WorldWideScience

Sample records for relevant critical problems

  1. Transesophageal NOTES--a critical analysis of relevant problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grund, Karl E; Lehmann, Thorsten G

    2010-10-01

    The transesophageal access route has not become a principal topic in the discussion about NOTES up to now. Analyzing the problems in this new field of surgery, however, the transesophageal route shows high relevance. Here, all possibilities, limitations, and problems of NOTES become obvious. This paper contains a critical analysis of the literature published to date (nine full papers, five abstracts). Nearly all publications represent experimental studies in living pigs. In most cases a submucosal tunnel technique is performed as access route to mediastinum, pleural cavity, and heart. Interventions and operations include simple mediastinoscopies as well as epicardial operations after exposition of the heart. For access and manipulation, conventional flexible endoscopes and instruments are used. Clips, T-bars, or a combination of both achieve the closure. Some studies rely on spontaneous closure of the incision without any suturing or approximation. In such experimental settings, the following results are presented: Access is achieved in 90% of cases, the aim of the operation is met in 92%, technical success in closure is achieved in 90%, healing of incision assessed as good in two of five studies, satisfactory in three of five studies. Mortality, ranging from 6 to 25%, and complication rates were (surprisingly) high. It has to be stressed that analyzing these papers published to date, no adequate attention is paid to basic facts and problems of general and thoracic surgery (e.g. different forms, prevention, diagnosis and therapy of pneumothorax or differentiated forms of ventilation). Relevant differences in the anatomy and physiology of the esophagus and mediastinum between humans and pigs should additionally be taken into account to choose optimal experimental parameters when transferring results to human settings. Moreover, requirements regarding sterility and hygiene in a structure like the mediastinum, which is at high risk from the point of view of infection

  2. A Critical Systems Metamethodology for Problem Situation Structuring

    OpenAIRE

    Slavica P. Petrovic

    2012-01-01

    The increasing complexity and diversity of management problem situations in organizations, as well as the increasing variety of theories, methodologies, methods, techniques, and models that can be employed in problem situation structuring and solving, must be considered as relevant aspects of management process in contemporary circumstances. Creative holism in management problem situations in organizations is enabled by means of Critical Systems Thinking (CST) as well as Critical Systems Prac...

  3. On solution to the problem of criticality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyncl, Jan

    2012-05-01

    The problem of criticality for the neutron transport equation was treated. The problem was examined in Lebesgue space L ∞ and was based on some basic assumptions, which are sufficiently general and are in agreement with the spatial behaviour of both temperature and atomic densities of the materials as well as with the properties of all known models of neutron reactions with the medium. The criticality problem was transformed to one of determining the time-asymptotic behaviour of the solution with an initial condition. The initial-value problem was solved numerically by the Monte Carlo method, for which a specific random process and a random variable were constructed

  4. Radiation transformation studies: are they relevant to radiation protection problems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seymour, C.B.; Mothersill, C.

    1988-01-01

    Because of the difficulties of studying radio-carcinogenesis in humans, several in vitro systems are utilised. These cell transformation systems are reviewed, with particular emphasis on their relevance to human radiological protection problems. Most available systems use rodent fibroblasts. These are discussed in detail. Attention is drawn to certain artefacts which can cause problems with interpretation of such data. The relevance of these systems is questionable because of species differences, particularly concerning life span and because most human tumours are derived from epithelial cells. New epithelial culture systems and three-dimensional tissue culture methods becoming available are discussed in the light of their potential for addressing radiation protection problems. (author)

  5. Collaborative Problem Solving Methods towards Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Khoo Yin; Abdullah, Abdul Ghani Kanesan; Alazidiyeen, Naser Jamil

    2011-01-01

    This research attempts to examine the collaborative problem solving methods towards critical thinking based on economy (AE) and non economy (TE) in the SPM level among students in the lower sixth form. The quasi experiment method that uses the modal of 3X2 factorial is applied. 294 lower sixth form students from ten schools are distributed…

  6. Problems of Kazakh Literary Criticism Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhandos Smagulov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Тhe article is concerned with the problem of scientific research of Kazakh literature formation in national science. Kazakh literature, having long history of formation is classified by periods. Besides, the article thoroughly considers the principles of the study of methodology, theory, history of spiritual heritage in Kazakh literary criticism

  7. Relevance of few-nucleon problems to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divatia, A.S.

    1976-01-01

    It is well known that the study of few-nucleon problems did not specifically start because they were relevant to nuclear power. However, as the need for power has become more urgent and the systems which may generate nuclear power in the future are likely to be highly complex, it has become necessary to examine the question of relevance of few-nucleon problems to nuclear power. The nuclear data needs for nuclear power have been studied exhaustively by many groups all over the world and The International Atomic Energy Agency, operating through the International Nuclear Data Committee and their Nuclear Data section, have compiled and evaluated these nuclear data needs. It is therefore possible to draw upon the various studies and compilations of the IAEA for examining the question of relevance. The relevant nuclear data needs for fission reactors, fusion reactors and nuclear safeguards programmes are examined. (Auth.)

  8. Is refeeding syndrome relevant for critically ill patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koekkoek, Wilhelmina A C; Van Zanten, Arthur R H

    2018-03-01

    To summarize recent relevant studies regarding refeeding syndrome (RFS) in critically ill patients and provide recommendations for clinical practice. Recent knowledge regarding epidemiology of refeeding syndrome among critically ill patients, how to identify ICU patients at risk, and strategies to reduce the potential negative impact on outcome are discussed. RFS is a potentially fatal acute metabolic derangement that ultimately can result in marked morbidity and even mortality. These metabolic derangements in ICU patients differ from otherwise healthy patients with RFS, as there is lack of anabolism. This is because of external stressors inducing a hypercatabolic response among other reasons also reflected by persistent high glucagon despite initiation of feeding. Lack of a proper uniform definition complicates diagnosis and research of RFS. However, refeeding hypophosphatemia is commonly encountered during critical illness. The correlations between risk factors proposed by international guidelines and the occurrence of RFS in ICU patients remains unclear. Therefore, regular phosphate monitoring is recommended. Based on recent trials among critically ill patients, only treatment with supplementation of electrolytes and vitamins seems not sufficient. In addition, caloric restriction for several days and gradual increase of caloric intake over days is recommendable.

  9. Nonlinear acceleration of transport criticality problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H.; Knoll, D.A.; Newman, C.K.

    2011-01-01

    We present a nonlinear acceleration algorithm for the transport criticality problem. The algorithm combines the well-known nonlinear diffusion acceleration (NDA) with a recently developed, Newton-based, nonlinear criticality acceleration (NCA) algorithm. The algorithm first employs the NDA to reduce the system to scalar flux, then the NCA is applied to the resulting drift-diffusion system. We apply a nonlinear elimination technique to eliminate the eigenvalue from the Jacobian matrix. Numerical results show that the algorithm reduces the CPU time a factor of 400 in a very diffusive system, and a factor of 5 in a non-diffusive system. (author)

  10. Anatomy of safety-critical computing problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swu Yih; Fan Chinfeng; Shirazi, Behrooz

    1995-01-01

    This paper analyzes the obstacles faced by current safety-critical computing applications. The major problem lies in the difficulty to provide complete and convincing safety evidence to prove that the software is safe. We explain this problem from a fundamental perspective by analyzing the essence of safety analysis against that of software developed by current practice. Our basic belief is that in order to perform a successful safety analysis, the state space structure of the analyzed system must have some properties as prerequisites. We propose the concept of safety analyzability, and derive its necessary and sufficient conditions; namely, definability, finiteness, commensurability, and tractability. We then examine software state space structures against these conditions, and affirm that the safety analyzability of safety-critical software developed by current practice is severely restricted by its state space structure and by the problem of exponential growth cost. Thus, except for small and simple systems, the safety evidence may not be complete and convincing. Our concepts and arguments successfully explain the current problematic situation faced by the safety-critical computing domain. The implications are also discussed

  11. Critical solution for a Hill's type problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabral, Hildeberto; Castilho, Cesar

    2001-08-01

    We studied the problem of two satellites attracted by a center of force. Assuming the motion of the center of mass of the two satellites describes a keplerian circular motion around the center of force we regularized the collision between them using the Levi-Civita procedure. The existence of a constant of motion in the extended phase space allowed us to study the stability of the solution where the two satellites are tied together in their circular motion around the center of force. We call this solution the critical solution. A theorem of M Kummer is applied to prove, in specific conditions, the existence of two one-parametric families of almost periodic orbits for the satellites motion that bifurcates from the critical solution. (author)

  12. REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Critical opalescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubkov, L. A.; Romanov, Vadim P.

    1988-04-01

    Studies of critical opalescence near phase transitions in different systems are reviewed. The fundamentals of the modern approach to the description of the propagation and scattering of light in media with large nonuniformities are presented. The experimental data on the coefficient of extinction and integrated intensity of the scattered light are analyzed and different models for the correlation function are discussed. Different methods for studying multiple scattering of light and methods for eliminating it from the measured intensity are examined. The kinetic properties of systems in the critical region are examined. Attention is devoted primarily to the experimental data obtained by the methods of correlation spectroscopy and to the comparison of these data with the predictions of different theoretical models. Significant attention is devoted to the study of phase transitions in liquids by the methods of light scattering as well as the problem of propagation and scattering of light in the nematic phase, where fluctuations of the director exhibit the same behavior as at the critical point. In conclusion, phase transformations in micellar solutions, to which a great deal of attention has been devoted in recent years, are studied.

  13. Relevance of collagen piezoelectricity to "Wolff's Law": a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Andrew C; Grodzinsky, Alan J

    2009-09-01

    According to "Wolff's Law", bone is deposited and reinforced at areas of greatest stress. From a clinical perspective, this "law" is supported by the strong association between bone density and physical activity. From a mechanistic standpoint, however, the law presents a challenge to scientists seeking to understand how osteocytes and osteoblasts sense the mechanical load. In the 1960s, collagen piezoelectricity was invoked as a potential mechanism by which osteocytes could detect areas of greater stress but piezoelectricity diminished in importance as more compelling mechanisms, such as streaming potential, were identified. In addition, accumulating evidence for the role of fluid-related shear stress in osteocyte's mechanosensory function has made piezoelectricity seemingly more obsolete in bone physiology. This review critically evaluates the role of collagen piezoelectricity (if any) in Wolff's Law--specifically, the evidence regarding its involvement in strain-generated potentials, existing alternate mechanisms, the present understanding of bone mechanosensation, and whether piezoelectricity serves an influential role within the context of this newly proposed mechanism. In addition to reviewing the literature, this review generates several hypotheses and proposes future research to fully address the relevance of piezoelectricity in bone physiology.

  14. Relevance vector machine technique for the inverse scattering problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fang-Fang; Zhang Ye-Rong

    2012-01-01

    A novel method based on the relevance vector machine (RVM) for the inverse scattering problem is presented in this paper. The nonlinearity and the ill-posedness inherent in this problem are simultaneously considered. The nonlinearity is embodied in the relation between the scattered field and the target property, which can be obtained through the RVM training process. Besides, rather than utilizing regularization, the ill-posed nature of the inversion is naturally accounted for because the RVM can produce a probabilistic output. Simulation results reveal that the proposed RVM-based approach can provide comparative performances in terms of accuracy, convergence, robustness, generalization, and improved performance in terms of sparse property in comparison with the support vector machine (SVM) based approach. (general)

  15. The Problem of Retraction in Critical Discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbe, Erik C. W.

    2001-01-01

    In many contexts a retraction of commitment is frowned upon. For instance, it is not appreciated, generally, if one withdraws a promise or denies an earlier statement. Critical discussion, too, can easily be disrupted by retractions, if these occur too frequently and at critical points. But on the

  16. relevance of information warfare models to critical infrastructure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ismith

    Critical infrastructure models, strategies and policies should take information ... gain an advantage over a competitor or adversary through the use of one's own .... digital communications system, where the vehicles are analogous to bits or packets, ..... performance degraded, causing an increase in traffic finding a new route.

  17. Numerical and analytical solutions for problems relevant for quantum computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoerl, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Quantum computers are one of the next technological steps in modern computer science. Some of the relevant questions that arise when it comes to the implementation of quantum operations (as building blocks in a quantum algorithm) or the simulation of quantum systems are studied. Numerical results are gathered for variety of systems, e.g. NMR systems, Josephson junctions and others. To study quantum operations (e.g. the quantum fourier transform, swap operations or multiply-controlled NOT operations) on systems containing many qubits, a parallel C++ code was developed and optimised. In addition to performing high quality operations, a closer look was given to the minimal times required to implement certain quantum operations. These times represent an interesting quantity for the experimenter as well as for the mathematician. The former tries to fight dissipative effects with fast implementations, while the latter draws conclusions in the form of analytical solutions. Dissipative effects can even be included in the optimisation. The resulting solutions are relaxation and time optimised. For systems containing 3 linearly coupled spin (1)/(2) qubits, analytical solutions are known for several problems, e.g. indirect Ising couplings and trilinear operations. A further study was made to investigate whether there exists a sufficient set of criteria to identify systems with dynamics which are invertible under local operations. Finally, a full quantum algorithm to distinguish between two knots was implemented on a spin(1)/(2) system. All operations for this experiment were calculated analytically. The experimental results coincide with the theoretical expectations. (orig.)

  18. A critical evaluation on the fatigue problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, E. da; Costa Machado Leal, L. da

    1978-01-01

    A review of the different aspects of approaches to the fatigue problems since the Woehler curves till the crack propagation is presented. The interrelationship among each one of the aspects is then carried out as well as the relation of the aspects to the different fatigue phases, since the crack nucleation till the final rupture in an attempt to unify the design procedure. (Author)

  19. One Critical Case in Singularly Perturbed Control Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, Vladimir

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the paper is to describe the special critical case in the theory of singularly perturbed optimal control problems. We reduce the original singularly perturbed problem to a regularized one such that the existence of slow integral manifolds can be established by means of the standard theory. We illustrate our approach by an example of control problem.

  20. Can Students Identify the Relevant Information to Solve a Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lishan; Yu, Shengquan; Li, Baoping; Wang, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Solving non-routine problems is one of the most important skills for the 21st century. Traditional paper-pencil tests cannot assess this type of skill well because of their lack of interactivity and inability to capture procedural data. Tools such as MicroDYN and MicroFIN have proved to be trustworthy in assessing complex problem-solving…

  1. Including Critical Thinking and Problem Solving in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pill, Shane; SueSee, Brendan

    2017-01-01

    Many physical education curriculum frameworks include statements about the inclusion of critical inquiry processes and the development of creativity and problem-solving skills. The learning environment created by physical education can encourage or limit the application and development of the learners' cognitive resources for critical and creative…

  2. EFFECT OF PROBLEM BASED LEARNING AND MODEL CRITICAL THINKING ABILITY TO PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unita S. Zuliani Nasution

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research were to analyze the different between physic resolving problem ability by using problem based learning model and direct instruction model, the different of physic resolving problem ability between the students that have critical thinking ability upper the average and the students that have critical thinking ability under the average, and the interaction of problem based learning model toward critical thinking ability and students’ physic resolving problem ability. This research was quasy experimental research that use critical thinking ability tests and physic resolving problem ability tests as the instruments. Result of the research showed that the students’ physic resolving problem ability by using problem based learning model was better than by using direct instruction model, students’ physic resolving problem ability and critical thinking ability upper the average showed better different and result than students’ critical thinking ability under the average, besides there was an interaction between problem based learning model and critical thinking ability in improving students’ physic resolving problem ability.

  3. Problem Solving and Critical Thinking Skills of Undergraduate Nursing Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın KANBAY

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that critical thinking and problem solving skills are essential components of educational and social lives of individuals, this present study which investigate critical thinking and problem solving skills of undergraduate students of nursing was planned. This is a descriptive study. The study population consisted of undergraduate nursing students of a university during the 2011-2012 academic year. Any specific sampling method was not determined and only the voluntary students was enrolled in the study . Several participants were excluded due to incomplete questionnaires, and eventually a total of 231 nursing students were included in the final sampling. Socio Demographic Features Data Form and the California Critical Thinking Disposition Scale and Problem Solving Inventory were used for data collection. The mean age of 231 subjects (148 girls, 83 boys was 21.34. The mean score of critical thinking was 255.71 for the first-grade, 255.57 for the second-grade, 264.73 for the third-grade, and 256.468 for the forth-grade students. The mean score of critical thinking was determined as 257.41 for the sample, which can be considered as an average value. Although there are mean score differences of critical thinking between the classes , they were not statistically significant (p> 0.05. With regard to the mean score of problem solving, the first-grade students had 92.86, the second-grade students had 94. 29, the third-grade students had 87.00, and the forth-grade students had 92.87. The mean score of problem solving was determined as 92.450 for the sample. Although there are differences between the classes in terms of mean scores of problem solving, it was not found statistically significant (p> 0.05. In this study, statistically significant correlation could not be identified between age and critical thinking skills of the subjects (p>0.05. However, a negative correlation was identified at low levels between critical thinking skills and

  4. RELEVANT PROBLEMS OF UKRAINE’S INTEGRATION INTO GLOBAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevheniia Duliba

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to study the main problems that prevent Ukraine from integrating into the global economy and to determine correct focuses of the foreign economic policy of Ukraine against the background of strengthening of globalization tendencies throughout the world. The bases of this research are bases of business development of the foreign economic policy of Ukraine and improvement of Ukrainian economy against the background of international integration. At the heart of the research methodology is a dialectical method of scientific knowledge and, besides, special methods of research based on modern scientific bases of economic, management and related to them knowledge: economic and statistic method – for the assessment of the modern state of foreign trade and investment activity of Ukraine; method of analysis and synthesis – for the determination of tendencies of development of integration processed in Ukraine; comparative analysis – for comparison of information concerning development of specific indicators of foreign economic activities in Ukraine. Results. As a result of research, the main blocks of problems, which impede the integration of Ukraine into the global economy, and requirements for their complex solution are determined. Besides, interdependence and interdetermination of problems, which impede the integration of Ukraine into the global economy, and requirements for their complex solution are explained. Political and legal, economic, sociocultural, and infrastructural preconditions that are necessary for effective integration of Ukraine into the global economy are highlighted. Practical implications. Analysis of the existing problems related to the actual economy, investments, innovation processes gives the possibility to determine the vector of development of Ukraine’s economy taking to account recommendations concerning its improvement for the purposes of integration into global economy. Value

  5. Numerical solutions to critical problem of reflected cylindrical reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horie, Junnosuke

    1977-01-01

    The multi-region critical problem can be transformed into an eigenvalue problem in the classical sense by using the method of Kuscer and Corngold and of Wing. This transformation is applied to derive a variational formulation for a reflected reactor. An approximate critical value of the multiplying factor is determined by maximizing the Rayleigh quotient for radially and totally reflected cylindrical reactors. It is shown that this approximate critical value is an upper bound of the true critical value. From the facts that the operator is self-adjoint and the eigenfunction is positive, an expression is derived for the upper and lower bounds of the true eigenvalue, by making use of the approximate distribution. The difference of the upper and lower bounds is an uncertainty of the presumption of the true critical value. It is found that we can compute the bounds to any required precision. The narrow bounds are calculated for two radially and one totally reflected cylindrical reactors. (auth.)

  6. Who should be responsible for supporting individuals with mental health problems? A critical literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Megan A; Malla, Ashok K; Iyer, Srividya N

    2018-05-01

    Individuals with mental health problems have many support needs that are often inadequately met; however, perceptions of who should be responsible for meeting these needs have been largely unexplored. Varying perceptions may influence whether, how, and to what extent relevant stakeholders support individuals with mental health problems. To critically evaluate the literature to determine who different stakeholders believe should be responsible for supporting individuals with mental health problems, what factors shape these perceptions, and how they relate to one another. A critical literature review was undertaken. Following an extensive literature search, the conceptual contributions of relevant works were critically evaluated. A concept map was created to build a conceptual framework of the topic. Views of individual versus societal responsibility for need provision and health; the morality of caring; and attributions of responsibility for mental illness offered valuable understandings of the review questions. Creating a concept map revealed that various interrelated factors may influence perceptions of responsibility. Varying perceptions of who should be responsible for supporting individuals with mental health problems may contribute to unmet support needs among this group. Our critical review helps build a much-needed conceptual framework of factors influencing perceptions of responsibility. Such a framework is essential as these views iteratively shape and reflect the complex divisions of mental healthcare roles and responsibilities. Understanding these perceptions can help define relevant stakeholders' roles more clearly, which can improve mental health services and strengthen stakeholder accountability.

  7. Exploring creativity and critical thinking in traditional and innovative problem-based learning groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Zenobia C Y

    2013-08-01

    To explore students' attitude towards problem-based learning, creativity and critical thinking, and the relevance to nursing education and clinical practice. Critical thinking and creativity are crucial in nursing education. The teaching approach of problem-based learning can help to reduce the difficulties of nurturing problem-solving skills. However, there is little in the literature on how to improve the effectiveness of a problem-based learning lesson by designing appropriate and innovative activities such as composing songs, writing poems and using role plays. Exploratory qualitative study. A sample of 100 students participated in seven semi-structured focus groups, of which two were innovative groups and five were standard groups, adopting three activities in problem-based learning, namely composing songs, writing poems and performing role plays. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. There are three themes extracted from the conversations: 'students' perceptions of problem-based learning', 'students' perceptions of creative thinking' and 'students' perceptions of critical thinking'. Participants generally agreed that critical thinking is more important than creativity in problem-based learning and clinical practice. Participants in the innovative groups perceived a significantly closer relationship between critical thinking and nursing care, and between creativity and nursing care than the standard groups. Both standard and innovative groups agreed that problem-based learning could significantly increase their critical thinking and problem-solving skills. Further, by composing songs, writing poems and using role plays, the innovative groups had significantly increased their awareness of the relationship among critical thinking, creativity and nursing care. Nursing educators should include more types of creative activities than it often does in conventional problem-based learning classes. The results could help nurse educators design an appropriate

  8. The problem of criticality and initial-value problem in neutron transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyncl, J.

    1984-10-01

    The problem of criticality and the initial value problem are studied in the case of a linear Boltzmann equation and of both finite and infinite media. The space of functions where the problems are solved is chosen in such a way as to cover a wide range of physical situations. The asymptotic time behavior of the solution to the initial-value problem is also discussed, and main results are summarized in three basic theorems. (author)

  9. The relevance of Vdrl as routine test in pregnant women: a critical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To critically determine the relevance of Venereal Diseases Research Laboratories (VDRL) investigation as a routine serological screening for syphilis among pregnant women who receive antenatal care at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH). Methods: A retrospective chart review of result of serological ...

  10. A note on numerical solution to the problem of criticality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyncl, J.

    2002-01-01

    The contribution deals with numerical solution to the problem of criticality for neutron transport equation by the external source iteration method. Especially, the speed of convergence is examined. It is shown that if neutron absorption in the medium considered is high and if the space region occupied by the medium is large then a slow convergence of the iterations can be expected. This expectation is confirmed by results to CB4 benchmark obtained by MCNP code. Besides the results presented some questions concerning applications of them to criticality calculations are pointed out (Author)

  11. Addressing special structure in the relevance feedback learning problem through aspect-based image search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Huiskes (Mark)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we focus on a number of issues regarding special structure in the relevance feedback learning problem, most notably the effects of image selection based on partial relevance on the clustering behavior of examples. We propose a simple scheme, aspect-based image search, which

  12. Noticing relevant problem features: activating prior knowledge affects problem solving by guiding encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Noelle M.; Alibali, Martha W.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether activating elements of prior knowledge can influence how problem solvers encode and solve simple mathematical equivalence problems (e.g., 3 + 4 + 5 = 3 + __). Past work has shown that such problems are difficult for elementary school students (McNeil and Alibali, 2000). One possible reason is that children's experiences in math classes may encourage them to think about equations in ways that are ultimately detrimental. Specifically, children learn a set of patterns that are potentially problematic (McNeil and Alibali, 2005a): the perceptual pattern that all equations follow an “operations = answer” format, the conceptual pattern that the equal sign means “calculate the total”, and the procedural pattern that the correct way to solve an equation is to perform all of the given operations on all of the given numbers. Upon viewing an equivalence problem, knowledge of these patterns may be reactivated, leading to incorrect problem solving. We hypothesized that these patterns may negatively affect problem solving by influencing what people encode about a problem. To test this hypothesis in children would require strengthening their misconceptions, and this could be detrimental to their mathematical development. Therefore, we tested this hypothesis in undergraduate participants. Participants completed either control tasks or tasks that activated their knowledge of the three patterns, and were then asked to reconstruct and solve a set of equivalence problems. Participants in the knowledge activation condition encoded the problems less well than control participants. They also made more errors in solving the problems, and their errors resembled the errors children make when solving equivalence problems. Moreover, encoding performance mediated the effect of knowledge activation on equivalence problem solving. Thus, one way in which experience may affect equivalence problem solving is by influencing what students encode about the

  13. Associations among everyday stress, critical life events, and sexual problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenmann, Guy; Ledermann, Thomas; Blattner, Denise; Galluzzo, Claudia

    2006-07-01

    This study addresses the question of how stress is linked to sexual problems among women and men in close relationships. Psychological symptoms, relationship quality, internal daily stress (i.e., originating within the couple such as conflicts, worry for the partner), external daily stress (i.e., stress arising outside the couple such as job stress, stressful relatives, and so forth), and critical life events were examined with regard to their association with different sexual problems. The results support the hypotheses that (1) there is an incremental effect of stress on sexual problems after controlling for psychological symptoms and relationship quality, and that (2) it is primarily internal daily stress and in some cases critical life events rather than external daily stress that are related to sexual problems, particularly hypoactive sexual desire in women and men, sexual aversion in women, vaginismus in women, and premature ejaculation in men. Our findings indicate that the treatment of these sexual problems should address relationship issues and include a focus on helping individuals improve their stress management skills within their couple relationship.

  14. Criticality problems in energy dependent neutron transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victory, H.D. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The criticality problem is considered for energy dependent neutron transport in an isotropically scattering, homogeneous slab. Under a positivity assumption on the scattering kernel, an expression can be found relating the thickness of the slab to a parameter characterizing production by fission. This is accomplished by exploiting the Perron-Frobenius-Jentsch characterization of positive operators (i.e. those leaving invariant a normal, reproducing cone in a Banach space). It is pointed out that those techniques work for classes of multigroup problems were the Case singular eigenfunction approach is not as feasible as in the one-group theory, which is also analyzed

  15. The Problem of Probability: An Examination and Refutation of Hjørland’s Relevance Equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. The paper presents a critical examination of Professor Birger Hjørland’s relevance equation: Something (A) is relevant to a task (T) if it increases the likelihood of accomplishing the goal (G), which is implied by T. Method. Two theories of probability logic (the logical theory...... and the intersubjective theory) are briefly reviewed and then applied to Hjørland’s equation. Analysis. Focusing on how these theories warrant the probability assumption makes it possible to detect deficiencies in Hjørland’s equation, based as it is on probability logic. Results. Regardless of the kind of logic applied...... to warrant the probability assumption of Hjørland’s equation, the outcome of using it to determine the relevance of any A to any T is found to have quite bizarre consequences: Either nothing is relevant or everything is relevant. Conclusion. Contrary to Hjørland’s claim that his relevance equation applies...

  16. Discussion in primary ecological environmental problems and relevant countermeasures in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Yongfeng

    2003-01-01

    On the basis of sufficient statistical data, the primary ecological environmental problems, including water/soil loss and dissertation, water resource shortage and water pollution, deterioration of air quality and air pollution, despoilation of biodiversity, and environmental pollution, are listed in this paper. In addition, the causes of these problems are analyzed. Finally, relevant strategies and measures for environmental protection are brought forward. (authors)

  17. Relevant problems in collaborative processes of non-hierarchical manufacturing networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Andrés

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify some of existing problems associated with collaboration among SMEs of the same network. Concretely, the problems are focused. The research objective is to identify the most relevant problems existing when SMEs have to deal with decentralized decisions (DDM. Design/methodology/approach: Through the literature review there have been collected collaborative problems caused by inter-organizational barriers. The approach taken is a qualitative study and analysis that classifies collaborative problems from less important to very important. In light of this, we are able to identify what are the most relevant problems to study in the NHN collaborative context. Findings and Originality/value: The developed methodology allows researchers to indentify amongst the collaborative problems those that are most relevant to solve in the NHN context, with the main aim of providing solutions in the future. The research aim is to provide the expert in the collaborative field a starting point to address the collaborative problems SMEs can find when belonging to collaborative networks. Research limitations/implications: Not all the problems that appear when an SME establish collaborative relationships, in a NHN, are considered. The identified problems have been arisen because there are discussed in the literature for addressing collaborative problems among networked partners. Identified problems are also considered because there are relevant to achieve collaboration among SMEs. Originality/value: The degree of coverage and the degree of significance is the taxonomy criteria used to identify the importance of solution degree of the encountered collaborative problems, in NHN context, in order to provide a future research of solutions to overcome them.

  18. Critical thinking: Its relevance for education in a shifting society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro da Silva Almeida

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The amount of information and variety of situations tackled on a daily basis call for new cognitive functions, namely combining knowledge, experience and intellectual abilities. Critical thinking is valued as a higher-order type of reasoning and a skill transversal to the educational organisms. We introduce some definitions suggested in the literature, and describe the cognitive functions responsible for critical thinking used in learning and problem solving situations. We then present the most used assessment procedures, illustrating with instruments as well as programs and curricular planning implemented in the classroom to teach and develop critical thinking. Finally, we highlight the importance of further investigation, in order to reach a convergence of theoretical and practical elements needed to define critical thinking.

  19. Use of deterministic methods in survey calculations for criticality problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, J.L.; Phenix, J.; Course, A.F.

    1991-01-01

    A code package using deterministic methods for solving the Boltzmann Transport equation is the WIMS suite. This has been very successful for a range of situations. In particular it has been used with great success to analyse trends in reactivity with a range of changes in state. The WIMS suite of codes have a range of methods and are very flexible in the way they can be combined. A wide variety of situations can be modelled ranging through all the current Thermal Reactor variants to storage systems and items of chemical plant. These methods have recently been enhanced by the introduction of the CACTUS method. This is based on a characteristics technique for solving the Transport equation and has the advantage that complex geometrical situations can be treated. In this paper the basis of the method is outlined and examples of its use are illustrated. In parallel with these developments the validation for out of pile situations has been extended to include experiments with relevance to criticality situations. The paper will summarise this evidence and show how these results point to a partial re-adoption of deterministic methods for some areas of criticality. The paper also presents results to illustrate the use of WIMS in criticality situations and in particular show how it can complement codes such as MONK when used for surveying the reactivity effect due to changes in geometry or materials. (Author)

  20. Six Sigma: Problems, Limitations, Critical Success Factors and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Mazieiro Pohlmann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Six Sigma is a business strategy based on objective decision making and problem solving in order to achieve, maintain and maximize business success through understanding and meeting the needs of customers. The visualization of this methodology as a powerful tool in reducing variability and improving quality led to the interest in performing this bibliographical study, whose purpose was to assess the critical success factors and future prospects of this managerial system. A survey was conducted in order to discover the main critical success factors of the implementation of the methodology in organizations, among which stood out the proper selection of projects, connecting the project with the business strategy, customer focus, financial, human and infrastructure resources, the involvement of senior management, professional training, and cultural change.

  1. Inverse Problems in Systems Biology: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzi, Rodolfo; Colombo, Teresa; Paci, Paola

    2018-01-01

    Systems Biology may be assimilated to a symbiotic cyclic interplaying between the forward and inverse problems. Computational models need to be continuously refined through experiments and in turn they help us to make limited experimental resources more efficient. Every time one does an experiment we know that there will be some noise that can disrupt our measurements. Despite the noise certainly is a problem, the inverse problems already involve the inference of missing information, even if the data is entirely reliable. So the addition of a certain limited noise does not fundamentally change the situation but can be used to solve the so-called ill-posed problem, as defined by Hadamard. It can be seen as an extra source of information. Recent studies have shown that complex systems, among others the systems biology, are poorly constrained and ill-conditioned because it is difficult to use experimental data to fully estimate their parameters. For these reasons was born the concept of sloppy models, a sequence of models of increasing complexity that become sloppy in the limit of microscopic accuracy. Furthermore the concept of sloppy models contains also the concept of un-identifiability, because the models are characterized by many parameters that are poorly constrained by experimental data. Then a strategy needs to be designed to infer, analyze, and understand biological systems. The aim of this work is to provide a critical review to the inverse problems in systems biology defining a strategy to determine the minimal set of information needed to overcome the problems arising from dynamic biological models that generally may have many unknown, non-measurable parameters.

  2. Science youth action research: Promoting critical science literacy through relevance and agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Elizabeth R.

    This three-article dissertation presents complementary perspectives on Science Youth Action Research (Sci-YAR), a K-12 curriculum designed to emphasize relevance and agency to promote youth's science learning. In Sci-YAR, youth conduct action research projects to better understand science-related issues in their lives, schools, or communities, while they simultaneously document, analyze, and reflect upon their own practices as researchers. The first article defines Sci-YAR and argues for its potential to enhance youth's participation as citizens in a democratic society. The second article details findings from a case study of youth engaged in Sci-YAR, describing how the curriculum enabled and constrained youth's identity work in service of critical science agency. The third article provides guidance to science teachers in implementing student-driven curriculum and instruction by emphasizing Sci-YAR's key features as a way to promote student agency and relevance in school science.

  3. On negotiating White science: a call for cultural relevance and critical reflexivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettez, Silvia Cristina; Aguilar-Valdez, Jean Rockford; Carlone, Heidi B.; Cooper, Jewell E.

    2011-12-01

    This article is a response to Randy Yerrick and Joseph Johnson's article "Negotiating White Science in Rural Black America: A Case for Navigating the Landscape of Teacher Knowledge Domains". They write about research conducted by Yerrick in which videos of his teaching practice as a White educator in a predominately Black rural classroom were examined. Their analysis is framed through Shulman's (1986) work on "domains of teacher knowledge" and Ladson-Billings' (1999) critical race theory (CRT). Although we appreciate a framework that attends to issues of power, such as CRT, we see a heavier emphasis on Shulman's work in their analysis. We argue that a culturally relevant pedagogy (CRP) framework has the potential to provide a more nuanced analysis of what occurred in Yerrick's classroom from a critical lens. Thus we examine Yerrick and Johnson's work through the five main CRP components (as defined by Brown-Jeffy and Cooper 2011) and ultimately argue that science educators who want to promote equity in their classrooms should engage in continuous critical reflexivity, aid students in claiming voice, and encourage students to become not only producers of scientific knowledge but also users and critics of such knowledge.

  4. WHEN RELEVANCE DECENTERS CRITICALITY: THE CASE OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN NATIONAL CRIME, VIOLENCE AND INJURY LEAD PROGRAMME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Seedat

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the formal demise of political apartheid in SouthAfrica in 1994, critical and community-centred psychologistshave tended to obtain relevance through alignment with thetenets of social justice and the larger democratic project. Thisarticle draws on the experiences of the Crime, Violence andInjury Lead Programme (CVI to illustrate how particularformulations of scientific and social relevance function tomarginalize criticality and critical scholarship. The authorsuggests that relevance without criticality produces forms ofintellectual activity that privilege empiricist traditions, perpetrate a binary between research and research translation, andreproduce the myth that intervention work is atheoretical.The review of the CVI serves as a reminder of the challengesinherent in enactments of critical psychology. Among themany issues that critical psychology oriented initiatives likeCVI have to contend with is the task of developing theoreticaland other resources to move between co-operation and critiquein the service of democratic development.

  5. National critical incident reporting systems relevant to anaesthesia: a European survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, S; Arnal, D; Frank, O; Gomez-Arnau, J I; Hansen, J; Lester, O; Mikkelsen, K L; Rhaiem, T; Rosenberg, P H; St Pierre, M; Schleppers, A; Staender, S; Smith, A F

    2014-03-01

    Critical incident reporting is a key tool in the promotion of patient safety in anaesthesia. We surveyed representatives of national incident reporting systems in six European countries, inviting information on scope and organization, and intelligence on factors determining success and failure. Some systems are government-run and nationally conceived; others started out as small, specialty-focused initiatives, which have since acquired a national reach. However, both national co-ordination and specialty enthusiasts seem to be necessary for an optimally functioning system. The role of reporting culture, definitional issues, and dissemination is discussed. We make recommendations for others intending to start new systems and speculate on the prospects for sharing patient safety lessons relevant to anaesthesia at European level.

  6. Enhanced Critical Thinking Skills through Problem-Solving Games in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Scott Douglas

    2017-01-01

    Aim/Purpose: Students face many challenges improving their soft skills such as critical thinking. This paper offers one possible solution to this problem. Background: This paper considers one method of enhancing critical thinking through a problem-solving game called the Coffee Shop. Problem-solving is a key component to critical thinking, and…

  7. Critical Thinking and the Development of Innovative Problem Solvers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drew, Christopher T

    2005-01-01

    .... This capability can be trained by making Critical Thinking the focus of officer education. Critical Thinking is the general cognitive skill of developing the best solution when there is not a single correct answer...

  8. Real-World Problems: Engaging Young Learners in Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Bronwyn; McGuire, Margit

    2012-01-01

    Critical thinking is a process that can be taught. It involves "evaluating the accuracy, credibility, and worth of information and lines of reasoning. Critical thinking is reflective, logical, evidence-based, and has a purposeful quality to it--that is, the learner thinks critically in order to achieve a particular goal." The authors have found…

  9. Linking attentional processes and conceptual problem solving: visual cues facilitate the automaticity of extracting relevant information from diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouinfar, Amy; Agra, Elise; Larson, Adam M; Rebello, N Sanjay; Loschky, Lester C

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated links between visual attention processes and conceptual problem solving. This was done by overlaying visual cues on conceptual physics problem diagrams to direct participants' attention to relevant areas to facilitate problem solving. Participants (N = 80) individually worked through four problem sets, each containing a diagram, while their eye movements were recorded. Each diagram contained regions that were relevant to solving the problem correctly and separate regions related to common incorrect responses. Problem sets contained an initial problem, six isomorphic training problems, and a transfer problem. The cued condition saw visual cues overlaid on the training problems. Participants' verbal responses were used to determine their accuracy. This study produced two major findings. First, short duration visual cues which draw attention to solution-relevant information and aid in the organizing and integrating of it, facilitate both immediate problem solving and generalization of that ability to new problems. Thus, visual cues can facilitate re-representing a problem and overcoming impasse, enabling a correct solution. Importantly, these cueing effects on problem solving did not involve the solvers' attention necessarily embodying the solution to the problem, but were instead caused by solvers attending to and integrating relevant information in the problems into a solution path. Second, this study demonstrates that when such cues are used across multiple problems, solvers can automatize the extraction of problem-relevant information extraction. These results suggest that low-level attentional selection processes provide a necessary gateway for relevant information to be used in problem solving, but are generally not sufficient for correct problem solving. Instead, factors that lead a solver to an impasse and to organize and integrate problem information also greatly facilitate arriving at correct solutions.

  10. Critical Domain Problem for the Reaction–Telegraph Equation Model of Population Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weam Alharbi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A telegraph equation is believed to be an appropriate model of population dynamics as it accounts for the directional persistence of individual animal movement. Being motivated by the problem of habitat fragmentation, which is known to be a major threat to biodiversity that causes species extinction worldwide, we consider the reaction–telegraph equation (i.e., telegraph equation combined with the population growth on a bounded domain with the goal to establish the conditions of species survival. We first show analytically that, in the case of linear growth, the expression for the domain’s critical size coincides with the critical size of the corresponding reaction–diffusion model. We then consider two biologically relevant cases of nonlinear growth, i.e., the logistic growth and the growth with a strong Allee effect. Using extensive numerical simulations, we show that in both cases the critical domain size of the reaction–telegraph equation is larger than the critical domain size of the reaction–diffusion equation. Finally, we discuss possible modifications of the model in order to enhance the positivity of its solutions.

  11. RELEVANCE OF COLLAGEN PIEZOELECTRICITY TO “WOLFF’S LAW”: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Andrew C.; Grodzinsky, Alan J.

    2009-01-01

    According to “Wolff’s Law”, bone is deposited and reinforced at areas of greatest stress. From a clinical perspective, this “law” is supported by the strong association between bone density and physical activity. From a mechanistic standpoint, however, the law presents a challenge to scientists seeking to understand how osteocytes and osteoblasts sense the mechanical load. In the 1960’s, collagen piezoelectricity was invoked as a potential mechanism by which osteocytes could detect areas of greater stress but piezoelectricity diminished in importance as more compelling mechanisms, such as streaming potential, were identified. In addition, accumulating evidence for the role of fluid-related shear stress in osteocyte’s mechanosensory function has made piezoelectricity seemingly more obsolete in bone physiology. This review critically evaluates the role of collagen piezoelectricity (if any) in Wolff’s Law – specifically, the evidence regarding its involvement in strain-generated potentials, existing alternate mechanisms, the present understanding of bone mechanosensation, and whether piezoelectricity serves an influential role within the context of this newly proposed mechanism. In addition to reviewing the literature, this review generates several hypotheses and proposes future research to fully address the relevance of piezoelectricity in bone physiology. PMID:19286413

  12. Capturing Problem-Solving Processes Using Critical Rationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitpin, Stephanie; Simon, Marielle

    2012-01-01

    The examination of problem-solving processes continues to be a current research topic in education. Knowing how to solve problems is not only a key aspect of learning mathematics but is also at the heart of cognitive theories, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and computers sciences. Problem solving is a multistep, higher-order cognitive task…

  13. Analysis Critical Thinking Stage of Eighth Grade in PBL-Scaffolding Setting To Solve Mathematical Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Aisyah Isti; Arief Agoestanto; Ary Woro Kurniasih

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research was described critical thinking stage of students grade VIII in setting PBL and scaffolding to solve mathematics problems. Critical thinking stage consists of clarification, assesment, inference, and strategy/tactics. The subject were teo students in the level of capacity to think critical (uncritical, less critical, quite critical, and critical). So that this research subject was 8 students in VIII A One State Junior High School of Temanggung. The result showed a...

  14. Examining the Critical Thinking Dispositions and the Problem Solving Skills of Computer Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyurt, Özcan

    2015-01-01

    Problem solving is an indispensable part of engineering. Improving critical thinking dispositions for solving engineering problems is one of the objectives of engineering education. In this sense, knowing critical thinking and problem solving skills of engineering students is of importance for engineering education. This study aims to determine…

  15. A Critical Review of Naphthalene Sources and Exposures Relevant to Indoor and Outdoor Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunrong Jia

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Both the recent classification of naphthalene as a possible human carcinogen and its ubiquitous presence motivate this critical review of naphthalene’s sources and exposures. We evaluate the environmental literature on naphthalene published since 1990, drawing on nearly 150 studies that report emissions and concentrations in indoor, outdoor and personal air. While naphthalene is both a volatile organic compound and a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, concentrations and exposures are poorly characterized relative to many other pollutants. Most airborne emissions result from combustion, and key sources include industry, open burning, tailpipe emissions, and cigarettes. The second largest source is off-gassing, specifically from naphthalene’s use as a deodorizer, repellent and fumigant. In the U.S., naphthalene’s use as a moth repellant has been reduced in favor of para-dichlorobenzene, but extensive use continues in mothballs, which appears responsible for some of the highest indoor exposures, along with off-label uses. Among the studies judged to be representative, average concentrations ranged from 0.18 to 1.7 μg m-3 in non-smoker’s homes, and from 0.02 to 0.31 μg m-3 outdoors in urban areas. Personal exposures have been reported in only three European studies. Indoor sources are the major contributor to (non-occupational exposure. While its central tendencies fall well below guideline levels relevant to acute health impacts, several studies have reported maximum concentrations exceeding 100 μg m-3, far above guideline levels. Using current but draft estimates of cancer risks, naphthalene is a major environmental risk driver, with typical individual risk levels in the 10-4 range, which is high and notable given that millions of individuals are exposed. Several factors influence indoor and outdoor concentrations, but the literature is inconsistent on their effects. Further investigation is needed to better characterize naphthalene

  16. Some speculations on the critical exponents and fractal dimensionalities relevant to realistic spin glass alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mookerjee, A.

    1984-09-01

    The problem of spin-glass to ferromagnetic transition with increasing concentration is then one of the familiar nearest neighbour percolation but on the background of IIC. In the regime p<=psub(c) at T=Tsub(g)(p), the IIC forms a fractal background on which ferromagnetic percolation takes place. The equivalent statement is that the mobility edge Jsub(c)(p) moves outwards as p increases and at a critical psub(c) coincides with the band edge Jsub(B). At and above these concentrations the mode with highest energy is extended and we have the familiar paramagnetic to ferromagnetic transition as temperature is lowered across Jsub(B)/ksub(B). The physical justification of this picture is not at all transparent as in the case of the cluster percolation ideas. To this date no reliable estimates of the behaviour of Jsub(c)(p) as a function of p, for a purely off diagonal random matrix J(R) have been made

  17. Enhanced Critical Thinking Skills through Problem-Solving Games in Secondary Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Scott D McDonald

    2017-01-01

    Aim/Purpose: Students face many challenges improving their soft skills such as critical thinking. This paper offers one possible solution to this problem. Background: This paper considers one method of enhancing critical thinking through a problem-solving game called the Coffee Shop. Problem-solving is a key component to critical thinking, and game-playing is one method of enhancing this through an interactive teaching method. Methodology: Three classes of Vietnamese high school stude...

  18. Empowerment of Students Critical Thinking Skills Through Implementation of Think Talk Write Combined Problem Based Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Yanuarta, Lidya; Gofur, Abdul; Indriwati, Sri Endah

    2016-01-01

    Critical thinking is a complex reflection process that helps individuals become more analytical in their thinking. Empower critical thinking in students need to be done so that students can resolve the problems that exist in their life and are able to apply alternative solutions to problems in a different situations. Therefore, Think Talk Write (TTW) combined Problem Based Learning (PBL) were needed to empowered the critical thinking skills so that students were able to face the challenges of...

  19. The effect of critical thinking education on nursing students' problem-solving skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanbay, Yalçın; Okanlı, Ayşe

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effect of critical thinking education on nursing students' problem-solving skills. This study was conducted with 93 nursing students, 49 in the control group and 44 in the education group. The California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory and the Problem-solving Inventory were administered to them before and after 12 weeks of critical thinking education. The education group's mean critical thinking score was 253.61 on the pretest and 268.72 on the posttest. This increase was statistically significant (p skills of education group increased significantly (p critical thinking education improves problem-solving skills.

  20. Critical Thinking in Secondary Language Arts: Teacher Perceptions and Relevant Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enabulele, Augustine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the effectiveness of the dialectical journal as a tool for teaching critical thinking skills, and to assess middle school teachers' perception of critical thinking. Two groups of middle school students were split into one control and one experimental group. Both groups took a critical thinking test…

  1. Critical infrastructure – content, structure and problems of its protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Hofreiter

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Security, economic and social stability of the country, its functionality but also protecting the lives and property of citizens are dependent on the proper functioning of many infrastructure systems of state. Disruptions, lack or destruction of such systems, institutions, facilities and other services could cause disruption of social stability and national security, provoke a crisis situation or seriously affect the operation of state and local governments in crisis situations. This is known as critical infrastructure. It is in the interest of the State to the critical infrastructure effectively protected.

  2. Solutions to criticality problems in a plutonium extraction plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouannaud, C.; Rodier, J.; Fruchard, Y.; Peyresblanques, H.; Papault, C.; Tabardel-Brian, R.

