WorldWideScience

Sample records for relevant colour terms

  1. Does Colour Preference Have a Role in Colour Term Acquisition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchford, Nicola J.; Davis, Emma E.; Scerif, Gaia

    2009-01-01

    A developmental association exists between colour preference and emerging colour term acquisition in young children. Colour preference might influence colour term acquisition by directing attention towards or away from a particular colour, making it more or less memorable. To investigate the role that colour preference may have in the acquisition…

  2. Colour Terms Affect Detection of Colour and Colour-Associated Objects Suppressed from Visual Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forder, Lewis; Taylor, Olivia; Mankin, Helen; Scott, Ryan B.; Franklin, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The idea that language can affect how we see the world continues to create controversy. A potentially important study in this field has shown that when an object is suppressed from visual awareness using continuous flash suppression (a form of binocular rivalry), detection of the object is differently affected by a preceding word prime depending on whether the prime matches or does not match the object. This may suggest that language can affect early stages of vision. We replicated this paradigm and further investigated whether colour terms likewise influence the detection of colours or colour-associated object images suppressed from visual awareness by continuous flash suppression. This method presents rapidly changing visual noise to one eye while the target stimulus is presented to the other. It has been shown to delay conscious perception of a target for up to several minutes. In Experiment 1 we presented greyscale photos of objects. They were either preceded by a congruent object label, an incongruent label, or white noise. Detection sensitivity (d’) and hit rates were significantly poorer for suppressed objects preceded by an incongruent label compared to a congruent label or noise. In Experiment 2, targets were coloured discs preceded by a colour term. Detection sensitivity was significantly worse for suppressed colour patches preceded by an incongruent colour term as compared to a congruent term or white noise. In Experiment 3 targets were suppressed greyscale object images preceded by an auditory presentation of a colour term. On congruent trials the colour term matched the object’s stereotypical colour and on incongruent trials the colour term mismatched. Detection sensitivity was significantly poorer on incongruent trials than congruent trials. Overall, these findings suggest that colour terms affect awareness of coloured stimuli and colour- associated objects, and provide new evidence for language-perception interaction in the brain. PMID:27023274

  3. Colour Terms Affect Detection of Colour and Colour-Associated Objects Suppressed from Visual Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forder, Lewis; Taylor, Olivia; Mankin, Helen; Scott, Ryan B; Franklin, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The idea that language can affect how we see the world continues to create controversy. A potentially important study in this field has shown that when an object is suppressed from visual awareness using continuous flash suppression (a form of binocular rivalry), detection of the object is differently affected by a preceding word prime depending on whether the prime matches or does not match the object. This may suggest that language can affect early stages of vision. We replicated this paradigm and further investigated whether colour terms likewise influence the detection of colours or colour-associated object images suppressed from visual awareness by continuous flash suppression. This method presents rapidly changing visual noise to one eye while the target stimulus is presented to the other. It has been shown to delay conscious perception of a target for up to several minutes. In Experiment 1 we presented greyscale photos of objects. They were either preceded by a congruent object label, an incongruent label, or white noise. Detection sensitivity (d') and hit rates were significantly poorer for suppressed objects preceded by an incongruent label compared to a congruent label or noise. In Experiment 2, targets were coloured discs preceded by a colour term. Detection sensitivity was significantly worse for suppressed colour patches preceded by an incongruent colour term as compared to a congruent term or white noise. In Experiment 3 targets were suppressed greyscale object images preceded by an auditory presentation of a colour term. On congruent trials the colour term matched the object's stereotypical colour and on incongruent trials the colour term mismatched. Detection sensitivity was significantly poorer on incongruent trials than congruent trials. Overall, these findings suggest that colour terms affect awareness of coloured stimuli and colour- associated objects, and provide new evidence for language-perception interaction in the brain.

  4. Colour Terms Affect Detection of Colour and Colour-Associated Objects Suppressed from Visual Awareness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis Forder

    Full Text Available The idea that language can affect how we see the world continues to create controversy. A potentially important study in this field has shown that when an object is suppressed from visual awareness using continuous flash suppression (a form of binocular rivalry, detection of the object is differently affected by a preceding word prime depending on whether the prime matches or does not match the object. This may suggest that language can affect early stages of vision. We replicated this paradigm and further investigated whether colour terms likewise influence the detection of colours or colour-associated object images suppressed from visual awareness by continuous flash suppression. This method presents rapidly changing visual noise to one eye while the target stimulus is presented to the other. It has been shown to delay conscious perception of a target for up to several minutes. In Experiment 1 we presented greyscale photos of objects. They were either preceded by a congruent object label, an incongruent label, or white noise. Detection sensitivity (d' and hit rates were significantly poorer for suppressed objects preceded by an incongruent label compared to a congruent label or noise. In Experiment 2, targets were coloured discs preceded by a colour term. Detection sensitivity was significantly worse for suppressed colour patches preceded by an incongruent colour term as compared to a congruent term or white noise. In Experiment 3 targets were suppressed greyscale object images preceded by an auditory presentation of a colour term. On congruent trials the colour term matched the object's stereotypical colour and on incongruent trials the colour term mismatched. Detection sensitivity was significantly poorer on incongruent trials than congruent trials. Overall, these findings suggest that colour terms affect awareness of coloured stimuli and colour- associated objects, and provide new evidence for language-perception interaction in the brain.

  5. Colour terms in the interior design process

    OpenAIRE

    Attiah, DY; Cheung, TLV; Westland, S; Bromilow, D

    2015-01-01

    Colour is a very important topic that interior designers need to consider. Considerable research has been conducted in the area of colour application in interior design; in this study we are concerned with colour terms in interior design, mainly the terms designers use and know about. Fifteen interior designers with varied professional backgrounds, but based in the Middle East (Saudi Arabia, Dubai, Bahrain, Lebanon, Egypt, and Turkey), were interviewed. Previously we reported that fourteen ou...

  6. A developmental study of the acquisition of Russian colour terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, I R; Corbett, G G; McGurk, H; MacDermid, C

    1998-06-01

    We report a study of the acquisition of colour terms by Russian children which had two main aims: first, to test Berlin & Kay's (1969) theory of colour universals using acquisition order as a measure of basicness; and secondly, to see if the two BLUE terms of Russian are genuinely basic. Two hundred children aged from three to six-years-old were tested on three colour-tasks--colour term listing, colour term production and colour term comprehension. To a reasonable approximation, the order of colour term acquisition was in accord with Berlin & Kay's theory, but the data are also consistent with the weaker claim that primary terms tend to be learned before derived terms. On balance the data were consistent with Russian exceptionally, having an extra term for the BLUE region. But, the two BLUE terms--goluboj 'light blue' and sinij 'dark blue'--were confused more often than other pairs of terms even by the five- to six-year-old sample.

  7. Specific deficit of colour-colour short-term memory binding in sporadic and familial Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Mario A; Sala, Sergio Della; Abrahams, Sharon; Logie, Robert H; Méndez, Luis Guillermo; Lopera, Francisco

    2011-06-01

    Short-term memory binding of visual features which are processed across different dimensions (shape-colour) is impaired in sporadic Alzheimer's disease, familial Alzheimer's disease, and in asymptomatic carriers of familial Alzheimer's disease. This study investigated whether Alzheimer's disease also impacts on within-dimension binding processes. The study specifically explored whether visual short-term memory binding of features of the same type (colour-colour) is sensitive to Alzheimer's disease. We used a neuropsychological battery and a short-term memory binding task to assess patients with sporadic Alzheimer's disease (Experiment 1), familial Alzheimer's disease (Experiment 2) due to the mutation E280A of the Presenilin-1 gene and asymptomatic carriers of the mutation. The binding task assessed change detection within arrays of unicoloured objects (Colour Only) or bicoloured objects the colours of which had to be remembered separately (Unbound Colours) or together (Bound Colours). Performance on the Bound Colours condition (1) explained the largest proportion of variance between patients (sporadic and familial Alzheimer's disease), (2) combined more sensitivity and specificity for the disease than other more traditional neuropsychological tasks, (3) identified asymptomatic carriers of the mutation even when traditional neuropsychological measures and other measures of short-term memory did not and, (4) contrary to shape-colour binding, correlated with measures of hippocampal functions. Colour-colour binding and shape-colour binding both appear to be sensitive to AD even though they seem to rely on different brain mechanisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cultural transmission results in convergence towards colour term universals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Dowman, Mike; Griffiths, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    As in biological evolution, multiple forces are involved in cultural evolution. One force is analogous to selection, and acts on differences in the fitness of aspects of culture by influencing who people choose to learn from. Another force is analogous to mutation, and influences how culture changes over time owing to errors in learning and the effects of cognitive biases. Which of these forces need to be appealed to in explaining any particular aspect of human cultures is an open question. We present a study that explores this question empirically, examining the role that the cognitive biases that influence cultural transmission might play in universals of colour naming. In a large-scale laboratory experiment, participants were shown labelled examples from novel artificial systems of colour terms and were asked to classify other colours on the basis of those examples. The responses of each participant were used to generate the examples seen by subsequent participants. By simulating cultural transmission in the laboratory, we were able to isolate a single evolutionary force—the effects of cognitive biases, analogous to mutation—and examine its consequences. Our results show that this process produces convergence towards systems of colour terms similar to those seen across human languages, providing support for the conclusion that the effects of cognitive biases, brought out through cultural transmission, can account for universals in colour naming. PMID:23486436

  9. Perceiving colour at a glimpse: The relevance of where one fixates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenner, E.; Granzier, J.J.M.; Smeets, J.B.J.

    2007-01-01

    We used classification images to examine whether certain parts of a surface are particularly important when judging its colour, such as its centre, its edges, or where one is looking. The scene consisted of a regular pattern of square tiles with random colours from along a short line in colour

  10. A behavioural investigation of human visual short term memory for colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemes, V A; Parry, N R A; McKeefry, D J

    2010-09-01

    We examined visual short term memory (VSTM) for colour using a delayed-match-to-sample paradigm. In these experiments we measured the effects of increasing inter-stimulus interval (ISI), varying between 0 and 10 s, on the ability of five colour normal human observers to make colour matches between a reference and subsequently presented test stimuli. The coloured stimuli used were defined by different chromatic axes on the isoluminant plane of DKL colour space. In preliminary experiments we used a hue scaling procedure to identify a total of 12 colour stimuli which served as reference hues in the colour memory experiments: four stimuli were exemplars of red, green, blue and yellow colour appearance categories, four were located between these categories and a further four were located on the cardinal axes that isolated the activity of the cone-opponent mechanisms. Our results demonstrate that there is a reduction in the ability of observers to make accurate colour matches with increasing ISIs and that this reduced performance was similar for all colour stimuli. However, the shifts in hue that were measured between the reference and matched test stimuli were significantly greater for the cardinal stimuli compared to those measured for the stimuli defined by the hue scaling procedure. This deterioration in the retention of hue in VSTM for stimuli that isolate cone-opponent mechanisms may be a reflection of the reorganisation of colour processing that occurs in the cortex where colour appearance mechanisms become more prominent. © 2010 The Authors, Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics © 2010 The College of Optometrists.

  11. The control of single-colour and multiple-colour visual search by attentional templates in working memory and in long-term memory

    OpenAIRE

    Grubert, Anna; Carlisle, N.; Eimer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The question whether target selection in visual search can be effectively controlled by simultaneous attentional templates for multiple features is still under dispute. We investigated whether multiple-colour attentional guidance is possible when target colours remain constant and can thus be represented in long-term memory but not when they change frequently and have to be held in working memory. Participants searched for one, two, or three possible target colours that were specified by cue ...

  12. The time course of the influence of colour terms on visual processing

    OpenAIRE

    Forder, Lewis

    2016-01-01

    This thesis explores whether colour terms (e.g., “red”, “blue”, “purple”, etc.) influence visual processing of colour, and if so, the time course of any effect. Broadly, this issue relates to debate concerning whether language affects the way we perceive the world (i.e., the theory of linguistic relativity). Three of the experiments conducted used the event-related potential method (ERP), taking electrophysiological measurements of visual processing and visual cognition in human participants....

  13. Categorisation of Colour Terms Using New Validation Tools: A Case Study and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbab, Shabnam; Brindle, Jonathan A; Matusiak, Barbara S; Klöckner, Christian A

    2018-01-01

    This article elaborates on the results of a field experiment conducted among speakers of the Chakali language, spoken in northern Ghana. In the original study, the Color-aid Corporation Chart was used to perform the focal task in which consultants were asked to point at a single colour tile on the chart. However, data from the focal task could not be analysed since the Color-aid tiles had not yet been converted into numerical values set forth by the Commission internationale de l'éclairage (CIE). In this study, the full set of 314 Color-aid tiles were measured for chromaticity and converted into the CIE values at the Daylight Laboratory of the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. This article presents the conversion methodology and makes the results of the measurements, which are available in the Online Appendix. We argue that some visual-perception terms cannot be reliably ascribed to colour categories established by the Color-aid Corporation. This suggests that the ideophonic expressions in the dataset do not denote 'colours', as categorised in the Color-aid system, as it was impossible to average the consultants' data into a CIE chromaticity diagram, illustrate the phenomena on the Natural Colour System (NCS) Circle and Triangle diagrams, and conduct a statistical analysis. One of the implications of this study is that a line between a visual-perception term and a colour term could be systematically established using a method with predefined categorical thresholds.

  14. Colour changes in prints during long-term dark storage of prints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parraman, Carinna

    2010-01-01

    The most significant impact on colour fading in prints is exposure to light and air. However what happens to coloured prints during long-term storage in boxes, drawers and on shelves? Measurements of samples, printed in July 2005, stored in a range of light and darkened storage conditions have shown some interesting initial results. As more emphasis is placed on the effects of light, the dark stability of inkjet prints is relatively overlooked when considering how to preserve or store coloured prints. This study and presentation builds on previous research [1] and has concentrated on the changes to colour during storage. With reference to ASTM F2035 - 00(2006) Standard Practice for Measuring the Dark Stability of Ink Jet Prints, the Standards outline points out that whilst natural aging is the most reliable method of assessing image stability, materials and inks any data that is produced quickly becomes redundant; therefore accelerated aging is more preferred. However, the fine art materials in this study are still very much in circulation. The leading fine art papers, and pigmented ink-sets used in these trials are still being used by artists. We can therefore demonstrate the characteristics of colour changes and the impact of ink on paper that utilises natural aging methods.

  15. On the determination of the colour term in the P-L-C relation for cepheids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feast, M.W.; Balona, L.A.

    1980-01-01

    Recent speculations that the coefficient of the colour term in the P-L-C relation for cepheids may be considerably different from 2.7 are inconsistent with existing data on LMC cepheids. The colour coefficient recently derived is not significantly affected by taking into account an absorption induced correlation between the errors in 0 > and ( 0 > - 0 >). The computer simulation which shows the bias introduced in the colour coefficient when this is derived by an inappropriate method (simple least squares) is consistent with theory and in accord with actual results in the LMC. This gives added confidence in the unbiased nature of the results derived by a maximum likelihood method which takes into account errors in each variable. (author)

  16. Categorisation of Colour Terms Using New Validation Tools: A Case Study and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbab, Shabnam; Brindle, Jonathan A.; Matusiak, Barbara S.; Klöckner, Christian A.

    2018-01-01

    This article elaborates on the results of a field experiment conducted among speakers of the Chakali language, spoken in northern Ghana. In the original study, the Color-aid Corporation Chart was used to perform the focal task in which consultants were asked to point at a single colour tile on the chart. However, data from the focal task could not be analysed since the Color-aid tiles had not yet been converted into numerical values set forth by the Commission internationale de l’éclairage (CIE). In this study, the full set of 314 Color-aid tiles were measured for chromaticity and converted into the CIE values at the Daylight Laboratory of the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. This article presents the conversion methodology and makes the results of the measurements, which are available in the Online Appendix. We argue that some visual-perception terms cannot be reliably ascribed to colour categories established by the Color-aid Corporation. This suggests that the ideophonic expressions in the dataset do not denote ‘colours’, as categorised in the Color-aid system, as it was impossible to average the consultants’ data into a CIE chromaticity diagram, illustrate the phenomena on the Natural Colour System (NCS) Circle and Triangle diagrams, and conduct a statistical analysis. One of the implications of this study is that a line between a visual-perception term and a colour term could be systematically established using a method with predefined categorical thresholds. PMID:29755718

  17. Red shirt colour is associated with long-term team success in English football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attrill, Martin J; Gresty, Karen A; Hill, Russell A; Barton, Robert A

    2008-04-01

    The colour of sportswear has been shown to influence the outcome of bouts for several different combat sports. The generality of these effects, and whether they extend to collaborative forms of contests (team sports), is uncertain. Since 1947, English football teams wearing red shirts have been champions more often than expected on the basis of the proportion of clubs playing in red. To investigate whether this indicates an enhancement of long-term performance in red-wearing teams, we analysed the relative league positions of teams wearing different hues. Across all league divisions, red teams had the best home record, with significant differences in both percentage of maximum points achieved and mean position in the home league table. The effects were not due simply to a difference between teams playing in a colour and those playing in a predominantly white uniform, as the latter performed better than teams in yellow hues. No significant differences were found for performance in matches away from home, when teams commonly do not wear their "home" colours. A matched-pairs analysis of red and non-red wearing teams in eight English cities shows significantly better performance of red teams over a 55-year period. These effects on long-term success have consequences for colour selection in team sports, confirm that wearing red enhances performance in a variety of competitive contexts, and provide further impetus for studies of the mechanisms underlying these effects.

  18. The human hippocampal formation mediates short-term memory of colour-location associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, Carsten; Braun, Mischa; Ostendorf, Florian; Lehmann, Thomas-Nicolas; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Kopp, Ute; Ploner, Christoph J

    2008-01-31

    The medial temporal lobe (MTL) has long been considered essential for declarative long-term memory, whereas the fronto-parietal cortex is generally seen as the anatomical substrate of short-term memory. This traditional dichotomy is questioned by recent studies suggesting a possible role of the MTL for short-term memory. In addition, there is no consensus on a possible specialization of MTL sub-regions for memory of associative information. Here, we investigated short-term memory for single features and feature associations in three humans with post-surgical lesions affecting the right hippocampal formation and in 10 healthy controls. We used three delayed-match-to-sample tasks with two delays (900/5000 ms) and three set sizes (2/4/6 items). Subjects were instructed to remember either colours, locations or colour-location associations. In colour-only and location-only conditions, performance of patients did not differ from controls. By contrast, a significant group difference was found in the association condition at 5000 ms delay. This difference was largely independent of set size, thus suggesting that it cannot be explained by the increased complexity of the association condition. These findings show that the hippocampal formation plays a significant role for short-term memory of simple visuo-spatial associations, and suggest a specialization of MTL sub-regions for associative memory.

  19. Short-Term and Procedural Memory for Colours and Inferior Temporal Cortex Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Castro-Sierra

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Two children (male, 10 years, and female, 13 years one month with tumours of the inferior temporal (IT cortex of the brain were studied post-surgically for their abilities to carry out a short-term memory test. This involved: differences in colour, number and shape of small plastic objects; differences in receptacles where these objects should be placed and in ways in which this placement should be done; a procedural task involving differences either in colour or in size of wooden rings employed in the task. Their performances in these tests, and those of patients with tumours of other encephalic areas, were compared with the performances of normal controls. The subjects with IT tumours spent a significantly greater amount of time than normal subjects of their age in carrying out the procedural task involving differences in colour. One of the IT subjects also spent a significantly greater amount of time in the procedural task involving size differences. Other differences in the performances of patients with encephalic tumours and the performances of normal controls were not significant. Results are discussed in relation to findings of colour and size perception and memory localized to the inferior temporal and middle temporal cortices.

  20. [Mari Uusküla. Basic colour terms in Finno-Ugric and Slavonic Languages] / Galina Paramei

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paramei, Galina

    2010-01-01

    Arvustus: Uusküla, Mari. Basic colour terms in Finno-ugric and Slavonic languages: myths and facts. Tartu : Tartu University Press, 2008. Dissertationes linguisticae Universitatis Tartuensis, 1406-5657 ; 9

  1. Monitoring readiness of safety relevant devices in nuclear power plants by means of CRT-colour displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubert, R.; Stokke, R.

    1980-01-01

    The development of an information system for monitoring readiness of safety relevant devices is encouraged by the requirements of KTA-rule 3501 (DIN 25434), which states in section 4.9.1.1. 'A display shall be provided for giving a survey of the condition of the components of the reactor protection system and the active engineered safeguards including their energy and auxiliary media supplies'. In the first stage of the development which was reported at the Enlarged Halden Programme Group Meeting in Loen, Norway, 5th-9th June, 1978, only the components of parts of a BWR-protection system were considered and no display was provided. This paper outlines the next step in the development which comprises implementation of the active engineered safeguards into the system and development of a display system based on a colour CRT-screen. A prototype of this computer-based system for monitoring of protection systems has been established, and it is planned to demonstrate this prototype system using the computer equipment at GRS, Garching (orig./HP)

  2. Spermatozoa motility and short-term sperm storage of colourful orfe (Leuciscus idus aberr orfus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata I. Cejko

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effect of six activating buffers on the movement parameters of sperm was determined and short-term storage of semen in TLP buffer was attempted (0.292g NaCl; 0.012g KCl; 0.011g CaCl2; 0.004g MgCl2; 0.105g NaHCO3; 0.002g NaH2PO4; 50ml; pH 8.6. Sperm was collected from five orfe individual, and spermiation was stimulated by means of an intraperitoneal Ovopel injection. The basic parameters of spermatozoa motility were measured after the semen was diluted with six different activating solutions, previously used successfully in other fish species. The motility analysis was conducted on a Crismas apparatus. Additionally, short-term storage of semen in TLP buffer was attempted. Subsequently, motility parameters were verified after 0 (Control, 24 and 120 h of storage at 4°C. It has been found that Lahnsteiner’s buffer (100 mM NaCl, 10 mM Tris, 0.5% albumin, 199 mOsmkg-1 was found to be the most effective in sperm activation. In this paper, the spermatozoa motility of colourful ide is indicated for the first time. Finally, there was a successful attempt at short-term sperm storage for five days. For artificial insemination, it is very important to select the most effective solution to stimulate sperm motility. Data regarding sperm manipulation of orfe are scarce, so the aim of the study was to determine the basic sperm quality parameters of the colour ide form, i.e. Leuciscus idus aberr orfus.

  3. Topological quantum field theories in terms of coloured graphs associated to quantum groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karowski, M.

    1993-01-01

    Apart from obvious mathematical applications the investigation is motivated by the problem of braid group statistics in physics. Statistics is one of the central concepts in many body quantum systems. Consider a system of two identical particles located at x 1 and x 2 in R d with Schroedinger wave function ψ(x 1 , x 2 ). Under the exchange of particles with these coordinates one usually has Bose or Fermi statistics in case ψ(x 2 , x 1 )=±ψ(x-1,x T 2). For a quick access to the problem consider the following classical geometric space-time description of the exchange of position for two identical particles, reflecting itself in two quantum mechanical transformation laws. We briefly review the set-up of topological quantum field theory and present our new formulation in terms of coloured graphs. (orig.)

  4. Best not to bet on the horserace: A comment on Forrin and MacLeod (2017) and a relevant stimulus-response compatibility view of colour-word contingency learning asymmetries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, James R

    2018-02-01

    One powerfully robust method for the study of human contingency learning is the colour-word contingency learning paradigm. In this task, participants respond to the print colour of neutral words, each of which is presented most often in one colour. The contingencies between words and colours are learned, as indicated by faster and more accurate responses when words are presented in their expected colour relative to an unexpected colour. In a recent report, Forrin and MacLeod (2017b, Memory & Cognition) asked to what extent this performance (i.e., response time) measure of learning might depend on the relative speed of processing of the word and the colour. With keypress responses, learning effects were comparable when responding to the word and to the colour (contrary to predictions). However, an asymmetry appeared in a second experiment with vocal responses, with a contingency effect only present for colour identification. In a third experiment, the colour was preexposed, and contingency effects were again roughly symmetrical. In their report, they suggested that a simple speed-of-processing (or "horserace") model might explain when contingency effects are observed in colour and word identification. In the present report, an alternative view is presented. In particular, it is argued that the results are best explained by appealing to the notion of relevant stimulus-response compatibility, which also resolves discrepancies between horserace model predictions and participant results. The article presents simulations with the Parallel Episodic Processing model to demonstrate this case.

  5. Rethinking Colour Constancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logvinenko, Alexander D; Funt, Brian; Mirzaei, Hamidreza; Tokunaga, Rumi

    2015-01-01

    Colour constancy needs to be reconsidered in light of the limits imposed by metamer mismatching. Metamer mismatching refers to the fact that two objects reflecting metameric light under one illumination may reflect non-metameric light under a second; so two objects appearing as having the same colour under one illuminant can appear as having different colours under a second. Yet since Helmholtz, object colour has generally been believed to remain relatively constant. The deviations from colour constancy registered in experiments are usually thought to be small enough that they do not contradict the notion of colour constancy. However, it is important to determine how the deviations from colour constancy relate to the limits metamer mismatching imposes on constancy. Hence, we calculated metamer mismatching's effect for the 20 Munsell papers and 8 pairs of illuminants employed in the colour constancy study by Logvinenko and Tokunaga and found it to be so extensive that the two notions-metamer mismatching and colour constancy-must be mutually exclusive. In particular, the notion of colour constancy leads to some paradoxical phenomena such as the possibility of 20 objects having the same colour under chromatic light dispersing into a hue circle of colours under neutral light. Thus, colour constancy refers to a phenomenon, which because of metamer mismatching, simply cannot exist. Moreover, it obscures the really important visual phenomenon; namely, the alteration of object colours induced by illumination change. We show that colour is not an independent, intrinsic attribute of an object, but rather an attribute of an object/light pair, and then define a concept of material colour in terms of equivalence classes of such object/light pairs. We suggest that studying the shift in material colour under a change in illuminant will be more fruitful than pursuing colour constancy's false premise that colour is an intrinsic attribute of an object.

  6. Rethinking Colour Constancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander D Logvinenko

    Full Text Available Colour constancy needs to be reconsidered in light of the limits imposed by metamer mismatching. Metamer mismatching refers to the fact that two objects reflecting metameric light under one illumination may reflect non-metameric light under a second; so two objects appearing as having the same colour under one illuminant can appear as having different colours under a second. Yet since Helmholtz, object colour has generally been believed to remain relatively constant. The deviations from colour constancy registered in experiments are usually thought to be small enough that they do not contradict the notion of colour constancy. However, it is important to determine how the deviations from colour constancy relate to the limits metamer mismatching imposes on constancy. Hence, we calculated metamer mismatching's effect for the 20 Munsell papers and 8 pairs of illuminants employed in the colour constancy study by Logvinenko and Tokunaga and found it to be so extensive that the two notions-metamer mismatching and colour constancy-must be mutually exclusive. In particular, the notion of colour constancy leads to some paradoxical phenomena such as the possibility of 20 objects having the same colour under chromatic light dispersing into a hue circle of colours under neutral light. Thus, colour constancy refers to a phenomenon, which because of metamer mismatching, simply cannot exist. Moreover, it obscures the really important visual phenomenon; namely, the alteration of object colours induced by illumination change. We show that colour is not an independent, intrinsic attribute of an object, but rather an attribute of an object/light pair, and then define a concept of material colour in terms of equivalence classes of such object/light pairs. We suggest that studying the shift in material colour under a change in illuminant will be more fruitful than pursuing colour constancy's false premise that colour is an intrinsic attribute of an object.

  7. The twelve colourful stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doria, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    A dynamics with twelve colourful stones is created based on the concepts of gauge and colour. It is associated different gauge fields to the same group. A group of gauge invariant Lagrangians is established. A gauge invariant mass term is introduced. The colourful stones physical insight is to be building blocks for quarks and leptons. (Author) [pt

  8. Long-term repetition priming and semantic interference in a lexical-semantic matching task: Tapping the links between object names and colours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Jonathan Lloyd-Jones

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a novel paradigm to engage the long-term mappings between object names and the prototypical colours for objects, we investigated the retrieval of object-colour knowledge as indexed by long-term priming (the benefit in performance from a prior encounter with the same or a similar stimulus; a process about which little is known. We examined priming from object naming on a lexical-semantic matching task. In the matching task participants encountered a visually presented object name (Experiment 1 or object shape (Experiment 2 paired with either a colour patch or colour name. The pairings could either match whereby both were consistent with a familiar object (e.g., strawberry and red or mismatch (strawberry and blue. We used the matching task to probe knowledge about familiar objects and their colours pre-activated during object naming. In particular, we examined whether the retrieval of object-colour information was modality-specific and whether this influenced priming. Priming varied with the nature of the retrieval process: object-colour priming arose for object names but not object shapes and beneficial effects of priming were observed for colour patches whereas inhibitory priming arose with colour names. These findings have implications for understanding how object knowledge is retrieved from memory and modified by learning.

  9. Object Knowledge Modulates Colour Appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Witzel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the memory colour effect for colour diagnostic artificial objects. Since knowledge about these objects and their colours has been learned in everyday life, these stimuli allow the investigation of the influence of acquired object knowledge on colour appearance. These investigations are relevant for questions about how object and colour information in high-level vision interact as well as for research about the influence of learning and experience on perception in general. In order to identify suitable artificial objects, we developed a reaction time paradigm that measures (subjective colour diagnosticity. In the main experiment, participants adjusted sixteen such objects to their typical colour as well as to grey. If the achromatic object appears in its typical colour, then participants should adjust it to the opponent colour in order to subjectively perceive it as grey. We found that knowledge about the typical colour influences the colour appearance of artificial objects. This effect was particularly strong along the daylight axis.

  10. Object knowledge modulates colour appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Christoph; Valkova, Hanna; Hansen, Thorsten; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the memory colour effect for colour diagnostic artificial objects. Since knowledge about these objects and their colours has been learned in everyday life, these stimuli allow the investigation of the influence of acquired object knowledge on colour appearance. These investigations are relevant for questions about how object and colour information in high-level vision interact as well as for research about the influence of learning and experience on perception in general. In order to identify suitable artificial objects, we developed a reaction time paradigm that measures (subjective) colour diagnosticity. In the main experiment, participants adjusted sixteen such objects to their typical colour as well as to grey. If the achromatic object appears in its typical colour, then participants should adjust it to the opponent colour in order to subjectively perceive it as grey. We found that knowledge about the typical colour influences the colour appearance of artificial objects. This effect was particularly strong along the daylight axis. PMID:23145224

  11. Photometric evidence on long-term stability of albedo and colour markings on Io

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, D.; Pieri, D.; Veverka, J.; Johnson, T.V.

    1979-01-01

    This article re-examines the historical measurements of the albedo and colour of Io to determine whether there is evidence of variations, or if not, to set a limit on major resurfacing events resulting in hemispheric brightness changes during the past half century. (author)

  12. Honey Addition in Kefir Whey Drink in Term of Organoleptic Quality, Colour, and Turbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firman Jaya

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the optimum honey addition on kefir whey drink based on organoleptic quality (colour, aroma, taste, colour test, and turbidity. The method used in this research was experiment with Completely Randomized Design (CDR by used 4 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments were P0 = without the honey added, P1=added by 20% honey, P2 = added by 30% honey and P3 = added by 40% honey (v/v. The data were analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA, if there were significantly difference, the data would analyzed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The results showed that honey addition gave highly difference significant (P<0.01 on organoleptic quality (colour, aroma, taste, turbidity and lightness (L*. Honey addition didn’t give significantly difference (P<0.05 on redness (a* and yellowness (b*. The conclusion of this research was the best treatment will the value is added by 40% honey with colour 3.25±0.78, aroma 3.50±1.14, taste 3.75±1.01, lightness (L 31.57±0.5, redness (b* 0.95±0.12, yellowness (b* 0.050±0.36, and turbidity 306.7±6.65 NTU

  13. A set of high quality colour images with Spanish norms for seven relevant psycholinguistic variables: the Nombela naming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Martinez, Francisco Javier; Montoro, Pedro R; Laws, Keith R

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents a new corpus of 140 high quality colour images belonging to 14 subcategories and covering a range of naming difficulty. One hundred and six Spanish speakers named the items and provided data for several psycholinguistic variables: age of acquisition, familiarity, manipulability, name agreement, typicality and visual complexity. Furthermore, we also present lexical frequency data derived internet search hits. Apart from the large number of variables evaluated, these stimuli present an important advantage with respect to other comparable image corpora in so far as naming performance in healthy individuals is less prone to ceiling effect problems. Reliability and validity indexes showed that our items display similar psycholinguistic characteristics to those of other corpora. In sum, this set of ecologically valid stimuli provides a useful tool for scientists engaged in cognitive and neuroscience-based research.

  14. Long term effects of aversive reinforcement on colour discrimination learning in free-flying bumblebees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Rodríguez-Gironés

    Full Text Available The results of behavioural experiments provide important information about the structure and information-processing abilities of the visual system. Nevertheless, if we want to infer from behavioural data how the visual system operates, it is important to know how different learning protocols affect performance and to devise protocols that minimise noise in the response of experimental subjects. The purpose of this work was to investigate how reinforcement schedule and individual variability affect the learning process in a colour discrimination task. Free-flying bumblebees were trained to discriminate between two perceptually similar colours. The target colour was associated with sucrose solution, and the distractor could be associated with water or quinine solution throughout the experiment, or with one substance during the first half of the experiment and the other during the second half. Both acquisition and final performance of the discrimination task (measured as proportion of correct choices were determined by the choice of reinforcer during the first half of the experiment: regardless of whether bees were trained with water or quinine during the second half of the experiment, bees trained with quinine during the first half learned the task faster and performed better during the whole experiment. Our results confirm that the choice of stimuli used during training affects the rate at which colour discrimination tasks are acquired and show that early contact with a strongly aversive stimulus can be sufficient to maintain high levels of attention during several hours. On the other hand, bees which took more time to decide on which flower to alight were more likely to make correct choices than bees which made fast decisions. This result supports the existence of a trade-off between foraging speed and accuracy, and highlights the importance of measuring choice latencies during behavioural experiments focusing on cognitive abilities.

