A representative sample of current ideas about how one might develop a string phenomenology is presented. Some of the obstacles which lie in between string theory and contact with experiment are described. It is hoped that this volume will provide the reader with ways of thinking about string theory in four dimensions and provide tools for asking questions about string theory and ordinary physics. 102 refs
The social dimensions of entrepreneurship
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ulhøi, John Parm
2005-01-01
This paper proposes an integrative framework to conceptualize important social dimensions of entrepreneurship. The paper reviews and evaluates the current status of research dealing with entrepreneurship, social capital and trust. The proposed framework rests on the recognition that entrepreneurial...... activities are results of social interactions and mechanisms. In consequence, entrepreneurship cannot merely be understood in terms of "personality characteristics" or in sterile economic terms. In closing, the paper addresses implications for practitioners and for research. Udgivelsesdato: AUG...
The social dimension of entrepreneurship
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ulhøi, John Parm
2005-01-01
This paper proposes an integrative framework to conceptualize important social dimensions of entrepreneurship. The paper reviews and evaluates the current status of research dealing with entrepreneurship, social capital and trust. The proposed framework rests on the recognition that entrepreneurial...... activities are results of social interactions and mechanisms. In consequence, entrepreneurship cannot merely be understood in terms of 'personality characteristics' or in sterile economic terms. The paper addresses by concluding implications for practitioners and for research....
RELIGIOUS DIMENSION OF COMPUTER GAMES
Sukhov, Anton
2017-01-01
Modern computer games are huge virtual worlds that raisesophisticated social and even religious issues. The “external” aspect of thereligious dimension of computer games focuses on the problem of the polysemanticrelation of world religions (Judaism,Christianity, Islam, Buddhism) to computer games. The“inner” aspect represents transformation of monotheistic and polytheisticreligions within the virtual worlds in the view of heterogeneity and genredifferentiation of computer games (arcades, acti...
Cultural Dimensions of Military Training
2014-06-13
to military, and to make them able to operate effectively in multicultural dimensions. This cultural impact forced the military doctrine to adapt...degree the research findings and conclusions. The bibliography reviewed for this thesis is available at the Combined Arms Research Library . Unfortunately...in terms of increased ability of understanding and operating in a different cultural or multicultural setting, led the military decision makers to
Schwinger Model Mass Anomalous Dimension
Keegan, Liam
2016-06-20
The mass anomalous dimension for several gauge theories with an infrared fixed point has recently been determined using the mode number of the Dirac operator. In order to better understand the sources of systematic error in this method, we apply it to a simpler model, the massive Schwinger model with two flavours of fermions, where analytical results are available for comparison with the lattice data.
Cosmic censorship in higher dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goswami, Rituparno; Joshi, Pankaj S.
2004-01-01
We show that the naked singularities arising in dust collapse from smooth initial data (which include those discovered by Eardley and Smarr, Christodoulou, and Newman) are removed when we make a transition to higher dimensional spacetimes. Cosmic censorship is then restored for dust collapse, which will always produce a black hole as the collapse end state for dimensions D≥6, under conditions to be motivated physically such as the smoothness of initial data from which the collapse develops
Approximation by Chebyshevian Bernstein Operators versus Convergence of Dimension Elevation
Ait-Haddou, Rachid; Mazure, Marie-Laurence
2016-01-01
On a closed bounded interval, consider a nested sequence of Extended Chebyshev spaces possessing Bernstein bases. This situation automatically generates an infinite dimension elevation algorithm transforming control polygons of any given level into control polygons of the next level. The convergence of these infinite sequences of polygons towards the corresponding curves is a classical issue in computer-aided geometric design. Moreover, according to recent work proving the existence of Bernstein-type operators in such Extended Chebyshev spaces, this nested sequence is automatically associated with an infinite sequence of Bernstein operators which all reproduce the same two-dimensional space. Whether or not this sequence of operators converges towards the identity on the space of all continuous functions is a natural issue in approximation theory. In the present article, we prove that the two issues are actually equivalent. Not only is this result interesting on the theoretical side, but it also has practical implications. For instance, it provides us with a Korovkin-type theorem of convergence of any infinite dimension elevation algorithm. It also enables us to tackle the question of convergence of the dimension elevation algorithm for any nested sequence obtained by repeated integration of the kernel of a given linear differential operator with constant coefficients. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York
Approximation by Chebyshevian Bernstein Operators versus Convergence of Dimension Elevation
Ait-Haddou, Rachid
2016-03-18
On a closed bounded interval, consider a nested sequence of Extended Chebyshev spaces possessing Bernstein bases. This situation automatically generates an infinite dimension elevation algorithm transforming control polygons of any given level into control polygons of the next level. The convergence of these infinite sequences of polygons towards the corresponding curves is a classical issue in computer-aided geometric design. Moreover, according to recent work proving the existence of Bernstein-type operators in such Extended Chebyshev spaces, this nested sequence is automatically associated with an infinite sequence of Bernstein operators which all reproduce the same two-dimensional space. Whether or not this sequence of operators converges towards the identity on the space of all continuous functions is a natural issue in approximation theory. In the present article, we prove that the two issues are actually equivalent. Not only is this result interesting on the theoretical side, but it also has practical implications. For instance, it provides us with a Korovkin-type theorem of convergence of any infinite dimension elevation algorithm. It also enables us to tackle the question of convergence of the dimension elevation algorithm for any nested sequence obtained by repeated integration of the kernel of a given linear differential operator with constant coefficients. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York
Anomalous dimension in three-dimensional semiclassical gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alesci, Emanuele; Arzano, Michele
2012-01-01
The description of the phase space of relativistic particles coupled to three-dimensional Einstein gravity requires momenta which are coordinates on a group manifold rather than on ordinary Minkowski space. The corresponding field theory turns out to be a non-commutative field theory on configuration space and a group field theory on momentum space. Using basic non-commutative Fourier transform tools we introduce the notion of non-commutative heat-kernel associated with the Laplacian on the non-commutative configuration space. We show that the spectral dimension associated to the non-commutative heat kernel varies with the scale reaching a non-integer value smaller than three for Planckian diffusion scales.
Representations of locally symmetric spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rahman, M.S.
1995-09-01
Locally symmetric spaces in reference to globally and Hermitian symmetric Riemannian spaces are studied. Some relations between locally and globally symmetric spaces are exhibited. A lucid account of results on relevant spaces, motivated by fundamental problems, are formulated as theorems and propositions. (author). 10 refs
Wave equations in higher dimensions
Dong, Shi-Hai
2011-01-01
Higher dimensional theories have attracted much attention because they make it possible to reduce much of physics in a concise, elegant fashion that unifies the two great theories of the 20th century: Quantum Theory and Relativity. This book provides an elementary description of quantum wave equations in higher dimensions at an advanced level so as to put all current mathematical and physical concepts and techniques at the reader’s disposal. A comprehensive description of quantum wave equations in higher dimensions and their broad range of applications in quantum mechanics is provided, which complements the traditional coverage found in the existing quantum mechanics textbooks and gives scientists a fresh outlook on quantum systems in all branches of physics. In Parts I and II the basic properties of the SO(n) group are reviewed and basic theories and techniques related to wave equations in higher dimensions are introduced. Parts III and IV cover important quantum systems in the framework of non-relativisti...