    1968-08-01

    There are two aspects to nuclear criticality safety: prevention of criticality and protection against the consequences of a possible accident: this report considers these two aspects in the case of the Marcoule Plutonium Extraction Plant. After briefly recalling the various techniques used for avoiding criticality (mass, geometry, concentration, poisoning), the authors describe their application in the plant and show in particular that, a rational use of a favorable geometry is a factor both for security and from an economic point of view. The authors then describe the inside organisation which makes it possible to obtain the necessary intrinsic safety standard right from the advance project stage, and to control the workshop safety during the operation of the plant. The second part of the report deals with the system of protection against the consequences of a possible accident: definition of a typical accident, fixing of the boundaries of a critical zone, safety alarm device, individual and collective dosimetry, evacuation plan and safety instructions. (authors) [fr

  3. Antiracist Solidarity in Critical Education: Contemporary Problems and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lissovoy, Noah; Brown, Anthony L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that antiracist solidarity in education remains urgent, but that in framing solidarity projects critical educators have not been sufficiently attentive to the shape and extent of racism as a global ordering of social life. We describe the paternalism that has determined historical efforts at solidarity between African Americans…

  4. Going Critical: The Problem of Problematizing Knowledge in Education Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Rob

    2007-01-01

    This paper raises the issue of what it is to be "critical" in education studies and in social theory more generally. It argues that this idea has for a long time been associated with forms of social constructionism and sociological reductionism. These understand the idea that knowledge is social in terms of reducing it to the experiences and…

  5. Constructing an everywhere and locally relevant predictive model of the West-African critical zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hector, B.; Cohard, J. M.; Pellarin, T.; Maxwell, R. M.; Cappelaere, B.; Demarty, J.; Grippa, M.; Kergoat, L.; Lebel, T.; Mamadou, O.; Mougin, E.; Panthou, G.; Peugeot, C.; Vandervaere, J. P.; Vischel, T.; Vouillamoz, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Considering water resources and hydrologic hazards, West Africa is among the most vulnerable regions to face both climatic (e.g. with the observed intensification of precipitation) and anthropogenic changes. With +3% of demographic rate, the region experiences rapid land use changes and increased pressure on surface and groundwater resources with observed consequences on the hydrological cycle (water table rise result of the sahelian paradox, increase in flood occurrence, etc.) Managing large hydrosystems (such as transboundary aquifers or rivers basins as the Niger river) requires anticipation of such changes. However, the region significantly lacks observations, for constructing and validating critical zone (CZ) models able to predict future hydrologic regime, but also comprises hydrosystems which encompass strong environmental gradients (e.g. geological, climatic, ecological) with highly different dominating hydrological processes. We address these issues by constructing a high resolution (1 km²) regional scale physically-based model using ParFlow-CLM which allows modeling a wide range of processes without prior knowledge on their relative dominance. Our approach combines multiple scale modeling from local to meso and regional scales within the same theoretical framework. Local and meso-scale models are evaluated thanks to the rich AMMA-CATCH CZ observation database which covers 3 supersites with contrasted environments in Benin (Lat.: 9.8°N), Niger (Lat.: 13.3°N) and Mali (Lat.: 15.3°N). At the regional scale the lack of relevant map of soil hydrodynamic parameters is addressed using remote sensing data assimilation. Our first results show the model's ability to reproduce the known dominant hydrological processes (runoff generation, ET, groundwater recharge…) across the major West-African regions and allow us to conduct virtual experiments to explore the impact of global changes on the hydrosystems. This approach is a first step toward the construction of

  6. COMMUNICATION ETHICS IBN MISKAWAIH AND ITS RELEVANCE TO THE SOLVING OF MORAL PROBLEMS IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Taufiq

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was in depth exploration of the concept of communication ethics and its relevance for the solving of the problems of Indonesian Moral formulated by IbnMiskawaih in his work The Tahdzib Al-Akhlak. In the study of communication science, these two things are interrelated. Communication ethics is an ethical standard for communicators and communicants in communication. From the topic above, there are several problems from the purpose of this study they are; knowing the views of IbnMiskawaih about ethics in terms of communication science perspective, knowing IbnMiskawaih's views on the ethics of verbal and non-verbal communication, knowing the view of IbnMiskawaih about the ethics of intrapersonal communication, Knowing IbnMiskawaih's views on the ethics of interpersonal communication, knowing IbnMiskawaih's view of the ethics of group communication, knowing IbnMiskawaih's view of the ethics of media communication, knowing IbnMiskawaih's view of the ethics of social communication, formulating the communication ethics of IbnMiskwaih and its Relevance for the solving of Moral problems in Indonesia. The research methodology was begun by putting the type of qualitative research with historical research and social research approaches to the study of excellent figures to explore the thoughts and views of a figure in the field. The figure intended here was IbnMaskawaih with descriptive method, which is a research procedure that produces the descriptive data in the form of written or oral words of the people and behave that can be observed directed at the background of individuals holistically that occurred in the past. The Tahdzib Al-Akhlak, the work of IbnMiskawaih contains and affirms communication ethics clearly and systematically. All the substance of the book was oriented to the communication ethics. The IbnMiskwaih writing has laid the verbal and nonverbal communication, intrapersonal communication, interpersonal communication, group

  7. Relevance of plastic limit loads to reference stress approach for surface cracked cylinder problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yun-Jae; Shim, Do-Jun

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the relevance of the definition of the reference stress to estimate J and C* for surface crack problems, this paper compares finite element (FE) J and C* results for surface cracked pipes with those estimated according to the reference stress approach using various definitions of the reference stress. Pipes with part circumferential inner surface cracks and finite internal axial cracks are considered, subject to internal pressure and global bending. The crack depth and aspect ratio are systematically varied. The reference stress is defined in four different ways using (i) a local limit load (ii), a global limit load, (iii) a global limit load determined from the FE limit analysis, and (iv) the optimised reference load. It is found that the reference stress based on a local limit load gives overall excessively conservative estimates of J and C*. Use of a global limit load clearly reduces the conservatism, compared to that of a local limit load, although it can sometimes provide non-conservative estimates of J and C*. The use of the FE global limit load gives overall non-conservative estimates of J and C*. The reference stress based on the optimised reference load gives overall accurate estimates of J and C*, compared to other definitions of the reference stress. Based on the present findings, general guidance on the choice of the reference stress for surface crack problems is given

  8. Messy Problems and Lay Audiences: Teaching Critical Thinking within the Finance Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrithers, David; Ling, Teresa; Bean, John C.

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the critical thinking difficulties of finance majors when asked to address ill-structured finance problems. The authors build on previous research in which they asked students to analyze an ill-structured investment problem and recommend a course of action. The results revealed numerous critical thinking weaknesses,…

  9. Being relevant: Practical guidance for early career researchers interested in solving conservation problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Chapman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In a human-altered world where biodiversity is in decline and conservation problems abound, there is a dire need to ensure that the next generation of conservation scientists have the knowledge, skills, and training to address these problems. So called “early career researchers” (ECRs in conservation science have many challenges before them and it is clear that the status quo must change to bridge the knowledge–action divide. Here we identify thirteen practical strategies that ECRs can employ to become more relevant. In this context, “relevance” refers to the ability to contribute to solving conservation problems through engagement with practitioners, policy makers, and stakeholders. Conservation and career strategies outlined in this article include the following: thinking ‘big picture’ during conservation projects; embracing various forms of knowledge; maintaining positive relationships with locals familiar with the conservation issue; accepting failure as a viable (and potentially valuable outcome; daring to be creative; embracing citizen science; incorporating interdisciplinarity; promoting and practicing pro-environmental behaviours; understanding financial aspects of conservation; forming collaboration from the onset of a project; accepting the limits of technology; ongoing and effective networking; and finally, maintaining a positive outlook by focusing on and sharing conservation success stories. These strategies move beyond the generic and highlight the importance of continuing to have an open mind throughout the entire conservation process, from establishing one’s self as an asset to embracing collaboration and interdisciplinary work, and striving to push for professional and personal connections that strengthen personal career objectives.

  10. Some problems in critical use of nuclear decay data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawada, Yasushi

    1975-01-01

    A great variety of radionuclides are utilized at present and they have been increasing steadly in number with the development of science and technology. Therefore, the parameters such as their decay patterns, half lives, kinds of radioactive ray, ratio of energy emission, coefficients of internal conversion, fluorescence yields, etc. should be grasped for RI utilization. This report gives the outline of the present status and some problems for arranging nuclear decay data from the viewpoint of utilizing radioisotopes. The compilation and evaluation of nuclear decay data prevailing at present are summarized in ''Table of Isotopes'' and ''Nuclear Data Sheets'', but some gaps are found between them. Conspicuous gaps are recognized in such data as half life, γ-ray intensity, radiation energy, coefficient of internal conversion, etc. Some problems are also found in the data of fluorescence yield,

  11. Numerical and analytical solutions for problems relevant for quantum computers; Numerische und analytische Loesungen fuer Quanteninformatisch-relevante Probleme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spoerl, Andreas

    2008-06-05

    Quantum computers are one of the next technological steps in modern computer science. Some of the relevant questions that arise when it comes to the implementation of quantum operations (as building blocks in a quantum algorithm) or the simulation of quantum systems are studied. Numerical results are gathered for variety of systems, e.g. NMR systems, Josephson junctions and others. To study quantum operations (e.g. the quantum fourier transform, swap operations or multiply-controlled NOT operations) on systems containing many qubits, a parallel C++ code was developed and optimised. In addition to performing high quality operations, a closer look was given to the minimal times required to implement certain quantum operations. These times represent an interesting quantity for the experimenter as well as for the mathematician. The former tries to fight dissipative effects with fast implementations, while the latter draws conclusions in the form of analytical solutions. Dissipative effects can even be included in the optimisation. The resulting solutions are relaxation and time optimised. For systems containing 3 linearly coupled spin (1)/(2) qubits, analytical solutions are known for several problems, e.g. indirect Ising couplings and trilinear operations. A further study was made to investigate whether there exists a sufficient set of criteria to identify systems with dynamics which are invertible under local operations. Finally, a full quantum algorithm to distinguish between two knots was implemented on a spin(1)/(2) system. All operations for this experiment were calculated analytically. The experimental results coincide with the theoretical expectations. (orig.)

  12. Recalling Academy: University Problems and Critics in Memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa GÜNDÜZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The history of modern higher education in Turkey started in the Tanzimat Period with Darülfünûn which had been an extraordinary development to achieve a radical modernization. Darülfünûn, which had come up to the Republic Period with its own unique structure and process of ambiguity, underwent a radical transformation in 1933. Since the beginning, the basic aim of Darülfünûn had been to educate “enlightened bureaucrats”. Up to now, many attempts have been made to determine and solve problems related to the areas of finance, legislation, physical conditions, manpower, infrastructure, students, and producing knowledge emerged in higher education. While some of them have been implemented, the suggestions especially coming from the dissenting academicians and thinkers have been reserved merely in memories. Many academicians, who wrote their memoirs after serving long years in universities, put forward different ideas related to the problems of university and their remedies. There have been numerous academicians who wrote their memoirs about university, as much as they affected Turkish science community with their works, views and ideas. In this paper; how the contemporary and traditional problems of the Turkish universities have been perceived, which determinations have been made, and what kind of solutions have been proposed in the memoirs of over twenty scientist, who had worked in different disciplines, have been categorically presented.

  13. The critical slab problem for pure-triplet anisotropic scattering by singular eigenfunction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuereci, R.G. [Kirikkale Univ. (Turkey). Kirikkale Vocational School; Tuereci, D. [Ministery of Education, Ankara (Turkey). General Directorate of Secondary Education

    2017-12-15

    The infinite medium Green function can be written by using the jump condition, found Case's eigenfunctions. Thus, any reactor theory problem which is inplane geometry such the criticality problem as can be investigated by using the proper boundary conditions and suggested flux definitions. By using the criticality equation the critical thicknesses can be calculated as numerically. The selected numerical results can be tabulated.

  14. Lecturers’ perception on students’ critical thinking skills development and problems faced by students in developing their critical thinking skills

    OpenAIRE

    Astuti Muh. Amin; Romi Adiansyah

    2018-01-01

    Critical thinking emerges when learners attempt to use their background knowledge to construct meaning through interpreting, analyzing, and manipulating information in responding to a problem or a question that requires more than a single correct answer. Two factors that affect the improvement of the students’ critical thinking skills are lecturers’ activities and students’ activities. This study was a descriptive quantitative study which aimed to investigate (1) how lecturers perceive the de...

  15. Slow Integral Manifolds and Control Problems in Critical and Twice Critical Cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolev, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    We consider singularly perturbed differential systems in cases where the standard theory to establish a slow integral manifold existence does not work. The theory has traditionally dealt only with perturbation problems near normally hyperbolic manifold of singularities and this manifold is supposed to isolated. Applying transformations we reduce the original singularly perturbed problem to a regularized one such that the existence of slow integral manifolds can be established by means of the standard theory. We illustrate our approach by several examples. (paper)

  16. Effects of neutron data libraries and criticality codes on IAEA criticality benchmark problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarker, Md.M.; Takano, Makoto; Masukawa, Fumihiro; Naito, Yoshitaka

    1993-10-01

    In order to compare the effects of neutron data libraries and criticality codes to thermal reactors (LWR), the IAEA criticality benchmark calculations have been performed. The experiments selected in this study include TRX-1 and TRX-2 with a simple geometric configuration. Reactor lattice calculation codes WIMS-D/4, MCNP-4, JACS (MGCL, KENO), and SRAC were used in the present calculations. The TRX cores were analyzed by WIMS-D/4 using WIMS original library and also by MCNP-4, JACS (MGCL, KENO), and SRAC using the libraries generated from JENDL-3 and ENDF/B-IV nuclear data files. An intercomparison work for the above mentioned code systems and cross section libraries was performed by analyzing the LWR benchmark experiments TRX-1 and TRX-2. The TRX cores were also analyzed for supercritical and subcritical conditions and these results were compared. In the case of critical condition, the results were in good agreement. But for the supercritical and subcritical conditions, the difference of the results obtained by using the different cross section libraries become larger than for the critical condition. (author)

  17. The Cognitive Relevance of Indigenous and Rural: Why Is It Critical to Survival?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassam, Karim-Aly S.; Avery, Leanne M.; Ruelle, Morgan L.

    2017-01-01

    Using two case studies of children's knowledge, this paper sheds light on the value, diversity, and necessity of Indigenous and place-based knowledge to science and engineering curricula in rural areas. Rural contexts are rich environments for cultivating contextual knowledge, hence framing a critical pedagogy of teaching and learning. Indigenous…

  18. Sens et temps de la Gestalt (Gestalt theory: critical overview and contemporary relevance)

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenthal, Victor; Visetti, Yves-Marie

    1999-01-01

    Rather than mere psychological doctrine, Gestalt theory was conceived of as a general theory of form and organization deemed to lay a unified groundwork for several domains of scientific endeavor. Our aim in this article is to assess the legacy of this framework, and examine its relevance for present-day research in cognitive science. We thus survey the intellectual contexts within which Gestalt theory originated and evolved, and review some of its central features: a phenomenological approac...

  19. Clausewitz’s Continued Relevance and Foundation for Educating Critical Thinking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    military theorists and practitioners disagree on the continued relevance of many classical military theorists such as Clausewitz, Jomini, Sun Tsu, and...stages of the Thirty Years‘ War or, in a rather different sense, Aztec Mexico; ideological; or anything else. Regardless of the motivation, the...authority as higher than their own or that of God . This proved to be very beneficial to al-Qaida operatives over the last 10 years who sought and

  20. EFFECTIVENESS OF PROBLEM BASED LEARNING AS A STRATEGY TO FOSTER PROBLEM SOLVING AND CRITICAL REASONING SKILLS AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad, Munazza; Iqbal, Khadija; Sabir, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Problem based learning (PBL) is an instructional approach that utilizes problems or cases as a context for students to acquire problem solving skills. It promotes communication skills, active learning, and critical thinking skills. It encourages peer teaching and active participation in a group. It was a cross-sectional study conducted at Al Nafees Medical College, Isra University, Islamabad, in one month duration. This study was conducted on 193 students of both 1st and 2nd year MBBS. Each PBL consists of three sessions, spaced by 2-3 days. In the first session students were provided a PBL case developed by both basic and clinical science faculty. In Session 2 (group discussion), they share, integrate their knowledge with the group and Wrap up (third session), was concluded at the end. A questionnaire based survey was conducted to find out overall effectiveness of PBL sessions. Teaching through PBLs greatly improved the problem solving and critical reasoning skills with 60% students of first year and 71% of 2nd year agreeing that the acquisition of knowledge and its application in solving multiple choice questions (MCQs) was greatly improved by these sessions. They observed that their self-directed learning, intrinsic motivation and skills to relate basic concepts with clinical reasoning which involves higher order thinking have greatly enhanced. Students found PBLs as an effective strategy to promote teamwork and critical thinking skills. PBL is an effective method to improve critical thinking and problem solving skills among medical students.

  1. Macro-economic model of aggregate market in the Albanian economy, and relevant problems thereto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Alqi Naqellari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses concrete data obtained on the Albanian economy to analyse the positions of aggregate demand/supply curves in the economy. As examples from micro-economics, we have taken the models of Ŵalras and Marshall, to view the possibilities of achieving an economic equilibrium. Data available from the Albanian economy, and from the global economic trends generally, have shown that the positions of curves are such, with differences in their inclination, while the classic position of the aggregate demand curve, with a negative trend, studied in the macro-economic theory, is unique. Therefore, our objective is to try and show the scholars of the field that the macro-economic problems must be viewed in this light, and not through the static scheme used so far. The equilibrium is met not only when the aggregate demand and aggregate supply curves are met, meaning when the aggregate expenditure are equal to aggregate production, but it exists at every moment, independently of whether it is consistent or not, while the pricing trends continue to increase, similar to two other aggregates. The understanding of such a situation should give the possibility to governments and other policy-making institutions to review their positions and relations with monetary and fiscal indicators, in a view of making the organic connection, and increasing their working effectiveness. The paper aims to show how one can define the relation between monetary and fiscal policies necessary to see their role and relevance in the economic growth of a country.

  2. Student’s critical thinking skills in authentic problem based learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliati, L.; Fauziah, R.; Hidayat, A.

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to determine students’ critical thinking skills in authentic problem based learning, especially on geometric optics. The study was conducted at the vocational school. The study used a quantitative descriptive method with the open question to measure critical thinking skills. The indicators of critical thinking skills measured in this study are: formulating problems, providing simple answers, applying formulas and procedures, analyzing information, making conclusions, and synthesizing ideas. The results showed that there was a positive change in students’ critical thinking skills with the average value of N-Gain test is 0.59 and effect size test is 3.73. The critical thinking skills of students need to be trained more intensively using authentic problems in daily life.

  3. Pengembangan Critical Thinking melalui Penerapan Model PBL (Problem Based Learning) dalam Pembelajaran Sains

    OpenAIRE

    Widowati, Asri

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines to explore how study by using model of Problem Based Learning ( PBL). Basically, this discussion is focussed at model of PBL as an effort in developing cognitive ability, especially critical thinking.Critical thinking including ability think high level (higher order of thinking) representing one of the component in issue intellegence of 21 st century ( Issue of The 21st literacy century). Development of ability of critical thinking in study of science of vital importance b...

  4. Problems in the Research Problem: Critical Feedback and Resistance in Academic Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehvilainen, Sanna

    2009-01-01

    The paper focuses on a routine activity of academic supervision: Giving and receiving feedback based on the student's master's thesis manuscript. Two case analyses are presented on fundamentally critical feedback. Such feedback constitutes a recommendation to the student to seriously rethink the thesis, but there are various interactional…

  5. Criticality Safety Problems Related to Storage of Highly Active Liquid Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, E.

    1999-01-01

    The geometries of liquid waste storage tanks are not generally safe against criticality. Normally, this does not cause problems as fissile materials exist in nitric acid solution only as depleted uranium or in insignificant concentration of the originally reprocessed inventory of plutonium. However, if sedimentation of solid particles would occur, the deposited material would cause criticality safety problems. Particularly, non-horizontal installation of the storage tanks would increase the Eigen value. The effect of the storage tank inclination and the presence of transplutonium elements on the criticality safety are investigated using the NCNSRC code packages. The results are compared well with a similar German published results

  6. Analysis Critical Thinking Stage of Eighth Grade in PBL-Scaffolding Setting To Solve Mathematical Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Aisyah Isti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was described critical thinking stage of students grade VIII in setting PBL and scaffolding to solve mathematics problems. Critical thinking stage consists of clarification, assesment, inference, and strategy/tactics. The subject were teo students in the level of capacity to think critical (uncritical, less critical, quite critical, and critical. So that this research subject was 8 students in VIII A One State Junior High School of Temanggung. The result showed a description (1 critical thinking stage of students in setting PBL, in clarification the higher level of capacity to think critical students, students can identification information from question fully, can identificatio problem became detailed, and can explored the relationship among the information; (2 a strategy of scaffolding were given by critical thinking stage and TKBK, in assesment, scaffolding had given was given hint/key classically; and (3 transformation characteristic of the critical thinking stage of students after given scaffolding, it because of habituation in setting PBL and scaffolding.

  7. Leveling of Critical Thinking Abilities of Students of Mathematics Education in Mathematical Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasiman

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to determine the leveling of critical thinking abilities of students of mathematics education in mathematical problem solving. It includes qualitative-explorative study that was conducted at University of PGRI Semarang. The generated data in the form of information obtained problem solving question and interview guides. The…

  8. An approximate solution of the two-group critical problem for reflected slabs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Y.; Garcia, R.D.M.

    1977-01-01

    A new approximation is developed to solve two group slab problems involving two media where one of the media is infinite. The method consists in combining the P sub(L) approximation with invariance principles. Several numerical results are reported for the critical slab problem [pt

  9. Problem-Based Learning Pedagogy Fosters Students' Critical Thinking about Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rita; Refaei, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    Convinced of the power of PBL to promote students' critical thinking as demonstrated by its application across disciplines, we designed a series of problems for students in a second-year writing course. We collected samples of their writing before and after implementation of the problems. We were concerned about whether PBL pedagogy would…

  10. How Activists and Media Frame Social Problems: Critical Events versus Performance Trends for Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pride, Richard A.

    1995-01-01

    Focuses on the process by which a social problem is redefined in response to a critical events, such as economic depressions, environmental disasters, intense physical confrontations, or strategic initiatives by a social movement organization. Examines a conservative movement's attempt to redefine "the problem" of the schools at the time…

  11. The cognitive relevance of Indigenous and rural: Why is it critical to survival?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassam, Karim-Aly S.; Avery, Leanne M.; Ruelle, Morgan L.

    2017-03-01

    Using two case studies of children's knowledge, this paper sheds light on the value, diversity, and necessity of Indigenous and place-based knowledge to science and engineering curricula in rural areas. Rural contexts are rich environments for cultivating contextual knowledge, hence framing a critical pedagogy of teaching and learning. Indigenous and rural place-based knowledge are nuanced and pragmatic in character, and offer solutions to both local and global challenges. Two case studies, drawn from the experience of Lakota and Dakota communities and rural New York State, demonstrate the need to conserve, transmit, and contribute to Indigenous and rural knowledge through experiential and place-based education that bridges the gap between children's knowledge and global STEM. This knowledge is inherently diverse in its complexity and connectivity to habitat, and when viewed in this light, has the capacity to transform our perspectives on educational practices and policies as well as our overall outlook on conserving both ecological as well as cultural diversity worldwide. Because diversity and knowledge are necessary for the survival of life on this planet, an enriched concept of pedagogical pluralism, in terms of multiple ways of knowing, is a necessity.

  12. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation: impact on signaling and relevance to critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattick, John S A; Kamisoglu, Kubra; Ierapetritou, Marianthi G; Androulakis, Ioannis P; Berthiaume, Francois

    2013-01-01

    The changes that occur in mammalian systems following trauma and sepsis, termed systemic inflammatory response syndrome, elicit major changes in carbohydrate, protein, and energy metabolism. When these events persist for too long they result in a severe depletion of lean body mass, multiple organ dysfunction, and eventually death. Nutritional supplementation has been investigated to offset the severe loss of protein, and recent evidence suggests that diets enriched in branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) may be especially beneficial. BCAAs are metabolized in two major steps that are differentially expressed in muscle and liver. In muscle, BCAAs are reversibly transaminated to the corresponding α-keto acids. For the complete degradation of BCAAs, the α-keto acids must travel to the liver to undergo oxidation. The liver, in contrast to muscle, does not significantly express the branched-chain aminotransferase. Thus, BCAA degradation is under the joint control of both liver and muscle. Recent evidence suggests that in liver, BCAAs may perform signaling functions, more specifically via activation of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signaling pathway, influencing a wide variety of metabolic and synthetic functions, including protein translation, insulin signaling, and oxidative stress following severe injury and infection. However, understanding of the system-wide effects of BCAAs that integrate both metabolic and signaling aspects is currently lacking. Further investigation in this respect will help rationalize the design and optimization of nutritional supplements containing BCAAs for critically ill patients. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The Influence of Open Goals on the Acquisition of Problem-Relevant Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Jarrod; Kotovsky, Kenneth; Cagan, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    There have been a number of recent findings indicating that unsolved problems, or open goals more generally, influence cognition even when the current task has no relation to the task in which the goal was originally set. It was hypothesized that open goals would influence what information entered the problem-solving process. Three studies were…

  14. On solution to the problem of criticality by alternative Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyncl, J.

    2005-03-01

    The problem of criticality for the neutron transport equation is analyzed. The problem is transformed into an equivalent problem in a suitable set of complex functions, and the existence and uniqueness of its solution is demonstrated. The source iteration method is discussed. It is shown that the final result of the iterative process is strongly affected by the insufficient accuracy of the individual iterations. A modified method is suggested to circumvent this problem based on the theory of positive operators; the criticality problem is solved by the Monte Carlo method constructing special random process and variable so that the difference between the result and the true value can be arbitrarily small. The efficiency of this alternative method is analysed

  15. Stem cell therapy for joint problems using the horse as a clinically relevant animal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Thomas Gadegaard; Betts, Dean H.

    2007-01-01

    of experimentally induced lesions. The horse lends itself as a good animal model of spontaneous joint disorders that are clinically relevant to similar human disorders. Equine stem cell and tissue engineering studies may be financially feasible to principal investigators and small biotechnology companies...

  16. Uncertainty quantification for criticality problems using non-intrusive and adaptive Polynomial Chaos techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilli, L.; Lathouwers, D.; Kloosterman, J.L.; Hagen, T.H.J.J. van der; Koning, A.J.; Rochman, D.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Non-intrusive spectral techniques are applied to perform UQ of criticality problems. ► A new adaptive algorithm based on the definition of sparse grid is derived. ► The method is applied to two reference criticality problems. - Abstract: In this paper we present the implementation and the application of non-intrusive spectral techniques for uncertainty analysis of criticality problems. Spectral techniques can be used to reconstruct stochastic quantities of interest by means of a Fourier-like expansion. Their application to uncertainty propagation problems can be performed in a non-intrusive fashion by evaluating a set of projection integrals that are used to reconstruct the spectral expansion. This can be done either by using standard Monte Carlo integration approaches or by adopting numerical quadrature rules. We present the derivation of a new adaptive quadrature algorithm, based on the definition of a sparse grid, which can be used to reduce the computational cost associated with non-intrusive spectral techniques. This new adaptive algorithm and the Monte Carlo integration alternative are then applied to two reference problems. First, a stochastic multigroup diffusion problem is introduced by considering the microscopic cross-sections of the system to be random quantities. Then a criticality benchmark is defined for which a set of resonance parameters in the resolved region are assumed to be stochastic

  17. Pharmaceutical products as emerging contaminant in water: relevance for developing nations and identification of critical compounds for Indian environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnaiyan, Prakash; Thampi, Santosh G; Kumar, Mathava; Mini, K M

    2018-04-17

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are contaminants of emerging concern and have been detected worldwide in water bodies in trace concentrations. Most of these emerging contaminants are not regulated in water quality standards except a few in the developed countries. In the case of developing countries, research in this direction is at a nascent stage. For the effective management of Pharmaceutical contaminants (PC) in developing countries, the relevance of PCs as an emerging contaminant has to be analyzed followed by regular monitoring of the environment. Considering the resource constraints, this could be accomplished by identifying the priority compounds which is again region specific and dependent on consumption behavior and pattern. In this work, relevance of pharmaceutical compound as emerging contaminant in water for a developing country like India is examined by considering the data pertaining to pharmaceutical consumption data. To identify the critical Pharmaceutical Contaminants to be monitored in the Indian environment, priority compounds from selected prioritization methods were screened with the compounds listed in National List of Essential Medicine (NLEM), India. Further, information on the number of publications on the compound as an emerging contaminant, data on monitoring studies in India and the number of brands marketing the compound in India were also analyzed. It is found that out of 195 compounds from different prioritization techniques, only 77 compounds were found relevant to India based on NLEM sorting.

  18. "Problem of generations": Origins, content and continuing relevance of Karl Mannheim’s article

    OpenAIRE

    Kuljić Todor

    2007-01-01

    The article presents a brief history of the concept of generations. It focuses on Karl Mannheim’s article "Problems of Generations" (1928), its social origins and theoretical content. Mannheim’s role was crucial in 20th century development of the (new) concept of generation. In order to understand the problem of social (historical) generations and evaluate Mannheim’s position within the concept’s development, several points are discussed in more detail: the history of the concept of "generati...

  19. Critical Thinking Skills of an Eighth Grade Male Student with High Mathematical Ability in Solving Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to describe student’s critical thinking skill of grade VIII in solving mathematical problem. A qualitative research was conducted to a male student with high mathematical ability. Student’s critical thinking skill was obtained from a depth task-based interview. The result show that male student’s critical thinking skill of the student as follows. In understanding the problem, the student did categorization, significance decoding, and meaning clarification. In devising a plan he examined his ideas, detected his argument, analyzed his argument and evaluated his argument. During the implementation phase, the skill that appeared were analyzing of the argument and inference skill such as drawing conclusion, deliver alternative thinking, and problem solving skills. At last, in rechecking all the measures, they did self-correcting and self-examination.

  20. Student’s Critical Thinking in Solving Open-Ended Problems Based on Their Personality Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriana, L. D.; Fuad, Y.; Ekawati, R.

    2018-01-01

    Critical thinking plays an important role for students in solving open-ended problems. This research aims at describing student’s critical thinking in solving open-ended problems based on Keirsey’s personality types, namely rational, idealist, guardian, and artisan. Four students, with the higher rank in the mathematics’ test and representing each type of Keirsey personality, were selected as the research subjects. The data were collected from the geometry problem and interviews. The student’s critical thinking is described based on the FRISCO criteria. The result underlines that rational and idealist students fulfilled all FRISCO criteria, and but not for guardian and artisan students. Related to the inference criteria, guardian and artisan students could not make reasonable conclusions and connect the concepts. Related to the reason of criteria, rational student performed critical thinking by providing logical reason that supported his strategy to solve the problem. In contrast, the idealist student provided subjective reason. This results suggest that teachers should frequently train the students’ logical thinkingin every lesson and activity to develop student’s critical thinking and take the student’s personality character into account, especially for guardian and artisan students.

  1. The limited relevance of analytical ethics to the problems of bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, R L

    1990-04-01

    Philosophical ethics comprises metaethics, normative ethics and applied ethics. These have characteristically received analytic treatment by twentieth-century Anglo-American philosophy. But there has been disagreement over their interrelationship to one another and the relationship of analytical ethics to substantive morality--the making of moral judgments. I contend that the expertise philosophers have in either theoretical or applied ethics does not equip them to make sounder moral judgments on the problems of bioethics than nonphilosophers. One cannot "apply" theories like Kantianism or consequentialism to get solutions to practical moral problems unless one knows which theory is correct, and that is a metaethical question over which there is no consensus. On the other hand, to presume to be able to reach solutions through neutral analysis of problems is unavoidably to beg controversial theoretical issues in the process. Thus, while analytical ethics can play an important clarificatory role in bioethics, it can neither provide, nor substitute for, moral wisdom.

  2. Finite Blaschke products with prescribed critical points, Stieltjes polynomials, and moment problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmler, Gunter; Wegert, Elias

    2017-09-01

    The determination of a finite Blaschke product from its critical points is a well-known problem with interrelations to several other topics. Though existence and uniqueness of solutions are established for long, we present new aspects which have not yet been explored to their full extent. In particular, we show that the following three problems are equivalent: (i) determining a finite Blaschke product from its critical points, (ii) finding the equilibrium position of moveable point charges interacting with a special configuration of fixed charges, and (iii) solving a moment problem for the canonical representation of power moments on the real axis. These equivalences are not only of theoretical interest, but also open up new perspectives for the design of algorithms. For instance, the second problem is closely linked to the determination of certain Stieltjes and Van Vleck polynomials for a second order ODE and characterizes solutions as global minimizers of an energy functional.

  3. The Portrayal of Indonesian Image in 2007 Kompas Selected Short Stories: Social Problems, Criticisms and Hopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akun Akun

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Article aimed at exploring social problems reflected in 15 selected short stories printed in Kompas during 2007 both explicitly and implicitly. Specifically, this research is focused on the mapping of dominant social problems raised by the short stories, the social criticisms strongly voiced by the authors and the hopes of a better situation implicitly reflected in these interesting short stories. This study applies the Defamiliarization Effect promoted by Bertolt Brecht and Negative Dialectics or Negative Knowledge by Theodor Adorno, specifically in analyzing the literary works as a criticism tool. The result of the research shows that phenomena of social problems current lately in Indonesian context like identity, poverty, corruption, religious tensions, moral degradation, politics dirtiness, minority group problems, social security, natural disasters and the like are clearly seen and teased in these writings.

  4. Application of the HN method to the critical slab problem for reflecting boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuereci, R.G.; Guelecyuez, M.C.; Kaskas, A.; Tezcan, C.

    2004-01-01

    The recently developed H N method is used to solve the critical slab problem for a slab which is surrounded by a reflector. In the special case for R=0 (the reflection coefficient) the problem reduces to the one under vacuum boundary conditions. It is shown that the method is concise and leads to fast converging numerical results. The presented numerical results are compared with the data available in literature

  5. The Problems in Chinese Government Financial Information Disclosure and Relevant Proposals

    OpenAIRE

    Zhe Wang

    2016-01-01

    Government financial information is an important part of government information, fully reporting the operational efficiency and the place where government puts tax onto. This paper analyses the problems in Chinese government financial information disclosure and the necessity of reform in detail. It also provides several proposals for the improvement of Chinese governmental financial report and financial information disclosure system.

  6. The Problems in Chinese Government Financial Information Disclosure and Relevant Proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Government financial information is an important part of government information, fully reporting the operational efficiency and the place where government puts tax onto. This paper analyses the problems in Chinese government financial information disclosure and the necessity of reform in detail. It also provides several proposals for the improvement of Chinese governmental financial report and financial information disclosure system.

  7. Relevance of control theory to design and maintenance problems in time-variant reliability: The case of stochastic viability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rougé, Charles; Mathias, Jean-Denis; Deffuant, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is twofold: (1) to show that time-variant reliability and a branch of control theory called stochastic viability address similar problems with different points of view, and (2) to demonstrate the relevance of concepts and methods from stochastic viability in reliability problems. On the one hand, reliability aims at evaluating the probability of failure of a system subjected to uncertainty and stochasticity. On the other hand, viability aims at maintaining a controlled dynamical system within a survival set. When the dynamical system is stochastic, this work shows that a viability problem belongs to a specific class of design and maintenance problems in time-variant reliability. Dynamic programming, which is used for solving Markovian stochastic viability problems, then yields the set of design states for which there exists a maintenance strategy which guarantees reliability with a confidence level β for a given period of time T. Besides, it leads to a straightforward computation of the date of the first outcrossing, informing on when the system is most likely to fail. We illustrate this approach with a simple example of population dynamics, including a case where load increases with time. - Highlights: • Time-variant reliability tools cannot devise complex maintenance strategies. • Stochastic viability is a control theory that computes a probability of failure. • Some design and maintenance problems are stochastic viability problems. • Used in viability, dynamic programming can find reliable maintenance actions. • Confronting reliability and control theories such as viability is promising

  8. Case Studies in Critical Ecoliteracy: A Curriculum for Analyzing the Social Foundations of Environmental Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Rita; Donnelly, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines the features and application of a set of model curriculum materials that utilize eco-democratic principles and humanities-based content to cultivate critical analysis of the cultural foundations of socio-environmental problems. We first describe the goals and components of the materials, then discuss results of their use in…

  9. Empathy and Critical Thinking: Primary Students Solving Local Environmental Problems through Outdoor Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampuero, David; Miranda, Christian E.; Delgado, Luisa E.; Goyen, Samantha; Weaver, Sean

    2015-01-01

    The present study explores the outcomes of teaching empathy and critical thinking to solve environmental problems. This investigation was done throughout the duration of an environmental education course within a primary school located in central Chile. A community-based research methodology was used to understand the formation of empathy and…

  10. Reflective Learning and Prospective Teachers' Conceptual Understanding, Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Mathematical Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junsay, Merle L.

    2016-01-01

    This is a quasi-experimental study that explored the effects of reflective learning on prospective teachers' conceptual understanding, critical thinking, problem solving, and mathematical communication skills and the relationship of these variables. It involved 60 prospective teachers from two basic mathematics classes of an institution of higher…

  11. Creative and Critical Thinking Skills in Problem-Based Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgili, Bengi

    2015-01-01

    Creative and critical thinking skills are the abilities, which can sometimes be used interchangeably in definition. In fact, they have different constructs because they differentiate in outcome of human behaviours. Also one of today's requirements is that individuals should approach everyday problems by using both competences. So, one of the…

  12. Critical Analysis of the Problems of Education in Pakistan: Possible Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Iqbal; ur Rehman, Kahil; Ali, Asghar; Khan, Itbar; Khan, Fazal Akber

    2014-01-01

    Education lays the foundation for political, social and economic development of any country. A viable education system enables the nation to achieve its national goals. Pakistan as a developing country has faced critical problems of education since its inception and therefore, the system of education has failed to deliver according to the…

  13. A Critical Rationalist Inquiry of Managerial Epistemology. Toward the Confrontation of the Unawareness Problem.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faran, Doron; Faran, D.

    2011-01-01

    This study applies Critical Rationalism (CR), a stance associated with the philosophy of science, to solve a practical problem: management unawareness. Managers (as any other human being) hold a theory through which they explain the world and rationalize their decisions. Like any other theory, the

  14. Improving Critical Thinking Skills Using Learning Model Logan Avenue Problem Solving (LAPS)-Heuristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggrianto, Desi; Churiyah, Madziatul; Arief, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This research was conducted in order to know the effect of Logan Avenue Problem Solving (LAPS)-Heuristic learning model towards critical thinking skills of students of class X Office Administration (APK) in SMK Negeri 1 Ngawi, East Java, Indonesia on material curve and equilibrium of demand and supply, subject Introduction to Economics and…

  15. Interpersonal problems, dependency, and self-criticism in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinger, Ulrike; Barrett, Marna S; Zimmermann, Johannes; Schauenburg, Henning; Wright, Aidan G C; Renner, Fritz; Zilcha-Mano, Sigal; Barber, Jacques P

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present research was the examination of overlap between 2 research traditions on interpersonal personality traits in major depression. We hypothesized that Blatt's (2004) dimensions of depressive experiences around the dimensions of relatedness (i.e., dependency) and self-definition (i.e., self-criticism) are associated with specific interpersonal problems according to the interpersonal circumplex model (Leary, 1957). In addition, we examined correlations of interpersonal characteristics with depression severity. Analyses were conducted on 283 patients with major depressive disorder combined from 2 samples. Of the patients, 151 participated in a randomized controlled trial in the United States, and 132 patients were recruited in an inpatient unit in Germany. Patients completed measures of symptomatic distress, interpersonal problems, and depressive experiences. Dependency was associated with more interpersonal problems related to low dominance and high affiliation, while self-criticism was associated with more interpersonal problems related to low affiliation. These associations were independent of depression severity. Self-criticism showed high overlap with cognitive symptoms of depression. The findings support the interpersonal nature of Blatt's dimensions of depressive experiences. Self-criticism is associated with being too distant or cold toward others as well as greater depression severity, but is not related to the dimension of dominance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Combined effects of changing-sign potential and critical nonlinearities in Kirchhoff type problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao-Sheng Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study the existence and multiplicity of positive solutions for a class of Kirchhoff type problems involving changing-sign potential and critical growth terms. Using the concentration compactness principle and Nehari manifold, we obtain the existence and multiplicity of nonzero non-negative solutions.

  17. The Kantian Attempt to Solve the Mind-Body Problem. A Critical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Jesús Teruel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The mind-body problem is one of the perennial challenges in the history of ideas. Immanuel Kant (1724-1804 tried to solve it through an approach with several modulations –parallel to his intellectual evolution– that brought him into contact with both the later projection of the theoretical issue (the mind brain problem and its practical side (the immortality question. In this paper I face the Kantian approach to the mind-body problem from a triple perspective: descriptive, appraising and critical.

  18. Investigation of matter enhanced neutrino oscillations relevant to the solar neutrino problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losecco, J.M.; Bionta, R.M.; Casper, D.; Claus, R.; Errede, S.; Foster, G.; Park, H.S.; Seidel, S.; Shumard, E.; Sinclair, D.; Stone, J.L.; Sulak, L.; Van der Velde, J.C.; Blewitt, G.; Cortez, B.; Lehmann, E.; Bratton, C.B.; Gajewski, W.; Ganezer, K.S.; Haines, T.J.; Kropp, W.R.; Reines, F.; Schultz, J.; Sobel, H.W.; Wuest, C.; Goldhaber, M.; Jones, T.W.; Kielczewska, D.; Learned, J.G.; Svoboda, R.

    1987-01-01

    We study the effect of matter enhanced neutrino oscillations on atmospheric neutrinos. A recently proposed solution to the solar neutrino problem with Δm 2 =1.1x10 -4 eV 2 suggests enhanced effects in the range 200 MeV-500 MeV. We find no evidence of this effect for ν μ ??ν e mixing. Limits are set on the magnitude of the mixing angle. Our limit is sin θ V <0.14 at 90% confidence level. The limit is dominated by statistical errors and may be improved. (orig.)

  19. The Impacts of 'Problem-Based Learning’ Approach in Enhancing Critical Thinking Skills to Teaching Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mairas Abd Rahman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Teaching can be challenging task especially when the students are categorized as reluctant readers, low self-motivated and lack of critical thinking skills. Therefore, this study focuses on a successful problem-based learning approach on university course called ‘Literature for Language Purposes' taken by Bachelor of English with Communication students at a local Malaysian university. The aim of this study is to investigate the impacts of carrying out problem-based learning in teaching literature. The project involved 55 undergraduates and part of their major course assignments was to organize and participate in an annual English language drama competition. The data was collected through students’ reflective journals, researchers’ reflective journals, response from end of semester questionnaire given and, lecturers’ evaluation on FILA tables. The findings show that problem-based learning is suitable and beneficial in teaching and enhancing critical thinking skills.

  20. How mental health nurses improve their critical thinking through problem-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Tsui-Mei; Tang, Lee-Chun; Ko, Chen-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Critical thinking has been regarded as one of the most important elements for nurses to improve quality of patient care. The aim of this study was to use problem-based learning (PBL) as a method in a continuing education program to evaluate nurses' critical thinking skills. A quasiexperimental study design was carried out. The "Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory" in Chinese was used for data collection. The results indicated significant improvement after PBL continuous education, notably in the dimensions of systematic analysis and curiosity. Content analysis extracted four themes: (a) changes in linear thinking required, (b) logical and systematic thinking required performance improved, (3) integration of prior knowledge and clinical application, and (4) brainstorming learning strategy. The study supports PBL as a continuing education strategy for mental health nurses, and that systematic analysis and curiosity effectively facilitate the development of critical thinking.

  1. Crack problem in superconducting cylinder with exponential distribution of critical-current density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yufeng; Xu, Chi; Shi, Liang

    2018-04-01

    The general problem of a center crack in a long cylindrical superconductor with inhomogeneous critical-current distribution is studied based on the extended Bean model for zero-field cooling (ZFC) and field cooling (FC) magnetization processes, in which the inhomogeneous parameter η is introduced for characterizing the critical-current density distribution in inhomogeneous superconductor. The effect of the inhomogeneous parameter η on both the magnetic field distribution and the variations of the normalized stress intensity factors is also obtained based on the plane strain approach and J-integral theory. The numerical results indicate that the exponential distribution of critical-current density will lead a larger trapped field inside the inhomogeneous superconductor and cause the center of the cylinder to fracture more easily. In addition, it is worth pointing out that the nonlinear field distribution is unique to the Bean model by comparing the curve shapes of the magnetization loop with homogeneous and inhomogeneous critical-current distribution.

  2. Developing critical reflection for professional practice through problem-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B

    2001-04-01

    To explore the influence of current learning traditions in nursing on the development of reflection and critical reflection as professional practice skills and to offer suggestions for nursing education that will specifically facilitate the development of critical reflection. ORGANIZATIONAL CONSTRUCTS: Mezirow's transformative learning theory, Barrows conceptualization of problem-based learning (PBL). Integrative literature review of published literature related to nursing, health science education and professional education from 1983-2000. Professional education scholars concur that specialized knowledge is clearly essential for professional practice, however, they also suggest that self-consciousness (reflection) and continual self-critique (critical reflection) are crucial to continued competence. While strategies to facilitate reflection have been outlined in the literature, specific strategies to facilitate the development of critical reflection and implications for nursing education are much less clear. Advocates of reflective and critically reflective practice suggest that the development of these abilities should be inextricably linked to professional development and can be developed through active repeated guided practice. In health care, PBL based on constructivism, has been identified as one way to facilitate the development of these skills. Nursing learners exposed to PBL develop the ability to be reflective and critically reflective in their learning and acquire the knowledge and skill within the discipline of nursing by encountering key professional practice situations as the stimulus and focus of their classroom learning. The learners' ability to be both reflective and critically reflective in their learning is developed by critical questioning of the faculty tutor during situational analysis, learning need determination, application of knowledge, critique of resources and personal problem-solving processes, and summarization of what was learned.

  3. Metaphor and the 'Emergent Property' Problem: A Relevance-Theoretic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Carston

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The interpretation of metaphorical utterances often results in the attribution of emergent properties; these are properties which are neither standardly associated with the individual constituents of the utterance in isolation nor derivable by standard rules of semantic composition. For example, an utterance of ‘Robert is a bulldozer’ may be understood as attributing to Robert such properties as single-mindedness, insistence on having things done in his way, and insensitivity to the opinions/feelings of others, although none of these is included in the encyclopaedic information associated with bulldozers (earth-clearing machines. An adequate pragmatic account of metaphor interpretation must provide an explanation of the processes through which emergent properties are derived. In this paper, we attempt to develop an explicit account of the derivation process couched within the framework of relevance theory. The key features of our account are: (a metaphorical language use is taken to lie on a continuum with other cases of loose use, including hyperbole; (b metaphor interpretation is a wholly inferential process, which does not require associative mappings from one domain (e.g. machines to another (e.g. human beings; (c the derivation of emergent properties involves no special interpretive mechanisms not required for the interpretation of ordinary, literal utterances.

  4. PROBLEMS OF HOMOSEXUALITY PERCEPTION IN MODERN RUSSIA: GROUNDS OF THE RELEVANT DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Vadimovich Kortunov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2013, the State Duma of the Russian Federation adopted the Federal Law «On the prohibition of propaganda of nontraditional sexual relations among minors», which provoked a lot of discussions in the media between sexual minorities and their opponents: the former began to criticize this law as the one prejudicing their rights, the latter after a long silence renewed their attacks against homosexuals. It served as a basis for sociologists to assume that homophobia is reviving in Russia. In the article we made an attempt to see into the arguments of opponents of nontraditional sexual orientation and to trace the belief origins of «Russian homophobia». To do this, the authors of this scoping study are trying to answer the following questions: is it correct to justify homosexuality as a norm of behavior, referring to homosexual behavior of animals, to what extent is homosexuality due to the norms of the Russian culture, what its contribution to the art, what do the world religions say about same-sex relationships, what is its impact on the society development, what is the opinion of modern medicine on this phenomenon. In this paper the authors attempt to reproduce the arguments of homophobic logic, which is so widespread in today’s Russia, to understand its origins and ideological grounds. This is done solely in order to find compromises and to develop balanced, tolerant positions from both sides. The authors hope that the ideas expressed in this article will be helpful in the matter of resolving such significant socio-cultural issue as the opposition of homo- and heterosexuals, and will make a modest contribution to the protection of human rights and freedoms in the Russian Federation.

  5. Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Skills in Mathematics of Grade-7 Public Secondary Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil C. Alcantara

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to assess the academic performance, critical thinking skills, and problem solving skills in mathematics of Grade-7 students in the five central public secondary schools of Area 2, Division of Batangas, Philippines. This study utilized descriptive method of research. Three hundred forty one (341 students of the public secondary schools out of the total of 2,324 Grade-7 students were selected through systematic random sampling as the subjects of the study. It was found out that the level of performance in Mathematics of the Grade-7 students is proficient. The level of critical thinking skills of students from the different schools is above average as well as their level of problem solving skills. The mathematics performance of the students is positively correlated to their level of critical thinking skills and problem solving skills. Students considered the following learning competencies in the different content areas of Grade-7 Mathematics as difficult to master: solving problems involving sets, describing the development of measurement from the primitive to the present international system of units, finding a solution of an equation or inequality involving one variable, using compass and straightedge to bisect line segments and angles, and analyzing, interpreting accurately and drawing conclusions from graphic and tabular presentations of statistical data.

  6. The Effects of Problem-Based Learning on Pre-Service Teachers' Critical Thinking Dispositions and Perceptions of Problem-Solving Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temel, Senar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was two-fold. The first aim was to determine the levels of critical thinking disposition and perception of problem-solving ability of pre-service teachers. The second aim was to compare the effects of problem-based learning and traditional teaching methods on the critical thinking dispositions and perceptions of…

  7. Criticality problems for slabs and spheres in energy dependent neutron transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victory, H.D. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The steady-state equation for energy-dependent neutron transport in isotropically scattering slabs and spheres is formulated as an integral equation. The Perron-Frobenius-Jentzsch theory of positive operators is used to analyze criticality problems for transport in slab and spherical media consisting of core and reflector. In addition, with an adroit selection of diffusion-like solutions, this theory is used to obtain an expression relating the critical radius of a homogeneous sphere to a parameter characterizing fission production. 21 refs

  8. Problem based learning and involvement in off campus organization enhance students’ critical participation behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Lestari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim Developing students’ critical thinking and critical participation in solving patients’ as well as a community’s problem should become the concern of medical education. This study aimed to identify several factors related to medical students’ critical participation behavior.Methods The subjects consisted of students of Sultan Agung Medical School (Unissula, year entry 2005, 2006, and 2007. Critical participation behavior was assessed using modified EMI: Critical Thinking Disposition Assessment. Relative risks (RR were calculated using Cox regression analysis with constant time.Results 64,6% (388 out of 600 of the students participated in this study. Those who were involved in PBL for two and three years, rather than one year, had twice as high good critical thinking behavior [adjusted relative risk (RR = 2.07; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.37–3.14; and RR = 2.33; 95% CI = 155–3.49, respectively.] Students who were more involved in off-campus organizations had a good critical participation behavior; 75% higher than those who were not involved in off-campus organizations (RR = 1.75; 95% CI = 0.99–3.11.Conclusion Besides involving in PBL learning approach, students should be motivated to be involved in off-campus organizations in order to improve their critical participation behavior (Med J Indones 2009;18:215-20Key words: critical participation behavior, PBL, off-campus organization

  9. Renormalization group in the theory of fully developed turbulence. Problem of the infrared relevant corrections to the Navier-Stokes equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonov, N.V.; Borisenok, S.V.; Girina, V.I.