  15. The twelve colourful stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doria, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    The gauge symmetry is extended. It is associated differents matter and gauge fields to the same group. A group of gauge invariant Lagrangians is established. A gauge invariant mass term is introduced. A massive Yang Mills is obtained. A dynamics with twelve colourful stones is created based on the concepts of gauge and colour. Structures identified as quarks and leptons are generated. A discussion about colour meaning is presented. (Author) [pt

  16. Memory colours affect colour appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Christoph; Olkkonen, Maria; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2016-01-01

    Memory colour effects show that colour perception is affected by memory and prior knowledge and hence by cognition. None of Firestone & Scholl's (F&S's) potential pitfalls apply to our work on memory colours. We present a Bayesian model of colour appearance to illustrate that an interaction between perception and memory is plausible from the perspective of vision science.

  17. Colourful FKS subtraction

    CERN Document Server

    Frixione, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    I formulate in a colour-friendly way the FKS method for the computation of QCD cross sections at the next-to-leading order accuracy. This is achieved through the definition of subtraction terms for squared matrix elements, constructed with single colour-dressed or pairs of colour-ordered amplitudes. The latter approach relies on the use of colour flows, is exact to all orders in $N$, and is thus particularly suited to being organized as a systematic expansion in 1/N.

  18. Colour simplicity

    OpenAIRE

    du Preez, Warren

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the metaphysics of conscious experience. I defend a thesis labelled Colour Simplicity, according to which the properties constitutive of what it is like to have visual sensory experiences of colourcolour qualia – are simple, in that they lack more basic constituent properties. I develop a valid argument for Colour Simplicity, drawing on the premises that (P1) ‘colour qualia appear to be simple under introspection’, and (P2) ‘if colour qualia appear to be simp...

  19. Measuring colour

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hunt, R. W. G; Pointer, Michael, Ph. D

    2011-01-01

    ... industries.Building upon the success of earlier editions, the 4th edition of [start italics]Measuring Colour[end italics] has been updated throughout with new chapters on colour rendering by light sources...

  20. Colour Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR Nneka

    2015-04-14

    Apr 14, 2015 ... failure of the student to differentiate what is of particular concern to him or her, and .... perception of the physical appearance of colour and our ..... Colour is perceived in different modes and dimension and has derivative ..... which pigment colours can effectively depict existing realities, express emotions and.

  1. Molluscan shell colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Suzanne T

    2017-05-01

    The phylum Mollusca is highly speciose, and is the largest phylum in the marine realm. The great majority of molluscs are shelled, including nearly all bivalves, most gastropods and some cephalopods. The fabulous and diverse colours and patterns of molluscan shells are widely recognised and have been appreciated for hundreds of years by collectors and scientists alike. They serve taxonomists as characters that can be used to recognise and distinguish species, however their function for the animal is sometimes less clear and has been the focus of many ecological and evolutionary studies. Despite these studies, almost nothing is known about the evolution of colour in molluscan shells. This review summarises for the first time major findings of disparate studies relevant to the evolution of shell colour in Mollusca and discusses the importance of colour, including the effects of visual and non-visual selection, diet and abiotic factors. I also summarise the evidence for the heritability of shell colour in some taxa and recent efforts to understand the molecular mechanisms underpinning synthesis of shell colours. I describe some of the main shell pigments found in Mollusca (carotenoids, melanin and tetrapyrroles, including porphyrins and bile pigments), and their durability in the fossil record. Finally I suggest that pigments appear to be distributed in a phylogenetically relevant manner and that the synthesis of colour is likely to be energetically costly. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  2. Silorane, ormocer, methacrylate and compomer long-term staining susceptibility using ΔE and ΔE00 colour-difference formulas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gregor, L.; Krejci, I.; Di Bella, E.; Feilzer, A.J.; Ardu, S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the staining susceptibility of a silorane (Filtek Silorane), an ormocer (Ceram X Duo), a methacrylate (Tetric EvoCeram) and a compomer (Dyract) exposed on the long term to various staining agents by using ΔE and ΔE00 colour-difference formulas. Thirty-six

  3. Colour for Behavioural Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Adam

    2018-01-01

    Colour information not only helps sustain the survival of animal species by guiding sexual selection and foraging behaviour but also is an important factor in the cultural and technological development of our own species. This is illustrated by examples from the visual arts and from state-of-the-art imaging technology, where the strategic use of colour has become a powerful tool for guiding the planning and execution of interventional procedures. The functional role of colour information in terms of its potential benefits to behavioural success across the species is addressed in the introduction here to clarify why colour perception may have evolved to generate behavioural success. It is argued that evolutionary and environmental pressures influence not only colour trait production in the different species but also their ability to process and exploit colour information for goal-specific purposes. We then leap straight to the human primate with insight from current research on the facilitating role of colour cues on performance training with precision technology for image-guided surgical planning and intervention. It is shown that local colour cues in two-dimensional images generated by a surgical fisheye camera help individuals become more precise rapidly across a limited number of trial sets in simulator training for specific manual gestures with a tool. This facilitating effect of a local colour cue on performance evolution in a video-controlled simulator (pick-and-place) task can be explained in terms of colour-based figure-ground segregation facilitating attention to local image parts when more than two layers of subjective surface depth are present, as in all natural and surgical images. PMID:29770183

  4. Measuring Colour

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, R W G

    2011-01-01

    The classic authority on colour measurement now fully revised and updated with the latest CIE recommendations The measurement of colour is of major importance in many commercial applications, such as the textile, paint, and foodstuff industries; as well as having a significant role in the lighting, paper, printing, cosmetic, plastics, glass, chemical, photographic, television, transport, and communication industries. Building upon the success of earlier editions, the 4th edition of Measuring Colour has been updated throughout with new chapters on colour rendering by light sources; colorimetry

  5. Hue-specific colour memory impairment in an individual with intact colour perception and colour naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobson, L S; Pearson, P M; Robertson, B

    2008-01-15

    Cases of hue-selective dyschomatopsias, together with the results of recent optical imaging studies [Xiao, Y., Casti, A. R. R., Xiao, J., & Kaplan, E. (2006). A spatially organized representation of colour in macaque primary visual cortex. Perception, 35, ECVP Abstract Supplement; Xiao, Y., Wang, Y., & Felleman, D. J. (2003). A spatially organized representation of colour in macaque cortical area V2. Nature, 421, 535-539], have provided support for the idea that different colours are processed in spatially distinct regions of extrastriate cortex. In the present report, we provide evidence suggesting that a similar, but distinct, map may exist for representations of colour in memory. This evidence comes from observations of a young woman (QP) who demonstrates an isolated deficit in colour memory secondary to a concussive episode. Despite having normal colour perception and colour naming skills, and above-average memory skills in other domains, QP's ability to recall visually encoded colour information over short retention intervals is dramatically impaired. Her long-term memory for colour and her colour imagery skills are also abnormal. Surprisingly, however, these impairments are not seen with all hues; specifically, her ability to remember or imagine blue shades is spared. This interesting case contributes to the literature suggesting that colour perception, naming, and memory can be clinically dissociated, and provides insights into the organization of colour information in memory.

  6. Term Relevance Feedback and Mediated Database Searching: Implications for Information Retrieval Practice and Systems Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spink, Amanda

    1995-01-01

    This study uses the human approach to examine the sources and effectiveness of search terms selected during 40 mediated interactive database searches and focuses on determining the retrieval effectiveness of search terms identified by users and intermediaries from retrieved items during term relevance feedback. (Author/JKP)

  7. Deposition of carotenoids in egg yolk by short-term supplement of coloured carrot (Daucus carota) varieties as forage material for egg-laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammershøj, Marianne; Kidmose, Ulla; Steenfeldt, Sanna

    2010-05-01

    Supplying egg-laying hens with different forage materials may influence egg production and quality. The aim of this study was to examine the short-term effects of standard feed plus 70 g day(-1) per hen of three coloured carrot varieties (orange, yellow and purple) as forage material in comparison with a standard feed control on egg production, egg yolk colour and deposition of carotenoids in the yolk. Carrot supplementation reduced feed intakes significantly, but not on a dry matter basis. Orange carrot treatment significantly reduced egg mass production, whereas yellow and purple carrot treatments did not differ from the control. Egg and yolk weights of all carrot-supplemented treatments were significantly lower than those of the control, but yolk percentages were similar. Yolk redness increased significantly in the order control 1.5-fold) and beta-carotene (>100-fold) compared with the control. Supplementing the feed of egg-laying hens with coloured carrots efficiently increased yolk colour parameters and carotenoid contents, which gives opportunities for improved nutritional value of eggs from forage material-supplemented hens.

  8. Colour schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents a framework for analysing colour schemes based on a parametric approach that includes not only hue, value and saturation, but also purity, transparency, luminosity, luminescence, lustre, modulation and differentiation.......This chapter presents a framework for analysing colour schemes based on a parametric approach that includes not only hue, value and saturation, but also purity, transparency, luminosity, luminescence, lustre, modulation and differentiation....

  9. Colour chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong-Mo, C.

    1978-10-01

    Colour is now popularly believed to be the basis of strong interactions and as evidence for such a fundamental new degree of freedom one should expect an entirely new class of phenomena qualitatively different from those in a colourless world. One place to seek such manifestations is in spectroscopy, where a new degree of freedom should lead to a richer spectrum. this approach is here discussed with especial reference to the case of diquoniums. The very existence of M-diquoniums, whose spectrum has been calculated and is shown, would be a verification of colour. (U.K.)

  10. Colour perception in ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banaschewski, T.; Ruppert, S; Tannock, R.; Albrecht, B.; Becker, A.; Uebel, H.; Sergeant, J.A.; Rothenberger, A.

    2006-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with unexplained impairments on speeded naming of coloured stimuli. These deficits may reflect hypofunctioning retinal dopaminergic mechanisms impairing particularly blue-yellow colour discrimination. Colour perception and rapid colour

  11. Biological Components of Colour Preference in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Anna; Bevis, Laura; Ling, Yazhu; Hurlbert, Anya

    2010-01-01

    Adult colour preference has been summarized quantitatively in terms of weights on the two fundamental neural processes that underlie early colour encoding: the S-(L+M) ("blue-yellow") and L-M ("red-green") cone-opponent contrast channels ( Ling, Hurlbert & Robinson, 2006; Hurlbert & Ling, 2007). Here, we investigate whether colour preference in…

  12. Salience of Primary and Secondary Colours in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Anna; Pitchford, Nicola; Hart, Lynsey; Davies, Ian R. L.; Clausse, Samantha; Jennings, Siobhan

    2008-01-01

    Primary colour terms ("black", "white", "red", "green", "yellow", and "blue") are more fundamental in colour language than secondary colour terms ("pink", "purple", "orange", "brown", and "grey"). Here, we assess whether this distinction exists in the absence of language, by investigating whether primary colours attract and sustain preverbal…

  13. Cross-Modal Correspondences Enhance Performance on a Colour-to-Sound Sensory Substitution Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton-Fletcher, Giles; Wright, Thomas D; Ward, Jamie

    Visual sensory substitution devices (SSDs) can represent visual characteristics through distinct patterns of sound, allowing a visually impaired user access to visual information. Previous SSDs have avoided colour and when they do encode colour, have assigned sounds to colour in a largely unprincipled way. This study introduces a new tablet-based SSD termed the ‘Creole’ (so called because it combines tactile scanning with image sonification) and a new algorithm for converting colour to sound that is based on established cross-modal correspondences (intuitive mappings between different sensory dimensions). To test the utility of correspondences, we examined the colour–sound associative memory and object recognition abilities of sighted users who had their device either coded in line with or opposite to sound–colour correspondences. Improved colour memory and reduced colour-errors were made by users who had the correspondence-based mappings. Interestingly, the colour–sound mappings that provided the highest improvements during the associative memory task also saw the greatest gains for recognising realistic objects that also featured these colours, indicating a transfer of abilities from memory to recognition. These users were also marginally better at matching sounds to images varying in luminance, even though luminance was coded identically across the different versions of the device. These findings are discussed with relevance for both colour and correspondences for sensory substitution use.

  14. Thirteen-colour photometry of Be stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, M; Schuster, W J [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City. Inst. de Astronomia

    1981-01-01

    Thirteen-colour photometry made at the San Pedro Martir Observatory in Baja California, for a number of spectroscopically variable Be and shell stars is presented. Several of these stars also show photometric variability in the ultraviolet and/or infrared over a time base of two to three years. We analyze the more interesting stars in terms of colour-colour diagrams, colour excesses, spectral characteristics and changes in their energy distributions. Prospects for future research are discussed.

  15. Thirteen-colour photometry of Be stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, M.; Schuster, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    Thirteen-colour photometry made at the San Pedro Martir Observatory in Baja California, for a number of spectroscopically variable Be and shell stars is presented. Several of these stars also show photometric variability in the ultraviolet and/or infrared over a time base of two to three years. We analyze the more interesting stars in terms of colour-colour diagrams, colour excesses, spectral characteristics and changes in their energy distributions. Prospects for future research are discussed. (author)

  16. Evaluation of Term Ranking Algorithms for Pseudo-Relevance Feedback in MEDLINE Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sooyoung; Choi, Jinwook

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of query expansion algorithms for MEDLINE retrieval within a pseudo-relevance feedback framework. A number of query expansion algorithms were tested using various term ranking formulas, focusing on query expansion based on pseudo-relevance feedback. The OHSUMED test collection, which is a subset of the MEDLINE database, was used as a test corpus. Various ranking algorithms were tested in combination with different term re-weighting algorithms. Our comprehensive evaluation showed that the local context analysis ranking algorithm, when used in combination with one of the reweighting algorithms - Rocchio, the probabilistic model, and our variants - significantly outperformed other algorithm combinations by up to 12% (paired t-test; p algorithm pairs, at least in the context of the OHSUMED corpus. Comparative experiments on term ranking algorithms were performed in the context of a subset of MEDLINE documents. With medical documents, local context analysis, which uses co-occurrence with all query terms, significantly outperformed various term ranking methods based on both frequency and distribution analyses. Furthermore, the results of the experiments demonstrated that the term rank-based re-weighting method contributed to a remarkable improvement in mean average precision.

  17. Measurements and modelling of the influence of dentine colour and enamel on tooth colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battersby, Paul D; Battersby, Stephen J

    2015-03-01

    We provide a quantitative predictive model for the extent to which coloured dentine, visible through the enamel, contributes to tooth colour. Our model uses (L(*),a(*),b(*)) measurements rather than spectral measurements. We have used a model system, composed of a slice of bovine enamel placed on top of coloured paper. We have measured the colour of the enamel-paper combination, as an analogue for a tooth, and have related this to the colour of the paper, as an analogue for dentine. By changing the paper colour, we have been able to explore how the colour of dentine determines tooth colour, according to our model system. We have also compared hydrated and desiccated samples. In qualitative terms, superimposing the enamel on top of the paper increases the "lightness" for all colours tested except white while simultaneously reducing the chromaticity, a measure of the extent to which the colour differs from grey. Desiccated enamel is much more effective at increasing the lightness and reducing the chromaticity than hydrated enamel. Quantitatively, our measurements are reproduced by the mathematical model we have developed to within 2% in "lightness" and about 8% in chromaticity. We are able to predict the colour of an analogue for a tooth, composed of bovine enamel and coloured paper, from the colour of an analogue for the dentine, the coloured paper alone, with good accuracy. This understanding provides insights into the role of dentine colour in determining tooth colour. Our work helps quantify the importance of dentine colour, compared to other, extrinsic causes of colour, such as staining, in determining the visible colour of teeth. Our predicted colours represent a baseline to which extrinsic sources will add. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Legal Terms Used in Reception Order and their Relevance to Judicial Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Nakkeerar; Ramanathan, Rajkumar; Kumar, Venkatesh Madhan; Chellappan, Dhanabalan Kalingarayan Palayam; Ramasamy, Jeyaprakash

    2016-01-01

    Law governs the admission and management of involuntary admissions of mentally ill persons who are admitted under the provisions of the mental health act. The court directs the doctor to take charge of such persons. In the further dealings of such person the medical officer of the psychiatric facility comes across legal terms, which require understanding so that patients could be dealt with properly. Various terms such as accused, under police custody, judicial custody, remand prisoner, or under trial prisoner are used to denote their legal status. It is imperative for the medical officer to understand the nuances in the meanings of these terms. There are many times when the relevant section under which the admission is ordered is not found in the reception order. In these cases the terminology by which the patient is mentioned throws a light on the status of the patient. Towards this aim a study was carried out to assess the awareness and understanding of such terms by the faculty and post- graduates of a tertiary care hospital that deals with the admission and care of such patients. They were administered a questionnaire containing these terms and asked to provide the meaning of these terms. The results showed that nearly half the faculty and students were not having clarity in awareness or understanding of the terms. Hence these terms and their meanings were gleaned from various judgments. The proper meaning of these terms and their use in judicial process and their importance is discussed.

  19. What are we looking at when we say magenta? Quantitative measurements of RGB and CMYK colours with a homemade spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosi, Tommaso; Onorato, Pasquale; Oss, Stefano; Malgieri, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    We address some issues in colour theory, which are of relevance from an educational perspective. Spectra of emitted RGB and of transmitted CMYK colours are quantitatively processed and analysed with quite inexpensive homemade instruments, making use of smartphones as affordable digital cameras. LCD monitors and paper sheets with pigments coming from a laser printer are used to point out the basic differences between additive and subtractive colour formation. As an especially relevant aspect, we point out how it is possible to construct a simple model to explain the subtractive mixing process in terms of convolution of primary colour filters. The analysis presented in this work is particularly suited for enhancing the need for a proper understanding of the physiology of human eye–brain action in light acquisition and perception of colours. (paper)

  20. Global skin colour prediction from DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Walsh (Susan); L.C. Chaitanya (Lakshmi); Breslin, K. (Krystal); Muralidharan, C. (Charanya); Bronikowska, A. (Agnieszka); E. Pośpiech (Ewelina); Koller, J. (Julia); L. Kovatsi (Leda); A. Wollstein (Andreas); W. Branicki (Wojciech); F. Liu; M.H. Kayser (Manfred)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractHuman skin colour is highly heritable and externally visible with relevance in medical, forensic, and anthropological genetics. Although eye and hair colour can already be predicted with high accuracies from small sets of carefully selected DNA markers, knowledge about the genetic

  1. Developmental colour agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zandvoort, Martine J E; Nijboer, Tanja C W; de Haan, Edward

    2007-08-01

    Colour agnosia concerns the inability to recognise colours despite intact colour perception, semantic memory for colour information, and colour naming. Patients with selective colour agnosia have been described and the deficit is associated with left hemisphere damage. Here we report a case study of a 43-year-old man who was referred to us with a stroke in his right cerebellar hemisphere. During the standard assessment it transpired that he was unable to name coloured patches. Detailed assessment of his colour processing showed that he suffers from a selective colour agnosia. As he claimed to have had this problem all his life, and the fact that the infratentorial infarct that he had incurred was in an area far away from the brain structures that are known to be involved in colour processing, we suggest that he is the first reported case of developmental colour agnosia.

  2. New particles and breaking the colour symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolikowski, W.

    1975-01-01

    In the framework of one-gluon-exchange static forces mediated by a colour octet or nonet of vector gluons, we discuss quark binding in coloured-meson states and its connection with breaking the colour symmetry. A possible identification of psi (3.1), psi(3.7) and the broad bump at 4.1 GeV with some coloured bound states of quarks and antiquarks is pointed out. This identification implies the existence of a second bump in the region of 5 GeV. The general conclusion of the paper is that the colour interpretation of the new particles may be true only if the colour symmetry is badly broken (provided the considered forces are relevant). (author)

  3. Attention-driven auditory cortex short-term plasticity helps segregate relevant sounds from noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahveninen, Jyrki; Hämäläinen, Matti; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Ahlfors, Seppo P; Huang, Samantha; Lin, Fa-Hsuan; Raij, Tommi; Sams, Mikko; Vasios, Christos E; Belliveau, John W

    2011-03-08

    How can we concentrate on relevant sounds in noisy environments? A "gain model" suggests that auditory attention simply amplifies relevant and suppresses irrelevant afferent inputs. However, it is unclear whether this suffices when attended and ignored features overlap to stimulate the same neuronal receptive fields. A "tuning model" suggests that, in addition to gain, attention modulates feature selectivity of auditory neurons. We recorded magnetoencephalography, EEG, and functional MRI (fMRI) while subjects attended to tones delivered to one ear and ignored opposite-ear inputs. The attended ear was switched every 30 s to quantify how quickly the effects evolve. To produce overlapping inputs, the tones were presented alone vs. during white-noise masking notch-filtered ±1/6 octaves around the tone center frequencies. Amplitude modulation (39 vs. 41 Hz in opposite ears) was applied for "frequency tagging" of attention effects on maskers. Noise masking reduced early (50-150 ms; N1) auditory responses to unattended tones. In support of the tuning model, selective attention canceled out this attenuating effect but did not modulate the gain of 50-150 ms activity to nonmasked tones or steady-state responses to the maskers themselves. These tuning effects originated at nonprimary auditory cortices, purportedly occupied by neurons that, without attention, have wider frequency tuning than ±1/6 octaves. The attentional tuning evolved rapidly, during the first few seconds after attention switching, and correlated with behavioral discrimination performance. In conclusion, a simple gain model alone cannot explain auditory selective attention. In nonprimary auditory cortices, attention-driven short-term plasticity retunes neurons to segregate relevant sounds from noise.

  4. Colour Perception in ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaschewski, Tobias; Ruppert, Sinje; Tannock, Rosemary; Albrecht, Bjorn; Becker, Andreas; Uebel, Henrik; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2006-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with unexplained impairments on speeded naming of coloured stimuli. These deficits may reflect hypofunctioning retinal dopaminergic mechanisms impairing particularly blue-yellow colour discrimination. Colour perception and rapid colour naming ability were investigated in 14 children…

  5. Relevance of a subjective quality of life questionnaire for long-term homeless persons with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, V; Tinland, A; Bonin, J P; Olive, F; Poule, J; Lancon, C; Apostolidis, T; Rowe, M; Greacen, T; Simeoni, M C

    2017-02-17

    Increasing numbers of programs are addressing the specific needs of homeless people with schizophrenia in terms of access to housing, healthcare, basic human rights and other domains. Although quality of life scales are being used to evaluate such programs, few instruments have been validated for people with schizophrenia and none for people with schizophrenia who experience major social problems such as homelessness. The aim of the present study was to validate the French version of the S-QoL a self-administered, subjective quality of life questionnaire specific to schizophrenia for people with schizophrenia who are homeless. In a two-step process, the S-QoL was first administered to two independent convenience samples of long-term homeless people with schizophrenia in Marseille, France. The objective of the first step was to analyse the psychometric properties of the S-QoL. The objective of the second step was to examine, through qualitative interviews with members of the population in question, the relevance and acceptability of the principle quality of life indicators used in the S-QoL instrument. Although the psychometric characteristics of the S-QoL were found to be globally satisfactory, from the point of view of the people being interviewed, acceptability was poor. Respondents frequently interrupted participation complaining that questionnaire items did not take into account the specific context of life on the streets. Less intrusive questions, more readily understandable vocabulary and greater relevance to subjects' living conditions are needed to improve the S-QoL questionnaire for this population. A modular questionnaire with context specific sections or specific quality of life instruments for socially excluded populations may well be the way forward.

  6. Colour perception in ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Banaschewski, T.; Ruppert, S; Tannock, R.; Albrecht, B.; Becker, A.; Uebel, H.; Sergeant, J.A.; Rothenberger, A.

    2006-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with unexplained impairments on speeded naming of coloured stimuli. These deficits may reflect hypofunctioning retinal dopaminergic mechanisms impairing particularly blue-yellow colour discrimination. Colour perception and rapid colour naming ability were investigated in 14 children with ADHD and 13 healthy peers matched for age, gender, and IQ, using the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue Test (FMT) and the Stroop-Colour-Word test. Childr...

  7. Colorimetry and prime colours--a theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornaes, Hans Petter; Wold, Jan Henrik; Farup, Ivar

    2005-08-01

    Human colour vision is the result of a complex process involving topics ranging from physics of light to perception. Whereas the diversity of light entering the eye in principle span an infinite-dimensional vector space in terms of the spectral power distributions, the space of human colour perceptions is three dimensional. One important consequence of this is that a variety of colours can be visually matched by a mixture of only three adequately chosen reference lights. It has been observed that there exists one particular set of monochromatic reference lights that, according to a certain definition, is optimal for producing colour matches. These reference lights are commonly denoted prime colours. In the present paper, we intend to rigorously show that the existence of prime colours is not particular to the human visual system as sometimes stated, but rather an algebraic consequence of the manner in which a kind of colorimetric functions called colour-matching functions are defined and transformed. The solution is based on maximisation of a determinant determining the gamut size of the colour space spanned by the prime colours. Cramer's rule for solving a set of linear equations is an essential part of the proof. By means of examples, it is shown that mathematically the optimal set of reference lights is not unique in general, and that the existence of a maximum determinant is not a necessary condition for the existence of prime colours.

  8. Recolouring-resistant colourings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A. S.; Rautenbach, D.

    2011-01-01

    We study colourings of graphs with the property that the number of used colours cannot be reduced by applying some recolouring operation. A well-studied example of such colourings are b-colourings, which were introduced by Irving and Manlove [R.W. Irving, D.F. Manlove, The la-chromatic number...... of a graph, Discrete Appl. Math. 91 (1999) 127-141]. Given a graph and a colouring, a recolouring operation specifies a set of vertices of the graph on which the colouring can be changed. We consider two such operations: One which allows the recolouring of all vertices within some given distance of some...... colour class, and another which allows the recolouring of all vertices that belong to one of a given number of colour classes. Our results extend known results concerning b-colourings and the associated b-chromatic number. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  9. The role of colour in implicit and explicit memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, David; Lloyd-Jones, Toby J

    2003-07-01

    We present two experiments that examine the effects of colour transformation between study and test (from black and white to colour and vice versa, of from incorrectly coloured to correctly coloured and vice versa) on implicit and explicit measures of memory for diagnostically coloured natural objects (e.g., yellow banana). For naming and coloured-object decision (i.e., deciding whether an object is correctly coloured), there were shorter response times to correctly coloured-objects than to black-and-white and incorrectly coloured-objects. Repetition priming was equivalent for the different stimulus types. Colour transformation did not influence priming of picture naming, but for coloured-object decision priming was evident only for objects remaining the same from study to test. This was the case for both naming and coloured-object decision as study tasks. When participants were asked to consciously recognize objects that they had named or made coloured-object decisions to previously, whilst ignoring their colour, colour transformation reduced recognition efficiency. We discuss these results in terms of the flexibility of object representations that mediate priming and recognition.

  10. Silorane, ormocer, methacrylate and compomer long-term staining susceptibility using ΔE and ΔE 00 colour-difference formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregor, Ladislav; Krejci, Ivo; Di Bella, Enrico; Feilzer, Albert J; Ardu, Stefano

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the staining susceptibility of a silorane (Filtek Silorane), an ormocer (Ceram X Duo), a methacrylate (Tetric EvoCeram) and a compomer (Dyract) exposed on the long term to various staining agents by using ΔE and ΔE 00 colour-difference formulas. Thirty-six disc-shaped specimens were made of each of the four chemically different materials, randomly divided in six groups (n = 6) and immersed in five staining solutions (red wine, juice, coke, tea and coffee) or stored dry (control) in an incubator at 37 °C for 99 days. Spectrophotometric measurements by means of a spectrophotometer (Spectroshade Handy Dental, MHT) were repeated over a white (L* = 92.6, a* = -1.2, b* = 2.9) and black (L* = 1.6, a* = 1.2, b* = -1.0) background made of plasticized paper, in order to determine the colour changes according to ΔE, ΔE 00 and translucency formulas. Statistical analysis was performed by means of factorial Anova, Fisher's LSD test (post hoc) and a Spearman rank correlation between ΔE and ΔE 00. When analysed over a white background, mean ΔE 00 values were highly significantly different and varied from 0.8 (Ceram X Duo/air) to 20.9 (Ceram X Duo/red wine). When analysed over a black background, mean ΔE 00 values were highly significantly different and varied from 1.0 (Ceram X Duo and Tetric/air) to 25.2 (Ceram X Duo/red wine). Differences in translucency varied from 0.3 (Ceram X Duo/air) to 21.1 (Ceram X Duo/juice). The correlation between ΔE and ΔE 00 over a white background was 0.9928, while over a black background, it was 0.9886.

  11. Release modes and processes relevant to source-term calculations at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apted, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    The feasibility of permanent disposal of radioactive high-level waste (HLW) in repositories located in deep geologic formations is being studied world-wide. The most credible release pathway is interaction between groundwater and nuclear waste forms, followed by migration of radionuclide-bearing groundwater to the accessible environment. Under hydrologically unsaturated conditions, vapor transport of volatile radionuclides is also possible. The near-field encompasses the waste packages composed of engineered barriers (e.g. man-made materials, such as vitrified waste forms, corrosion-resistant containers), while the far-field includes the natural barriers (e.g. host rock, hydrologic setting). Taken together, these two subsystems define a series of multiple, redundant barriers that act to assure the safe isolation of nuclear waste. In the U.S., the Department of energy (DOE) is investigating the feasibility of safe, long-term disposal of high-level nuclear waste at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. The proposed repository horizon is located in non-welded tuffs within the unsaturated zone (i.e. above the water table) at Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this paper is to describe the source-term models for radionuclide release from waste packages at Yucca Mountain site. The first section describes the conceptual release modes that are relevant for this site and waste package design, based on a consideration of the performance of currently proposed engineered barriers under expected and unexpected conditions. No attempt is made to asses the reasonableness nor probability of occurrence for any specific release mode. The following section reviews the waste-form characteristics that are required to model and constrain the release of radionuclides from the waste package. The next section present mathematical models for the conceptual release modes, selected from those that have been implemented into a probabilistic total system assessment code developed for the Electric Power

  12. Long Term Fuel Sustainable Fission Energy Perspective Relevant for Combating Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, V.; Matijevic, M.; Pevec, D.; Crnobrnja, B.; Lale, D.

    2016-01-01

    In recent research we outlined climate relevant and immediately available proven light water nuclear strategy with a potential to contribute essentially and timely to reduction of carbon dioxide emission to the year 2065. We consider in this paper what is the perspective of fission energy after that year should its contribution be needed. Singling out two technologies with long term perspective which need no or small amounts of uranium, fast breeders and molten salt thorium reactors, we consider their main technical and safety characteristics. In both of these technologies it is essential to have starter nuclides as neither U238 nor Th232 are fissile. We investigated whether plutonium from spent fuel of light water reactors generated to the year 2065 would be present in quantities sufficient to continue operation on the same or similar level in both technologies. However in operational safety, proliferation risks, waste production, in our judgement we must give preference to thorium technology, if it would be ready in second half of the century.(author).

  13. Effects of memory colour on colour constancy for unknown coloured objects

    OpenAIRE

    Granzier, Jeroen J M; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2012-01-01

    The perception of an object's colour remains constant despite large variations in the chromaticity of the illumination—colour constancy. Hering suggested that memory colours, the typical colours of objects, could help in estimating the illuminant's colour and therefore be an important factor in establishing colour constancy. Here we test whether the presence of objects with diagnostical colours (fruits, vegetables, etc) within a scene influence colour constancy for unknown coloured objects in...

  14. Pseudoisochromatic test plate colour representation dependence on printing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luse, K; Ozolinsh, M; Fomins, S

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine best printing technology for creation of colour vision deficiency tests. Valid tests for protanopia and deuteranopia were created from perceived colour matching experiments from printed colour samples by colour deficient individuals. Calibrated EpsonStylus Pro 7800 printer for ink prints and Noritsu HD 3701 digital printer for photographic prints were used. Multispectral imagery (by tunable liquid crystal filters system CRI Nuance Vis 07) data analysis show that in case of ink prints, the measured pixel colour coordinate dispersion (in the CIExy colour diagram) of similar colour arrays is smaller than in case of photographic printing. The print quality in terms of colour coordinate dispersion for printing methods used is much higher than in case of commercially available colour vision deficiency tests.

  15. Colour Blocking: Disregarding Traditional Artistic Colour Harmonies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A development in the world of design – costume, fashion, graphics, architecture and general decor whereby traditional colour harmonies are reengineered to suite the taste of the time engages the attention of the paper. The trending phenomenon popularly referred to as 'colour blocking' involves the use of bright ...

  16. Colour and magnetic monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrigan, E.; Olive, D.

    1976-01-01

    If the exact gauge symmetry of nature consists of the U(1)sub(EM) generated by the electric charge operator Q and the colour group K, with Q a colour singlet, then, if g is a possible magnetic charge, exp(4πigQ) must equal an element of the colour group. For colour singlet particles this reduces to Dirac's condition eg = n/2. In general, possible monopoles correspond to points of intersection of the colour and electromagnetic groups. If the colour group is semi-simple and compact, there can at most be a finite number p of such points (p = N if K = SU(N)). The existence of non-trivial (not equal to unity) solutions to our condition means that there must be fractionally charged (with p the fraction) coloured particles and magnetic monopoles emanating colour magnetic flux as well as electromagnetic flux. (Auth.)