[Relevant public health enteropathogens].
Riveros, Maribel; Ochoa, Theresa J
2015-01-01
Diarrhea remains the third leading cause of death in children under five years, despite recent advances in the management and prevention of this disease. It is caused by multiple pathogens, however, the prevalence of each varies by age group, geographical area and the scenario where cases (community vs hospital) are recorded. The most relevant pathogens in public health are those associated with the highest burden of disease, severity, complications and mortality. In our country, norovirus, Campylobacter and diarrheagenic E. coli are the most prevalent pathogens at the community level in children. In this paper we review the local epidemiology and potential areas of development in five selected pathogens: rotavirus, norovirus, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), Shigella and Salmonella. Of these, rotavirus is the most important in the pediatric population and the main agent responsible for child mortality from diarrhea. The introduction of rotavirus vaccination in Peru will have a significant impact on disease burden and mortality from diarrhea. However, surveillance studies are needed to determine the impact of vaccination and changes in the epidemiology of diarrhea in Peru following the introduction of new vaccines, as well as antibiotic resistance surveillance of clinical relevant bacteria.
The Relevant Physical Trace in Criminal Investigation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Durdica Hazard
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A criminal investigation requires the forensic scientist to search and to interpret vestiges of a criminal act that happened in the past. The forensic scientist is one of the many stakeholders who take part in the information quest within the criminal justice system. She reads the investigation scene in search of physical traces that should enable her to tell the story of the offense/crime that allegedly occurred. The challenge for any investigator is to detect and recognize relevant physical traces in order to provide clues for investigation and intelligence purposes, and that will constitute sound and relevant evidence for the court. This article shows how important it is to consider the relevancy of physical traces from the beginning of the investigation and what might influence the evaluation process. The exchange and management of information between the investigation stakeholders are important. Relevancy is a dimension that needs to be understood from the standpoints of law enforcement personnel and forensic scientists with the aim of strengthening investigation and ultimately the overall judicial process.
CKM pattern from localized generations in extra dimension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matti, C.
2006-01-01
We revisit the issue of the quark masses and mixing angles in the framework of large extra dimension. We consider three identical standard model families resulting from higher-dimensional fields localized on different branes embedded in a large extra dimension. Furthermore we use a decaying profile in the bulk different form previous works. With the Higgs field also localized on a different brane, the hierarchy of masses between the families results from their different positions in the extra space. When the left-handed doublet and the right-handed singlets are localized with different couplings on the branes, we found a set of brane locations in one extra dimension which leads to the correct quark masses and mixing angles with the sufficient strength of CP-violation. We see that the decaying profile of the Higgs field plays a crucial role for producing the hierarchies in a rather natural way. (orig.)
Generalized coherent states for the Coulomb problem in one dimension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nouri, S.
2002-01-01
A set of generalized coherent states for the one-dimensional Coulomb problem in coordinate representation is constructed. At first, we obtain a mapping for proper transformation of the one-dimensional Coulomb problem into a nonrotating four-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator in the hyperspherical space, and the generalized coherent states for the one-dimensional Coulomb problem is then obtained in exact closed form. This exactly soluble model can provide an adequate means for a quantum coherency description of the Coulomb problem in one dimension, sample for coherent aspects of the exciton model in one-dimension example in high-temperature superconductivity, semiconductors, and polymers. Also, it can be useful for investigating the coherent scattering of the Coulomb particles in one dimension
Dual projection and self duality in three dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banerjee, Rabin; Wotzasek, Clovis
2000-01-01
Full text follows: We discuss the notion of duality and self duality in the context of the dual projection operation that creates an internal space of potentials. This technique is applicable to both even and odd dimensions. We derive the appropriate invariant actions, discuss the symmetry groups and their proper generators. In particular, the novel concept of duality symmetry and self duality in Maxwell theory in (2+1) dimensions is analysed in details. The corresponding action is a 3D version of the familiar duality symmetric electromagnetic theory in 4D. Finally, the duality symmetric actions in the different dimensions constructed here manifest both the SO(2) and Z 2 symmetries, contrary to conventional results. (author)
Memory effect for particle scattering in odd spacetime dimensions
Satishchandran, Gautam; Wald, Robert M.
2018-01-01
We investigate the gravitational memory effect for linearized perturbations off of Minkowski space in odd spacetime dimensions d by examining the effects of gravitational radiation from classical point particle scattering. We also investigate analogous memory effects for electromagnetic and scalar radiation. We find that there is no gravitational memory effect in all odd dimensions. For scalar and electromagnetic fields, there is no memory effect for d ≥7 ; for d =3 there is an infinite momentum memory effect, whereas for d =5 there is no momentum memory effect but the displacement of a test particle will grow unboundedly with time. Our results are further elucidated by analyzing the memory effect for any slowly moving source of compact spatial support in odd dimensions.
Pepe, S.; Di Martino, G.; Iodice, A.; Manzo, M.; Pepe, A.; Riccio, D.; Ruello, G.; Sansosti, E.; Tizzani, P.; Zinno, I.
2012-04-01
In the last two decades several aspects relevant to volcanic activity have been analyzed in terms of fractal parameters that effectively describe natural objects geometry. More specifically, these researches have been aimed at the identification of (1) the power laws that governed the magma fragmentation processes, (2) the energy of explosive eruptions, and (3) the distribution of the associated earthquakes. In this paper, the study of volcano morphology via satellite images is dealt with; in particular, we use the complete forward model developed by some of the authors (Di Martino et al., 2012) that links the stochastic characterization of amplitude Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images to the fractal dimension of the imaged surfaces, modelled via fractional Brownian motion (fBm) processes. Based on the inversion of such a model, a SAR image post-processing has been implemented (Di Martino et al., 2010), that allows retrieving the fractal dimension of the observed surfaces, dictating the distribution of the roughness over different spatial scales. The fractal dimension of volcanic structures has been related to the specific nature of materials and to the effects of active geodynamic processes. Hence, the possibility to estimate the fractal dimension from a single amplitude-only SAR image is of fundamental importance for the characterization of volcano structures and, moreover, can be very helpful for monitoring and crisis management activities in case of eruptions and other similar natural hazards. The implemented SAR image processing performs the extraction of the point-by-point fractal dimension of the scene observed by the sensor, providing - as an output product - the map of the fractal dimension of the area of interest. In this work, such an analysis is performed on Cosmo-SkyMed, ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT images relevant to active stratovolcanoes in different geodynamic contexts, such as Mt. Somma-Vesuvio, Mt. Etna, Vulcano and Stromboli in Southern Italy, Shinmoe
Exploring Lenggong Valley World Heritage Site’s Brand Equity Dimensions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Noor Shuhaida Md
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This study explores the brand equity dimensions of a world heritage destination brand, namely the Lenggong Valley World Heritage Site. The study adopted a survey-based brand equity metrics from a previous study that features 27 brand equity dimensions for products. The 27 dimensions were used as the start-off point in exploring the brand equity dimensions for the focal destination brand. The questions were modified to reflect features of heritage destinations. Principal factor analyses were run on data collected from 100 local tourists. The factor analyses yielded 10 factors, namely Trust, Bonding, Service, Acceptability, Value, Heritage, Ambiance, Knowledge, Persistence and Relevance. A new dimension that emerged from the data was value that encompasses both non-financial and financial dimensions.