    1996-01-01

    Within the framework of the renormalization group approach to the theory of fully developed turbulence we consider the problem of possible IR relevant corrections to the Navier-Stokes equation. We formulate an exact criterion of the actual IR relevance of the corrections. In accordance with this criterion we verify the IR relevance for certain classes of composite operators. 17 refs., 2 tabs

  10. Guided-inquiry based laboratory instruction: Investigation of critical thinking skills, problem solving skills, and implementing student roles in chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Tanya

    Recent initiatives in the laboratory curriculum have encouraged an inquiry-based approach to learning and teaching in the laboratory. It has been argued that laboratory instruction should not just be hands-on, but it should portray the essence of inquiry through the process of experiential learning and reflective engagement in collaboration with peers and in facilitation by the instructor. A student-centered active learning approach may be an effective way to enhance student understanding of concepts in the laboratory. The dissertation research work explores the impact of laboratory instruction and its relevance for college-level chemistry. Each chapter is different from the preceding chapter in terms of the purpose of the study and the research questions asked. However, the overarching idea is to address the importance of guided-inquiry based laboratory instruction in chemistry and its relevance in helping students to make connections with the chemistry content and in imparting skills to students. Such skills include problem solving, collaborative group work and critical thinking. The first research study (Chapter 2) concerns the impact of first year co-requisite general chemistry laboratory instruction on the problem-solving skills of students. The second research study (Chapter 3) examines the impact of implementing student roles also known as Student-Led Instructor Facilitated Guided-Inquiry based Laboratories, SLIFGIL) by modifying the Science Writing Heuristic approach of laboratory instruction. In the third research study (Chapter 4), critical thinking skills of first semester general chemistry laboratory students were compared to advanced (third or fourth year) chemistry laboratory students based on the analysis of their laboratory reports.

  11. A critical evaluation of the UK SunSmart campaign and its relevance to Black and minority ethnic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyebanjo, Evelyn; Bushell, Fiona

    2014-05-01

    Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the United Kingdom and is rising to epidemic proportions. While the majority of skin cancers are treatable, malignant melanoma kills over 2,000 people in the United Kingdom each year, with all skin cancers killing a total of more than 2,500 people annually. SunSmart, the United Kingdom's major skin cancer public health initiative, was implemented to raise awareness about sun exposure and to promote sun safety behaviours. However, it has failed to curb the incidence and mortality rates. Furthermore, while Australia has the highest skin cancer incidence rates globally, the mortality rates are lower than those in the United Kingdom. There has also been a growing amount of evidence demonstrating ethnic disparities in skin cancer survival rates. Even though incidence rates of skin cancer among Black and minority ethnic (BME) groups are significantly lower, it is often diagnosed late, resulting in higher mortality rates. This, coupled with climate change and the proportion of BME groups expected to rise in the United Kingdom from 8% to 20% by 2051, raises public health concerns. This article aims to critically analyse the UK SunSmart campaign's success in addressing skin cancer in the population and in particular its relevance to BME communities. It also compares this approach with the Australian campaign. This article demonstrates that Australia's campaign has been more successful than the United Kingdom's due to their more comprehensive application of health promotion and public health principles.

  12. Standard problem exercise to validate criticality codes for spent LWR fuel transport container calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitesides, G.H.; Stephens, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    During the past two years, a Working Group established by the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development's Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD-NEA) has been developing a set of criticality benchmark problems which could be used to help establish the validity of criticality safety computer programs and their associated nuclear data for calculation of ksub(eff) for spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel transport containers. The basic goal of this effort was to identify a set of actual critical experiments which would contain the various material and geometric properties present in spent LWR transport contrainers. These data, when used by the various computational methods, are intended to demonstrate the ability of each method to accurately reproduce the experimentally measured ksub(eff) for the parameters under consideration

  13. The Effect of Problem Solving Task on Critical Reading of Intermediate EFL Learners in Iranian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Khalili Sabet

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The attempt in this study is to investigate the effect of teaching critical thinking through problem solving on  reading comprehension performance of EFL intermediate learners. In so doing, forty including twenty male and twenty female intermediate students studying English in an institute in Ardabil, Iran, were selected based on their scores on Preliminary English Test and assigned into control and experimental groups. Afterwards, the sample TOEFL reading comprehension pre-test was administered to both of these groups to ensure homogeneity. The learners in experimental group were taught through problem solving instruction and the learners in control group were taught through traditional method of instructing reading comprehension. After ten sessions of instruction, the same sample TOEFL reading comprehension as post-test was given to the learners to measure the possible differences between pre-test and post-test. The finding revealed teaching problem solving had statistically significant effect on EFL learners reading comprehension performance. Conclusion can be drawn to confirm that teaching critical thinking through problem solving bring better understanding of the text.

  14. Understanding the Relationship Between Sports-Relevant Gambling and Being At-Risk for a Gambling Problem Among American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchica, Loredana; Zhao, Yaxi; Derevensky, Jeffrey; Ivoska, William

    2017-06-01

    Fantasy sports is a growing industry with a reported 56.8 million individuals participating in the United States and Canada alone in 2015. Whereas this activity has attracted considerable public attention, little research has examined its impact on adolescents in spite of their high rates of gambling. The current study examined the relationship between regular participation (more than once a month) in sport-relevant gambling activities among adolescents and those identified as being at-risk for a gambling problem. Questionnaire responses were collected from high school students (N = 6818; 49 % male) in Wood County, Ohio, United States. Statistical analyses revealed that regular involvement in sports betting, fantasy sports betting, and daily fantasy sports betting among adolescents was associated with a higher risk of gambling problems. Further, although males participate more frequently in these activities, females who participate have a stronger likelihood of being at-risk. Students aged 16-19 years old are at a higher risk for developing a gambling problem compared to younger adolescents when regularly engaging in sports-related gambling. Moreover, regularly participating in daily fantasy sports is the strongest predictor of at-risk gambling behavior in 13-15 year old students. A hierarchical logistic regression supports that controlling for gender and age, all forms of sport-relevant gambling activities are significant predictors of at-risk gambling. This study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of the impact of sports betting and fantasy sports on adolescents and establishes an initial step for future studies to further investigate these relationships.

  15. Examining the Relationship between Pre-Service Teachers' Critical Thinking Disposition, Problem Solving Skills and Teacher Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansoy, Ramazan; Türkoglu, Muhammet Emin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between the pre-service teachers' critical thinking disposition, problem-solving skills and self-efficacy beliefs. The participants of the study were 519 pre-service teachers from Afyon Kocatepe University, Education Faculty. Critical Thinking Disposition, Problem Solving Inventory, and…

  16. Investigating Pre-Service Science Teachers' Critical Thinking Dispositions and Problem Solving Skills in Terms of Different Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenice, Nilgun

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine pre-service science teachers' critical thinking dispositions and problem solving skills based on gender, grade level and graduated high school variables. Also relationship between pre-service science teachers' critical thinking dispositions and problem solving skills was examined based on gender, grade level and…

  17. Investigation of critical inter-related factors affecting the efficacy of pulsed light for inactivating clinically relevant bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, H P; Garvey, M; Cormican, M; Laffey, J G; Rowan, N J

    2010-05-01

    To investigate critical electrical and biological factors governing the efficacy of pulsed light (PL) for the in vitro inactivation of bacteria isolated from the clinical environment. Development of this alternative PL decontamination approach is timely, as the incidence of health care-related infections remains unacceptably high. Predetermined cell numbers of clinically relevant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were inoculated separately on agar plates and were flashed with lamp discharge energy (range 3.2-20 J per pulse), the amount of pulsing applied (range 0-60 pulses) and the distance between light source and treatment surface (range 8-20 cm) used. Greater decontamination levels were achieved using a combination of higher lamp discharge energies, increased number of pulses and shorter distances between treatment surface and the xenon light source. Levels of microbial sensitivity also varied depending on the population type, size and age of cultures treated. Production of pigment pyocynanin and alginate slime in mucoid strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa afforded some protection against lethal action of PL; however, this was evident only by using a combination of reduced amount of pulsing at the lower lamp discharge energies tested. A clear pattern was observed where Gram-positive bacterial pathogens were more resistant to cidal effects of PL compared to Gram negatives. While negligible photoreactivation of PL-treated bacterial strains occurred after full pulsing regimes at the different lamp discharge energies tested, some repair was evident when using a combination of reduced pulsing at the lower lamp discharge energies. Strains harbouring genes for multiple resistances to antibiotics were not significantly more resistant to PL treatments. Slight temperature rises (lamp discharge energies. Presence of organic matter on treatment surface did not significantly affect PL decontamination efficacy, nor did growth of PL-treated bacteria on selective agar

  18. Ask Not Only "What Can Problem-Based Learning Do for Psychology?" but "What Can Psychology Do for Problem-Based Learning?" A Review of the Relevance of Problem-Based Learning for Psychology Teaching and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Sally; Chiriac, Eva Hammar; Abbad, Gunvor Larsson; Pauli, Regina; Worrell, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is an internationally recognised pedagogical approach that is implemented within a number of disciplines. The relevance and uptake of PBL in psychology has to date, however, received very limited attention. The aim of this paper is therefore to review published accounts of how PBL is being used to deliver psychology…

  19. The British welfare state and mental health problems: the continuing relevance of the work of Claus Offe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, David

    2012-09-01

    It is now over thirty years since Claus Offe theorised the crisis tendencies of the welfare state in late capitalism. As part of that work he explored ongoing and irresolvable forms of crisis management in parliamentary democracies: capitalism cannot live with the welfare state but also cannot live without it. This article examines the continued relevance of this analysis by Offe, by applying its basic assumptions to the response of the British welfare state to mental health problems, at the turn of the twenty first century. His general theoretical abstractions are tested against the empirical picture of mental health service priorities, evident since the 1980s, in sections dealing with: re-commodification tendencies; the ambiguity of wage labour in the mental health workforce; the emergence of new social movements; and the limits of legalism. © 2012 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2012 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Application of calorimetry and thermodynamics to critical problems in materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atake, Tooru

    2009-01-01

    Calorimetry and thermodynamic studies have long been playing a very important role in the research fields of fundamental science and technology. Some topics and examples of thermodynamics studies are given, and the details are explained on the basis of the present author's experience, focusing attention to application of adiabatic calorimetry and thermodynamics to solve critical problems in materials science: (1) condensed gas calorimetry and third law entropy, (2) phase transition and polymorphism in simple molecular crystals, (3) incommensurate phase transitions, (4) particle size effects on the phase transitions in ferroelectric/ferroelastic crystals, (5) relaxor ferroelectrics and multi-ferroics, and some other topics in materials science and technology

  1. Analysis of critical thinking ability in direct current electrical problems solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartono; Sunarno, Widha; Sarwanto; Arya Nugraha, Dewanta

    2017-11-01

    This study concern on analyzing the ability of students in critical thinking skills on the subject matter of direct current electricity. Samples were taken using purposive random sampling consisted of 32 students of grade XI, Multimedia 1, SMK Negeri 3 Surakarta in academic year 2016/2017. This study used descriptive quantitative method. The data were collected using tests and interviews regarding the subject matter of direct current electricity. Based on the results, students are getting some difficulties in solving problem in indicator 4. The average of students’ correct answer is 62.8%.

  2. The criticality problem in reflected slab type reactor in the two-group transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, R.D.M.

    1978-01-01

    The criticality problem in reflected slab type reactor is solved for the first time in the two group neutron transport theory, by singular eingenfunctions expansion, the singular integrals obtained through continuity conditions of angular distributions at the interface are regularized by a recently proposed method. The result is a coupled system of regular integral equations for the expansion coefficients, this system is solved by an ordinary interactive method. Numerical results that can be utilized as a comparative standard for aproximation methods, are presented [pt

  3. UN Method For The Critical Slab Problem In One-Speed Neutron Transport Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeztuerk, Hakan; Guengoer, Sueleyman

    2008-01-01

    The Chebyshev polynomial approximation (U N method) is used to solve the critical slab problem in one-speed neutron transport theory using Marshak boundary condition. The isotropic scattering kernel with the combination of forward and backward scattering is chosen for the neutrons in a uniform finite slab. Numerical results obtained by the U N method are presented in the tables together with the results obtained by the well-known P N method for comparison. It is shown that the method converges rapidly with its easily executable equations.

  4. The Usage of Authority in Management Process and Evaluation of Emerged Problems: A Critical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih ARSLAN

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to discuss the role, effect and the problems of ‘authority’ in the management process from a critical perspective. Firstly, the concept of authority is evaluated as a term in social science, then the role and effect of authority in management process is emphasized. The concept of authority is discussed not only in terms of its practical issues in management discipline but also the psychological, political and philosophical aspects of the term are included in discussion. Therefore, it is underlined that the usage of authority causes not only managerial problems but also some humane issues. So, the study professes that a moral authority is required besides other types of authority in management process. In this context, the study aims to test the accordance between theory and practice by comparing the results of the survey, which is implemented on public officers about their perception of authority, with the theoretical discussions.

  5. Enhancing students' learning in problem based learning: validation of a self-assessment scale for active learning and critical thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoiriyah, Umatul; Roberts, Chris; Jorm, Christine; Van der Vleuten, C P M

    2015-08-26

    Problem based learning (PBL) is a powerful learning activity but fidelity to intended models may slip and student engagement wane, negatively impacting learning processes, and outcomes. One potential solution to solve this degradation is by encouraging self-assessment in the PBL tutorial. Self-assessment is a central component of the self-regulation of student learning behaviours. There are few measures to investigate self-assessment relevant to PBL processes. We developed a Self-assessment Scale on Active Learning and Critical Thinking (SSACT) to address this gap. We wished to demonstrated evidence of its validity in the context of PBL by exploring its internal structure. We used a mixed methods approach to scale development. We developed scale items from a qualitative investigation, literature review, and consideration of previous existing tools used for study of the PBL process. Expert review panels evaluated its content; a process of validation subsequently reduced the pool of items. We used structural equation modelling to undertake a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the SSACT and coefficient alpha. The 14 item SSACT consisted of two domains "active learning" and "critical thinking." The factorial validity of SSACT was evidenced by all items loading significantly on their expected factors, a good model fit for the data, and good stability across two independent samples. Each subscale had good internal reliability (>0.8) and strongly correlated with each other. The SSACT has sufficient evidence of its validity to support its use in the PBL process to encourage students to self-assess. The implementation of the SSACT may assist students to improve the quality of their learning in achieving PBL goals such as critical thinking and self-directed learning.

  6. Sonography and hypotension: a change to critical problem solving in undergraduate medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amini R

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Richard Amini, Lori A Stolz, Nicholas C Hernandez, Kevin Gaskin, Nicola Baker, Arthur Barry Sanders, Srikar AdhikariDepartment of Emergency Medicine, University of Arizona Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USAStudy objectives: Multiple curricula have been designed to teach medical students the basics of ultrasound; however, few focus on critical problem-solving. The objective of this study is to determine whether a theme-based ultrasound teaching session, dedicated to the use of ultrasound in the management of the hypotensive patient, can impact medical students’ ultrasound education and provide critical problem-solving exercises.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study using an innovative approach to train 3rd year medical students during a 1-day ultrasound training session. The students received a 1-hour didactic session on basic ultrasound physics and knobology and were also provided with YouTube hyperlinks, and links to smart phone educational applications, which demonstrated a variety of bedside ultrasound techniques. In small group sessions, students learned how to evaluate patients for pathology associated with hypotension. A knowledge assessment questionnaire was administered at the end of the session and again 3 months later. Student knowledge was also assessed using different clinical scenarios with multiple-choice questions.Results: One hundred and three 3rd year medical students participated in this study. Appropriate type of ultrasound was selected and accurate diagnosis was made in different hypotension clinical scenarios: pulmonary embolism, 81% (95% CI, 73%–89%; abdominal aortic aneurysm, 100%; and pneumothorax, 89% (95% CI, 82%–95%. The average confidence level in performing ultrasound-guided central line placement was 7/10, focused assessment with sonography for trauma was 8/10, inferior vena cava assessment was 8/10, evaluation for abdominal aortic aneurysm was 8/10, assessment for

  7. On the look-up tables for the critical heat flux in tubes (history and problems)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirillov, P.L.; Smogalev, I.P.

    1995-01-01

    The complication of critical heat flux (CHF) problem for boiling in channels is caused by the large number of variable factors and the variety of two-phase flows. The existence of several hundreds of correlations for the prediction of CHF demonstrates the unsatisfactory state of this problem. The phenomenological CHF models can provide only the qualitative predictions of CHF primarily in annular-dispersed flow. The CHF look-up tables covered the results of numerous experiments received more recognition in the last 15 years. These tables are based on the statistical averaging of CHF values for each range of pressure, mass flux and quality. The CHF values for regions, where no experimental data is available, are obtained by extrapolation. The correction of these tables to account for the diameter effect is a complicated problem. There are ranges of conditions where the simple correlations cannot produce the reliable results. Therefore, diameter effect on CHF needs additional study. The modification of look-up table data for CHF in tubes to predict CHF in rod bundles must include a method which to take into account the nonuniformity of quality in a rod bundle cross section

  8. On the look-up tables for the critical heat flux in tubes (history and problems)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirillov, P.L.; Smogalev, I.P. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Kaluga (Russian Federation)

    1995-09-01

    The complication of critical heat flux (CHF) problem for boiling in channels is caused by the large number of variable factors and the variety of two-phase flows. The existence of several hundreds of correlations for the prediction of CHF demonstrates the unsatisfactory state of this problem. The phenomenological CHF models can provide only the qualitative predictions of CHF primarily in annular-dispersed flow. The CHF look-up tables covered the results of numerous experiments received more recognition in the last 15 years. These tables are based on the statistical averaging of CHF values for each range of pressure, mass flux and quality. The CHF values for regions, where no experimental data is available, are obtained by extrapolation. The correction of these tables to account for the diameter effect is a complicated problem. There are ranges of conditions where the simple correlations cannot produce the reliable results. Therefore, diameter effect on CHF needs additional study. The modification of look-up table data for CHF in tubes to predict CHF in rod bundles must include a method which to take into account the nonuniformity of quality in a rod bundle cross section.

  9. Effect of training problem-solving skill on decision-making and critical thinking of personnel at medical emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Mohammad; Shahbazi, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of problem-solving training on decision-making skill and critical thinking in emergency medical personnel. Materials and Methods: This study is an experimental study that performed in 95 emergency medical personnel in two groups of control (48) and experimental (47). Then, a short problem-solving course based on 8 sessions of 2 h during the term, was performed for the experimental group. Of data gathering was used demographic and researcher made decision-making and California critical thinking skills questionnaires. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: The finding revealed that decision-making and critical thinking score in emergency medical personnel are low and problem-solving course, positively affected the personnel’ decision-making skill and critical thinking after the educational program (P problem-solving in various emergency medicine domains such as education, research, and management, is recommended. PMID:28149823

  10. Sonography and hypotension: a change to critical problem solving in undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Richard; Stolz, Lori A; Hernandez, Nicholas C; Gaskin, Kevin; Baker, Nicola; Sanders, Arthur Barry; Adhikari, Srikar

    2016-01-01

    Multiple curricula have been designed to teach medical students the basics of ultrasound; however, few focus on critical problem-solving. The objective of this study is to determine whether a theme-based ultrasound teaching session, dedicated to the use of ultrasound in the management of the hypotensive patient, can impact medical students' ultrasound education and provide critical problem-solving exercises. This was a cross-sectional study using an innovative approach to train 3rd year medical students during a 1-day ultrasound training session. The students received a 1-hour didactic session on basic ultrasound physics and knobology and were also provided with YouTube hyperlinks, and links to smart phone educational applications, which demonstrated a variety of bedside ultrasound techniques. In small group sessions, students learned how to evaluate patients for pathology associated with hypotension. A knowledge assessment questionnaire was administered at the end of the session and again 3 months later. Student knowledge was also assessed using different clinical scenarios with multiple-choice questions. One hundred and three 3rd year medical students participated in this study. Appropriate type of ultrasound was selected and accurate diagnosis was made in different hypotension clinical scenarios: pulmonary embolism, 81% (95% CI, 73%-89%); abdominal aortic aneurysm, 100%; and pneumothorax, 89% (95% CI, 82%-95%). The average confidence level in performing ultrasound-guided central line placement was 7/10, focused assessment with sonography for trauma was 8/10, inferior vena cava assessment was 8/10, evaluation for abdominal aortic aneurysm was 8/10, assessment for deep vein thrombus was 8/10, and cardiac ultrasound for contractility and overall function was 7/10. Student performance in the knowledge assessment portion of the questionnaire was an average of 74% (SD =11%) at the end of workshop and 74% (SD =12%) 3 months later (P=0.00). At our institution, we

  11. Population and development problems: a critical assessment of conventional wisdom. The case of Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibanda, A E

    1988-01-01

    Conventional wisdom, as reflected in reports by the World Bank and the Whitsun Foundation, maintains that control of population growth is the key strategy for stimulating socioeconomic development and ending widespread poverty. The Witsun Foundation has criticized the Government of Zimbabwe for failing to include specific policies for population control in its National Transitional Development Plan. the report further expressed alarm about future availability of land to contain Zimbabwe's growing population. Communal areas are designed for a maximum of 325,000 families yet presently contain 700-800,000 families. This Malthusian, deterministic emphasis on population growth as the source of social ills ignores the broader, complex set of socioeconomic, historical, and political factors that determine material life. Any analysis of population that fails to consider the class structure of society, the type of division of labor, and forms of property and production can produce only meaningless abstractions. For example, consideration of crowding in communal areas must include consideration of inequitable patterns of land ownership in sub-Saharan Africa. Unemployment must be viewed within the context of a capitalist economic structure that relies on an industrial reserve army of labor to ensure acceptance of low wages and labor-intensive conditions. While it is accepted that population growth is creating specific and real problems in Zimbabwe and other African countries, these problems could be ameliorated by land reform and restructuring of the export-oriented colonial economies. Similarly, birth control should not be promoted as the solution to social problems, yet family planning services should be available to raise the status of women. Literacy, agrarian reform, agricultural modernization, and industrialization campaigns free from the dominance of Western capitalism represent the true solutions to Zimbabwe's problems.

  12. The weak-password problem: Chaos, criticality, and encrypted p-CAPTCHAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laptyeva, T. V.; Flach, S.; Kladko, K.

    2011-09-01

    Vulnerabilities related to weak passwords are a pressing global economic and security issue. We report a novel, simple, and effective approach to address the weak-password problem. Building upon chaotic dynamics, criticality at phase transitions, CAPTCHA recognition, and computational round-off errors, we design an algorithm that strengthens the security of passwords. The core idea of our simple method is to split a long and secure password into two components. The first component is memorized by the user. The second component is transformed into a CAPTCHA image and then protected using the evolution of a two-dimensional dynamical system close to a phase transition, in such a way that standard brute-force attacks become ineffective. We expect our approach to have wide applications for authentication and encryption technologies.

  13. Performance of MPI parallel processing implemented by MCNP5/ MCNPX for criticality benchmark problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark Dennis Usang; Mohd Hairie Rabir; Mohd Amin Sharifuldin Salleh; Mohamad Puad Abu

    2012-01-01

    MPI parallelism are implemented on a SUN Workstation for running MCNPX and on the High Performance Computing Facility (HPC) for running MCNP5. 23 input less obtained from MCNP Criticality Validation Suite are utilized for the purpose of evaluating the amount of speed up achievable by using the parallel capabilities of MPI. More importantly, we will study the economics of using more processors and the type of problem where the performance gain are obvious. This is important to enable better practices of resource sharing especially for the HPC facilities processing time. Future endeavours in this direction might even reveal clues for best MCNP5/ MCNPX coding practices for optimum performance of MPI parallelisms. (author)

  14. Socrates, problem-based learning and critical thinking --- a philosophic point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shin-Yun; Tsai, Jer-Chia; Chiang, Horn-Che; Lai, Chung-Sheng; Lin, Hui-Ju

    2008-03-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is a learner-centered educational method based on the principles of heuristics and collaboration. It has been considered an effective learning method in general and in professional education, especially in medical education. This article analyzes the thinking structure and philosophical background of PBL through the educational ideas of Socrates and the truth conception of Karl Popper. In the different phases of the PBL process, various truth conceptions will help to formulate the thinking framework of PBL --- from Socrates' truth of openness toward the truth of scientific accuracy of our modern age. Meanwhile, Popper's scientific theory of falsifiability further leads us to discuss the relationship between PBL and critical thinking.

  15. Socrates, Problem-based Learning and Critical Thinking—A Philosophic Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Yun Wang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Problem-based learning (PBL is a learner-centered educational method based on the principles of heuristics and collaboration. It has been considered an effective learning method in general and in professional education, especially in medical education. This article analyzes the thinking structure and philosophical background of PBL through the educational ideas of Socrates and the truth conception of Karl Popper. In the different phases of the PBL process, various truth conceptions will help to formulate the thinking framework of PBL—from Socrates' truth of openness toward the truth of scientific accuracy of our modern age. Meanwhile, Popper's scientific theory of falsifiability further leads us to discuss the relationship between PBL and critical thinking.

  16. The Dreyfus model of clinical problem-solving skills acquisition: a critical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Adolfo

    2010-06-14

    The Dreyfus model describes how individuals progress through various levels in their acquisition of skills and subsumes ideas with regard to how individuals learn. Such a model is being accepted almost without debate from physicians to explain the 'acquisition' of clinical skills. This paper reviews such a model, discusses several controversial points, clarifies what kind of knowledge the model is about, and examines its coherence in terms of problem-solving skills. Dreyfus' main idea that intuition is a major aspect of expertise is also discussed in some detail. Relevant scientific evidence from cognitive science, psychology, and neuroscience is reviewed to accomplish these aims. Although the Dreyfus model may partially explain the 'acquisition' of some skills, it is debatable if it can explain the acquisition of clinical skills. The complex nature of clinical problem-solving skills and the rich interplay between the implicit and explicit forms of knowledge must be taken into consideration when we want to explain 'acquisition' of clinical skills. The idea that experts work from intuition, not from reason, should be evaluated carefully.

  17. Critical current densities amd pinning mechanisms of high-Tc films on single crystalline and technologically relevant substrates. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrian, H.

    1995-12-01

    The report deals with six project tasks: (1) Effects of impurity additions at atomic level on the pinning behaviour and the critical current densities, examined in epitactic YBA 2 (Cu 1-x Ni x ) 3 O 7 films. It could be proven that the Ni atoms increase the activation energy for flux movement and the critical current density in a concentration range of 0 2 Sr 2 Ca n-1 Cu n O 2n+4+δ films (n = 2 and 3) with good crystalline properties, high critical currents, and high current densities were prepared. Thin YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 films of high quality could be grown on saphire substrates, both by the MO-CVD process and by MBE. The aim of depositing biaxially textured YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 films with high critical current densities on polycrystalline, metallic substrates was achieved by the IBAD process combined with MBE. The buffer layer was YSZ. Heterostructures of the layer sequence YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 /CeO 2 /Y 0.3 Pr 0.7 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7 /YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 and YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 /CeO 2 /Au were prepared by laser ablation and sputtering processes, in order to examine Josephson ramp contacts and superconducting field-effect transistors. (orig./MM) [de

  18. Effectiveness of problem based learning as an instructional tool for acquisition of content knowledge and promotion of critical thinking among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyeb, Rakhshanda

    2013-01-01

    To assess effectiveness of PBL as an instructional tool in clinical years to improve learning of undergraduate students in terms of acquisition of content knowledge, critical thinking and problem solving skills through problem based learning and traditional way of teaching. Quasi-experimental study. Fatima Jinnah Medical College for Women, Lahore, from October 2009 to April 2010. Final year medical students attending Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Surgery rotations were inducted as participants in this study. Two batches of 50 students each attended Gynaecology rotation and two batches attended Surgery rotation, i.e. 100 students in each. Each batch was divided into two groups i.e. A and B of 25 students each. Group-A learnt through traditional teaching, involving bedside teaching and lectures in wards and Group-B learnt relevant clinical knowledge through a modified PBL process. Content knowledge was tested by MCQs testing recall while clinical reasoning and problem were assessed by MCQs testing analysis and critical thinking. Intra-group comparison of mean scores of pre and post-test scores was done using paired sample t-tests while for intergroup comparison of mean scores was done through independent sample t-test. Teaching through traditional method significantly improved content knowledge, (p = 0.001) but did not considerably improve clinical reasoning and problem solving skills (p = 0.093) whereas, content knowledge of students who studied through PBL remained the same (p = 0.202) but there was marked improvement in their clinical reasoning and problem solving skills (p = critical thinking and problem solving skills among medical students.

  19. Educational strategies associated with development of problem-solving, critical thinking, and self-directed learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricson, William D; Andrieu, Sandra C; Chadwick, D Gregory; Chmar, Jacqueline E; Cole, James R; George, Mary C; Glickman, Gerald N; Glover, Joel F; Goldberg, Jerold S; Haden, N Karl; Meyerowitz, Cyril; Neumann, Laura; Pyle, Marsha; Tedesco, Lisa A; Valachovic, Richard W; Weaver, Richard G; Winder, Ronald L; Young, Stephen K; Kalkwarf, Kenneth L

    2006-09-01

    This article was developed for the Commission on Change and Innovation in Dental Education (CCI), established by the American Dental Education Association. CCI was created because numerous organizations within organized dentistry and the educational community have initiated studies or proposed modifications to the process of dental education, often working to achieve positive and desirable goals but without coordination or communication. The fundamental mission of CCI is to serve as a focal meeting place where dental educators and administrators, representatives from organized dentistry, the dental licensure community, the Commission on Dental Accreditation, the ADA Council on Dental Education and Licensure, and the Joint Commission on National Dental Examinations can meet and coordinate efforts to improve dental education and the nation's oral health. One of the objectives of the CCI is to provide guidance to dental schools related to curriculum design. In pursuit of that objective, this article summarizes the evidence related to this question: What are educational best practices for helping dental students acquire the capacity to function as an entry-level general dentist or to be a better candidate to begin advanced studies? Three issues are addressed, with special emphasis on the third: 1) What constitutes expertise, and when does an individual become an expert? 2) What are the differences between novice and expert thinking? and 3) What educational best practices can help our students acquire mental capacities associated with expert function, including critical thinking and self-directed learning? The purpose of this review is to provide a benchmark that faculty and academic planners can use to assess the degree to which their curricula include learning experiences associated with development of problem-solving, critical thinking, self-directed learning, and other cognitive skills necessary for dental school graduates to ultimately become expert performers as

  20. Effects of problem-based learning vs. traditional lecture on Korean nursing students' critical thinking, problem-solving, and self-directed learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunyoung; Lindquist, Ruth; Song, Yeoungsuk

    2014-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is a method widely used in nursing education to develop students' critical thinking skills to solve practice problems independently. Although PBL has been used in nursing education in Korea for nearly a decade, few studies have examined its effects on Korean nursing students' learning outcomes, and few Korean studies have examined relationships among these outcomes. The objectives of this study are to examine outcome abilities including critical thinking, problem-solving, and self-directed learning of nursing students receiving PBL vs. traditional lecture, and to examine correlations among these outcome abilities. A quasi-experimental non-equivalent group pretest-posttest design was used. First-year nursing students (N=90) were recruited from two different junior colleges in two cities (GY and GJ) in South Korea. In two selected educational programs, one used traditional lecture methods, while the other used PBL methods. Standardized self-administered questionnaires of critical thinking, problem-solving, and self-directed learning abilities were administered before and at 16weeks (after instruction). Learning outcomes were significantly positively correlated, however outcomes were not statistically different between groups. Students in the PBL group improved across all abilities measured, while student scores in the traditional lecture group decreased in problem-solving and self-directed learning. Critical thinking was positively associated with problem-solving and self-directed learning (r=.71, and r=.50, respectively, plearning (r=.75, pLearning outcomes of PBL were not significantly different from traditional lecture in this small underpowered study, despite positive trends. Larger studies are recommended to study effects of PBL on critical student abilities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Critical Thinking Skills Of Junior High School Female Students With High Mathematical Skills In Solving Contextual And Formal Mathematical Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail; Suwarsono, St.; Lukito, A.

    2018-01-01

    Critical thinking is one of the most important skills of the 21st century in addition to other learning skills such as creative thinking, communication skills and collaborative skills. This is what makes researchers feel the need to conduct research on critical thinking skills in junior high school students. The purpose of this study is to describe the critical thinking skills of junior high school female students with high mathematical skills in solving contextual and formal mathematical problems. To achieve this is used qualitative research. The subject of the study was a female student of eight grade junior high school. The students’ critical thinking skills are derived from in-depth problem-based interviews using interview guidelines. Interviews conducted in this study are problem-based interviews, which are done by the subject given a written assignment and given time to complete. The results show that critical thinking skills of female high school students with high math skills are as follows: In solving the problem at the stage of understanding the problem used interpretation skills with sub-indicators: categorization, decode, and clarify meaning. At the planning stage of the problem-solving strategy is used analytical skills with sub-indicators: idea checking, argument identification and argument analysis and evaluation skills with sub indicators: assessing the argument. In the implementation phase of problem solving, inference skills are used with subindicators: drawing conclusions, and problem solving and explanatory skills with sub-indicators: problem presentation, justification procedures, and argument articulation. At the re-checking stage all steps have been employed self-regulatory skills with sub-indicators: self-correction and selfstudy.

  2. Some problems of neutron source multiplication method for site measurement technology in nuclear critical safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yongqian; Zhu Qingfu; Hu Dingsheng; He Tao; Yao Shigui; Lin Shenghuo

    2004-01-01

    The paper gives experiment theory and experiment method of neutron source multiplication method for site measurement technology in the nuclear critical safety. The measured parameter by source multiplication method actually is a sub-critical with source neutron effective multiplication factor k s , but not the neutron effective multiplication factor k eff . The experiment research has been done on the uranium solution nuclear critical safety experiment assembly. The k s of different sub-criticality is measured by neutron source multiplication experiment method, and k eff of different sub-criticality, the reactivity coefficient of unit solution level, is first measured by period method, and then multiplied by difference of critical solution level and sub-critical solution level and obtained the reactivity of sub-critical solution level. The k eff finally can be extracted from reactivity formula. The effect on the nuclear critical safety and different between k eff and k s are discussed

  3. The Relevance of Working Critical and Safe Internet Use in the School as a Key to Strengthen Digital Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakel GAMITO GOMEZ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies (ICT and the Internet have become indispensable means for the daily life of almost sectors of the population. Likewise, digital development has had a great impact on the younger population and, due to the frequent and continuous use of ICT, children are exposed daily to the multiple risks that exist in the network. This work has collected data, answers, attitudes and perceptions about the habits of use of ICT, the risks of the internet and the relevance of working this topic in the school. For this purpose, a training action has been designed and implemented with fifth year grade Primary Education students. The results have corroborated that the use of ICT and Internet connectivity are part of the day-to-day life of the adolescent population but they lack the necessary maturity to deal with the conflicting situations that they will have to face in the network. At the same time, the students have valued positively the formative action and that confirm the relevance of working on security aspects related to digital competence in the school.

  4. Limit behavior of mass critical Hartree minimization problems with steep potential wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yujin; Luo, Yong; Wang, Zhi-Qiang

    2018-06-01

    We consider minimizers of the following mass critical Hartree minimization problem: eλ(N ) ≔inf {u ∈H1(Rd ) , ‖u‖2 2=N } Eλ(u ) , where d ≥ 3, λ > 0, and the Hartree energy functional Eλ(u) is defined by Eλ(u ) ≔∫Rd|∇u (x ) |2d x +λ ∫Rdg (x ) u2(x ) d x -1/2 ∫Rd∫Rdu/2(x ) u2(y ) |x -y |2 d x d y . Here the steep potential g(x) satisfies 0 =g (0 ) =infRdg (x ) ≤g (x ) ≤1 and 1 -g (x ) ∈Ld/2(Rd ) . We prove that there exists a constant N* > 0, independent of λg(x), such that if N ≥ N*, then eλ(N) does not admit minimizers for any λ > 0; if 0 N N*, then there exists a constant λ*(N) > 0 such that eλ(N) admits minimizers for any λ > λ*(N) and eλ(N) does not admit minimizers for 0 N). For any given 0 N N*, the limit behavior of positive minimizers for eλ(N) is also studied as λ → ∞, where the mass concentrates at the bottom of g(x).

  5. The theory of critical distances applied to problems in fracture and fatigue of bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Brazel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The theory of critical distances (TCD has been applied to predict notch-based fracture and fatigue in a wide range of materials and components. The present paper describes a series of projects in which we applied this approach to human bone. Using experimental data from the literature, combined with finite element analysis, we showed that the TCD was able to predict the effect of notches and holes on the strength of bone failing in brittle fracture due to monotonic loading, in different loading regimes. Bone also displays short crack effects, leading to R-curve data for both fracture toughness and fatigue crack propagation thresholds; we showed that the TCD could predict this data. This analysis raised a number of questions for discussion, such as the significance of the L value itself in this and other materials. Finally, we applied the TCD to a practical problem in orthopaedic surgery: the management of bone defects, showing that predictions could be made which would enable surgeons to decide on whether a bone graft material would be needed to repair a defect, and to specify what mechanical properties this material should have.

  6. The Impact of Problem-Based Learning Approach to Senior High School Students’ Mathematics Critical Thinking Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviandari Widyatiningtyas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was report the findings of an only post-test control group research design and aims to analyze the influence of problem-based learning approach, school level, and students’ prior mathematical ability to student’s mathematics critical thinking ability. The research subjects were 140 grade ten senior high school students coming from excellent and moderate school level. The research instruments a set of mathematical critical thinking ability test, and the data were analyzed by using two ways ANOVA and t-test. The research found that the problem based learning approach has significant impact to the ability of students’ mathematics critical thinking in terms of school level and students’ prior mathematical abilities. Furthermore. This research also found that there is no interaction between learning approach and school level, and learning approach and students’ prior mathematics ability to students’ mathematics critical thinking ability.

  7. Meta Analisis Model Pembelajaran Problem Based Learning dalam Meningkatkan Keterampilan Berpikir Kritis di Sekolah Dasar [A Meta-analysis of Problem-Based Learning Models in Increasing Critical Thinking Skills in Elementary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indri Anugraheni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze Problem-based Learning models intended to improve critical thinking skills in elementary school students. Problem-based learning models are learning processes where students are open minded, reflexive, active, reflective, and critical through real-world context activities. In this study the researcher used a meta-analysis method. First, the researcher formulated the research problem, then proceeded to review the existing relevant research for analysis. Data were collected by using a non-test technique by browsing electronic journals through Google Scholar and studying documentation in the library. Seven articles were found through Google Scholar and only one was found in the library. Based on the analysis of the results, the problem-based learning model can improve students' thinking ability from as little as 2.87% up to 33.56% with an average of 14.18%. BAHASA INDONESIA ABSTRAK: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis kembali tentang model pembelajaran Problem Based Learning untuk meningkatkan keterampilan berpikir kritis di Sekolah Dasar. Model pembelajaran Problem Based Learning adalah proses pembelajaran dimana siswa mampu memiliki pola pikir yang terbuka, refktif, aktif, reflektif dan kritis melalui kegiatan konteks dunia nyata. Dalam penelitian ini peneliti menggunakan metode meta analisis. Pertama-tama, peneliti merumuskan masalah penelitian, kemudian dilanjutkan dengan menelusuri penelitian yang sudah ada dan relevan untuk dianalisis. Teknik pengumpulan data dengan menggunakan non tes yaitu dengan menelusuri jurnal elektronik melalui google Cendekia dan studi dokumentasi di perpustakaan. Dari hasil penelusuran diperoleh 20 artikel dari jurnal dan 3 dari repository. Berdasarkan hasil analisis ternyata model pembelajaran Problem Based Learning mampu meningkatkan kemampuan berpikir Siswa mulai dari yang terendah 2,87% sampai yang tertinggi 33,56% dengan rata-rata 12,73%.

  8. The effect of surfaces on AGR coolant chemistry: critical assessment of gas-phase rate constants relevant to ethane pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, M.D.U.; Norfolk, D.J.

    1988-02-01

    Previous work has shown the ability of a chemical kinetic model, applied using the FACSIMILE computer code, to predict the thermal decomposition of ethane in a silica flow reactor. To optimise the performance of the model, the present report reviews the literature data on the twenty reactions which it incorporates. Critical assessment has shown some discrepancies in the previously used rate constants, especially those leading to ethyne formation. Table 2 of the report gives the kinetic data which, as a result of the present evaluation, are recommended for future work. Use of these data gives significantly improved agreement between the model and the experimental results, particularly for ethyne formation, which had previously been underestimated. (author)

  9. Communication latencies of Apple push notification messages relevant for delivery of time-critical information to anesthesia providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Brian S; Dexter, Franklin; Epstein, Richard H

    2013-08-01

    Tablet computers and smart phones have gained popularity in anesthesia departments for educational and patient care purposes. VigiVU(™) is an iOS application developed at Vanderbilt University for remote viewing of perioperative information, including text message notifications delivered via the Apple Push Notification (APN) service. In this study, we assessed the reliability of the APN service. Custom software was written to send a message every minute to iOS devices (iPad(®), iPod Touch(®), and iPhone(®)) via wireless local area network (WLAN) and cellular pathways 24 hours a day over a 4-month period. Transmission and receipt times were recorded and batched by days, with latencies calculated as their differences. The mean, SEM, and the exact 95% upper confidence limits for the percent of days with ≥1 prolonged (>100 seconds) latency were calculated. Acceptable performance was defined as mean latency 100 seconds. Testing conditions included fixed locations of devices in high signal strength locations. Mean latencies were 173,000 iPad and iPod latencies, none were >100 seconds. For iPhone latencies, 0.03% ± 0.01% were >100 seconds. The 95% upper confidence limits of days with ≥1 prolonged latency were 42% (iPhone) and 5% to 8% (iPad, iPod). The APN service was reliable for all studied devices over WLAN and cellular pathways, and performance was better than third party paging systems using Internet connections previously investigated using the same criteria. However, since our study was a best-case assessment, testing is required at individual sites considering use of this technology for critical messaging. Furthermore, since the APN service may fail due to Internet or service provider disruptions, a backup paging system is recommended if the APN service were to be used for critical messaging.

  10. Assessment of students' critical-thinking and problem-solving abilities across a 6-year doctor of pharmacy program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Brenda L; Gaebelein, Claude J; Grice, Gloria R; Crannage, Andrew J; Weck, Margaret A; Hurd, Peter; Walter, Brenda; Duncan, Wendy

    2013-10-14

    To determine the feasibility of using a validated set of assessment rubrics to assess students' critical-thinking and problem-solving abilities across a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum. Trained faculty assessors used validated rubrics to assess student work samples for critical-thinking and problem-solving abilities. Assessment scores were collected and analyzed to determine student achievement of these 2 ability outcomes across the curriculum. Feasibility of the process was evaluated in terms of time and resources used. One hundred sixty-one samples were assessed for critical thinking, and 159 samples were assessed for problem-solving. Rubric scoring allowed assessors to evaluate four 5- to 7-page work samples per hour. The analysis indicated that overall critical-thinking scores improved over the curriculum. Although low yield for problem-solving samples precluded meaningful data analysis, it was informative for identifying potentially needed curricular improvements. Use of assessment rubrics for program ability outcomes was deemed authentic and feasible. Problem-solving was identified as a curricular area that may need improving. This assessment method has great potential to inform continuous quality improvement of a PharmD program.

  11. On physics of the hydrogen plasticization and embrittlement of metallic materials, relevance to the safety and standards' problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yury S Nechaev; Georgy A Filippov; T Nejat Veziroglu

    2006-01-01

    In the present contribution, some related fundamental problems of revealing micro mechanisms of hydrogen plasticization, superplasticity, embrittlement, cracking, blistering and delayed fracture of some technologically important industrial metallic materials are formulated. The ways are considered of these problems' solution and optimizing the technological processes and materials, particularly in the hydrogen and gas-petroleum industries, some aircraft, aerospace and automobile systems. The results are related to the safety and standardization problems of metallic materials, and to the problem of their compatibility with hydrogen. (authors)

  12. A Critical Study of Media Profiling on Society-s Social Problems from a British Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Cj Gletus Matthews Cn Jacobs; Kogilah Narayanasamy

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the sociological perspectives on social problems and the role of the media which has a delicate role to tread in balancing its duty to the public and the victim Whilst social problems have objective conditions, it is the subjective definition of such problems that ensure which social problem comes to the fore and which doesn-t. Further it explores the roles and functions of policymakers when addressing social problems and the impact of the inception ...

  13. Core and edge aspects of quiescent double barrier operation on DIII-D, with relevance to critical ITB physics issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, E.J.; Casper, T.A.; Burrell, K.H.

    2003-01-01

    Recent results from DIII-D address critical internal transport barrier (ITB) research issues relating to sustainability, impurity accumulation and ITB control, and have also demonstrated successful application of general profile control tools. In addition, substantial progress has been made in understanding the physics of the Quiescent Double Barrier (QDB) regime, increasing the demonstrated operating space for the regime and improving performance. Highlights include: (1) A clear demonstration of q-profile modification using electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD); (2) Successful use of localized profile control using electron cyclotron heating (ECH) or ECCD to reduce central high-Z impurity accumulation associated with density peaking; (3) Theory based modeling codes are now being used to design experiments; (4) The operating space for Quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) has been substantially broadened, in particular higher density operation has been achieved; (5) Both absolute (β≤ 3.8%, neutron rate S n ≤ 5.5x10 15 s -1 ) and relative (β N H 89 = 7 for 10τ E ) performance has been increased; (6) With regard to sustainment, QDB plasmas have been run for 3.8 s or 26 τ E . These results emphasize that it is possible to produce sustained high quality H-mode performance with an edge localized mode (ELM)-free edge, directly addressing a major issue in fusion research, of how to ameliorate or eliminate ELM induced pulsed divertor particle and heat loads. (author)

  14. Hygroscopic growth and critical supersaturations for mixed aerosol particles of inorganic and organic compounds of atmospheric relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Svenningsson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The organic fraction of atmospheric aerosols contains a multitude of compounds and usually only a small fraction can be identified and quantified. However, a limited number of representative organic compounds can be used to describe the water-soluble organic fraction. In this work, initiated within the EU 5FP project SMOCC, four mixtures containing various amounts of inorganic salts (ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, and sodium chloride and three model organic compounds (levoglucosan, succinic acid and fulvic acid were studied. The interaction between water vapor and aerosol particles was studied at different relative humidities: at subsaturation using a hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA and at supersaturation using a cloud condensation nuclei spectrometer (CCN spectrometer. Surface tensions as a function of carbon concentrations were measured using a bubble tensiometer. Parameterizations of water activity as a function of molality, based on hygroscopic growth, are given for the pure organic compounds and for the mixtures, indicating van't Hoff factors around 1 for the organics. The Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR mixing rule was tested on the hygroscopic growth of the mixtures and it was found to adequately explain the hygroscopic growth for 3 out of 4 mixtures, when the limited solubility of succinic acid is taken into account. One mixture containing sodium chloride was studied and showed a pronounced deviation from the ZSR mixing rule. Critical supersaturations calculated using the parameterizations of water activity and the measured surface tensions were compared with those determined experimentally.

  15. Synthesis of methyl esters from relevant palm products in near-critical methanol with modified-zirconia catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laosiripojana, N; Kiatkittipong, W; Sutthisripok, W; Assabumrungrat, S

    2010-11-01

    The transesterification and esterification of palm products i.e. crude palm oil (CPO), refined palm oil (RPO) and palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) under near-critical methanol in the presence of synthesized SO(4)-ZrO(2), WO(3)-ZrO(2) and TiO(2)-ZrO(2) (with various sulfur- and tungsten loadings, Ti/Zr ratios, and calcination temperatures) were studied. Among them, the reaction of RPO with 20%WO(3)-ZrO(2) (calcined at 800 degrees C) enhanced the highest fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield with greatest stability after several reaction cycles; furthermore, it required shorter time, lower temperature and less amount of methanol compared to the reactions without catalyst. These benefits were related to the high acid-site density and tetragonal phase formation of synthesized WO(3)-ZrO(2). For further improvement, the addition of toluene as co-solvent considerably reduced the requirement of methanol to maximize FAME yield, while the addition of molecular sieve along with catalyst significantly increased FAME yield from PFAD and CPO due to the inhibition of hydrolysis reaction. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Problem-Based Learning on Students' Critical Thinking Skills in Teaching Business Education in Malaysia: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabit, Mohd Nazir Md

    2010-01-01

    This review forms the background to explore and to gain empirical support among lecturers to improve the students' critical thinking skills in business education courses in Malaysia, in which the main teaching and learning methodology is Problem-Based Learning (PBL). The PBL educational approach is known to have maximum positive impacts in…

  17. Design, System, Value: The Role of Problem-Solving and Critical Thinking Capabilities in Technology Education, as Perceived by Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooner, Patrick; Nordlöf, Charlotta; Klasander, Claes; Hallström, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD, 2013) defines its views on necessary skills for 21st century citizenship and life-long learning, advocating a generic skillset of literacy, numeracy, and problem-solving in technology-rich environments. Other sources also include critical thinking as a vital 21st Century skill.…

  18. Communication, Critical Thinking, Problem Solving: A Suggested Course for All High School Students in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlgren, Terresa

    2013-01-01

    The skills of communication, critical thinking, and problem solving are essential to thriving as a citizen in the 21st century. These skills are required in order to contribute as a member of society, operate effectively in post-secondary institutions, and be competitive in the global market. Unfortunately they are not always intuitive or simple…

  19. The Impact of Problem-Based Learning Approach to Senior High School Students' Mathematics Critical Thinking Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyatiningtyas, Reviandari; Kusumah, Yaya S.; Sumarmo, Utari; Sabandar, Jozua

    2015-01-01

    The study reported the findings of an only post-test control group research design and aims to analyze the influence of problem-based learning approach, school level, and students' prior mathematical ability to student's mathematics critical thinking ability. The research subjects were 140 grade ten senior high school students coming from…

  20. Mathematical Critical Thinking and Curiosity Attitude in Problem Based Learning and Cognitive Conflict Strategy: A Study in Number Theory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetriuslita; Wahyudin; Jarnawi

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to describe and analyze result of applying Problem-Based Learning and Cognitive Conflict Strategy (PBLCCS) in increasing students' Mathematical Critical Thinking (MCT) ability and Mathematical Curiosity Attitude (MCA). Adopting a quasi-experimental method with pretest-posttest control group design and using mixed method with…

  1. Exploring Factors of a Web-Based Seminar that Influence Hispanic Preservice Teachers' Critical Thinking and Problem-Solving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Criselda G.; Hooper, H. H., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the qualitative study using a phenomenological approach was to gain insight of preservice teachers' experiences with a WebCT seminar designed to develop critical thinking and problem-solving skills in a Hispanic-Serving Institution's teacher education program. By applying a "holistic approach" to analyze data, NVivo software was…

  2. On the curve of critical exponents for nonlinear elliptic problems in the case of a zero mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'yasov, Ya. Sh.