  17. Microbial processes relevant for the long-term performance of radioactive waste repositories in clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meleshyn, Artur

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. A number of investigations on occurrence and viability of microbes in compacted clays have been aimed at studying possible microbial effects on long-term performance of a deep geological repository (DGR) for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SF). Compacted clays are considered in current DGR designs either as a buffer material or as a host rock. The primary purpose of the present work was to qualitatively evaluate the relevance of microbial activity for the long-term performance of a DGR and to identify which safety-relevant processes and properties can be potentially influenced by this activity. The present analysis identified eight clay properties essential for maintaining safety functions of containment and retardation of the disposal system - swelling pressure, specific surface area, cation exchange capacity, anion sorption capacity, porosity, permeability, fluid pressure, plasticity - which can potentially be influenced by microbial processes in clay buffer and Clay-stone within a DGR for HLW/SF. Iron(III)- and sulphate-reducing, fermentative, methane-producing and oxidizing microbes can be considered to be present in any clay formation. Each habitat includes a massive number of microbial niches with perhaps only a small proportion of the species being metabolically active at the habitat's conditions, the remainder becoming not extinct. Moreover, clays contain electron donors and electron acceptors in amounts sufficient for these microbes to remain active during very long periods of time. Additional sources of electron donors or electron acceptors will inevitably be added to the repository system as a result of DGR excavation, placement of radioactive waste as well as backfilling and sealing of the DGR. In no case should the potential impact of microbes be underestimated based on a possible argument of comparably low biomass of the microbes in contact with metal surfaces or dissolved

  18. Topographical coloured plasmonic coins

    OpenAIRE

    Guay, Jean-Michel; Lesina, Antonino Calà; Côté, Guillaume; Charron, Martin; Ramunno, Lora; Berini, Pierre; Weck, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Plasmonic resonances in metallic nanoparticles have been used since antiquity to colour glasses. The use of metal nanostructures for surface colourization has attracted considerable interest following recent developments in plasmonics. However, current top-down colourization methods are not ideally suited to large-scale industrial applications. Here we use a bottom-up approach where picosecond laser pulses can produce a full palette of non-iridescent colours on silver, gold, copper and alumin...

  19. Summing large-N towers in colour flow evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaetzer, Simon

    2013-12-01

    We consider soft gluon evolution in the colour flow basis. We give explicit expressions for the colour structure of the (one-loop) soft anomalous dimension matrix for an arbitrary number of partons, and show how the successive exponentiation of classes of large-N contributions can be achieved to provide a systematic expansion of the evolution in terms of colour supressed contributions.

  20. Colour printing techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Parraman, C.

    2017-01-01

    Invited chapter in the book Colour Design: Theories and Applications. In PART 3 COLOUR, DESIGN AND COLORATION this chapter covers:\\ud - Hardcopy colour: analogue versus digital\\ud - Colour theory in relation to printing\\ud - Overview of halftoning and digital print technologies\\ud - Overview and development of inks\\ud - Inkjet papers and inks\\ud - Recent and future trends in colour, printing inks and hardware.\\ud \\ud This book differs from other existing books in the field, with the aim of an...

  1. Attention-driven auditory cortex short-term plasticity helps segregate relevant sounds from noise

    OpenAIRE

    Ahveninen, Jyrki; Hämäläinen, Matti; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P.; Ahlfors, Seppo P.; Huang, Samantha; Lin, Fa-Hsuan; Raij, Tommi; Sams, Mikko; Vasios, Christos E.; Belliveau, John W.

    2011-01-01

    How can we concentrate on relevant sounds in noisy environments? A “gain model” suggests that auditory attention simply amplifies relevant and suppresses irrelevant afferent inputs. However, it is unclear whether this suffices when attended and ignored features overlap to stimulate the same neuronal receptive fields. A “tuning model” suggests that, in addition to gain, attention modulates feature selectivity of auditory neurons. We recorded magnetoencephalography, EEG, and functional MRI (fMR...

  2. Plasmonic colour generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders; Yang, Joel K. W.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2016-01-01

    Plasmonic colours are structural colours that emerge from resonant interactions between light and metallic nanostructures. The engineering of plasmonic colours is a promising, rapidly emerging research field that could have a large technological impact. We highlight basic properties of plasmonic...... colours and recent nanofabrication developments, comparing technology-performance indicators for traditional and nanophotonic colour technologies. The structures of interest include diffraction gratings, nanoaperture arrays, thin films, and multilayers and structures that support Mie resonances...... and whispering-gallery modes. We discuss plasmonic colour nanotechnology based on localized surface plasmon resonances, such as gap plasmons and hybridized disk–hole plasmons, which allow for colour printing with sub-diffraction resolution. We also address a range of fabrication approaches that enable large...

  3. Is colour cognitive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorupski, Peter; Chittka, Lars

    2011-03-01

    In recent years, colour-vision abilities have been rather generously ascribed to various invertebrates and even bacteria. This uncertainty of when to diagnose colour vision stems in part from confusing what colour vision can do with what it is. What colour vision can do is discriminate wavelength independent of intensity. However, if we take this as a definition of what colour vision is, then we might be obliged to conclude that some plants and bacteria have colour vision. Moreover, there is a similar confusion of what are necessary and what are sufficient mechanisms and behavioural abilities for colour vision. To humans, seeing in colour means seeing an image in which objects/lights have chromatic attributes—in contrast to the sensation that we have when viewing monochrome movies, or our experience in dim light when only rod vision is possible. The necessary basic equipment for this is to have at least two types of photoreceptors that differ in spectral sensitivity, and at least one type of spectrally opponent cell to compare the signals from the photoreceptors. Clearly, however, a necessary additional prerequisite for colour vision is to have vision, which entails the identification of shapes, sizes and locations of objects in the world. Thus, if an animal has colour vision, it should see an image in which distinct objects/lights have colour attributes. This distinguishes colour vision from wavelength discrimination, but also from what has historically been called wavelength-specific behaviour: a type of behaviour triggered by fixed configurations of spectral receptor signals; however, we discuss difficulties in diagnosing wavelength-specific behaviour as an indicator of the absence of colour vision. Finally, we discuss whether colour vision, by definition, contains a cognitive dimension for ordering and classifying perceptual experience.

  4. Colour scheme an exploration of the indeterminate space of colour

    OpenAIRE

    Varga, Tania Elke

    2017-01-01

    Colour Scheme examines the potential for colour to be understood as a relational and therefore, indeterminate space. The CMYK process colour model is reworked to investigate the idea of colour as an indeterminate space. In proposing that process colour can be understood as a fluid and relational system I draw attention to the unquantifiable and qualitative nature of colour. Colour can be understood as a verb, and as such may be thought of as an active substance. This understanding of col...

  5. Validation of a colour rendering index based on memory colours

    OpenAIRE

    Smet, Kevin; Jost-Boissard, Sophie; Ryckaert, Wouter; Deconinck, Geert; Hanselaer, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the performance of a colour rendering index based on memory colours is investigated in comparison with the current CIE Colour Rendering Index, the NIST Colour Quality Scale and visual appreciation results obtained at CNRS at Lyon University for a set of 3000K and 4000K LED light sources. The Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients between each colour rendering metric and the two sets of visual results were calculated. It was found that the memory colour based colour render...

  6. Segmenting memory colours

    OpenAIRE

    Fredembach, Clément; Estrada, Francisco; Süsstrunk, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    Memory colours refer to the colour of specific image classes that have the essential attribute of being perceived in a consistent manner by human observers. In colour correction or rendering tasks, this consistency implies that they have to be faithfully reproduced; their importance, in that respect, is greater than other regions in an image. Before these regions can be properly addressed, one must in general detect them. There are various schemes and attributes to do so, but the preferred me...

  7. Colour and Organization Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyes, Timon

    2017-01-01

    Colour is inescapable. It fills and forms the world, shaping what can be felt and known, desired and expressed. It thus becomes social technology and organizational tool. At the same time, however, colour betrays, undermines and subverts the attempts to manage it. Based on an understanding...... of colour as aesthetic force and medium of transformation, the essay presents a montage of scenes that set up encounters with what colour does: how it affects organization, and how it is affected by organization; how it organizes what is given to perception, knowledge and organization itself, and how...

  8. Colour reconnections and rapidity gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loennblad, Leif

    1996-01-01

    I argue that the success of recently proposed models describing events with large rapidity gaps in DIS at HERA in terms of non-perturbative colour exchange is heavily reliant on suppression of perturbative gluon emission in the proton direction. There is little or no physical motivation for such suppression and I show that a model without this suppression cannot describe the rapidity gap events at HERA. (author)

  9. A comparison of two methods of determining colour change in the assessment of the quality of pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamucki, Tadeusz; Rybarczyk, Artur; Jakubowska, Małgorzata; Sulerzycka, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The colour of pork is one of the most important measures of meat quality. For the consumer, it is a sign of freshness, crucial for the decision to buy a product. The storage of meat results in constant col- our changes. Differences can be found in all colour parameters, especially chromatic ones, such as redness (a*) and hue angle (h°), as these changes are significantly correlated with a number of quality traits. Colour change can be determined not only by evaluating changes in colour parameters, but also by establishing the change in absorbance of specific wavelengths of light. The aim of this study was to compare the usefulness of these two methods of determining colour change: parameters measured on the CIELAB and CIELCh scales and colour change (%CC) determined based on the absorbance of selected wavelengths of light, i.e. 505, 540, 560, 580 and 630 nm. In this paper, we analysed two methods of measuring colour change in terms of their relevance for meat quality assessment. The study involved 150 samples of the longissimus lumborum muscle collected from 150 carcasses of pigs slaughtered on an industrial line, weighing 65-107 kg, with an average carcass weight of 86.1 kg. Meat sensory analysis (colour, wateriness, firmness), physicochemical assessment (colour, WHC, pH48) and proximate analysis (moisture, total protein, fat, ash) were carried out. The methods included the determination of (I) changes in colour parameters measured on the CIELAB and CIELCh scales, and (II) colour change (%CC) based on the absorbance of selected wavelengths: 505, 540, 560, 580 and 630 nm. Chromatic absorbance values of a wavelength of 525 nm (A525p) and the relative content of Mb, MbO2 and MetMb were calculated according to the method proposed by Krzywicki (1979). Basic chemical composition - with few exceptions - was not significantly correlated with differenc- es in the values of colour parameters (ΔL*, ?a*, ?b*, ΔC*, Δh°) and colour change (%CC). With an increase in scores

  10. Short-Term Auditory Memory in Children Using Cochlear Implants and Its Relevance to Receptive Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, P. W.; Busby, P. A.; McKay, C. M.; Clark, G. M.

    2002-01-01

    A study assessed auditory sequential, short-term memory (SSTM) performance in 24 children (ages 5-11) using cochlear implants (CI). The CI group did not have a sequential memory deficit specific to the auditory modality. Visual spatial memory was the main predictor of variance in the language scores of the CI group. (Contains references.)…

  11. The colours of CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    Would you move into an office painted in a colour you hate? As we all know, taste in colour is individual. Thanks to the establishment of a new Painting Charter, conflicting opinions will be unified.   The four new paint colours established in the Painting Charter. There were many reasons behind the creation of the Painting Charter by the GS SEM Department. Unlike many companies, CERN has not until now regulated which colours can be used inside buildings. With many nationalities passing through CERN, tastes tend to differ: northern countries usually prefer colder colours, while southern countries seem to prefer warm colours. It’s not hard to imagine how quickly we could make a rainbow! In addition, whenever an office needs to be repainted, it can be difficult to find exactly the same colour. This results in entire walls being repainted, which increases the cost. If – by chance – the original colour is found, it could be out of stock. While ...

  12. Colour: code, mode, modality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo

    2014-01-01

    This article uses a social semiotic approach to discuss the influence of film, video and digital technologies on the way colour is used in audiovisual media......This article uses a social semiotic approach to discuss the influence of film, video and digital technologies on the way colour is used in audiovisual media...

  13. Colouring outside the lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commissariat, Tushna

    2017-10-01

    Walk into a bookshop today, or even a gift shop, and you will most likely come across an entire section of colouring books for adults. Visions of Numberland: a Colouring Journey Through the Mysteries of Maths by Alex Bellos and Edmund Harriss is one such book.

  14. Graph Colouring Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husfeldt, Thore

    2015-01-01

    This chapter presents an introduction to graph colouring algorithms. The focus is on vertex-colouring algorithms that work for general classes of graphs with worst-case performance guarantees in a sequential model of computation. The presentation aims to demonstrate the breadth of available...

  15. Chemistry of Colours

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    focus on why things have colour and what causes them to change their colour. Light is a form of .... Another pigment found in the leaves of many plants is carotene. Carotene absorbs ... structure of cyanidin changes with pH. The form shown in ...

  16. Ultrasonic colour Doppler imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, David H.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic colour Doppler is an imaging technique that combines anatomical information derived using ultrasonic pulse-echo techniques with velocity information derived using ultrasonic Doppler techniques to generate colour-coded maps of tissue velocity superimposed on grey-scale images of tissue...... anatomy. The most common use of the technique is to image the movement of blood through the heart, arteries and veins, but it may also be used to image the motion of solid tissues such as the heart walls. Colour Doppler imaging is now provided on almost all commercial ultrasound machines, and has been...... vectors. This review briefly introduces the principles behind colour Doppler imaging and describes some clinical applications. It then describes the basic components of conventional colour Doppler systems and the methods used to derive velocity information from the ultrasound signal. Next, a number of new...

  17. Colour and lighting in hospital design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalke, Hilary; Little, Jenny; Niemann, Elga; Camgoz, Nilgun; Steadman, Guillaume; Hill, Sarah; Stott, Laura

    2006-06-01

    Little information or guidance has been available to assist the development of a hospital's visual environment. A report on lighting and colour design schemes, accessible to non professionals with responsibility for refurbishment strategies, was required by NHS Estates. Firstly, 20 hospitals were audited to establish a picture of current practice and to identify key issues where colour design could broadly enhance the environment for patients, staff and visitors. Critical areas were outlined in this report, where colour design can be utilised and applied, for the benefit of all users, from ambience to essential legal requirements such as colour contrast for the visually impaired. Provision of staff relaxation rooms that are different in terms of colour and lux levels from immediate work spaces, or thoughtfully designed areas for patients awaiting intensive treatment, have been shown to have some beneficial effects on a sense of well being. Colour and design have not been established as a definite cure for sickness and ill health, but certainly monotony and poor conditions in premises that have not been refurbished with any care, have had a detrimental affect on recovery rates and staff morale. The realisation that a well balanced and attractive environment is of major importance to patients' health is, in no way new; Florence Nightingale observed that 'a variety of form and brilliance of colour in the objects presented to patients are an actual means of recovery'.

  18. Computational colour science using MATLAB

    CERN Document Server

    Westland, Stephen; Cheung, Vien

    2012-01-01

    Computational Colour Science Using MATLAB 2nd Edition offers a practical, problem-based approach to colour physics. The book focuses on the key issues encountered in modern colour engineering, including efficient representation of colour information, Fourier analysis of reflectance spectra and advanced colorimetric computation. Emphasis is placed on the practical applications rather than the techniques themselves, with material structured around key topics. These topics include colour calibration of visual displays, computer recipe prediction and models for colour-appearance prediction. Each t

  19. Effects of Memory Colour on Colour Constancy for Unknown Coloured Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen J M Granzier

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The perception of an object's colour remains constant despite large variations in the chromaticity of the illumination—colour constancy. Hering suggested that memory colours, the typical colours of objects, could help in estimating the illuminant's colour and therefore be an important factor in establishing colour constancy. Here we test whether the presence of objects with diagnostical colours (fruits, vegetables, etc within a scene influence colour constancy for unknown coloured objects in the scene. Subjects matched one of four Munsell papers placed in a scene illuminated under either a reddish or a greenish lamp with the Munsell book of colour illuminated by a neutral lamp. The Munsell papers were embedded in four different scenes—one scene containing diagnostically coloured objects, one scene containing incongruent coloured objects, a third scene with geometrical objects of the same colour as the diagnostically coloured objects, and one scene containing non-diagnostically coloured objects (eg, a yellow coffee mug. All objects were placed against a black background. Colour constancy was on average significantly higher for the scene containing the diagnostically coloured objects compared with the other scenes tested. We conclude that the colours of familiar objects help in obtaining colour constancy for unknown objects.

  20. Effects of memory colour on colour constancy for unknown coloured objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granzier, Jeroen J M; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2012-01-01

    The perception of an object's colour remains constant despite large variations in the chromaticity of the illumination-colour constancy. Hering suggested that memory colours, the typical colours of objects, could help in estimating the illuminant's colour and therefore be an important factor in establishing colour constancy. Here we test whether the presence of objects with diagnostical colours (fruits, vegetables, etc) within a scene influence colour constancy for unknown coloured objects in the scene. Subjects matched one of four Munsell papers placed in a scene illuminated under either a reddish or a greenish lamp with the Munsell book of colour illuminated by a neutral lamp. The Munsell papers were embedded in four different scenes-one scene containing diagnostically coloured objects, one scene containing incongruent coloured objects, a third scene with geometrical objects of the same colour as the diagnostically coloured objects, and one scene containing non-diagnostically coloured objects (eg, a yellow coffee mug). All objects were placed against a black background. Colour constancy was on average significantly higher for the scene containing the diagnostically coloured objects compared with the other scenes tested. We conclude that the colours of familiar objects help in obtaining colour constancy for unknown objects.

  1. Portrait of a colour octet

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilar-Saavedra, J A

    2014-01-01

    New colour octets stand out among the new physics proposals to explain the anomalous forward-backward asymmetry measured in $t \\bar t$ production by the CDF experiment at the Tevatron. We perform a fit to $t \\bar t$ observables at the Tevatron and the LHC, including total cross sections, various asymmetries and the top polarisation and spin correlations, to find the most likely parameters of a light colour octet to be consistent with data. In particular, an octet coupling only to right-handed quarks gives a good fit to all measurements. The implications from the general fit are drawn in terms of predictions for top polarisation observables whose measurements are yet not very precise, and observables which simply have not been measured.

  2. Balancing selection maintains cryptic colour morphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellenreuther, Maren

    2017-11-01

    Animals display incredibly diverse colour patterns, a testament to evolution's endless innovation in shaping life. In many species, the interplay between males and females in the pursuit of mates has driven the evolution of a myriad of colour forms, from the flashy peacock tail feathers to the tiniest colour markings in damselflies. In others, colour provides crypsis by allowing to blend into the background and to escape the eyes of predators. While the obvious benefits of this dazzling diversity for reproduction and survival seem straightforward, its maintenance is not. Theory predicts that genetic drift and various forms of selection reduce variation over time, making the persistence of colour variants over generations a puzzle. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Lindtke et al. () study the cryptic colour morphs of Timema cristinae walking sticks to shed light on the genetic architecture and mechanisms that allow colour polymorphism maintenance over long timescales. By combining genome-wide data with phenotyping information from natural populations, they were able to map the green and melanistic colour to one genomic region with highly reduced effective recombination rate between two main chromosomal variants, consistent with an inversion polymorphism. These two main chromosomal variants showed geographically widespread heterozygote excess, and genomic signatures consistent with long-term balancing selection. A younger chromosomal variant was detected for the third morph, the green-striped colour morphs, in the same genomic regions as the melanistic and the green-unstriped morphs. Together, these results suggest that the genetic architecture of cryptic T. cristinae morphs is caused by nonrecombining genomic blocks that have been maintained over extended time periods by balancing selection making this study one of the few available empirical examples documenting that balancing selection of various forms may play an important role in maintaining adaptive genetic

  3. Culture of colour in the city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljević-Tomić Dragana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of colour is examined through the evolution of colour and development of culture of colour, which significantly affects the colouristic priorities of people and the colour of the city itself. The terms functional colour and climate of colour are also considered, as some of the most important characteristics of architectural and urban design practice. The quality of the urban public space is directly predicated by cultural identity, and indirectly by appearance of polychromy in urban public space. The need to improve the quality of life in the city represents one of the key motives for operating in urban space, i.e. commencing the process of architectural and urban designing. Historical architectural policrhomy represents the basis for appearance of colour in public space. The complexity of colouristic attributes of the urban public space is conditioned by the basic characteristics: colouristic priorities, harmony of coloured spatial structures and materials in designing the polychrome ambient in the city. The factors that shape the colouristic ambient of the city are: characteristics of nature and climate, interrelations of colour and shape, as well as the experience of the form of the urban public space while preserving its identity. The acquired experiences point to the possibility of redefining the concepts of urban public space in planning and designing practice. The synthesized knowledge is sublimed through examination of the elasticity of its boundaries in accordance to the preservation of the identity of place and the future transformations of the city as well as of its users. The new principles are formed upon which the transformed model of the urban public space as a polychrome ambient is built.

  4. Biogeochemical Cycling and Environmental Stability of Pu Relevant to Long-Term Stewardship of DOE Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honeyman, Bruce D.

    2006-06-01

    The overall objective of this proposed research is to understand the biogeochemical cycling of Pu in environments of interest to long-term DOE stewardship issues. Central to Pu cycling (transport initiation to immobilization) is the role of microorganisms. The hypothesis underlying this proposal is that microbial activity is the causative agent in initiating the mobilization of Pu in near-surface environments: through the transformation of Pu associated with solid phases, production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) carrier phases, and the creation of microenvironments. Also, microbial processes are central to the immobilization of Pu species, through the metabolism of organically complexed Pu species and Pu associated with extracellular carrier phases and the creation of environments favorable for Pu transport retardation.

  5. Biogeochemical Cycling and Environmental Stability of Pu Relevant to Long-Term Stewardship of DOE Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, Arokiasamy J.; Santschi, Peter H.; Honeyman, Bruce D.

    2005-06-01

    The overall objective of this proposed research is to understand the biogeochemical cycling of Pu in environments of interest to long-term DOE stewardship issues. Central to Pu cycling (transport initiation to immobilization) is the role of microorganisms. The hypothesis underlying this proposal is that microbial activity is the causative agent in initiating the mobilization of Pu in near-surface environments: through the transformation of Pu associated with solid phases, production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) carrier phases, and the creation of microenvironments. Also, microbial processes are central to the immobilization of Pu species, through the metabolism of organically complexed Pu species and Pu associated with extracellular carrier phases and the creation of environments favorable for Pu transport retardation.

  6. Long-term trends in midwestern milkweed abundances and their relevance to monarch butterfly declines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaya, David N.; Pearse, Ian; Spyreas, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    Declines in monarch butterfly populations have prompted investigation into the sensitivity of their milkweed host plants to land-use change. Documented declines in milkweed abundance in croplands have spurred efforts to promote milkweeds in other habitats. Nevertheless, our current understanding of milkweed populations is poor. We used a long-term plant survey from Illinois to evaluate whether trends in milkweed abundance have caused monarch decline and to highlight the habitat-management practices that promote milkweeds. Milkweed abundance in natural areas has not declined precipitously, although when croplands are considered, changes in agricultural weed management have led to a 68% loss of milkweed available for monarchs across the region. Midsuccessional plant communities with few invasive species provide optimal milkweed habitat. The augmentation of natural areas and the management of existing grasslands, such as less frequent mowing and woody- and exotic-species control, may replace some of the milkweed that has been lost from croplands.

  7. Colour From the Perspective of Hadith: an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainan Nazri Mohd Khairul Nizam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Colour is mentioned a few times in the Prophetic Traditions, signifying its values and symbolic representation for the people. The Prophet PBUH highlighted the significance of certain colours by describing his preferred colours for his clothing and he also approved or discouraged the usage of certain colours. Among the colours that are specifically mentioned and found in the hadith are white, red, green, black and yellow. These colours give different connotations as they were used in the Prophet’s attires during battles and other occasions; and some bring about specific understanding, as stated by the Prophet PBUH. Interestingly, the use of certain colours as found in the hadith corresponds to that mentioned in the Qur’an. Thus, this paper will observe the discussion among Muhaddithin regarding to the topic of colours in terms of its definition, function, significance and impact on the human life. The variety of meaning and understanding of colours according to different perspectives and cultures will also be discussed. The implications of using specific colours psychologically and scientifically will also be exposed in order to discover the connection between colours in the Prophetic Traditions and in our contemporary life.

  8. Ultrasonic colour Doppler imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, David H; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic colour Doppler is an imaging technique that combines anatomical information derived using ultrasonic pulse-echo techniques with velocity information derived using ultrasonic Doppler techniques to generate colour-coded maps of tissue velocity superimposed on grey-scale images of tissue...... anatomy. The most common use of the technique is to image the movement of blood through the heart, arteries and veins, but it may also be used to image the motion of solid tissues such as the heart walls. Colour Doppler imaging is now provided on almost all commercial ultrasound machines, and has been...

  9. An unconventional colour superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Mei

    2007-01-01

    Superfluidity, or superconductivity with mismatched Fermi momenta, appears in many systems such as charge-neutral dense quark matter, asymmetric nuclear matter, and in imbalanced cold atomic gases. The mismatch plays the role of breaking the Cooper pairing, and the pair-breaking state cannot be properly described in the framework of standard BCS theory. I give a brief review on recent theoretical developments in understanding unconventional colour superconductivity, including a gapless colour superconductor, chromomagnetic instabilities and the Higgs instability in the gapless phase. I also introduce a possible new framework for describing an unconventional colour superconductor

  10. Plasmonic colour laser printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Vannahme, Christoph; Højlund-Nielsen, Emil

    2016-01-01

    -beam lithography (EBL) or focused ion beam (FIB), both expensive and not scalable processes that are not suitable for post-processing customization. Here we show a method of colour printing on nanoimprinted plasmonic metasurfaces using laser post-writing. Laser pulses induce transient local heat generation...... that leads to melting and reshaping of the imprinted nanostructures. Depending on the laser pulse energy density, different surface morphologies that support different plasmonic resonances leading to different colour appearances can be created. Using this technique we can print all primary colours...

  11. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachability...... analysis of this net class, and an application of game coloured Petri nets to automatically generate easy-to-understand visualizations of the model by exploiting the knowledge that some parts of the model are not interesting from a visualization perspective (i.e. they are part of the environment...

  12. Colour Mixing Based on Daylight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2008-01-01

    Colour science is based on the sensation of monochromatic light. In contrast to that, surface colours are caused by reflection of wide sections of the daylight spectrum. Non-spectral colours like magenta and purple appear homologous to colours with spectral hue, if the approach of mixing monochromatic light is abandoned. It is shown that a large…

  13. The effect of storage on the colour of paprika powders with added oleoresin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horváth Zs. H.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of natural food colours is preferred to that of arti­ficial dyestuffs for modern alimentary purposes. Paprika is a spice plant grown and consumed in considerable quantities worldwide and also used as a natural food colour, so the colouring power of powders is very important. The colour of paprika powder is highly relevant too because the consumer concludes its colouring power based on its colour. The colouring power of paprika powders is directly determined by the quality and quantity of the colouring agent of paprika. The paprika oleoresin, that is an oil soluble extract from the fruits of Capsicum Annum Linn or Capsicum Frutescens, is suitable to raise the colour agent content of paprika powders. We investigated how the colour and the characteristics of paprika powder samples with added oleoresin change in the course of storage. The colour agent content of 7 different quality powders was increased with 7-75% using oleoresin. The initial colour agent content of samples changed between 41 and 169 ASTA units. The powders were made from Chinese, Peruvian, and Hungarian paprika. Colour measurements were performed with a HunterLab MiniScan colour-measuring instrument. The CIELab colour system was used for colour characterization. The colour agent content and the colour coordinates of samples were measured throughout 9 months. The decrease of colour agent con­tent varied between 22 and 51 percent, while the average reduction was 33 percent. The quantity of added oleoresin did not influence the colour agent content decrease significantly.

  14. About Coloured Cold Asphaltic Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Judele

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The first coloured bitumen was obtained by using bitumen from Peru and then bitumen from the Middle East, with a low content of asphaltenes, also called "colourable" bitumens. The colours obtained by adding iron oxides led nevertheless to dark colours, due to the presence of asphaltenes. Nowadays the coloured asphalt is obtained from synthesis binders with translucent aspect. The colours are obtained by adding inorganic pigments, mainly iron oxide for red, chromic oxide for green, titanic dioxide for white. The properties and behaviour of the coloured bitumen during its lifetime are comparable with the ones of classic bitumen, sometimes even better.

  15. The impacts of prescribed moorland burning on water colour and dissolved organic carbon: a critical synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, J; Chapman, P J; Palmer, S M; Kay, P; Grayson, R

    2012-06-30

    Discolouration of natural surface waters due to the humic component of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a costly problem for water supply companies. This paper reviews what is known about the impacts of prescribed moorland vegetation burning on water colour. Relevant research has taken place at three scales: laboratory experiments on peat cores, plot scale sampling of soil waters and catchment scale sampling of stream waters. While laboratory studies suggest burning increases colour production, the evidence from catchment and plot studies is contradictory. Plot studies suggest colour production may decrease or remain unchanged following burning although there is evidence for some transient changes. Catchment studies suggest prescribed moorland burning causes stream water colour to increase, although in most cases the evidence is not clear cut since most studies could not clearly disentangle the effects of burning from those of vegetation cover. The differences in findings between plot and catchment studies may be explained by: i) the short-term nature of some studies which do not measure long-term response and recovery times to burning; ii) the lack of colour measurements from shallow soil depths which contribute more to streamflow than soil water from deeper in the peat; and iii) the possibility of hydrological interactions occurring between different experimental plots at some sites. Additionally, the increase in recent patch burning in some catchments that has been statistically attributed by some authors to increases in stream water colour cannot be reconciled with theoretical calculations. When dilution with waters derived from other parts of the catchment are taken into account, large values of colour have to be theoretically derived from those recently burnt areas that occupy a small proportion of the catchment area in order to balance the change in stream water colour observed in recent years. Therefore, much further process-based work is required to

  16. The influence of colour on the aesthetics of wind turbine generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    This paper summarises the results of studies examining the role that colour plays in reducing the visual impact of wind turbines and the development of a method for selecting the colour and pattern focusing on UK rural wind farms. Published material is reviewed, and visual factors relevant to visibility, factors influencing the choice of colour for buildings and other installations in the landscape, issues arising from the choice of colour, theories of camouflage, the testing of different colours, strategies for applying colour to wind turbines, the effectiveness of the different colours, and the effect of the different colour schemes on the visual impact of wind turbine arrays are addressed. Recommendations concerning colour selection are presented. A compact disc is provided with the paper. (UK)

  17. Effect of high relative humidity on dried Plantago lanceolata L. leaves during long-term storage: effects on chemical composition, colour and microbiological quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Sándor; Tóth, László; Gyémánt, Gyöngyi; Braun, Mihály; Emri, Tamás; Vasas, Gábor

    2012-01-01

    Modern phytotherapy and quality assurance requires stability data on bioactive metabolites to identify and minimise decomposing factors during processing and storage. A compound's stability in a complex matrix can be different from the stability of the purified compound. To test the stability of iridoids and acteoside and quantify changes in colour and microbiological quality in a common herbal tea, dried P. lanceolata leaves during exposure to high-humidity air. To test the contribution of fungi to metabolite decomposition. Dried P. lanceolata leaves were exposed to atmospheres of different relative humidity (75, 45 and 0%) for 24 weeks. Changes in aucubin and catalpol concentration were determined by CE-MEKC, and those in acteoside on TLC. Colour and chlorophyll-like pigments were measured by different spectrophotometric methods. The number of fungi was monitored; 10 strains were isolated from the plant drug, and their ability to decompose the analytes of interest was tested. During incubation at 75% relative humidity (RH), aucubin, catalpol and acteoside concentrations decreased by 95.7, 97.0 and 70.5%, respectively. Strong shifts were detected in CIELAB parameters a* and b* (browning) as a result of conversion of chlorophyll to pheophytin. Intensive microbial proliferation was also observed. Changes at 45 or 0% RH were typically insignificant. Seven of the 10 isolated fungal strains could decompose both iridoids, and five could decompose acteoside in vitro. It was shown that exposure to water results in loss of bioactive molecules of P. lanceolata dried leaves, and that colonising fungi are the key contributors to this loss. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Relationship between behavioural factors and colour preferences for clothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Fornazarič

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The colour of clothing plays an important role in one’s emotional reaction and the selection of clothes, which in turn effects design, the fashion industry and sales. In our behavioural research involving the Slovenian population regarding the selection of colours, we used the results of opportunity sampling, i.e. a web survey using a sample of 204 respondents, who were invited to participate in the research using an email list sampling method. Our aim was determine how demographic and behavioural characteristics affect colour preferences for clothing. Demographic characteristics are not important in terms of the behaviour of different segments of the population, except with regard to gender. Nevertheless, we can use the results of the survey to make a correlation between colour and consumer characteristics. Those who are fond of the colour beige follow fashion trends more closely than the others, while the colour white is associated with those who follow fashion on web and in online shopping. On the contrary, consumers who prefer pink and purple primarily buy clothes in fashion shops. Those who prefer brown and beige enjoy the shopping experience more than others, while lovers of the colour pink are less inclined to buy clothes during sales than others. Consumers who prefer the colour blue are predominant in fitting shops, while those who prefer the colour black do not to buy clothes on Saturdays. Lovers of the colour blue stand out in terms of spending, while people who are fond of the colour white spend the most, although they prefer to buy less expensive clothes. People drawn to the colour grey prefer to buy less expensive jackets, while women who prefer the colour green also buy less expensive jackets. We recommend expanding the scope of the research to include historical determinants, fashion patterns, marketing communication and fashion brands, as well as other, more rational and speculative motives associated with a subject

  19. COLOURFUL DIET FOR GOOD HEALTH

    OpenAIRE

    Vandana Gupta

    2017-01-01

    We are surrounded by colour and they can affect us profoundly and in ways that we may not have thought of. It is a known fact, that colours can influence your moods, feelings and emotions. Colours influence your actions and how you respond to people, situations and ideas. Apart from the colour of interiors, exteriors, our clothing and other things, the colour of food and beverage products are also extremely important. Green fruits and vegetables support eye health and may help protect against...