Other relevant biological papers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shimizu, M.
1989-01-01
A considerable number of CRESP-relevant papers concerning deep-sea biology and radioecology have been published. It is the purpose of this study to call attention to them. They fall into three general categories. The first is papers of general interest. They are mentioned only briefly, and include text references to the global bibliography at the end of the volume. The second are papers that are not only mentioned and referenced, but for various reasons are described in abstract form. The last is a list of papers compiled by H.S.J. Roe specifically for this volume. They are listed in bibliographic form, and are also included in the global bibliography at the end of the volume
Phase transitions in 3D gravity and fractal dimension
Dong, Xi; Maguire, Shaun; Maloney, Alexander; Maxfield, Henry
2018-05-01
We show that for three dimensional gravity with higher genus boundary conditions, if the theory possesses a sufficiently light scalar, there is a second order phase transition where the scalar field condenses. This three dimensional version of the holographic superconducting phase transition occurs even though the pure gravity solutions are locally AdS3. This is in addition to the first order Hawking-Page-like phase transitions between different locally AdS3 handlebodies. This implies that the Rényi entropies of holographic CFTs will undergo phase transitions as the Rényi parameter is varied, as long as the theory possesses a scalar operator which is lighter than a certain critical dimension. We show that this critical dimension has an elegant mathematical interpretation as the Hausdorff dimension of the limit set of a quotient group of AdS3, and use this to compute it, analytically near the boundary of moduli space and numerically in the interior of moduli space. We compare this to a CFT computation generalizing recent work of Belin, Keller and Zadeh, bounding the critical dimension using higher genus conformal blocks, and find a surprisingly good match.
Dimensional discontinuity in quantum communication complexity at dimension seven
Tavakoli, Armin; Pawłowski, Marcin; Żukowski, Marek; Bourennane, Mohamed
2017-02-01
Entanglement-assisted classical communication and transmission of a quantum system are the two quantum resources for information processing. Many information tasks can be performed using either quantum resource. However, this equivalence is not always present since entanglement-assisted classical communication is sometimes known to be the better performing resource. Here, we show not only the opposite phenomenon, that there exist tasks for which transmission of a quantum system is a more powerful resource than entanglement-assisted classical communication, but also that such phenomena can have a surprisingly strong dependence on the dimension of Hilbert space. We introduce a family of communication complexity problems parametrized by the dimension of Hilbert space and study the performance of each quantum resource. Under an additional assumption of a linear strategy for the receiving party, we find that for low dimensions the two resources perform equally well, whereas for dimension seven and above the equivalence is suddenly broken and transmission of a quantum system becomes more powerful than entanglement-assisted classical communication. Moreover, we find that transmission of a quantum system may even outperform classical communication assisted by the stronger-than-quantum correlations obtained from the principle of macroscopic locality.
Spontaneous compactification to homogeneous spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mourao, J.M.
1988-01-01
The spontaneous compactification of extra dimensions to compact homogeneous spaces is studied. The methods developed within the framework of coset space dimensional reduction scheme and the most general form of invariant metrics are used to find solutions of spontaneous compactification equations
Exact dimension estimation of interacting qubit systems assisted by a single quantum probe
Sone, Akira; Cappellaro, Paola
2017-12-01
Estimating the dimension of an Hilbert space is an important component of quantum system identification. In quantum technologies, the dimension of a quantum system (or its corresponding accessible Hilbert space) is an important resource, as larger dimensions determine, e.g., the performance of quantum computation protocols or the sensitivity of quantum sensors. Despite being a critical task in quantum system identification, estimating the Hilbert space dimension is experimentally challenging. While there have been proposals for various dimension witnesses capable of putting a lower bound on the dimension from measuring collective observables that encode correlations, in many practical scenarios, especially for multiqubit systems, the experimental control might not be able to engineer the required initialization, dynamics, and observables. Here we propose a more practical strategy that relies not on directly measuring an unknown multiqubit target system, but on the indirect interaction with a local quantum probe under the experimenter's control. Assuming only that the interaction model is given and the evolution correlates all the qubits with the probe, we combine a graph-theoretical approach and realization theory to demonstrate that the system dimension can be exactly estimated from the model order of the system. We further analyze the robustness in the presence of background noise of the proposed estimation method based on realization theory, finding that despite stringent constrains on the allowed noise level, exact dimension estimation can still be achieved.
Design as a way to develop a relevant urban environment ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Design as a way to develop a relevant urban environment. ... Futuristic ideas of young designers can become the first stage in solving these challenging tasks. ... the problems of a modern city: from space organization to leisure organization.
Dimensions of problem based learning
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Andreasen, Lars Birch
2013-01-01
The article contributes to the literature on problem based learning and problem-oriented project work, building on and reflecting the experiences of the authors through decades of work with problem-oriented project pedagogy. The article explores different dimensions of problem based learning such...... and Learning (MIL). We discuss changes in the roles of the teachers as supervisors within this learning environment, and we explore the involvement of students as active participants and co-designers of how course and project activities unfold....
Keynote speech: Dimensions of Change
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Kenneth Mølbjerg
2004-01-01
The presentation seeks to construct a framework for understanding knowledge and knowledge work. I argue that knowledge may be understood as a social construction of reality. I argue that people construct their reality by integrating four dimensions of reality: Facts, logic, values and communicati....... I argue that this framework leads to a new and critical understanding of the disciplines organizational learning and knowledge management. In particular I argue that these disciplines often contain their own image of work and identity, which may be a sharp contrast to extant work forms...
Space Station Habitability Research
Clearwater, Yvonne A.
1988-01-01
The purpose and scope of the Habitability Research Group within the Space Human Factors Office at the NASA/Ames Research Center is described. Both near-term and long-term research objectives in the space human factors program pertaining to the U.S. manned Space Station are introduced. The concept of habitability and its relevancy to the U.S. space program is defined within a historical context. The relationship of habitability research to the optimization of environmental and operational determinants of productivity is discussed. Ongoing habitability research efforts pertaining to living and working on the Space Station are described.
Einstein-Cartan-Dirac theory in (1+2)-dimensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dereli, Tekin [Koc University, Department of Physics, Istanbul (Turkey); Oezdemir, Nese [Istanbul Technical University, Department of Physics Engineering, Istanbul (Turkey); Sert, Oezcan [Pamukkale University, Department of Physics, Denizli (Turkey)
2013-01-15
Einstein-Cartan theory is formulated in (1+2) dimensions using the algebra of exterior differential forms. A Dirac spinor is coupled to gravity and the field equations are obtained by a variational principle. The space-time torsion is found to be given algebraically in terms of a quadratic spinor condensate field. Circularly symmetric, exact solutions that collapse to AdS{sub 3} geometry in the absence of the Dirac condensate are found. (orig.)
Relativistic quantum thermodynamics of ideal gases in two dimensions.