    2017-03-01

    For semilinear elliptic equations -Δ u = λ| u| p-2 u-| u| q-2 u, boundary value problems in bounded and unbounded domains are considered. In the plane of exponents p × q, the so-called curves of critical exponents are defined that divide this plane into domains with qualitatively different properties of the boundary value problems and the corresponding parabolic equations. New solvability conditions for boundary value problems, conditions for the stability and instability of stationary solutions, and conditions for the existence of global solutions to parabolic equations are found.

  3. Zitkala-Sa and the Problem of Regionalism: Nations, Narratives, and Critical Traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totten, Gary

    2005-01-01

    Although Yankton Sioux writer Zitkala-Sa (Gertrude Bonnin, 1876-1938) was, as P. Jane Hafen notes, "virtually unknown for many decades," much critical work has appeared since Dexter Fisher's 1979 article,"Zitkala-Sa: Evolution of a Writer." Some critics desiring to bring Zitkala-Sa into the conversation about turn-of-the-century American women…

  4. Simulating the Camp David Negotiations: A Problem-Solving Tool in Critical Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Sean F.; Miller, Chris

    2013-01-01

    This article reflects critically on simulations. Building on the authors' experience simulating the Palestinian-Israeli-American Camp David negotiations of 2000, they argue that simulations are useful pedagogical tools that encourage creative--but not critical--thinking and constructivist learning. However, they can also have the deleterious…

  5. So You're Thinking of Trying Problem Based Learning?: Three Critical Success Factors for Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Tim O.

    2004-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) shifts the traditional teaching paradigm. Rather than being teacher centered, PBL is student centered. Rather than presenting content first, PBL presents the problem first. Rather than presenting the students with a well-structured problem with a clear answer, PBL presents the students with an ill-structured problem…

  6. Electronic problem lists: a thematic analysis of a systematic literature review to identify aspects critical to success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Chad M; Narus, Scott P

    2018-05-01

    Problem list data is a driving force for many beneficial clinical tools, yet these data remain underutilized. We performed a systematic literature review, pulling insights from previous research, aggregating insights into themes, and distilling themes into actionable advice. We sought to learn what changes we could make to existing applications, to the clinical workflow, and to clinicians' perceptions that would improve problem list utilization and increase the prevalence of problems data in the electronic medical record. We followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines to systematically curate a corpus of pertinent articles. We performed a thematic analysis, looking for interesting excerpts and ideas. By aggregating excerpts from many authors, we gained broader, more inclusive insights into what makes a good problem list and what factors are conducive to its success. Analysis led to a list of 7 benefits of using the problem list, 15 aspects critical to problem list success, and knowledge to help inform policy development, such as consensus on what belongs on the problem list, who should maintain the problem list, and when. A list of suggestions is made on ways in which the problem list can be improved to increase utilization by clinicians. There is also a need for standard measurements of the problem list, so that lists can be measured, compared, and discussed with rigor and a common vocabulary.

  7. Critical comparison of intravenous injection of TiO2 nanoparticles with waterborne and dietary exposures concludes minimal environmentally-relevant toxicity in juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, David; Al-Bairuty, Genan A.; Henry, Theodore B.; Handy, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    A critical comparison of studies that have investigated tissue accumulation and toxicity of TiO 2 -NPs in fish is necessary to resolve inconsistencies. The present study used identical TiO 2 -NPs, toxicological endpoints, and fish (juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss) as previous studies that investigated waterborne and dietary toxicity of TiO 2 -NPs, and conducted a critical comparison of results after intravenous caudal-vein injection of 50 μg of TiO 2 -NPs and bulk TiO 2 . Injected TiO 2 -NPs accumulated only in kidney (94% of measured Ti) and to a lesser extent in spleen; and injected bulk TiO 2 was found only in kidney. No toxicity of TiO 2 was observed in kidney, spleen, or other tissues. Critical comparison of these data with previous studies indicates that dietary and waterborne exposures to TiO 2 -NPs do not lead to Ti accumulation in internal tissues, and previous reports of minor toxicity are inconsistent or attributable to respiratory distress resulting from gill occlusion during waterborne exposure. -- Highlights: •Critical comparison of TiO 2 -NP toxicity studies in rainbow trout. •No evidence of TiO 2 -NP absorption in internal tissues. •Conclude minimal environmentally relevant toxicity of TiO 2 -NPs in rainbow trout. -- Critical evaluation of directly comparable investigations of TiO 2 -NP toxicity by waterborne, dietary, and intravenous injection exposures conclude minimal toxicity in juvenile rainbow trout

  8. Criticality handbook. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinicke, W.; Krug, H.; Thomas, W.; Weber, W.; Gmal, B.

    1985-12-01

    The GRS Criticality Handbook is intended as a source of information on criticality problems for the persons concerned in industry, authorities, or research laboratories. It is to serve as a guide allowing quick and appropriate evaluation of criticality problems during design or erection of nuclear installations. This present issue replaces the one published in 1979, presenting revised and new data in a modified construction, but within the framework of the proven basic structure of the Handbook. Some fundamental knowledge is required of criticality problems and the relevant terms and definitions of nuclear safety, in order to fully deploy the information given. Part 1 of the Handbook therefore first introduces terminology and definitions, followed by experimental methods and calculation models for criticality calculations. The next chapters deal with the function and efficiency of neutron reflectors and neutron absorbers, measuring methods for criticality monitoring, organisational safety measures, and criticality accidents and their subsequent analysis. (orig./HP) [de

  9. THE PHYSICAL LABORATORY ACTIVITIES WITH PROBLEM SOLVING APPROACH TO INCREASE CRITICAL THINKING SKILL AND UNDERSTANDING STUDENT CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Trisnowati

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the description of the improvement of students’ critical thinking skills and the concept understanding by implementing the problem-solving approach. This study was in laboratory activities. This study was done in four times meeting. The try out subjects was 31 students of grades X of MAN Yogyakarta III. This research is using the quasi experimental method with the pretest-posttest design. The data were collected by using multiple choices tests with assessment rubric and observation sheets. The data are analyzed by using multivariate analysis. Based on the result, the gain standard value of students’ conceptual understanding and students’ critical thinking skills for grade X who learned through student’s worksheet with a problem-solving approach, called treatment class, are higher than students who learned without student’s worksheet with a problem-solving approach, called control class.

  10. Comments and Criticism: Comment on "Identification of Student Misconceptions in Genetics Problem Solving via Computer Program."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mike U.

    1991-01-01

    Criticizes an article by Browning and Lehman (1988) for (1) using "gene" instead of allele, (2) misusing the word "misconception," and (3) the possible influences of the computer environment on the results of the study. (PR)

  11. Health problems associated with international business travel. A critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, H L; Reilly, S M

    2000-08-01

    1. Few studies examine the travel related health problems of international business travelers (IBTs). Research exists for other travelers, such as tourists, which begins to help clinicians understand the potential health problems faced by IBTs. 2. A review of the literature reveals 36% to 54% of travelers experience physical health problems such as traveler's diarrhea, insomnia, respiratory problems, and skin problems; 6% to 18% report accidents and injuries while abroad. 3. Psychosocial data are equally limited, but support the idea that IBTs may experience stress, anxiety, culture shock, and adjustment problems while overseas. 4. Multiple factors likely contribute to the physical and psychosocial health experiences of IBTs. The historical lack of data for this population of workers combined with the trend towards globalization confirm the need for further study from an occupational health perspective.

  12. Analogy, an Alternative Model.
 Critics to the standard model of analogical problems solving and proposals for an alternative one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo A. Minervino

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors made an extension of Hofstadter‘s criticisms against the standard approach in analogical thinking represented by the structure-mapping theory of Gentner and the multiconstraint theory of Holyoak and Thagard. Based on this extension, they proposed a non-serial model of analogical problem solving. Against the standard approach, the model postulates that: (a people detect and evaluate differences between mapped elements before the subprocess of inference generation and consider them in order to control it, and (b properties of an element that explain why the element could fill a certain role in the base problem resolution (PERs play a crucial role in these detection and evaluation operations, and also in post-inferences subprocesses. An experiment showed that: (a people detect and evaluate the relevance of differences between mapped elements before inference generation, (b that they inhibit the generation of literal inferences when they face relevant differences, and (c that they stop the subprocess when they recognize insuperable ones. The results also showed that base PERs are reactivated at different moments of analogical transfer. The data obtained are incompatible with the standard theories of analogical thinking, which treat inference generation as a syntactic mechanism and exclude contextual semantic analysis from the study of analogy. 

  13. A meta-analysis of the efficacy of acceptance and commitment therapy for clinically relevant mental and physical health problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A-Tjak, J.G.L.; Davis, M.L.; Morina, N.; Powers, M.B.; Smits, J.A.J.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The current study presents the results of a meta-analysis of 39 randomized controlled trials on the efficacy of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), including 1,821 patients with mental disorders or somatic health problems. Methods: We searched PsycINFO, MEDLINE and the Cochrane

  14. Cognitive Development, Genetics Problem Solving, and Genetics Instruction: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mike U.; Sims, O. Suthern, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Review of literature concerning problem solving in genetics and Piagetian stage theory. Authors conclude the research suggests that formal-operational thought is not strictly required for the solution of the majority of classical genetics problems; however, some genetic concepts are difficult for concrete operational students to understand.…

  15. Life skills, mathematical reasoning and critical thinking: a curriculum for the prevention of problem gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nigel E; Macdonald, John; Somerset, Matthew

    2008-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that youth are two to three times more likely than adults to report gambling related problems. This paper reports on the development and pilot evaluation of a school-based problem gambling prevention curriculum. The prevention program focused on problem gambling awareness and self-monitoring skills, coping skills, and knowledge of the nature of random events. The results of a controlled experiment evaluating the students learning from the program are reported. We found significant improvement in the students' knowledge of random events, knowledge of problem gambling awareness and self-monitoring, and knowledge of coping skills. The results suggest that knowledge based material on random events, problem gambling awareness and self-monitoring skills, and coping skills can be taught. Future development of the curriculum will focus on content to expand the students' coping skill options.

  16. Domain decomposition methods for the mixed dual formulation of the critical neutron diffusion problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerin, P.

    2007-12-01

    The neutronic simulation of a nuclear reactor core is performed using the neutron transport equation, and leads to an eigenvalue problem in the steady-state case. Among the deterministic resolution methods, diffusion approximation is often used. For this problem, the MINOS solver based on a mixed dual finite element method has shown his efficiency. In order to take advantage of parallel computers, and to reduce the computing time and the local memory requirement, we propose in this dissertation two domain decomposition methods for the resolution of the mixed dual form of the eigenvalue neutron diffusion problem. The first approach is a component mode synthesis method on overlapping sub-domains. Several Eigenmodes solutions of a local problem solved by MINOS on each sub-domain are taken as basis functions used for the resolution of the global problem on the whole domain. The second approach is a modified iterative Schwarz algorithm based on non-overlapping domain decomposition with Robin interface conditions. At each iteration, the problem is solved on each sub domain by MINOS with the interface conditions deduced from the solutions on the adjacent sub-domains at the previous iteration. The iterations allow the simultaneous convergence of the domain decomposition and the eigenvalue problem. We demonstrate the accuracy and the efficiency in parallel of these two methods with numerical results for the diffusion model on realistic 2- and 3-dimensional cores. (author)

  17. Influence of Problem Based Learning on Critical Thinking Skills and Competence Class VIII SMPN 1 Gunuang Omeh, 2016/2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswan, D. M.; Lufri, L.; Sumarmin, R.

    2018-04-01

    This research intends to determine the effect of Problem Based Learning models on students' critical thinking skills and competences. This study was a quasi-experimental research. The population of the study was the students of class VIII SMPN 1 Subdistrict Gunuang Omeh. Random sample selection is done by randomizing the class. Sample class that was chosen VIII3 as an experimental class given that treatment study based on problems and class VIII1 as control class that treatment usually given study. Instrument that used to consist of critical thinking test, cognitive tests, observation sheet of affective and psychomotor. Independent t-test and Mann Whitney U test was used for the analysis. Results showed that there was significant difference (sig competences.

  18. Development of Problem-Based Learning Oriented Teaching Learning Materials to Facilitate Students’ Mastery of Concept and Critical Thinking Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, M.; Ibrahim, M.; Rahayu, Y. S.

    2018-01-01

    This research aims to develop problem-based learning oriented teaching materials to improve students’ mastery of concept and critical thinking skill. Its procedure was divided into two phases; developmental phase and experimental phase. This developmental research used Four-D Model. However, within this research, the process of development would not involve the last stages, which is disseminate. The teaching learning materials which were developed consist of lesson plan, student handbook, student worksheet, achievement test and critical thinking skill test. The experimental phase employs a research design called one group pretest-posttest design. Results show that the validity of the teaching materials which were developed was good and revealed the enhancement of students’ activities with positive response to the teaching learning process. Furthermore, the learning materials improve the students’ mastery of concept and critical thinking skill.

  19. Unleashing the Effectiveness of Process-oriented Information Systems: Problem Analysis, Critical Success Factors, Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutschler, B.B.; Reichert, M.U.; Bumiller, J.

    2008-01-01

    Process-oriented information systems (IS) aim at the computerized support of business processes. So far, contemporary IS have often fail to meet this goal. To better understand this drawback, to systematically identify its rationales, and to derive critical success factors for business process

  20. Can Pollution Problems Be Effectively Solved by Environmental Science and Technology? An Analysis of Critical Limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huesemann, Michael H.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2000-12-01

    It is currently believed that science and technology can provide effective solutions to most, if not all, environmental problems facing western industrial societies. The validity of this optimistic assumption is highly questionable for at least three reasons: First, current mechanistic, reductionist science is inherently incapable of providing the complete and accurate information which is required to successfully address environmental problems. Second, both the conservation of mass principle and the second law of thermodynamics dictate that most remediation technologies - while successful in solving specific pollution problems - cause unavoidable negative environmental impacts elsewhere or in the future. Third, it is intrinsically impossible to design industrial processes that have no negative environmental impacts. This follows not only from the entropy law but also from the fact that any generation of energy is impossible without negative environmental consequences. It can therefore be concluded that science and technology have only very limited potential in solving current and future environmental problems. Consequently, it will be necessary to address the root cause of environmental deterioration, namely the prevailing materialistic values that are the main driving force for both overpopulation and overconsumption. The long-term protection of the environment is therefore not primarily a technical problem but rather a social and moral problem that can only be solved by drastically reducing the strong influence of materialistic values.

  1. Parental criticism and externalizing behavior problems in adolescents: the role of environment and genotype-environment correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narusyte, Jurgita; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Andershed, Anna-Karin; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Reiss, David; Spotts, Erica; Ganiban, Jody; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2011-05-01

    Genetic factors are important for the association between parental negativity and child problem behavior, but it is not clear whether this is due to passive or evocative genotype-environment correlation (rGE). In this study, we applied the extended children-of-twins model to directly examine the presence of passive and evocative rGE as well as direct environmental effects in the association between parental criticism and adolescent externalizing problem behavior. The cross-sectional data come from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden (N = 909 pairs of adult twins) and from the Twin Study of Child and Adolescent Development (N = 915 pairs of twin children). The results revealed that maternal criticism was primarily due to evocative rGE emanating from their adolescent's externalizing behavior. On the other hand, fathers' critical remarks tended to affect adolescent problem behavior in a direct environmental way. This suggests that previously reported differences in caretaking between mothers and fathers also are reflected in differences in why parenting is associated with externalizing behavior in offspring.

  2. Parental criticism and externalizing behavior problems in adolescents– the role of environment and genotype-environment correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narusyte, Jurgita; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Andershed, Anna-Karin; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Reiss, David; Spotts, Erica; Ganiban, Jody; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Genetic factors are important for the association between parental negativity and child problem behavior, but it is not clear whether this is dueto passive or evocative genotype-environment correlation (rGE). In this study we applied the extended children-of-twins model to directly examine the presence of passive and evocative rGE as well as direct environmental effects in the association between parental criticism and adolescent externalizing problem behavior. The cross-sectional data come from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden (TOSS) (N=909 pairs of adult twins) and from the Twin study of CHild and Adolescent Development (TCHAD) (N=915 pairs of twin children). The results revealed that maternal criticism was primarily due to evocative rGE emanating from their adolescent’s externalizing behavior. On the other hand, fathers’ critical remarks tended to affect adolescent problem behavior in a direct environmental way. This suggests that previously reported differences in caretaking between mothers and fathers also are reflected in differences in why parenting is associated with externalizing behavior in offspring. PMID:21280930

  3. Critical incidents during prehospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation: what are the problems nobody wants to talk about?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenstein, Christian; Rupp, Peter; Fleischmann, Thomas

    2011-02-01

    We wanted to identify incidents that led or could have led to patient harm during prehospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation. A nationwide anonymous and Internet-based critical incident reporting system gave the data. During a 4-year period we received 548 reports of which 74 occurred during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Human error was responsible for 85% of the incidents, whereas equipment failure contributed to 15% of the reports. Equipment failure was considered to be preventable in 61% of all the cases, whereas incidents because of human error could have been prevented in almost all the cases. In most cases, prevention can be accomplished by simple strategies with the Poka-Yoke technique. Insufficient training of emergency medical service physicians in Germany requires special attention. The critical incident reports raise concerns regarding the level of expertize provided by emergency medical service doctors.

  4. Unleashing the Effectiveness of Process-oriented Information Systems: Problem Analysis, Critical Success Factors, Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Mutschler, B.B.; Reichert, M.U.; Bumiller, J.

    2008-01-01

    Process-oriented information systems (IS) aim at the computerized support of business processes. So far, contemporary IS have often fail to meet this goal. To better understand this drawback, to systematically identify its rationales, and to derive critical success factors for business process support, we conducted three empirical studies: an exploratory case study in the automotive domain, an online survey among 79 IT professionals, and another online survey among 70 business process managem...

  5. Heidegger and the problem of the nothingness. His criticism of Nietzsche’s position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remedios Ávila Crespo Ávila Crespo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The following paper takes as its theme the philosophical problem of nothingness in the thought of Heidegger. The paper has two purposes: On one hand, to clarify the position that metaphysics has in Heidegger; and, on the other, to show the relationship he establishes between metaphysics and nihilism.

  6. In the Service of Learning and Activism: Service Learning, Critical Pedagogy, and the Problem Solution Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenhouse, Vera L.; Jarrett, Olga S.

    2012-01-01

    To counteract disempowerment frequently experienced in education, in 2001 the authors initiated a "Problem Solution Project" (PSP) in the second year a two-year urban certification and Master's program. The PSP, designed to promote empowerment of first-year urban teachers and their students, involves both service learning. In 2004, the authors…

  7. Fostering Critical Thinking Skills in Students with Learning Disabilities through Online Problem-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    As a pedagogical approach, problem-based learning (PBL) has shown success for average and gifted students (HmeloSiver, 2004) and there are numerous incentives for its implementation in online learning environments (Savid-Baden, 2007; Chernobilsky, Nagarajan, & Hmelo-Silver, 2005). However, little research has been conducted regarding the…

  8. The philosophical "mind-body problem" and its relevance for the relationship between psychiatry and the neurosciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Cuypers, Stefaan E

    2010-01-01

    Parallel to psychiatry, "philosophy of mind" investigates the relationship between mind (mental domain) and body/brain (physical domain). Unlike older forms of philosophy of mind, contemporary analytical philosophy is not exclusively based on introspection and conceptual analysis, but also draws upon the empirical methods and findings of the sciences. This article outlines the conceptual framework of the "mind-body problem" as formulated in contemporary analytical philosophy and argues that this philosophical debate has potentially far-reaching implications for psychiatry as a clinical-scientific discipline, especially for its own autonomy and its relationship to neurology/neuroscience. This point is illustrated by a conceptual analysis of the five principles formulated in Kandel's 1998 article "A New Intellectual Framework for Psychiatry." Kandel's position in the philosophical mind-body debate is ambiguous, ranging from reductive physicalism (psychophysical identity theory) to non-reductive physicalism (in which the mental "supervenes" on the physical) to epiphenomenalist dualism or even emergent dualism. We illustrate how these diverging interpretations result in radically different views on the identity of psychiatry and its relationship with the rapidly expanding domain of neurology/neuroscience.

  9. Improvement of nursing students' critical thinking skills through problem-based learning in the People's Republic of China: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Haobin; Kunaviktikul, Wipada; Klunklin, Areewan; Williams, Beverly A

    2008-03-01

    A quasi-experimental, two-group pretest-post-test design was conducted to examine the effect of problem-based learning on the critical thinking skills of 46 Year 2 undergraduate nursing students in the People's Republic of China. The California Critical Thinking Skills Test Form A, Chinese-Taiwanese version was used as both a pretest and as a post-test for a semester-long nursing course. There was no significant difference in critical thinking skills at pretest, whereas, significant differences in critical thinking skills existed between the problem-based learning and lecture groups at post-test. The problem-based learning students had a significantly greater improvement on the overall California Critical Thinking Skills Test, analysis, and induction subscale scores compared with the lecture students. Problem-based learning fostered nursing students' critical thinking skills.

  10. Genetically modified foods: A critical review of their promise and problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The term “genetic modified organisms (GMO” has become a controversial topic as its benefits for both food producers and consumers are companied by potential biomedical risks and environmental side effects. Increasing concerns from the public about GMO, particularly in the form of genetic modified (GM foods, are aimed at the short- and long-lasting health problems that may result from this advanced biotechnology. Complex studies are being carried out around the world independently to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of GM foods. In this paper, we attempt to summarize up-to-date knowledge about the benefits and potential problems of GM food. We also introduce some recent technological developments in GM foods and their impact in the field.

  11. Relevance of transportation to correlations among criticality, physical means of propagation, and distribution of dengue fever cases in the state of Bahia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Hugo; Moret, Marcelo A; Barreto, Florisneide R; Araújo, Marcio Luis Valença; Jorge, Eduardo Manuel F; Nascimento Filho, Aloisio S; Miranda, Jose Garcia Vivas

    2018-03-15

    Dengue infection is a public health problem with a complex distribution. The physical means of propagation and the dynamics of diffusion of the disease between municipalities need to be analysed to direct efficient public policies to prevent dengue infection. The present study presents correlations of occurrences of reported cases of dengue infection among municipalities, self-organized criticality (SOC), and transportation between areas, identifying the municipalities that play an important role in the diffusion of dengue across the state of Bahia, Brazil. The significant correlation found between the correlation network and the SOC demonstrates that the pattern of intramunicipal diffusion of dengue is coupled to the pattern of synchronisation between the municipalities. Transportation emerges as influential in the dynamics of diffusion of epidemics by acting on the aforementioned variables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Island Megalopolises: Tunnel Systems as a Critical Alternative in Solving Transport Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Makarov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A principal difficulty with island megalopolises is the transport problem, which results from limited surface land on an already developed island, on which roads and car parking can be placed. This limitation leads to traffic jams on the small number of roads and to intrusive car parking in any available surface location, resulting in safety issues. The city of Vladivostok is located on the Muravyov-Amursky Peninsula in the Russia Far East region (the Primorsky Krai. This city is essentially the third capital of Russia because of its important geopolitical location. To address the car traffic problems in Vladivostok, and because of the absence of places to build new roads, the city administration has proposed the usage of the beaches and waterfronts along the sea coast in this regard. This decision is in sharp conflict with Vladivostok’s ecological and social aspirations to be recognized as a world-class city. It also neglects the lessons that have been learned in many other waterfront cities around the world, as such cities have first built aboveground waterfront highways and later decided to remove them at great expense, in order to allow their citizens to properly enjoy the environmental and historical assets of their waterfronts. A key alternative would be to create an independent tunneled transport system along with added underground parking so that the transport problems can be addressed in a manner that enhances the ecology and livability of the city. A comparison of the two alternatives for solving the transport problem, that is, underground versus aboveground, shows the significant advantages of the independent tunnel system. Complex efficiency criteria have been developed in order to quantify the estimation of the alternative variants of the Vladivostok transport system. It was determined that the underground project is almost 1.8 times more advantageous than the aboveground alternative. Keywords: Megalopolises, Transport, Tunnels

  13. Empirical Phenomenon, Subjective Construction And Ontological Trught: (An Analysis of Problems of Scientific Explanation and Critical Realism Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz Taghilou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Both the positivist and negativist frameworks of explanation are common in this naturalist proposition that unlike the metaphysical philosophy, reality is embedded only in experimental level. Therefore, the scientific explanation of natural and social phenomenon should refer to this experimental level in order to be called meaningful, verifiable and scientific. But, the problem was always that the principle of causality as a necessary condition for every kind of scientific explanation is not logically deductible from induction in experimental level and remains as a metaphysical principle. The principle of experimental objectivity as a condition for the verifiability clause of scientific explanations could not be defended, because the experimentation was always embedded in subjectivity and theory. The Kantian idealists, in contrast, considering the scientific explanation as a mere representation of reality in subjective categories, could not justify the experimental knowledge of reality and the rationality for comparison among theories and paradigms. Critical Realism as an important approach in philosophy of science that relates to the works and thoughts of Roy Bhaskar tries to solve these problems by resorting to its principles of ontological realism, epistemological relativism, and judgmental rationality. Considering and analyzing the scientific explanation’s issues, we have focused here on the answers of the Critical Realism in this case. We will argue that how the Critical Realist interpretation of scientific explanation, the experimental phenomenon, and the subjective construction and ontological reality all reach to a logical coherence with each other.

  14. Standard problem exercise to validate criticality codes for large arrays of packages of fissile materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitesides, G.E.; Stephens, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    A study has been conducted by an Office of Economic Cooperation and Development-Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (OECD-CSNI) Working Group that examined computational methods used to compute k/sub eff/ for large greater than or equal to5 3 arrays of fissile material (in which each unit is a substantial fraction of a critical mass). Five fissile materials that might typically be transported were used in the study. The ''packages'' used for this exercise were simplified to allow studies unperturbed by the variety of structural materials which would exist in an actual package. The only material present other than the fissile material was a variation in the moderator (water) surrounding the fissile material. Consistent results were obtained from calculations using several computational methods. That is, when the bias demonstrated by each method for actual critical experiments was used to ''correct'' the results obtained for systems for which there were no experimental data, there was good agreement between the methods. Two major areas of concern were raised by this exercise. First, the lack of experimental data for arrays with size greater than 5 3 limits validation for large systems. Second, there is a distinct possibility that the comingling of two shipments of unlike units could result in a reduction of the safety margins. Additional experiments and calculations will be required to satisfactorily resolve the remaining questions regarding the safe transport of large arrays of fissile materials

  15. Addressing the critical health problem of adolescent substance use through health care, research, and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Emily C; Richter, Linda; Foster, Susan E

    2012-05-01

    The use of addictive substances-tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs-during adolescence interferes with brain development and increases the risk of serious health and mental health conditions, including addiction. Yet, adolescents live in a culture in which family, social, community, and media influences regularly bombard them with pro-substance use messages, creating an environment in which substance use is considered an expected behavior, rather than a considerable health risk. To prevent the significant harm that falls to teens and young adults because of substance use, The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University (CASA Columbia) undertook a study to explore how adolescent brain development relates to the risk of substance use and addiction; the cultural influences that create an environment in which substance use is considered normative behavior; individual factors that make some teens more disposed to substance use and addiction; and evidence-based prevention and treatment strategies for addressing this problem. The recently published report Adolescent Substance Use: America's #1 Public Health Problem concludes that risky substance use is a major public health problem that can be ameliorated through evidence-based public health measures, including education about the disease and its risk factors, screenings, and clinical interventions, and that addiction can be treated and managed effectively within routine health care practice and specialty care. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Stoichiometry in Context: Inquiry-Guided Problems of Chemistry for Encouraging Critical Thinking in Engineering Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Pinto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on examples of educational tools concerning the learning of chemistry for engineering students through different daily life cases. These tools were developed during the past few years for enhancing the active role of students. They refer to cases about mineral water, medicaments, dentifrices and informative panels about solar power, where an adequate quantitative treatment through stoichiometry calculations allows the interpretation of data and values announced by manufacturers. These cases were developed in the context of an inquiry-guided instruction model. By bringing tangible chemistry examples into the classroom we provide an opportunity for engineering students to apply this science to familiar products in hopes that they will appreciate chemistry more, will be motivated to study concepts in greater detail, and will connect the relevance of chemistry to everyday life.

  17. A Critical Investigation of the Relevance and Potential of IDPS as a Local Governance Instrument for Pursuing Social Justice in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Njuh Fuo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Unlike the situation in the past, when local government’s role was limited to service delivery, local government is now constitutionally mandated to play an expanded developmental role. As a “co-responsible” sphere of government, local government is obliged to contribute towards realising the transformative constitutional mandate aimed at social justice. South African scholars and jurists share the view that social justice is primarily concerned with the eradication of poverty and extreme inequalities in access to basic services, and aims to ensure that poor people command sufficient material resources to facilitate their equal participation in socio-political life. In order to enable municipalities to fulfil their broad constitutional mandate, the system of integrated development planning (IDPs came into effect in South Africa in 2000. Each municipality is obliged to design, adopt and implement an integrated development plan in order to achieve its expanded constitutional mandate. The IDP is considered to be the chief legally prescribed governance instrument for South African municipalities. The purpose of this article is to explore and critically investigate the relevance and potential of IDPs in contributing towards the achievement of social justice in South Africa. This article argues inter alia that the multitude of sectors that converge in an IDP makes it directly relevant and gives it enormous potential to contribute towards social justice because, depending on the context, municipalities could include and implement strategies that specifically respond to diverse areas of human need. In this regard, the legal and policy frameworks for IDPs provide a structured scheme that could be used by municipalities to prioritise and meet the basic needs of especially the poor. Despite its potential, it is argued that the ability of IDPs to respond to the basic needs of the poor is largely constrained by a series of implementation challenges

  18. Natural Selection or Problem Solving. Critical Re-evaluation of Karl Popper's Evolutionism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boldachev Alexander

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the philosophers and the educated audience the name of Sir Karl Popper is usually associated with the critical method, evolutionary epistemology, falsification as a criterion for the demarcation of scientific knowledge, the concept of the third world and with his dislike to dialectics and contradictions. This article is aimed to show in what way all these things are connected in the evolutionary researches of the philosopher and the new conceptions, which he contributed to studying the mechanisms of evolution. Also there is an attempt to comprehend the evolutionary views of Popper, test them for falsification, relate his epistemology with his claims, which he puts forward to the theory of objective knowledge evolution and show the obvious contradiction between them.

  19. Systematics of criticality properties of actinide nuclides and its bearing on the long lived fission waste problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, M.; Rao, K.S.; Garg, S.B.; Iyengar, P.K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on a systematic analysis of the criticality parameters of over twenty fissile and fertile isotopes of eight transthorium actinide elements that has been carried out by us. It is observed that K ∞ increases and critical mass decreases monotonically with the fissility parameter (Z 2 /A) of the nuclides. This implies that each and every isotope of transuranic elements such as Np, Am, Cm etc. which are produced as by-products during reactor operation is a more valuable nuclear fuel than the corresponding fissile/fissible isotopes of plutonium. This finding has a profound bearing on the long lived fission waste problem and supports the view that the byproduct actinide elements should be separated from the high level waste stream and recycled back into fission reactors, thereby eliminating one of the commonly voiced concerns regarding the acceptability of nuclear fission power

  20. Decoding the IT value problem an executive guide for achieving optimal ROI on critical IT investments

    CERN Document Server

    Fell, Gregory J

    2013-01-01

    Gain greater returns from your IT investments Revealing the secrets to proven, effective strategies that enable businesses to leverage the full value of highly expensive IT investments, Decoding the IT Value Problem is a no-nonsense guide for making smart IT investments and cutting through the noise of vendor marketing and media hype. Author Gregory Fell describes in rich detail the actual processes, frameworks, infrastructure and discipline required to develop and execute corporate IT strategies that areprofitable and sustainable.Provides a proven framework for develop

  1. Developing Critical Thinking of Middle School Students using Problem Based Learning 4 Core Areas (PBL4C) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridza, R.; E Irving, K.

    2017-02-01

    Traditional methods such as rote learning and memorization in teaching science create passive students in science classrooms. The impact of this continuous action for many decades is inactive learners who cannot develop higher order thinking skills. Based on the performance test, students’ critical thinking skill in Public Middle School 3 Pontianak was in low level although their achievement score were higher than school standards. The purpose of this study is to develop critical thinking skills of middle school students using Problem Based Learning 4 Core Areas (PBL4C). The design of this research is classroom action research with two cycles. Data has been collected using observation checklist, rating scale, self and peer assessment. Research findings reveal that students experience development from 11.11% to 88.45% in identifying the problem correctly, 37.03% to 76.92% for sub skills distinguish knowledge and opinion, 18.51% to 65.38% for sub skills providing possible solution, 22.22% to 69.23% for sub skills making decision, and 11.11% to 69.23% for sub skills identifying the impact of the implementation of their solution. In conclusion, the findings indicate that development of students’ critical thinking skills occurs when PBL4C model applied in science classroom. These findings suggest that teachers should act as facilitator in a classroom as well as should provide meaningful learning resources that can benefit students’ critical thinking skills. On the other hand, students should practice constantly to offer a sharp, accurate and appropriate solution.

  2. In vivo relevance of two critical levels for NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1)-mediated cellular protection against electrophile toxicity found in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Laura H J; Pot, Gerda K; Aarts, Jac M M J G; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Alink, Gerrit M

    2006-08-01

    NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1)-mediated detoxification of quinones is suggested to be involved in cancer prevention. In the present study, using transfected CHO cells, it was demonstrated that the relation between NQO1 activity and the resulting protection against the cytotoxicity of menadione shows a steep dose-response curve revealing a 'lower protection threshold' of 0.5mumol DCPIP/min/mg protein and an 'upper protection threshold' at 1mumol DCPIP/min/mg protein. In an additional in vivo experiment it was investigated how both in vitro critical activity levels of NQO1, relate to NQO1 activities in mice and man, either without or upon induction of the enzyme by butylated hydroxyanisol (BHA) or indole-3-carbinol (I(3)C). Data from an experiment with CD1 mice revealed that base-line NQO1 levels in liver, kidney, small intestine, colon and lung are generally below the observed 'lower protection threshold' in vitro, this also holds for most human tissue S-9 samples. To achieve NQO1 levels above this 'lower protection threshold' will require 5-20 fold NQO1 induction. Discussion focuses on the relevance of the in vitro NQO1 activity thresholds for the in vivo situation. We conclude that increased protection against menadione toxicity can probably not be achieved by NQO1 induction but should be achieved by other mechanisms. Whether this conclusion also holds for other electrophiles and the in vivo situation awaits further definition of their NQO1 protection thresholds.

  3. The Limits to Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averill, M.; Briggle, A.

    2006-12-01

    Science policy and knowledge production lately have taken a pragmatic turn. Funding agencies increasingly are requiring scientists to explain the relevance of their work to society. This stems in part from mounting critiques of the "linear model" of knowledge production in which scientists operating according to their own interests or disciplinary standards are presumed to automatically produce knowledge that is of relevance outside of their narrow communities. Many contend that funded scientific research should be linked more directly to societal goals, which implies a shift in the kind of research that will be funded. While both authors support the concept of useful science, we question the exact meaning of "relevance" and the wisdom of allowing it to control research agendas. We hope to contribute to the conversation by thinking more critically about the meaning and limits of the term "relevance" and the trade-offs implicit in a narrow utilitarian approach. The paper will consider which interests tend to be privileged by an emphasis on relevance and address issues such as whose goals ought to be pursued and why, and who gets to decide. We will consider how relevance, narrowly construed, may actually limit the ultimate utility of scientific research. The paper also will reflect on the worthiness of research goals themselves and their relationship to a broader view of what it means to be human and to live in society. Just as there is more to being human than the pragmatic demands of daily life, there is more at issue with knowledge production than finding the most efficient ways to satisfy consumer preferences or fix near-term policy problems. We will conclude by calling for a balanced approach to funding research that addresses society's most pressing needs but also supports innovative research with less immediately apparent application.

  4. Post-operative endophthalmitis: the application of hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) to an infection control problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, D R; Henry, M; Liddell, K G; Mitchell, C M; Sneddon, J G

    2001-09-01

    Hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) is a quality assurance system widely used in the food industry to ensure safety. We adopted the HACCP approach when conventional infection control measures had failed to solve an ongoing problem with an increased incidence of postoperative endophthalmitis, and our ophthalmology unit was threatened with permanent cessation of intraocular surgery. Although time-consuming, the result was an entirely new set of protocols for the care of patients undergoing intraocular surgery, the development of an integrated care pathway, and a comprehensive and robust audit programme, which enabled intraocular surgery to continue in a new spirit of confidence. HACCP methodology has so far been little used in healthcare, but it might be usefully applied to a variety of apparently intractable infection control problems. Copyright 2001 The Hospital Infection Society.

  5. Critical Discourse Analysis. The Elaboration of a Problem Oriented Discourse Analytic Approach After Foucault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Diaz-Bone

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The German discourse researcher Siegfried JÄGER from Duisburg is the first to have published a German-language book about the methodology of discourse analysis after FOUCAULT. JÄGER integrates in his work the discourse analytic work of Jürgen LINK as well as the interdisciplinary discussion carried on in the discourse analytic journal "kultuRRevolution" (Journal for Applied Discourse Analysis. JÄGER and his co-workers were associated with the Duisburger Institute for Language Research and Social Research (DISS, see http://www.diss-duisburg.de/ for 20 years, developing discourse theory and the methodology of discourse analysis. The interview was done via e-mail. It depicts the discourse analytic approach of JÄGER and his co-workers following the works of FOUCAULT and LINK. The interview reconstructs JÄGERs vita and his academic career. Further topics of the interview are the agenda of JÄGERs discourse studies, methodological considerations, the (problematic relationship between FOUCAULDian discourse analysis and (discourses, linguistics, styles and organization of research and questions concerning applied discourse analytic research as a form of critical intervention. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0603219

  6. The principal component analysis method used with polynomial Chaos expansion to propagate uncertainties through critical transport problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rising, M. E.; Prinja, A. K. [Univ. of New Mexico, Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    A critical neutron transport problem with random material properties is introduced. The total cross section and the average neutron multiplicity are assumed to be uncertain, characterized by the mean and variance with a log-normal distribution. The average neutron multiplicity and the total cross section are assumed to be uncorrected and the material properties for differing materials are also assumed to be uncorrected. The principal component analysis method is used to decompose the covariance matrix into eigenvalues and eigenvectors and then 'realizations' of the material properties can be computed. A simple Monte Carlo brute force sampling of the decomposed covariance matrix is employed to obtain a benchmark result for each test problem. In order to save computational time and to characterize the moments and probability density function of the multiplication factor the polynomial chaos expansion method is employed along with the stochastic collocation method. A Gauss-Hermite quadrature set is convolved into a multidimensional tensor product quadrature set and is successfully used to compute the polynomial chaos expansion coefficients of the multiplication factor. Finally, for a particular critical fuel pin assembly the appropriate number of random variables and polynomial expansion order are investigated. (authors)

  7. Lake Orta chemical status 25 years after liming: problems solved and emerging critical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Rogora

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Lake Orta, located in Piedmont, northwestern Italy, has been severely affected by industrial pollution since the 1930s. A successful liming intervention, performed in 1988-1990, returned pH levels in the lake to neutrality, and accelerated the reduction of aqueous trace metal concentrations. In this paper, we present an update knowledge of the chemical status of Lake Orta, focusing on the data collected from 1990 to 2014. In this period we sampled the lake at its deepest point (Qualba station, on a monthly (1990-2000 or seasonal (since 2001 basis. Samples were collected at nine depths through the water column, and analyzed for pH, conductivity, alkalinity, major ions, nutrients, and trace metals. Collectively, these data allowed us to evaluate the long-term response of the lake to the restoration treatment, with particular regard to its acid-base status; they also provided insights into emerging or potential critical issues, including eutrophication and re-suspension of trace metals that still linger in the lake. Furthermore, the evaluation of the present chemical condition of the lake is a precondition for any successive restoration measure, such as fish introduction. The recent data confirmed the lake’s water quality has recovered, i.e. returned to a pre-pollution chemical state. Lake water values of pH and concentrations of ammonium, sulphate and base cations have stabilized. Alkalinity and nitrate concentrations are also expected to reach stable level in the next few years. Levels of nitrate, reactive silica, and phosphorus compounds are now regulated by algal uptake, providing indirect evidence of a partial biological recovery. For instance, both the inter-annual average decline and the reappearance of a seasonal signal in silica confirmed the presence of a stable diatom community. The lake is presently oligotrophic, and concentrations of both N and P compounds are steady and low throughout the year. However, a monthly check of nutrient

  8. Measuring Gains in Critical Thinking in Food Science and Human Nutrition Courses: The Cornell Critical Thinking Test, Problem-Based Learning Activities, and Student Journal Entries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaoka, Wayne T.; Li, Yong; Rhee, Walter Y.

    2010-01-01

    The Cornell Critical Thinking Test (CCTT) is one of the many multiple-choice tests with validated questions that have been reported to measure general critical thinking (CT) ability. One of the IFT Education Standards for undergraduate degrees in Food Science is the emphasis on the development of critical thinking. While this skill is easy to list…

  9. Analysis of the critical thinking process of junior high school students in solving geometric problems by utilizing the v-a-k learning styles model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hananto, R. B.; Kusmayadi, T. A.; Riyadi

    2018-05-01

    The research aims to identify the critical thinking process of students in solving geometry problems. The geometry problem selected in this study was the building of flat side room (cube). The critical thinking process was implemented to visual, auditory and kinesthetic learning styles. This research was a descriptive analysis research using qualitative method. The subjects of this research were 3 students selected by purposive sampling consisting of visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learning styles. Data collection was done through test, interview, and observation. The results showed that the students' critical thinking process in identifying and defining steps for each learning style were similar in solving problems. The critical thinking differences were seen in enumerate, analyze, list, and self-correct steps. It was also found that critical thinking process of students with kinesthetic learning style was better than visual and auditory learning styles.

  10. The Effect of Problem-Based Learning on the Creative Thinking and Critical Thinking Disposition of Students in Visual Arts Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulger, Kani

    2018-01-01

    The problem-based learning (PBL) approach was implemented as a treatment for higher education visual arts students over one semester to examine its effect on the creative thinking and critical thinking disposition of these students. PBL had a significant effect on creative thinking, but critical thinking disposition was affected to a lesser…

  11. Problems on gravitational collapse of interstellar gas clouds. II. Caustic and critical times for a one-dimensional hydrodynamic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraioli, F; Virgopia, N [Rome Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Matematica; Ruggeri, T [Bologna Univ. (Italy)

    1978-07-01

    The gravitational collapse of a spherically symmetric interstellar gas cloud has been investigated following the non-linear discontinuity waves propagation theory. It has been pointed out that macroscopic phenomena, such as the process of fragmentation, can arise (shock wave formation) - even in the case of spherical symmetry - at times smaller than the free-fall time tsub(ff), provided the initial data of the Cauchy problem be discontinuous within a sphere of radius R(mean) < Rsub(cloud) (caustic cases). It has also been proved that strong discontinuities outside the mentioned sphere may generate critical times tsub(cr) < tsub(ff) (depending on the typical non-linear structure of the differential system). The cooling-heating function plays an important role in contrasting the formation of shock waves.

  12. A Neumann problem with the $q$-Laplacian on a solid torus in the critical of supercritical case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Labropoulos

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the work of Ding [21] we study the existence of a nontrivial positive solution to the nonlinear Neumann problem $$displaylines{ Delta_qu+a(xu^{q-1}=lambda f(xu^{p-1}, quad u>0quad hbox{on } T,cr abla u|^{q-2}frac{partial u}{partial u}+b(x u^{q-1} =lambda g(xu^{ilde{p}-1} quadhbox{on }{partial T},cr p =frac{2q}{2-q}>6,quad ilde{p}=frac{q}{2-q}>4,quad frac{3}{2}critical of supercritical.

  13. Student self-assessment in dental hygiene education: a cornerstone of critical thinking and problem-solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mould, Michelle R; Bray, Kimberly Krust; Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C

    2011-08-01

    Self-assessment is an integral component of learning and developing decision making and critical thinking skills in the practice of dental hygiene. Dental hygienists must think critically and develop problem-solving strategies during their formal education to ensure lifelong quality and ongoing development of their personal knowledge and skill as related to providing comprehensive, evidence-based patient care. The primary focus of this qualitative investigation was to obtain undergraduate dental hygiene students' perceptions of and experiences with self-assessment. The sample consisted of an intact undergraduate dental hygiene class of seventeen students in their final semester of a two-year, entry-level dental hygiene program at a community college in the southeast United States. Data for this research were obtained from three sources: 1) a program-designed self-assessment survey assignment, 2) in-depth interviews with four second-year dental hygiene students, and 3) program-designed clinical competence evaluation forms. Inductive data analysis revealed that the majority of students perceived that they had no prior experience with self-assessment in any prerequisite coursework and thus felt unprepared for its use in the dental hygiene program. As they matriculated in the program, students began to see the advantages of self-assessment in clinical practice. Programmatic orientation to self-assessment may therefore be beneficial due to the varying backgrounds of students entering dental hygiene programs.

  14. Characteristics and critical success factors for implementing problem-based learning in a human resource-constrained country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giva, Karen R N; Duma, Sinegugu E

    2015-08-31

    Problem-based learning (PBL) was introduced in Malawi in 2002 in order to improve the nursing education system and respond to the acute nursing human resources shortage. However, its implementation has been very slow throughout the country. The objectives of the study were to explore and describe the goals that were identified by the college to facilitate the implementation of PBL, the resources of the organisation that facilitated the implementation of PBL, the factors related to sources of students that facilitated the implementation of PBL, and the influence of the external system of the organisation on facilitating the implementation of PBL, and to identify critical success factors that could guide the implementation of PBL in nursing education in Malawi. This is an ethnographic, exploratory and descriptive qualitative case study. Purposive sampling was employed to select the nursing college, participants and documents for review.Three data collection methods, including semi-structured interviews, participant observation and document reviews, were used to collect data. The four steps of thematic analysis were used to analyse data from all three sources. Four themes and related subthemes emerged from the triangulated data sources. The first three themes and their subthemes are related to the characteristics related to successful implementation of PBL in a human resource-constrained nursing college, whilst the last theme is related to critical success factors that contribute to successful implementation of PBL in a human resource-constrained country like Malawi. This article shows that implementation of PBL is possible in a human resource-constrained country if there is political commitment and support.