  20. Colour and camouflage: design issues in military clothing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Baumbach, J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available itself. Colour differences can be defined in terms of hue, chromaticness (or chromaticity) and lightness. A person?s hue discrimination (yellow, red, blue and green are different hues of colour) can be determined by the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue... environment are blue. Yellow is the second-lightest colour of the cube in the blue environment. But, when abovementioned blue and yellow squares are isolated from their respective environments (taken out of context), all of them have the same colour...

  1. Legal and Illegal Colours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian

    2008-01-01

    opinions on food additives, including colours, and on the bioavailability and safety of nutrient sources. The WG ADD consists of several members from the AFC Panel together with selected external experts. The draft opinions go forward to the AFC Panel for discussion and final adoption. The adopted opinions......://www.efsa.europa.eu/EFSA/efsa_locale-1178620753812_1178620761956.htm. Accessed 12.05.08.] this paper only deals with some of the major issues that the Panel has faced in relation to the use of food colours. The three topics to be dealt with are (1) evaluation of illegal colours in food in the EU (EFSA, 2005), (2) re-evaluation of the authorised...... food colours in the EU (ongoing, but one opinion on Red 2G has been published; EFSA, 2007), and (3) evaluation of 'the Southampton study' on hyperactivity in children after intake of food colours (and sodium benzoate) (ongoing at the time of this presentation, but an opinion has now been published...

  2. Cadmium colours: composition and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulus, J.; Knuutinen, U.

    2004-01-01

    The composition and the properties of cadmium aquarelle colours are discussed. The examined colours were 24 different aquarelle cadmium colours from six different manufacturers. The colours ranged from light, bright yellows to dark, deep-red tones. The aim of this research was to find out if the pigments contain cadmium salts: sulphides and/or selenides. This information will help in choosing watercolours in conservation processes. Today, aquarelle colours not containing cadmium pigments are being sold as cadmium colours; thus their properties might be different from actual cadmium colours. The aim of the research was to verify that the colour samples contained cadmium pigments and to estimate their compositions and ageing properties. Element analyses were performed from colour samples using micro-chemical tests and X-ray fluorescence measurements. Thin-layer chromatography was used for analysing gum Arabic as a possible binding medium in the chosen colour samples. Through ageing tests, the resistance of the colour samples to the exposure to light, heat and humidity was studied. Visible-light spectroscopy was used in determining the hues and hue changes of the aquarelle colour samples. The spectrophotometer used the CIE L * a * b * tone colour measuring system. From the colour measurements the changes in the lightness/darkness, the redness, the yellowness and the saturation of the samples were examined. (orig.)

  3. Colour contribution to children's wayfinding in school environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helvacıoǧlu, Elif; Olguntürk, Nilgün

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the contribution of colour to children's wayfinding ability in school environments and to examine the differences between colours in terms of their remembrance and usability in route learning process. The experiment was conducted with three different sample groups for each of three experiment sets differentiated by their colour arrangement. The participants totalled 100 primary school children aged seven and eight years old. The study was conducted in four phases. In the first phase, the participants were tested for familiarity with the experiment site and also for colour vision deficiencies by using Ishihara's tests for colour-blindness. In the second phase, they were escorted on the experiment route by the tester one by one, from one starting point to one end point and were asked to lead the tester to the end point by the same route. In the third phase, they were asked to describe verbally the route. In the final phase, they were asked to remember the specific colours at their correct locations. It was found that colour has a significant effect on children's wayfinding performances in school environments. However, there were no differences between different colours in terms of their remembrances in route finding tasks. In addition, the correct identifications of specific colours and landmarks were dependent on their specific locations. Contrary to the literature, gender differences were not found to be significant in the accuracy of route learning performances.

  4. Colour discrimination of dental professionals and colour deficient laypersons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljak-Guberina, Renata; Celebic, Asja; Powers, John M; Paravina, Rade D

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare results of non-dental (conventional) and dental colour discrimination tests (customized, shade guide test), to evaluate influence of profession, gender and age of colour normal dentists and laboratory technicians on colour discrimination results and to evaluate results of colour deficient laypersons. A total of 36 colour normal dental professionals, all volunteers were divided into two groups consisting of 18 participants each: dentists (DDS) and laboratory technicians (CDT). In addition, a group 15 colour deficient males also volunteered (CDP). Colour discrimination was examined using Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue Test and total error scores (TES) were calculated. Participants performed a dentistry related colour discrimination test by matching 26 pairs of shade tabs. Shade guide scores (3DS) were calculated. These tests were performed under the controlled conditions of a viewing booth. Mean values and standard deviations were determined. ANOVA, Mann-Whitney test, t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) were used for result analysis. TES and 3DS were correlated for colour normal observers, r = 0.47 (p gender and age were recorded. TES of 159 (83) and 3DS of 6.7 (2.7) were recorded for colour deficient laypersons. Based on TES, 33% of colour deficient laypersons had average discrimination, whilst 67% had low discrimination. Within the limitation of this study, it was concluded that results of non-dental and dental colour discrimination tests were correlated, and that profession (DDS/CDT), gender and age gender did not influence colour discrimination of colour normal participants. Although colour and appearance of dental restorations are of paramount importance for the aesthetic outcome, colour vision of dental professionals is not routinely tested. This paper validates and recommends the usage of dental shade guides for a simple, affordable and understandable testing of colour vision, either as a sole test or

  5. Colour in flux: describing and printing colour in art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parraman, Carinna

    2008-01-01

    This presentation will describe artists, practitioners and scientists, who were interested in developing a deeper psychological, emotional and practical understanding of the human visual system who were working with wavelength, paint and other materials. From a selection of prints at The Prints and Drawings Department at Tate London, the presentation will refer to artists who were motivated by issues relating to how colour pigment was mixed and printed, to interrogate and explain colour perception and colour science, and in art, how artists have used colour to challenge the viewer and how a viewer might describe their experience of colour. The title Colour in Flux refers, not only to the perceptual effect of the juxtaposition of one colour pigment with another, but also to the changes and challenges for the print industry. In the light of screenprinted examples from the 60s and 70s, the presentation will discuss 21 st century ideas on colour and how these notions have informed the Centre for Fine Print Research's (CFPR) practical research in colour printing. The latter part of this presentation will discuss the implications for the need to change methods in mixing inks that moves away from existing colour spaces, from non intuitive colour mixing to bespoke ink sets, colour mixing approaches and colour mixing methods that are not reliant on RGB or CMYK.

  6. The role of long-term physical exercise on performance and brain activation during the Stroop colour word task in fibromyalgia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsen, S; Flodin, P; Berrebi, J; Löfgren, M; Bileviciute-Ljungar, I; Mannerkorpi, K; Ingvar, M; Fransson, P; Kosek, E

    2018-05-01

    The Stroop colour word test (SCWT) has been widely used to assess changes in cognitive performance such as processing speed, selective attention and the degree of automaticity. Moreover, the SCWT has proven to be a valuable tool to assess neuronal plasticity that is coupled to improvement in performance in clinical populations. In a previous study, we showed impaired cognitive processing during SCWT along with reduced task-related activations in patients with fibromyalgia. In this study, we used SCWT and functional magnetic resonance imagingFMRI to investigate the effects of a 15-week physical exercise intervention on cognitive performance, task-related cortical activation and distraction-induced analgesia (DIA) in patients with fibromyalgia and healthy controls. The exercise intervention yielded reduced fibromyalgia symptoms, improved cognitive processing and increased task-related activation of amygdala, but no effect on DIA. Our results suggest beneficial effects of physical exercise on cognitive functioning in FM. © 2017 The Authors. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  7. Simple model of string with colour degrees of freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadasz, Leszek

    1994-03-01

    We consider a simple model of string with colour charges on its ends. The model is constructed by rewriting the action describing classical spinless as well as spinning particles with colour charge in terms of fields living on the “string worldsheet” bounded by trajectories of the particles.

  8. Coloured phase singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, M.V.

    2002-01-01

    For illumination with white light, the spectra near a typical isolated phase singularity (nodal point of the component wavelengths) can be described by a universal function of position, up to linear distortion and a weak dependence on the spectrum of the source. The appearance of the singularity when viewed by a human observer is predicted by transforming the spectrum to trichromatic variables and chromaticity coordinates, and then rendering the colours, scaled to constant luminosity, on a computer monitor. The pattern far from the singularity is a white that depends on the source temperature, and the centre of the pattern is flanked by intensely coloured 'eyes', one orange and one blue, separated by red, and one of the eyes is surrounded by a bright white circle. Only a small range of possible colours appears near the singularity; in particular, there is no green. (author)

  9. Flare colours and luminosities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristaldi, S.; Rodono, M.

    1975-01-01

    Flare colours determined from simultaneous UBV observations made at Catania Observatory and from sequential UBV observations made at McDonald Observatory are presented. They fit fairly well with the theoretical colours computed according to the Gurzadian's (1970) non-thermal model. Only part of the observed flare colours are consistent with the solar type models by Gershberg (1967) and Kunkel (1970). From a B-band patrol of UV Cet-type stars carried out from 1967 to 1972, some quantitative estimates of flare frequencies and luminosities and their average contributions to the stellar radiation are given. The corresponding parameters for the Sun, which were estimated from 'white light' flare activity, are also given for comparison. The Sun and V 1216 Sgr can be regarded as low-activity flare stars of the type found by Kunkel (1973). (Auth.)

  10. Colour pyrometer. Farbpyrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luhleich, H; Suetterlin, L; Borchers, D; Pflaum, P

    1980-12-11

    The colour pyrometer according to the invention, in which two beams of limited wavelength from the incoming beam of light are filtered through a chopper with two colour filters of the same diameter rotating round and axis, and are taken to a photo-electric element, from the output signals of which a quotient proportional to the surface temperature of the object is formed in an electrical network, is characterized by the fact that the colour filters in the cylinder wall are arranged at a right angle to each other in a drum rotating around the cylinder axis transverse to the incoming light beam, and are parallel to the axis of rotation, and that the drum wall has openings in the sides diametrically opposite the filters.

  11. Annotating Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Bo; Wells, Lisa Marie

    2002-01-01

    Coloured Petri nets (CP-nets) can be used for several fundamentally different purposes like functional analysis, performance analysis, and visualisation. To be able to use the corresponding tool extensions and libraries it is sometimes necessary to include extra auxiliary information in the CP......-net. An example of such auxiliary information is a counter which is associated with a token to be able to do performance analysis. Modifying colour sets and arc inscriptions in a CP-net to support a specific use may lead to creation of several slightly different CP-nets – only to support the different uses...... of the same basic CP-net. One solution to this problem is that the auxiliary information is not integrated into colour sets and arc inscriptions of a CP-net, but is kept separately. This makes it easy to disable this auxiliary information if a CP-net is to be used for another purpose. This paper proposes...

  12. Specifying colours for colour vision testing using computer graphics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toufeeq, A

    2004-10-01

    This paper describes a novel test of colour vision using a standard personal computer, which is simple and reliable to perform. Twenty healthy individuals with normal colour vision and 10 healthy individuals with a red/green colour defect were tested binocularly at 13 selected points in the CIE (Commission International d'Eclairage, 1931) chromaticity triangle, representing the gamut of a computer monitor, where the x, y coordinates of the primary colour phosphors were known. The mean results from individuals with normal colour vision were compared to those with defective colour vision. Of the 13 points tested, five demonstrated consistently high sensitivity in detecting colour defects. The test may provide a convenient method for classifying colour vision abnormalities.

  13. Asymmetric chiral colour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuypers, F.

    1990-01-01

    Chiral colour is considered in a general framework where the coupling constants associated with each SU(3) component are allowed to be different. To reproduce QCD at low energy, gluons and axigluons cannot then be maximally mixed. Present data form e + e - colliders contrains the axigluon mass to values between 50 GeV and 375 GeV whilst the mixing angle is bounded by 13deg and 45deg. The lower limit of the axigluon mass is a definite bound at 90% C.L., whereas the upper limit only applies if chiral colour is to explain the anomalously high rates of hadron production at TRISTAN. (orig.)

  14. Colour-scent associations in a tropical orchid: three colours but two odours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delle-Vedove, Roxane; Juillet, Nicolas; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Grison, Claude; Barthes, Nicolas; Pailler, Thierry; Dormont, Laurent; Schatz, Bertrand

    2011-06-01

    Colour and scent are the major pollinator attractants to flowers, and their production may be linked by shared biosynthetic pathways. Species with polymorphic floral traits are particularly relevant to study the joint evolution of floral traits. We used in this study the tropical orchid Calanthe sylvatica from Réunion Island. Three distinct colour varieties are observed, presenting lilac, white or purple flowers, and named respectively C. sylvaticavar.lilacina (hereafter referred as var. lilacina), C. sylvaticavar. alba (var. alba) and C. sylvatica var. purpurea (var. purpurea). We investigated the composition of the floral scent produced by these colour varieties using the non-invasive SPME technique in the wild. Scent emissions are dominated by aromatic compounds. Nevertheless, the presence of the terpenoid (E)-4,8-dimethylnona-1,3,7-triène (DMNT) is diagnostic of var. purpurea, with the volatile organic compounds (VOC) produced by some individuals containing up to 60% of DMNT. We evidence specific colour-scent associations in C. sylvatica, with two distinct scent profiles in the three colour varieties: the lilacina-like profile containing no or very little DMNT (2%). Calanthe sylvatica var. alba individuals group with one or the other scent profile independently of their population of origin. We suggest that white-flowered individuals have evolved at least twice, once from var. lilacina and at least once from var. purpurea after the colonisation of la Réunion. White-flowered individuals may have been favoured by the particular pollinator fauna characterising the island. These flowering varieties of C. sylvatica, which display three colours but two scents profiles prove that colour is not always a good indicator of odour and that colour-scent associations may be complex, depending on pollination ecology of the populations concerned. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Behavioral relevance of gamma-band activity for short-term memory-based auditory decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Jochen; Heidegger, Tonio; Lutzenberger, Werner

    2008-06-01

    Oscillatory activity in the gamma-band range has been established as a correlate of cognitive processes, including perception, attention and memory. Only a few studies, however, have provided evidence for an association between gamma-band activity (GBA) and measures of behavioral performance. Here we focused on the comparison between sample and test stimuli S1 and S2 during an auditory spatial short-term memory task. Applying statistical probability mapping to magnetoencephalographic recordings from 28 human subjects, we identified GBA components distinguishing nonidentical from identical S1-S2 pairs. This activity was found at frequencies between 65 and 90 Hz and was localized over posterior cortical regions contralateral to the hemifield in which the stimuli were presented. The 10 best task performers showed higher amplitudes of this GBA component than the 10 worst performers. This group difference was most pronounced between about 150 and 300 ms after stimulus onset. Apparently the decision about whether test stimuli matched the stored representation of previously presented sample sounds relied partly on the oscillatory activation of networks representing differences between both stimuli. This result could be replicated by reanalyzing the combined data from two previous studies assessing short-term memory for sound duration and sound lateralization, respectively. Similarly to our main study, GBA amplitudes to nonmatching vs. matching S1-S2 pairs were higher in good performers than poor performers. The present findings demonstrate the behavioral relevance of GBA.

  16. Long-term changes in ADAS-cog: what is clinically relevant for disease modifying trials in Alzheimer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellas, B; Andrieu, S; Cantet, C; Dartigues, J F; Gauthier, S

    2007-01-01

    With the development of long-term disease modifying trials, changes in ADAS-Cog at 18 months will rise certainly many questions. We decided to look in the Real.fr study at the links between changes in cognition, ADAS-Cog and function. A total of 346 Alzheimer's patients with ADAS-cog at entry and at 18 months. were eligible for this analysis. These patients were on average 77.44 years old and 254 (72.36%) were women. The great majority lived at home and about 93% were treated with a cholinesterase inhibitor at baseline. Thirty three patients (9%) had a gain of more than 2 points at the ADAS-cog at 18 months (Group I, improvement); 130 (38%) were considered as stable, the reference group (Group II ) characterized by a stability at the ADAS-cog: decline of 2 points to gain of 2 points, 112 subjects (32%) had a moderate decline between 2 and 7 at the ADAScog (Group III) and finally 71 subjects (21%) had a severe impairment more than seven points at the ADAS-cog. A loss of one Basic ADL is certainly highly relevant, and such a change was found at 18 months in more than half of the subjects, which is not surprising for a long-term evolution in mild to moderate AD. An impairment of more than 7 points at the ADAS-cog was found in 21% of the subjects at 18 months and was associated with loss.

  17. Effect of Pigment Colouring on Physico-mechanical Properties of Hardened Cement Paste and Response of Colour Intensity to UV Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, M.M.; Abdel-Rahman, H.A.; Hassan, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, different ratios of pigment colour was mixed with cement paste during mixing. The pigment colour used was Phthalocyanine Green. The effect of pigment colouring on hardened cement paste (HCP) was characterized in terms of compressive strength, IR spectroscopic analysis and X-ray diffraction. In addition, the effect of UV radiation on the colour strength of hardened cement paste/pigment colour composites was investigated. The results indicated that the increase in the ratio of pigment colour was accompanied with a slight decrease in the values of compressive strength. The exposure of the coloured hardened cement paste to UV radiation for long lengths of time causes a little effect on the colour intensity

  18. Fun with Colour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The Australian Curriculum: Science for Year 5 includes "recognising that the colour of an object depends on the properties of the object and the color of the light source". This article shows how much more can be done with color in the science laboratory. Activities include using a prism to explore white light, using a hand lens to…

  19. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes how Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets) have been developed — from being a promising theoretical model to being a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems (and other systems in which human beings and...

  20. Coloured Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. This book introduces the constructs of the CPN modelling language and presents the related analysis methods. It provides a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN.

  1. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism an...

  2. Colour chemistry in water

    OpenAIRE

    Cardona, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels have increased dramatically in the last few decades. Famous for causing global warming, CO2 is also resulting in the acidification of seas and oceans. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/colour-chemistry-in-water/

  3. ATLAS Colouring Book

    CERN Multimedia

    Anthony, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Experiment Colouring Book is a free-to-download educational book, ideal for kids aged 5-9. It aims to introduce children to the field of High-Energy Physics, as well as the work being carried out by the ATLAS Collaboration.

  4. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1987-01-01

    The author describes a Petri net model, called coloured Petri nets (CP-nets), by means of which it is possible to describe large systems without having to cope with unnecessary details. The author introduces CP-nets and provide a first impression of their modeling power and the suitability...

  5. Colour, vision and ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Cristina; da Silva, Fernando Moreira

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on a research project - Visual Communication and Inclusive Design-Colour, Legibility and Aged Vision, developed at the Faculty of Architecture of Lisbon. The research has the aim of determining specific design principles to be applied to visual communication design (printed) objects, in order to be easily read and perceived by all. This study target group was composed by a selection of socially active individuals, between 55 and 80 years, and we used cultural events posters as objects of study and observation. The main objective is to overlap the study of areas such as colour, vision, older people's colour vision, ergonomics, chromatic contrasts, typography and legibility. In the end we will produce a manual with guidelines and information to apply scientific knowledge into the communication design projectual practice. Within the normal aging process, visual functions gradually decline; the quality of vision worsens, colour vision and contrast sensitivity are also affected. As people's needs change along with age, design should help people and communities, and improve life quality in the present. Applying principles of visually accessible design and ergonomics, the printed design objects, (or interior spaces, urban environments, products, signage and all kinds of visually information) will be effective, easier on everyone's eyes not only for visually impaired people but also for all of us as we age.

  6. The unsuitability of HTML-based colour charts for estimating animal colours--a comment on Berggren and Merilä (2004).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Martin; Cuthill, Innes C

    2005-08-30

    A variety of techniques are used to study the colours of animal signals, including the use of visual matching to colour charts. This paper aims to highlight why they are generally an unsatisfactory tool for the measurement and classification of animal colours and why colour codes based on HTML (really RGB) standards, as advocated in a recent paper, are particularly inappropriate. There are many theoretical arguments against the use of colour charts, not least that human colour vision differs markedly from that of most other animals. However, the focus of this paper is the concern that, even when applied to humans, there is no simple 1:1 mapping from an RGB colour space to the perceived colours in a chart (the results are both printer- and illumination-dependent). We support our criticisms with data from colour matching experiments with humans, involving self-made, printed colour charts. Colour matching experiments with printed charts involving 11 subjects showed that the choices made by individuals were significantly different between charts that had exactly the same RGB values, but were produced from different printers. Furthermore, individual matches tended to vary under different lighting conditions. Spectrophotometry of the colour charts showed that the reflectance spectra of the charts varied greatly between printers and that equal steps in RGB space were often far from equal in terms of reflectance on the printed charts. In addition to outlining theoretical criticisms of the use of colour charts, our empirical results show that: individuals vary in their perception of colours, that different printers produce strikingly different results when reproducing what should be the same chart, and that the characteristics of the light irradiating the surface do affect colour perception. Therefore, we urge great caution in the use of colour charts to study animal colour signals. They should be used only as a last resort and in full knowledge of their limitations, with

  7. The unsuitability of html-based colour charts for estimating animal colours – a comment on Berggren and Merilä (2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuthill Innes C

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A variety of techniques are used to study the colours of animal signals, including the use of visual matching to colour charts. This paper aims to highlight why they are generally an unsatisfactory tool for the measurement and classification of animal colours and why colour codes based on HTML (really RGB standards, as advocated in a recent paper, are particularly inappropriate. There are many theoretical arguments against the use of colour charts, not least that human colour vision differs markedly from that of most other animals. However, the focus of this paper is the concern that, even when applied to humans, there is no simple 1:1 mapping from an RGB colour space to the perceived colours in a chart (the results are both printer- and illumination-dependent. We support our criticisms with data from colour matching experiments with humans, involving self-made, printed colour charts. Results Colour matching experiments with printed charts involving 11 subjects showed that the choices made by individuals were significantly different between charts that had exactly the same RGB values, but were produced from different printers. Furthermore, individual matches tended to vary under different lighting conditions. Spectrophotometry of the colour charts showed that the reflectance spectra of the charts varied greatly between printers and that equal steps in RGB space were often far from equal in terms of reflectance on the printed charts. Conclusion In addition to outlining theoretical criticisms of the use of colour charts, our empirical results show that: individuals vary in their perception of colours, that different printers produce strikingly different results when reproducing what should be the same chart, and that the characteristics of the light irradiating the surface do affect colour perception. Therefore, we urge great caution in the use of colour charts to study animal colour signals. They should be used only as a last

  8. Colour-independent partition functions in coloured vertex models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, O., E-mail: omar.foda@unimelb.edu.au [Dept. of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010 (Australia); Wheeler, M., E-mail: mwheeler@lpthe.jussieu.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Hautes Energies, CNRS UMR 7589 (France); Université Pierre et Marie Curie – Paris 6, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05 (France)

    2013-06-11

    We study lattice configurations related to S{sub n}, the scalar product of an off-shell state and an on-shell state in rational A{sub n} integrable vertex models, n∈{1,2}. The lattice lines are colourless and oriented. The state variables are n conserved colours that flow along the line orientations, but do not necessarily cover every bond in the lattice. Choosing boundary conditions such that the positions where the colours flow into the lattice are fixed, and where they flow out are summed over, we show that the partition functions of these configurations, with these boundary conditions, are n-independent. Our results extend to trigonometric A{sub n} models, and to all n. This n-independence explains, in vertex-model terms, results from recent studies of S{sub 2} (Caetano and Vieira, 2012, [1], Wheeler, (arXiv:1204.2089), [2]). Namely, 1.S{sub 2}, which depends on two sets of Bethe roots, {b_1} and {b_2}, and cannot (as far as we know) be expressed in single determinant form, degenerates in the limit {b_1}→∞, and/or {b_2}→∞, into a product of determinants, 2. Each of the latter determinants is an A{sub 1} vertex-model partition function.

  9. Colour-independent partition functions in coloured vertex models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foda, O.; Wheeler, M.

    2013-01-01

    We study lattice configurations related to S n , the scalar product of an off-shell state and an on-shell state in rational A n integrable vertex models, n∈{1,2}. The lattice lines are colourless and oriented. The state variables are n conserved colours that flow along the line orientations, but do not necessarily cover every bond in the lattice. Choosing boundary conditions such that the positions where the colours flow into the lattice are fixed, and where they flow out are summed over, we show that the partition functions of these configurations, with these boundary conditions, are n-independent. Our results extend to trigonometric A n models, and to all n. This n-independence explains, in vertex-model terms, results from recent studies of S 2 (Caetano and Vieira, 2012, [1], Wheeler, (arXiv:1204.2089), [2]). Namely, 1.S 2 , which depends on two sets of Bethe roots, {b 1 } and {b 2 }, and cannot (as far as we know) be expressed in single determinant form, degenerates in the limit {b 1 }→∞, and/or {b 2 }→∞, into a product of determinants, 2. Each of the latter determinants is an A 1 vertex-model partition function

  10. On colour categorization of nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yendrikhovskij, S.N.

    1998-01-01

    The following research elaborates on some of the 'semantic' and 'algorithmic' aspects of the categorization process for thc colour domain. The structure of colour categories is argued to resemble the structure of Ihe distribution of colours in the perceived world. This distribution can be

  11. COLOUR THEREPY-BOON TO MANKIND

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Sajan Kurien Mathew

    2017-01-01

    Colour Therapy is a complementary therapy for which there is evidence dating back thousands of years to the ancient cultures of Egypt, China and India. Colour is simply light of varying wavelengths, thus each colour has its own particular wavelength and energy. "Colour affects our life. Colour is physical..........we see it. Colour communicates............we recieve information from the language of colour. Colour is emotional..........it evokes our feeling."1 The energy relating to each of th...

  12. Working memory in children and adolescents with Down syndrome: evidence from a colour memory experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Glynis

    2002-03-01

    This paper reports information on the visual and verbal short-term memory of individuals with Down syndrome. Colour memory in 16 children and adolescents with Down syndrome was compared with that of 16 typically developing children matched for receptive vocabulary. It was suggested that focal colours should be remembered more successfully than non-focal colours on the basis that the former could be remembered using a verbal recoding strategy. However, children with Down syndrome, for whom a deficit in verbal short-term memory makes the use of such a strategy unlikely, should remember focal and non-focal colours equally well. More importantly, if individuals with Down syndrome have more developed visual memory abilities than control children, they should outperform them in recognising non-focal colours. Although the group with Down syndrome demonstrated significantly better Corsi blocks performance than controls, and displayed similar levels of colour knowledge, no advantage for colour memory was found. Non-focal colours were remembered by individuals with Down syndrome as successfully as focal colours but there was no indication of a visual memory advantage over controls. Focal colours were remembered significantly more successfully than non-focal colours by the typically developing children. Their focal colour memory was significantly related to digit span, but only Corsi span was related to focal colour memory in the group with Down syndrome.

  13. What triggers colour change? Effects of background colour and temperature on the development of an alpine grasshopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, J Pablo; Schielzeth, Holger

    2015-08-21

    Colour polymorphisms are a fascinating facet of many natural populations of plants and animals, and the selective processes that maintain such variation are as relevant as the processes which promote their development. Orthoptera, the insect group that encompasses grasshoppers and bush crickets, includes a particularly large number of species that are colour polymorphic with a marked green-brown polymorphism being particularly widespread. Colour polymorphism has been associated with the need for crypsis and background matching and background-dependent homochromy has been described in a few species. However, when and how different environmental conditions influence variation in colour remains poorly understood. Here we test for effects of background colour and ambient temperature on the occurrence of colour morph switches (green to brown or brown to green) and developmental darkening in the alpine dwelling club-legged grasshopper Gomphocerus sibiricus. We monitored individually housed nymphae across three of their four developmental stages and into the first week after final ecdysis. Our data show an absence of colour morph switches in G. sibiricus, without a single switch observed in our sample. Furthermore, we test for an effect of temperature on colouration by manipulating radiant heat, a limiting factor in alpine habitats. Radiant heat had a significant effect on developmental darkening: individuals under low radiant heat tended to darken, while individuals under high radiant heat tended to lighten within nymphal stages. Young imagoes darkened under either condition. Our results indicate a plastic response to a variable temperature and indicate that melanin, a multipurpose pigment responsible for dark colouration and presumed to be costly, seems to be strategically allocated according to the current environmental conditions. Unlike other orthopterans, the species is apparently unable to switch colour morphs (green/brown) during development, suggesting that

  14. Colour isomers in quark material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegaasen, H.

    1981-01-01

    Quantum chromodynamics is stated to be analogous to quantum electrodynamics and colour to electric charge. However since there are eight gluon fields and only one photon field, and gluons have colour while photons are electrically neutral, QCD is much more complicated than QED. The concept of colour confine confinement is introduced and the addition rules for colour multiplets are discussed. It is shown that quark colour leads to isomeric meson states. Bubble chamber films from CERN groups have been examined and hyperons and (sup a)Y* resonance particles have been found, which appears to confirm the theory. (JIW)

  15. Colour excesses of glabular clusters in the bands U, B, V, I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukarkin, B.V.; Kireeva, N.N.; Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that practically all the known methods for the determination of colour excesses of globular clusters on the basis of their integrated colour equivalents are not correct. The observed colour equivalents correlate with colour excesses, so it is difficult to carry out the separation of the observed colour equivalents into the intrinsic colour and the colour excess. Burstein and McDonald's method (7) is the most correct one, but it is also not free from systematic errors caused by the presence of a correlation between the terms of the equations they used. The blameless method for the determination of interstellar reddening on the basis of the measures of colour excesses of field stars (1) can be used only for extremely limited number of clusters today. The author suggests a method for separating the observed colour equivalents into intrinsic colours and colour excesses which is based on the selection of clusters with the smallest excesses, too small to cause any noticeable errors. The values of intrinsic colour equivalents thus obtained strongly correlate with integrated spectral types and are characterized by the mean error as small as +-0.018. The colour excesses calculated on these grounds made it possible to determine reliable ratios of colour excesses in the bands U, B, V, I. These ratio were used in order to calculate the colour excesses for all the clusters with measured colour equivalents and known integrated spectra. On the basis of the analysis of all the available material the finally adopted values of colour excesses, intrinisic colour equivalents, and integrated spectral types for 68 globular clusters were obtained

  16. Chiral colour and axigluons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuypers, F.

    1989-01-01

    The authors studies the phenomenological implications of the Chiral Colour model which allow him to derive experimental bounds on the axigluon mass or to predict deviations from the Standard Model. After a short introduction to the theory, the author examines the way it modifies the standard decay of quarkonium. Comparison with the observed lifetime of the upsilon allows him to exclude the existence of axigluons lighter than 9 GeV. (Others have since extended the work and were able to increase this limit to 25 GeV.) He then studies the Chiral Colour contribution to the hadronic cross-section in the electron-positron scattering and derive a conservative lower bound of 50 GeV for the axigluon mass. Finally, he predicts observable enhancements of the lifetime and rare decay channels of the Z O in the presence of light axigluons

  17. Daylight Influence on Colour Design : Empirical Study on Perceived Colour and Colour Experience Indoors

    OpenAIRE

    Hårleman, Maud

    2007-01-01

    It is known that one and the same interior colouring will appear different in rooms with windows facing north or facing south, but it is not known how natural daylight from these two compass points affects perceived colour and the ways in which colour is experienced. The objective is to describe the perceived colours to be expected in rooms with sunlight and diffused light, and thus develop a tool for colour design. Two empirical investigations provide the basis for six attached papers. The m...

  18. Monitoring long-term ecological changes through the Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Network: science-based and policy relevant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, H; Brydges, T; Fenech, A; Lumb, A

    2001-01-01

    Ecological monitoring and its associated research programs have often provided answers to various environmental management issues. In the face of changing environmental conditions, ecological monitoring provides decision-makers with reliable information as they grapple with maintaining a sustainable economy and healthy environment. The Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Network (EMAN) is a national ecological monitoring network consisting of (1) about 100 case study sites across the country characterized by long-term multi-disciplinary environmental work conducted by a multitude of agencies (142 partners and counting); (2) a variety of less comprehensive yet more extensive monitoring sites; (3) a network where core monitoring variables of ecosystem change are measured; and (4) geo-referenced environmental observations. Environment Canada is the co-ordinating partner for the network through the EMAN Co-ordinating Office. EMAN's mission is to focus a scientifically-sound, policy-relevant ecosystem monitoring and research network based on (a) stabilizing a network of case-study sites operated by a variety of partners, and (b) developing a number of cooperative dispersed monitoring initiatives in order to deliver unique and needed goods and services. These goods and services include: (1) an efficient and cost-effective early warning system which detects, describes and reports on changes in Canadian ecosystems at a national or ecozone scale; and (2) cross-disciplinary and cross-jurisdictional assessments of ecosystem status, trends and processes. The early warning system and assessments of ecosystem status, trends and processes provide Environment Canada and partner organizations with timely information that facilitates increasingly adaptive policies and priority setting. Canadians are also informed of changes and trends occurring in Canadian ecosystems and, as a result, are better able to make decisions related to conservation and sustainability.