Blas, H; Pimentel, B M; Tomazelli, J L
1999-11-01
In this work we study the behavior of relativistic ideal Bose and Fermi gases in two space dimensions. Making use of polylogarithm functions we derive a closed and unified expression for their densities. It is shown that both type of gases are essentially inequivalent, and only in the non-relativistic limit the spinless and equal mass Bose and Fermi gases are equivalent as known in the literature.
Relativistic Quantum Thermodynamics of Ideal Gases in 2 Dimensions
Blas, H.; Pimentel, B. M.; Tomazelli, J. L.
1999-01-01
In this work we study the behavior of relativistic ideal Bose and Fermi gases in two space dimensions. Making use of polylogarithm functions we derive a closed and unified expression for their densities. It is shown that both type of gases are essentially inequivalent, and only in the non-relativistic limit the spinless and equal mass Bose and Fermi gases are equivalent as known in the literature.
The matrix nonlinear Schrodinger equation in dimension 2
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zuhan, L; Pedersen, Michael
2001-01-01
In this paper we study the existence of global solutions to the Cauchy problem for the matrix nonlinear Schrodinger equation (MNLS) in 2 space dimensions. A sharp condition for the global existence is obtained for this equation. This condition is in terms of an exact stationary solution...... of a semilinear elliptic equation. In the scalar case, the MNLS reduces to the well-known cubic nonlinear Schrodinger equation for which existence of solutions has been studied by many authors. (C) 2001 Academic Press....
Constructing unified models based on E8 in ten dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kapetanakis, D.
1992-01-01
We examine the virtues and difficulties of the attempts to construct realistic four-dimensional models from a gauge theory based on E 8 and defined in ten dimensions. The four-dimensional theories are obtained using the coset space dimensional reduction scheme. Some of our points and in particular the proposed mechanism for supersymmetry breaking might be useful in other dimensional reduction schemes. (orig.)
Massively Parallel Dimension Independent Adaptive Metropolis
Chen, Yuxin
2015-01-01
parameter dimension, by respecting the variance, for Gaussian targets. The result- ing algorithm, referred to as the dimension-independent adaptive Metropolis (DIAM) algorithm, also shows improved performance with respect to adaptive Metropolis on non
Cosmology in theories with extra dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kolb, E.W.
1985-01-01
Some possible cosmological effects of the existence of extra compact dimensions are discussed. Particular attention is given to the possibility that extra dimensions might naturally lead to an inflationary Universe scenario
Packing in Two and Three Dimensions
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Martins, Gustavo H
2003-01-01
...), the Multidimensional Knapsack Problem (MD-KP), and the Multidimensional Bin Packing Problem (MD-BPP). In these problems, there is a set of items, with rectangular dimensions, and a set of large containers, or bins, also with rectangular dimensions...
Personality dimensions and disorders in pathological gambling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Schreiber, Liana R N; Grant, Jon E
2013-01-01
This review presents the most current research in personality dimensions and disorders with respect to pathological gambling.......This review presents the most current research in personality dimensions and disorders with respect to pathological gambling....
Gravity theories in more than four dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zumino, B.
1985-03-01
String theories suggest particular forms for gravity interactions in higher dimensions. We consider an interesting class of gravity theories in more than four dimensions, clarify their geometric meaning and discuss their special properties. 9 refs
Dimension changing phase transitions in instanton crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaplunovsky, Vadim; Sonnenschein, Jacob
2014-01-01
We investigate lattices of instantons and the dimension-changing transitions between them. Our ultimate goal is the 3D→4D transition, which is holographically dual to the phase transition between the baryonic and the quarkyonic phases of cold nuclear matter. However, in this paper (just as in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP11(2012)047) we focus on lower dimensions — the 1D lattice of instantons in a harmonic potential V∝M 2 2 x 2 2 +M 3 2 x 2 2 +M 4 2 x 4 2 , and the zigzag-shaped lattice as a first stage of the 1D→2D transition. We prove that in the low- and moderate-density regimes, interactions between the instantons are dominated by two-body forces. This drastically simplifies finding the ground state of the instantons’ orientations, so we made a numeric scan of the whole orientation space instead of assuming any particular ansatz. We find that depending on the M 2 /M 3 /M 4 ratios, the ground state of instanton orientations can follow a wide variety of patterns. For the straight 1D lattices, we found orientations periodically running over elements of a ℤ 2 , Klein, prismatic, or dihedral subgroup of the SU(2)/ℤ 2 , as well as irrational but link-periodic patterns. For the zigzag-shaped lattices, we detected 4 distinct orientation phases — the anti-ferromagnet, another abelian phase, and two non-abelian phases. Allowing the zigzag amplitude to vary as a function of increasing compression force, we obtained the phase diagrams for the straight and zigzag-shaped lattices in the (force,M 3 /M 4 ), (chemical potential,M 3 /M 4 ), and (density,M 3 /M 4 ) planes. Some of the transitions between these phases are second-order while others are first-order. Our techniques can be applied to other types of non-abelian crystals
User perspectives on relevance criteria
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Maglaughlin, Kelly L.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.
2002-01-01
, partially relevant, or not relevant to their information need; and explained their decisions in an interview. Analysis revealed 29 criteria, discussed positively and negatively, that were used by the participants when selecting passages that contributed or detracted from a document's relevance......This study investigates the use of criteria to assess relevant, partially relevant, and not-relevant documents. Study participants identified passages within 20 document representations that they used to make relevance judgments; judged each document representation as a whole to be relevant...... matter, thought catalyst), full text (e.g., audience, novelty, type, possible content, utility), journal/publisher (e.g., novelty, main focus, perceived quality), and personal (e.g., competition, time requirements). Results further indicate that multiple criteria are used when making relevant, partially...
Distinguishing dimensions of pro-environmental behaviour
Lynn, Peter
2014-01-01
This study empirically identifies dimensions of behaviour that are distinct in terms of the extent to which people act pro-environmentally. Three dimensions are identified, relating to at-home, transport-related and purchasing behaviour. The correlation between behaviour in each dimension is explored and the characteristics and attitudes associated with the extent to which behaviour is pro-environmental in each dimension are compared. The correlates of pro-environmental behaviour are found to...