  15. The effectiveness of problem-based learning on development of nursing students' critical thinking: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ling-Na; Qin, Bo; Zhou, Ying-qing; Mou, Shao-yu; Gao, Hui-Ming

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to estimate the effectiveness of problem-based learning in developing nursing students' critical thinking. Searches of PubMed, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Proquest, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were undertaken to identify randomized controlled trails from 1965 to December 2012, comparing problem-based learning with traditional lectures on the effectiveness of development of nursing students' critical thinking, with no language limitation. The mesh-terms or key words used in the search were problem-based learning, thinking, critical thinking, nursing, nursing education, nurse education, nurse students, nursing students and pupil nurse. Two reviewers independently assessed eligibility and extracted data. Quality assessment was conducted independently by two reviewers using the Cochrane Collaboration's Risk of Bias Tool. We analyzed critical thinking scores (continuous outcomes) using a standardized mean difference (SMD) or weighted mean difference (WMD) with a 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Heterogeneity was assessed using the Cochran's Q statistic and I(2) statistic. Publication bias was assessed by means of funnel plot and Egger's test of asymmetry. Nine articles representing eight randomized controlled trials were included in the meta-analysis. Most studies were of low risk of bias. The pooled effect size showed problem-based learning was able to improve nursing students' critical thinking (overall critical thinking scores SMD=0.33, 95%CI=0.13-0.52, P=0.0009), compared with traditional lectures. There was low heterogeneity (overall critical thinking scores I(2)=45%, P=0.07) in the meta-analysis. No significant publication bias was observed regarding overall critical thinking scores (P=0.536). Sensitivity analysis showed that the result of our meta-analysis was reliable. Most

  16. Does a 3-week critical research appraisal course affect how students perceive their appraisal skills and the relevance of research for clinical practice? A repeated cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelsness-Jørgensen, Lars-Petter

    2015-01-01

    Research utilisation is essential in developing evidence-based practices; although many students may be generally able to adopt such skills, there are reports of barriers related to critical appraisal skills. To explore how students perceive the relevance of research to future clinical practice and patients, and to what extent they read research (including reading pattern). Additionally, the objective was to explore whether a three-week intensive course in critical appraisal of research could affect these variables. A cross-sectional survey design, with a pre- and post-test. One large university college in Southeastern Norway. 196 multidisciplinary healthcare students at baseline and 147 after three weeks. A purposely-designed 21 item questionnaire was used to quantify students' attitudes towards using research and critical thinking. The questionnaire was based on themes emerging from prior focus group interviews with 10 nursing and social educator students as well as from the existing literature. At baseline, 6.1% and 7.1% of respondents perceived the research to be of little or very little importance for their future work and patients, respectively. Furthermore, 83.2% reported that they seldom or very seldom read scientific papers. At baseline, 40 different patterns of reading a scientific paper were identified. Additionally, 7.1% of respondents reported to read the introduction, methods and conclusion in combination. Significantly improved scores were found after completing the three-week course related to a) relevance of research for future work (pskills in critical appraisal (pstudents' practical critical appraisal skills improved their view of the relevance of research for patients, future work as well as their own critical appraisal skills. Prospective studies are warranted to explore the effects of such teaching modules in the long-term. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. ASSOCIATION AMONG MATHEMATICAL CRITICAL THINKING SKILL, COMMUNICATION, AND CURIOSITY ATTITUDE AS THE IMPACT OF PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING AND COGNITIVE CONFLICT STRATEGY (PBLCCS) IN NUMBER THEORY COURSE

    OpenAIRE

    Zetriuslita Zetriuslita; Wahyudin Wahyudin; Jarnawi Afgani Dahlan

    2018-01-01

    This research aims to find out the association amongMathematical Critical Thinking (MCT) ability, Mathematical Communication, and Mathematical Curiosity Attitude (MCA) as the impact of applying Problem-Based Learning Cognitive Conflict Strategy(PBLCCS) in Number Theory course. The research method is correlative study. The instruments include a test for mathematical critical thinking skill and communication, and questionnaire to obtain the scores of mathematical curiosity attitude. The finding...

  18. Critical Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critical care helps people with life-threatening injuries and illnesses. It might treat problems such as complications from surgery, ... attention by a team of specially-trained health care providers. Critical care usually takes place in an ...

  19. Students interest in learning science through fieldwork activity encourage critical thinking and problem solving skills among UPSI pre-university students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Siti Zaheera Muhamad; Khairuddin, Raja Farhana Raja

    2017-05-01

    Graduates with good critical thinking and problem solving (CTPS) skills are likely to boost their employability to live in 21st century. The demands of graduates to be equipped with CTPS skills have shifted our education system in focusing on these elements in all levels of education, from primary, the secondary, and up to the tertiary education, by fostering interesting teaching and learning activities such as fieldwork activity in science classes. Despite the importance of the CTPS skills, little is known about whether students' interests in teaching and learning activities, such as fieldwork activity, have any influence on the students CTPS skills. Therefore, in this investigation, firstly to examine students interests in learning science through fieldwork activity. Secondly, this study examined whether the students' interest in learning science through fieldwork activity have affect on how the students employ CTPS skills. About 100 Diploma of Science students in Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI) were randomly chosen to participate in this study. All of the participants completed a survey on how they find the fieldwork activity implemented in their science classes and it relevents towards their CTPS skills development. From our findings, majority of the students (91%) find that fieldwork activity is interesting and helpful in increasing their interest in learning science (learning factor) and accommodate their learning process (utility). Results suggest that students' interest on the fieldwork activity in science classes does have some influence on the students development of CTPS skills. The findings could be used as an initial guideline by incorporating students' interest on other teaching and learning activities that being implemented in science classes in order to know the impacts of these learning activities in enhancing their CTPS skills.

  20. Occupational Survey Report on Automotive Mechanics: Task Data from Workers and Supervisors Indicating Job Relevance and Training Criticalness. [Interim Report]. Research and Development Series No. 110.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammerman, Harry L.; Pratzner, Frank C.

    The study was conducted to develop methods for using timely, firsthand occupational task information on automotive mechanics in order to identify critical performance requirements that warrant formal training. The methodology used is described in detail. A Task Inventory Questionnaire was completed by 18 auto mechanics and 12 supervisors in each…

  1. The platinum group elements and gold: analysis by radiochemical and instrumental neutron activation analysis and relevance to geological exploration and related problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, S.; Plimer, I. R. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of research conducted with the support of the Australian Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering, at the University of Melbourne, School of Earth Sciences, Radiochemical Neutron Activation Laboratory. The primary objective of this research is to realize the high potential of the platinum group elements (PGE) and gold to the solution of petrogenetic problems, the study of magma generation and magmatic processes in mafic/ultramafic rock suites, as tracers in hydrothermal ore formation. The PGEs (Os, Ru, Ir, Pt, Pd and Rh) are among the least abundant of all elements on earth with unique properties such as high melting points, high electrical and thermal conductivity, high density, strength and toughness as alloys. They exhibit both siderophile and chalcophile characteristics and are valuable tools in providing information about magmatic processes, in particular S-saturation, as well as crystal fractionation trends. Two distinct groups of PGEs are discerned; the IPGEs (Ru, Os, Ir) and the PPGEs (Pt, Pd, Rh, Au) on the basis of their behaviour during fractionation processes. Using chondrite normalized PGE patterns it is possible to distinguish between sulphides that segregated from primitive magmas, such as komatiites, and sulphides which segregated from more fractionated magmas, such as tholeiites. It is critical to the understanding of these processes to be able to analyse key elements, such as the PGE and gold, in the parts per billion to parts per trillion range. Platinum group elements and Au were determined by radiochemical neutron activation analysis using a modified NiS fire-assay preconcentration technique, adapted from procedures first used by Robert, R.V. D. and van Wyk, E. (1975) . Detection limits are generally 0.005-0.01 ppb (Au and Ir), 0.1-0.2 ppb (Pd and Pt), and 0.1-0.5 ppb for Ru. 9 refs.

  2. The platinum group elements and gold: analysis by radiochemical and instrumental neutron activation analysis and relevance to geological exploration and related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, S.; Plimer, I. R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of research conducted with the support of the Australian Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering, at the University of Melbourne, School of Earth Sciences, Radiochemical Neutron Activation Laboratory. The primary objective of this research is to realize the high potential of the platinum group elements (PGE) and gold to the solution of petrogenetic problems, the study of magma generation and magmatic processes in mafic/ultramafic rock suites, as tracers in hydrothermal ore formation. The PGEs (Os, Ru, Ir, Pt, Pd and Rh) are among the least abundant of all elements on earth with unique properties such as high melting points, high electrical and thermal conductivity, high density, strength and toughness as alloys. They exhibit both siderophile and chalcophile characteristics and are valuable tools in providing information about magmatic processes, in particular S-saturation, as well as crystal fractionation trends. Two distinct groups of PGEs are discerned; the IPGEs (Ru, Os, Ir) and the PPGEs (Pt, Pd, Rh, Au) on the basis of their behaviour during fractionation processes. Using chondrite normalized PGE patterns it is possible to distinguish between sulphides that segregated from primitive magmas, such as komatiites, and sulphides which segregated from more fractionated magmas, such as tholeiites. It is critical to the understanding of these processes to be able to analyse key elements, such as the PGE and gold, in the parts per billion to parts per trillion range. Platinum group elements and Au were determined by radiochemical neutron activation analysis using a modified NiS fire-assay preconcentration technique, adapted from procedures first used by Robert, R.V. D. and van Wyk, E. (1975) . Detection limits are generally 0.005-0.01 ppb (Au and Ir), 0.1-0.2 ppb (Pd and Pt), and 0.1-0.5 ppb for Ru. 9 refs

  3. The platinum group elements and gold: analysis by radiochemical and instrumental neutron activation analysis and relevance to geological exploration and related problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, S; Plimer, I R [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of research conducted with the support of the Australian Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering, at the University of Melbourne, School of Earth Sciences, Radiochemical Neutron Activation Laboratory. The primary objective of this research is to realize the high potential of the platinum group elements (PGE) and gold to the solution of petrogenetic problems, the study of magma generation and magmatic processes in mafic/ultramafic rock suites, as tracers in hydrothermal ore formation. The PGEs (Os, Ru, Ir, Pt, Pd and Rh) are among the least abundant of all elements on earth with unique properties such as high melting points, high electrical and thermal conductivity, high density, strength and toughness as alloys. They exhibit both siderophile and chalcophile characteristics and are valuable tools in providing information about magmatic processes, in particular S-saturation, as well as crystal fractionation trends. Two distinct groups of PGEs are discerned; the IPGEs (Ru, Os, Ir) and the PPGEs (Pt, Pd, Rh, Au) on the basis of their behaviour during fractionation processes. Using chondrite normalized PGE patterns it is possible to distinguish between sulphides that segregated from primitive magmas, such as komatiites, and sulphides which segregated from more fractionated magmas, such as tholeiites. It is critical to the understanding of these processes to be able to analyse key elements, such as the PGE and gold, in the parts per billion to parts per trillion range. Platinum group elements and Au were determined by radiochemical neutron activation analysis using a modified NiS fire-assay preconcentration technique, adapted from procedures first used by Robert, R.V. D. and van Wyk, E. (1975) . Detection limits are generally 0.005-0.01 ppb (Au and Ir), 0.1-0.2 ppb (Pd and Pt), and 0.1-0.5 ppb for Ru. 9 refs.

  4. A critical review of frameworks used for evaluating reliability and relevance of (eco)toxicity data: Perspectives for an integrated eco-human decision-making framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, N; Ciffroy, P

    2016-10-01

    Considerable efforts have been invested so far to evaluate and rank the quality and relevance of (eco)toxicity data for their use in regulatory risk assessment to assess chemical hazards. Many frameworks have been developed to improve robustness and transparency in the evaluation of reliability and relevance of individual tests, but these frameworks typically focus on either environmental risk assessment (ERA) or human health risk assessment (HHRA), and there is little cross talk between them. There is a need to develop a common approach that would support a more consistent, transparent and robust evaluation and weighting of the evidence across ERA and HHRA. This paper explores the applicability of existing Data Quality Assessment (DQA) frameworks for integrating environmental toxicity hazard data into human health assessments and vice versa. We performed a comparative analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of eleven frameworks for evaluating reliability and/or relevance of toxicity and ecotoxicity hazard data. We found that a frequent shortcoming is the lack of a clear separation between reliability and relevance criteria. A further gaps and needs analysis revealed that none of the reviewed frameworks satisfy the needs of a common eco-human DQA system. Based on our analysis, some key characteristics, perspectives and recommendations are identified and discussed for building a common DQA system as part of a future integrated eco-human decision-making framework. This work lays the basis for developing a common DQA system to support the further development and promotion of Integrated Risk Assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Making Deferred Taxes Relevant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Arjan; Naarding, Ewout

    2018-01-01

    We analyse the conceptual problems in current accounting for deferred taxes and provide solutions derived from the literature in order to make International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) deferred tax numbers value-relevant. In our view, the empirical results concerning the value relevance of

  6. The relevance of axial burn-up profiles for the criticality safety analysis of spent nuclear fuel in a final repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilger, R.; Gmal, B.; Moser, E.F.

    2008-01-01

    Due to inhomogeneous neutron flux and moderator density distributions in the reactor core, the burn-up of a nuclear fuel assembly is not homogeneous but shows an axial distribution, typically with lower partial burn-up and thus higher remaining reactivity at the fuel ends in particular at the assembly top end. Beyond a burn-up of about 15 to 20 GWd/tHM, the multiplication factor K of the whole assembly is dominated by this lower-burnt end regions, and is usually higher than for assuming a homogeneous uniform distribution of the averaged burn-up. This behaviour commonly referred to as positive ''end effect'' is well known in burn-up credit considerations for transportation and storage casks and is being investigated also in the context of criticality analyses for final disposition of spent nuclear fuel. Sign and value of the end effect depend on several parameters. Based on a generic model one may not conclude that criticality in a final repository is a likely or expected event, but nevertheless it draws the attention to the fact that criticality is not excluded per se but has to be considered in the analysis and probably has to be encountered by certain appropriate measures, maybe e.g. by limitation of the amount of fissile material inside one single cask, or a rigorous prove for prevention of water ingress. The authors also conclude that the higher partial reactivity of the fuel ends has to be accounted for carefully in more realistic analyses of post-closure scenarios with respect to criticality safety.

  7. The Relevance of Franz L. Neumann’s Critical Theory in 2017: "Anxiety and Politics" in the New Age of Authoritarian Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This articles discusses and contextualises tripleC’s republication of Franz L. Neumann’s essay Anxiety and Politics. It provides some background information on Neumann’s life and works. The essay ascertains that in the age of new nationalisms, rising right-wing authoritarianism and authoritarian capitalism, Franz L Neumann’s works can help us to critically understand contemporary society.

  8. Research-Based Development of a Lesson Plan on Shower Gels and Musk Fragrances Following a Socio-Critical and Problem-Oriented Approach to Chemistry Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Ralf; Eilks, Ingo

    2010-01-01

    A case is described of the development of a lesson plan for 10th grade (age range 15-16) chemistry classes on the chemistry of shower gels. The lesson plan follows a socio-critical and problem-oriented approach to chemistry teaching. This means that, aside from learning about the basic chemistry of the components making up modern shower gels in…

  9. Magnetic fusion energy plasma interactive and high heat flux components. Volume I. Technical assessment of the critical issues and problem areas in the plasma materials interaction field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.; Gauster, W.B.; Heifetz, D.; Marmar, E.; Wilson, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    A technical assessment of the critical issues and problem areas in the field of plasma materials interactions (PMI) in magnetic fusion devices shows these problems to be central for near-term experiments, for intermediate-range reactor devices including D-T burning physics experiments, and for long-term reactor machines. Critical technical issues are ones central to understanding and successful operation of existing and near-term experiments/reactors or devices of great importance for the long run, i.e., ones which will require an extensive, long-term development effort and thus should receive attention now. Four subgroups were formed to assess the critical PMI issues along four major lines: (1) PMI and plasma confinement physics experiments; (2) plasma-edge modelling and theory; (3) surface physics; and (4) materials technology for in-vessel components and the first wall. The report which follows is divided into four major sections, one for each of these topics

  10. Comparison between “Problem-Based Learning” and “Question & Answer” Educational Methods on Environmental Health Students’ Attitude to Critical Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salehi L

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available  Aims: Critical thinking has the 2 aspects skill and attitude. The skill aspect will not take place without the attitude to critical thinking. The aim of this study was to compare between problem-based and question-answer learning methods on critical thinking attitude of environmental health students.  Instrument & Methods: In this quasi-experimental study all 27 environmental health students of Alborz University of Medical Sciences were entered the study by census method. Critical thinking attitudes’ parameters were studied by the California critical thinking disposition inventory (CCTDI before and after the intervention. The problem-based learning group (14 persons held some scenarios for studying and investigating and question-answer group (13 persons held 4 questioning sessions. Data were collected and analyzed by SPSS 17 using independent- and paired-T tests.  Findings: There were no significant differences between the average of CCTDI scores for problem-based learning group before (278.00±28.14 and after (309.29±13.80 the intervention and also between the average of CCTDI scores for question-answer group before (276.00±7.12 and after (306.62±16.32 the intervention (p>0.05. Both methods caused a significant increase in analytic power, information categorization and self-confidence of students (p<0.05.  Conclusion: Using both question-answer and problem-based educational methods can improve the attitude to critical thinking in students.

  11. ASPECTOS RELEVANTES DE LA ENTEROBIOSIS HUMANA. REVISIÓN CRÍTICA I RELEVANT ASPECTS OF HUMAN ENTEROBIOSIS. A CRITICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalmiro Cazorla-Perfetti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Enterobiosis is a human intestinal parasitic disease caused by the nematode worm Enterobius vermicularis . At night, gravid female pinworms migrate from large intestine to perianal/perineal areas where they lay eggs. Pinworm infection has a cosmopolitan distribution and is more prevalent among children, potentially causing adverse effects on their behavior, school success and nutritional condition. We consider that enterobiosis is one of the most underestimated entero-parasitic infection in humans. The present study makes a critical review of several important aspects about enterobiosis, including biology and taxonmy of E. vermicularis , diagnostic tools, pathologic effects, epidemiology and tretament.

  12. Empirical Models of Demand for Out-Patient Physician Services and Their Relevance to the Assessment of Patient Payment Policies: A Critical Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Skriabikova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the existing empirical micro-level models of demand for out-patient physician services where the size of patient payment is included either directly as an independent variable (when a flat-rate co-payment fee or indirectly as a level of deductibles and/or co-insurance defined by the insurance coverage. The paper also discusses the relevance of these models for the assessment of patient payment policies. For this purpose, a systematic literature review is carried out. In total, 46 relevant publications were identified. These publications are classified into categories based on their general approach to demand modeling, specifications of data collection, data analysis, and main empirical findings. The analysis indicates a rising research interest in the empirical micro-level models of demand for out-patient physician services that incorporate the size of patient payment. Overall, the size of patient payments, consumer socio-economic and demographic features, and quality of services provided emerge as important determinants of demand for out-patient physician services. However, there is a great variety in the modeling approaches and inconsistencies in the findings regarding the impact of price on demand for out-patient physician services. Hitherto, the empirical research fails to offer policy-makers a clear strategy on how to develop a country-specific model of demand for out-patient physician services suitable for the assessment of patient payment policies in their countries. In particular, theoretically important factors, such as provider behavior, consumer attitudes, experience and culture, and informal patient payments, are not considered. Although we recognize that it is difficult to measure these factors and to incorporate them in the demand models, it is apparent that there is a gap in research for the construction of effective patient payment schemes.

  13. Empirical models of demand for out-patient physician services and their relevance to the assessment of patient payment policies: a critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skriabikova, Olga; Pavlova, Milena; Groot, Wim

    2010-06-01

    This paper reviews the existing empirical micro-level models of demand for out-patient physician services where the size of patient payment is included either directly as an independent variable (when a flat-rate co-payment fee) or indirectly as a level of deductibles and/or co-insurance defined by the insurance coverage. The paper also discusses the relevance of these models for the assessment of patient payment policies. For this purpose, a systematic literature review is carried out. In total, 46 relevant publications were identified. These publications are classified into categories based on their general approach to demand modeling, specifications of data collection, data analysis, and main empirical findings. The analysis indicates a rising research interest in the empirical micro-level models of demand for out-patient physician services that incorporate the size of patient payment. Overall, the size of patient payments, consumer socio-economic and demographic features, and quality of services provided emerge as important determinants of demand for out-patient physician services. However, there is a great variety in the modeling approaches and inconsistencies in the findings regarding the impact of price on demand for out-patient physician services. Hitherto, the empirical research fails to offer policy-makers a clear strategy on how to develop a country-specific model of demand for out-patient physician services suitable for the assessment of patient payment policies in their countries. In particular, theoretically important factors, such as provider behavior, consumer attitudes, experience and culture, and informal patient payments, are not considered. Although we recognize that it is difficult to measure these factors and to incorporate them in the demand models, it is apparent that there is a gap in research for the construction of effective patient payment schemes.

  14. Response to Dr. Smith's Comments and Criticisms Concerning "Identification of Student Misconceptions in Genetics Problem Solving via Computer Program."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Mark; Lehman, James D.

    1991-01-01

    Authors respond to criticisms by Smith in the same issue and defend their use of the term "gene" and "misconception." Authors indicate that they did not believe that the use of computers significantly skewed their data concerning student errors. (PR)

  15. Some aspects of theory and mathematics of thermal runaway in reacting chemical systems that may be relevant to critical behaviour in confined plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, R. The

    1999-01-01

    The concept of an endothermally stabilised chemical reactor as an enthalpy coupled thermokinetic system is introduced, and given precise mathematical expression in the form of a four-dimensional dynamical system. Criteria are defined for which the system is free of all kinds of thermal misbehaviour. This important dynamical result defines bounds for a large region of the parameter space within which the reactor may be operated safely. The formalism of singularity theory is extended to bifurcation surfaces in a studio of multiplicity and stability in the CSTR problem

  16. Problems Solved, Problems Created: A Critical-Case Analysis of a Public-Private Partnership in Alternative Education for At-Risk Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callet, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine what problems are solved and created when two school districts and one charter school partnered with a private company to provide alternative education to at-risk students. The research also aimed to address lessons learned as well as principal advantages and disadvantages of the partnership. Data…

  17. Solutions to criticality problems in a plutonium extraction plant; Solutions apportees aux problemes de criticite d'une usine d'extraction du plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouannaud, C.; Rodier, J.; Fruchard, Y.; Peyresblanques, H.; Papault, C.; Tabardel-Brian, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Chusclan (France). Centre de Production de Plutonium de Marcoule, service d' extraction du plutonium, service de protection contre les radiations et d' assainissement radioactif

    1968-08-01

    There are two aspects to nuclear criticality safety: prevention of criticality and protection against the consequences of a possible accident: this report considers these two aspects in the case of the Marcoule Plutonium Extraction Plant. After briefly recalling the various techniques used for avoiding criticality (mass, geometry, concentration, poisoning), the authors describe their application in the plant and show in particular that, a rational use of a favorable geometry is a factor both for security and from an economic point of view. The authors then describe the inside organisation which makes it possible to obtain the necessary intrinsic safety standard right from the advance project stage, and to control the workshop safety during the operation of the plant. The second part of the report deals with the system of protection against the consequences of a possible accident: definition of a typical accident, fixing of the boundaries of a critical zone, safety alarm device, individual and collective dosimetry, evacuation plan and safety instructions. (authors) [French] La securite vis-a-vis des risques de criticite revet deux aspects: la prevention de la criticite et la protection contre les consequences d'un accident eventuel: le present rapport developpe ces deux aspects dans le cas de l'Usine d'Extraction du Plutonium de Marcoule. Apres avoir rappele les differentes techniques de prevention de la criticite (masse, geometrie, concentration, empoisonnement), les auteurs decrivent leur application a l'Usine et montrent notamment que l'utilisation rationnelle de la geometrie favorable est un double facteur de securite et d'economie. Les auteurs decrivent ensuite l'organisation interieure qui permet de realiser la securite intrinseque des le stade d'un avant projet et de controler la securite des ateliers au cours de la vie de l'Usine. La deuxieme partie du rapport est consacree au systeme de protection contre les

  18. Solutions to criticality problems in a plutonium extraction plant; Solutions apportees aux problemes de criticite d'une usine d'extraction du plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouannaud, C; Rodier, J; Fruchard, Y; Peyresblanques, H; Papault, C; Tabardel-Brian, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Chusclan (France). Centre de Production de Plutonium de Marcoule, service d' extraction du plutonium, service de protection contre les radiations et d' assainissement radioactif

    1968-08-01

    There are two aspects to nuclear criticality safety: prevention of criticality and protection against the consequences of a possible accident: this report considers these two aspects in the case of the Marcoule Plutonium Extraction Plant. After briefly recalling the various techniques used for avoiding criticality (mass, geometry, concentration, poisoning), the authors describe their application in the plant and show in particular that, a rational use of a favorable geometry is a factor both for security and from an economic point of view. The authors then describe the inside organisation which makes it possible to obtain the necessary intrinsic safety standard right from the advance project stage, and to control the workshop safety during the operation of the plant. The second part of the report deals with the system of protection against the consequences of a possible accident: definition of a typical accident, fixing of the boundaries of a critical zone, safety alarm device, individual and collective dosimetry, evacuation plan and safety instructions. (authors) [French] La securite vis-a-vis des risques de criticite revet deux aspects: la prevention de la criticite et la protection contre les consequences d'un accident eventuel: le present rapport developpe ces deux aspects dans le cas de l'Usine d'Extraction du Plutonium de Marcoule. Apres avoir rappele les differentes techniques de prevention de la criticite (masse, geometrie, concentration, empoisonnement), les auteurs decrivent leur application a l'Usine et montrent notamment que l'utilisation rationnelle de la geometrie favorable est un double facteur de securite et d'economie. Les auteurs decrivent ensuite l'organisation interieure qui permet de realiser la securite intrinseque des le stade d'un avant projet et de controler la securite des ateliers au cours de la vie de l'Usine. La deuxieme partie du rapport est consacree au systeme de protection contre les consequences d'un accident eventuel: definition d

  19. A Critical Discourse Analysis of Practical Problems in a Foundation Mathematics Course at a South African University

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Roux, Kate; Adler, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical problems that make links to the everyday and to disciplines other than mathematics--variously referred to as practical, realistic, real-world or applied problems in the literature--feature in school and undergraduate mathematics reforms aimed at increasing mathematics participation in contexts of inequity and diversity. In this…

  20. How Critical Is Critical Thinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Ryan D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent educational discourse is full of references to the value of critical thinking as a 21st-century skill. In music education, critical thinking has been discussed in relation to problem solving and music listening, and some researchers suggest that training in critical thinking can improve students' responses to music. But what exactly is…

  1. An application of the 'end-point' method to the minimum critical mass problem in two group transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.M.R.

    2003-01-01

    A two group integral equation derived using transport theory, which describes the fuel distribution necessary for a flat thermal flux and minimum critical mass, is solved by the classical end-point method. This method has a number of advantages and in particular highlights the changing behaviour of the fissile mass distribution function in the neighbourhood of the core-reflector interface. We also show how the reflector thermal flux behaves and explain the origin of the maximum which arises when the critical size is less than that corresponding to minimum critical mass. A comparison is made with diffusion theory and the necessary and somewhat artificial presence of surface delta functions in the fuel distribution is shown to be analogous to the edge transients that arise naturally in transport theory

  2. Comparing the effects of problem-based learning and the traditional lecture method on critical thinking skills and metacognitive awareness in nursing students in a critical care nursing course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Mohammad; Moghadam, Parastou Kordestani; Mohammadipoor, Fatemeh; Tarahi, Mohammad Javad; Sak, Mandana; Toulabi, Tahereh; Pour, Amir Hossein Hossein

    2016-10-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is a method used to develop cognitive and metacognitive skills in nursing students. The present study was conducted to compare the effects of PBL and the traditional lecture method on critical thinking skills and metacognitive awareness in nursing students in a critical care nursing course. The present study was conducted with a quasi-experimental, single group, pretest-posttest design. A group of third-year nursing students (n=40) were recruited from Khorramabad School of Nursing and Midwifery in the west of Iran. The lecture method was used in one group over the first eight weeks of the first semester and PBL was adopted in the second eight weeks. Standardized self-report questionnaires including The California Critical Thinking Skills Test-B (CCTST-B) and the Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI) were administered before and after the use of each of the instruction methods. Data were analyzed in SPSS using the paired t-test. No significant changes were observed in the students' critical thinking skills and metacognitive awareness after performing the lecture method. However, a significant increase was observed in the overall critical thinking score (Pmethod. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Novel power flow problem solutions method’s based on genetic algorithm optimization for banks capacitor compensation using an fuzzy logic rule bases for critical nodal detections

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelfatah, Nasri; Brahim, Gasbaoui

    2011-01-01

    The Reactive power flow’s is one of the most electrical distribution systems problem wich have great of interset of the electrical network researchers, it’s  cause’s active power transmission reduction, power losses decreasing, and  the drop voltage’s increase. In this research we described the efficiency of the FLC-GAO approach to solve the optimal power flow (OPF) combinatorial problem. The proposed approach employ tow algorithms, Fuzzy logic controller (FLC) algorithm for critical nodal de...

  4. Existence of solutions for a fourth-order boundary value problem on the half-line via critical point theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabrouk Briki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a fourth-order boundary value problem on the half-line is considered and existence of solutions is proved using a minimization principle and the mountain pass theorem.

  5. Cultivating Engineering Ethics and Critical Thinking: A Systematic and Cross-Cultural Education Approach Using Problem-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Pei-Fen; Wang, Dau-Chung

    2011-01-01

    In May 2008, the worst earthquake in more than three decades struck southwest China, killing more than 80,000 people. The complexity of this earthquake makes it an ideal case study to clarify the intertwined issues of ethics in engineering and to help cultivate critical thinking skills. This paper first explores the need to encourage engineering…

  6. Reversing the Use of Hobson's Choice: Culturally Relevant Assessment and Treatment Practices for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Learners with Problem Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiakor, Festus E.; Gibson, Lenwood

    2015-01-01

    Hobson's Choice is a psychological philosophy that prescribes a "take-it-or-leave-it" approach when addressing the problematic behaviors of students. Logically, this choice provides a traditional order in the classroom and gives teachers and service providers the sole power and authority to manage problem behaviors. For many students…

  7. Enhancing students' learning in problem based learning: validation of a self-assessment scale for active learning and critical thinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoiriyah, U.; Roberts, C.; Jorm, C.; Vleuten, C.P. van der

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Problem based learning (PBL) is a powerful learning activity but fidelity to intended models may slip and student engagement wane, negatively impacting learning processes, and outcomes. One potential solution to solve this degradation is by encouraging self-assessment in the PBL

  8. Traumatic brain injury produced by exposure to blasts, a critical problem in current wars: biomarkers, clinical studies, and animal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, C. Edward

    2011-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) resulting from exposure to blast energy released by Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) has been recognized as the "signature injury" of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom. Repeated exposure to mild blasts may produce subtle deficits that are difficult to detect and quantify. Several techniques have been used to detect subtle brain dysfunction including neuropsychological assessments, computerized function testing and neuroimaging. Another approach is based on measurement of biologic substances (e.g. proteins) that are released into the body after a TBI. Recent studies measuring biomarkers in CSF and serum from patients with severe TBI have demonstrated the diagnostic, prognostic, and monitoring potential. Advancement of the field will require 1) biochemical mining for new biomarker candidates, 2) clinical validation of utility, 3) technical advances for more sensitive, portable detectors, 4) novel statistical approach to evaluate multiple biomarkers, and 5) commercialization. Animal models have been developed to simulate elements of blast-relevant TBI including gas-driven shock tubes to generate pressure waves similar to those produced by explosives. These models can reproduce hallmark clinical neuropathological responses such as neuronal degeneration and inflammation, as well as behavioral impairments. An important application of these models is to screen novel therapies and conduct proteomic, genomic, and lipodomic studies to mine for new biomarker candidates specific to blast relevant TBI.

  9. Problems of causality in environmental penal law. The relevance of causality problems on the environmental sector from the view of penal law. Kausalitaetsprobleme im Umweltstrafrecht. Die strafrechtliche Relevanz der Schwierigkeiten naturwissenschaftlicher Kausalfeststellung im Umweltbereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleine-Cosack, E.

    1988-01-01

    The 'classic' elements of an offence against human health or property are not applicable in environmental law, owing to problems of causality. The new environmental penal law therefore focuses on the 'capability' of any act to damage human health, animal health, vegetation, water, air, or soil. It remarks doubtful whether this approach is more efficient. Further, there is still the problem of assessing damage. The book discusses causality problems in environmental penal law. Causality in a given case is discussed from the view of general causality laws and problems of proof. Other possible causes of damage must be excluded. The author discusses: Interdependences between scientific and penal causality, the problems of successful and potential offences, the relationship between individual and universal objects of legal protection, and procedural issues (e.g. the binding effect of experts' opinions on a given subject). (orig./HSCH).

  10. [Management of asthma in a context of ambulatory pediatrics: relevance and possibility to avoid the problems. Gruppo de lavoro pediatri dell'Abruzzo Basilicata e Puglia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misticoni, G; Marchetti, F; D'Andrea, N

    1994-01-01

    41 pediatricians agreed to register on a very simple form, all the cases of children affected by bronchial asthma visited in their clinic during october 1993. The data included basic information related to the therapy prescribed, its duration, a judgement on the efficacy of symptoms control and the main problems encountered with the children and their families. 237 cases were reported (mean age 4.6 year, range 2 months-13 years). 80% of children were monitored by the pediatrician; 47% had allergic reactions. The main drug used for profilaxis is ketotifen, a compound without documented efficacy; the main route for drug administration (especially during acute attacks) is by mouth, instead of by aerosol, evidencing problems in the health education on practical skills. In fact the main problems encountered by doctors are related to the communication with patients and families. This survey represents also a research model for involving health care providers and easily and quickly obtaining a useful, methodologically sound and interesting picture of everyday practice.

  11. MORSE-C: a CDC-7600 program designed to solve nuclear criticality problems by using the Monte-Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, T.P.

    1981-01-01

    This user's manual covers this latest version of the MORSE-C code which solves the multiple energy group form of the Boltzmann transport equation in order to obtain the eigenvalue (multiplication) when fissionable materials are present. Cross sections for up to 100 energy groups may be employed. The angular scattering is treated by the usual Legendre expansion as used in the discrete ordinates codes. Upscattering may be specified. The geometry is defined by relationships to general 1st or 2nd degree surfaces. Array units may be specified. Output includes, besides the usual values of input quantities, plots of the geometry, calculated volumes and masses, and graphs of results to assist the user in determining the correctness of the problem's solution. Appendix II of this report contains the code listing with its numerous comments which should simplify finding an answer to any specific question the reader might have about MORSE-C. The remaining sections of this report explain how to obtain the code, how to set-up the input for a specific problem, how to understand the output, and then illustrates two typical problems run with the code

  12. Cultivating engineering ethics and critical thinking: a systematic and cross-cultural education approach using problem-based learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Pei-Fen; Wang, Dau-Chung

    2011-08-01

    In May 2008, the worst earthquake in more than three decades struck southwest China, killing more than 80,000 people. The complexity of this earthquake makes it an ideal case study to clarify the intertwined issues of ethics in engineering and to help cultivate critical thinking skills. This paper first explores the need to encourage engineering ethics within a cross-cultural context. Next, it presents a systematic model for designing an engineering ethics curriculum based on moral development theory and ethic dilemma analysis. Quantitative and qualitative data from students' oral and written work were collected and analysed to determine directions for improvement. The paper also presents results of an assessment of this interdisciplinary engineering ethics course. This investigation of a disaster is limited strictly to engineering ethics education; it is not intended to assign blame, but rather to spark debate about ethical issues.

  13. Assessing Emotional and Behavioural Problems with the Child Behaviour Checklist: Exploring the Relevance of Adjusting the Norms for the Flemish Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Braet

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL is one of the most frequently used dimensional instruments for screening behavioural and emotional problems in children. In this study the psychometric properties of the CBCL 2001-version and the usefulness of existing US norms within a Flemish community sample were explored. Mothers of young children ('N' = 170 and school-aged children and adolescents ('N' = 718 completed the CBCL and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. Reliability of both the CBCL/1½-5 and CBCL/6-18 was excellent. There were substantial correlations between the SDQ and CBCL scales, indicating a good concurrent validity. Significant differences were found when comparing the mean CBCL raw scores of the different subsamples (for different ages and gender groups with the US norms. Generally spoken, the mean CBCL raw scores as well as the clinical and borderline clinical cutpoints for Flemish children were mostly lower, specifically for the Total Problems score and the Externalising scales.

  14. The results of STEM education methods for enhancing critical thinking and problem solving skill in physics the 10th grade level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soros, P.; Ponkham, K.; Ekkapim, S.

    2018-01-01

    This research aimed to: 1) compare the critical think and problem solving skills before and after learning using STEM Education plan, 2) compare student achievement before and after learning about force and laws of motion using STEM Education plan, and 3) the satisfaction of learning by using STEM Education. The sample used were 37 students from grade 10 at Borabu School, Borabu District, Mahasarakham Province, semester 2, Academic year 2016. Tools used in this study consist of: 1) STEM Education plan about the force and laws of motion for grade 10 students of 1 schemes with total of 14 hours, 2) The test of critical think and problem solving skills with multiple-choice type of 5 options and 2 option of 30 items, 3) achievement test on force and laws of motion with multiple-choice of 4 options of 30 items, 4) satisfaction learning with 5 Rating Scale of 20 items. The statistics used in data analysis were percentage, mean, standard deviation, and t-test (Dependent). The results showed that 1) The student with learning using STEM Education plan have score of critical think and problem solving skills on post-test higher than pre-test with statistically significant level .01. 2) The student with learning using STEM Education plan have achievement score on post-test higher than pre-test with statistically significant level of .01. 3) The student'level of satisfaction toward the learning by using STEM Education plan was at a high level (X ¯ = 4.51, S.D=0.56).

  15. Work-Related Eye Injuries: A Relevant Health Problem. Main Epidemiological Data from a Highly-Industrialized Area of Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobba, Fabriziomaria; Dall'Olio, Enrico; Modenese, Alberto; De Maria, Michele; Campi, Luca; Cavallini, Gian Maria

    2017-06-06

    The province of Modena is one of the most industrialized areas of Northern Italy. The medical records of the Ophthalmological Emergency Department (OED) of Modena University Hospital were studied: there were 13,470 OED accesses in 2014 and in 754 cases that an occupational eye injury occurred. The frequency of work-related eye injuries (3‰) was lower compared to other published studies, but the absolute number is still relevant, showing the need for more adequate prevention, especially in metal work, construction work, and agriculture, where the worst prognoses were observed. Intervention programs must be implemented as early as possible in the working life, considering that the frequency in younger workers is about double that of the oldest age class (3.5‰ vs. 1.8‰), and special attention should also be given to foreigners, who have a 50% higher injury risk. Furthermore, the planning of specific interventions for eye-injured workers may be useful, considering that a previous injury does not appear to encourage the adoption of preventive interventions, and a subgroup of eye-injured workers have a potential risk for new injuries. Finally, the data presented here indicates how OED records, integrated with specific occupational information, can be applied for studies on work-related eye injuries.

  16. Work-Related Eye Injuries: A Relevant Health Problem. Main Epidemiological Data from a Highly-Industrialized Area of Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabriziomaria Gobba

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The province of Modena is one of the most industrialized areas of Northern Italy. The medical records of the Ophthalmological Emergency Department (OED of Modena University Hospital were studied: there were 13,470 OED accesses in 2014 and in 754 cases that an occupational eye injury occurred. The frequency of work-related eye injuries (3‰ was lower compared to other published studies, but the absolute number is still relevant, showing the need for more adequate prevention, especially in metal work, construction work, and agriculture, where the worst prognoses were observed. Intervention programs must be implemented as early as possible in the working life, considering that the frequency in younger workers is about double that of the oldest age class (3.5‰ vs. 1.8‰, and special attention should also be given to foreigners, who have a 50% higher injury risk. Furthermore, the planning of specific interventions for eye-injured workers may be useful, considering that a previous injury does not appear to encourage the adoption of preventive interventions, and a subgroup of eye-injured workers have a potential risk for new injuries. Finally, the data presented here indicates how OED records, integrated with specific occupational information, can be applied for studies on work-related eye injuries.

  17. Off the beaten track: Freud, sound and music. Statement of a problem and some historico-critical notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baralea, Francesco; Minazzi, Vera

    2008-10-01

    The authors note that the element of sound and music has no place in the model of mental functioning bequeathed to us by Freud, which is dominated by the visual and the representational. They consider the reasons for this exclusion and its consequences, and ask whether the simple biographical explanation offered by Freud himself is acceptable. This contribution reconstructs the historical and cultural background to that exclusion, cites some relevant emblematic passages, and discusses Freud's position on music and on the aesthetic experience in general. Particular attention is devoted to the relationship between Freud and Lipps, which is important both for the originality of Lipps's thinking in the turn-of-the-century debate and for his ideas on the musical aspects of the foundations of psychic life, at which Freud 'stopped', as he himself wrote. Moreover, the shade of Lipps accompanied Freud throughout his scientific career from 1898 to 1938. Like all foundations, that of psychoanalysis was shaped by a system of inclusions and exclusions. The exclusion of the element of sound and music is understandable in view of the cultural background to the development of the concepts of the representational unconscious and infantile sexuality. While the consequences have been far reaching, the knowledge accumulated since that exclusion enables us to resume, albeit on a different basis, the composition of the 'unfinished symphony' of the relationship between psychoanalysis and music.

  18. Critical system issues and modeling requirements - the problem of beam energy sweep in an electron linear induction accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, W.C.; Barrett, D.M.; Sampayan, S.E.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the authors attempt to motivate the development of modeling tools for linear induction accelerator components by giving examples of performance limitations related to energy sweep. The most pressing issues is the development of an accurate model of the switching behavior of large magnetic cores at high dB/dt in the accelerator and magnetic compression modulators. Ideally one would like to have a model with as few parameters as possible that allows the user to choose the core geometry and magnetic material and perhaps a few parameters characterizing the switch model. Beyond this, the critical modeling tasks are: simulation of a magnetic compression modulator, modeling the reset dynamics of a magnetic compression modulator, modeling the loading characteristics of a linear induction accelerator cell, and modeling the electron injector current including the dynamics of feedback modulation and beam loading in an accelerator cell. Of course in the development of these models care should be given to benchmarking them against data from experimental systems. Beyond that one should aim for tools that have predictive power so that they can be used as design tools and not merely to replicate existing data

  19. Present status of radioactive wastes from nuclear medicine in the hospitals of Guangdong province and the preliminary exploration to some relevant problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Lingfeng

    1999-01-01

    In Guangdong province of China nuclear medicine is quite developed. There are about 50 hospitals (not including the hospitals only with radioimmunoassay) in the medical units of Guangdong province which have their own nuclear medical departments. More than 40 ECTs are owned by the hospitals and more than 10 radioisotopes, such as 131 I, 125 I, 99 Mo- 99m Tc, 90 Sr, 32 P, 153 Sm etc., are mainly used. The thesis, based on the author's work in checking the use of radiopharmaceuticals in the hospitals of Guangdong province, investigates and summarizes the actual situations of the use of radiopharmaceuticals and the discharge and treatment of radioactive wastes in nuclear medical departments of the hospitals in Guangdong province. According to the actual problems in administration and disposal of the radioactive wastes in the hospitals, it makes a preliminary exploration and puts forward some countermeasures and suggestions on how to supervise and administer the discharge of radioactive wastes in the hospitals, and how to further solve them, in order to prevent and reduce the radioactive contamination and damage to the environment and the public caused by the development of nuclear medicine

  20. Sensorimotor cortex as a critical component of an 'extended' mirror neuron system: Does it solve the development, correspondence, and control problems in mirroring?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pineda Jaime A

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A core assumption of how humans understand and infer the intentions and beliefs of others is the existence of a functional self-other distinction. At least two neural systems have been proposed to manage such a critical distinction. One system, part of the classic motor system, is specialized for the preparation and execution of motor actions that are self realized and voluntary, while the other appears primarily involved in capturing and understanding the actions of non-self or others. The latter system, of which the mirror neuron system is part, is the canonical action 'resonance' system in the brain that has evolved to share many of the same circuits involved in motor control. Mirroring or 'shared circuit systems' are assumed to be involved in resonating, imitating, and/or simulating the actions of others. A number of researchers have proposed that shared representations of motor actions may form a foundational cornerstone for higher order social processes, such as motor learning, action understanding, imitation, perspective taking, understanding facial emotions, and empathy. However, mirroring systems that evolve from the classic motor system present at least three problems: a development, a correspondence, and a control problem. Developmentally, the question is how does a mirroring system arise? How do humans acquire the ability to simulate through mapping observed onto executed actions? Are mirror neurons innate and therefore genetically programmed? To what extent is learning necessary? In terms of the correspondence problem, the question is how does the observer agent know what the observed agent's resonance activation pattern is? How does the matching of motor activation patterns occur? Finally, in terms of the control problem, the issue is how to efficiently control a mirroring system when it is turned on automatically through observation? Or, as others have stated the problem more succinctly: "Why don't we imitate all the time

  1. Sensorimotor cortex as a critical component of an 'extended' mirror neuron system: Does it solve the development, correspondence, and control problems in mirroring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Jaime A

    2008-01-01

    A core assumption of how humans understand and infer the intentions and beliefs of others is the existence of a functional self-other distinction. At least two neural systems have been proposed to manage such a critical distinction. One system, part of the classic motor system, is specialized for the preparation and execution of motor actions that are self realized and voluntary, while the other appears primarily involved in capturing and understanding the actions of non-self or others. The latter system, of which the mirror neuron system is part, is the canonical action 'resonance' system in the brain that has evolved to share many of the same circuits involved in motor control. Mirroring or 'shared circuit systems' are assumed to be involved in resonating, imitating, and/or simulating the actions of others. A number of researchers have proposed that shared representations of motor actions may form a foundational cornerstone for higher order social processes, such as motor learning, action understanding, imitation, perspective taking, understanding facial emotions, and empathy. However, mirroring systems that evolve from the classic motor system present at least three problems: a development, a correspondence, and a control problem. Developmentally, the question is how does a mirroring system arise? How do humans acquire the ability to simulate through mapping observed onto executed actions? Are mirror neurons innate and therefore genetically programmed? To what extent is learning necessary? In terms of the correspondence problem, the question is how does the observer agent know what the observed agent's resonance activation pattern is? How does the matching of motor activation patterns occur? Finally, in terms of the control problem, the issue is how to efficiently control a mirroring system when it is turned on automatically through observation? Or, as others have stated the problem more succinctly: "Why don't we imitate all the time?" In this review, we argue

  2. A comparison of debate and role play in enhancing critical thinking and communication skills of medical students during problem based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Rabia; Mumtaz, Sadaf; Mumtaz, Rafia; Hussain, Aamir

    2018-04-18

    Debate and role play for learning critical thinking and communication skills are being increasingly used in various undergraduate medical schools worldwide. We aim to compare students' views about effectiveness of two teaching strategies; debate and role play to exercise critical thinking and communication skills during problem-based learning (PBL). This is a comparative, cross-sectional, and questionnaire-based study. Our subjects were second year undergraduate female medical students enrolled in Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University (IAU), College of Medicine from September 2014-2016, divided into 10 small PBL groups (10-13 students/group/year). Students rated role play and debate as equally effective in improving communication skills. Debate was rated superior to role play in "opening new avenues of thinking" (p-value is 0.01), whereas in "integration of knowledge of basic medical sciences with clinical skills" and "reflection of real life experience" students rated role play being superior to debate (p-value 0.01 and 0.00, respectively). Both role play and debate are well accepted by the students in PBL curriculum as an effective teaching methodology. Both are perceived equally good in improving students' communication skills. Few aspects of critical thinking are improved more by role plays compared to debate and vice versa. © 2018 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2018. © 2018 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  3. Novel Power Flow Problem Solutions Method’s Based on Genetic Algorithm Optimization for Banks Capacitor Compensation Using an Fuzzy Logic Rule Bases for Critical Nodal Detections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasri Abdelfatah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Reactive power flow’s is one of the most electrical distribution systems problem wich have great of interset of the electrical network researchers, it’s  cause’s active power transmission reduction, power losses decreasing, and  the drop voltage’s increase. In this research we described the efficiency of the FLC-GAO approach to solve the optimal power flow (OPF combinatorial problem. The proposed approach employ tow algorithms, Fuzzy logic controller (FLC algorithm for critical nodal detection and gentic algorithm  optimization (GAO algorithm for optimal seizing capacitor.GAO method is more efficient in combinatory problem solutions. The proposed approach has been examined and tested on the standard IEEE 57-bus the resulats show the power loss minimization denhancement, voltage profile, and stability improvement. The proposed approach results have been compared to those that reported in the literature recently. The results are promising and show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed approach.

  4. Content Analysis of Student Essays after Attending a Problem-Based Learning Course: Facilitating the Development of Critical Thinking and Communication Skills in Japanese Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itatani, Tomoya; Nagata, Kyoko; Yanagihara, Kiyoko; Tabuchi, Noriko

    2017-08-22

    The importance of active learning has continued to increase in Japan. The authors conducted classes for first-year students who entered the nursing program using the problem-based learning method which is a kind of active learning. Students discussed social topics in classes. The purposes of this study were to analyze the post-class essay, describe logical and critical thinking after attended a Problem-Based Learning (PBL) course. The authors used Mayring's methodology for qualitative content analysis and text mining. In the description about the skills required to resolve social issues, seven categories were extracted: (recognition of diverse social issues), (attitudes about resolving social issues), (discerning the root cause), (multi-lateral information processing skills), (making a path to resolve issues), (processivity in dealing with issues), and (reflecting). In the description about communication, five categories were extracted: (simple statement), (robust theories), (respecting the opponent), (communication skills), and (attractive presentations). As the result of text mining, the words extracted more than 100 times included "issue," "society," "resolve," "myself," "ability," "opinion," and "information." Education using PBL could be an effective means of improving skills that students described, and communication in general. Some students felt difficulty of communication resulting from characteristics of Japanese.

  5. A Hybrid Model of Mathematics Support for Science Students Emphasizing Basic Skills and Discipline Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Deborah C.; Johnson, Elizabeth D.