  19. Colour Reproduction on Tablet Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Zorić

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of Internet and mobile devices client services and other print production are migrating more and more to online platforms. In a recent technology changeover it is obvious that there is growing number of printers as well need from the customers for the print service providers to expand their business to online and mobile platforms. With this technological transition there are some open questions regarding the possibilities of using the tablet devices for colour soft proofing and other colour related operations. As a display devices on a hardware level there are large similarities with the desktop display devices but the operating systems which are driving them are not yet colour smart. There have been some initial attempts to characterize the colour reproduction on this type of devices and find a possibility of using them not just for information content but also for colour managed content. In this study we have tested several tablets (Apple iPad2,Asus Transformer TF101, Samsung Galaxy Tab 1 with different display and OS technology and tested a software which is intended for colour managed viewing of the reproduction. We have measured the colour reproduction of the tablets with the digital version of the GretagMacbeth ColorChecker card and have calculated the colour differences between the colour chart data and the displayed data. We have calibrated the Ipad2 with the only existing colour management tool the Spyder Gallery and we have also tested the chart display with and without the colour correction of the software. We have found that there are differences in the colour reproduction of the display technologies and that the possibilities of a real colour managed workflow has yet to be resolved on the OS level of tablet and mobile devices

  20. Dietary antioxidants, lipid peroxidation and plumage colouration in nestling blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcombe, Stephen D.; Mullen, William; Alexander, Lucille; Arnold, Kathryn E.

    2010-10-01

    Carotenoid pigments are responsible for many of the red, yellow and orange plumage and integument traits seen in birds. One idea suggests that since carotenoids can act as antioxidants, carotenoid-mediated colouration may reveal an individual's ability to resist oxidative damage. In fact, there is currently very little information on the effects of most dietary-acquired antioxidants on oxidative stress in wild birds. Here, we assessed the impacts on oxidative damage, plasma antioxidants, growth and plumage colouration after supplementing nestling blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus with one of three diets; control, carotenoid treatment or α-tocopherol treatment. Oxidative damage was assessed by HPLC analysis of plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), a by-product of lipid peroxidation. Contrary to predictions, we found no differences in oxidative damage, plumage colouration or growth rate between treatment groups. Although plasma lutein concentrations were significantly raised in carotenoid-fed chicks, α-tocopherol treatment had no effect on concentrations of plasma α-tocopherol compared with controls. Interestingly, we found that faster growing chicks had higher levels of oxidative damage than slower growing birds, independent of treatment, body mass and condition at fledging. Moreover, the chromatic signal of the chest plumage of birds was positively correlated with levels of MDA but not plasma antioxidant concentrations: more colourful nestlings had higher oxidative damage than less colourful individuals. Thus, increased carotenoid-mediated plumage does not reveal resistance to oxidative damage for nestling blue tits, but may indicate costs paid, in terms of oxidative damage. Our results indicate that the trade-offs between competing physiological systems for dietary antioxidants are likely to be complex in rapidly developing birds. Moreover, interpreting the biological relevance of different biomarkers of antioxidant status represents a challenge for evolutionary

  1. Supervised Object Class Colour Normalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riabchenko, Ekatarina; Lankinen, Jukka; Buch, Anders Glent

    2013-01-01

    . In this work, we develop a such colour normalisation technique, where true colours are not important per se but where examples of same classes have photometrically consistent appearance. This is achieved by supervised estimation of a class specic canonical colour space where the examples have minimal variation......Colour is an important cue in many applications of computer vision and image processing, but robust usage often requires estimation of the unknown illuminant colour. Usually, to obtain images invariant to the illumination conditions under which they were taken, color normalisation is used...... in their colours. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method with qualitative and quantitative examples from the Caltech-101 data set and a real application of 3D pose estimation for robot grasping....

  2. Colour mixing based on daylight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2008-01-01

    Colour science is based on the sensation of monochromatic light. In contrast to that, surface colours are caused by reflection of wide sections of the daylight spectrum. Non-spectral colours like magenta and purple appear homologous to colours with spectral hue, if the approach of mixing monochromatic light is abandoned. It is shown that a large region of the colour space can be covered by mixing three primary colours derived from lossless spectral decomposition of daylight. These primaries are specified by hue, saturation and luminosity. Duality of additive and subtractive mixing is formulated quantitatively. Experimental demonstrations of calculated results are suggested. This paper is intended for undergraduate optics courses, and advanced interdisciplinary seminars on arts and physics

  3. Global skin colour prediction from DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Susan; Chaitanya, Lakshmi; Breslin, Krystal; Muralidharan, Charanya; Bronikowska, Agnieszka; Pospiech, Ewelina; Koller, Julia; Kovatsi, Leda; Wollstein, Andreas; Branicki, Wojciech; Liu, Fan; Kayser, Manfred

    2017-07-01

    Human skin colour is highly heritable and externally visible with relevance in medical, forensic, and anthropological genetics. Although eye and hair colour can already be predicted with high accuracies from small sets of carefully selected DNA markers, knowledge about the genetic predictability of skin colour is limited. Here, we investigate the skin colour predictive value of 77 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 37 genetic loci previously associated with human pigmentation using 2025 individuals from 31 global populations. We identified a minimal set of 36 highly informative skin colour predictive SNPs and developed a statistical prediction model capable of skin colour prediction on a global scale. Average cross-validated prediction accuracies expressed as area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) ± standard deviation were 0.97 ± 0.02 for Light, 0.83 ± 0.11 for Dark, and 0.96 ± 0.03 for Dark-Black. When using a 5-category, this resulted in 0.74 ± 0.05 for Very Pale, 0.72 ± 0.03 for Pale, 0.73 ± 0.03 for Intermediate, 0.87±0.1 for Dark, and 0.97 ± 0.03 for Dark-Black. A comparative analysis in 194 independent samples from 17 populations demonstrated that our model outperformed a previously proposed 10-SNP-classifier approach with AUCs rising from 0.79 to 0.82 for White, comparable at the intermediate level of 0.63 and 0.62, respectively, and a large increase from 0.64 to 0.92 for Black. Overall, this study demonstrates that the chosen DNA markers and prediction model, particularly the 5-category level; allow skin colour predictions within and between continental regions for the first time, which will serve as a valuable resource for future applications in forensic and anthropologic genetics.

  4. Colour reconstruction of underwater images

    OpenAIRE

    Hoth, Julian; Kowalczyk, Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    Objects look very different in the underwater environment compared to their appearance in sunlight. Images with correct colouring simplify the detection of underwater objects and may allow the use of visual SLAM algorithms developed for land-based robots underwater. Hence, image processing is required. Current algorithms focus on the colour reconstruction of scenery at diving depth where different colours can still be distinguished. At greater depth this is not the case. In this study it is i...

  5. Estimating the relevance of world disturbances to explain savings, interference and long-term motor adaptation effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Berniker

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that motor adaptation is the result of multiple, perhaps linear processes each with distinct time scales. While these models are consistent with some motor phenomena, they can neither explain the relatively fast re-adaptation after a long washout period, nor savings on a subsequent day. Here we examined if these effects can be explained if we assume that the CNS stores and retrieves movement parameters based on their possible relevance. We formalize this idea with a model that infers not only the sources of potential motor errors, but also their relevance to the current motor circumstances. In our model adaptation is the process of re-estimating parameters that represent the body and the world. The likelihood of a world parameter being relevant is then based on the mismatch between an observed movement and that predicted when not compensating for the estimated world disturbance. As such, adapting to large motor errors in a laboratory setting should alert subjects that disturbances are being imposed on them, even after motor performance has returned to baseline. Estimates of this external disturbance should be relevant both now and in future laboratory settings. Estimated properties of our bodies on the other hand should always be relevant. Our model demonstrates savings, interference, spontaneous rebound and differences between adaptation to sudden and gradual disturbances. We suggest that many issues concerning savings and interference can be understood when adaptation is conditioned on the relevance of parameters.

  6. Colouring and knot polynomials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsh, D.J.A.

    1991-01-01

    These lectures will attempt to explain a connection between the recent advances in knot theory using the Jones and related knot polynomials with classical problems in combinatorics and statistical mechanics. The difficulty of some of these problems will be analysed in the context of their computational complexity. In particular we shall discuss colourings and groups valued flows in graphs, knots and the Jones and Kauffman polynomials, the Ising, Potts and percolation problems of statistical physics, computational complexity of the above problems. (author). 20 refs, 9 figs

  7. Theory of colours

    CERN Document Server

    Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von

    2006-01-01

    The wavelength theory of light and color had been firmly established by the time the great German poet published his Theory of Colours in 1810. Nevertheless, Goethe believed that the theory derived from a fundamental error, in which an incidental result was mistaken for a elemental principle. Far from affecting a knowledge of physics, he maintained that such a background would inhibit understanding. The conclusions Goethe draws here rest entirely upon his personal observations.This volume does not have to be studied to be appreciated. The author's subjective theory of colors permits him to spe

  8. The Metric of Colour Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    and found the MacAdam ellipses which are often interpreted as defining the metric tensor at their centres. An important question is whether it is possible to define colour coordinates such that the Euclidean distance in these coordinates correspond to human perception. Using cubic splines to represent......The space of colours is a fascinating space. It is a real vector space, but no matter what inner product you put on the space the resulting Euclidean distance does not correspond to human perception of difference between colours. In 1942 MacAdam performed the first experiments on colour matching...

  9. Subjective estimates of colour attributes for surface colours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishak, I.G.H.; Bouma, H.; van Bussel, H.J.J.

    1970-01-01

    Subjective estimates of hue, saturation, and lightness are reported for sixty coloured Munsell samples, shown against seven backgrounds (black, grey, white, red, yellow, green, and blue) as judged by two observers. The results show the adequacy of this method for studies on colour appearance. The

  10. Across light: through colour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Isabel; Richardson, Martin; Bernardo, Luis Miguel

    2012-03-01

    The speed at which our world is changing is reflected in the shifting way artistic images are created and produced. Holography can be used as a medium to express the perception of space with light and colour and to make the material and the immaterial experiments with optical and digital holography. This paper intends to be a reflection on the final product of that process surrounding a debate of ideas for new experimental methodologies applied to holographic images. Holography is a time-based medium and the irretrievable linear flow of time is responsible for a drama, unique to traditional cinematography. If the viewers move to left or right, they see glimpses of the next scene or the previous one perceived a second ago. This interaction of synthetic space arises questions such as: can we see, in "reality", two forms in the same space? Trying to answer this question, a series of works has been created. These concepts are embryonic to a series of digital art holograms and lenticulars technique's titled "Across Light: Through Colour". They required some technical research and comparison between effects from different camera types, using Canon IS3 and Sony HDR CX105.

  11. A colourful clock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester C van Diepen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythms are an essential property of life on Earth. In mammals, these rhythms are coordinated by a small set of neurons, located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN. The environmental light/dark cycle synchronizes (entrains the SCN via a distinct pathway, originating in a subset of photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGCs that utilize the photopigment melanopsin (OPN4. The pRGCs are also innervated by rods and cones and, so, are both endogenously and exogenously light sensitive. Accumulating evidence has shown that the circadian system is sensitive to ultraviolet (UV, blue, and green wavelengths of light. However, it was unclear whether colour perception itself can help entrain the SCN. By utilizing both behavioural and electrophysiological recording techniques, Walmsley and colleagues show that multiple photic channels interact and enhance the capacity of the SCN to synchronize to the environmental cycle. Thus, entrainment of the circadian system combines both environmental irradiance and colour information to ensure that internal and external time are appropriately aligned.

  12. Colour Perception in Ancient World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterov, D. I.; Fedorova, M. Yu

    2017-11-01

    How did the human thought form the surrounding color information into the persistent semantic images of a mythological, pseudoscientific and religious nature? The concepts associated with colour perception are suggested. The existence of colour environment does not depend on the human consciousness. The colour culture formation is directly related to the level of the human consciousness development and the possibility to influence the worldview and culture. The colour perception of a person goes through the stages similar to the development of colour vision in a child. Like any development, the colour consciousness has undergone stages of growth and decline, evolution and stagnation. The way of life and difficult conditions for existence made their own adjustments to the development of the human perception of the surrounding world. Wars have been both a powerful engine of progress in all spheres of life and a great destructive force demolishing the already created and preserved heritage. The surrounding world has always been interesting for humans, evoked images and fantasies in the consciousness of ancient people. Unusual and inexplicable natural phenomena spawned numerous legends and myths which was reflected in the ancient art and architecture and, accordingly, in a certain manifestation of colour in the human society. The colour perception of the ancient man, his pragmatic, utilitarian attitude to colour is considered as well as the influence of dependence on external conditions of existence and their reflection in the colour culture of antiquity. “Natural Science” conducts research in the field of the colour nature and their authorial interpretation of the Hellenic period. Several authorial concepts of the ancient world have been considered.

  13. Disruptive colouration and perceptual grouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Irene; Cuthill, Innes C

    2014-01-01

    Camouflage is the primary defence of many animals and includes multiple strategies that interfere with figure-ground segmentation and object recognition. While matching background colours and textures is widespread and conceptually straightforward, less well explored are the optical 'tricks', collectively called disruptive colouration, that exploit perceptual grouping mechanisms. Adjacent high contrast colours create false edges, but this is not sufficient for an object's shape to be broken up; some colours must blend with the background. We test the novel hypothesis that this will be particularly effective when the colour patches on the animal appear to belong to, not merely different background colours, but different background objects. We used computer-based experiments where human participants had to find cryptic targets on artificial backgrounds. Creating what appeared to be bi-coloured foreground objects on bi-coloured backgrounds, we generated colour boundaries that had identical local contrast but either lay within or between (illusory) objects. As predicted, error rates for targets matching what appeared to be different background objects were higher than for targets which had otherwise identical local contrast to the background but appeared to belong to single background objects. This provides evidence for disruptive colouration interfering with higher-level feature integration in addition to previously demonstrated low-level effects involving contour detection. In addition, detection was impeded in treatments where targets were on or in close proximity to multiple background colour or tone boundaries. This is consistent with other studies which show a deleterious influence of visual 'clutter' or background complexity on search.

  14. Disruptive colouration and perceptual grouping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Espinosa

    Full Text Available Camouflage is the primary defence of many animals and includes multiple strategies that interfere with figure-ground segmentation and object recognition. While matching background colours and textures is widespread and conceptually straightforward, less well explored are the optical 'tricks', collectively called disruptive colouration, that exploit perceptual grouping mechanisms. Adjacent high contrast colours create false edges, but this is not sufficient for an object's shape to be broken up; some colours must blend with the background. We test the novel hypothesis that this will be particularly effective when the colour patches on the animal appear to belong to, not merely different background colours, but different background objects. We used computer-based experiments where human participants had to find cryptic targets on artificial backgrounds. Creating what appeared to be bi-coloured foreground objects on bi-coloured backgrounds, we generated colour boundaries that had identical local contrast but either lay within or between (illusory objects. As predicted, error rates for targets matching what appeared to be different background objects were higher than for targets which had otherwise identical local contrast to the background but appeared to belong to single background objects. This provides evidence for disruptive colouration interfering with higher-level feature integration in addition to previously demonstrated low-level effects involving contour detection. In addition, detection was impeded in treatments where targets were on or in close proximity to multiple background colour or tone boundaries. This is consistent with other studies which show a deleterious influence of visual 'clutter' or background complexity on search.

  15. What factors are most relevant to the assessment of work ability of employees on long-term sick leave? The physicians' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekkers-Sánchez, Patricia M; Wind, Haije; Sluiter, Judith K; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2013-07-01

    To reach insurance physician (IPs) consensus on factors that must be taken into account in the assessment of the work ability of employees who are sick-listed for 2 years. A Delphi study using online questionnaires was conducted from October 2010 to March 2011. One hundred and two insurance physicians reached a consensus on important factors for return to work (RTW) of employees on long-term sick leave; from those factors, the most relevant for the assessment of work ability was determined. From a total of 22 relevant factors considered for the return to work of long-term sick-listed employees, consensus was reached on nine relevant factors that need to be taken into account in the assessment of the work ability of employees on long-term sick leave. Relevant factors that support return to work are motivation, attitude towards RTW, assessment of cognitions and behaviour, vocational rehabilitation in an early stage and instruction for the sick-listed employee to cope with his disabilities. Relevant factors that hinder RTW are secondary gain from illness, negative perceptions of illness, inefficient coping style and incorrect advice of treating physicians regarding RTW. Non-medical personal and environmental factors may either hinder or promote RTW and must be considered in the assessment of the work ability of long-term sick-listed employees. Assessment of work ability should start early during the sick leave period. These factors may be used by IPs to improve the quality of the assessment of the work ability of employees on long-term sick leave.

  16. Complementary Colours for a Physicist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babic, Vitomir; Cepic, Mojca

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a simple experiment which enables splitting incident light into two different modes, each having a colour exactly complementary to the other. A brief historical development of colour theories and differences in a physicist's point of view with respect to an artist's one is discussed. An experimental system for producing…

  17. Edge colouring by total labellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan; Rautenbach, D.; Stiebitz, M.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the concept of an edge-colouring total k-labelling. This is a labelling of the vertices and the edges of a graph G with labels 1, 2, ..., k such that the weights of the edges define a proper edge colouring of G. Here the weight of an edge is the sum of its label and the labels of its...

  18. Colouring our view of safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spare, P.

    2000-01-01

    The public have great difficulty interpreting numerical risk data, and particularly the relative importance of the hazards presented by advanced technologies compared with everyday activities. A form of presentation is proposed, utilizing a decade-based seven colour spectrum. The colours are directly connected to the auditable statistics and provide a qualitative measure of the risk to the non-specialist. (author)

  19. Phenomenology of colour exotic fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luest, D.

    1986-01-01

    The authors discuss the phenomenological consequences of a dynamical scenario according to which the electroweak symmetry breaking and generation of fermion masses is due to fermions that transform under high colour representations. Particular emphasis is given to the predictions for rare processes and to the spectrum of high colour boundstates. (Auth.)

  20. The brightness of colour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Corney

    Full Text Available The perception of brightness depends on spatial context: the same stimulus can appear light or dark depending on what surrounds it. A less well-known but equally important contextual phenomenon is that the colour of a stimulus can also alter its brightness. Specifically, stimuli that are more saturated (i.e. purer in colour appear brighter than stimuli that are less saturated at the same luminance. Similarly, stimuli that are red or blue appear brighter than equiluminant yellow and green stimuli. This non-linear relationship between stimulus intensity and brightness, called the Helmholtz-Kohlrausch (HK effect, was first described in the nineteenth century but has never been explained. Here, we take advantage of the relative simplicity of this 'illusion' to explain it and contextual effects more generally, by using a simple Bayesian ideal observer model of the human visual ecology. We also use fMRI brain scans to identify the neural correlates of brightness without changing the spatial context of the stimulus, which has complicated the interpretation of related fMRI studies.Rather than modelling human vision directly, we use a Bayesian ideal observer to model human visual ecology. We show that the HK effect is a result of encoding the non-linear statistical relationship between retinal images and natural scenes that would have been experienced by the human visual system in the past. We further show that the complexity of this relationship is due to the response functions of the cone photoreceptors, which themselves are thought to represent an efficient solution to encoding the statistics of images. Finally, we show that the locus of the response to the relationship between images and scenes lies in the primary visual cortex (V1, if not earlier in the visual system, since the brightness of colours (as opposed to their luminance accords with activity in V1 as measured with fMRI.The data suggest that perceptions of brightness represent a robust

  1. Skin Colour Analysis of Iraqi Kurdish Population

    OpenAIRE

    Zardawi, Faraedon M; Xiao, Kaida; Yates, Julian M

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Skin colour measurement and analysis was performed for Iraqi Kurdish population in sulaimani city. The purpose of this study was to produce a dedicated skin shade guide for precise colour reproduction and colour matching of maxillofacial prostheses with the patient’s original skin colour. Methodology: A skin colour measurement was undertaken for 140 subjects (73 female and 67 male). A method of capturing their (L* a* b*) colour values from nine body parts was performed using a Mi...

  2. Natural Blue Food Colour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roda-Serrat, Maria Cinta

    In recent years, there has been a growing tendency to avoid the use of artificial colorants and additives in food products, especially after some studies linked their consumption with behavioural changes in children. However, the incorporation of colorants from natural origin remains a challenge...... for food technologists, as these are typically less vivid and less stable than their synthetic alternatives. Regarding blue colorants, phycocyanins from cyanobacteria are currently in the spotlight as promising new natural blue colorants. Phycocyanins are proteins which blue colour results from...... the presence of the chromophore phycocyanobilin (PCB), a covalently attached linear tetrapyrrole. The applications of phycocyanins as food colorants are however limited, as they show poor stability in certain conditions of pH, light and temperature. Cleavage of PCB from the protein followed by careful product...

  3. Connected Colourings of Complete Graphs and Hypergraphs

    OpenAIRE

    Leader, Imre; Tan, Ta Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Gallai's colouring theorem states that if the edges of a complete graph are 3-coloured, with each colour class forming a connected (spanning) subgraph, then there is a triangle that has all 3 colours. What happens for more colours: if we $k$-colour the edges of the complete graph, with each colour class connected, how many of the $\\binom{k}{3}$ triples of colours must appear as triangles? In this note we show that the `obvious' conjecture, namely that there are always at least $\\binom{k-1}{2}...

  4. Seeing Coloured Fruits: Utilisation of the Theory of Adaptive Memory in Teaching Botany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Pavol; Fancovicová, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Plants are characterised by a great diversity of easily observed features such as colours or shape, but children show low interest in learning about them. Here, we integrated modern theory of adaptive memory and evolutionary views of the function of fruit colouration on children's retention of information. Survival-relevant (fruit toxicity) and…

  5. Colour Terms Affect Detection of Colour and Colour-Associated Objects Suppressed from Visual Awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Forder, Lewis; Taylor, Olivia; Mankin, Helen; Scott, Ryan B.; Franklin, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The idea that language can affect how we see the world continues to create controversy. A potentially important study in this field has shown that when an object is suppressed from visual awareness using continuous flash suppression (a form of binocular rivalry), detection of the object is differently affected by a preceding word prime depending on whether the prime matches or does not match the object. This may suggest that language can affect early stages of vision. We replicated this parad...

  6. Neural correlates of imagined and synaesthetic colours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Anina N; Williams, Mark A; Puce, Aina; Syngeniotis, Ari; Howard, Matthew A; McGlone, Francis; Mattingley, Jason B

    2006-01-01

    The experience of colour is a core element of human vision. Colours provide important symbolic and contextual information not conveyed by form alone. Moreover, the experience of colour can arise without external stimulation. For many people, visual memories are rich with colour imagery. In the unusual phenomenon of grapheme-colour synaesthesia, achromatic forms such as letters, words and numbers elicit vivid experiences of colour. Few studies, however, have examined the neural correlates of such internally generated colour experiences. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare patterns of cortical activity for the perception of external coloured stimuli and internally generated colours in a group of grapheme-colour synaesthetes and matched non-synaesthetic controls. In a voluntary colour imagery task, both synaesthetes and non-synaesthetes made colour judgements on objects presented as grey scale photographs. In a synaesthetic colour task, we presented letters that elicited synaesthetic colours, and asked participants to perform a localisation task. We assessed the neural activity underpinning these two different forms of colour experience that occur in the absence of chromatic sensory input. In both synaesthetes and non-synaesthetes, voluntary colour imagery activated the colour-selective area, V4, in the right hemisphere. In contrast, the synaesthetic colour task resulted in unique activity for synaesthetes in the left medial lingual gyrus, an area previously implicated in tasks involving colour knowledge. Our data suggest that internally generated colour experiences recruit brain regions specialised for colour perception, with striking differences between voluntary colour imagery and synaesthetically induced colours.

  7. The effect of feeding wheat varieties with different grain pigmentation on growth performance, texture, colour and meat sensory traits of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Šťastník

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The feeding effect of of three spring wheat genotypes (Vánek, Konini and UC66049 with different grain colour on growth performance, body composition and meat quality parameters of broiler chickens was tested. Ninety chickens were divided into three groups (control, Konini and UC with 30 chickens in each. The tested genotypes were compares with standard variety Vánek (control with common (red grain colour. The two experimental groups received feed mixtures containing 38.2% of wheats with different grain colour: groups Konini (n = 30 and UC (n = 30 with. The third group (n = 30 had 38.2% of common wheat Vánek cultivar (Control group. The live weight of chickens between the experimental groups and control group was not significant different, as well as body composition and chemical analysis of breast and thigh meat of chickens. The feeding of wheat with different grain colour had no effect on performance parameters of broiler chickens. Breast meat tenderness according to the Razor Blade Shear Force was higher in control group against experimental groups. The colour change was not significantly different in all coordinates. pH values (measured after 1-hour post mortem were found significantly higher in the group fattening with Konini wheat than control and UC groups. Chickens meat from the experimental group was characterised by steady overall quality. The effect of various feeding had no effect on meat quality in terms of relevance to consumers.

  8. Increased mitochondrial energy efficiency in skeletal muscle after long-term fasting: its relevance to animal performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourguignon, Aurore; Rameau, Anaïs; Toullec, Gaëlle; Romestaing, Caroline; Roussel, Damien

    2017-07-01

    In the final stage of fasting, skeletal muscle mass and protein content drastically decrease when the maintenance of efficient locomotor activity becomes crucial for animals to reactivate feeding behaviour and survive a very long period of starvation. As mitochondrial metabolism represents the main physiological link between the endogenous energy store and animal performance, the aim of this study was to determine how a very long, natural period of fasting affected skeletal muscle mitochondrial bioenergetics in king penguin ( Aptenodytes patagonicus ) chicks. Rates of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation were measured in pectoralis permeabilized fibres and isolated mitochondria. Mitochondrial ATP synthesis efficiency and the activities of respiratory chain complexes were measured in mitochondria isolated from pectoralis muscle. Results from long-term (4-5 months) naturally fasted chicks were compared with those from short-term (10 day) fasted birds. The respiratory activities of muscle fibres and isolated mitochondria were reduced by 60% and 45%, respectively, on average in long-term fasted chicks compared with short-term fasted birds. Oxidative capacity and mitochondrial content of pectoralis muscle were lowered by long-term fasting. Bioenergetic analysis of pectoralis muscle also revealed that mitochondria were, on average, 25% more energy efficient in the final stage of fasting (4-5 months) than after 10 days of fasting (short-term fasted birds). These results suggest that the strong reduction in respiratory capacity of pectoralis muscle was partly alleviated by increased mitochondrial ATP synthesis efficiency. Such oxidative phosphorylation optimization can impact animal performance, e.g. the metabolic cost of locomotion or the foraging efficiency. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Relevance of biotic pathways to the long-term regulation of nuclear waste disposal: Phase 2, Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, D.H.; Cadwell, L.L.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Prohammer, L.A.; Simmons, M.A.

    1986-11-01

    The results reported here establish the relevance and propose a method for including biotic transport in the assessment and licensing process for commercial low-level waste disposal sites. Earlier work identified the biotic transport mechanisms and process scenarios linking biotic transport with dose to man, and developed models for assessment of impacts. Model modification and improvement efforts in enhancing the ability to represent soil erosion and soil transport within the trench cover. Two alternative hypotheses on plant root uptake were incorporated into the model to represent transport of radionuclides by roots that penetrate the buried waste. Enhancements were also made to the scenario for future site intruder activities. Representation of waste package decomposition in the model was confirmed as the best available alternative. Results from sensitivity analyses indicate that additional information is needed to evaluate the alternative hypotheses for plant root uptake of buried wastes. Site-specific evaluations of the contribution from biotic transport to the potential dose to man establish the relevance in the assessment process. The BIOPORT/MAXI1 computer software package is proposed for dose assessments of commercial low-level waste disposal sites

  10. Relevance of biotic pathways to the long-term regulation of nuclear waste disposal: Phase 2, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenzie, D.H.; Cadwell, L.L.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Prohammer, L.A.; Simmons, M.A.

    1986-11-01

    The results reported here establish the relevance and propose a method for including biotic transport in the assessment and licensing process for commercial low-level waste disposal sites. Earlier work identified the biotic transport mechanisms and process scenarios linking biotic transport with dose to man, and developed models for assessment of impacts. Model modification and improvement efforts in enhancing the ability to represent soil erosion and soil transport within the trench cover. Two alternative hypotheses on plant root uptake were incorporated into the model to represent transport of radionuclides by roots that penetrate the buried waste. Enhancements were also made to the scenario for future site intruder activities. Representation of waste package decomposition in the model was confirmed as the best available alternative. Results from sensitivity analyses indicate that additional information is needed to evaluate the alternative hypotheses for plant root uptake of buried wastes. Site-specific evaluations of the contribution from biotic transport to the potential dose to man establish the relevance in the assessment process. The BIOPORT/MAXI1 computer software package is proposed for dose assessments of commercial low-level waste disposal sites.

  11. Producing colour pictures from SCAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robichaud, K.

    1982-01-01

    The computer code SCAN.TSK has been written for use on the Interdata 7/32 minicomputer which will convert the pictures produced by the SCAN program into colour pictures on a colour graphics VDU. These colour pictures are a more powerful aid to detecting errors in the MONK input data than the normal lineprinter pictures. This report is intended as a user manual for using the program on the Interdata 7/32, and describes the method used to produce the pictures and gives examples of JCL, input data and of the pictures that can be produced. (U.K.)

  12. Colour reconnection in WW events

    CERN Document Server

    D'Hondt, J

    2003-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented for a measurement of the kappa parameter used in the JETSET SK-I model of colour reconnection in W /sup +/W/sup -/ to qq'qq' events at LEP2. An update on the investigation of colour reconnection effects in hadronic decays of W pairs, using the particle flow in DELPHI is presented. A second method is based on the observation that two different m/sub W/ estimators have different sensitivity to the parametrised colour reconnection effect. Hence the difference between them is an observable with information content about kappa. (6 refs).

  13. Temperature effect on hydrocarbon deposition on molybdenum mirrors under ITER-relevant long-term plasma operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rapp, J.; van Rooij, G. J.; Litnovsky, A.; Marot, L.; De Temmerman, G.; Westerhout, J.; Zoethout, E.

    2009-01-01

    Optical diagnostics in ITER will rely on mirrors near the plasma and the deterioration of the reflectivity is a concern. The effect of temperature on the deposition efficiency of hydrocarbons under long-term operation conditions similar to ITER was investigated in the linear plasma generator

  14. Optimal colour quality of LED clusters based on memory colours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smet, Kevin; Ryckaert, Wouter R; Pointer, Michael R; Deconinck, Geert; Hanselaer, Peter

    2011-03-28

    The spectral power distributions of tri- and tetrachromatic clusters of Light-Emitting-Diodes, composed of simulated and commercially available LEDs, were optimized with a genetic algorithm to maximize the luminous efficacy of radiation and the colour quality as assessed by the memory colour quality metric developed by the authors. The trade-off of the colour quality as assessed by the memory colour metric and the luminous efficacy of radiation was investigated by calculating the Pareto optimal front using the NSGA-II genetic algorithm. Optimal peak wavelengths and spectral widths of the LEDs were derived, and over half of them were found to be close to Thornton's prime colours. The Pareto optimal fronts of real LED clusters were always found to be smaller than those of the simulated clusters. The effect of binning on designing a real LED cluster was investigated and was found to be quite large. Finally, a real LED cluster of commercially available AlGaInP, InGaN and phosphor white LEDs was optimized to obtain a higher score on memory colour quality scale than its corresponding CIE reference illuminant.

  15. Colour Separation and Aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Haigh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Aversion to achromatic patterns is well documented but relatively little is known about discomfort from chromatic patterns. Large colour differences are uncommon in the natural environment and deviation from natural statistics makes images uncomfortable (Fernandez and Wilkins 2008, Perception, 37(7, 1098–113; Juricevic et al 2010, Perception, 39(7, 884–899. We report twelve studies documenting a linear increase in aversion to chromatic square-wave gratings as a function of the separation in UCS chromaticity between the component bars, independent of their luminance contrast. Two possible explanations for the aversion were investigated: (1 accommodative response, or (2 cortical metabolic demand. We found no correlation between chromaticity separation and accommodative lag or variance in lag, measured using an open-field autorefractor. However, near infrared spectroscopy of the occipital cortex revealed a larger oxyhaemoglobin response to patterns with large chromaticity separation. The aversion may be cortical in origin and does not appear to be due to accommodation.

  16. String Formation Beyond Leading Colour

    CERN Document Server

    Christiansen, Jesper R.

    2015-08-03

    We present a new model for the hadronisation of multi-parton systems, in which colour correlations beyond leading $N_C$ are allowed to influence the formation of confining potentials (strings). The multiplet structure of $SU(3)$ is combined with a minimisation of the string potential energy, to decide between which partons strings should form, allowing also for "baryonic" configurations (e.g., two colours can combine coherently to form an anticolour). In $e^+e^-$collisions, modifications to the leading-colour picture are small, suppressed by both colour and kinematics factors. But in $pp$ collisions, multi-parton interactions increase the number of possible subleading connections, counteracting their naive $1/N_C^2$ suppression. Moreover, those that reduce the overall string lengths are kinematically favoured. The model, which we have implemented in the PYTHIA 8 generator, is capable of reaching agreement not only with the important $\\left(n_\\mathrm{charged})$ distribution but also with measured rates (and ra...