Soil functional types: surveying the biophysical dimensions of soil security
Cécillon, Lauric; Barré, Pierre
2015-04-01
Soil is a natural capital that can deliver key ecosystem services (ES) to humans through the realization of a series of soil processes controlling ecosystem functioning. Soil is also a diverse and endangered natural resource. A huge pedodiversity has been described at all scales, which is strongly altered by global change. The multidimensional concept soil security, encompassing biophysical, economic, social, policy and legal frameworks of soils has recently been proposed, recognizing the role of soils in global environmental sustainability challenges. The biophysical dimensions of soil security focus on the functionality of a given soil that can be viewed as the combination of its capability and its condition [1]. Indeed, all soils are not equal in term of functionality. They show different processes, provide different ES to humans and respond specifically to global change. Knowledge of soil functionality in space and time is thus a crucial step towards the achievement soil security. All soil classification systems incorporate some functional information, but soil taxonomy alone cannot fully describe the functioning, limitations, resistance and resilience of soils. Droogers and Bouma [2] introduced functional variants (phenoforms) for each soil type (genoform) so as to fit more closely to soil functionality. However, different genoforms can have the same functionality. As stated by McBratney and colleagues [1], there is a great need of an agreed methodology for defining the reference state of soil functionality. Here, we propose soil functional types (SFT) as a relevant classification system for the biophysical dimensions of soil security. Following the definition of plant functional types widely used in ecology, we define a soil functional type as "a set of soil taxons or phenoforms sharing similar processes (e.g. soil respiration), similar effects on ecosystem functioning (e.g. primary productivity) and similar responses to global change (land-use, management or
Topological dimension and dynamical systems
Coornaert, Michel
2015-01-01
Translated from the popular French edition, the goal of the book is to provide a self-contained introduction to mean topological dimension, an invariant of dynamical systems introduced in 1999 by Misha Gromov. The book examines how this invariant was successfully used by Elon Lindenstrauss and Benjamin Weiss to answer a long-standing open question about embeddings of minimal dynamical systems into shifts. A large number of revisions and additions have been made to the original text. Chapter 5 contains an entirely new section devoted to the Sorgenfrey line. Two chapters have also been added: Chapter 9 on amenable groups and Chapter 10 on mean topological dimension for continuous actions of countable amenable groups. These new chapters contain material that have never before appeared in textbook form. The chapter on amenable groups is based on Følner’s characterization of amenability and may be read independently from the rest of the book. Although the contents of this book lead directly to several active ar...
Teachers' Conceptions of Gifted and Average-Ability Students on Achievement-Relevant Dimensions
Baudson, Tanja Gabriele; Preckel, Franzis
2016-01-01
Stereotyping of gifted students may not only hinder identification and actualization of potential but also personality development ("stigma of giftedness"). This is obvious in the case of negative stereotyping (e.g., the disharmony hypothesis, which sees gifted students as intellectually strong, but emotionally and socially inferior),…
Talke, K.S.S.; Salomo, S.; Lutz, A.; Wieringa, J.E.
In several industries, new products are very similar in functional features but compete on their unique design. Firms like Alessi, Apple, Bang & Olufsen, Dyson, or Kartell all follow a design-driven innovation approach and use their products' visual appearance as the main mean for differentiation.
How relevant are Hofstede's dimensions for inter-cultural studies? A ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Research in Hospitality Management is co-published by NISC (Pty) Ltd and Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group ... Hofstede's research among current international business students ..... the different cultures of the students' country of origin.
Talke, K.S.S.; Salomo, S.; Lutz, A.; Wieringa, J.E.
2009-01-01
In several industries, new products are very similar in functional features but compete on their unique design. Firms like Alessi, Apple, Bang & Olufsen, Dyson, or Kartell all follow a design-driven innovation approach and use their products' visual appearance as the main mean for differentiation.
[Normative dimensions of nursing practice--the ethical relevance of the body].
Remmers, H
1997-10-01
A combination of preliminary considerations concerning a theory of action and a philosophy of science illustrates the determining influence of the scientific preconception of the subject matter, and of the approach which is presupposed by this preconception, on the normative orientation of nursing practice. The specific physical nearness involved in nursing practice ("body to body") holds problems with regard to an appropriate theoretical frame of reference and corresponding practical convictions. This background provides the context for a concluding critical examination of several representative nursing theories with regard to their implicit, normative premises.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rask, Morten
2014-01-01
Internationalization through business model innovation involves the creation, or reinvention, of the business itself. This paper aims to integrate basic insight from the literature on business model innovation, internationalization of the firm, international entrepreneurship and global marketing...
New universality class in three dimensions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Codello, A.; Safari, M.; Vacca, G. P.
2017-01-01
We study the Blume-Capel universality class in d=103-ϵ dimensions. The renormalization group flow is extracted by looking at poles in fractional dimension of three loop diagrams using MS. The theory is the only nontrivial universality class which admits an expansion to three dimensions with ϵ=13<...
Three-dimension reconstruction based on spatial light modulator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deng Xuejiao; Zhang Nanyang; Zeng Yanan; Yin Shiliang; Wang Weiyu
2011-01-01
Three-dimension reconstruction, known as an important research direction of computer graphics, is widely used in the related field such as industrial design and manufacture, construction, aerospace, biology and so on. Via such technology we can obtain three-dimension digital point cloud from a two-dimension image, and then simulate the three-dimensional structure of the physical object for further study. At present, the obtaining of three-dimension digital point cloud data is mainly based on the adaptive optics system with Shack-Hartmann sensor and phase-shifting digital holography. Referring to surface fitting, there are also many available methods such as iterated discrete fourier transform, convolution and image interpolation, linear phase retrieval. The main problems we came across in three-dimension reconstruction are the extraction of feature points and arithmetic of curve fitting. To solve such problems, we can, first of all, calculate the relevant surface normal vector information of each pixel in the light source coordinate system, then these vectors are to be converted to the coordinates of image through the coordinate conversion, so the expectant 3D point cloud get arise. Secondly, after the following procedures of de-noising, repairing, the feature points can later be selected and fitted to get the fitting function of the surface topography by means of Zernike polynomial, so as to reconstruct the determinand's three-dimensional topography. In this paper, a new kind of three-dimension reconstruction algorithm is proposed, with the assistance of which, the topography can be estimated from its grayscale at different sample points. Moreover, the previous stimulation and the experimental results prove that the new algorithm has a strong capability to fit, especially for large-scale objects .
Three-dimension reconstruction based on spatial light modulator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deng Xuejiao; Zhang Nanyang; Zeng Yanan; Yin Shiliang; Wang Weiyu, E-mail: daisydelring@yahoo.com.cn [Huazhong University of Science and Technology (China)
2011-02-01
Three-dimension reconstruction, known as an important research direction of computer graphics, is widely used in the related field such as industrial design and manufacture, construction, aerospace, biology and so on. Via such technology we can obtain three-dimension digital point cloud from a two-dimension image, and then simulate the three-dimensional structure of the physical object for further study. At present, the obtaining of three-dimension digital point cloud data is mainly based on the adaptive optics system with Shack-Hartmann sensor and phase-shifting digital holography. Referring to surface fitting, there are also many available methods such as iterated discrete fourier transform, convolution and image interpolation, linear phase retrieval. The main problems we came across in three-dimension reconstruction are the extraction of feature points and arithmetic of curve fitting. To solve such problems, we can, first of all, calculate the relevant surface normal vector information of each pixel in the light source coordinate system, then these vectors are to be converted to the coordinates of image through the coordinate conversion, so the expectant 3D point cloud get arise. Secondly, after the following procedures of de-noising, repairing, the feature points can later be selected and fitted to get the fitting function of the surface topography by means of Zernike polynomial, so as to reconstruct the determinand's three-dimensional topography. In this paper, a new kind of three-dimension reconstruction algorithm is proposed, with the assistance of which, the topography can be estimated from its grayscale at different sample points. Moreover, the previous stimulation and the experimental results prove that the new algorithm has a strong capability to fit, especially for large-scale objects .