    2013-01-01

    The problem of students entering university lacking basic mathematical skills is a critical issue in the Australian higher-education sector and relevant globally. The Maths Skills programme at La Trobe University has been developed to address under preparation in the first-year science cohort in the absence of an institutional mathematics support…

  6. Aproximación crítica a los problemas sociales de la muerte encefálica Critical approach to social problems of brain death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Hodelín Tablada

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo un acercamiento con enfoque crítico a algunos de los problemas del diagnóstico de la muerte como un fenómeno médico de amplia dimensión social. Las reflexiones se basan en aspectos éticos, bioéticos, y epistemológicos. Se analizan los principios básicos de la bioética, el consentimiento informado y su relación con la muerte encefálica y la donación de órganos. Se destaca el giro que marcó la Declaración de Harvard, desde la clásica constatación de la muerte hacia la definición de la muerte encefálica. Se comentan las diferentes legislaciones que recogen la manifestación del donante y se reseñan aspectos legales y jurídicos preceptuados en Cuba para la muerte encefálica y los trasplantes.The article aims to critically approach some of the problems of death diagnosis, as a medical phenomenon of widely social dimension. Reflections are based on ethical, bioethical and epistemological aspects. The paper analyzes the basic principles of bioethics, the informed consent and its relation to brain death and organ donation. It also points out the turn marked by the Declaration of Harvard, since the classic establishment of death up to the definition of brain death. It provides comments on different legislations that include donor’s acceptance, as well as legal aspects related to brain death and transplants, established in Cuba.

  7. Religion, assessment and the problem of 'normative uncertainty' for mental health student nurses: a critical incident-informed qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, A M; Baker, C; Cross, S

    2015-10-01

    There is limited research around how mental health (MH) student nurses interpret and differentiate between people's religious and cultural beliefs and the existence of psychopathological symptomatology and experiences. Here we focus on one cultural issue that arose from research exploring how MH student nurses approach and interpret religion and culture in their practice - that is, the difficulties in determining the clinical significance of the religious beliefs and experiences expressed by the people they care for. While problems with establishing the cultural boundaries of normality in clinical assessments are an important area of debate in cultural psychiatry, it remains a peripheral issue in MH nurse education. An anthropologically informed qualitative research design underpinned 'critical incident' (CI)-focused ethnographic interviews with 36 second and third-year MH nursing field students and seven undergraduate MH branch lecturers. Follow up focus groups were also carried out. Interview transcripts were subject to thematic analysis. Four subthemes were identified under the broad theme of the clinical significance of religious-type expression and experience: (1) identifying the difference between delusions and religious belief; (2) identifying whether an experience was hallucination or religious experience; (3) the clinical implications of such challenges; and (4) applying religion-specific knowledge. There are clinical implications that may result from the difficulties with assessing the clinical significance of religious beliefs and experiences, identified in both our research and within international cultural psychiatry literature and research. Misinterpretation and therefore wrongly assessing someone's experience as pathological is a significant concern. It is suggested that CI analysis could be adapted to help nurses, nursing students and nurse educators recognize the religious dimensions of mental distress, particularly those that then potentially

  8. Why relevance theory is relevant for lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothma, Theo; Tarp, Sven

    2014-01-01

    This article starts by providing a brief summary of relevance theory in information science in relation to the function theory of lexicography, explaining the different types of relevance, viz. objective system relevance and the subjective types of relevance, i.e. topical, cognitive, situational...... that is very important for lexicography as well as for information science, viz. functional relevance. Since all lexicographic work is ultimately aimed at satisfying users’ information needs, the article then discusses why the lexicographer should take note of all these types of relevance when planning a new...... dictionary project, identifying new tasks and responsibilities of the modern lexicographer. The article furthermore discusses how relevance theory impacts on teaching dictionary culture and reference skills. By integrating insights from lexicography and information science, the article contributes to new...

  9. A Review on the Linear and Nonlinear Critical Speeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    True, Hans

    2013-01-01

    In recent years several authors have proposed 'easier numerical methods' to find multiple attractors and the critical speed in railway dynamical problems. Actually, the methods do function in some cases, but they are not safe in the sense that you will calculate the relevant critical parameter...... values with a reasonable accuracy. In some cases the 'easier numerical methods' are really just a gamble. In this presentation the methods will be discussed. For this purpose linearisations of the nonlinear dynamical problem are made. A linearisation of the nonlinear dynamical problem simplifies...... the calculations and may give relevant answers to important questions such as the possibility of resonance phenomena in the designs, but a linearisation is not always allowed, and it does not help to find the critical speed of a railway vehicle. We shall also address the curious fact that the hunting motion...

  10. Magnetic fusion energy plasma interactive and high heat flux components. Volume II. Technical assessment of the critical issues and problem areas in high heat flux materials and component development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdou, M.A.; Boyd, R.D.; Easor, J.R.; Gauster, W.B.; Gordon, J.D.; Mattas, R.F.; Morgan, G.D.; Ulrickson, M.A,; Watson, R.D.; Wolfer, W.G,

    1984-06-01

    A technical assessment of the critical issues and problem areas for high heat flux materials and components (HHFMC) in magnetic fusion devices shows these problems to be of critical importance for the successful operation of near-term fusion experiments and for the feasibility and attractiveness of long-term fusion reactors. A number of subgroups were formed to assess the critical HHFMC issues along the following major lines: (1) source conditions, (2) systems integration, (3) materials and processes, (4) thermal hydraulics, (5) thermomechanical response, (6) electromagnetic response, (7) instrumentation and control, and (8) test facilities. The details of the technical assessment are presented in eight chapters. The primary technical issues and needs for each area are highlighted.

  11. Magnetic fusion energy plasma interactive and high heat flux components. Volume II. Technical assessment of the critical issues and problem areas in high heat flux materials and component development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.; Boyd, R.D.; Easor, J.R.

    1984-06-01

    A technical assessment of the critical issues and problem areas for high heat flux materials and components (HHFMC) in magnetic fusion devices shows these problems to be of critical importance for the successful operation of near-term fusion experiments and for the feasibility and attractiveness of long-term fusion reactors. A number of subgroups were formed to assess the critical HHFMC issues along the following major lines: (1) source conditions, (2) systems integration, (3) materials and processes, (4) thermal hydraulics, (5) thermomechanical response, (6) electromagnetic response, (7) instrumentation and control, and (8) test facilities. The details of the technical assessment are presented in eight chapters. The primary technical issues and needs for each area are highlighted

  12. The pricing relevance of insider information; Die Preiserheblichkeit von Insiderinformationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruse, Dominik

    2011-07-01

    The publication attempts to describe the so far discussion concerning the feature of pricing relevance and to develop it further with the aid of new research approaches. First, a theoretical outline is presented of the elementary regulation problem of insider trading, its historical development, and the regulation goals of the WpHG. This is followed by an analysis of the concrete specifications of the law. In view of the exemplarity of US law, a country with long experience in regulation of the capital market, the materiality doctrine of US insider law is gone into in some detail. The goals and development of the doctrine are reviewed in the light of court rulings. The third part outlines the requirements of German law in order to forecast the pricing relevance of insider information, while the final part presents a critical review of the current regulations on pricing relevance. (orig./RHM)

  13. Prevention of criticality accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canavese, S.I.

    1982-01-01

    These notes used in the postgraduate course on Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety discuss macro-and microscopic nuclear constants for fissile materials systems. Critical systems: their definition; criteria to analyze the critical state; determination of the critical size; analysis of practical problems about prevention of criticality. Safety of isolated units and of sets of units. Application of standards. Conception of facilities from the criticality control view point. (author) [es

  14. Critical Debates in Teaching Research Methods in the Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores some of the critical debates in social science research methods education and is set out in three parts. The first section introduces the importance and relevance of research methods to the social sciences. It then outlines the problems and challenges experienced in the teaching and learning of research methods, which are…

  15. Deep learning relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Petersen, Casper

    2016-01-01

    train a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) on existing relevant information to that query. We then use the RNN to "deep learn" a single, synthetic, and we assume, relevant document for that query. We design a crowdsourcing experiment to assess how relevant the "deep learned" document is, compared...... to existing relevant documents. Users are shown a query and four wordclouds (of three existing relevant documents and our deep learned synthetic document). The synthetic document is ranked on average most relevant of all....

  16. [Population problem, comprehension problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallon, F

    1993-08-01

    Overpopulation of developing countries in general, and Rwanda in particular, is not just their problem but a problem for developed countries as well. Rapid population growth is a key factor in the increase of poverty in sub-Saharan Africa. Population growth outstrips food production. Africa receives more and more foreign food, economic, and family planning aid each year. The Government of Rwanda encourages reduced population growth. Some people criticize it, but this criticism results in mortality and suffering. One must combat this ignorance, but attitudes change slowly. Some of these same people find the government's acceptance of family planning an invasion of their privacy. Others complain that rich countries do not have campaigns to reduce births, so why should Rwanda do so? The rate of schooling does not increase in Africa, even though the number of children in school increases, because of rapid population growth. Education is key to improvements in Africa's socioeconomic growth. Thus, Africa, is underpopulated in terms of potentiality but overpopulated in terms of reality, current conditions, and possibilities of overexploitation. Africa needs to invest in human resources. Families need to save, and to so, they must refrain from having many children. Africa should resist the temptation to waste, as rich countries do, and denounce it. Africa needs to become more independent of these countries, but structural adjustment plans, growing debt, and rapid population growth limit national independence. Food aid is a means for developed countries to dominate developing countries. Modernization through foreign aid has had some positive effects on developing countries (e.g., improved hygiene, mortality reduction), but these also sparked rapid population growth. Rwandan society is no longer traditional, but it is also not yet modern. A change in mentality to fewer births, better quality of life for living infants, better education, and less burden for women must occur

  17. The Role and Image of Midwives in Caribbean Society from the Colonial Period to the Present: A Critical Analysis of the Discourse Relevant to Midwifery in Specific Hispanophone, Anglophone, and Francophone Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Valedon, Damarys T.

    2017-01-01

    The dominant discourse on midwifery has been characterized by myths that have been constructed and perpetuated through oral and written discourse. The purpose of this research is to engage in a critical analysis of that discourse, with special focus on Hispanophone, Anglophone, and Francophone contexts in the Caribbean from colonial times to the…

  18. Pushback: Critical data designers and pollution politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Fortun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe how critical data designers have created projects that ‘push back’ against the eclipse of environmental problems by dominant orders: the pioneering pollution database Scorecard, released by the US NGO Environmental Defense Fund in 1997; the US Environmental Protection Agency’s EnviroAtlas that brings together numerous data sets and provides tools for valuing ecosystem services; and the Houston Clean Air Network’s maps of real-time ozone levels in Houston. Drawing on ethnographic observations and interviews, we analyse how critical data designers turn scientific data and findings into claims and visualisations that are meaningful in contemporary political terms. The skills of critical data designers cross scales and domains; they must identify problems calling for public consideration, and then locate, access, link, and create visualisations of data relevant to the problem. We conclude by describing hazards ahead in work to leverage Big Data to understand and address environmental problems. Critical data designers need to understand what counts as a societal problem in a particular context, what doesn’t, what is seen as connected and not, what is seen as ethically charged, and what is exonerated and discounted. Such recognition is produced through interpretive, ‘close reading’ of the historical moment in which they operate.

  19. International critical perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sambrook, S.A.; Poell, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    The Problem Critical perspectives on human resource development (HRD) have emerged, across Europe and America, hailed as the future of the field. However, we note the paucity of critical perspectives globally, the problematic dominance of critical HRD activities in Western sites of theory and

  20. Popular Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovhus, Randi Boelskifte; Thomsen, Rie

    2017-01-01

    This article introduces a method to critical reviews and explores the ways in which problems have been formulated in knowledge production on career guidance in Denmark over a 10-year period from 2004 to 2014. The method draws upon the work of Bacchi focussing on the ‘What's the problem represented...... to be’ (WPR) approach. Forty-nine empirical studies on Danish youth career guidance were included in the study. An analysis of the issues in focus resulted in nine problem categories. One of these, ‘targeting’, is analysed using the WPR approach. Finally, the article concludes that the WPR approach...... provides a constructive basis for a critical analysis and discussion of the collective empirical knowledge production on career guidance, stimulating awareness of problems and potential solutions among the career guidance community....

  1. Problems Facing Disabled People in Malawi : A Critical Reflection on My Encounter with a Disabled Woman in a Rural Area in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memory J. Tembo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This critical reflection is based on my encounter with a disabled woman in a district in Malawi, and how I have reflected and analyzed the encounter using social work theories. The essay reflects on the story of the disabled woman and my own perception at that time, in addition to my analysis of these perceptions using different perspectives in social work based on my current understanding of these perspectives. In line with Fook’s (2002; 68 critical reflection techniques, social work theories will be applied to deconstruct and reconstruct the critical incident. The essay highlights the challenges and dilemmas I encountered in attempting to make meaning out of this encounter, which left me helpless and powerless, as I could not offer her any sustainable help at the time.

  2. CriticalEd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellberg, Caspar Mølholt; Meredith, David

    2014-01-01

    . Since the comments are not input sequentially, with regard to position, but in arbitrary order, this list must be sorted by copy/pasting the rows into place—an error-prone and time-consuming process. Scholars who produce critical editions typically use off-the-shelf music notation software......The best text method is commonly applied among music scholars engaged in producing critical editions. In this method, a comment list is compiled, consisting of variant readings and editorial emendations. This list is maintained by inserting the comments into a document as the changes are made......, consisting of a Sibelius plug-in, a cross-platform application, called CriticalEd, and a REST-based solution, which handles data storage/retrieval. A prototype has been tested at the Danish Centre for Music Publication, and the results suggest that the system could greatly improve the efficiency...

  3. Domain decomposition methods for the mixed dual formulation of the critical neutron diffusion problem; Methodes de decomposition de domaine pour la formulation mixte duale du probleme critique de la diffusion des neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerin, P

    2007-12-15

    The neutronic simulation of a nuclear reactor core is performed using the neutron transport equation, and leads to an eigenvalue problem in the steady-state case. Among the deterministic resolution methods, diffusion approximation is often used. For this problem, the MINOS solver based on a mixed dual finite element method has shown his efficiency. In order to take advantage of parallel computers, and to reduce the computing time and the local memory requirement, we propose in this dissertation two domain decomposition methods for the resolution of the mixed dual form of the eigenvalue neutron diffusion problem. The first approach is a component mode synthesis method on overlapping sub-domains. Several Eigenmodes solutions of a local problem solved by MINOS on each sub-domain are taken as basis functions used for the resolution of the global problem on the whole domain. The second approach is a modified iterative Schwarz algorithm based on non-overlapping domain decomposition with Robin interface conditions. At each iteration, the problem is solved on each sub domain by MINOS with the interface conditions deduced from the solutions on the adjacent sub-domains at the previous iteration. The iterations allow the simultaneous convergence of the domain decomposition and the eigenvalue problem. We demonstrate the accuracy and the efficiency in parallel of these two methods with numerical results for the diffusion model on realistic 2- and 3-dimensional cores. (author)

  4. Critical reading and critical thinking Critical reading and critical thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loni Kreis Taglieber

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide, for L1 and L2 reading and writing teachers, a brief overview of the literature about critical reading and higher level thinking skills. The teaching of these skills is still neglected in some language classes in Brazil, be it in L1 or in L2 classes. Thus, this paper may also serve as a resource guide for L1 and/or L2 reading and writing teachers who want to incorporate critical reading and thinking into their classes. In modern society, even in everyday life people frequently need to deal with complicated public and political issues, make decisions, and solve problems. In order to do this efficiently and effectively, citizens must be able to evaluate critically what they see, hear, and read. Also, with the huge amount of printed material available in all areas in this age of “information explosion” it is easy to feel overwhelmed. But often the information piled up on people’s desks and in their minds is of no use due to the enormous amount of it. The purpose of this paper is to provide, for L1 and L2 reading and writing teachers, a brief overview of the literature about critical reading and higher level thinking skills. The teaching of these skills is still neglected in some language classes in Brazil, be it in L1 or in L2 classes. Thus, this paper may also serve as a resource guide for L1 and/or L2 reading and writing teachers who want to incorporate critical reading and thinking into their classes. In modern society, even in everyday life people frequently need to deal with complicated public and political issues, make decisions, and solve problems. In order to do this efficiently and effectively, citizens must be able to evaluate critically what they see, hear, and read. Also, with the huge amount of printed material available in all areas in this age of “information explosion” it is easy to feel overwhelmed. But often the information piled up on people’s desks and in their minds is of

  5. A CRITICAL APPROACH TO SCHOOL MATHEMATICAL KNOWLEDGE: THE CASE OF “REALISTIC” PROBLEMS IN GREEK PRIMARY SCHOOL TEXTBOOKS FOR SEVEN-YEAR-OLD PUPILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Zacharos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The reference contexts that accompany the “realistic” problems chosen for teaching mathematical concepts in the first school grades play a major educational role. However, choosing “realistic” problems in teaching is a complex process that must take into account various pedagogical, sociological and psychological parameters. This paper presents a selection of problems from the new mathematics textbook of the 2nd grade of Greek primary school which were solved and commented upon by 27 postgraduate students. The results of our research showed that the empirical reference contexts put forward in these problems create many difficulties in their “deciphering”, which leads us to conclude that their pedagogical role is problematic.

  6. Influences of an Inquiry-based Ubiquitous Gaming Design on Students' Learning Achievements, Motivation, Behavioral Patterns, and Tendency towards Critical Thinking and Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Chen, Chih-Hung

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an inquiry-based ubiquitous gaming approach was proposed. The objective of the study was to enhance students' performances in in-field learning activities. To show the advantages of the approach, an experiment was carried out to assess the effects of it on students' learning achievement, motivation, critical thinking, and problem…

  7. The Liberal Virus in Critical Pedagogy: Beyond "Anti-This-and-That" Postmodernism and Three Problems in the Idea of Communism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachur, Jerrold L.

    2012-01-01

    In the shadow of triumphalist and hubristic capitalism, many adherents to critical pedagogy promote "democracy" as a kind of anti-capitalist challenge to inequality, oppression and exploitation. However, American culture has gone global, immersing the world in the received wisdom of a variety of liberalisms or in the reaction formations of…

  8. Neutrophil programming dynamics and its disease relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Taojing; Geng, Shuo; Li, Liwu

    2017-11-01

    Neutrophils are traditionally considered as first responders to infection and provide antimicrobial host defense. However, recent advances indicate that neutrophils are also critically involved in the modulation of host immune environments by dynamically adopting distinct functional states. Functionally diverse neutrophil subsets are increasingly recognized as critical components mediating host pathophysiology. Despite its emerging significance, molecular mechanisms as well as functional relevance of dynamically programmed neutrophils remain to be better defined. The increasing complexity of neutrophil functions may require integrative studies that address programming dynamics of neutrophils and their pathophysiological relevance. This review aims to provide an update on the emerging topics of neutrophil programming dynamics as well as their functional relevance in diseases.

  9. Relevance of the EU Structural Funds’ Allocation to the Needs of Combating Air Pollution in Poland. Analysis of the Operational Programmes of Regions Threatened With Critical Air Pollution from Distributed Energy Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarski, Marcin; Martyniuk-Pęczek, Justyna

    2017-10-01

    Recent years, the European Environmental Agency, has been reporting air quality parameters in Poland, as the poorest among all the EU countries. Despite of adoption of the EU legislation on energy efficiency and energy performance of buildings, existing legal solutions occur insufficient in reducing air pollution in Polish regions. Lack of an effective schemes supporting complex thermal renovation of buildings, exchange of inefficient boilers, developing district heating based on clean and renewable fuels results in severe health problems and 40 000 of premature deaths related to air pollution. Availability of the EU structural funds may become a tremendous opportunity, especially for the residential sector, to conduct a massive scale modernization. Nevertheless, lack of a coordinated action involving all levels of governance may put the opportunity at risk. The article aims to answer the question on the readiness of the regional governments to effectively implement energy efficiency measures mitigating the problem of air pollution. Second objective is to analyse whether the Regional Operational Programmes allocating the ERDF funds to support specific development needs of the regions, have been constructed in a way that properly addresses the problems related to energy performance of residential buildings.

  10. How does variability in input load relate to the probability of critically delayed delivery in a simple Multipart Re-entrant Flow-line problem?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erland Hejn

    2003-01-01

    of the estimation of the probability of critically delayed delivery beyond a specified threshold value given a certain production batch size and try to establish a relation to certain parameters that can be linked to the degree of regularity of the arrival stream of parts to the job/flow-shop. This last aspect...... relates remotely to the Lean Thinking philosophy that praises the smooth and uninterrupted production flow to be beneficial to the overall operation of productive plants in general, and we will link our findings to this discussion as well....

  11. Theoriebedingte Wörterbuchform-probleme und wörterbuchformbedingte Benutzerprobleme I. Ein Beitrag zur Wörterbuchkritik und zur Erweiterung der Theorie der Wörterbuchform Theory-determined Dictionary Structure Problems and Dictionary Structure Determined User Problems I. A Contribution to Dictionary Criticism and the Theory of Dictionary Structures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Ernst Wiegand

    2012-01-01

    rterbuchartikel; theoriebedingtes Wörterbuchformproblem; wörterbuchformbedingtes Benutzerproblem; Wortfamilienfenster; zweifach komplexer Wörterbuchartikel

    The empirical domain of the subject matter of dictionary research changes, among others, due to the publication of new dictionaries. A noticeable trend seems to be the increasing occurrence of more new elements regarding dictionary structures in the front matter, central list and back matter. This makes dictionary structure more complex. For the theory of dictionary structures this leads to theory-determined dictionary structure problems: If the theory wants to take cognizance of the new developments it has to be expanded and becomes increasingly complex. If it is expanded one can recognise, in the light of the theory, the strengths and weaknesses of the new structural elements. This leads to dictionary criticism. The weaknesses, especially, lead to dictionary structure-determined user problems. In this first part of the contribution theory-determined article structure problems are treated that result from an investigation of an article type not previously examined, i.e. the complex dictionary articles in which two or more structurally identical words belonging to two or more part of speech classes are lexicographically treated. The theory-determined article structure problems prevail because there are no structural concept for articles of this type, no systematic terminology, no typology and partially no means and methods of presentation. The problems are thereby solved that the theory of dictionary structures is systematically expanded and the heuristics extended to provide for the missing elements.

    Keywords: article sequence with window; article structure scheme; article window; basic complex dictionary article; complex article structural image; complex dictionary article; dictionary structure determined user problem; noun-verb-adjective article; partial article; partial article external

  12. Determination of bromine in selected polymer materials by a wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometric method - Critical thickness problem and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorewoda, Tadeusz; Mzyk, Zofia; Anyszkiewicz, Jacek; Charasińska, Jadwiga

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an accurate method for the determination of bromine in polymer materials using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry when the thickness of the sample is less than the bromine critical thickness (tc) value. This is particularly important for analyzing compliance with the Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive. Mathematically and experimentally estimated tc values in polyethylene and cellulose matrixes were up to several millimeters. Four methods were developed to obtain an accurate result. These methods include the addition of an element with a high mass absorption coefficient, the measurement of the total bromine contained in a defined volume of the sample, the exploitation of tube-Rayleigh line intensities and using the Br-Lβ line.

  13. Generation of the problem-dependent data libraries for IFIN-HH WWR-S spent fuel storage criticality and dose calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ene, Daniela; Tigau, F.

    1998-01-01

    The methods used for the radioactivity inventory calculation and dose evaluation of the fuel elements irradiated in the WWR-S IFIN-HH reactor are discussed in this work. A particular attention is paid to the processed problem-dependent nuclear libraries. SAS2H, a complex sequence of the SCALE-4.3 code system containing the modules BONAMI - NITAWL - XSDRNPM - COUPLE - ORIGEN-S - XSDOSE, has been assimilated on the IFIN-HH computer and applied to update the ORIGEN-S libraries by producing problem-dependent processed data libraries needed to perform the depletion and shielding analysis. This sequence uses one of the eight associated data libraries of the SCALE-4.3 system according to the choice of the user. The method consists in the following analysis processes: i) lattice cell neutron analysis to produce the flux weighting spectrum for activation library updating; ii) update of the nuclear data constants of the ORIGEN-S libraries; iii) depletion and decay analysis for a specified fuel assembly and irradiation history in order to generate gamma and neutron source strength and spectra. iv) one-dimensional radial shielding calculation for the evaluation of the angular neutron and gamma flux at the surface of a spent fuel shipping cask and further calculation of the dose rates at various points outside the cask. An efficient alternative of the calculation sequence mentioned above is the ARP (Automatic Rapid Processing) method conceived in order to generate independently ORIGEN-S libraries and to reduce substantially the running time. The substance of this method is the generation of the problem-dependent libraries from basis libraries a priori created by SAS2H for specific fuel assembly type and further interpolation of two independent variables, enrichment and burnup. Specific applications concerning WWR-S spent fuel were performed: i) generation of three problem-dependent libraries for the S-36 fuel assembly taking into account the maximum value of the burnup of this

  14. Foundations and interpretation of quantum mechanics in the light of a critical-historical analysis of the problems and a synthesis of the results

    CERN Document Server

    Auletta, Gennaro

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this book is twofold: to provide a comprehensive account of the foundations of the theory and to outline a theoretical and philosophical interpretation suggested from the results of the last twenty years.There is a need to provide an account of the foundations of the theory because recent experience has largely confirmed the theory and offered a wealth of new discoveries and possibilities. On the other side, the following results have generated a new basis for discussing the problem of the interpretation: the new developments in measurement theory; the experimental generation of “

  15. Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms. A Critical Review of the International Study of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms (ISUIA) and of Appropriate Methods to Address the Clinical Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, J; Guillemin, F; Proust, F; Molyneux, A J; Fox, A J; Claiborne, J S; Meder, J F; Rouleau, I

    2008-03-30

    The preventive treatment of unruptured aneurysms has been performed for decades despite the lack of evidence of a clinical benefit. Reports of observational studies such as the International Study of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms (ISUIA) suggest that preventive treatments are rarely justified. Are these reports compelling enough to guide clinical practice? The ISUIA methods and data are reviewed and analysed in a more conventional manner. The design of the appropriate clinical research program is approached by steps, reviewing potential problems, from the formulation of the precise research question to the interpretation of subgroup analyses, including sample size, representativity, duration of observation period, blinding, definition of outcome events, analysis of cross-overs, losses to follow-up, and data reporting. Unruptured intracranial aneurysms observed in ISUIA ruptured at a minimal annual rate of 0.8% (0.5-1%), despite multiple methodological difficulties biased in favour of a benign natural history. Available registries do not have the power or the design capable of providing normative guidelines for clinical decisions. The appropriate method to solve the clinical dilemma is a multicentric trial comparing the incidence of a hard clinical outcome events in approximately 2000 patients randomly allocated to a treatment group and a deferred treatment group, all followed for ten years or more. Observational studies have failed to provide reliable evidence in favour or against the preventive treatment of unruptured aneurysms. A randomized trial is in order to clarify what is the role of prevention in this common clinical problem.

  16. Parsimonious relevance models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, E.; Weerkamp, W.; Balog, K.; de Rijke, M.; Myang, S.-H.; Oard, D.W.; Sebastiani, F.; Chua, T.-S.; Leong, M.-K.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a method for applying parsimonious language models to re-estimate the term probabilities assigned by relevance models. We apply our method to six topic sets from test collections in five different genres. Our parsimonious relevance models (i) improve retrieval effectiveness in terms of

  17. Traumatic brain injury: caregivers' problems and needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, S T S; Khaw, W F; Rosna, A R; Husna, J

    2011-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an increasingly major world health problem. This short review using the most pertinent articles on TBI caregiving problems and needs highlights the pressing issues. Articles focusing on both TBI-caregivers' problems and needs are rarely found, especially for developing countries. Most TBI-caregiving is done by family members, whose altered lives portend burden and stresses which add to the overwhelming demand of caring for the TBI-survivor. Lack of information, financial inadequacy, anxiety, distress, coping deficits, poor adaptability, inadequate knowledge and skills, and a poor support system comprise the major problems. Dysfunctional communication between caregivers and care-receivers has been little researched. The major needs are focused on health and rehabilitation information, financial advice and assistance, emotional and social support, and positive psychological encouragement. In time, health information needs may be met, but not emotional support. Information on TBI caregiving problems and unmet needs is critical to all relevant healthcare stakeholders.

  18. Emerging mitigation needs and sustainable options for solving the arsenic problems of rural and isolated urban areas in Latin America - a critical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Jochen; Litter, Marta; Ciminelli, Virginia S T; Morgada, María Eugenia; Cornejo, Lorena; Hoyos, Sofia Garrido; Hoinkis, Jan; Alarcón-Herrera, Ma Teresa; Armienta, María Aurora; Bhattacharya, Prosun

    2010-11-01

    In this work, current information about the contamination of ground- and surface-water resources by arsenic from geogenic sources in Latin America is presented together with possible emerging mitigation solutions. The problem is of the same order of magnitude as other world regions, such as SE Asia, but it is often not described in English. Despite the studies undertaken by numerous local researchers, and the identification of proven treatment methods for the specific water conditions encountered, no technologies have been commercialized due to a current lack of funding and technical assistance. Emerging, low-cost technologies to mitigate the problem of arsenic in drinking water resources that are suitable for rural and urban areas lacking centralized water supplies have been evaluated. The technologies generally use simple and low-cost equipment that can easily be handled and maintained by the local population. Experiences comprise (i) coagulation/filtration with iron and aluminum salts, scaled-down for small community- and household-scale-applications, (ii) adsorption techniques using low-cost arsenic sorbents, such as geological materials (clays, laterites, soils, limestones), natural organic-based sorbents (natural biomass), and synthetic materials. TiO(2)-heterogeneous photocatalysis and zerovalent iron, especially using nanoscale particles, appear to be promising emergent technologies. Another promising innovative method for rural communities is the use of constructed wetlands using native perennial plants for arsenic rhizofiltration. Small-scale simple reverse osmosis equipment (which can be powered by wind or solar energy) that is suitable for small communities can also be utilized. The individual benefits of the different methods have been evaluated in terms of (i) size of the treatment device, (ii) arsenic concentration and distribution of species, chemical composition and grade of mineralization in the raw water, (iii) guidelines for the remaining As

  19. Statistical significant change versus relevant or important change in (quasi) experimental design : some conceptual and methodological problems in estimating magnitude of intervention-related change in health services research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middel, Berrie; van Sonderen, Eric

    2002-01-01

    This paper aims to identify problems in estimating and the interpretation of the magnitude of intervention-related change over time or responsiveness assessed with health outcome measures. Responsiveness is a problematic construct and there is no consensus on how to quantify the appropriate index to

  20. Crossover phenomena in the critical range near magnetic ordering transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köbler, U.

    2018-05-01

    Among the most important issues of Renormalization Group (RG) theory are crossover events and relevant (or non-relevant) interactions. These terms are unknown to atomistic theories but they will be decisive for future field theories of magnetism. In this experimental study the importance of these terms for the critical dynamics above and below magnetic ordering transition is demonstrated on account of new analyses of published data. When crossover events are overlooked and critical data are fitted by a single power function of temperature over a temperature range including a crossover event, imprecise critical exponents result. The rather unsystematic and floating critical exponents reported in literature seem largely to be due to this problem. It is shown that for appropriate data analyses critical exponents are obtained that are to a good approximation rational numbers. In fact, rational critical exponents can be expected when spin dynamics is controlled by the bosons of the continuous magnetic medium (Goldstone bosons). The bosons are essentially magnetic dipole radiation generated by the precessing spins. As a result of the here performed data analyses, critical exponents for the magnetic order parameter of β = 1/2, 1/3, 1/4 and 1/6 are obtained. For the critical paramagnetic susceptibility the exponents are γ = 1 and γ = 4/3.

  1. The Improved Relevance Voxel Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganz, Melanie; Sabuncu, Mert; Van Leemput, Koen

    The concept of sparse Bayesian learning has received much attention in the machine learning literature as a means of achieving parsimonious representations of features used in regression and classification. It is an important family of algorithms for sparse signal recovery and compressed sensing....... Hence in its current form it is reminiscent of a greedy forward feature selection algorithm. In this report, we aim to solve the problems of the original RVoxM algorithm in the spirit of [7] (FastRVM).We call the new algorithm Improved Relevance Voxel Machine (IRVoxM). Our contributions...... and enables basis selection from overcomplete dictionaries. One of the trailblazers of Bayesian learning is MacKay who already worked on the topic in his PhD thesis in 1992 [1]. Later on Tipping and Bishop developed the concept of sparse Bayesian learning [2, 3] and Tipping published the Relevance Vector...

  2. Handbook on criticality. Vol. 1. Criticality and nuclear safety; Handbuch zur Kritikalitaet. Bd. 1. Kritikalitaet und nukleare Sicherheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-04-15

    This handbook was prepared primarily with the aim to provide information to experts in industry, authorities or research facilities engaged in criticality-safety-related problems that will allow an adequate and rapid assessment of criticality safety issues already in the planning and preparation of nuclear facilities. However, it is not the intention of the authors of the handbook to offer ready solutions to complex problems of nuclear safety. Such questions have to remain subject to an in-depth analysis and assessment to be carried out by dedicated criticality safety experts. Compared with the previous edition dated December 1998, this handbook has been further revised and supplemented. The proven basic structure of the handbook remains unchanged. The handbook follows in some ways similar criticality handbooks or instructions published in the USA, UK, France, Japan and the former Soviet Union. The expedient use of the information given in this handbook requires a fundamental understanding of criticality and the terminology of nuclear safety. In Vol. 1, ''Criticality and Nuclear Safety'', therefore, first the most important terms and fundamentals are introduced and explained. Subsequently, experimental techniques and calculation methods for evaluating criticality problems are presented. The following chapters of Vol. 1 deal i. a. with the effect of neutron reflectors and absorbers, neutron interaction, measuring methods for criticality, and organisational safety measures and provide an overview of criticality-relevant operational experience and of criticality accidents and their potential hazardous impact. Vol. 2 parts 1 and 2 finally compile criticality parameters in graphical and tabular form. The individual graph sheets are provided with an initially explained set of identifiers, to allow the quick finding of the information of current interest. Part 1 includes criticality parameters for systems with {sup 235}U as fissile material, while part

  3. Knapsack problems

    CERN Document Server

    Kellerer, Hans; Pisinger, David

    2004-01-01

    Thirteen years have passed since the seminal book on knapsack problems by Martello and Toth appeared. On this occasion a former colleague exclaimed back in 1990: "How can you write 250 pages on the knapsack problem?" Indeed, the definition of the knapsack problem is easily understood even by a non-expert who will not suspect the presence of challenging research topics in this area at the first glance. However, in the last decade a large number of research publications contributed new results for the knapsack problem in all areas of interest such as exact algorithms, heuristics and approximation schemes. Moreover, the extension of the knapsack problem to higher dimensions both in the number of constraints and in the num­ ber of knapsacks, as well as the modification of the problem structure concerning the available item set and the objective function, leads to a number of interesting variations of practical relevance which were the subject of intensive research during the last few years. Hence, two years ago ...

  4. Political Limits to the Processing of Policy Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. May

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This contribution addresses political limits to the processing of policy problems in the United States. Our foci are the forces that limit policymakers' attention to different aspects of problems and how this affects the prospects for problem resolution. We theorize about three sets of forces: interest engagement, linkages among relevant institutions for policymaking, and partisan conflict. We show how the interplay of these forces limits efforts to address complex problems. Based on secondary accounts, we consider these underlying dynamics for ten complex problems. These include the thorny problems of the financial crisis, climate change, and health care; the persistent problems of K-12 education, drug abuse, and food safety; and the looming problems associated with critical infrastructure, the obesity epidemic, ocean health, and terrorism and extreme events. From these accounts we identify different patterns that we label fractured, allied, bureaucratic, and anemic policymaking.

  5. Culturally Relevant Cyberbullying Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Gregory John

    2017-01-01

    In this action research study, I, along with a student intervention committee of 14 members, developed a cyberbullying intervention for a large urban high school on the west coast. This high school contained a predominantly African American student population. I aimed to discover culturally relevant cyberbullying prevention strategies for African American students. The intervention committee selected video safety messages featuring African American actors as the most culturally relevant cyber...

  6. The Hegelian Notion of Progress and its Applicability in Critical Philosophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ejvind

    2009-01-01

    In this paper I discuss the relevance of the Hegelian notion of progress in relation to problems in present-day discussions of critical theory. I discuss Honneth’s attempt to maintain the Hegelian notion of progress without subscribing to its metaphysical foundations. I argue that Honneth’s strat...... solving conflicts....

  7. Thinking Critically about Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulnix, Jennifer Wilson

    2012-01-01

    As a philosophy professor, one of my central goals is to teach students to think critically. However, one difficulty with determining whether critical thinking can be taught, or even measured, is that there is widespread disagreement over what critical thinking actually is. Here, I reflect on several conceptions of critical thinking, subjecting…

  8. From Cultural Popularity to the Paradox of Relevance: A Critical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The conclusion drawn from the findings is that various factors, especially the multicultural character of most contemporary societies, are impinging on the possibility of developing a theory of citizenship that is universally applicable and globally acceptable. Key Words. Citizenship, citizenship theory, equality, multiculturalism, ...

  9. The scholarship of critical review: improving quality and relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Dana; Ebrall, Phillip

    2008-12-01

    To describe the process of scientific peer review as it is used in the manuscript submission process, assess threats and challenges to the peer review process, and to offer suggestions for enhancing its effectiveness. Peer review is often seen as one of the hallmarks of scientific publication. The primary goal of peer review is to improve the science within papers that are ultimately published, by helping an editor better understand the strengths and weaknesses of a given paper. This process, while fairly well studied within the medical field, has received almost no attention at all within chiropractic. This paper provides guidance to reviewers and potential reviewers which can help them to understand both the scientific and the human aspects of peer review. This is designed to elevate this function to one trusted by the profession rather than seen as simply another hurdle to overcome. Several future directions are offered, including unblinding the review process for transparency, conducting rigorous studies looking at peer review, and developing formal training programs for potential reviewers. Peer review is likely to remain in force as a means to provide guidance to authors and editors about the rigor of submitted papers. However, the nature of peer review may be changing and editors and authors need to stay aware of the implications of these changes. Recommendations to open the process, study it and develop training programs are designed to ensure that the process remains as impartial as possible.

  10. Relevant Subspace Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Emmanuel; Assent, Ira; Günnemann, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    Subspace clustering aims at detecting clusters in any subspace projection of a high dimensional space. As the number of possible subspace projections is exponential in the number of dimensions, the result is often tremendously large. Recent approaches fail to reduce results to relevant subspace...... clusters. Their results are typically highly redundant, i.e. many clusters are detected multiple times in several projections. In this work, we propose a novel model for relevant subspace clustering (RESCU). We present a global optimization which detects the most interesting non-redundant subspace clusters...... achieves top clustering quality while competing approaches show greatly varying performance....

  11. Computer supported collaborative learning in a clerkship: an exploratory study on the relation of discussion activity and revision of critical appraisal papers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koops, W.J.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; de Leng, B.A.; Snoeckx, L.H.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Medical students in clerkship are continuously confronted with real and relevant patient problems. To support clinical problem solving skills, students perform a Critical Appraisal of a Topic (CAT) task, often resulting in a paper. Because such a paper may contain errors,

  12. Is Information Still Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The term "information" in information science does not share the characteristics of those of a nomenclature: it does not bear a generally accepted definition and it does not serve as the bases and assumptions for research studies. As the data deluge has arrived, is the concept of information still relevant for information…

  13. The triangle scheduling problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dürr, Christoph; Hanzálek, Zdeněk; Konrad, Christian; Seddik, Yasmina; Sitters, R.A.; Vásquez, Óscar C.; Woeginger, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel scheduling problem, where jobs occupy a triangular shape on the time line. This problem is motivated by scheduling jobs with different criticality levels. A measure is introduced, namely the binary tree ratio. It is shown that the Greedy algorithm solves the problem to

  14. Contact Zones, Problem Posing and Critical Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I share the shape and findings of a participatory action research project with newcomer youths on the contours of status in society. This project was nested in a professional internship experience for newcomer youth, and this experience provided the context in which we explored how privilege and status are afforded in American…

  15. Critical incidents among women entrepreneurs: Personal and professional issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Maria Jorge Nassif

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this paper is to analyze critical situations experienced by women entrepreneurs and understand how they have overcome such situations. The study contributes to the understanding of the issues related to the activities of women entrepreneurs and shows that the use of the critical incident technique is relevant to the development of research in the field of entrepreneurship. The data were collected using a specific form with 115 women participating in the study. The analysis of critical incidents showed that in addition to the practical issues regarding the management of their business, emotions are interconnected with their business development. Unlike international studies in the field, the critical incidents experienced by Brazilian women entrepreneurs overlap with personal aspects. The women involved in this study face emotional difficulties, but are also motivated by strong feelings of determination to overcome their problems.

  16. Clinical Relevance of Adipokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Blüher

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of obesity has increased dramatically during recent decades. Obesity increases the risk for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and may therefore contribute to premature death. With increasing fat mass, secretion of adipose tissue derived bioactive molecules (adipokines changes towards a pro-inflammatory, diabetogenic and atherogenic pattern. Adipokines are involved in the regulation of appetite and satiety, energy expenditure, activity, endothelial function, hemostasis, blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, energy metabolism in insulin sensitive tissues, adipogenesis, fat distribution and insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. Therefore, adipokines are clinically relevant as biomarkers for fat distribution, adipose tissue function, liver fat content, insulin sensitivity, chronic inflammation and have the potential for future pharmacological treatment strategies for obesity and its related diseases. This review focuses on the clinical relevance of selected adipokines as markers or predictors of obesity related diseases and as potential therapeutic tools or targets in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Information Needs/Relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Wildemuth, Barbara M.

    2009-01-01

    A user's interaction with a DL is often initiated as the result of the user experiencing an information need of some kind. Aspects of that experience and how it might affect the user's interactions with the DL are discussed in this module. In addition, users continuously make decisions about and evaluations of the materials retrieved from a DL, relative to their information needs. Relevance judgments, and their relationship to the user's information needs, are discussed in this module. Draft

  18. Aspect-based Relevance Learning for Image Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Huiskes (Mark)

    2005-01-01

    htmlabstractWe analyze the special structure of the relevance feedback learning problem, focusing particularly on the effects of image selection by partial relevance on the clustering behavior of feedback examples. We propose a scheme, aspect-based relevance learning, which guarantees that feedback

  19. Critical Jostling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pippin Barr

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Games can serve a critical function in many different ways, from serious games about real world subjects to self-reflexive commentaries on the nature of games themselves. In this essay we discuss critical possibilities stemming from the area of critical design, and more specifically Carl DiSalvo’s adversarial design and its concept of reconfiguring the remainder. To illustrate such an approach, we present the design and outcomes of two games, Jostle Bastard and Jostle Parent. We show how the games specifically engage with two previous games, Hotline Miami and Octodad: Dadliest Catch, reconfiguring elements of those games to create interactive critical experiences and extensions of the source material. Through the presentation of specific design concerns and decisions, we provide a grounded illustration of a particular critical function of videogames and hope to highlight this form as another valuable approach in the larger area of videogame criticism.

  20. Critical Proximity

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Jane

    2010-01-01

    This essay considers how written language frames visual objects. Drawing on Michel Foucault’s response to Raymond Roussel’s obsessive description, the essay proposes a model of criticism where description might press up against its objects. This critical closeness is then mapped across the conceptual art practice and art criticism of Ian Burn. Burn attends to the differences between seeing and reading, and considers the conditions which frame how we look at images, including how w...

  1. Criticality Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsaed, A.

    2004-01-01

    The ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2003) presents the methodology for evaluating potential criticality situations in the monitored geologic repository. As stated in the referenced Topical Report, the detailed methodology for performing the disposal criticality analyses will be documented in model reports. Many of the models developed in support of the Topical Report differ from the definition of models as given in the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management procedure AP-SIII.10Q, ''Models'', in that they are procedural, rather than mathematical. These model reports document the detailed methodology necessary to implement the approach presented in the Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report and provide calculations utilizing the methodology. Thus, the governing procedure for this type of report is AP-3.12Q, ''Design Calculations and Analyses''. The ''Criticality Model'' is of this latter type, providing a process evaluating the criticality potential of in-package and external configurations. The purpose of this analysis is to layout the process for calculating the criticality potential for various in-package and external configurations and to calculate lower-bound tolerance limit (LBTL) values and determine range of applicability (ROA) parameters. The LBTL calculations and the ROA determinations are performed using selected benchmark experiments that are applicable to various waste forms and various in-package and external configurations. The waste forms considered in this calculation are pressurized water reactor (PWR), boiling water reactor (BWR), Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Training Research Isotope General Atomic (TRIGA), Enrico Fermi, Shippingport pressurized water reactor, Shippingport light water breeder reactor (LWBR), N-Reactor, Melt and Dilute, and Fort Saint Vrain Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The scope of this analysis is to document the criticality computational method. The criticality

  2. Signal Enhancement as Minimization of Relevant Information Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Geiger, Bernhard C.; Kubin, Gernot

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the notion of relevant information loss for the purpose of casting the signal enhancement problem in information-theoretic terms. We show that many algorithms from machine learning can be reformulated using relevant information loss, which allows their application to the aforementioned problem. As a particular example we analyze principle component analysis for dimensionality reduction, discuss its optimality, and show that the relevant information loss can indeed vanish if the r...

  3. Relevance or Revolt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Edmund W.

    Dr. Edmund Gordon explains student revolt as a justified political movement and not symptomatic of personal problems or the generation gap. Students, an oppressed class systematically kept out of the labor force by military obligations and higher education, have legitimate complaints against the universities whose interests have become intertwined…

  4. Teaching Creative Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Kip W.; Martin, Loren

    1992-01-01

    Interpersonal and cognitive skills, adaptability, and critical thinking can be developed through problem solving and cooperative learning in technology education. These skills have been identified as significant needs of the workplace as well as for functioning in society. (SK)

  5. [Relevant public health enteropathogens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, Maribel; Ochoa, Theresa J

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea remains the third leading cause of death in children under five years, despite recent advances in the management and prevention of this disease. It is caused by multiple pathogens, however, the prevalence of each varies by age group, geographical area and the scenario where cases (community vs hospital) are recorded. The most relevant pathogens in public health are those associated with the highest burden of disease, severity, complications and mortality. In our country, norovirus, Campylobacter and diarrheagenic E. coli are the most prevalent pathogens at the community level in children. In this paper we review the local epidemiology and potential areas of development in five selected pathogens: rotavirus, norovirus, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), Shigella and Salmonella. Of these, rotavirus is the most important in the pediatric population and the main agent responsible for child mortality from diarrhea. The introduction of rotavirus vaccination in Peru will have a significant impact on disease burden and mortality from diarrhea. However, surveillance studies are needed to determine the impact of vaccination and changes in the epidemiology of diarrhea in Peru following the introduction of new vaccines, as well as antibiotic resistance surveillance of clinical relevant bacteria.

  6. Problem solving strategies used by RN-to-BSN students in an online problem-based learning course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, Nancy L; Hung, Wei-Chen

    2010-04-01

    It is essential that nursing students develop the problem solving and critical thinking skills required in the current health care environment. Problem-based learning has been promoted as a way to help students acquire those skills; however, gaps exist in the knowledge base of the strategies used by learners. The purpose of this case study was to gain insight into the problem solving experience of a group of six RN-to-BSN students in an online problem-based learning course. Data, including discussion transcripts, reflective papers, and interview transcripts, were analyzed using a qualitative approach. Students expanded their use of resources and resolved the cases, identifying relevant facts and clinical applications. They had difficulty communicating their findings, establishing the credibility of sources, and offering challenging feedback. Increased support and direction are needed to facilitate the development of problem solving abilities of students in the problem-based learning environment.

  7. Critical Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2018-01-01

    Manipulation and mistakes in LCA studies are as old as the tool itself, and so is its critical review. Besides preventing misuse and unsupported claims, critical review may also help identifying mistakes and more justifiable assumptions as well as generally improve the quality of a study. It thus...... supports the robustness of an LCA and increases trust in its results and conclusions. The focus of this chapter is on understanding what a critical review is, how the international standards define it, what its main elements are, and what reviewer qualifications are required. It is not the objective...... of this chapter to learn how to conduct a critical review, neither from a reviewer nor from a practitioner perspective. The foundation of this chapter and the basis for any critical review of LCA studies are the International Standards ISO 14040:2006, ISO 14044:2006 and ISO TS 14071:2014....

  8. Vygotsky's Crisis: Argument, context, relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Ludmila

    2012-06-01

    Vygotsky's The Historical Significance of the Crisis in Psychology (1926-1927) is an important text in the history and philosophy of psychology that has only become available to scholars in 1982 in Russian, and in 1997 in English. The goal of this paper is to introduce Vygotsky's conception of psychology to a wider audience. I argue that Vygotsky's argument about the "crisis" in psychology and its resolution can be fully understood only in the context of his social and political thinking. Vygotsky shared the enthusiasm, widespread among Russian leftist intelligentsia in the 1920s, that Soviet society had launched an unprecedented social experiment: The socialist revolution opened the way for establishing social conditions that would let the individual flourish. For Vygotsky, this meant that "a new man" of the future would become "the first and only species in biology that would create itself." He envisioned psychology as a science that would serve this humanist teleology. I propose that The Crisis is relevant today insofar as it helps us define a fundamental problem: How can we systematically account for the development of knowledge in psychology? I evaluate how Vygotsky addresses this problem as a historian of the crisis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Critical scattering by bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiedler-Ferrari, N.; Nussenzveig, H.M.