  17. A new universal colour image fidelity metric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Lucassen, M.P.

    2003-01-01

    We extend a recently introduced universal grayscale image quality index to a newly developed perceptually decorrelated colour space. The resulting colour image fidelity metric quantifies the distortion of a processed colour image relative to its original version. We evaluated the new colour image

  18. What Colour Is a Shadow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, S. W.

    2009-01-01

    What colour is a shadow? Black, grey, or some other colour? This article describes how to use a digital camera to test the hypothesis that a shadow under a clear blue sky has a blue tint. A white sheet of A4 paper was photographed in full sunlight and in shadow under a clear blue sky. The images were analysed using a shareware program called…

  19. Northern Gulf of Mexico estuarine coloured dissolved organic matter derived from MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is relevant for water quality management and may become an important measure to complement future water quality assessment programmes. An approach to derive CDOM using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was developed...

  20. Colour Constancy Beyond the Classical Receptive Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarinia, Arash; Parraga, C Alejandro

    2017-09-18

    The problem of removing illuminant variations to preserve the colours of objects (colour constancy) has already been solved by the human brain using mechanisms that rely largely on centre-surround computations of local contrast. In this paper we adopt some of these biological solutions described by long known physiological findings into a simple, fully automatic, functional model (termed Adaptive Surround Modulation or ASM). In ASM, the size of a visual neuron's receptive field (RF) as well as the relationship with its surround varies according to the local contrast within the stimulus, which in turn determines the nature of the centre-surround normalisation of cortical neurons higher up in the processing chain. We modelled colour constancy by means of two overlapping asymmetric Gaussian kernels whose sizes are adapted based on the contrast of the surround pixels, resembling the change of RF size. We simulated the contrast-dependent surround modulation by weighting the contribution of each Gaussian according to the centre-surround contrast. In the end, we obtained an estimation of the illuminant from the set of the most activated RFs' outputs. Our results on three single-illuminant and one multi-illuminant benchmark datasets show that ASM is highly competitive against the state-of-the-art and it even outperforms learning-based algorithms in one case. Moreover, the robustness of our model is more tangible if we consider that our results were obtained using the same parameters for all datasets, that is, mimicking how the human visual system operates. These results might provide an insight on how dynamical adaptation mechanisms contribute to make object's colours appear constant to us.

  1. Colour Day: an innovative project

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    This year, the Children’s Day-Care Centre (EVE) and School works on the theme of colours. Every class has their own project revolving around this common theme. The class of Claire, Sandrine and Nadia, introduced a monthly “Colour Day”. The objective of this day is to offer children different activities (arts and crafts, baking, etc.) designed around a specific colour. The children get a chance to decorate their classroom and learn in many different ways inspired by the colours blue, red, and many others. The parents are also called to contribute and invited to dress their children in the colour of the day. In September, we discovered the colour blue, in October it was time for red, and in mid-November yellow will brighten up our structure. Everyone plays along, making this a very festive day for us all. On Tuesday, 20 September, we saw the whole School turn blue! We were all dressed in blue and we made blue paintings, too! We made beautiful artwork inspired by artists like Ma...

  2. Long-term trihexyphenidyl exposure alters neuroimmune response and inflammation in aging rat: relevance to age and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuqi; Zhao, Zhe; Wei, Xiaoli; Zheng, Yong; Yu, Jianqiang; Zheng, Jianquan; Wang, Liyun

    2016-07-01

    Clinical studies have shown an association between long-term anticholinergic (AC) drug exposure and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, which has been primarily investigated in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, long-term AC exposure as a risk factor for developing neurodegenerative disorders and the exact mechanisms and potential for disease progression remain unclear. Here, we have addressed the issue using trihexyphenidyl (THP), a commonly used AC drug in PD patients, to determine if THP can accelerate AD-like neurodegenerative progression and study potential mechanisms involved. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (SD) were intraperitoneally injected with THP (0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg) or normal saline (NS) for 7 months. Alterations in cognitive and behavioral performance were assessed using the Morris water maze (MWM) and open field tests. After behavior tests, whole genome oligo microarrays, quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence-confocal were used to investigate the global mechanisms underlying THP-induced neuropathology with aging. Compared with NS controls, the MWM test results showed that THP-treated rats exhibited significantly extended mean latencies during the initial 3 months of testing; however, this behavioral deficit was restored between the fourth and sixth month of MWM testing. The same tendencies were confirmed by MWM probe and open field tests. Gene microarray analysis identified 68 (47 %) upregulated and 176 (53 %) downregulated genes in the "THP-aging" vs. "NS-aging" group. The most significant populations of genes downregulated by THP were the immune response-, antigen processing and presentation-, and major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-related genes, as validated by qRT-PCR. The decreased expression of MHC class I in THP-treated aging brains was confirmed by confocal analysis. Notably, long-term THP treatment primed hippocampal and cortical microglia to

  3. Long-term fuel retention and release in JET ITER-Like Wall at ITER-relevant baking temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinola, K.; Likonen, J.; Ahlgren, T.; Brezinsek, S.; De Temmerman, G.; Jepu, I.; Matthews, G. F.; Pitts, R. A.; Widdowson, A.; Contributors, JET

    2017-08-01

    The fuel outgassing efficiency from plasma-facing components exposed in JET-ILW has been studied at ITER-relevant baking temperatures. Samples retrieved from the W divertor and Be main chamber were annealed at 350 and 240 °C, respectively. Annealing was performed with thermal desoprtion spectrometry (TDS) for 0, 5 and 15 h to study the deuterium removal effectiveness at the nominal baking temperatures. The remained fraction was determined by emptying the samples fully of deuterium by heating W and Be samples up to 1000 and 775 °C,respectively. Results showed the deposits in the divertor having an increasing effect to the remaining retention at temperatures above baking. Highest remaining fractions 54 and 87 % were observed with deposit thicknesses of 10 and 40 μm, respectively. Substantially high fractions were obtained in the main chamber samples from the deposit-free erosion zone of the limiter midplane, in which the dominant fuel retention mechanism is via implantation: 15 h annealing resulted in retained deuterium higher than 90 % . TDS results from the divertor were simulated with TMAP7 calculations. The spectra were modelled with three deuterium activation energies resulting in good agreement with the experiments.

  4. An Image-Based Gamut Analysis of Translucent Digital Ceramic Prints for Coloured Photovoltaic Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Schregle

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Colouring the frontglass of photovoltaic (PV modules via digital ceramic printing aids in concealing the PV modules when integrated into existing building façades as building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV, while admitting sufficient light to produce electricity. This promotes the visual acceptance and adoption of PV modules as a source of renewable energy in urban environments. The effective colour of the PV laminate is a combination of the transparent colour on glass and the colour of the PV cells. This colour should ideally match the architect’s visual expectations in terms of fidelity, but also in terms of relative PV efficiency as a function of print density. In practice, these requirements are often contradictory, particularly for vivid colours, and the visual results may deviate significantly. This paper presents an objective analysis of how colours appear on ceramically printed frontglass when laminated with a PV module, using an image-based colour acquisition process. Given a set of 1044 nominal colours uniformly distributed in the RGB colour space, each printed in 10 opacities, we quantify the range of effective colours observed when printed on glass and combined with a PV module, and their deviation from the nominals. Our results confirm that the effective colour gamuts are significantly constrained and skewed, depending on the ink volume and glass finish used for printing. In particular, blue–magenta hues cannot be reliably rendered with this process. These insights can serve as guidelines for selecting target colours for BIPV that can be well approximated in practice.

  5. Relevance of biotic pathways to the long-term regulation of nuclear waste disposal. Phase I. Final report. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, D.H.; Cadwell, L.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Peloquin, R.A.; Simmons, M.A.

    1984-05-01

    Licensing and regulation of commercial low-level waste (CLLW) burial facilities require that anticipated risks associated with burial sites be evaluated for the life of the facility. This work reviewed the existing capability to evaluate dose to man resulting from the potential redistribution of buried radionuclides by plants and animals that we have termed biotic transport. Through biotic transport, radionuclides can be moved to locations where they can enter exposure pathways to man. We found that predictive models currently in use did not address the long-term risks resulting from the cumulative transport of radionuclides. Although reports in the literature confirm that biotic transport phenomena are common, assessments routinely ignore the associated risks or dismiss them as insignificant without quantitative evaluation. To determine the potential impacts of biotic transport, we made order-of-magnitude estimates of the dose to man for biotic transport processes at reference arid and humid CLLW disposal sites. Estimated doses to site residents after assumed loss of institutional control were comparable to dose estimates for the intruder-agricultural scenario defined in the DEIS for 10 CFR 61 (NRC). The reported lack of potential importance of biotic transport at low-level waste sites in earlier assessment studies is not confirmed by order of magnitude estimates presented in this study. 17 references, 10 figures, 8 tables

  6. Influence of colour in working environment

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrovšek, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Anton Trstenjak wrote: »Our life is practically sinking in the sea of light and colours.« Different colours create different psycho-physiological responses. That is why colours have various impacts on human experiences and arrangements of our attention. When we know how control the colours in our environment, we can influence human psychological and physiological well-being and attention in the space. In my thesis, I explore how colours affect our feelings, our body and attention. Knowing all...

  7. Defining ecologically relevant scales for spatial protection with long-term data on an endangered seabird and local prey availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherley, Richard B; Botha, Philna; Underhill, Les G; Ryan, Peter G; van Zyl, Danie; Cockcroft, Andrew C; Crawford, Robert J M; Dyer, Bruce M; Cook, Timothée R

    2017-12-01

    Human activities are important drivers of marine ecosystem functioning. However, separating the synergistic effects of fishing and environmental variability on the prey base of nontarget predators is difficult, often because prey availability estimates on appropriate scales are lacking. Understanding how prey abundance at different spatial scales links to population change can help integrate the needs of nontarget predators into fisheries management by defining ecologically relevant areas for spatial protection. We investigated the local population response (number of breeders) of the Bank Cormorant (Phalacrocorax neglectus), a range-restricted endangered seabird, to the availability of its prey, the heavily fished west coast rock lobster (Jasus lalandii). Using Bayesian state-space modeled cormorant counts at 3 colonies, 22 years of fisheries-independent data on local lobster abundance, and generalized additive modeling, we determined the spatial scale pertinent to these relationships in areas with different lobster availability. Cormorant numbers responded positively to lobster availability in the regions with intermediate and high abundance but not where regime shifts and fishing pressure had depleted lobster stocks. The relationships were strongest when lobsters 20-30 km offshore of the colony were considered, a distance greater than the Bank Cormorant's foraging range when breeding, and may have been influenced by prey availability for nonbreeding birds, prey switching, or prey ecology. Our results highlight the importance of considering the scale of ecological relationships in marine spatial planning and suggest that designing spatial protection around focal species can benefit marine predators across their full life cycle. We propose the precautionary implementation of small-scale marine protected areas, followed by robust assessment and adaptive-management, to confirm population-level benefits for the cormorants, their prey, and the wider ecosystem, without

  8. Parallel inputs to memory in bee colour vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horridge, Adrian

    2016-03-01

    In the 19(th) century, it was found that attraction of bees to light was controlled by light intensity irrespective of colour, and a few critical entomologists inferred that vision of bees foraging on flowers was unlike human colour vision. Therefore, quite justly, Professor Carl von Hess concluded in his book on the Comparative Physiology of Vision (1912) that bees do not distinguish colours in the way that humans enjoy. Immediately, Karl von Frisch, an assistant in the Zoology Department of the same University of Münich, set to work to show that indeed bees have colour vision like humans, thereby initiating a new research tradition, and setting off a decade of controversy that ended only at the death of Hess in 1923. Until 1939, several researchers continued the tradition of trying to untangle the mechanism of bee vision by repeatedly testing trained bees, but made little progress, partly because von Frisch and his legacy dominated the scene. The theory of trichromatic colour vision further developed after three types of receptors sensitive to green, blue, and ultraviolet (UV), were demonstrated in 1964 in the bee. Then, until the end of the century, all data was interpreted in terms of trichromatic colour space. Anomalies were nothing new, but eventually after 1996 they led to the discovery that bees have a previously unknown type of colour vision based on a monochromatic measure and distribution of blue and measures of modulation in green and blue receptor pathways. Meanwhile, in the 20(th) century, search for a suitable rationalization, and explorations of sterile culs-de-sac had filled the literature of bee colour vision, but were based on the wrong theory.

  9. Quark confinement through hidden breaking of colour symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werle, J.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study of a non-linear mechanism of quark confinement. The sets of coupled equation for Dirac fields carrying colours and flavours are discussed. They contain non-linear self-interaction and mutual interaction terms of the same fractional form that was studied before for single Dirac fields (Phys.Lett. 71B, 357 (1977); Phys.Lett. 76B, 391 (1980); Acta Phys.Pol. B12, 601 (1981)). It turns out that the only way of preventing creation of isolated coloured objects consists in breaking global colour symmetry. An explicit form of the symmetry breaking term is proposed (different from that used in Acta Phys.Pol. B19, 203 (1988)), which implies that only white currents are conserved and the three colours are truly inseparable. Moreover, the new equations have the advantage of having strictly colour symmetric (white) solution that correspond to an absolute minimum of the symmetry breaking term of energy. (author). 4 refs

  10. Biases and regularities of grapheme-colour associations in Japanese nonsynaesthetic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Jun-ichi; Yokosawa, Kazuhiko; Asano, Michiko

    2016-01-01

    Associations between graphemes and colours in a nonsynaesthetic Japanese population were investigated. Participants chose the most suitable colour from 11 basic colour terms for each of 40 graphemes from the four categories of graphemes used in the Japanese language (kana characters, English alphabet letters, and Arabic and kanji numerals). This test was repeated after a three-week interval. In their responses, which were not as temporally consistent as those of grapheme-colour synaesthetes, participants showed biases and regularities that were comparable to those of synaesthetes reported in past studies. Although it has been believed that only synaesthetes, and not nonsynaesthetes, tended to associate graphemes with colours based on grapheme frequency, Berlin and Kay's colour typology, and colour word frequency, participants in this study tended in part to associate graphemes with colours based on the above factors. Moreover, participants that were nonsynaesthetes tended to associate different graphemes that shared sounds and/or meanings (e.g., Arabic and kanji numerals representing the same number) with the same colours, which was analogous to the findings in Japanese synaesthetes. These results support the view that grapheme-colour synaesthesia might have its origins in cross-modal association processes that are shared with the general population.

  11. A configural dominant account of contextual cueing: Configural cues are stronger than colour cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunar, Melina A; John, Rebecca; Sweetman, Hollie

    2014-01-01

    Previous work has shown that reaction times to find a target in displays that have been repeated are faster than those for displays that have never been seen before. This learning effect, termed "contextual cueing" (CC), has been shown using contexts such as the configuration of the distractors in the display and the background colour. However, it is not clear how these two contexts interact to facilitate search. We investigated this here by comparing the strengths of these two cues when they appeared together. In Experiment 1, participants searched for a target that was cued by both colour and distractor configural cues, compared with when the target was only predicted by configural information. The results showed that the addition of a colour cue did not increase contextual cueing. In Experiment 2, participants searched for a target that was cued by both colour and distractor configuration compared with when the target was only cued by colour. The results showed that adding a predictive configural cue led to a stronger CC benefit. Experiments 3 and 4 tested the disruptive effects of removing either a learned colour cue or a learned configural cue and whether there was cue competition when colour and configural cues were presented together. Removing the configural cue was more disruptive to CC than removing colour, and configural learning was shown to overshadow the learning of colour cues. The data support a configural dominant account of CC, where configural cues act as the stronger cue in comparison to colour when they are presented together.

  12. Quark charges and colour gluon mass from deep-inelastic bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandita, P.N.

    1978-01-01

    Sum rules are derived for the structure function V(x) for the 'three-photon' process e +- + p →e +- + γ +X which can distinguish between various colour models below colour threshold, independently of the quark and gluon distributions. A careful study of the sum rule for V(x) in the broken colour gauge theory model can in principle be used to determine the colour gluon mass. Invoking the specific assumptions of the dominance of p-type quarks and neglecting the sea of quark-antiquark pairs, bounds for V(x) are obtained in terms of νW 2 (x) which can distinguish between various colour models below colour threshold. (author)

  13. The colour of gender stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Sheila J; Macrae, C Neil

    2011-08-01

    Despite legislative attempts to eliminate gender stereotyping from society, the propensity to evaluate people on the basis of their sex remains a pernicious social problem. Noting the critical interplay between cultural and cognitive factors in the establishment of stereotypical beliefs, the current investigation explored the extent to which culturally transmitted colour-gender associations (i.e., pink is for girls, blue is for boys) set the stage for the automatic activation and expression of gender stereotypes. Across six experiments, the results demonstrated that (1) consumer choice for children's goods is dominated by gender-stereotyped colours (Experiment 1); (2) colour-based stereotypic associations guide young children's behaviour (Experiment 2); (3) colour-gender associations automatically activate associated stereotypes in adulthood (Experiments 3-5); and (4) colour-based stereotypic associations bias impressions of male and female targets (Experiment 6). These findings indicate that, despite prohibitions against stereotyping, seemingly innocuous societal practices may continue to promote this mode of thought. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  14. The relevance of the whitecapping term in wave forecasting. An analysis for the wave period of the Catalan coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallares, Elena; Espino, Manuel; Sánchez-Arcilla, Agustín

    2013-04-01

    The Catalan Coast is located in the North Western Mediterranean Sea. It is a region with highly heterogeneous wind and wave conditions, characterized by a microtidal environment, and economically very dependent from the sea and the coastal zone activities. Because some of the main coastal conflicts and management problems occur within a few kilometers of the land-ocean boundary, the level of resolution and accuracy from meteo-oceanographic predictions required is not currently available. The current work is focused on improving high resolution wave forecasting very near the coast. The SWAN wave model is used to simulate the waves in the area, and various buoy data and field campaigns are used to validate the results. The simulations are structured in four different domains covering all the North Western Mediterranean Sea, with a grid resolution from 9 km to 250 meters in coastal areas. Previous results show that the significant wave height is almost always underpredicted in this area, and the underprediction is higher during storm events. However, the error in the peak period and the mean period is almost always constantly under predicted with a bias between one and two seconds, plus some residual error. This systematic error represents 40% of the total error. To improve the initial results, the whiteccaping dissipation term is studied and modified. In the SWAN model, the whitecapping is mainly controlled by the steepness of the waves. Although the by default parameter is not depending on the wave number, there is a new formulation in the last SWAN version (40.81) to include it in the calculations. Previous investigations show that adjusting the dependence for the wave number improved the predictions for the wave energy at lower frequencies, solving the underprediction of the period mentioned before. In the present work different simulations are developed to calibrate the new formulation, obtaining important improvements in the results. For the significant wave

  15. Changeable camouflage: how well can flounder resemble the colour and spatial scale of substrates in their natural habitats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkaynak, Derya; Siemann, Liese A; Barbosa, Alexandra; Mäthger, Lydia M

    2017-03-01

    Flounder change colour and pattern for camouflage. We used a spectrometer to measure reflectance spectra and a digital camera to capture body patterns of two flounder species camouflaged on four natural backgrounds of different spatial scale (sand, small gravel, large gravel and rocks). We quantified the degree of spectral match between flounder and background relative to the situation of perfect camouflage in which flounder and background were assumed to have identical spectral distribution. Computations were carried out for three biologically relevant observers: monochromatic squid, dichromatic crab and trichromatic guitarfish. Our computations present a new approach to analysing datasets with multiple spectra that have large variance. Furthermore, to investigate the spatial match between flounder and background, images of flounder patterns were analysed using a custom program originally developed to study cuttlefish camouflage. Our results show that all flounder and background spectra fall within the same colour gamut and that, in terms of different observer visual systems, flounder matched most substrates in luminance and colour contrast. Flounder matched the spatial scales of all substrates except for rocks. We discuss findings in terms of flounder biology; furthermore, we discuss our methodology in light of hyperspectral technologies that combine high-resolution spectral and spatial imaging.

  16. Znaky pro barvy v českém znakovém jazyce a jejich etymologie / Colour Terms in the Czech Sign Language and Their Etymology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Okrouhlíková

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The text deals with the signs in the Czech Sign Language for the basic colours — white, black, red, green, yellow, blue, brown and grey in the diachronic point of view. On the basis of historical written description of these signs from 1834–1907 the motivation of the signs is being analysed (the signs were derived from the typical object of the particular colour as well as the slow lexicalization and form (especially the components of the signs — the place of articulation, handshape and movement. At the same time, the historical signs are compared to the current signs and the text provides analysis of the trends in changes of phonological/morphological structures of the signs (place of articulation changes — moving down from the center to the periphery of the face, shortening of the movement, changing the shape of the hand etc.. In addition the text examines the possible relationship of these signs with the signs for colours in the Austrian, German and French Sign Language (the languages that had been used in deaf education at the end of the 18th and 19th centuries according to preserved records. Concerning the historical signs their motivation and form were compared, along with the detail look at the contemporary signs. This is the first look at the Czech Sign Language from the etymological point of view at all.

  17. The colour of an avifauna: A quantitative analysis of the colour of Australian birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhey, Kaspar

    2015-01-01

    Animal coloration is a poorly-understood aspect of phenotypic variability. Here I expand initial studies of the colour gamut of birds by providing the first quantitative description of the colour variation of an entire avifauna: Australian landbirds (555 species). The colour of Australian birds occupies a small fraction (19%) of the entire possible colour space and colour variation is extremely uneven. Most colours are unsaturated, concentrated in the centre of colour space and based on the deposition of melanins. Other mechanisms of colour production are less common but account for larger portions of colour space and for most saturated colours. Male colours occupy 45–25% more colour space than female colours, indicating that sexual dichromatism translates into a broader range of male colours. Male-exclusive colours are often saturated, at the edge of chromatic space, and have most likely evolved for signalling. While most clades of birds occupy expected or lower-than-expected colour volumes, parrots and cockatoos (Order Psittaciformes) occupy a much larger volume than expected. This uneven distribution of colour variation across mechanisms of colour production, sexes and clades is probably shared by avifaunas in other parts of the world, but this remains to be tested with comparable data. PMID:26679370

  18. The handicap of abnormal colour vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Barry L

    2004-07-01

    All people with abnormal colour vision, except for a few mildly affected deuteranomals, report that they experience problems with colour in everyday life and at work. Contemporary society presents them with increasing problems because colour is now so widely used in printed materials and in computer displays. Equal opportunity law gives them protection against unfair discrimination in employment, so a decision to exclude a person from employment on the grounds of abnormal colour vision must now be well supported by good evidence and sound argument. This paper reviews the investigations that have contributed to understanding the nature and consequences of the problems they have. All those with abnormal colour vision are at a disadvantage with comparative colour tasks that involve precise matching of colours or discrimination of fine colour differences either because of their loss of colour discrimination or anomalous perception of metamers. The majority have problems when colour is used to code information, in man-made colour codes and in naturally occurring colour codes that signal ripeness of fruit, freshness of meat or illness. They can be denied the benefit of colour to mark out objects and organise complex visual displays. They may be unreliable when a colour name is used as an identifier. They are slower and less successful in search when colour is an attribute of the target object or is used to organise the visual display. Because those with the more severe forms of abnormal colour vision perceive a very limited gamut of colours, they are at a disadvantage in the pursuit and appreciation of those forms of art that use colour.

  19. Hypersensitivity reactions to food colours with special reference to the natural colour annatto extract (butter colour).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, H; Larsen, J C; Tarding, F

    1978-01-01

    It is well known that synthetic food colours especially some azo dyes can provoke hypersensitivity reactions such as urticaria, angioneurotic oedema, and astma (Michaëlsson and Juhlin, 1973, Granholt and Thune, 1975). Natural food colours are scarcely investigated with respect to potential allergic properties. Annatto extract, a commonly used food colour in edible fats e.g. butter, has been tested in patients. Among 61 consecutive patients suffereing from chornic urticaria and/or angioneurotic oedema 56 patients were orally provoked by annatto extract during elimination diet. Challenge was performed with a dose equivalent to the amount used in 25 grammes of butter. Twentysix per cent of the patients reacted to this colour 4 hours (SD: 2,6) after intake. Similar challenges with synthetic dyes showed the following results: Tartrazine 11%, Sunset Yellow FCF 17%, Food Red 17 16%, Amaranth 9%, Ponceau 4 R 15%, Erythrosine 12% and Brillant Blue FCF 14%. The present study indicates that natural food colours may induce hypersensitivity reactions as frequent as synthetic dyes.

  20. Some consideration on the relevance of concepts based on the probability distribution of words reminded by stimulus terms concerning atomic energy and radiation utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urabe, Itsumasa

    2002-01-01

    The relevance of concepts brought to mind by stimulus terms concerning atomic energy and radiation utilization has been investigated to learn how people understand the present status of nuclear technology. The relevance of concepts was defined as the frequency distribution of words that came to mind immediately after seeing selected terms needed for present-day life as well as for nuclear engineering. An analysis of knowledge structure shows that a concept of atomic energy has a close relation with that of electric power generation; an understanding of nuclear power utilization may be promoted in relation to an understanding of energy and environmental problems because the concepts of energy, atomic energy, electric power generation, and natural environment have closer relations with one another; a concept of radiation has various relations with harmful radiological health effects, but little relation with industrial, agricultural, and other beneficial uses except of nuclear power generation or medical applications. It also became clear from the investigation that studies on natural radiation may be important to promote an understanding of radiation utilization because a concept of the natural environment does not yet relate to that of natural radiation. (author)

  1. Synaesthetic Colours Can Behave More like Recalled Colours, as Opposed to Physical Colours that Can Be Seen

    OpenAIRE

    Derek H. Arnold; Signy V. Wegener; Francesca Brown; Jason B. Mattingley

    2011-01-01

    Grapheme-color synaesthesia is an atypical condition characterized by coloured sensations when reading achromatic text. Different forms have been characterized, but this is somewhat controversial. In associative grapheme-colour synaesthesia, written graphemes can automatically trigger a sensation of colour in the ?mind's eye?, but hearing the name of a grapheme does not. This allowed us explore the precision with which synaesthetes match triggered synaesthetic colours across separate presenta...

  2. The materialization phase in the colour rope picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, J.

    1987-11-01

    The initial phase of ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions where matter in form of quarks and real gluons is created is described in terms of a phenomenological strings with multiple colour charge sources at their ends. Consequences upon different observables are reviewed and discussed. (orig.)

  3. Colour decompositions of multi-quark one-loop QCD amplitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ita, Harald; Ozeren, Kemal

    2012-01-01

    We describe the decomposition of one-loop QCD amplitudes in terms of colour-ordered building blocks. We give new expressions for the coefficients of QCD colour structures in terms of ordered objects called primitive amplitudes, for processes with up to seven partons. These results are needed in c...... to the cross section for W+4-jet production at the Large Hadron Collider, and verify that it is very well approximated by keeping only the leading terms in an expansion around the formal limit of a large number of colours....

  4. An integrated unscented kalman filter and relevance vector regression approach for lithium-ion battery remaining useful life and short-term capacity prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Xiujuan; Fang, Huajing

    2015-01-01

    The gradual decreasing capacity of lithium-ion batteries can serve as a health indicator for tracking the degradation of lithium-ion batteries. It is important to predict the capacity of a lithium-ion battery for future cycles to assess its health condition and remaining useful life (RUL). In this paper, a novel method is developed using unscented Kalman filter (UKF) with relevance vector regression (RVR) and applied to RUL and short-term capacity prediction of batteries. A RVR model is employed as a nonlinear time-series prediction model to predict the UKF future residuals which otherwise remain zero during the prediction period. Taking the prediction step into account, the predictive value through the RVR method and the latest real residual value constitute the future evolution of the residuals with a time-varying weighting scheme. Next, the future residuals are utilized by UKF to recursively estimate the battery parameters for predicting RUL and short-term capacity. Finally, the performance of the proposed method is validated and compared to other predictors with the experimental data. According to the experimental and analysis results, the proposed approach has high reliability and prediction accuracy, which can be applied to battery monitoring and prognostics, as well as generalized to other prognostic applications. - Highlights: • An integrated method is proposed for RUL prediction as well as short-term capacity prediction. • Relevance vector regression model is employed as a nonlinear time-series prediction model. • Unscented Kalman filter is used to recursively update the states for battery model parameters during the prediction. • A time-varying weighting scheme is utilized to improve the accuracy of the RUL prediction. • The proposed method demonstrates high reliability and prediction accuracy.

  5. Biomimetic superwettable materials with structural colours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zelinlan; Guo, Zhiguang

    2017-12-05

    Structural colours and superwettability are of great interest due to their unique characteristics. However, the application of materials with either structural colours or superwettability is limited. Moreover, materials possessing both structural colours and superwettability are crucial for many practical applications. The combination of structural colours and superwettability can result in materials for use various applications, such as in sensors, detectors, bioassays, anti-counterfeiting, and liquid actuators, by controlling surfaces to repel or absorb liquids. Regarding superwettability and structural colours, surface texture and chemical composition are two factors for the construction of materials with superwettable structural colours. This review aims at offering a comprehensive elaboration of the mechanism, recent biomimetic research, and applications of biomimetic superwettable materials with structural colours. Furthermore, this review provides significant insight into the design, fabrication, and application of biomimetic superwettable materials with structural colours.

  6. Assessing the colour quality of LED sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jost-Boissard, S.; Avouac, P.; Fontoynont, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The CIE General Colour Rendering Index is currently the criterion used to describe and measure the colour-rendering properties of light sources. But over the past years, there has been increasing evidence of its limitations particularly its ability to predict the perceived colour quality of light...... sources and especially some LEDs. In this paper, several aspects of perceived colour quality are investigated using a side-by-side paired comparison method, and the following criteria: naturalness of fruits and vegetables, colourfulness of the Macbeth Color Checker chart, visual appreciation...... (attractiveness/ preference) and colour difference estimations for both visual scenes. Forty-five observers with normal colour vision evaluated nine light sources at 3000 K, and 36 observers evaluated eight light sources at 4000 K. Our results indicate that perceived colour differences are better dealt...

  7. Special Section on Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    Special section on coloured Petri nets, their basic concepts, analysis methods, tool support and industrial applications.......Special section on coloured Petri nets, their basic concepts, analysis methods, tool support and industrial applications....

  8. Parsimonious relevance models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, E.; Weerkamp, W.; Balog, K.; de Rijke, M.; Myang, S.-H.; Oard, D.W.; Sebastiani, F.; Chua, T.-S.; Leong, M.-K.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a method for applying parsimonious language models to re-estimate the term probabilities assigned by relevance models. We apply our method to six topic sets from test collections in five different genres. Our parsimonious relevance models (i) improve retrieval effectiveness in terms of

  9. String formation beyond leading colour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, Jesper R. [Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University,Sölvegatan 14, Lund (Sweden); Theoretical Physics, CERN,CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Skands, Peter Z. [Theoretical Physics, CERN,CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University,VIC-3800 (Australia)

    2015-08-03

    We present a new model for the hadronisation of multi-parton systems, in which colour correlations beyond leading N{sub C} are allowed to influence the formation of confining potentials (strings). The multiplet structure of SU(3) is combined with a minimisation of the string potential energy, to decide between which partons strings should form, allowing also for “baryonic” configurations (e.g., two colours can combine coherently to form an anticolour). In e{sup +}e{sup −}collisions, modifications to the leading-colour picture are small, suppressed by both colour and kinematics factors. But in pp collisions, multi-parton interactions increase the number of possible subleading connections, counteracting their naive 1/N{sub C}{sup 2} suppression. Moreover, those that reduce the overall string lengths are kinematically favoured. The model, which we have implemented in the PYTHIA 8 generator, is capable of reaching agreement not only with the important 〈p{sub ⊥}〉(n{sub charged}) distribution but also with measured rates (and ratios) of kaons and hyperons, in both ee and pp collisions. Nonetheless, the shape of their p{sub ⊥} spectra remains challenging to explain.

  10. COLOUR LEARNING IN RETARDED CHILDREN*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    COLOUR LEARNING IN RETARDED CHILDREN* !\\'fRS E. K~SEBOOM, Principal, ADS. LEVIN, M.B., M.R.C.P., D.C.H., Hon. Medical Officer, Hamlet B School for. Retarded Children, Johannesburg. '... silly children, with no understanding .. -'. Jeremiah 4:22. Tt has been observed' that mentally retarded children have.

  11. The discovery of coloured kaons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, G.

    1976-01-01

    The recently discovered M(1.86) mesons may be coloured kaons and a weak interaction in Han-Nambu theory is proposed which has the required general properties and forces the charged M particle to decay into the observed exotic state. (Auth.)

  12. Colour reconnection at LEP2

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P

    2002-01-01

    The preliminary results on the search of colour reconnection effects (CR) from the four experiments at LEP, ALEPH, DELPHI, L3 and OPAL, are reviewed. Extreme models are excluded by studies of standard variables, and on going studies of a method first suggested by L3, the particle flow method (D. Duchesneau, (2001)), are yet inconclusive. (22 refs).

  13. An Application of Max Lusher's Theory of Colour Psychology in Forogh Farrokhzad's Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Alavi Moghaddam

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Colour is recognized as one of the criteria for personality analysis in modern psychology. Colours are a kind of energy and visible sounds which play an important role in one's life. Their influences on human's soul and mind are undeniable. In other words, colour can be considered as a reflection of one's mental and physical situation since colours have special influence on soul and body equally. Max Lusher's study of colours is among the most recent theories which deal with psychological analysis and character explication. In this method, colours are introduced as numbers. Those which are denied and those which are well- accepted are the reflection of one’s thoughts and feelings. Hence, word selection and colour choice can help us to analyze the poet's personality and mind. Among the modern poets, Forogh Farrokhzad has repeatedly manipulated colours in her poems among which "black" is a specific one. This paper aims at interpreting Forogh Farrokhzad poetry in terms of colour analysis on Max Lusher's theory.