Three-dimension reconstruction based on spatial light modulator
Deng, Xuejiao; Zhang, Nanyang; Zeng, Yanan; Yin, Shiliang; Wang, Weiyu
2011-02-01
Three-dimension reconstruction, known as an important research direction of computer graphics, is widely used in the related field such as industrial design and manufacture, construction, aerospace, biology and so on. Via such technology we can obtain three-dimension digital point cloud from a two-dimension image, and then simulate the three-dimensional structure of the physical object for further study. At present, the obtaining of three-dimension digital point cloud data is mainly based on the adaptive optics system with Shack-Hartmann sensor and phase-shifting digital holography. Referring to surface fitting, there are also many available methods such as iterated discrete fourier transform, convolution and image interpolation, linear phase retrieval. The main problems we came across in three-dimension reconstruction are the extraction of feature points and arithmetic of curve fitting. To solve such problems, we can, first of all, calculate the relevant surface normal vector information of each pixel in the light source coordinate system, then these vectors are to be converted to the coordinates of image through the coordinate conversion, so the expectant 3D point cloud get arise. Secondly, after the following procedures of de-noising, repairing, the feature points can later be selected and fitted to get the fitting function of the surface topography by means of Zernike polynomial, so as to reconstruct the determinand's three-dimensional topography. In this paper, a new kind of three-dimension reconstruction algorithm is proposed, with the assistance of which, the topography can be estimated from its grayscale at different sample points. Moreover, the previous stimulation and the experimental results prove that the new algorithm has a strong capability to fit, especially for large-scale objects .
Quantum Physics in One Dimension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Logan, David
2004-01-01
To a casual ostrich the world of quantum physics in one dimension may sound a little one-dimensional, suitable perhaps for those with an unhealthy obsession for the esoteric. Nothing of course could be further from the truth. The field is remarkably rich and broad, and for more than fifty years has thrown up innumerable challenges. Theorists, realising that the role of interactions in 1D is special and that well known paradigms of higher dimensions (Fermi liquid theory for example) no longer apply, took up the challenge of developing new concepts and techniques to understand the undoubted peculiarities of one-dimensional systems. And experimentalists have succeeded in turning pipe dreams into reality, producing an impressive and ever increasing array of experimental realizations of 1D systems, from the molecular to the mesoscopic - spin and ladder compounds, organic superconductors, carbon nanotubes, quantum wires, Josephson junction arrays and so on. Many books on the theory of one-dimensional systems are however written by experts for experts, and tend as such to leave the non-specialist a touch bewildered. This is understandable on both fronts, for the underlying theoretical techniques are unquestionably sophisticated and not usually part of standard courses in many-body theory. A brave author it is then who aims to produce a well rounded, if necessarily partial, overview of quantum physics in one dimension, accessible to a beginner yet taking them to the edge of current research, and providing en route a thorough grounding in the fundamental ideas, basic methods and essential phenomenology of the field. It is of course the brave who succeed in this world, and Thierry Giamarchi does just that with this excellent book, written by an expert for the uninitiated. Aimed in particular at graduate students in theoretical condensed matter physics, and assuming little theoretical background on the part of the reader (well just a little), Giamarchi writes in a
Dynamic microenvironments: the fourth dimension.
Tibbitt, Mark W; Anseth, Kristi S
2012-11-14
The extracellular space, or cell microenvironment, choreographs cell behavior through myriad controlled signals, and aberrant cues can result in dysfunction and disease. For functional studies of human cell biology or expansion and delivery of cells for therapeutic purposes, scientists must decipher this intricate map of microenvironment biology and develop ways to mimic these functions in vitro. In this Perspective, we describe technologies for four-dimensional (4D) biology: cell-laden matrices engineered to recapitulate tissue and organ function in 3D space and over time.
Human dimension of strategic partnerships
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Petković Mirjana M.
2004-01-01
Full Text Available This paper aims to point to the widespread practice of neglecting behavioral aspects of different forms of fusions and integrations of enterprises that have emerged in the process of privatization through strategic partnerships with foreign companies among Serbian enterprises. The initial hypothesis in this paper is that the process of privatization, restructuring and transformation in Serbian enterprises cannot be completely successful and equally advantageous for all the subjects involved if there is no concern for human dimension of these processes. Without this concern there is a possibility for behavioral problems to arise, and the only way to resolve them is through post festum respecting and introducing elements that should never have been neglected in the first place. This paper refers to the phenomenon of collision of cultures and the ways of resolving it while forming strategic partnerships.
Psychological dimensions of Energy Conservation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tonello, Graciela
2012-12-01
Full Text Available One of the most serious current environmental problems is the depletion of non renewable natural resources. The vast majority of our daily actions involve the consumption of energy and they increase the problem. Environmental psychology studies the psychological motivations that determine pro-ecological behaviour. In this context the aim of this review was to determine which psychological models and variables are better descriptors of residential energy conservation, comparing the predictive power of different models related to behaviour, residential consumption as well as to the acceptability of energy policies. Results suggest that energy saving is mainly linked to altruistic motivations, followed by egoistic reasons and in a minor way to environmental concerns. People would act according to these dimensions when contextual conditions are perceived as appropriate.
Ultraviolet sensitivity in higher dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoover, Doug; Burgess, Clifford P.
2006-01-01
We calculate the first three Gilkey-DeWitt (heat-kernel) coefficients, a 0 , a 1 and a 2 , for massive particles having the spins of most physical interest in n dimensions, including the contributions of the ghosts and the fields associated with the appropriate generalized Higgs mechanism. By assembling these into supermultiplets we compute the same coefficients for general supergravity theories, and show that they vanish for many examples. One of the steps of the calculation involves computing these coefficients for massless particles, and our expressions in this case agree with - and extend to more general background spacetimes - earlier calculations, where these exist. Our results give that part of the low-energy effective action which depends most sensitively on the mass of heavy fields once these are integrated out. These results are used in hep-th/0504004 to compute the sensitivity to large masses of the Casimir energy in Ricci-flat 4D compactifications of 6D supergravity
ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE DIMENSIONS AND VARIABLES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brindusa Maria Popa
2017-11-01
Full Text Available There are numerous definitions of the concept in the specialized literature and the majority present organizational culture as a system of values, norms, rules, beliefs, habits learned and internalized by the organization members and embodied in their behaviors. Such definitions highlight the fact that organizational culture is a system of values, norms, customs and beliefs shared and assimilated by the entire membership of the organization in order to transform them into inherent characteristics of their behavior. The newly acquired behavior will be promoted, defended and developed throughout their work. Even if organizational culture is built upon such a strict, rigid, formal institutional support, it evolves and develops in order to help the organization adapt and perform efficiently. In order to have an easier understanding of the concept, in this paper we shall use for our analysis the following dimensions: cognitive, normative, human and material.
Social and health dimensions of climate change in the Amazon.
Brondízio, Eduardo S; de Lima, Ana C B; Schramski, Sam; Adams, Cristina
2016-07-01
The Amazon region has been part of climate change debates for decades, yet attention to its social and health dimensions has been limited. This paper assesses literature on the social and health dimensions of climate change in the Amazon. A conceptual framework underscores multiple stresses and exposures created by interactions between climate change and local social-environmental conditions. Using the Thomson-Reuter Web of Science, this study bibliometrically assessed the overall literature on climate change in the Amazon, including Physical Sciences, Social Sciences, Anthropology, Environmental Science/Ecology and Public, Environmental/Occupational Health. From this assessment, a relevant sub-sample was selected and complemented with literature from the Brazilian database SciELO. This sample discusses three dimensions of climate change impacts in the region: livelihood changes, vector-borne diseases and microbial proliferation, and respiratory diseases. This analysis elucidates imbalance and disconnect between ecological, physical and social and health dimensions of climate change and between continental and regional climate analysis, and sub-regional and local levels. Work on the social and health implications of climate change in the Amazon falls significantly behind other research areas, limiting reliable information for analytical models and for Amazonian policy-makers and society at large. Collaborative research is called for.