    1986-11-01

    We apply the complex angular momentum theory to the problem of the critical scattering of light by spherical cavities in the high frequency limit (permittivity greater than the external media) (e.g, air bubble in water) (M.W.O.) [pt

  10. Comment on critical instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, S.F.; Suzuki, Mahiko

    1992-01-01

    We discuss the problem of the mass splitting between top and bottom quarks, within the context of Nambu-Jona-Lasinio type models involving top and bottom quark condensates. We interpret the phenomenon of 'critical instability' recently proposed to account for such a mass splitting as the fine-tuning of two vacuum expectation values in a composite two-Higgs doublet model. (orig.)

  11. Other relevant biological papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, M.

    1989-01-01

    A considerable number of CRESP-relevant papers concerning deep-sea biology and radioecology have been published. It is the purpose of this study to call attention to them. They fall into three general categories. The first is papers of general interest. They are mentioned only briefly, and include text references to the global bibliography at the end of the volume. The second are papers that are not only mentioned and referenced, but for various reasons are described in abstract form. The last is a list of papers compiled by H.S.J. Roe specifically for this volume. They are listed in bibliographic form, and are also included in the global bibliography at the end of the volume

  12. Thermodynamic properties of actinide aqueous species relevant to geochemical problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuger, J.

    1992-01-01

    The status of our knowledge of the basic thermodynamic properties of the aqueous complexes of the actinides in their different valency states with two environmentally important ligands, namely hydroxide and carbonate is overviewed. Even in the case of uranium which has been the most studied, gaps are found among the relative wealth of trustworthy formation constants, especially for the less stable valence states. The need for substantial improvement of our knowledge in the case of the other actinides, especially transuranium elements, is outlined. The relative scarcity of enthalpy of formation data is also stressed. (orig.)

  13. Survey of Existing Uncertainty Quantification Capabilities for Army Relevant Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-27

    first of these introductory sections is an overview of UQ and its various methods. The second of these discusses issues pertaining to the use of UQ...can be readily assessed, as well as the variance or other statistical measures of the distribu- tion of parameters. The uncertainty in the parameters is... statistics of the outputs of these methods, such as the moments of the probability distributions of model outputs. The module does not explicitly support

  14. Relevance of Spiritual Principles for Resolving Social Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Natarajan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Society unknowingly follows the course of spiritual evolution. Spirituality is the quest for self-existent order and harmonious perfection. The evolution of society is driven by an irrepressible aspiration for the values that are the translation and embodiment of that order. The history of civilization is a record of its progressive emergence. Spirituality is the quest for a unifying reality that transcends all limitations, distinctions and differences; an inner oneness that unites rather than divides us; a faith in and quest for perfection in all its myriad forms; and a power accessible to human beings to overcome impossible obstacles and achieve the inconceivable. It is founded on the principles of absolute freedom, equality and unity. In the modern era, faith in spirit is embodied in the realization of the intrinsic value, extraordinary endowments and unmanifest potentials of the human being. We find expressions of it in the idealism and power released by revolutionary social change. We revere its power in great individuals. The aspiration for perfection in any form or field of endeavor is spiritual. So also we recognize expressions of spirit in the movements of the masses. Spirituality is not confined to pursuit of the otherworldly or unattainable. It is a living power for the transformation of human consciousness and the solution to the compelling challenges confronting humanity.

  15. Towards a conceptual framework for identifying student difficulties with solving Real-World Problems in Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niss, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a conceptual framework for identifying the challenges and obstacles university students encounter when solving real-world problems involving Physics. The framework is based on viewing problem solving as a modelling process. In order to solve a real-world problem, the problem...... solver has to go through the steps and do the tasks of such a process. The paper presents a theoretical analysis of what it takes to solve three real-world problems, demonstrating how the framework presented captures the essential aspects of solving them. Moreover, it is argued that three steps critical...... for real-world problem solving – initial analysis of the problem situation, choice of relevant physical theory (the so-called paradigmatic choice) and mathematization – are not covered by existing models of problem solving in Physics. Finally, the existing research on student difficulties with problem...

  16. Critical Arts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    both formal and informal) in culture and social theory. CRITICAL ARTS aims to challenge and ... Book Review: Brian McNair, An Introduction to Political Communication (3rd edition), London: Routledge, 2003, ISBN 0415307082, 272pp. Phil Joffe ...

  17. Critical Proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Simon

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay considers how written language frames visual objects. Drawing on Michel Foucault’s response to Raymond Roussel’s obsessive description, the essay proposes a model of criticism where description might press up against its objects. This critical closeness is then mapped across the conceptual art practice and art criticism of Ian Burn. Burn attends to the differences between seeing and reading, and considers the conditions which frame how we look at images, including how we look at, and through words. The essay goes on to consider Meaghan Morris’s writing on Lynn Silverman’s photographs. Both Morris and Burn offer an alternative to a parasitic model of criticism and enact a patient way of looking across and through visual landscapes.

  18. Critical proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay considers how written language frames visual objects. Drawing on Michel Foucault’s response to Raymond Roussel’s obsessive description, the essay proposes a model of criticism where description might press up against its objects. This critical closeness is then mapped across the conceptual art practice and art criticism of Ian Burn. Burn attends to the differences between seeing and reading, and considers the conditions which frame how we look at images, including how we look at, and through words. The essay goes on to consider Meaghan Morris’s writing on Lynn Silverman’s photographs. Both Morris and Burn offer an alternative to a parasitic model of criticism and enact a patient way of looking across and through visual landscapes.

  19. Criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, G.

    1983-01-01

    When a sufficient quantity of fissile material is brought together a self-sustaining neutron chain reaction will be started in it and will continue until some change occurs in the fissile material to stop the chain reaction. The quantity of fissile material required is the 'Critical Mass'. This is not a fixed quantity even for a given type of fissile material but varies between quite wide limits depending on a number of factors. In a nuclear reactor the critical mass of fissile material is assembled under well-defined condition to produce a controllable chain reaction. The same materials have to be handled outside the reactor in all stages of fuel element manufacture, storage, transport and irradiated fuel reprocessing. At any stage it is possible (at least in principle) to assemble a critical mass and thus initiate an accidental and uncontrollable chain reaction. Avoiding this is what criticality safety is all about. A system is just critical when the rate of production of neutrons balances the rate of loss either by escape or by absorption. The factors affecting criticality are, therefore, those which effect neutron production and loss. The principal ones are:- type of nuclide and enrichment (or isotopic composition), moderation, reflection, concentration (density), shape and interaction. Each factor is considered in detail. (author)

  20. User perspectives on relevance criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maglaughlin, Kelly L.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2002-01-01

    , partially relevant, or not relevant to their information need; and explained their decisions in an interview. Analysis revealed 29 criteria, discussed positively and negatively, that were used by the participants when selecting passages that contributed or detracted from a document's relevance......This study investigates the use of criteria to assess relevant, partially relevant, and not-relevant documents. Study participants identified passages within 20 document representations that they used to make relevance judgments; judged each document representation as a whole to be relevant...... matter, thought catalyst), full text (e.g., audience, novelty, type, possible content, utility), journal/publisher (e.g., novelty, main focus, perceived quality), and personal (e.g., competition, time requirements). Results further indicate that multiple criteria are used when making relevant, partially...

  1. Integrating Multimedia and Physics Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Aaron P.

    1997-11-01

    Although expert problem solvers typically use pictorial representations when solving problems, novices tend to proceed from the given problem statement to a mathematical solution without first developing a visual representation of the problem. For this reason, multimedia may be an effective tool to enhance students' success at solving problems. However, merely presenting a video of motion described in a problem is not necessarily the most effective method as was found in a recent study of students' responses on Web-based homework questions. Rather, multimedia-focused problems, where data relevant to solving the problem is embedded in a video or animation, may be the best use of multimedia in problem solving. Examples of multimedia-enhanced problems and multimedia-focused problems will be demonstrated, and their differences from "traditional" problems will be highlighted. Recommendations on the use of multimedia with problem solving and preliminary data on students' success at solving these problems will be discussed.

  2. Critical Theory and Political Socialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIK, Domonkos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the relevance of critical theories of modernity in the research of memory transmission and political socialization. Firstly, the relevant concepts of Habermas, Giddens and Bourdieu are overviewed. Secondly, the notion of political culture and memory transmission are reinterpreted from the perspective of these theories, revealing different sources and forms of radicalism. Finally, divergent constellations of modernization are reintroduced as the broadest context of the processes of political formation.

  3. The internal percolation problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezsudnov, I.V.; Snarskii, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    The internal percolation problem (IP) as a new type of the percolation problem is introduced and investigated. In spite of the usual (or external) percolation problem (EP) when the percolation current flows from the top to the bottom of the system, in IP case the voltage is applied through bars which are present in the hole located within the system. The EP problem has two major parameters: M-size of the system and a 0 -size of inclusions, bond size, etc. The IP problem holds one parameter more: size of the hole L. Numerical simulation shows that the critical indexes of conductance for the IP problem are very close to those in the EP problem. On the contrary, the indexes of the relative spectral noise density of 1/f noise and higher moments differ from those in the EP problem. The basics of these facts is discussed.

  4. Balance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... often, it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady. You may ... related injuries, such as a hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ...

  5. Art as metontological problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Saša Ž.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author explains the link between fundamental ontology and metontology in Heidegger's thought. In this context, he raises the question about art as a metontological problem. Then he goes to show that the problem of metontology stems from imanent transformation of fundamental ontology. In this sense, two aspects of the problem of existence assume relevance, namely, universality and radicalism. He draws the conclusion that metontology and art as its problem, as opposed to fundamental ontology, were not integrated into Heidegger's later thought.

  6. Critical Vidders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svegaard, Robin Sebastian Kaszmarczyk

    2015-01-01

    This article will introduce and take a look at a specific subset of the fan created remix videos known as vids, namely those that deal with feminist based critique of media. Through examples, it will show how fans construct and present their critique, and finally broach the topic of the critical ...

  7. Adaptive Critic Nonlinear Robust Control: A Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ding; He, Haibo; Liu, Derong

    2017-10-01

    Adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) and reinforcement learning are quite relevant to each other when performing intelligent optimization. They are both regarded as promising methods involving important components of evaluation and improvement, at the background of information technology, such as artificial intelligence, big data, and deep learning. Although great progresses have been achieved and surveyed when addressing nonlinear optimal control problems, the research on robustness of ADP-based control strategies under uncertain environment has not been fully summarized. Hence, this survey reviews the recent main results of adaptive-critic-based robust control design of continuous-time nonlinear systems. The ADP-based nonlinear optimal regulation is reviewed, followed by robust stabilization of nonlinear systems with matched uncertainties, guaranteed cost control design of unmatched plants, and decentralized stabilization of interconnected systems. Additionally, further comprehensive discussions are presented, including event-based robust control design, improvement of the critic learning rule, nonlinear H ∞ control design, and several notes on future perspectives. By applying the ADP-based optimal and robust control methods to a practical power system and an overhead crane plant, two typical examples are provided to verify the effectiveness of theoretical results. Overall, this survey is beneficial to promote the development of adaptive critic control methods with robustness guarantee and the construction of higher level intelligent systems.

  8. Design as a way to develop a relevant urban environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design as a way to develop a relevant urban environment. ... Futuristic ideas of young designers can become the first stage in solving these challenging tasks. ... the problems of a modern city: from space organization to leisure organization.

  9. Inferring relevance in a changing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Wilson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement learning models of human and animal learning usually concentrate on how we learn the relationship between different stimuli or actions and rewards. However, in real world situations stimuli are ill-defined. On the one hand, our immediate environment is extremely multi-dimensional. On the other hand, in every decision-making scenario only a few aspects of the environment are relevant for obtaining reward, while most are irrelevant. Thus a key question is how do we learn these relevant dimensions, that is, how do we learn what to learn about? We investigated this process of representation learning experimentally, using a task in which one stimulus dimension was relevant for determining reward at each point in time. As in real life situations, in our task the relevant dimension can change without warning, adding ever-present uncertainty engendered by a constantly changing environment. We show that human performance on this task is better described by a suboptimal strategy based on selective attention and serial hypothesis testing rather than a normative strategy based on probabilistic inference. From this, we conjecture that the problem of inferring relevance in general scenarios is too computationally demanding for the brain to solve optimally. As a result the brain utilizes approximations, employing these even in simplified scenarios in which optimal representation learning is tractable, such as the one in our experiment.

  10. Criticality accident:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canavese, Susana I.

    2000-01-01

    A criticality accident occurred at 10:35 on September 30, 1999. It occurred in a precipitation tank in a Conversion Test Building at the JCO Tokai Works site in Tokaimura (Tokai Village) in the Ibaraki Prefecture of Japan. STA provisionally rated this accident a 4 on the seven-level, logarithmic International Nuclear Event Scale (INES). The September 30, 1999 criticality accident at the JCO Tokai Works Site in Tokaimura, Japan in described in preliminary, technical detail. Information is based on preliminary presentations to technical groups by Japanese scientists and spokespersons, translations by technical and non-technical persons of technical web postings by various nuclear authorities, and English-language non-technical reports from various news media and nuclear-interest groups. (author)

  11. Critical dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekker, H.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown how to solve the master equation for a Markov process including a critical point by means of successive approximations in terms of a small parameter. A critical point occurs if, by adjusting an externally controlled quantity, the system shows a transition from normal monostable to bistable behaviour. The fundamental idea of the theory is to separate the master equation into its proper irreducible part and a corrective remainder. The irreducible or zeroth order stochastic approximation will be a relatively simple Fokker-Planck equation that contains the essential features of the process. Once the solution of this irreducible equation is known, the higher order corrections in the original master equation can be incorporated in a systematic manner. (Auth.)

  12. Critical scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stirling, W.G.; Perry, S.C.

    1996-01-01

    We outline the theoretical and experimental background to neutron scattering studies of critical phenomena at magnetic and structural phase transitions. The displacive phase transition of SrTiO 3 is discussed, along with examples from recent work on magnetic materials from the rare-earth (Ho, Dy) and actinide (NpAs, NpSb, USb) classes. The impact of synchrotron X-ray scattering is discussed in conclusion. (author) 13 figs., 18 refs

  13. Critical Digital Tourism Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Munar, Ana María

    2013-01-01

    This paper advocates the need for a critical and cross-disciplinary research agenda on the field of digital technologies and tourism. The changing virtual landscape of tourism has received increased attention by tourism scholars. However, contemporary studies on information technologies (IT......) are approached mostly from a business administration perspective and informed by conceptual frameworks developed in management and marketing. IT studies in tourism are still at a stage similar to the first advocacy phase of tourism research in general (Jafari, 1990) and are seldom inspired by relevant...... to studying digital socio-technical systems and virtual mediation in tourism. Critical Digital Tourism Studies opens a new cross-disciplinary field where the sociality of virtual tourism interactions is examined (entailing the study of structures, social rules, ideologies, power relations, sustainability...

  14. On Euler's problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, Yurii V

    2013-01-01

    We consider the classical problem on the tallest column which was posed by Euler in 1757. Bernoulli-Euler theory serves today as the basis for the design of high buildings. This problem is reduced to the problem of finding the potential for the Sturm-Liouville equation corresponding to the maximum of the first eigenvalue. The problem has been studied by many mathematicians but we give the first rigorous proof of the existence and uniqueness of the optimal column and we give new formulae which let us find it. Our method is based on a new approach consisting in the study of critical points of a related nonlinear functional. Bibliography: 6 titles.

  15. Sign problem and Monte Carlo calculations beyond Lefschetz thimbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandru, Andrei; Başar, Gökçe; Bedaque, Paulo F.; Ridgway, Gregory W.; Warrington, Neill C.

    2016-01-01

    We point out that Monte Carlo simulations of theories with severe sign problems can be profitably performed over manifolds in complex space different from the one with fixed imaginary part of the action (“Lefschetz thimble”). We describe a family of such manifolds that interpolate between the tangent space at one critical point (where the sign problem is milder compared to the real plane but in some cases still severe) and the union of relevant thimbles (where the sign problem is mild but a multimodal distribution function complicates the Monte Carlo sampling). We exemplify this approach using a simple 0+1 dimensional fermion model previously used on sign problem studies and show that it can solve the model for some parameter values where a solution using Lefschetz thimbles was elusive.

  16. Identifying Relevant Studies in Software Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, He; Ali Babar, Muhammad; Tell, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Context: Systematic literature review (SLR) has become an important research methodology in software engineering since the introduction of evidence-based software engineering (EBSE) in 2004. One critical step in applying this methodology is to design and execute appropriate and effective search....... Objective: The main objective of the research reported in this paper is to improve the search step of undertaking SLRs in software engineering (SE) by devising and evaluating systematic and practical approaches to identifying relevant studies in SE. Method: We have systematically selected and analytically...

  17. Happiness: origins, forms, and technical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Salman

    2010-09-01

    By critically reviewing Freud's views on happiness, and also those of Helene Deutsch, Bertram Lewin, Melanie Klein, and Heinz Kohut, the author evolves a complex and multilayered perspective on the phenomenon. He categorizes happiness into four related and occasionally overlapping varieties: pleasure-based happiness (elation), assertion-based happiness (joy), merger-based happiness (ecstasy), and fulfillment-based happiness (contentment). After entering some caveats and drawing from his clinical experience, the author then demonstrates the relevance of these ideas to the conduct of psychotherapy and psychoanalysis.

  18. Embodied cognition and science criticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schilhab, Theresa

    2017-01-01

    provided by Nietzsche seem relevant to contemporary biologically inspired approaches to cognition found within biosemiotics, as well as the embodied cognition paradigm. Here, I discuss how Nietzsche’s biological conception of our relation to what is, incessantly emphasises a critical approach to our...

  19. Speech Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Speech Problems KidsHealth / For Teens / Speech Problems What's in ... a person's ability to speak clearly. Some Common Speech and Language Disorders Stuttering is a problem that ...

  20. Critical Mass

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2070299

    2017-01-01

    Critical Mass is a cycling event typically held on the last Friday of every month; its purpose is not usually formalized beyond the direct action of meeting at a set location and time and traveling as a group through city or town streets on bikes. The event originated in 1992 in San Francisco; by the end of 2003, the event was being held in over 300 cities around the world. At CERN it is held once a year in conjunction with the national Swiss campaing "Bike to work".

  1. Hemiequilibrium problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aslam Noor

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a new class of equilibrium problems, known as hemiequilibrium problems. Using the auxiliary principle technique, we suggest and analyze a class of iterative algorithms for solving hemiequilibrium problems, the convergence of which requires either pseudomonotonicity or partially relaxed strong monotonicity. As a special case, we obtain a new method for hemivariational inequalities. Since hemiequilibrium problems include hemivariational inequalities and equilibrium problems as special cases, the results proved in this paper still hold for these problems.

  2. Traumatic Brain Injury: Caregivers’ Problems and Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    syed tajjudin syed hassan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is an increasingly major world health problem. This short review using the most pertinent articles on TBI caregiving problems and needs highlights the pressing issues. Articles focusing on both TBI-caregivers’ problems and needs are rarely found, especially for developing countries. Most TBI-caregiving is done by family members, whose altered lives portend burden and stresses which add to the overwhelming demand of caring for the TBI-survivor. Lack of information, fi nancial inadequacy, anxiety, distress, coping defi cits, poor adaptability, inadequate knowledge and skills, and a poor support system comprise the major problems. Dysfunctional communication between caregivers and care-receivers has been little researched. The major needs are focused on health and rehabilitation information, fi nancial advice and assistance, emotional and social support, and positive psychological encouragement. In time, health information needs may be met, but not emotional support. Information on TBI caregiving problems and unmet needs is critical to all relevant healthcare stakeholders. Keywords: caregivers, rehabilitation, traumatic brain injury

  3. The critical ionization velocity - a bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axnaes, I.; Brenning, N.; Raadu, M.A.

    1982-12-01

    A list of all relevant contributions, known to the authors, concerning the critical ionization velocity phenomena is presented. The contributions are classified and described in a few sentences. (Authors)

  4. Where is the problem?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy-Leblond, J.-M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the problem of the reduction of the state vector in quantum theory. The author suggest that this issue ceases to cause difficulties if viewed from the correct perspective, for example by giving the state vector an auxiliary rather than fundamental status. He advocates changing the conceptual framework of quantum theory and working with quantons rather than particles and/or waves. He denies that reduction is a psychophysiological problem of observation, and raises the relevance of experimental apparatus. He concludes by venturing the suggestion that the problem of the reduction of the quantum state vector lies, not in quantum theory, but in classical perspectives. (UK)

  5. Guide Actor-Critic for Continuous Control

    OpenAIRE

    Tangkaratt, Voot; Abdolmaleki, Abbas; Sugiyama, Masashi

    2017-01-01

    Actor-critic methods solve reinforcement learning problems by updating a parameterized policy known as an actor in a direction that increases an estimate of the expected return known as a critic. However, existing actor-critic methods only use values or gradients of the critic to update the policy parameter. In this paper, we propose a novel actor-critic method called the guide actor-critic (GAC). GAC firstly learns a guide actor that locally maximizes the critic and then it updates the polic...

  6. Dictionary criticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2018-01-01

    Dictionary criticism is part of the lexicographical universe and reviewing of electronic and printed dictionaries is not an exercise in linguistics or in subject fields but an exercise in lexicography. It does not follow from this that dictionary reviews should not be based on a linguistic approach......, but that the linguistic approach is only one of several approaches to dictionary reviewing. Similarly, the linguistic and factual competences of reviewers should not be relegated to an insignificant position in the review process. Moreover, reviewers should define the object of their reviews, the dictionary, as a complex...... information tool with several components and in terms of significant lexicographical features: lexicographical functions, data and structures. This emphasises the fact that dictionaries are much more than mere vessels of linguistic categories, namely lexicographical tools that have been developed to fulfil...

  7. How Critical Is Critical Infrastructure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    manager conducting a risk self-assessment will likely be subconsciously biased to assess greater risks than actually exist. This problem can be... bias .” The optimism bias extends beyond MBA students. People under estimate their risk for car accidents, think the chances of divorce are low, and...Decisions about Health, Wealth, and Happiness (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2008), 20. 29 others.80 Optimism bias is evident in compulsive

  8. Microbial profile and critical control points during processing of 'robo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbial profile and critical control points during processing of 'robo' snack from ... the relevant critical control points especially in relation to raw materials and ... to the quality of the various raw ingredients used were the roasting using earthen

  9. No Problem? No Research, Little Learning ... Big Problem!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ornelas Marques

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The motivation to carry out this study stemmed from the generalized perception that nowadays youth lacks the skills for the 21st century. Especially the high-level competences like critical thinking, problem solving and autonomy. Several tools can help to improve these competences (e.g. the SCRATCH programming language, but, as researchers and educators, we are mostly concerned with the skill to recognize problems. What if we do not find problems to solve? What if we do not even feel the need to find or solve problems? The problem is to recognize the problem; the next step is to equate the problem; finally we have to feel the need to solve it. No need? No invention. Recognizing a problem is probably the biggest problem of everyday life, because we are permanently faced with problems (many ill-defined problems, which we need to identify, equate and solve.

  10. Development of Critical Thinking with Metacognitive Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    In this research the author defines critical thinking as the set of skills and dispositions which enable one to solve problems logically and to attempt to reflect autonomously by means of Metacognitive regulation on one's own problem-solving processes. In order to develop their critical thinking, it is important for students to be able to use this…

  11. Profiles of Dialogue for Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Walton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses argument diagrams, argumentation schemes, and some tools from formal argumentation systems developed in artificial intelligence to build a graph-theoretic model of relevance shown to be applicable (with some extensions as a practical method for helping a third party judge issues of relevance or irrelevance of an argument in real examples. Examples used to illustrate how the method works are drawn from disputes about relevance in natural language discourse, including a criminal trial and a parliamentary debate.

  12. Plant critical concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Regan, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the effort summarized in this paper is to support O and M cost reduction efforts by focusing resources on components and processes critical to plant performance. This effort will identify where resources on nonplant critical components and processes can be reduced or eliminated. This method will use a functional assessment as the basis for component-specific evaluations and ranking. This effort consists of two stages conducted in series. The first stage is to deterministically identify that set of plant components that are relevant from a plant performance perspective (i.e., safety, economics, reliability). The second stage probabilistically ranks that set of plant components from an importance perspective, where importance pertains to the particular application and is probabilistically weighted. The results of a pilot study identified that only a relatively small set of components are truly critical from an integrated plant performance perspective. These results are consistent with work being conducted at other nuclear power plants, as well as other commercial facilities. Initial implementation of this effort is estimated to reduce O and M costs on the order of $1 million per year. Subsequent applications are anticipated to increase that savings to $4--$5 million per year

  13. Critical homoclinic orbits lead to snap-back repellers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardini, Laura; Sushko, Iryna; Avrutin, Viktor; Schanz, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We consider critical homoclinic orbits in continuous and discontinuous maps. → Unbounded homoclinic orbits in maps on unbounded domains are considered as well. → We show that a snapback-repeller (SBR) with a non-critical homoclinic orbit implies chaos. → We show also that a SBR with a critical homoclinic orbit may or may not imply chaos. - Abstract: When nondegenerate homoclinic orbits to an expanding fixed point of a map f:X→X,X subset or equal R n , exist, the point is called a snap-back repeller. It is known that the relevance of a snap-back repeller (in its original definition) is due to the fact that it implies the existence of an invariant set on which the map is chaotic. However, when does the first homoclinic orbit appear? When can other homoclinic explosions, i.e., appearance of infinitely many new homoclinic orbits, occur? As noticed by many authors, these problems are still open. In this work we characterize these bifurcations, for any kind of map, smooth or piecewise smooth, continuous or discontinuous, defined in a bounded or unbounded closed set. We define a noncritical homoclinic orbit and a homoclinic orbit of an expanding fixed point is structurally stable iff it is noncritical. That is, only critical homoclinic orbits are responsible for the homoclinic explosions. The possible kinds of critical homoclinic orbits will be also investigated, as well as their dynamic role.

  14. Explaining the Mind: Problems, Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Harnad, Stevan

    2001-01-01

    The mind/body problem is the feeling/function problem: How and why do feeling systems feel? The problem is not just "hard" but insoluble (unless one is ready to resort to telekinetic dualism). Fortunately, the "easy" problems of cognitive science (such as the how and why of categorization and language) are not insoluble. Five books (by Damasio, Edelman/Tononi...

  15. Relevance theory: pragmatics and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wearing, Catherine J

    2015-01-01

    Relevance Theory is a cognitively oriented theory of pragmatics, i.e., a theory of language use. It builds on the seminal work of H.P. Grice(1) to develop a pragmatic theory which is at once philosophically sensitive and empirically plausible (in both psychological and evolutionary terms). This entry reviews the central commitments and chief contributions of Relevance Theory, including its Gricean commitment to the centrality of intention-reading and inference in communication; the cognitively grounded notion of relevance which provides the mechanism for explaining pragmatic interpretation as an intention-driven, inferential process; and several key applications of the theory (lexical pragmatics, metaphor and irony, procedural meaning). Relevance Theory is an important contribution to our understanding of the pragmatics of communication. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Clinical relevance in anesthesia journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Jakob; Møller, Ann M

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present the latest knowledge and research on the definition and distribution of clinically relevant articles in anesthesia journals. It will also discuss the importance of the chosen methodology and outcome of articles.......The purpose of this review is to present the latest knowledge and research on the definition and distribution of clinically relevant articles in anesthesia journals. It will also discuss the importance of the chosen methodology and outcome of articles....

  17. Production of neutron cross section library based on JENDL-4.0 to continuous-energy Monte Carlo code MVP and its application to criticality analysis of benchmark problems in the ICSBEP handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Keisuke; Nagaya, Yasunobu

    2011-09-01

    In May 2010, JENDL-4.0 was released from Japan Atomic Energy Agency as the updated Japanese Nuclear Data Library. It was processed by the nuclear data processing system LICEM and an arbitrary-temperature neutron cross section library MVPlib - nJ40 was produced for the neutron and photon transport calculation code MVP based on the continuous-energy Monte Carlo method. The library contains neutron cross sections for 406 nuclides on the free gas model, thermal scattering cross sections, and cross sections of pseudo fission products for burn-up calculations with MVP. Criticality benchmark calculations were carried out with MVP and MVPlib - nJ40 for about 1,000 cases of critical experiments stored in the hand book of International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP), which covers a wide variety of fuel materials, fuel forms, and neutron spectra. We report all comparison results (C/E values) of effective neutron multiplication factors between calculations and experiments to give a validation data for the prediction accuracy of JENDL-4.0 for criticalities. (author)

  18. Bringing critical realism to nursing practice: Roy Bhaskar's contribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lynne; Rycroft-Malone, Jo; Burton, Christopher R

    2017-04-01

    In the context of modern nursing practice that is embedded within complex social situations, critical discussions about the contribution of major philosophers are relevant and important. Whilst nurse theorists have advanced and shaped nursing as a discipline, other major philosophers can offer much to advance nursing enquiry. In this paper, we focus on philosopher Roy Bhaskar who, amongst others, developed critical realism, a philosophy for social science which connects with how many of us think about the world. Bhaskar's work focuses our attention on the interplay between structure and agency and on the search for the causative or generative mechanisms that explain the social world. Bhaskar was interested in human emancipation, and we suggest his work is of great importance to advance understanding of complex social situations. Critical realism has already been endorsed by a range of disciplines, especially in research which focuses on real problems and acknowledges the complexities of the social world. In recent evidence from healthcare literature, there has been a surge in research using realist methodology (realist evaluation and realist synthesis), which is underpinned by the philosophy of critical realism and which offers a different perspective to understanding nursing and healthcare problems through the realist lens. However, we suggest that sufficient attention is not always paid to the philosophical roots of this methodology. In this paper, we provide insight into Bhaskar's work and demonstrate how research positioned within critical realism and realist methodology can advance nursing and healthcare-related knowledge. Through shining a light on Bhaskar, we illustrate how critical realism philosophy is a natural fit with human and health science enquiry, including nursing. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. JCO criticality accident termination operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanamori, Masashi

    2001-12-01

    On September 30 at around 10:35 AM, criticality accident occurred at the JCO's conversion building in Tokai-mura. Since criticality accident had not been anticipated, neither devices for termination of criticality accident nor neutron detectors were available. Immediately after the information of the accident, our emergency staff (Japan Nuclear Cycle development institute staff) went to JCO site, to measure the intensity of neutrons and gammas. There were four main tasks, first one was to measure the radiation intensity, second one was to terminate the criticality accident, third one is to alert the residents surrounding the JCO site, fourth one is to evacuate the employees in the site. These tasks were successfully performed until October 1. This paper describes about how these operations were performed by the relevant staffs. (author)

  20. Reflections on relevance: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics in 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balon, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Relevance of an article is a highly desirable yet hardly predictable quality at the time of its publication. Article relevance is frequently measured by the impact factor of the journal where the article is published. Furthermore, impact factor, citation index and citation analysis are used as a measure of research progress and scientific wealth of a nation. The wisdom and significance of this approach to relevance is debatable and thus discussed here. In 2004, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics published a variety of articles which, in the author's view, are clinically relevant. Several selected clinically relevant issues reviewed in this article include: the conceptualization of fibromyalgia as a stress disorder; the psychosocial impact and psychosocial interventions in cancer; the impact of alexithymia on patient care; the possible relationship between depression and nutrition (namely intake of folate and pyridoxal phosphate); the significance of hypercoagulability in panic-like anxiety; the questionable value of single isomer drugs, and the relevance and adequacy of clinimetrics versus psychometrics in clinical research. The reviewed issues seem to be relevant to clinical practice, research or both, but also to our critical thinking, and the critical review of the developments in psychiatry and psychology. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. PREDICTING RELEVANT EMPTY SPOTS IN SOCIAL INTERACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshiharu MAENO; Yukio OHSAWA

    2008-01-01

    An empty spot refers to an empty hard-to-fill space which can be found in the records of the social interaction, and is the clue to the persons in the underlying social network who do not appear in the records. This contribution addresses a problem to predict relevant empty spots in social interaction. Homogeneous and inhomogeneous networks are studied as a model underlying the social interaction. A heuristic predictor function method is presented as a new method to address the problem. Simulation experiment is demonstrated over a homogeneous network. A test data set in the form of market baskets is generated from the simulated communication. Precision to predict the empty spots is calculated to demonstrate the performance of the presented method.

  2. Problem Solving and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Chandralekha

    2009-07-01

    One finding of cognitive research is that people do not automatically acquire usable knowledge by spending lots of time on task. Because students' knowledge hierarchy is more fragmented, "knowledge chunks" are smaller than those of experts. The limited capacity of short term memory makes the cognitive load high during problem solving tasks, leaving few cognitive resources available for meta-cognition. The abstract nature of the laws of physics and the chain of reasoning required to draw meaningful inferences makes these issues critical. In order to help students, it is crucial to consider the difficulty of a problem from the perspective of students. We are developing and evaluating interactive problem-solving tutorials to help students in the introductory physics courses learn effective problem-solving strategies while solidifying physics concepts. The self-paced tutorials can provide guidance and support for a variety of problem solving techniques, and opportunity for knowledge and skill acquisition.

  3. Prostate Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... know the exact cause of your prostate problem. Prostatitis The cause of prostatitis depends on whether you ... prostate problem in men older than age 50. Prostatitis If you have a UTI, you may be ...

  4. General problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the general problems as natural disasters, consequences of global climate change, public health, the danger of criminal actions, the availability to information about problems of environment

  5. Learning Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Learning Problems KidsHealth / For Kids / Learning Problems What's in ... for how to make it better. What Are Learning Disabilities? Learning disabilities aren't contagious, but they ...

  6. Ankle Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read MoreDepression in Children and TeensRead MoreBMI Calculator Ankle ProblemsFollow this chart for more information about problems that can cause ankle pain. Our trusted Symptom Checker is written and ...

  7. The landslide problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Shanmugam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The synonymous use of the general term “landslide”, with a built-in reference to a sliding motion, for all varieties of mass-transport deposits (MTD, which include slides, slumps, debrites, topples, creeps, debris avalanches etc. in subaerial, sublacustrine, submarine, and extraterrestrial environments has created a multitude of conceptual and nomenclatural problems. In addition, concepts of triggers and long-runout mechanisms of mass movements are loosely applied without rigor. These problems have enormous implications for studies in process sedimentology, sequence stratigraphy, palaeogeography, petroleum geology, and engineering geology. Therefore, the objective of this critical review is to identify key problems and to provide conceptual clarity and possible solutions. Specific issues are the following: (1 According to “limit equilibrium analyses” in soil mechanics, sediment failure with a sliding motion is initiated over a shear surface when the factor of safety for slope stability (F is less than 1. However, the term landslide is not meaningful for debris flows with a flowing motion. (2 Sliding motion can be measured in oriented core and outcrop, but such measurement is not practical on seismic profiles or radar images. (3 Although 79 MTD types exist in the geological and engineering literature, only slides, slumps, and debrites are viable depositional facies for interpreting ancient stratigraphic records. (4 The use of the term landslide for highvelocity debris avalanches is inappropriate because velocities of mass-transport processes cannot be determined in the rock record. (5 Of the 21 potential triggering mechanisms of sediment failures, frequent short-term events that last for only a few minutes to several hours or days (e.g., earthquakes, meteorite impacts, tsunamis, tropical cyclones, etc. are more relevant in controlling deposition of deep-water sands than sporadic long-term events that last for thousands to millions of

  8. Critical thinking in nurse managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zori, Susan; Morrison, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Formal education and support is needed for nurse managers to effectively function in their role in the current health care environment. Many nurse managers assume their positions based on expertise in a clinical role with little expertise in managerial and leadership skills. Operating as a manager and leader requires ongoing development of critical thinking skills and the inclination to use those skills. Critical thinking can have a powerful influence on the decision making and problem solving that nurse managers are faced with on a daily basis. The skills that typify critical thinking include analysis, evaluation, inference, and deductive and inductive reasoning. It is intuitive that nurse managers require both the skills and the dispositions of critical thinking to be successful in this pivotal role at a time of transformation in health care. Incorporating critical thinking into education and support programs for the nurse manager is necessary to position the nurse manager for success.

  9. Critical theory and holocaust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Predrag

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author is attempting to establish the relationship - or the lack of it - of the Critical Theory to the "Jewish question" and justification of perceiving signs of Jewish religious heritage in the thought of the representatives of this movement. The holocaust marked out by the name of "Auschwitz", is here tested as a point where the nature of this relationship has been decided. In this encounter with the cardinal challenge for the contemporary social theory, the particularity of the Frankfurt School reaction is here revealed through Adorno installing Auschwitz as unexpected but lawful emblem of the ending of the course that modern history has assumed. The critique of this "fascination" with Auschwitz, as well as certain theoretical pacification and measured positioning of the holocaust into discontinued plane of "unfinished" and continuation and closure of the valued project, are given through communicative-theoretical pre-orientation of Jürgen Habermas’s Critical Theory and of his followers. Finally, through the work of Detlev Claussen, it is suggested that in the youngest generation of Adorno’s students there are signs of revision to once already revised Critical Theory and a kind of defractured and differentiated return to the initial understanding of the decisiveness of the holocaust experience. This shift in the attitude of the Critical Theory thinkers to the provocation of holocaust is not, however, particularly reflected towards the status of Jews and their tradition, but more to the age old questioning and explanatory patterns for which they served as a "model". The question of validity of the enlightenment project, the nature of occidental rationalism, (nonexistence of historical theology and understanding of the identity and emancipation - describe the circle of problems around which the disagreement is concentrated in the social critical theory.

  10. A Compositional Relevance Model for Adaptive Information Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathe, Nathalie; Chen, James; Lu, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    There is a growing need for rapid and effective access to information in large electronic documentation systems. Access can be facilitated if information relevant in the current problem solving context can be automatically supplied to the user. This includes information relevant to particular user profiles, tasks being performed, and problems being solved. However most of this knowledge on contextual relevance is not found within the contents of documents, and current hypermedia tools do not provide any easy mechanism to let users add this knowledge to their documents. We propose a compositional relevance network to automatically acquire the context in which previous information was found relevant. The model records information on the relevance of references based on user feedback for specific queries and contexts. It also generalizes such information to derive relevant references for similar queries and contexts. This model lets users filter information by context of relevance, build personalized views of documents over time, and share their views with other users. It also applies to any type of multimedia information. Compared to other approaches, it is less costly and doesn't require any a priori statistical computation, nor an extended training period. It is currently being implemented into the Computer Integrated Documentation system which enables integration of various technical documents in a hypertext framework.

  11. Evaluating critical thinking in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oermann, M H

    1997-01-01

    Although much has been written about measurement instruments for evaluating critical thinking in nursing, this article describes clinical evaluation strategies for critical thinking. Five methods are discussed: 1) observation of students in practice; 2) questions for critical thinking, including Socratic questioning; 3) conferences; 4) problem-solving strategies; and 5) written assignments. These methods provide a means of evaluating students' critical thinking within the context of clinical practice.

  12. Relevance of standardization and grading in marketing of grains in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the relevance of standardization and grading as a facilitating function in marketing of grains. The various measurement units, their acceptability and adoption by the consumers and traders along with the relationship of prices to different grades of grains was critically assessed. The study revealed that ...

  13. Supramolecular Chemistry of Environmentally Relevant Anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman-James, Kristin; Moyer, B.A.; Sessler, Jonathan L.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this project is the development of highly selective extractants for anions targeting important and timely problems of critical interest to the EMSP mission. In particular, sulfate poses a special problem in cleaning up the Hanford waste tanks in that it interferes with vitrification, but available technologies for sulfate removal are limited. The basic chemical aspects of anion receptor design of functional pH independent systems as well as design of separations strategies for selective and efficient removal of targeted anions have been probed. Key findings include: (1) some of the first synthetic sulfate-selective anion-binding agents; (2) simple, structure-based methods for modifying the intrinsic anion selectivity of a given class of anion receptors; and (3) the first system capable of extracting sulfate from acidic, nitrate-containing aqueous media. Receptor design, structural influences on anion binding affinities, and findings from liquid-liquid extraction studies will be discussed

  14. Fundamental problem of high-level radioactive waste disposal policy in Japan. Critical analysis responding to the publication of 'Nationwide Map of Scientific Features for Geological Disposal' by the Japanese government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juraku, Kohta

    2017-01-01

    The government explains that 'Scientific Characteristic Map' (hereinafter 'Map') shows the scientific characteristics of sites that are thought necessary to be taken into account when choosing the place to implement geological disposal and their geographical distribution on the Japanese map for the convenience to 'roughly overlook.' Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) as the implementing agency for geological disposal and the government (Agency for Natural Resources and Energy of Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) stress that this Map does not indicate so-called 'optimum land,' but it is the 'first step of a long way to realize disposal' for high-level radioactive waste (HLW). However, there clearly lurks a debate about the acceptance of the location of geological disposal in the future. The author has pointed out that the essence of the HLW disposal problem is a problem of 'value selection' that should be decided prior to the location of disposal site. The author believes that it is the competence of society how to identify the path of countermeasures by reconciling in a high degree the justice of the policies supported by scientific and professional knowledge and the justice of social decision making through a democratic duty process. However, the government is trying to forward HLW disposal only from the viewpoint of location problems, while neglecting the problem of 'value selection.' (A.O.)

  15. Shippingport: A relevant decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crimi, F.P.

    1988-01-01

    Because of Shippingport's low electrical power rating (72 MWe), there has been some misunderstanding on the relevancy of the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP) to a modern 1175 MWe commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR) power station. This paper provides a comparison of the major components of the reactor plant of the 72 MWe Shippingport Atomic Power Station and an 1175 MWe nuclear plant and the relevancy of the Shippingport decommissioning as a demonstration project for the nuclear industry. For the purpose of this comparison, Portland General Electric Company's 1175 MWe Trojan Nuclear Plant at Rainier, Oregon, has been used as the reference nuclear power plant. 2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  16. Critical Qualitative Research Reader. Critical Qualitative Research. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Shirley R., Ed.; Cannella, Gaile S., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This volume of transformed research utilizes an activist approach to examine the notion that nothing is apolitical. Research projects themselves are critically examined for power orientations, even as they are used to address curricular problems and educational or societal issues. Philosophical perspectives that have facilitated an understanding…

  17. Interval Mathematics Applied to Critical Point Transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito A. Stradi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The determination of critical points of mixtures is important for both practical and theoretical reasons in the modeling of phase behavior, especially at high pressure. The equations that describe the behavior of complex mixtures near critical points are highly nonlinear and with multiplicity of solutions to the critical point equations. Interval arithmetic can be used to reliably locate all the critical points of a given mixture. The method also verifies the nonexistence of a critical point if a mixture of a given composition does not have one. This study uses an interval Newton/Generalized Bisection algorithm that provides a mathematical and computational guarantee that all mixture critical points are located. The technique is illustrated using several example problems. These problems involve cubic equation of state models; however, the technique is general purpose and can be applied in connection with other nonlinear problems.

  18. Bacteriophage lambda: early pioneer and still relevant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casjens, Sherwood R.; Hendrix, Roger W.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular genetic research on bacteriophage lambda carried out during its golden age from the mid 1950's to mid 1980's was critically important in the attainment of our current understanding of the sophisticated and complex mechanisms by which the expression of genes is controlled, of DNA virus assembly and of the molecular nature of lysogeny. The development of molecular cloning techniques, ironically instigated largely by phage lambda researchers, allowed many phage workers to switch their efforts to other biological systems. Nonetheless, since that time the ongoing study of lambda and its relatives have continued to give important new insights. In this review we give some relevant early history and describe recent developments in understanding the molecular biology of lambda's life cycle. PMID:25742714

  19. Creativity and Problem Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes of special relevance for Operational Research workers. Central publications in the area Creativity-Operational Research are shortly reviewed. Some creative tools and the Creative Problem Solving...... approach are also discussed. Finally, some applications of these concepts and tools are outlined. Some central references are presented for further study of themes related to creativity or creative tools....

  20. Creativity and problem Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Victor Valqui Vidal

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes of special relevance for Operational Research workers. Central publications in the area Creativity-Operational Research are shortly reviewed. Some creative tools and the Creative Problem Solving approach are also discussed. Finally, some applications of these concepts and tools are outlined. Some central references are presented for further study of themes related to creativity or creative tools.

  1. The risk to be tolerated and the limits of practical rationality - problems involved in nuclear licensing. - Are there prerogatives of the administration in decision-making. Fundamental criticism of the undefined legal concept in the law pertaining to plant licinsing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, R.

    1986-01-01

    This chapter discusses in detail the litigation and court decisions in nuclear energy matters, with particular attention being given to the scope and distinctness of juristic interpretations of vaguely defined legal concepts, and to the definition of the 'risk to be tolerated'. Especially the court decisions on the nuclear power plant licences for the installations at Wuergassen, Wyhl, Grafenrheinfeld and Kalkar are reviewed under the following aspects: How safe is safe enough - bursting resistance - risk prevention and practical rationality - limits of scientific research into risk probability - fundamental criticism to be raised against vaguely defined legal terms and concepts in the law governing the licensing of nuclear installations. (HSCH) [de

  2. Dramatic lives and relevant becomings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ann-Karina; Miller, Jody

    2012-01-01

    of marginality into positions of relevance. The analysis builds on empirical data from Copenhagen, Denmark, gained through ethnographic fieldwork with the participation of 20 female informants aged 13–22. The theoretical contribution proposes viewing conflicts as multi-linear, multi-causal and non...

  3. Regularization in Matrix Relevance Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, Petra; Bunte, Kerstin; Stiekema, Han; Hammer, Barbara; Villmann, Thomas; Biehl, Michael

    A In this paper, we present a regularization technique to extend recently proposed matrix learning schemes in learning vector quantization (LVQ). These learning algorithms extend the concept of adaptive distance measures in LVQ to the use of relevance matrices. In general, metric learning can

  4. Sociale problemer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Bøggild; Rasmussen, Tove; Bundesen, Peter Verner

    Sociale problemer kan betragtes som selve udgangspunktet for socialt arbejde, hvor ambitionen er at råde bod på problemerne og sikre, at udsatte borgere får en bedre tilværelse. Det betyder også, at diskussionen af sociale problemer er afgørende for den sociale grundfaglighed. I denne bog sætter en...... række fagfolk på tværs af det danske socialfaglige felt fokus på sociale problemer. Det diskuteres, hvad vi overhovedet forstår ved sociale problemer, hvordan de opstår, hvilke konsekvenser de har, og ikke mindst hvordan man som fagprofessionel håndterer sociale problemer i det daglige arbejde. Bogen er...... skrevet som lærebog til professionsuddannelser, hvor sociale problemer udgør en dimension, bl.a. socialrådgiver-, pædagog- og sygeplejerskeuddannelserne....

  5. Thermochemical data for environmentally-relevant elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markich, S.J.; Brown, P.L.

    1999-01-01

    This study provides an extensive stability constant (log K) database suitable for calculating the speciation of selected environmentally-relevant elements (H, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, U, Al Pb, Zn, Cu and cd) in an aqueous system, where a model fulvic acid (comprising aspartic, citric, malonic, salicylic and tricarballylic acids) is used to simulate metal binding by dissolved organic material Stability constants for inorganic metal complexes and minerals were selected primarily from critical literature complications and/or reviews. In contrast, few critically evaluated data were available for metal complexes with aspartic, citric, malonic, salicylic and tricarballylic acids. Consequently, data from original research articles were carefully evaluated and compiled as part of the study, following defined selection criteria. to meet the objective of compiling a comprehensive and reliable database of stability constants, all relevant equilibria and species, ranging from simple binary metal complexes to more complex ternary and even quaternary, metal complexes were included where possible in addition to the selection of stability constants from empirical sources, estimates of stability constants were performed when this could be done reliably, based on the unified theory of metal ion complexation and/or linear tree energy relationships The stability constants are given as common logarithms (logo) in the form required by the HARPHRQ geochemical code and refer to the standard state, i.e 298.15 K (25 deg C), 10 5 Pa (1 atm) and, for all species, infinite dilution (ionic strength = 0 mol L -1 ). In addition to the compilation of stability constant data, an overview is given of geochemical speciation modelling in aqueous systems and available conceptual models of metal binding by humic substances. (authors)

  6. Espacio literario relevante sobre el problema del vendedor viajero (TSP: contenido, clasificación, métodos y campos de inspiración Relevant literary space on travelling salesman problem (TSP: contents, classification, methods and fields of inspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ivan Pérez Rave

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe y se analiza un espacio literario relevante sobre el Problema del Vendedor Viajero (TSP en términos de contenido, clases de TSP, métodos y campos de inspiración. Los datos empleados provinieron de los trabajos más citados en Scopus sobre el TSP, tanto a través de la historia como en el período 2006-2010. Se encontró que el TSP prevalece en las investigaciones, con enfoques tanto en el problema original como en sus variantes, entre las cuales se identificaron el TSP Múltiple y el TSP Probabilístico. Entre los principales campos de inspiración para resolver el TSP están la evolución biológica y su base genético-molecular, el comportamiento de hormigas reales, la termodinámica, las estrategias sistemáticas para combinar reglas de decisión y la búsqueda de vecindades. Hoy día se tiende a desarrollar métodos híbridos, especialmente integrando enfoques globales con búsquedas locales, y se identifica la necesidad de introducir nuevos campos de inspiración.This paper describes and analyzes, in terms of content, the types of TSP, methods and fields of inspiration - the most relevant "literary space" on TSP. It is built based on the top most cited on the TSP history and the Top 10 cited from 2006 to 2010. The study of TSP still prevails in Research, focusing on the original problem and its variants: Multiple TSP (m-TSP and Probabilistic TSP (PTSP. Evidence shows that there has been progress in the development of TSP solving methods, highlighted by various inspiration fields: biological evolution, behavior of real ants, thermodynamics, systematic strategies for combining decision rules, and neighborhood search. There is a tendency to develop hybrid methods, in particular by integrating global approaches to local search. There is need to introduce new fields of inspiration.