  14. Personality predicts the vibrancy of colour imagery: The case of synaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Shyla R; Simner, Julia; Ipser, Alberta

    2017-07-01

    In this study we show that personality traits predict the physical qualities of mentally generated colours, using the case of synaesthesia. Developmental grapheme-colour synaesthetes have the automatic lifelong association of colours paired to letters or digits. Although these colours are internal mental constructs, they can be measured along physical dimensions such as saturation and luminance. The personality of synaesthetes can also be quantified using self-report questionnaires relating, for example, to the five major traits of Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience. In this paper, we bring together both types of quality by examining whether the personality of individual synaesthetes predicts their synaesthetic colours. Twenty grapheme-colour synaesthetes were tested with the Big Five Inventory (BFI) personality questionnaire. Their synaesthesia was also tested in terms of consistency and average colour saturation and luminance. Two major results were found: although personality did not influence the overall robustness (i.e., consistency) of synaesthesia, it predicted the nature of synaesthetes' colours: the trait of Openness was positively correlated with the saturation of synaesthetic colours. Our study provides evidence that personality and internal perception are intertwined, and suggests future avenues of research for investigating the associations between the two. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Costs of colour change in fish: food intake and behavioural decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Gwendolen M; Gladman, Nicholas W; Corless, Hannah F; Morrell, Lesley J

    2013-07-15

    Many animals, particularly reptiles, amphibians, fish and cephalopods, have the ability to change their body colour, for functions including thermoregulation, signalling and predator avoidance. Many fish plastically darken their body colouration in response to dark visual backgrounds, and this functions to reduce predation risk. Here, we tested the hypotheses that colour change in fish (1) carries with it an energetic cost and (2) affects subsequent shoal and habitat choice decisions. We demonstrate that guppies (Poecilia reticulata) change colour in response to dark and light visual backgrounds, and that doing so carries an energetic cost in terms of food consumption. By increasing food intake, however, guppies are able to maintain growth rates and meet the energetic costs of changing colour. Following colour change, fish preferentially choose habitats and shoals that match their own body colouration, and maximise crypsis, thus avoiding the need for further colour change but also potentially paying an opportunity cost associated with restriction to particular habitats and social associates. Thus, colour change to match the background is complemented by behavioural strategies, which should act to maximise fitness in variable environments.

  16. Colour, pleasantness, and consumption behaviour within a meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina; Spence, Charles

    2014-04-01

    It is often claimed that colour (e.g., in a meal) affects consumption behaviour. However, just how strong is the evidence in support of this claim, and what are the underlying mechanisms? It has been shown that not only the colour itself, but also the variety and the arrangement of the differently-coloured components in a meal influence consumers' ratings of the pleasantness of a meal (across time) and, to a certain extent, might even affect their consumption behaviour as well. Typically, eating the same food constantly or repeatedly leads to a decrease in its perceived pleasantness, which, as a consequence, might lead to decreased intake of that food. However, variation within a meal (in one or several sensory attributes, or holistically) has been shown to slow down this process. In this review, we first briefly summarize the literature on how general variety in a meal influences these variables and the major theories that have been put forward by researchers to explain them. We then go on to evaluate the evidence of these effects based mainly on the colour of the food explaining the different processes that might affect colour-based sensory-specific satiety and, in more detail, consumption behaviour. In addition, we also discuss the overlap in the definitions of these terms and provide additional hypothesis as to why, in some cases, the opposite pattern of results has been observed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The "Human Colour" Crayon: Investigating the Attitudes and Perceptions of Learners Regarding Race and Skin Colour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Neeske; Costandius, Elmarie

    2017-01-01

    Some coloured and black learners in South Africa use a light orange or pink crayon to represent themselves in art. Many learners name this colour "human colour" or "skin colour". This is troublesome, because it could reflect exclusionary ways of representing race in images and language. This case study, conducted with two…

  18. Search for Colour Singlet and Colour Reconnection Effects in Hadronic Z Decays at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; van Dalen, J A; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Debreczeni, J; Degré, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, M; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duda, M; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El-Hage, A; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Extermann, P; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, M; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, F; Fisher, P H; Fisher, W; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Hu, Y; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Käfer, D; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V F; Kräber, M H; Krämer, R W; Krüger, A; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levchenko, P M; Li, C; Likhoded, S; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nisati, A; Novák, T; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Pal, I; Palomares, C; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pioppi, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rosenbleck, C; Rubio, J A; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vásquez, R; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; Wienemann, P; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, J; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Yeh, S C; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B; Zöller, M

    2004-01-01

    A search is performed in symmetric 3-jet hadronic Z decay events for evidence of colour singlet production or colour reconnection effects. Asymmetries in the angular separation of particles are found to be sensitive indicators of such effects. Upper limits on the level of colour singlet production and colour reconnection effects are established for a variety of models.

  19. A comparison of hair colour measurement by digital image analysis with reflective spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Michelle R; van Oorschot, Roland A H; Baindur-Hudson, Swati

    2009-01-10

    While reflective spectrophotometry is an established method for measuring macroscopic hair colour, it can be cumbersome to use on a large number of individuals and not all reflective spectrophotometry instruments are easily portable. This study investigates the use of digital photographs to measure hair colour and compares its use to reflective spectrophotometry. An understanding of the accuracy of colour determination by these methods is of relevance when undertaking specific investigations, such as those on the genetics of hair colour. Measurements of hair colour may also be of assistance in cases where a photograph is the only evidence of hair colour available (e.g. surveillance). Using the CIE L(*)a(*)b(*) colour space, the hair colour of 134 individuals of European ancestry was measured by both reflective spectrophotometry and by digital image analysis (in V++). A moderate correlation was found along all three colour axes, with Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.625, 0.593 and 0.513 for L(*), a(*) and b(*) respectively (p-values=0.000), with means being significantly overestimated by digital image analysis for all three colour components (by an average of 33.42, 3.38 and 8.00 for L(*), a(*) and b(*) respectively). When using digital image data to group individuals into clusters previously determined by reflective spectrophotometric analysis using a discriminant analysis, individuals were classified into the correct clusters 85.8% of the time when there were two clusters. The percentage of cases correctly classified decreases as the number of clusters increases. It is concluded that, although more convenient, hair colour measurement from digital images has limited use in situations requiring accurate and consistent measurements.

  20. An RGB Approach to Prismatic Colours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theilmann, Florian; Grusche, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    Teaching prismatic colours usually boils down to establishing the take-home message that white light consists of "differently refrangible" coloured rays. This approach explains the classical spectrum of seven colours but has its limitations, e.g. in discussing spectra from setups with higher resolution or in understanding the well…

  1. Colour Vision Deficiency and Physics Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maule, Louise; Featonby, David

    2016-01-01

    1 in 12 males suffer from some form of colour vision deficiency (CVD) which in the present colour dominated world of education presentation can be a severe disadvantage. Although aware of "colourblindness" most teachers make little or no adjustment for these pupils for whom tasks may be more difficult. This article examines colour vision…

  2. Mixed colour states in QCD confining vacuum

    OpenAIRE

    Buividovich, P. V.; Kuvshinov, V. I.

    2005-01-01

    We show that confinement of spinless heavy quarks in fundamental representation of $SU(N_{c})$ gauge group can be treated as decoherence of pure colour state into a white mixture of states. Decoherence rate is found to be proportional to the tension of QCD string and the distance between colour charges. The purity of colour states is calculated.

  3. Kac's ring: The case of four colours

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-03-15

    Mar 15, 2017 ... generalize the discussion to more than two colours. Although the generalization seems nearly trivial, it will be shown that there appear interesting, unanticipated technical difficulties or surprises when we consider four colours. In this work, we consider the Kac's ring with balls of four colours, calling them red ...

  4. Improper colouring of (random) unit disk graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kang, R.J.; Müller, T.; Sereni, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    For any graph G, the k-improper chromatic number ¿k(G) is the smallest number of colours used in a colouring of G such that each colour class induces a subgraph of maximum degree k. We investigate ¿k for unit disk graphs and random unit disk graphs to generalise results of McDiarmid and Reed

  5. Colour development in the apple orchard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijskens, L.M.M.; Unuk, T.; Stanislav Tojnko, S.; Hribar, J.; Simcic, M.

    2011-01-01

    Colour is traditionally one of the important appearance features of all fruit for consumers in deciding to buy them. Colour is therefore important in the postharvest supply chain. But where does that colour of fruit come from? Clearly the period of growing and the circumstances during growth are

  6. Synchronization analysis of coloured delayed networks under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper investigates synchronization of coloured delayed networks under decentralized pinning intermittent control. To begin with, the time delays are taken into account in the coloured networks. In addition, we propose a decentralized pinning intermittent control for coloured delayed networks, which is different from that ...

  7. Detection of coloured tracks of heavy ion particles using photographic colour film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuge, K.; Yasuda, N.; Kumagai, H.; Nakazawa, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Aoki, N.; Hasegawa, A.

    2001-01-01

    A photographic colour film, which was exposed to heavy ions, reveals a coloured dye image of the ion tracks. Since the colour film consists of several layers and different colours appear on each layer, three-dimensional information on the tracks in the layers can be obtained by the colour image. Previously, we have reported the method for which the tracks in different colours represented differences of track depth and we also discussed the disadvantages of using commercial colour films. Here we present the procedure for a self-made photographic coating and the development formula which can overcome the disadvantages

  8. Molecular genetics of coat colour variations in White Galloway and White Park cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenig, B; Beck, J; Floren, C; Bornemann-Kolatzki, K; Wiedemann, I; Hennecke, S; Swalve, H; Schütz, E

    2013-08-01

    White Galloway cattle exhibit three different white coat colour phenotypes, that is, well marked, strongly marked and mismarked. However, mating of individuals with the preferred well or strongly marked phenotype also results in offspring with the undesired mismarked and/or even fully black coat colour. To elucidate the genetic background of the coat colour variations in White Galloway cattle, we analysed four coat colour relevant genes: mast/stem cell growth factor receptor (KIT), KIT ligand (KITLG), melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) and tyrosinase (TYR). Here, we show that the coat colour variations in White Galloway cattle and White Park cattle are caused by a KIT gene (chromosome 6) duplication and aberrant insertion on chromosome 29 (Cs29 ) as recently described for colour-sided Belgian Blue. Homozygous (Cs29 /Cs29 ) White Galloway cattle and White Park cattle exhibit the mismarked phenotype, whereas heterozygous (Cs29 /wt29 ) individuals are either well or strongly marked. In contrast, fully black individuals are characterised by the wild-type chromosome 29. As known for other cattle breeds, mutations in the MC1R gene determine the red colouring. Our data suggest that the white coat colour variations in White Galloway cattle and White Park cattle are caused by a dose-dependent effect based on the ploidy of aberrant insertions and inheritance of the KIT gene on chromosome 29. © 2013 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2013 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  9. Poor environmental tracking can make extinction risk insensitive to the colour of environmental noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pol, Martijn; Vindenes, Yngvild; Sæther, Bernt-Erik; Engen, Steinar; Ens, Bruno J.; Oosterbeek, Kees; Tinbergen, Joost M.

    2011-01-01

    The relative importance of environmental colour for extinction risk compared with other aspects of environmental noise (mean and interannual variability) is poorly understood. Such knowledge is currently relevant, as climate change can cause the mean, variability and temporal autocorrelation of environmental variables to change. Here, we predict that the extinction risk of a shorebird population increases with the colour of a key environmental variable: winter temperature. However, the effect is weak compared with the impact of changes in the mean and interannual variability of temperature. Extinction risk was largely insensitive to noise colour, because demographic rates are poor in tracking the colour of the environment. We show that three mechanisms—which probably act in many species—can cause poor environmental tracking: (i) demographic rates that depend nonlinearly on environmental variables filter the noise colour, (ii) demographic rates typically depend on several environmental signals that do not change colour synchronously, and (iii) demographic stochasticity whitens the colour of demographic rates at low population size. We argue that the common practice of assuming perfect environmental tracking may result in overemphasizing the importance of noise colour for extinction risk. Consequently, ignoring environmental autocorrelation in population viability analysis could be less problematic than generally thought. PMID:21561978

  10. Effects of testing on subsequent re-encoding and long-term forgetting of action-relevant materials: On the influence of recall type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, Veit; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Olofsson, Jonas K; Jönsson, Fredrik U

    2015-10-01

    Testing one's memory of previously studied information reduces the rate of forgetting, compared to restudy. However, little is known about how this direct testing effect applies to action phrases (e.g., "wash the car") - a learning material relevant to everyday memory. As action phrases consist of two different components, a verb (e.g., "wash") and a noun (e.g., "car"), testing can either be implemented as noun-cued recall of verbs or verb-cued recall of nouns, which may differently affect later memory performance. In the present study, we investigated the effect of testing for these two recall types, using verbally encoded action phrases as learning materials. Results showed that repeated study-test practice, compared to repeated study-restudy practice, decreased the forgetting rate across 1 week to a similar degree for both noun-cued and verb-cued recall types. However, noun-cued recall of verbs initiated more new subsequent learning during the first restudy, compared to verb-cued recall of nouns. The study provides evidence that testing has benefits on both subsequent restudy and long-term retention of action-relevant materials, but that these benefits are differently expressed with testing via noun-cued versus verb-cued recall. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Relevance of biotic pathways to the long-term regulation of nuclear waste disposal. A report on Tasks 1 and 2 of Phase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, D.H.; Cadwell, L.L.; Cushing, C.E. Jr.; Harty, R.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Simmons, M.A.; Soldat, J.K.; Swartzman, B.

    1982-07-01

    The purpose of the work reported here was to evaluate the relevance of biotic transport to the assessment of impacts and licensing of low-level waste disposal sites. Available computer models and their recent applications at low-level waste disposal sites are considered. Biotic transport mechanisms and processes for both terrestrial and aquatic systems are presented with examples from existing waste disposal sites. Following a proposed system for ranking radionuclides by their potential for biotic transport, recommendations for completing Phase I research are presented. To evaluate the long-term importance of biotic transport at low-level waste sites, scenarios for biotic pathways and mechanisms need to be developed. Scenarios should begin with a description of the waste form and should include a description of biotic processes and mechanisms, approximations of the magnitude of materials transported, and a linkage to processes or mechanisms in existing models. Once these scenarios are in place, existing models could be used to evaluate impacts resulting from biotic transport and to assess the relevance to site selection and licensing of low-level waste disposal sites

  12. Synaesthetic Colours Can Behave More like Recalled Colours, as Opposed to Physical Colours that Can Be Seen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek H. Arnold

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Grapheme-color synaesthesia is an atypical condition characterized by coloured sensations when reading achromatic text. Different forms have been characterized, but this is somewhat controversial. In associative grapheme-colour synaesthesia, written graphemes can automatically trigger a sensation of colour in the ‘mind's eye’, but hearing the name of a grapheme does not. This allowed us explore the precision with which synaesthetes match triggered synaesthetic colours across separate presentations, versus the precision for recalled experiences cued by spoken graphemes. We recorded CIE coordinates, and found that matches for triggered sensations were equally variable relative to recalled experiences. To ensure this was not due to insensitivity of our apparatus, we next had synaesthetes and age-matched controls either match the colour of a circular patch while they could see it, or from memory after it had disappeared. Both synaesthetes and controls were more variable when matching from memory, and synaesthetes were more precise when matching colour hue, but not brightness. Interestingly, the variance of synaesthetes' recalled matches in this experiment matched that associated with synaesthetic colours in the first experiment. Overall, our data suggests that, for associative grapheme-colour synaesthetes, synaesthetic colours behave more like recalled colours, as opposed to physical colours that can be seen.

  13. Colour annealing - a toy model of colour reconnections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandhoff, Marisa; Wuppertal U.; Skands, Peter; Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    We present a simple toy model for colour reconnections at the nonperturbative level. The model resembles an annealing-type algorithm and is applicable to any collider and process type, though we argue for a possible enhancement of the effect in hadron-hadron collisions. We present a simple application and study of the consequences for semileptonic t(bar t) events at the Tevatron

  14. Colour annealing - a toy model of colour reconnections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhoff, Marisa; /Wuppertal U.; Skands, Peter; /Fermilab

    2005-12-01

    We present a simple toy model for colour reconnections at the nonperturbative level. The model resembles an annealing-type algorithm and is applicable to any collider and process type, though we argue for a possible enhancement of the effect in hadron-hadron collisions. We present a simple application and study of the consequences for semileptonic t{bar t} events at the Tevatron.

  15. Put on that colour, it fits your emotion: Colour appropriateness as a function of expressed emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dael, Nele; Perseguers, Marie-Noëlle; Marchand, Cynthia; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Mohr, Christine

    2016-01-01

    People associate affective meaning with colour, and this may influence decisions about colours. Hue is traditionally considered the most salient descriptor of colour and colour-affect associations, although colour brightness and saturation seem to have particularly strong affective connotations. To test whether colour choices can be driven by emotion, we investigated whether and how colour hue, brightness, and saturation are systematically associated with bodily expressions of positive (joy) and negative (fear) emotions. Twenty-five non-colour-blind participants viewed videos of these expressions and selected for each video the most appropriate colour using colour sliders providing values for hue, brightness, and saturation. The overall colour choices were congruent with the expressed emotion--that is, participants selected brighter and more saturated colours for joy expressions than for fear expressions. Also, colours along the red-yellow spectrum were deemed more appropriate for joy expressions and cyan-bluish hues for fear expressions. The current study adds further support to the role of emotion in colour choices by (a) showing that emotional information is spontaneously used in an unconstrained choice setting, (b) extending to ecologically valid stimuli occurring in everyday encounters (dressed bodies), and (c) suggesting that all colour parameters are likely to be important when processing affective nonverbal person information, though not independently from each other.

  16. Colour dependence of zodiacal light models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, R. H.; Hanner, M. S.; Leinert, C.

    1973-01-01

    Colour models of the zodiacal light in the ecliptic have been calculated for both dielectric and metallic particles in the sub-micron and micron size range. Two colour ratios were computed, a blue ratio and a red ratio. The models with a size distribution proportional to s to the -2.5 power ds (where s is the particle radius) generally show a colour close to the solar colour and almost independent of elongation. Especially in the blue colour ratio there is generally no significant dependence on the lower cutoff size (0.1-1 micron). The main feature of absorbing particles is a reddening at small elongations. The models for size distributions proportional to s to the -4 power ds show larger departures from solar colour and more variation with model parameters. Colour measurements, including red and near infra-red, therefore are useful to distinguish between flat and steep size spectra and to verify the presence of slightly absorbing particles.

  17. Colour singlets in perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassetto, A.

    1979-01-01

    In the axial gauge and at the leading log level, a definite and consistent picture seems to emerge of a parton decay into states in which many partons are found just before confinement should take place. They are grouped into colourless clusters in a number sufficient to exhaust the ''final'' state, still possessing a finite average mass. This result is peculiar of QCD, in particular of its non-abelian nature. Large transverse momenta or more generally average invariant quantities of partons are mainly due to the multiplicities involved in the branching processes. If eventually confinement would convert these clusters into hadrons (and this is of course the main issue which has still to be proven) without a large rearrangement of the colour lines, the picture we have found for colour singlets could apply to the real hadronic world. (author)

  18. Studying colours with a smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosi, T.; Malgieri, M.; Onorato, P.; De Ambrosis, , A.; Oss, S.

    2017-03-01

    We show how a low-cost spectrometer, based on the use of inexpensive diffraction transmission gratings coupled with a smartphone photo camera, can be assembled and employed to obtain quantitative measurements of spectra from different sources. The analysis of spectra emitted by different light sources (incandescent bulb, fluorescent lamp, gas lamps, LEDs) helps students understand the different physical mechanisms which govern the production of light. Measurements of emission and transmission spectra allow students to focus on the differences between additive and subtractive models of colour formation. For this purpose the spectra of RGB colours emitted from an LCD screen and the transmission spectra of CMY pigments of a laser printer have been studied, using our low-cost spectroscope. A sequence of experimental activities was designed, and proposed to undergraduate students and secondary school teachers in order to study the feasibility and educational potential.

  19. Quark interactions and colour chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong-Mo, C.

    1982-01-01

    The interaction between quarks, according to the current theory of quantum chromodynamics, is similar to the electromagnetic interaction between electrons and nucleons, both being governed by locally gauge-invariant field theories. It is tempting therefore to discuss the spectroscopy of hadrons, which are quark composites bound by colour forces, in the same language as the spectroscopy of atoms and molecules which are bound states of electrons and nucleons held together by e.m. forces. Because of the difference in gauge groups, however, the dynamics are very different. Nonetheless, it appears likely that metastable multiquark hadron states can exist which are analogous to atoms and molecules in QED. In these lectures, tentative steps are taken in developing the rudiments of a new colour chemistry' of these 'atoms' and 'molecules'. (author)

  20. Colour application on mammography image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embong, R.; Aziz, N. M. Nik Ab.; Karim, A. H. Abd; Ibrahim, M. R.

    2017-09-01

    The segmentation process is one of the most important steps in image processing and computer vision since it is vital in the initial stage of image analysis. Segmentation of medical images involves complex structures and it requires precise segmentation result which is necessary for clinical diagnosis such as the detection of tumour, oedema, and necrotic tissues. Since mammography images are grayscale, researchers are looking at the effect of colour in the segmentation process of medical images. Colour is known to play a significant role in the perception of object boundaries in non-medical colour images. Processing colour images require handling more data, hence providing a richer description of objects in the scene. Colour images contain ten percent (10%) additional edge information as compared to their grayscale counterparts. Nevertheless, edge detection in colour image is more challenging than grayscale image as colour space is considered as a vector space. In this study, we implemented red, green, yellow, and blue colour maps to grayscale mammography images with the purpose of testing the effect of colours on the segmentation of abnormality regions in the mammography images. We applied the segmentation process using the Fuzzy C-means algorithm and evaluated the percentage of average relative error of area for each colour type. The results showed that all segmentation with the colour map can be done successfully even for blurred and noisy images. Also the size of the area of the abnormality region is reduced when compare to the segmentation area without the colour map. The green colour map segmentation produced the smallest percentage of average relative error (10.009%) while yellow colour map segmentation gave the largest percentage of relative error (11.367%).

  1. Colour Reconnection at LEP2

    CERN Document Server

    Nandakumar, Raja

    2001-01-01

    Colour reconnection is the final state interaction between quarks from different sources. It is not yet fully understood and is a source of systematic error for W-boson mass and width measurements in hadronic \\WW decays at LEP2. The methods of measuring this effect and the results of the 4 LEP experiments at $183\\gev\\leq\\rts\\leq 202\\gev$ will be presented.

  2. Colour categories are reflected in sensory stages of colour perception when stimulus issues are resolved

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xun; Franklin, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Debate exists about the time course of the effect of colour categories on visual processing. We investigated the effect of colour categories for two groups who differed in whether they categorised a blue-green boundary colour as the same- or different-category to a reliably-named blue colour and a reliably-named green colour. Colour differences were equated in just-noticeable differences to be equally discriminable. We analysed event-related potentials for these colours elicited on a passive visual oddball task and investigated the time course of categorical effects on colour processing. Support for category effects was found 100 ms after stimulus onset, and over frontal sites around 250 ms, suggesting that colour naming affects both early sensory and later stages of chromatic processing. PMID:28542426

  3. Colours sometimes count: awareness and bidirectionality in grapheme-colour synaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Addie; Jepma, Marieke; de Jong, Ritske

    2007-10-01

    Three experiments were conducted with 10 grapheme-colour synaesthetes and 10 matched controls to investigate (a) whether awareness of the inducer grapheme is necessary for synaesthetic colour induction and (b) whether grapheme-colour synaesthesia may be bidirectional in the sense that not only do graphemes induce colours, but that colours influence the processing of graphemes. Using attentional blink and Stroop paradigms with digit targets, we found that some synaesthetes did report "seeing" synaesthetic colours even when they were not able to report the inducing digit. Moreover, congruency effects (effects of matching the colour of digit presentation with the synaesthetic colour associated with that digit) suggested that grapheme-colour synaesthesia can be bidirectional, at least for some synaesthetes.

  4. The Attentional Capture of Colour in Visual Interface Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Emil; Maier, Anja

    2017-01-01

    The use of colour is an integral component in visual interface design for creating separation between objects and for conveying meaning. It has previously been established that colours can be separated in a hierarchy of primary colours and secondary colours, and that colours are consistently...... in a controlled environment, in which 11 participants scanned a 20 item display for a coloured target amongst coloured distractors. We found evidence to support that primary colours capture attention significantly more than secondary colours, and inconclusive evidence that colours convey their meaning...... at a sufficiently early level of processing to influence attention. We end by discussing implications of our results for design practice and research in psychology....

  5. The original colours of fossil beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Maria E; Briggs, Derek E G; Orr, Patrick J; Noh, Heeso; Cao, Hui

    2012-03-22

    Structural colours, the most intense, reflective and pure colours in nature, are generated when light is scattered by complex nanostructures. Metallic structural colours are widespread among modern insects and can be preserved in their fossil counterparts, but it is unclear whether the colours have been altered during fossilization, and whether the absence of colours is always real. To resolve these issues, we investigated fossil beetles from five Cenozoic biotas. Metallic colours in these specimens are generated by an epicuticular multi-layer reflector; the fidelity of its preservation correlates with that of other key cuticular ultrastructures. Where these other ultrastructures are well preserved in non-metallic fossil specimens, we can infer that the original cuticle lacked a multi-layer reflector; its absence in the fossil is not a preservational artefact. Reconstructions of the original colours of the fossils based on the structure of the multi-layer reflector show that the preserved colours are offset systematically to longer wavelengths; this probably reflects alteration of the refractive index of the epicuticle during fossilization. These findings will allow the former presence, and original hue, of metallic structural colours to be identified in diverse fossil insects, thus providing critical evidence of the evolution of structural colour in this group.

  6. True and false memory for colour names versus actual colours: support for the visual distinctiveness heuristic in memory for colour information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslick, Andrea N; Kostic, Bogdan; Cleary, Anne M

    2010-06-01

    In a colour variation of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, participants studied lists of words critically related to a nonstudied colour name (e.g., "blood, cherry, scarlet, rouge ... "); they later showed false memory for the critical colour name (e.g., "red"). Two additional experiments suggest that participants generate colour imagery in response to such colour-related DRM lists. First, participants claim to experience colour imagery more often following colour-related than standard non-colour-related DRM lists; they also rate their colour imagery as more vivid following colour-related lists. Second, participants exhibit facilitative priming for critical colours in a dot selection task that follows words in the colour-related DRM list, suggesting that colour-related DRM lists prime participants for the actual critical colours themselves. Despite these findings, false memory for critical colour names does not extend to the actual colours themselves (font colours). Rather than leading to source confusion about which colours were self-generated and which were studied, presenting the study lists in varied font colours actually worked to reduce false memory overall. Results are interpreted within the framework of the visual distinctiveness hypothesis.

  7. ABOUT THE RECENT INTERPRETATION OF CJEU IN THE MATTER OF UNFAIR TERMS OF CONSUMER CREDIT CONTRACTS RELEVANT MEANINGS FOR THE NATIONAL CASE LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Orga-Dumitriu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The original formula established by the EU legislator for the repression of unfair terms (by the use of the criteria for the establishment of the abusive character – the lack of negotiation of the clause, the significant unbalance between the rights and obligations of the parties and the infringement, by the professional, of the good faith requirement was consolidated by the developments made at case law level through the exercise, by the Court in Luxembourg, of its interpretative function. The study starts with a diachronic view of the solutions that highlighted the manifest tendency of CJEU to provide the effective protection of consumers by the admission of the judicial control performed ex officio over the unfair terms in Océano Grupo, Mostaza Claro and Cofidis, such judgments being also reconfirmed on occasion of the ulterior interventions from Pannon GSM, Asturcom Telecomunicaciones and Pénzügyi Lízing or, with particular reference to the consumer credit contracts, in Banco Español de Crédito and, lately, in Aziz (I. Afterwards, following a general description of the casuistic background of the disputes between credit consumers and banks in Romania (II, the analysis of the juridical meanings of the interpretations related to the recent Kásler case law from the 30th of April 2014, respectively Sánchez Morcillo and Abril García case laws from the 17th of July 2014 may not be extended also by the realistic assessment of the effects thereof in our national law and of the (potential implications that are relevant for the Romanian courts of law (III.

  8. Relevance analysis and short-term prediction of PM2.5 concentrations in Beijing based on multi-source data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, X. Y.; Huang, H.; Du, W. P.

    2017-02-01

    The PM2.5 problem is proving to be a major public crisis and is of great public-concern requiring an urgent response. Information about, and prediction of PM2.5 from the perspective of atmospheric dynamic theory is still limited due to the complexity of the formation and development of PM2.5. In this paper, we attempted to realize the relevance analysis and short-term prediction of PM2.5 concentrations in Beijing, China, using multi-source data mining. A correlation analysis model of PM2.5 to physical data (meteorological data, including regional average rainfall, daily mean temperature, average relative humidity, average wind speed, maximum wind speed, and other pollutant concentration data, including CO, NO2, SO2, PM10) and social media data (microblog data) was proposed, based on the Multivariate Statistical Analysis method. The study found that during these factors, the value of average wind speed, the concentrations of CO, NO2, PM10, and the daily number of microblog entries with key words 'Beijing; Air pollution' show high mathematical correlation with PM2.5 concentrations. The correlation analysis was further studied based on a big data's machine learning model- Back Propagation Neural Network (hereinafter referred to as BPNN) model. It was found that the BPNN method performs better in correlation mining. Finally, an Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (hereinafter referred to as ARIMA) Time Series model was applied in this paper to explore the prediction of PM2.5 in the short-term time series. The predicted results were in good agreement with the observed data. This study is useful for helping realize real-time monitoring, analysis and pre-warning of PM2.5 and it also helps to broaden the application of big data and the multi-source data mining methods.

  9. What colour is the car? Implicit memory for colour information in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecklenbräuker, S; Hupbach, A; Wippich, W

    2001-11-01

    Three experiments were conducted to examine age-related differences in colour memory. In Experiment 1, preschool age and elementary school age children were given a conceptual test of implicit colour memory (a colour-choice task). They were presented with the names or achromatic versions of previously studied coloured line drawings and asked to select an appropriate colour. Significant priming could be demonstrated: The children chose the previously seen colours more often than was expected by chance. Equivalent priming was found for both versions (pictorial and verbal) suggesting that colour priming may be conceptually mediated. Moreover, colour priming proved to be age invariant. Experiment 2 replicated and extended this finding by using a wider age group (preschool, elementary school, and young adults) and by giving a perceptual implicit task (picture identification) in addition to a verbal colour-choice task. Colour did not affect priming in the perceptual task. Whereas priming showed no developmental change, age-related improvements were observed on an explicit colour memory task that differed only in the test instructions from the implicit colour-choice task (Experiments 2 and 3). Taken together, the results suggest that implicit colour memory may be mediated by conceptual processes that are age invariant.

  10. NKS-R ExCoolSe mid-term report KTH severe accidents research relevant to the NKS-ExCoolSe project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun Sun Park; Truc-Nam Dinh

    2006-04-01

    The present mid-term progress report is prepared on the recent results from the KTH severe accident research program relevant to the objective of the ExCoolSe project sponsored by the NKS-R program. The previous PRE-MELT-DEL project at KTH sponsored by NKS provided an extensive assessment on the remaining issues of severe accidents in general and suggested the key issues to be resolved such as coolability and steam explosion energetics in ex-vessel which became a backbone of the ExCoolSe project in NKS. The EXCOOLSE project has been integrated with, and leveraged on, parallel research program at KTH on severe accident phenomena the MSWI project which is funded by the APRI program, SKI in Sweden and HSK in Switzerland and produced more understanding of the key remaining issues. During last year, the critical assessment of the existing knowledge and current SAMG and designs of Nordic BWRs identified the research focus and initiated the new series of research activities toward the resolution of the key remaining issues specifically pertaining to the Nordic BWRs.(au)

  11. A review of the evolution of animal colour vision and visual communication signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, D; Vorobyev, M

    2008-09-01

    The visual displays of animals and plants are often colourful, and colour vision allows animals to respond to these signals as they forage for food, choose mates and so-forth. This article discusses the evolutionary relationship between photoreceptor spectral sensitivities of four groups of land animals--birds, butterflies, primates and hymenopteran insects (bees and wasps)--, the colour signals that are relevant to them, and how understanding is informed by models of spectral coding and colour vision. Although the spectral sensitivities of photoreceptors are known to vary adaptively under natural selection there is little evidence that those of hymenopterans, birds and primates are specifically adapted to the reflectance spectra of food plants or animal visual signals. On the other hand, the colours of fruit, flowers and feathers may have evolved to be more discriminable for the colour vision of their natural receivers than for other groups of animals. Butterflies are unusual in that they have enjoyed a major radiation in receptor numbers and spectral sensitivities. The reasons for the radiation and diversity of butterfly colour vision remain unknown, but may include their need to find food plants and to select mates.

  12. Chameleons communicate with complex colour changes during contests: different body regions convey different information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligon, Russell A; McGraw, Kevin J

    2013-01-01

    Many animals display static coloration (e.g. of feathers or fur) that can serve as a reliable sexual or social signal, but the communication function of rapidly changing colours (as in chameleons and cephalopods) is poorly understood. We used recently developed photographic and mathematical modelling tools to examine how rapid colour changes of veiled chameleons Chamaeleo calyptratus predict aggressive behaviour during male-male competitions. Males that achieved brighter stripe coloration were more likely to approach their opponent, and those that attained brighter head coloration were more likely to win fights; speed of head colour change was also an important predictor of contest outcome. This correlative study represents the first quantification of rapid colour change using organism-specific visual models and provides evidence that the rate of colour change, in addition to maximum display coloration, can be an important component of communication. Interestingly, the body and head locations of the relevant colour signals map onto the behavioural displays given during specific contest stages, with lateral displays from a distance followed by directed, head-on approaches prior to combat, suggesting that different colour change signals may evolve to communicate different information (motivation and fighting ability, respectively).