The adolescents’ school engagement: Assessment of its dimensions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José Manuel TOMÁS
2016-06-01
Full Text Available A topic that in the last years is getting relevance in school and students research is school engagement. This topic has been related, among other important constructs, with burnout of teachers and students, school performance, satisfaction with the school, behavioral disruption, goal orientation and motivational climate in the classroom, students-teachers relationships, and life satisfaction of the students. School engagement may be defined as the participation of the student in academic achievements, and it is understood as a multidimensional construct. The most repeated typology of dimensions recognizes three specific and overlapping dimensions: cognitive, behavioral, and emotional (affective. Frequently, education professionals have reported the lack of instruments to measure some students’ characteristics and psychosocial and behavioral variables in the classroom, as it is the case of school engagement. Recently, a fourth new dimension, personal agency, has been proposed (Reeve and Tseng, 2011. Veiga (2013 has been the first to present a self-report instrument, in Portuguese, to measure these four components, the Student Engagement Scale-4 dimensions (ses-4ds. Taken all this into account, the aim of this research was to study the reliability and validity of the aforementioned scale in two versions, Spanish and Portuguese, in large samples from the Dominican Republic and Angola. Results have shown a clear factor structure (after deleting two items, and adequate criterion-related and nomological validity. Accordingly, the ses-4d scale was considered a valid instrument to be applied in studies measuring school engagement of teenagers.
Asymmetrical peer interaction and formal operational development: Dialogue dimensions analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stepanović-Ilić Ivana
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The main goal of the study is to define dialogue dimensions in order to describe the interaction within peer dyads and potentially connect them with formal operations development in the less competent participants. Its significance is related to rare investigations of this subject in the context of formal operations development and to practical implications regarding peer involvement in education process. The sample included 316 students aged 12 and 14. The research had an experimental design: pre-test, intervention and post-test. In the pre-test and the post-test phases students solved the formal operations test BLOT. According to the pre-test results, 47 dyads were formed where less and more competent students jointly solved tasks from BLOT. Their dialogues were coded by 14 dimensions operationalized for this purpose. Correlations between the dialogue dimensions indicate clearly distinguished positive and negative interaction patterns. There are no connections between dialogue dimensions and progress of less competent adolescents on BLOT in the entire sample, but several are found in the subsamples. Arguments exchange seems to be the most encouraging dialogue feature regarding formal operations development, particularly in older students. This confirms relevant research data and the expectations about peers’ constructive role in fostering cognitive development. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179018: Identification, measurement and development of cognitive and emotional competences important for a society oriented towards European integrations
VC-dimension of univariate decision trees.
Yildiz, Olcay Taner
2015-02-01
In this paper, we give and prove the lower bounds of the Vapnik-Chervonenkis (VC)-dimension of the univariate decision tree hypothesis class. The VC-dimension of the univariate decision tree depends on the VC-dimension values of its subtrees and the number of inputs. Via a search algorithm that calculates the VC-dimension of univariate decision trees exhaustively, we show that our VC-dimension bounds are tight for simple trees. To verify that the VC-dimension bounds are useful, we also use them to get VC-generalization bounds for complexity control using structural risk minimization in decision trees, i.e., pruning. Our simulation results show that structural risk minimization pruning using the VC-dimension bounds finds trees that are more accurate as those pruned using cross validation.
BOOK REVIEW: Black Holes, Cosmology and Extra Dimensions Black Holes, Cosmology and Extra Dimensions
Frolov, Valeri P.
2013-10-01
flatness of the Universe, the horizon problem and isotropy of cosmological microwave background. All this material is covered in chapter seven. Chapter eight contains brief discussion of several popular inflation models. Chapter nine is devoted to the problem of the large-scale structure formation from initial quantum vacuum fluctuation during the inflation and the spectrum of the density fluctuations. It also contains remarks on the baryonic asymmetry of the Universe, baryogenesis and primordial black holes. Part III covers the material on extra dimensions. It describes how Einstein gravity is modified in the presence of one or more additional spatial dimensions and how these extra dimensions are compactified in the Kaluza-Klein scheme. The authors also discuss how extra dimensions may affect low energy physics. They present examples of higher-dimensional generalizations of the gravity with higher-in-curvature corrections and discuss a possible mechanism of self-stabilization of an extra space. A considerable part of the chapter 10 is devoted to cosmological models with extra dimensions. In particular, the authors discuss how extra dimensions can modify 'standard' inflation models. At the end of this chapter they make several remarks on a possible relation of the value of fundamental constants in our universe with the existence of extra dimensions. Finally, in chapter 11 they demonstrate that several observable properties of the Universe are closely related with the special value of the fundamental physical constants and their fine tuning. They give interesting examples of such fine tuning and summarize many other cases. The book ends with discussion of a so-called 'cascade birth of universes in multidimensional spaces' model, proposed by one of the authors. As is evident from this brief summary of topics presented in the book, many interesting areas of modern gravity and cosmology are covered. However, since the subject is so wide, this inevitably implies that the
International dimensions of the IMC
Bešlin Marija
2005-01-01
Seems that one of the basic challenge facing marketing organizations today related to shift from traditional functions and operations to the new pattern of the 21st century and the global marketplace. The old traditional models are less and less relevant growing tendency of world market's complexity and increasing competitive efforts ask for "fresh approach" and types of communication with the consumers and other stakeholders. Accordingly, the traditional (linear) model have to be replaced wi...
Quaternionic geometry in dimension eight
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Conti, Diego; Madsen, Thomas Bruun; Salamon, Simon
We describe the 8-dimensional Wolf spaces as cohomogeneity one SU(3)-manifolds, and discover perturbations of the quaternion-kaehler metric on the simply-connected 8-manifold G_2/SO(4) that carry a closed fundamental 4-form but are not Einstein....
The Spatial Dimension of Theatre.
Longman, Stanley Vincent
1981-01-01
Analyzes the use of physical and imagined space and time in three plays. Describes how these features interact, assume dramatic force, and augment the tension, irony, and meaning of the play. The plays used are Chekhov's "The Three Sisters," Moliere's "Tartuffe," and Stoppard's "Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead." (JMF)
A probability measure for random surfaces of arbitrary genus and bosonic strings in 4 dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albeverio, S.; Hoeegh-Krohn, R.; Paycha, S.; Scarlatti, S.
1989-01-01
We define a probability measure describing random surfaces in R D , 3≤D≤13, parametrized by compact Riemann surfaces of arbitrary genus. The measure involves the path space measure for scalar fields with exponential interaction in 2 space time dimensions. We show that it gives a mathematical realization of Polyakov's heuristic measure for bosonic strings. (orig.)
On the stability of solutions, compacted to eleven dimensions, with the Euler invariants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fabris, J.C.