  7. Popularity and Relevance of Science Education and Scientific Literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graeber, Wolfgang; Blonder, Ron; Bolte, Claus

    2008-01-01

    A consortium of researchers from 8 European nations has successfully applied to the EU commission for funding the PARSEL (Popularity and Relevance in Science Education for Scientific Literacy) project, which aims at raising the popularity and relevance of science teaching and enhancing students...... of a range of personal and social skills (including cognitive skills associated with investigatory scientific problem solving and socio-scientific decision making) and clarify the relevancy of science education for the 21st century. This symposium will introduce and discuss the project PARSEL ideas within...

  8. Criticality safety engineer training at WSRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, T.G.; Mincey, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    Two programs designed to prepare engineers for certification as criticality safety engineers are offered at Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). One program, Student On Loan Criticality Engineer Training (SOLCET), is an intensive 2-yr course involving lectures, rigorous problem assignments, and mentoring. The other program, In-Field Criticality Engineer Training (IN-FIELD), is a less intensive series of lectures and problem assignments. Both courses are conducted by members of the Applied Physics Group (APG) of the Savannah River Technical Center, the organization at WSRC responsible for the operation and maintenance of criticality codes and for training of code users

  9. Hearing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read MoreDepression in Children and TeensRead MoreBMI Calculator Hearing ProblemsLoss in the ability to hear or discriminate ... This flow chart will help direct you if hearing loss is a problem for you or a ...

  10. Designing Lesson Plan Based on Critical Thinking for Language Classes

    OpenAIRE

    Norwanto, Norwanto

    2011-01-01

    Critical thinking includes a process of reasoning in thinking as stated by some scholars. In the process, there is universal standard to follow: clarity, accuracy, precision, relevance, depth, breadth, logic, and fairness. In language classes, critical thinking creates active classes. To bring critical thinking to classes, Bloom’s Taxonomy and critical thinking strategies can be working definition in order critical thinking to be applied to pedagogical materials in a practical way. Steps for ...

  11. The Zeus Copper/Uranium Critical Experiment at NCERC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Rene G.; Hayes, David K.; Bounds, John Alan; Jackman, Kevin R.; Goda, Joetta M.

    2012-01-01

    A critical experiment was performed to provide nuclear data in a non-thermal neutron spectrum and to reestablish experimental capability relevant to Stockpile Stewardship and Technical Nuclear Forensic programs. Irradiation foils were placed at specific locations in the Zeus all oralloy critical experiment to obtain fission ratios. These ratios were compared with others from other critical assemblies to assess the degree of softness in the neutron spectrum. This critical experiment was performed at the National Criticality Experiments Research Center (NCERC) in Nevada.

  12. Critical dynamics in associative memory networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian eUhlig

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Critical behavior in neural networks is characterized by scale-free avalanche size distributions and can be explained by self-regulatory mechanisms. Theoretical and experimental evidence indicates that information storage capacity reaches its maximum in the critical regime. We study the effect of structural connectivity formed by Hebbian learning on the criticality of network dynamics. The network endowed with Hebbian learning only does not allow for simultaneous information storage and criticality. However, the critical regime is can be stabilized by short-term synaptic dynamics in the form of synaptic depression and facilitation or, alternatively, by homeostatic adaptation of the synaptic weights. We show that a heterogeneous distribution of maximal synaptic strengths does not preclude criticality if the Hebbian learning is alternated with periods of critical dynamics recovery. We discuss the relevance of these findings for the flexibility of memory in aging and with respect to the recent theory of synaptic plasticity.

  13. CRITICAL EVENTS IN CONSTRUCTION PROCESS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten; Rasmussen, Grane Mikael Gregaard

    2009-01-01

    cause-effects of failures and defects in the construction industry by using an analytical approach (The bowtie model) which is developed in the accident research. Using this model clarifies the relationships within the chain of failures that causes critical events with undesirable consequences......Function failures, defects and poor communication are major problems in the construction industry. These failures and defects are caused by a row of critical events in the construction process. The purpose of this paper is to define “critical events” in the construction process and to investigate....... In this way the causes of failures and the relationships between various failures are rendered visible. A large construction site was observed from start to finish as the empirical element in the research. The research focuses on all kinds of critical events identified throughout every phase during...

  14. The underinvestment problem under conglomeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques A. Schnabel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This theoretical paper explores whether the underinvestment problem is aggravated or ameliorated by the formation of a pure conglomerate. It establishes that the answer depends critically on the volatility of corporate assets. If volatility is low, conglomeration ameliorates the underinvestment problem, whereas if volatility is high, conglomeration aggravates the underinvestment problem. These analytical results are then invoked as a potential explanation for the ambiguous conclusions of empirical studies that delve into the existence of a conglomerate discount.

  15. Spondylolysis: a critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standaert, C; Herring, S

    2000-01-01

    Aim—To provide an understanding of the current concepts in the natural history, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of spondylolysis based on the available medical literature. Methods—Articles were selected for review by the following methods: (a) MEDLINE searches with review of abstracts to select relevant articles; (b) review of multiple textbooks considered likely to contain information on spondylolysis; (c) review of references in articles identified by (a) and (b). Over 125 articles were ultimately reviewed fully. Publications were selected for inclusion in this article on the basis of perceived scientific and historical merit, particularly as thought to be relevant to achieving the stated purpose of this review. As no controlled clinical trials were identified, this could not be used as an inclusion criterion. Conclusions—Isthmic spondylolysis is considered to represent a fatigue fracture of the pars interarticularis of the neural arch. There is a relatively high incidence of radiographically identified spondylolysis in the general population, but the vast majority of these lesions probably occur without associated symptoms. Symptomatic pars lesions appear to be particularly a clinical problem in adolescents, especially adolescent athletes. The optimal diagnostic and treatment algorithms are not well identified in the current literature. Multiple imaging studies may have a role in the diagnosis of a pars lesion, and treatment seems likely to require at least relative rest and physical rehabilitation with consideration of bracing or, rarely, surgical intervention depending on the clinical context. Key Words: spondylolysis; spondylolisthesis; spine; back; neural arch; pars interarticularis PMID:11131228

  16. Problem Posing

    OpenAIRE

    Šilhavá, Marie

    2009-01-01

    This diploma thesis concentrates on problem posing from the students' point of view. Problem posing can be either seen as a teaching method which can be used in the class, or it can be used as a tool for researchers or teachers to assess the level of students' understanding of the topic. In my research, I compare three classes, one mathematics specialist class and two generalist classes, in their ability of problem posing. As an assessment tool it seemed that mathemathics specialists were abl...

  17. Distributed Problem-Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemi, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    This chapter aims to deconstruct some persistent myths about creativity: the myth of individualism and of the genius. By looking at literature that approaches creativity as a participatory and distributed phenomenon and by bringing empirical evidence from artists’ studios, the author presents a p......, what can educators at higher education learn from the ways creative groups solve problems? How can artists contribute to inspiring higher education?......This chapter aims to deconstruct some persistent myths about creativity: the myth of individualism and of the genius. By looking at literature that approaches creativity as a participatory and distributed phenomenon and by bringing empirical evidence from artists’ studios, the author presents...... a perspective that is relevant to higher education. The focus here is on how artists solve problems in distributed paths, and on the elements of creative collaboration. Creative problem-solving will be looked at as an ongoing dialogue that artists engage with themselves, with others, with recipients...

  18. Relevance in the science classroom: A multidimensional analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, Matthew F.

    While perceived relevance is considered a fundamental component of adaptive learning, the experience of relevance and its conceptual definition have not been well described. The mixed-methods research presented in this dissertation aimed to clarify the conceptual meaning of relevance by focusing on its phenomenological experience from the students' perspective. Following a critical literature review, I propose an identity-based model of perceived relevance that includes three components: a contextual target, an identity target, and a connection type, or lens. An empirical investigation of this model that consisted of two general phases was implemented in four 9th grade-biology classrooms. Participants in Phase 1 (N = 118) completed a series of four open-ended writing activities focused on eliciting perceived personal connections to academic content. Exploratory qualitative content analysis of a 25% random sample of the student responses was used to identify the main meaning-units of the proposed model as well as different dimensions of student relevance perceptions. These meaning-units and dimensions provided the basis for the construction of a conceptual mapping sentence capturing students' perceived relevance, which was then applied in a confirmatory analysis to all other student responses. Participants in Phase 2 (N = 139) completed a closed survey designed based on the mapping sentence to assess their perceived relevance of a biology unit. The survey also included scales assessing other domain-level motivational processes. Exploratory factor analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling indicated a coherent conceptual structure, which included a primary interpretive relevance dimension. Comparison of the conceptual structure across various groups (randomly-split sample, gender, academic level, domain-general motivational profiles) provided support for its ubiquity and insight into variation in the experience of perceived relevance among students of different

  19. INQUIRY –BASED LEARNING FOR ENHANCING CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS: INDONESIAN STUDENTS‘ PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hersulastuti Hersulastuti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper was mainly intended to shed light on students‘ response towards the implementation of Inquiry-Based Learning (IBL in Reading and Writing subject, and explore its benefits for enhancing critical thinking skills from students‘perspectives in ELT context. This research was conducted through a qualitative case study approach. Three students of graduate program were purposively selected to be the participants. Data were gathered primarily from observation notes and interviews, and then further analyzed using interractive model analysis as proposed by Miles & Huberman (1994. The findings demonstrate that students have good responses towards the implementation of IBL. Moreover, IBL is beneficial to make students become more self-directed, selfdisciplined, self-monitored thinkers. Through IBL, students develop their critical thinking abilities: 1 raise vital questions and problems; 2 gather and assess relevant information; 3 drawing well-reasoned conclusions; and 4 communicate effectively with others to seek solution to complex problems.

  20. Sleep Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Sleep Problems Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... 101 KB) En Español Medicines to Help You Sleep Tips for Better Sleep Basic Facts about Sleep ...

  1. Mouth Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as sores, are very common. Follow this chart for more information about mouth problems in adults. ... cancers. See your dentist if sharp or rough teeth or dental work are causing irritation. Start OverDiagnosisThis ...

  2. Kidney Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Kidney Problems Basic Facts & Information The kidneys are two ... kidney (renal) diseases are called nephrologists . What are Kidney Diseases? For about one-third of older people, ...

  3. Development of reflexive critical thinking through the teaching of history in Benguela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Âurea Augusto Luís Wafunga

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Critical and reflective thinking is a necessary characteristic of the teacher in the present context. Based on observation and experience as teachers at the Institute of Education Sciences of Benguela, University of Katyavala Buíla, we see that the teaching of history in the Degree in Teaching History contributes little to the development of critical and reflective thinking. This is a very relevant aspect if we consider the need to train good critical and reflective teachers who are able to promote critical thinking in their students in a way that questions the different social contexts. The study presented here consisted in analyzing critical-reflexive thinking through the teaching of history. Non-participant observation and a questionnaire were used for this purpose. The information gathered showed that the respondents point to a low contribution of the teaching of history to the development of critical and reflective thinking. In this way, new methodological strategies need to be adapted in order to promote skills such as: analysis, criticism, reflection, reasoning and understanding of problems in a historical setting.

  4. Other relevant papers in physical oceanography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyffeler, F.

    1989-01-01

    During the past few years, significant progress has occurred in the field of physical oceanography partly as a consequence of developing cooperation and international participation in well-coordinated ocean research programmes. Although these programs were not designed specifically to address CRESP problems, many have proved to be directly relevant to CRESP objectives. For example, MODE, POLYMODE, and Tourbillon were intensive site-specific experiments that included studies of dispersion processes throughout the water column. NOAMP and GME were also site specific, involved the entire water column, and even stressed near-bottom and suspended-sediment processes. Others, (e.g., WOCE) are larger in scope and include extensive observations of the general circulation of entire ocean basins. As a whole, they contribute immensely to improving the data base for exchange and transport processes and thereby for the verification and validation of both regional-scale and general-circulation ocean models. That, in turn, is directly relevant to radiological assessments. Selected papers deriving from experiments such as these are discussed and referenced below

  5. [Terbinafine : Relevant drug interactions and their management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürrbeck, A; Nenoff, P

    2016-09-01

    The allylamine terbinafine is the probably most frequently prescribed systemic antifungal agent in Germany for the treatment of dermatomycoses and onychomycoses. According to the German drug law, terbinafine is approved for patients who are 18 years and older; however, this antifungal agent is increasingly used off-label for treatment of onychomycoses and tinea capitis in children. Terbinafine is associated with only a few interactions with other drugs, which is why terbinafine can generally be used without problems in older and multimorbid patients. Nevertheless, some potential interactions of terbinafine with certain drug substances are known, including substances of the group of antidepressants/antipsychotics and some cardiovascular drugs. Decisive for the relevance of interactions is-along with the therapeutic index of the substrate and the possible alternative degradation pathways-the genetically determined type of metabolism. When combining terbinafine with tricyclic antidepressants or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin/noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors, the clinical response and potential side effects must be monitored. Problematic is the use of terbinafine with simultaneous treatment with tamoxifen. The administration of potent CYP2D6 inhibitors leads to a diminished efficacy of tamoxifen because one of its most important active metabolites-endoxifen-is not sufficiently available. Therefore, combination of tamoxifen and terbinafine should be avoided. In conclusion, the number of substances which are able to cause clinically relevant interactions in case of simultaneously administration with terbinafine is clear and should be manageable in the dermatological office with adequate monitoring.

  6. Determination of critical density of charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vila, F.

    1992-11-01

    In this work is given a full theoretically treatment of the problem how to determine the critical density of charge on nonconductive rectangular charged surfaces placed near a small spherical conductive and earthed surface. (author). 11 refs, 2 figs

  7. Metacognition: Student Reflections on Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wismath, Shelly; Orr, Doug; Good, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-first century teaching and learning focus on the fundamental skills of critical thinking and problem solving, creativity and innovation, and collaboration and communication. Metacognition is a crucial aspect of both problem solving and critical thinking, but it is often difficult to get students to engage in authentic metacognitive…

  8. Wicked Problems in Special and Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, David

    2017-01-01

    This special paper provides a critical overview of wicked problems in special and inclusive education. Practically, this paper provides a strategic framework for future special issues in the "Journal of Special Educational Needs". Critical attention is also given to the concept of a wicked problem when applied to research in special and…

  9. Students' perceptions of the relevance of mathematics in engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegg, Jennifer; Mallet, Dann; Lupton, Mandy

    2012-09-01

    In this article, we report on the findings of an exploratory study into the experience of students as they learn first year engineering mathematics. Here we define engineering as the application of mathematics and sciences to the building and design of projects for the use of society [M. Kirschenman and B. Brenner, Education for Civil Engineering: A Profession of Practice, Leader. Manag. Eng. 10 (2010), p. 54]. Qualitative and quantitative data on students' views of the relevance of their mathematics study to their engineering studies and future careers in engineering was collected. The students described using a range of mathematics techniques (mathematics skills developed, mathematics concepts applied to engineering and skills developed relevant for engineering) for various usages (as a subject of study, a tool for other subjects or a tool for real world problems). We found a number of themes relating to the design of engineering mathematics curriculum emerged from the data. These included the relevance of mathematics within different engineering majors, the relevance of mathematics to future studies, the relevance of learning mathematical rigour and the effectiveness of problem-solving tasks in conveying the relevance of mathematics more effectively than other forms of assessment. We make recommendations for the design of engineering mathematics curriculum based on our findings.

  10. The Role of Critical Thinking in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Luis Fernando

    2017-01-01

    This review aims to respond various questions regarding the role of Critical Thinking in Science Education from aspects concerning the importance or relevance of critical thinking in science education, the situation in the classroom and curriculum, and the conception of critical thinking and fostering in science education. This review is specially…

  11. Microdosing: Concept, application and relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Tewari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of microdose pharmacokinetic studies as an essential tool in drug development is still to catch on. While this approach promises potential cost savings and a quantum leap in efficiencies of the drug development process, major hurdles still need to be overcome before the technique becomes commonplace and part of routine practice. Clear regulations in Europe and the USA have had an enabling effect. The lack of enabling provisions for microdosing studies in Indian regulation, despite low risk and manifest relevance for the local drug development industry, is inconsistent with the country′s aspirations to be among the leaders in pharmaceutical research.

  12. Reconciling the Rigor-Relevance Dilemma in Intellectual Capital Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriessen, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    This paper raises the issue of research methodology for intellectual capital and other types of management research by focusing on the dilemma of rigour versus relevance. The more traditional explanatory approach to research often leads to rigorous results that are not of much help to solve practical problems. This paper describes an alternative…

  13. Learning tag relevance by neighbor voting for social image retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Snoek, C.G.M.; Worring, M.

    2008-01-01

    Social image retrieval is important for exploiting the increasing amounts of amateur-tagged multimedia such as Flickr images. Since amateur tagging is known to be uncontrolled, ambiguous, and personalized, a fundamental problem is how to reliably interpret the relevance of a tag with respect to the

  14. Biometrics in the Medical School Curriculum: Making the Necessary Relevant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, James R.

    1980-01-01

    Because a student is more likely to learn and retain course content perceived as relevant, an attempt was made to change medical students' perceptions of a biometrics course by introducing statistical methods as a means of solving problems in the interpretation of clinical lab data. Retrospective analysis of student course evaluations indicates a…

  15. Two aspects of relevance in structured argumentation: minimality and paraconsistency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grooters, Diana; Prakken, H.

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies two issues concerning relevance in structured argumentation in the context of the ASPIC+ framework, arising from the combined use of strict and defeasible inference rules. One issue arises if the strict inference rules correspond to classical logic. A longstanding problem is how

  16. Super critical water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumaz, P.; Antoni, O; Arnoux, P.; Bergeron, A; Renault, C.; Rimpault, G.

    2005-01-01

    Water is used as a calori-porter and moderator in the most major nuclear centers which are actually in function. In the pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR), water is maintained under critical point of water (21 bar, 374 Centigrade) which limits the efficiency of thermodynamic cycle of energy conversion (yield gain of about 33%) Crossing the critical point, one can then use s upercritical water , the obtained pressure and temperature allow a significant yield gains. In addition, the supercritical water offers important properties. Particularly there is no more possible coexistence between vapor and liquid. Therefore, we don't have more boiling problem, one of the phenomena which limits the specific power of PWR and BWR. Since 1950s, the reactor of supercritical water was the subject of studies more or less detailed but neglected. From the early 1990s, this type of conception benefits of some additional interests. Therefore, in the international term G eneration IV , the supercritical water reactors had been considered as one of the big options for study as Generation IV reactors. In the CEA, an active city has engaged from 1930 with the participation to a European program: The HPWR (High Performance Light Water Reactor). In this contest, the R and D studies are focused on the fields of neutrons, thermodynamic and materials. The CEA intends to pursue a limited effort of R and D in this field, in the framework of international cooperation, preferring the study of versions of rapid spectrum. (author)

  17. An investigation into preparation of silver sheathed superconducting wires with a high critical temperature; Etude des problemes poses par l'elaboration de fils supraconducteurs gaines argent a haute temperature critique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaffron, Laurent

    1992-04-03

    We have shown that the critical current density of YBaCuO superconducting wires prepared using 'powder in tube' method is limited by the following principal factors: - cracks and porosity arising from the shrinkage of the powder during sintering, - irregularities in the wire section, - presence of secondary phases in the phase diagram of the three oxides, - incomplete re-oxidation at the centre of the wire, - insufficient, or complete lack of, texture in the wire, - presence of amorphous, non superconducting phase across the grains that blocks grain boundary migration. We have reduced the deleterious effects due to the first four factors by modifying prior nature of the powder, by reinforcing the sheath and by modifying the thermal treatments. We also used creep sintering to produce a strong texture; however, our study shows that texture, though necessary, is not a sufficient condition for a high current. This is because the latter is limited by the presence of the amorphous phase at too many grain boundaries. Finally, we have obtained wires in which grain boundaries are clean and which have very high critical currents by melting the wire in a thermal gradient and by passing it through the gradient very slowly. Such a technique, however, is too slow for producing superconductors. (author) [French] Nous avons montre que les principales causes qui limitent l'intensite que peuvent transporter les fils supraconducteurs d'YBaCuO elabores selon la technique dite de la poudre dans le tube sont: - la fissuration et la porosite engendrees par le retrait de la poudre lors du frittage, - l'irregularite de la section de la ceramique, - la presence des phases secondaires du diagramme d'equilibre des oxydes d'yttrium, de baryum et de cuivre, - la difficulte de reoxygener a coeur la ceramique, - la faiblesse voire l'absence de texturation, - la presence de phase amorphe non supraconductrice traversant les grains ou bloquant la migration de leurs joints. En jouant sur le

  18. Contribution of Emotional Intelligence towards Graduate Students' Critical Thinking Disposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Fong-Luan

    2015-01-01

    Good critical thinkers possess a core set of cognitive thinking skills, and a disposition towards critical thinking. They are able to think critically to solve complex, real-world problems effectively. Although personal emotion is important in critical thinking, it is often a neglected issue. The emotional intelligence in this study concerns our…

  19. Criticality safety studies at VTT Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roine, T.; Anttila, M.

    1995-01-01

    At VTT Energy a compact reactor physics calculation system is applied in many kind of problems. Generation of group constants for static and dynamic core calculations, flux and dose rate calculations as well as criticality safety studies are performed basically with the same codes. In the presentation a short overview of the wide variety of criticality safety problems analyzed at VTT Energy is given. The calculation system with some illustrative examples is also described. (12 refs., 1 tab.)

  20. Teaching Problem Solving without Modeling through "Thinking Aloud Pair Problem Solving."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestel, Beverly C.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews research relevant to the problem of unsatisfactory student problem-solving abilities and suggests a teaching strategy that addresses the issue. Author explains how she uses teaching aloud problem solving (TAPS) in college chemistry and presents evaluation data. Among the findings are that the TAPS class got fewer problems completely right,…

  1. After the year 2000: Critical infrastructure protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, M.

    1999-01-01

    Presentation defines the critical infrastructure which includes: telecommunication, banking, transportation, electric energy, oil and gas supply, water supply, emergency services and government operations. The problem of protecting the critical infrastructure is is exposed in detail concerning physical protection and protection of information systems against cyberthreats

  2. Fostering Critical Thinking in Physical Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodewyk, Ken R.

    2009-01-01

    Critical thinking is essentially "better thinking." When students think critically they consider complex information from numerous sources and perspectives in order to make a reasonable judgment that they can justify. It has been associated with academic qualities such as decision-making, creativity, reasoning, problem-solving, debating,…

  3. Facilitating critical thinking within the nursing process framework: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Facilitating critical thinking within the nursing process framework: A literature review. ... Journal Home > Vol 12, No 4 (2007) > ... critical clinical decisions and also make astute clinical judgment that are logical to solve health related problems.

  4. Transport of Fluorescently Labeled Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles in Saturated Granular Media at Environmentally Relevant Concentrations of Surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about the mobility of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in granular media at environmentally relevant concentration of surfactant, which represents a critical knowledge gap in employing ENPs for in-situ remediation of contaminated groundwater. In this study, transpo...

  5. Calculus problems

    CERN Document Server

    Baronti, Marco; van der Putten, Robertus; Venturi, Irene

    2016-01-01

    This book, intended as a practical working guide for students in Engineering, Mathematics, Physics, or any other field where rigorous calculus is needed, includes 450 exercises. Each chapter starts with a summary of the main definitions and results, which is followed by a selection of solved exercises accompanied by brief, illustrative comments. A selection of problems with indicated solutions rounds out each chapter. A final chapter explores problems that are not designed with a single issue in mind but instead call for the combination of a variety of techniques, rounding out the book’s coverage. Though the book’s primary focus is on functions of one real variable, basic ordinary differential equations (separation of variables, linear first order and constant coefficients ODEs) are also discussed. The material is taken from actual written tests that have been delivered at the Engineering School of the University of Genoa. Literally thousands of students have worked on these problems, ensuring their real-...

  6. Rethinking regulations for disposal criticality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, M.; Doering, T.

    1997-01-01

    This paper provides the basis for the position that the current U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) criticality regulation is in need of revision to address problems in implementing it for the postclosure period in a geologic high-level waste repository. The authors believe that the applicant for such a facility should be able to demonstrate that postulated postclosure criticality events will not cause unacceptable risk of deleterious effects on public health and safety. In addition, the applicant should be expected to take practical and feasible measures to reduce the probability of a criticality occurring, even if (as expected) the consequences of such a criticality for repository performance and public health and safety would be negligible. This approach, while recognizing the probabilistic nature of analyses of events and conditions in the distant future, is also arguably consistent with the defense in depth concept that has been successfully applied to nuclear reactor regulation. The authors believe regulations for postclosure criticality control should support this dual approach, rather than require a deterministic prohibition of criticality as does the current rule. The existing rule seems appropriate for the preclosure period, as long as it is clearly specified to apply only to that period

  7. Nuclear criticality safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruvost, N.L.; Paxton, H.C.

    1996-09-01

    This technical reference document cites information related to nuclear criticality safety principles, experience, and practice. The document also provides general guidance for criticality safety personnel and regulators

  8. Nuclear criticality safety guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruvost, N.L.; Paxton, H.C. [eds.

    1996-09-01

    This technical reference document cites information related to nuclear criticality safety principles, experience, and practice. The document also provides general guidance for criticality safety personnel and regulators.

  9. Year in review 2010: Critical Care - infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagani, Leonardo; Afshari, Arash; Harbarth, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    established approaches to the optimal management of infections in the intensive care unit. Rapid infection diagnosis, antibiotic dosing and optimization through pharmacologic indices, progress in the implementation of effective antimicrobial stewardship and infection control programs, and management of fungal...... infections are some of the most relevant issues in this special patient population. During the last 18 months, Critical Care and other journals have provided a wide array of descriptive and interventional clinical studies and scientific reports helping clinical investigators and critical care physicians...

  10. Other relevant numerical modelling papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chartier, M.

    1989-01-01

    The ocean modelling is a rapidly evolving science and a large number of results have been published. Several categories of papers are of particular interest for this review: the papers published by the international atomic institutions, such as the NEA (for the CRESP or Subseabed Programs), the IAEA (for example the Safety Series, the Technical Report Series or the TECDOC), and the ICRP, and the papers concerned by more fundamental research, which are published in specific scientific literature. This paper aims to list some of the most relevant publications for the CRESP purposes. It means by no way to be exhaustive, but informative on the incontestable progress recently achieved in that field. One should note that some of these papers are so recent that their final version has not yet been published

  11. Industrial relevance of thermophilic Archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, Ksenia; Antranikian, Garabed

    2005-12-01

    The dramatic increase of newly isolated extremophilic microorganisms, analysis of their genomes and investigations of their enzymes by academic and industrial laboratories demonstrate the great potential of extremophiles in industrial (white) biotechnology. Enzymes derived from extremophiles (extremozymes) are superior to the traditional catalysts because they can perform industrial processes even under harsh conditions, under which conventional proteins are completely denatured. In particular, enzymes from thermophilic and hyperthermophilic Archaea have industrial relevance. Despite intensive investigations, our knowledge of the structure-function relationships of their enzymes is still limited. Information concerning the molecular properties of their enzymes and genes has to be obtained to be able to understand the mechanisms that are responsible for catalytic activity and stability at the boiling point of water.

  12. The Relevance of Hegel's Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W Burbidge

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Hegel defines his Logic as the science that thinks about thinking.nbsp; But when we interpret that work as outlining what happens when we reason we are vulnerable to Fregersquo;s charge of psychologism.nbsp; I use Hegelrsquo;s tripartite distinction among understanding, dialectical and speculative reason as operations of pure thought to suggest how thinking can work with objective concepts.nbsp; In the last analysis, however, our ability to move from the subjective contingency of representations and ideas to the pure concepts we think develops from mechanical memory, which separates sign from sense so hat we can focus simply on the latter.nbsp; By becoming aware of the connections that underlie our thinking processes we may be able to both move beyond the abstractions of symbolic logic and clarify what informal logicians call relevance.

  13. Sociological interpretation of social problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Katsora

    2015-04-01

    The article considers such sociological approaches to social problems as social pathology, social disorganization, functional and critical approaches, the approach of value conflict, constructionsite approach and the approach of «labelling». Each approach has its own peculiarities of consideration of social problems, that is related with the historical period in which it arose and settled down, and the views of members of a particular sociological approach to social problems. Also, the article discusses the main advantages and disadvantages of sociological approaches to dealing the social problems.

  14. Problem solving through recreational mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Averbach, Bonnie

    1999-01-01

    Historically, many of the most important mathematical concepts arose from problems that were recreational in origin. This book takes advantage of that fact, using recreational mathematics - problems, puzzles and games - to teach students how to think critically. Encouraging active participation rather than just observation, the book focuses less on mathematical results than on how these results can be applied to thinking about problems and solving them. Each chapter contains a diverse array of problems in such areas as logic, number and graph theory, two-player games of strategy, solitaire ga

  15. Mexico's critical choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcos, E.

    1990-01-01

    In Mexico, the 1982 fall in international oil prices shook the national conscience and pushed the Mexican people in search of a new national image and toward the choices they must make to attain that image. But, according to the author of this paper, the country as a whole has already made critical choices for overall strategy and there are reasons for optimism. In the current economic environment of growing domestic demand and enhanced international competitiveness, the author sees PEMEX (the Mexican national oil company) facing not only the challenge of responding to the rapid changes taking place in the Mexican economy, but also making a significant contribution toward the solid and stable growth of the country. The relevant question is how PEMEX will live up to these expectations. This paper describes several steps PEMEX has taken already or is preparing to take in order to meet this challenge, including: investment in the domestic petrochemical industry; entry into the Eurobond market; development of new methods of project financing

  16. Bernoulli Variational Problem and Beyond

    KAUST Repository

    Lorz, Alexander

    2013-12-17

    The question of \\'cutting the tail\\' of the solution of an elliptic equation arises naturally in several contexts and leads to a singular perturbation problem under the form of a strong cut-off. We consider both the PDE with a drift and the symmetric case where a variational problem can be stated. It is known that, in both cases, the same critical scale arises for the size of the singular perturbation. More interesting is that in both cases another critical parameter (of order one) arises that decides when the limiting behaviour is non-degenerate. We study both theoretically and numerically the values of this critical parameter and, in the symmetric case, ask if the variational solution leads to the same value as for the maximal solution of the PDE. Finally we propose a weak formulation of the limiting Bernoulli problem which incorporates both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary condition. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  17. Grasshopper Population Ecology: Catastrophe, Criticality, and Critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale R. Lockwood

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Grasshopper population dynamics are an important part of the North American rangeland ecosystem and an important factor in the economies that derive from the rangeland. Outbreak dynamics have plagued management strategies in the rangeland, and attempts to find simple, linear and mechanistic solutions to both understanding and predicting the dynamics have proved fruitless. These efforts to ground theory in a correspondence with the "real" world, including whether the population dynamics are ultimately density dependent or density independent, have generated abundant heat but little light. We suggest that a pragmatic approach, in which theories are taken to be "tools" rather than competing claims of truth, has greater promise to move ecological research in a constructive direction. Two recent non-linear approaches exploiting the tools of complexity science provide insights relevant to explaining and forecasting population dynamics. Observation and data collection were used to structure models derived from catastrophe theory and self-organized criticality. These models indicate that nonlinear processes are important in the dynamics of the outbreaks. And the conceptual structures of these approaches provide clear, albeit constrained or contingent, implications for pest managers. We show that, although these two frameworks, catastrophe theory and self-organized criticality, are very different, the frequency distributions of time series from both systems result in power law relationships. Further, we show that a simple lattice-based model, similar to SOC but structured on the biology of the grasshoppers gives a spatial time series similar to data over a 50-year span and the frequency distribution is also a power law relationship. This demonstration exemplifies how a "both-and" rather than an "either-or" approach to ecological modeling, in which the useful elements of particular theories or conceptual structures are extracted, may provide a way forward

  18. Thyroid Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Thyroid Problems Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Basic ... enough thyroid hormone, usually of the thyroxine (T4) type of hormone. Your T4 levels can drop temporarily ...

  19. Balance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fully trust your sense of balance. Loss of balance also raises the risk of falls. This is a serious and even life-threatening ... 65. Balance disorders are serious because of the risk of falls. But occasionally balance problems may warn of another health condition, such ...

  20. Financial Indicators of Performance Measurement: Reality, Relevance and Distortion

    OpenAIRE

    Flavius-Andrei Guinea

    2016-01-01

    The main criticism brought to managers and to managerial accounting systems was the lack of emphasis on the return of the use of invested capital and the excessive focus on the efficiency of production processes. This fact forced the transition to a new view on the way of establishing the strategic objectives measured by financial indicators. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate, through case studies, the relevance and possibilities of manipulation of a series of indicators used for assess...

  1. When a Problem Is More than a Teacher's Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Jo Clay; Knott, Libby

    2013-01-01

    Not only are the problems teachers pose throughout their teaching of great importance but also the ways in which they use those problems make this a critical component of teaching. A problem-posing episode includes the problem setup, the statement of the problem, and the follow-up questions. Analysis of problem-posing episodes of precalculus…

  2. Autonomia e relevância dos regimes The autonomy and relevance of regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Seignemartin de Carvalho

    2005-12-01

    of norms and rules that create patterns of behavior and allow the convergence of the expectations of their participants in specific issue areas, in order to solve coordination problems that could lead to non-pareto-efficient outcomes. Considering that such definitions based merely on the "efficiency" of regimes do not seem to be sufficient to explain their effectiveness, the present article proposes a different definition for regimes: political arrangements that allow a redistribution of the gains of cooperation among the participants in certain issue areas, within an interdependence context. Regimes would thus be effective due to their autonomy and relevance - that is, due to their objective existence autonomously from their participants and their influence on the participants' behavior and expectations in ways that cannot be reduced to the individual action of any of them. This article begins with a brief discussion about terminological problems related to regime studies and with a definition of the concepts of autonomy and relevance. Then it classifies the authors that take part in this debate according to two distinct perspectives, one that denies (non-autonomists and the other that attributes (autonomists autonomy and relevance to regimes, briefly analyzing the authors and traditions that are more significant for this debate, focusing on autonomist authors and on arguments that back the hypothesis here presented. Finally, the article proposes an analytic decomposition of regimes into four main elements that give them autonomy and relevance: normativity, actors, specificity of the issue area and complex interdependence as context.

  3. Critical analysis of the cranking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamamoto, Ikuko

    1985-01-01

    Problems, success and shortcomings of the cranking model are discussed by choosing the following four critical topics: 1) the interaction between the ground- and the S-band, 2) vanishing M1 transition moments, 3) the relation between the signature-dependence of the ΔI=1 E2 transition rates in odd-A nuclei and the deviation of nuclear shape from axial symmetry, and 4) the quantum effect on rotational motion, especially on moments of inertia for triaxial shape. (orig.)

  4. Critical complexity in environmental health practice: simplify and complexify

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keune Hans

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The magic word ‘complexity’ has been buzzing around in science, policy and society for quite some time now. There seems to be a common feel for a ‘new way’ of doing things, for overcoming the limits of tradition. From the combined perspective of critical complexity thinking and environment and health practice we want to contribute to the development of alternative routines that may help overcome the limitations of traditional environment and health science. On the one hand traditional environment and health science is too self-confident with respect to potential scientific insight in environment and health problems: complexity condemns us to limited and ambiguous knowledge and the need for simplification. A more modest attitude would be more realistic from that point of view. On the other hand from a problem solving perspective more boldness is required. Waiting for Godot (perfect undisputed knowledge will not help us with respect to the challenges posed to society by environment and health problems. A sense of urgency is legitimate: the paralysis by traditional analysis should be resolved. Nevertheless this sense of urgency should not withhold us from investing in the problem solving quality of our endeavour; quality takes time, fastness from a quality perspective often leads us to a standstill. We propose the concept of critical complexification of environment and health practice that will enable the integration of relevant actors and factors in a pragmatic manner. We will illustrate this with practical examples and especially draw attention to the practical complexities involved, confronting us not only with fundamental questions, but also with fundamental challenges.

  5. Human error theory: relevance to nurse management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Gerry

    2009-03-01

    Describe, discuss and critically appraise human error theory and consider its relevance for nurse managers. Healthcare errors are a persistent threat to patient safety. Effective risk management and clinical governance depends on understanding the nature of error. This paper draws upon a wide literature from published works, largely from the field of cognitive psychology and human factors. Although the content of this paper is pertinent to any healthcare professional; it is written primarily for nurse managers. Error is inevitable. Causation is often attributed to individuals, yet causation in complex environments such as healthcare is predominantly multi-factorial. Individual performance is affected by the tendency to develop prepacked solutions and attention deficits, which can in turn be related to local conditions and systems or latent failures. Blame is often inappropriate. Defences should be constructed in the light of these considerations and to promote error wisdom and organizational resilience. Managing and learning from error is seen as a priority in the British National Health Service (NHS), this can be better achieved with an understanding of the roots, nature and consequences of error. Such an understanding can provide a helpful framework for a range of risk management activities.

  6. The identification of critical groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, G.J.; Shepherd, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    The criteria for critical group identification are summarized and the extent to which they are satisfied by possible numerical methods are examined, drawing on UK experience in dose estimation within a system for setting controls on liquid radioactive waste discharges from major nuclear installations. The nature of the exposure pathway is an important factor in identifying an appropriate method. It is held that there is a greater uncertainty in estimating individual exposure from internal exposure than that from external exposure due to the greater relevance of metabolic variations. Accordingly different methods are proposed for numerical treatment of data associated with internal exposure pathways compared with external exposure pathways. (H.K.)

  7. Fusion reactor problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carruthers, R.

    It is pointed out that plasma parameters for a fusion reactor have been fairly accurately defined for many years, and the real plasma physics objective must be to find the means of achieving and maintaining these specifiable parameters. There is good understanding of the generic technological problems: breading blankets and shields, radiation damage, heat transfer and methods of magnet design. The required plasma parameters for fusion self-heated reactors are established at ntausub(E) approximately 2.10 14 cm -3 sec, plasma radius 1.5 to 3 m, wall loading 5 to 10 MW cm -2 , temperature 15 keV. Within this model plasma control by quasi-steady burn as a key problem is studied. It is emphasized that the future programme must interact more closely with engineering studies and should concentrate upon research which is relevant to reactor plasmas. (V.P.)

  8. Prediction, Regression and Critical Realism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers the possibility of prediction in land use planning, and the use of statistical research methods in analyses of relationships between urban form and travel behaviour. Influential writers within the tradition of critical realism reject the possibility of predicting social...... phenomena. This position is fundamentally problematic to public planning. Without at least some ability to predict the likely consequences of different proposals, the justification for public sector intervention into market mechanisms will be frail. Statistical methods like regression analyses are commonly...... seen as necessary in order to identify aggregate level effects of policy measures, but are questioned by many advocates of critical realist ontology. Using research into the relationship between urban structure and travel as an example, the paper discusses relevant research methods and the kinds...

  9. The Relevance of Nuclear Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisskopf, V.F.

    1969-01-01

    I am asked what nuclear physics is about, that is, nuclear physics as distinct from particle physics and other parts of physics. I see three trends in this science. One is the discovery of new phenomena, phenomena of nature which we have not seen or observed, of which we did not know anything before. The second trend, I would say, is towards the solution of fundamental problems, the answers to certain basic questions in physics; I shall give some details later on. The third is the construction of new concepts in physics necessary to deal with the problems not only in nuclear physics but also in the rest of physics. The order of these three items is unimportant. This meeting should be concerned not only with the factual questions of science, but also with the, let me say, philosophic and practical questions of nuclear physics. Why do we do nuclear physics, what is the sense of it, what is the meaning of it and, most importantly, how can we defend the support of nuclear physics, how can we convince the governments to spend money on such a thing, which to a certain extent is our pleasure? And so we will have to be quite clear among ourselves that this is a very important matter

  10. Droplet squeezing through a narrow constriction: Minimum impulse and critical velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhifeng; Drapaca, Corina; Chen, Xiaolin; Xu, Jie

    2017-07-01

    Models of a droplet passing through narrow constrictions have wide applications in science and engineering. In this paper, we report our findings on the minimum impulse (momentum change) of pushing a droplet through a narrow circular constriction. The existence of this minimum impulse is mathematically derived and numerically verified. The minimum impulse happens at a critical velocity when the time-averaged Young-Laplace pressure balances the total minor pressure loss in the constriction. Finally, numerical simulations are conducted to verify these concepts. These results could be relevant to problems of energy optimization and studies of chemical and biomedical systems.

  11. From dissecting ignorance to solving algebraic problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayyub, Bilal M.

    2004-01-01

    Engineers and scientists are increasingly required to design, test, and validate new complex systems in simulation environments and/or with limited experimental results due to international and/or budgetary restrictions. Dealing with complex systems requires assessing knowledge and information by critically evaluating them in terms relevance, completeness, non-distortion, coherence, and other key measures. Using the concepts and definitions from evolutionary knowledge and epistemology, ignorance is examined and classified in the paper. Two ignorance states for a knowledge agent are identified: (1) non-reflective (or blind) state, i.e. the person does not know of self-ignorance, a case of ignorance of ignorance; and (2) reflective state, i.e. the person knows and recognizes self-ignorance. Ignorance can be viewed to have a hierarchal classification based on its sources and nature as provided in the paper. The paper also explores limits on knowledge construction, closed and open world assumptions, and fundamentals of evidential reasoning using belief revision and diagnostics within the framework of ignorance analysis for knowledge construction. The paper also examines an algebraic problem set as identified by Sandia National Laboratories to be a basic building block for uncertainty propagation in computational mechanics. Solution algorithms are provided for the problem set for various assumptions about the state of knowledge about its parameters

  12. Problem-solving in a Constructivist Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Chien Sing

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic challenges of an increasingly borderless world buoyed by advances in telecommunications and information technology has resulted in educational reform and subsequently, a reconceptualisation of what constitutes a learner, learning and the influence of the learning environment on the process of learning. In keeping up with the changing trends and challenges of an increasingly networked, dynamic and challenging international community, means to provide an alternative environment that stimulates inquiry and equips learners with the skills needed to manage technological change and innovations must be considered. This paper discusses the importance of interaction, cognition and context, collaboration in a networked computer-mediated environment, the problem-solving approach as a catalyst in stimulating creative and critical thinking and in providing context for meaningful interaction and whether the interactive environment created through computer-mediated collaboration will motivate learners to be responsible for their own learning and be independent thinkers. The sample involved learners from three schools in three different countries. Findings conclude that a rich interactive environment must be personally relevant to the learner by simulating authentic problems without lowering the degree of cognitive complexity. Review in curriculum, assessment and teacher training around constructivist principles are also imperative as these interrelated factors form part of the learning process system.

  13. From dissecting ignorance to solving algebraic problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayyub, Bilal M

    2004-09-01

    Engineers and scientists are increasingly required to design, test, and validate new complex systems in simulation environments and/or with limited experimental results due to international and/or budgetary restrictions. Dealing with complex systems requires assessing knowledge and information by critically evaluating them in terms relevance, completeness, non-distortion, coherence, and other key measures. Using the concepts and definitions from evolutionary knowledge and epistemology, ignorance is examined and classified in the paper. Two ignorance states for a knowledge agent are identified: (1) non-reflective (or blind) state, i.e. the person does not know of self-ignorance, a case of ignorance of ignorance; and (2) reflective state, i.e. the person knows and recognizes self-ignorance. Ignorance can be viewed to have a hierarchal classification based on its sources and nature as provided in the paper. The paper also explores limits on knowledge construction, closed and open world assumptions, and fundamentals of evidential reasoning using belief revision and diagnostics within the framework of ignorance analysis for knowledge construction. The paper also examines an algebraic problem set as identified by Sandia National Laboratories to be a basic building block for uncertainty propagation in computational mechanics. Solution algorithms are provided for the problem set for various assumptions about the state of knowledge about its parameters.

  14. Monte Carlo method for array criticality calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, D.; Whitesides, G.E.

    1976-01-01

    The Monte Carlo method for solving neutron transport problems consists of mathematically tracing paths of individual neutrons collision by collision until they are lost by absorption or leakage. The fate of the neutron after each collision is determined by the probability distribution functions that are formed from the neutron cross-section data. These distributions are sampled statistically to establish the successive steps in the neutron's path. The resulting data, accumulated from following a large number of batches, are analyzed to give estimates of k/sub eff/ and other collision-related quantities. The use of electronic computers to produce the simulated neutron histories, initiated at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, made the use of the Monte Carlo method practical for many applications. In analog Monte Carlo simulation, the calculation follows the physical events of neutron scattering, absorption, and leakage. To increase calculational efficiency, modifications such as the use of statistical weights are introduced. The Monte Carlo method permits the use of a three-dimensional geometry description and a detailed cross-section representation. Some of the problems in using the method are the selection of the spatial distribution for the initial batch, the preparation of the geometry description for complex units, and the calculation of error estimates for region-dependent quantities such as fluxes. The Monte Carlo method is especially appropriate for criticality safety calculations since it permits an accurate representation of interacting units of fissile material. Dissimilar units, units of complex shape, moderators between units, and reflected arrays may be calculated. Monte Carlo results must be correlated with relevant experimental data, and caution must be used to ensure that a representative set of neutron histories is produced

  15. Complementarity problems

    CERN Document Server

    Isac, George

    1992-01-01

    The study of complementarity problems is now an interesting mathematical subject with many applications in optimization, game theory, stochastic optimal control, engineering, economics etc. This subject has deep relations with important domains of fundamental mathematics such as fixed point theory, ordered spaces, nonlinear analysis, topological degree, the study of variational inequalities and also with mathematical modeling and numerical analysis. Researchers and graduate students interested in mathematical modeling or nonlinear analysis will find here interesting and fascinating results.

  16. Toxaphene: a challenging analytical problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Geus, H.J.; Wester, P.G.; Schelvis, A.; de Boer, J.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of toxaphene, a highly complex mixture of chlorinated bornanes, bornenes and camphenes, is a challenging problem, especially as individual congeners are present at trace levels in biota and other relevant samples. The complicated nomenclature of the compounds of interest is briefly

  17. Agricultural problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickerton, George E.

    1997-01-01

    Although there were not reasons to deplore against major activity release from any of the 110 industrial reactors authorized to operate in US, the nuclear incident that occurred at the Three Mile Island Plant in 1979 urged the public conscience toward the necessity of readiness to cope with events of this type. The personnel of the Emergency Planning Office functioning in the frame of US Department of Agriculture has already participated in around 600 intervention drillings on a federal, local or state scale to plan, test or asses radiological emergency plans or to intervene locally. These exercises allowed acquiring a significant experience in elaborating emergency plans, planning the drillings, working out scenarios and evaluation of the potential impact of accidents from the agricultural point of view. We have also taken part in different international drillings among which the most recent are INEX 1 and RADEX 94. We have found on these occasions that the agricultural problems are essential preoccupations in most of the cases no matter if the context is international, national, local or of state level. The paper poses problems specifically related to milk, fruits and vegetables, soils, meat and meat products. Finally the paper discusses issues like drilling planning, alarm and notification, sampling strategy, access authorizations for farmers, removing of contamination wastes. A number of social, political and economical relating problems are also mentioned

  18. Relevance of equilibrium in multifragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Takuya; Ono, Akira

    2009-01-01

    The relevance of equilibrium in a multifragmentation reaction of very central 40 Ca + 40 Ca collisions at 35 MeV/nucleon is investigated by using simulations of antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD). Two types of ensembles are compared. One is the reaction ensemble of the states at each reaction time t in collision events simulated by AMD, and the other is the equilibrium ensemble prepared by solving the AMD equation of motion for a many-nucleon system confined in a container for a long time. The comparison of the ensembles is performed for the fragment charge distribution and the excitation energies. Our calculations show that there exists an equilibrium ensemble that well reproduces the reaction ensemble at each reaction time t for the investigated period 80≤t≤300 fm/c. However, there are some other observables that show discrepancies between the reaction and equilibrium ensembles. These may be interpreted as dynamical effects in the reaction. The usual static equilibrium at each instant is not realized since any equilibrium ensemble with the same volume as that of the reaction system cannot reproduce the fragment observables

  19. Educação instrumental e formação cidadã: observações críticas sobre a pertinência social da universidade Instrumental civic education and critical training: remarks on the university of social relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Goergen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O ensaio examina a relação entre universidade e sociedade desde a perspectiva dos conceitos de educação instrumental e educação cidadã. Argumenta que a pertinência social da universidade deve responder ao critério de justiça social e democracia que suas contribuições visam incrementar. Restrito ao aspecto do ensino, sob o recorte conceitual da educação instrumental e educação cidadã, o texto sugere que não cabe à universidade promover uma educação instrumental focada apenas na adaptação dos estudantes à realidade socioeconômica, mas também, formar cidadãos autônomos, críticos e reflexivos, socialmente competentes.The paper examines the relationship between university and society from an approach based on instrumental education and civic education. It is argued that the university's social pertinence must address the criteria that its contributions seek to foster, such as social justice and democracy. Restricted to the aspect of teaching, under the conceptual framework of instrumental education and citizen education, the text suggests that it is not up to the university to promote an instrumental education focused on student's adaptation to the social and economic reality, but to shape autonomous, critical and reflexive citizens who are socially competent.

  20. Bi-Directional Communication: A Critical Component of HAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Known problems with automation include lack of mode awareness, automation brittleness, and risk of miscalibrated trust. Human-Autonomy Teaming (HAT) is essential for improving these problems. This presentation outlines critical components for Human-Autonomy Teaming.