1991-01-01
The Supergravity Lagrangian at eleven dimensions has been modified by the inclusion of Euler invariants. Compact solutions have been obtained where the space-time is the Minkowski one, preserving, the internal space as a seven-sphere. The stability study of this configuration allows the restriction of the acceptable values for the coupling constants present in this model. (A.C.A.S.)
Petersen, L E; Stahlberg, D; Dauenheimer, D
2000-02-01
The basic assumption of the integrative self-schema model (ISSM; L.-E. Petersen, 1994; L.-E. Petersen, D. Stahlberg, & D. Dauenheimer, 1996; D. Stahlberg, L.-E. Petersen, & D. Dauenheimer, 1994, 1999) is that self-schema elaboration (schematic vs. aschematic) affects reactions to self-relevant information. This assumption is based on the idea that schematic dimensions occupy a more central position in the cognitive system than aschematic dimensions. In the first study, this basic prediction could be clearly confirmed: The results showed that schematic dimensions possessed stronger cognitive associations with other self-relevant cognitions as well as a higher resistance to change than aschematic dimensions did. In the second study, the main assumptions of the ISSM concerning the affective and cognitive reactions to self-relevant feedback were tested: The ISSM proposes that, on schematic dimensions, reactions to self-relevant feedback will most likely follow principles of self-consistency theory, whereas on aschematic dimensions positive feedback should elicit the most positive reactions that self-enhancement theory would predict. The experimental results clearly confirmed the hypotheses derived from the ISSM for affective reactions. Cognitive reactions, however, were in line with self-consistency principles and were not modified by the elaboration of the self-schema dimension involved.
Suomi, Kati
2014-01-01
This exploratory study examines the dimensions that are relevant to brand reputation, particularly in the context of master's degree programmes. The data analysis is based on Vidaver-Cohen's "Business school quality dimensions and reputational attributes". The qualitative data for the case study comprise a student questionnaire and…
Gauged supergravities in various spacetime dimensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weidner, M.
2006-12-15
In this thesis we study the gaugings of extended supergravity theories in various space-time dimensions. These theories describe the low-energy limit of non-trivial string compactifications. For each theory under consideration we work out all possible gaugings that are compatible with supersymmetry. They are parameterized by the so-called embedding tensor which is a group theoretical object that has to satisfy certain representation constraints. This embedding tensor determines all couplings in the gauged theory that are necessary to preserve gauge invariance and supersymmetry. The concept of the embedding tensor and the general structure of the gauged supergravities are explained in detail. The methods are then applied to the half-maximal (N=4) supergravities in d=4 and d=5 and to the maximal supergravities in d=2 and d=7. Examples of particular gaugings are given. Whenever possible, the higher-dimensional origin of these theories is identified and it is shown how the compactification parameters like fluxes and torsion are contained in the embedding tensor. (orig.)
Dimension-independent likelihood-informed MCMC
Cui, Tiangang
2015-10-08
Many Bayesian inference problems require exploring the posterior distribution of high-dimensional parameters that represent the discretization of an underlying function. This work introduces a family of Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) samplers that can adapt to the particular structure of a posterior distribution over functions. Two distinct lines of research intersect in the methods developed here. First, we introduce a general class of operator-weighted proposal distributions that are well defined on function space, such that the performance of the resulting MCMC samplers is independent of the discretization of the function. Second, by exploiting local Hessian information and any associated low-dimensional structure in the change from prior to posterior distributions, we develop an inhomogeneous discretization scheme for the Langevin stochastic differential equation that yields operator-weighted proposals adapted to the non-Gaussian structure of the posterior. The resulting dimension-independent and likelihood-informed (DILI) MCMC samplers may be useful for a large class of high-dimensional problems where the target probability measure has a density with respect to a Gaussian reference measure. Two nonlinear inverse problems are used to demonstrate the efficiency of these DILI samplers: an elliptic PDE coefficient inverse problem and path reconstruction in a conditioned diffusion.
Dimension-independent likelihood-informed MCMC
Cui, Tiangang; Law, Kody; Marzouk, Youssef M.
2015-01-01
Many Bayesian inference problems require exploring the posterior distribution of high-dimensional parameters that represent the discretization of an underlying function. This work introduces a family of Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) samplers that can adapt to the particular structure of a posterior distribution over functions. Two distinct lines of research intersect in the methods developed here. First, we introduce a general class of operator-weighted proposal distributions that are well defined on function space, such that the performance of the resulting MCMC samplers is independent of the discretization of the function. Second, by exploiting local Hessian information and any associated low-dimensional structure in the change from prior to posterior distributions, we develop an inhomogeneous discretization scheme for the Langevin stochastic differential equation that yields operator-weighted proposals adapted to the non-Gaussian structure of the posterior. The resulting dimension-independent and likelihood-informed (DILI) MCMC samplers may be useful for a large class of high-dimensional problems where the target probability measure has a density with respect to a Gaussian reference measure. Two nonlinear inverse problems are used to demonstrate the efficiency of these DILI samplers: an elliptic PDE coefficient inverse problem and path reconstruction in a conditioned diffusion.
A New Dimension for Earth Science Learning
Bland, G.; Henry, A.; Bydlowski, D.
2017-12-01
NASA Science Objectives include capturing the global view of Earth from space. This unique perspective is often augmented by instrumented research aircraft, to provide in-situ and remote sensing observations in support of the world picture. Our "Advancing Earth Research Observations with Kites and Atmospheric /Terrestrial Sensors" (AEROKATS) project aims to bring this novel and exciting perspective into the hands of learners young and old. The practice of using instrumented kites as surrogate satellites and aircraft is gaining momentum, as our team undertakes the technical, operational, and scientific challenges in preparations to bring new and easy-to-field tools to broad audiences. The third dimension in spatial perception ("up") has previously been difficult to effectively incorporate in learning and local-scale research activities. AEROKATS brings simple to use instrumented aerial systems into the hands of students, educators, and scientists, with the tangible benefits of detailed, high resolution measurements and observations directly applicable to real-world studies of the environments around us.
Visuospatial biases in preschool children: Evidence from line bisection in three-dimensional space.
Patro, Katarzyna; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph; Brugger, Peter
2018-04-09
Spatial attention in adults is characterized by systematic asymmetries across all three spatial dimensions. These asymmetries are evident when participants bisect horizontal, vertical, or radial lines and misplace their midpoints to the left, the top, or far from the body, respectively. However, bisection errors are rarely examined during early childhood. In this study, we examined the development of spatial-attentional asymmetries in three-dimensional (3D) space by asking preschool children (aged 3-6 years) to bisect horizontal, vertical, and radial lines. Children erred to the left with horizontal lines and to the top with vertical lines, consistent with the pattern reported in adults. These biases got stronger with age and were absent in the youngest preschoolers. However, by controlling for a possible failure in hitting the line, we observed an additional unpredicted pattern: Children's pointing systematically deviated away from the line to an empty space on its left side (for vertical and radial lines) or above it (for horizontal lines). Notably, this task-irrelevant deviation was pronounced in children as young as 3 or 4 years. We conclude that asymmetries in spatial-attentional functions should be measured not only in task-relevant dimensions but also in task-irrelevant dimensions because the latter may reveal biases in very young children not typically observed in task-relevant measures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.