  13. Optical colour image watermarking based on phase-truncated linear canonical transform and image decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yonggang; Tang, Chen; Li, Biyuan; Lei, Zhenkun

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a novel optical colour image watermarking scheme based on phase-truncated linear canonical transform (PT-LCT) and image decomposition (ID). In this proposed scheme, a PT-LCT-based asymmetric cryptography is designed to encode the colour watermark into a noise-like pattern, and an ID-based multilevel embedding method is constructed to embed the encoded colour watermark into a colour host image. The PT-LCT-based asymmetric cryptography, which can be optically implemented by double random phase encoding with a quadratic phase system, can provide a higher security to resist various common cryptographic attacks. And the ID-based multilevel embedding method, which can be digitally implemented by a computer, can make the information of the colour watermark disperse better in the colour host image. The proposed colour image watermarking scheme possesses high security and can achieve a higher robustness while preserving the watermark’s invisibility. The good performance of the proposed scheme has been demonstrated by extensive experiments and comparison with other relevant schemes.

  14. Adaptive colour polymorphism of Acrida ungarica H. (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in a spatially heterogeneous environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellissier, Loïc; Wassef, Jérôme; Bilat, Julia; Brazzola, Gregory; Buri, Pierrick; Colliard, Caroline; Fournier, Bertrand; Hausser, Jacques; Yannic, Glenn; Perrin, Nicolas

    2011-03-01

    Intra-specific colour polymorphism provides a cryptic camouflage from predators in heterogeneous habitats. The orthoptera species, Acrida ungarica (Herbst, 1786) possess two well-distinguished colour morphs: brown and green and displays several disruptive colouration patterns within each morph to improve the crypsis. This study focused on how the features of the background environment relate to the proportion of the two morphs and to the intensity of disruptive colouration patterns in A. ungarica. As the two sexes are very distinct with respect to mass and length, we also distinctively tested the relationship for each sex. In accordance with the background matching hypothesis, we found that, for both sexes, the brown morph was in higher proportion at sites with a brown-dominant environment, and green morphs were in higher proportion in green-dominant environments. Globally, individuals in drier sites and in the drier year also had more intense disruptive colouration patterns, and brown morphs and females were also more striped. Colour patterns differed largely between populations and were significantly correlated with relevant environmental features. Even if A. ungarica is a polymorphic specialist, disruptive colouration still appears to provide strong benefits, particularly in some habitats. Moreover, because females are larger, they are less able to flee, which might explain the difference between sexes.

  15. Colour Consideration for Waiting areas in hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zraati, Parisa

    2012-08-01

    Colour is one the most important factors in the nature that can have some affects on human behaviour. Many years ago, it was proven that using colour in public place can have some affect on the users. Depend of the darkness and lightness; it can be vary from positive to negative. The research will mainly focus on the colour and psychological influences and physical factors. The statement of problem in this research is what is impact of colour usually applied to waiting area? The overall aim of the study is to explore the visual environment of hospitals and to manage the colour psychological effect of the hospital users in the waiting area by creating a comfortable, pleasant and cozy environment for users while spend their time in waiting areas. The analysisconcentrate on satisfaction and their interesting regarding applied colour in two private hospital waiting area in Malaysia.

  16. Colour-grapheme synaesthesia affects binocular vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris L.E. Paffen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In colour-grapheme synaesthesia, non-coloured graphemes are perceived as being inherently coloured. In recent years, it has become evident that synaesthesia-inducing graphemes can affect visual processing in a manner comparable to real, physical colours. Here, we exploit the phenomenon of binocular rivalry in which incompatible images presented dichoptically compete for conscious expression. Importantly, the competition only arises if the two images are sufficiently different; if the difference between the images is small, the images will fuse into a single mixed percept. We show that achromatic graphemes that induce synaesthetic colour percepts evoke binocular rivalry, while without the synaesthetic percept, they do not. That is, compared to achromatically perceived graphemes, synaesthesia-inducing graphemes increase the predominance of binocular rivalry over binocular fusion. This finding shows that the synaesthetic colour experience can provide the conditions for evoking binocular rivalry, much like stimulus features that induce rivalry in normal vision.

  17. Attentional capture by masked colour singletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansorge, Ulrich; Horstmann, Gernot; Worschech, Franziska

    2010-09-15

    We tested under which conditions a colour singleton of which an observer is unaware captures attention. To prevent visual awareness of the colour singleton, we used backward masking. We find that a masked colour singleton cue captures attention if it matches the observer's goal to search for target colours but not if it is task-irrelevant. This is also reflected in event-related potentials to the visible target: the masked goal-matching cue elicits an attentional potential (N2pc) in a target search task. By contrast, a non-matching but equally strong masked colour singleton cue failed to elicit a capture effect and an N2pc. Results are discussed with regard to currently pertaining conceptions of attentional capture by colour singletons. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sgraffito and colour in Alentejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Salema

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to bring awareness to the architectonic value of sgraffito and summarize its risks, emphasizing the need to change intervention methodologies, promoting its safeguard and material its authenticity. In the last years, hundreds of buildings with sgraffito application in external façades have been discovered in Alentejo. One of the most important results of our research on sgraffito in the Alentejo Region is the fact that the majority of the listed sgraffito ornaments have been painted over so many times, that today we can hardly identify its original aspect, its chromatic values or its textures. Since sgraffito is a decorative technique with external plaster, some of its values, such as the dual colour variation and the aesthetical tension given by different textures and colours, which are intrinsic to the nature of this mural covering, must not be forgotten. Although the current restoration culture assumes as a sine qua non condition the conservation of the substance as a cultural certification, the interventions in sgrafitto, often use criteria deriving from renovation building techniques rather than careful preservation. Unfortunately, a strong unfamiliarity to its particular values and to its specific techniques is usually the case, resulting in inadequate recovering processes. An example is the application of painting layers over those ornaments, causing loss of authenticity, and also loss of aesthetical and historical values of the building. General concept and particular techniques of execution of sgraffito are described, establishing the panorama of sgraffito in Alentejo, illustrated with examples where original colour, texture and surfaces were not modified. Few interventions are shown where an adequate restoration was accomplished, comparing those cases with countless examples where sgraffito technique was completely subverted. Finally, we present a set of recommendations to help changing the quality of

  19. Long-range correlations from colour confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurkiewicz, J.; Zenczykowski, P.

    1979-01-01

    A class of independent parton emission models is generalized by the introduction of the colour degrees of freedom. In the proposed models colour confinement extorts strong long-range forward-backward correlations, the rise of one-particle inclusive distribution and the KNO scaling. It leads to the analytically calculable definite asymptotic predictions for the D/ ratio which depends only on the choice of the colour group. Multiplicity distribution develops a remarkably long tail. (author)

  20. Colour in visualisation for computational fluid dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Kinnear, D; Atherton, MA; Collins, MW; Dokhan, J; Karayiannis, TG

    2006-01-01

    Colour is used in computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations in two key ways. First it is used to visualise the geometry and allow the engineers to be confident that the model constructed is a good representation of the engineering situation. Once an analysis has been completed, colour is used in post-processing the data from the simulations to illustrate the complex fluid mechanic phenomena under investigation. This paper describes these two uses of colour and provides some examples to il...

  1. Colour Vision Impairment in Young Alcohol Consumers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alódia Brasil

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption among young adults is widely accepted in modern society and may be the starting point for abusive use of alcohol at later stages of life. Chronic alcohol exposure can lead to visual function impairment. In the present study, we investigated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity, colour arrangement ability, and colour discrimination thresholds on young adults that weekly consume alcoholic beverages without clinical concerns. Twenty-four young adults were evaluated by an ophthalmologist and performed three psychophysical tests to evaluate their vision functions. We estimated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity function at 11 spatial frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 30 cycles/degree. No difference in contrast sensitivity was observed comparing alcohol consumers and control subjects. For the evaluation of colour vision, we used the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test (FM 100 test to test subject's ability to perform a colour arrangement task and the Mollon-Reffin test (MR test to measure subject's colour discrimination thresholds. Alcohol consumers made more mistakes than controls in the FM100 test, and their mistakes were diffusely distributed in the FM colour space without any colour axis preference. Alcohol consumers also performed worse than controls in the MR test and had higher colour discrimination thresholds compared to controls around three different reference points of a perceptually homogeneous colour space, the CIE 1976 chromaticity diagram. There was no colour axis preference in the threshold elevation observed among alcoholic subjects. Young adult weekly alcohol consumers showed subclinical colour vision losses with preservation of spatial luminance contrast sensitivity. Adolescence and young adult age are periods of important neurological development and alcohol exposure during this period of life might be responsible for deficits in visual functions, especially colour vision that is very sensitive to

  2. Colour discrimination and categorisation in Williams syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Farran, E. K.; Cranwell, M. B.; Alvarez, J.; Franklin, A.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) present with impaired functioning of the dorsal visual stream relative to the ventral visual stream. As such, little attention has been given to ventral stream functions in WS. We investigated colour processing, a predominantly ventral stream function, for the first time in nineteen individuals with Williams syndrome. Colour discrimination was assessed using the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test. Colour categorisation was assessed using a match-to-sample ...

  3. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jiyang

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application and combine cast iron technology with some hi-techs (for example, computer technology. Nevertheless, cast iron is a multi-element and multi-phase alloy and has complex and variety of structures and still has great development potential in structure and property. For further studying and developing cast iron, theoretical research work is important promise, and the study on solidification process and control mechanism of graphite morphology is fundamental for improving property of cast iron and developing new type of cast iron.Metallography of cast iron normally includes two sections: liquid phase transformation and solid phase transformation. The book, Colour Metallography of Cast Iron , uses colour metallography technique to study solidification structures of cast irons: graphite, carbides, austenite and eutectics; and focuses on solidification processes. With progress of modern solidification theory, the control of material solidification process becomes important measure for improving traditionalmaterials and developing new materials. Solidification structure not only influences mechanical and physical properties of cast iron, but also affects its internal quality. The book uses a large amount of colour photos to describe the formation of solidification structures and their relations. Crystallization phenomena, which cannot be displayed with traditional metallography, are presented and more phase transformation information is obtained from these colour

  4. The kinetics of colour change in textiles and fibres treated with detergent solutions. Part I-Colour perception and fluorescence microscopy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Was-Gubala, Jolanta

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess colour changes that occur in several types of commonly available textiles as a result of the long-term effects of various popularly used laundry detergents. A 14 day experiment was conducted using blue, red and grey/black cotton, wool, acrylic and polyester textiles. Colour changes were evaluated through the visual comparison of the colour of the textile samples against that of the untreated (control) material. The kinetics of the changes in the colour of the fibres were monitored using fluorescence microscopy (UV excitation filter). The conclusions include an assessment of the observed changes from a fibre analysis expert's point of view, as well as that of an average user/consumer of the products involved.

  5. Shell Colour Polymorphism in Bulla ampulla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1999-01-01

    Colour patterns of Bulla ampulla shells collected from Africa eastward to Pacific Islands were studied. 1\\vo common colour morphs were found. The typical morph is commonest. It is closely and finely mottled or all over with pinkish-gray on a creamy or flesh~tinted ground, with darker clouds......, irregular, V-shaped, or as longitudinal bands. The colouration of the other common morph is more uniform. It is lacking the darker clouds or bands and the colour is more greyish. The entire shell surface is densely mottled all over with small brown spots on a grey or beige background. Both morphs seem...

  6. Fundamentals of colour awareness: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    A. Rubin

    2005-01-01

    A description of some of the basic or funda-mental aspects of the colour sensory mechanism will be provided here, based on modern ideas and literature, with reference specifically to the likely origins and evolution of colour vision.  The mo-lecular basis for colour awareness and the human colour pathway will also be considered in some detail. This paper intends to provide the theoreti-cal and philosophical basis for further papers that will introduce a modern and original computer- based  met...

  7. Colourism: a global adolescent health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, Nadia; Dlova, Ncoza; Diedrichs, Phillippa C

    2018-05-08

    Colourism, a form of prejudice and discrimination based solely upon skin colour, stands to jeopardize the physical health, wellbeing and life chances of adolescents of colour, globally. Research shows that adolescents can experience colourism at school and college, in the criminal justice system, at work and in the media they consume. It is therefore unsurprising that adolescents of colour often express a desire for lighter skin tones and/or are dissatisfied with their skin tone. Although research is scarce, some studies include older adolescents in their samples of skin-lightening product users. This is significant as the evidence is clear that the unmonitored use of skin-lightening products can be harmful to physical and psychological health, with evidence linking skin-lightening use to skin damage, kidney failure and depression. Although it is evident that colourism is central to the lives of adolescents of colour, more research is needed concerning the use of skin-lightening products among adolescents. Media literacy and critical race theory offer avenues in helping attenuate the harmful impact of colourism for adolescents of colour.

  8. Colour vision and computer-generated images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramek, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Colour vision deficiencies affect approximately 8% of the male and approximately 0.4% of the female population. In this work, it is demonstrated that computer generated images oftentimes pose unnecessary problems for colour deficient viewers. Three examples, the visualization of molecular structures, graphs of mathematical functions, and colour coded images from numerical data are used to identify problematic colour combinations: red/black, green/black, red/yellow, yellow/white, fuchsia/white, and aqua/white. Alternatives for these combinations are discussed.

  9. Several ways of breaking the colour symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolikowski, W.

    1975-01-01

    We discuss some cases of colour-symmetry breaking and its implications for quark binding by one-gluon-exchange forces. We pay special attention to the case, where colour-isospin and colour-hypercharge subsymmetries are preserved. Then, the ω-PHI-like mixing of colour-nonet components 0 and 8 leads to a Zweig-type approximate selection rule for decays of PHI-like meson = antiqsub(B)qsub(B)(qsub(B) is the '' blue'' quark) into ordinary mesons (and photons). (author)

  10. Electrophysiological evidence for colour effects on the naming of colour diagnostic and noncolour diagnostic objects

    OpenAIRE

    Bramão, I.; Francisco, A.; Inácio , F.; Faísca, L.; Reis, A.; Petersson, K.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the level of visual processing at which surface colour information improves the naming of colour diagnostic and noncolour diagnostic objects. Continuous electroencephalograms were recorded while participants performed a visual object naming task in which coloured and black-and-white versions of both types of objects were presented. The black-and-white and the colour presentations were compared in two groups of event-related potentials (ERPs): (1) The P1 and N1 c...

  11. The control of attentional target selection in a colour/colour conjunction task

    OpenAIRE

    Berggren, Nick; Eimer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the time course of attentional object selection processes in visual search tasks where targets are defined by a combination of features from the same dimension, we measured the N2pc component as an electrophysiological marker of attentional object selection during colour/colour conjunction search. In Experiment 1, participants searched for targets defined by a combination of two colours, while ignoring distractor objects that matched only one of these colours. Reliable N2pc com...

  12. What do colour-blind people really see?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, M.A.; Alferdinck, J.W.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Problem: colour perception of dichromats (colour-blind persons) Background: Various models have been proposed (e. g. Walraven & Alferdinck, 1997; Brettel et al. , 1997) to model reduced colour vision of colour-blind people. It is clear that colour-blind people cannot distinguish certain object

  13. Shaping communicative colour signals over evolutionary time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyola Morales, José R.; Vital-García, Cuauhcihuatl; Hews, Diana K.; Martins, Emília P.

    2016-01-01

    Many evolutionary forces can shape the evolution of communicative signals, and the long-term impact of each force may depend on relative timing and magnitude. We use a phylogenetic analysis to infer the history of blue belly patches of Sceloporus lizards, and a detailed spectrophotometric analysis of four species to explore the specific forces shaping evolutionary change. We find that the ancestor of Sceloporus had blue patches. We then focus on four species; the first evolutionary shift (captured by comparison of S. merriami and S. siniferus) represents an ancient loss of the belly patch by S. siniferus, and the second evolutionary shift, bounded by S. undulatus and S. virgatus, represents a more recent loss of blue belly patch by S. virgatus. Conspicuousness measurements suggest that the species with the recent loss (S. virgatus) is the least conspicuous. Results for two other species (S. siniferus and S. merriami) suggest that over longer periods of evolutionary time, new signal colours have arisen which minimize absolute contrast with the habitat while maximizing conspicuousness to a lizard receiver. Specifically, males of the species representing an ancient loss of blue patch (S. siniferus) are more conspicuous than are females in the UV, whereas S. merriami males have evolved a green element that makes their belly patches highly sexually dimorphic but no more conspicuous than the white bellies of S. merriami females. Thus, our results suggest that natural selection may act more immediately to reduce conspicuousness, whereas sexual selection may have a more complex impact on communicative signals through the introduction of new colours. PMID:28018661

  14. Colours sometimes count : Awareness and bidirectionality in grapheme-colour synaesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Addie; Jepma, Marieke; de Jong, Ritske

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted with 10 grapheme-colour synaesthetes and 10 matched controls to investigate (a) whether awareness of the inducer grapheme is necessary for synaesthetic colour induction and (b) whether grapheme-colour synaesthesia may be bidirectional in the sense that not only do

  15. An example of applied colour vision research: the conspicuity of airplane colour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, M.P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the combined knowledge on colorimetry, colour imaging (visualization) and colour perception in an aviation related research project. It involves the optimisation of the conspicuity of the colour scheme of an airplane, with the purpose of minimizing the changes

  16. On the colour contribution to effective weak vertex in broken colour gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandran, R.

    1979-01-01

    Treating the breaking of colour symmetry via the mixing between the colour gluons and weak bosons (a la Rajasekaran and Roy) it is observed that the colour contribution to the effective weak vertex of a quark at zero momentum transfer is zero upto 0(α). (author)

  17. Classifying Natural Waters with the Forel-Ule Colour Index System: Results, Applications, Correlations and Crowdsourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shungudzemwoyo P. Garaba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Societal awareness of changes in the environment and climate has grown rapidly, and there is a need to engage citizens in gathering relevant scientific information to monitor environmental changes due to recognition that citizens are a potential source of critical information. The apparent colour of natural waters is one aspect of our aquatic environment that is easy to detect and an essential complementary optical water quality indicator. Here we present the results and explore the utility of the Forel-Ule colour index (FUI scale as a proxy for different properties of natural waters. A FUI scale is used to distinguish the apparent colours of different natural surface water masses. Correlation analysis was completed in an effort to determine the constituents of natural waters related to FUI. Strong correlations with turbidity, Secchi-disk depth, and coloured dissolved organic material suggest the FUI is a good indicator of changes related to other constituents of water. The increase in the number of tools capable of determining the FUI colours, (i ocean colour remote sensing products; (ii a handheld scale; and (iii a mobile device app, make it a versatile relative measure of water quality. It has the potential to provide higher spatial and temporal resolution of data for a modernized classification of optical water quality. This FUI colour system has been favoured by several scientists in the last century because it is affordable and easy to use and provides indicative information about the colour of water and the water constituents producing that colour. It is therefore within the scope of a growing interest in the application and usefulness of basic measurement methodologies with the potential to provide timely benchmark information about the environment to the public, scientists and policymakers.

  18. Classifying Natural Waters with the Forel-Ule Colour Index System: Results, Applications, Correlations and Crowdsourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaba, Shungudzemwoyo P; Friedrichs, Anna; Voß, Daniela; Zielinski, Oliver

    2015-12-18

    Societal awareness of changes in the environment and climate has grown rapidly, and there is a need to engage citizens in gathering relevant scientific information to monitor environmental changes due to recognition that citizens are a potential source of critical information. The apparent colour of natural waters is one aspect of our aquatic environment that is easy to detect and an essential complementary optical water quality indicator. Here we present the results and explore the utility of the Forel-Ule colour index (FUI) scale as a proxy for different properties of natural waters. A FUI scale is used to distinguish the apparent colours of different natural surface water masses. Correlation analysis was completed in an effort to determine the constituents of natural waters related to FUI. Strong correlations with turbidity, Secchi-disk depth, and coloured dissolved organic material suggest the FUI is a good indicator of changes related to other constituents of water. The increase in the number of tools capable of determining the FUI colours, (i) ocean colour remote sensing products; (ii) a handheld scale; and (iii) a mobile device app, make it a versatile relative measure of water quality. It has the potential to provide higher spatial and temporal resolution of data for a modernized classification of optical water quality. This FUI colour system has been favoured by several scientists in the last century because it is affordable and easy to use and provides indicative information about the colour of water and the water constituents producing that colour. It is therefore within the scope of a growing interest in the application and usefulness of basic measurement methodologies with the potential to provide timely benchmark information about the environment to the public, scientists and policymakers.

  19. First CaSSIS Colour Images of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfred, M.; Pommerol, A.; Thomas, N.; Cremonese, G.

    2017-12-01

    The Colour and Stereo Surface Imaging System (CaSSIS) on board ESA's Exomars Trace Gas Orbiter has acquired its first images of the surface of Mars on the 22nd and 26th of November, 2016. This commissioning campaign on the initial capture orbit was highly successful, allowing us to test the instrument, establish its performance and collect detailed images from the surface. Many of them have been publicly released within days following acquisition. These images and other commissioning data have demonstrated that the capabilities of the instrument are fully in-line with expectation. Although a colour image of Phobos produced from observations acquired on the 26th of November was rapidly released, the calibration and production of colour images from the surface of Mars proved to be more challenging. Having fixed technical issues, acquired and processed necessary in-flight calibration data, we have recently recalibrated the whole dataset, improving significantly the quality of the data and allowing us, for the first time, to produce high-quality colour images from the surface of Mars with CaSSIS data. The absolute calibration of the instrument is currently verified using stellar observations but the values of reflectivity obtained in each of the four colour channels for the surfaces of Mars and Phobos already show good consistency with other orbital data. The timing of CaSSIS acquisitions is very accurate and results in good colour matching, as already verified on-ground during the calibration campaign. The first few images acquired on the 22nd of November, shortly after TGO crossed the morning terminator, show unique views of the dusty terrains of the Tharsis region with solar incidence angle ranging between 60° and 80°. Comparison with images of the same areas acquired at later local times by other orbiters shows intriguing differences, related in particular to the brightness and colour of the floor of dust-filled craters that look bluer in the morning than in the

  20. Conspicuous plumage colours are highly variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhey, Kaspar; Szecsenyi, Beatrice; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Peters, Anne

    2017-01-25

    Elaborate ornamental traits are often under directional selection for greater elaboration, which in theory should deplete underlying genetic variation. Despite this, many ornamental traits appear to remain highly variable and how this essential variation is maintained is a key question in evolutionary biology. One way to address this question is to compare differences in intraspecific variability across different types of traits to determine whether high levels of variation are associated with specific trait characteristics. Here we assess intraspecific variation in more than 100 plumage colours across 55 bird species to test whether colour variability is linked to their level of elaboration (indicated by degree of sexual dichromatism and conspicuousness) or their condition dependence (indicated by mechanism of colour production). Conspicuous colours had the highest levels of variation and conspicuousness was the strongest predictor of variability, with high explanatory power. After accounting for this, there were no significant effects of sexual dichromatism or mechanisms of colour production. Conspicuous colours may entail higher production costs or may be more sensitive to disruptions during production. Alternatively, high variability could also be related to increased perceptual difficulties inherent to discriminating highly elaborate colours. Such psychophysical effects may constrain the exaggeration of animal colours. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. Colour Mathematics: With Graphs and Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    The different combinations involved in additive and subtractive colour mixing can often be difficult for students to remember. Using transmission graphs for filters of the primary colours and a numerical scheme to write out the relationships are good exercises in analytical thinking that can help students recall the combinations rather than just…

  2. Colour Perception Between Psychology and Art

    OpenAIRE

    Cattaruzza, Serena

    2014-01-01

    The poster refers to important contributions of psychological research on colours. Special emphasis is given to the fundamental classification proposed by David Katz, who strongly influenced subsequent studies; e.g., those by Karl Bühler and Gaetano Kanizsa. In particular, the opposition between diaphanic and epiphanic colours is discussed and applied to two recent paintings of a contemporary experimental artist.

  3. Human colour in mate choice and competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Hannah M; Burriss, Robert P

    2017-07-05

    The colour of our skin and clothing affects how others perceive us and how we behave. Human skin colour varies conspicuously with genetic ancestry, but even subtle changes in skin colour due to diet, blood oxygenation and hormone levels influence social perceptions. In this review, we describe the theoretical and empirical frameworks in which human colour is researched. We explore how subtle skin colour differences relate to judgements of health and attractiveness. Also, because humans are one of the few organisms able to manipulate their apparent colour, we review how cosmetics and clothing are implicated in courtship and competition, both inside the laboratory and in the real world. Research on human colour is in its infancy compared with human psychophysics and colour research in non-human animals, and hence we present best-practice guidelines for methods and reporting, which we hope will improve the validity and reproducibility of studies on human coloration.This article is part of the themed issue 'Animal coloration: production, perception, function and application'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. Colour measurement and white blood cell recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Gelsema, E S

    1972-01-01

    As a part of a collaboration with NEMCH aimed at the automation of the differential white blood cell count, studies have been made of the different possibilities for using colour to help in the recognition process. Results are presented comparing data obtained with a microspectrophotometer and with a simulated three-colour scanner.

  5. Brilliant Colours from a White Snow Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Michael; Shaw, Joseph A

    2013-01-01

    Surprisingly colourful views are possible from sparkling white snow. It is well known that similarly colourful features can exist in the sky whenever appropriate ice crystals are around. However, the transition of light reflection and refraction from ice crystals in the air to reflection and refraction from those in snow on the ground is not…

  6. Colour Perception on Facial Expression towards Emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubita Sudirman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is to investigate human perceptions on pairing of facial expressions of emotion with colours. A group of 27 subjects consisting mainly of younger and Malaysian had participated in this study. For each of the seven faces, which expresses the basic emotions neutral, happiness, surprise, anger, disgust, fear and sadness, a single colour is chosen from the eight basic colours for the match of best visual look to the face accordingly. The different emotions appear well characterized by a single colour. The approaches used in this experiment for analysis are psychology disciplines and colours engineering. These seven emotions are being matched by the subjects with their perceptions and feeling. Then, 12 male and 12 female data are randomly chosen from among the previous data to make a colour perception comparison between genders. The successes or failures in running of this test depend on the possibility of subjects to propose their every single colour for each expression. The result will translate into number and percentage as a guide for colours designers and psychology field.

  7. Coloured Petri Nets and the Invariant Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1981-01-01

    processes to be described by a common subnet, without losing the ability to distinguish between them. Our generalization, called coloured Petri nets, is heavily influenced by predicate transition-nets introduced by H.J. Genrich and K. Lautenbach. Moreover our paper shows how the invariant-method, introduced...... for Petri nets by K. Lautenbach, can be generalized to coloured Petri nets....

  8. Is colour modulation an independent factor in human visual photosensitivity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parra, J.; Lopes da Silva, F.H.; Stroink, H.; Kalitzin, S.

    2007-01-01

    Considering that the role of colour in photosensitive epilepsy (PSE) remains unclear, we designed a study to determine the potential of different colours, colour combinations and white light to trigger photoparoxysmal responses (PPRs) under stringent controlled conditions. After assessing their

  9. Exploring the functional nature of synaesthetic colour: Dissociations from colour perception and imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Rocco; Rich, Anina N; Rogers, Sebastian; Pearson, Joel

    2018-08-01

    Individuals with grapheme-colour synaesthesia experience anomalous colours when reading achromatic text. These unusual experiences have been said to resemble 'normal' colour perception or colour imagery, but studying the nature of synaesthesia remains difficult. In the present study, we report novel evidence that synaesthetic colour impacts conscious vision in a way that is different from both colour perception and imagery. Presenting 'normal' colour prior to binocular rivalry induces a location-dependent suppressive bias reflecting local habituation. By contrast, a grapheme that evokes synaesthetic colour induces a facilitatory bias reflecting priming that is not constrained to the inducing grapheme's location. This priming does not occur in non-synaesthetes and does not result from response bias. It is sensitive to diversion of visual attention away from the grapheme, but resistant to sensory perturbation, reflecting a reliance on cognitive rather than sensory mechanisms. Whereas colour imagery in non-synaesthetes causes local priming that relies on the locus of imagined colour, imagery in synaesthetes caused global priming not dependent on the locus of imagery. These data suggest a unique psychophysical profile of high-level colour processing in synaesthetes. Our novel findings and method will be critical to testing theories of synaesthesia and visual awareness. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Limits of colour vision in dim light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelber, Almut; Lind, Olle

    2010-09-01

    Humans and most vertebrates have duplex retinae with multiple cone types for colour vision in bright light, and one single rod type for achromatic vision in dim light. Instead of comparing signals from multiple spectral types of photoreceptors, such species use one highly sensitive receptor type thus improving the signal-to-noise ratio at night. However, the nocturnal hawkmoth Deilephila elpenor, the nocturnal bee Xylocopa tranquebarica and the nocturnal gecko Tarentola chazaliae can discriminate colours at extremely dim light intensities. To be able to do so, they sacrifice spatial and temporal resolution in favour of colour vision. We review what is known about colour vision in dim light, and compare colour vision thresholds with the optical sensitivity of the photoreceptors in selected animal species with lens and compound eyes. © 2010 The Authors, Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics © 2010 The College of Optometrists.

  11. Please pass me the skin coloured crayon!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, Martina; Levisen, Carsten; Beck, Thorhalla Gudmundsdottir

    2015-01-01

    worldviews and idealised cognitive models embedded in skin-based colour concepts in contemporary German and Scandi- navian languages. Arguing that colour concepts are linguistic constructs through which speakers have learned to pay attention to their visual worlds, we trace the origin of the skin......This study explores the cultural semantics of colour words in the four urban, European communities of Munich, Berne, Aarhus, and Reykjavik, focussing on hautfarben (German), hutfarb (Bernese Swiss German), hudfarvet (Danish), and húðlitur (Icelandic), all of which can be translated as ‘skin...... coloured’. Unlike in English, where skin coloured has fallen out of use due to its racist semantic profile, these words are still widely present within the four communities. Using evidence from a referential colour naming task and semi-structured interviews, our study seeks to reveal the linguistic...

  12. Using instrumental (CIE and reflectance) measures to predict consumers' acceptance of beef colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Benjamin W B; van de Ven, Remy J; Mao, Yanwei; Coombs, Cassius E O; Hopkins, David L

    2017-05-01

    We aimed to establish colorimetric thresholds based upon the capacity for instrumental measures to predict consumer satisfaction with beef colour. A web-based survey was used to distribute standardised photographs of beef M. longissimus lumborum with known colorimetrics (L*, a*, b*, hue, chroma, ratio of reflectance at 630nm and 580nm, and estimated deoxymyoglobin, oxymyoglobin and metmyoglobin concentrations) for scrutiny. Consumer demographics and perceived importance of colour to beef value were also evaluated. It was found that a* provided the most simple and robust prediction of beef colour acceptability. Beef colour was considered acceptable (with 95% acceptance) when a* values were equal to or above 14.5. Demographic effects on this threshold were negligible, but consumer nationality and gender did contribute to variation in the relative importance of colour to beef value. These results provide future beef colour studies with context to interpret objective colour measures in terms of consumer acceptance and market appeal. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Voltage-controlled colour-tunable microcavity OLEDs with enhanced colour purity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choy, Wallace C H; Niu, J H; Li, W L; Chui, P C

    2008-01-01

    The emission spectrum of single-unit voltage-controlled colour-tunable organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) has been theoretically and experimentally studied. Our results show that by introducing the microcavity structure, the colour purity of not only the destination colour but also the colour-tunable route can be enhanced, while colour purity is still an issue in typical single-unit voltage-controlled colour-tunable OLEDs. With the consideration of the periodical cycling of resonant wavelength and absorption loss of the metal electrodes, the appropriate change in the thickness of the microcavity structure has been utilized to achieve voltage-controlled red-to-green and red-to-blue colour-tunable OLEDs without adding dyes or other organic materials to the OLEDs

  14. ANALYSES OF ROCK SURFACE COLOUR CHANGES DUE TO WEATHERING

    OpenAIRE

    GOKAY, Mehmet Kemal

    2018-01-01

    Description parameters of rock masses and minerals include their colours as well. Colours appear in daylight for surfaced rock masses are changing slightly due to weathering layers which have been covering its surface gradually. Healthy human eyes can manage to differentiate visible light spectrum to identify colours of substances including rock masses. Then visible blackish colours of magnetite minerals, reddish colours of Terra- Rosa soils, greenish colours of weathered copper ore, pure whi...

  15. ANALYSES OF ROCK SURFACE COLOUR CHANGES DUE TO WEATHERING

    OpenAIRE

    GÖKAY, Mehmet Kemal

    2018-01-01

    Description parameters of rock masses and minerals include their colours as well. Colours appear in daylight for surfaced rock masses are changing slightly due to weathering layers which have been covering its surface gradually. Healthy human eyes can manage to differentiate visible spectrum to identify the colours of substance including rock masses. Then visible blackish colours of magnetite minerals, reddish colours of Terra- Rosa soils, greenish colours of weathered copper ore, pure white ...

  16. Dimensionality of the Consumer Perceived Value of Product Colour

    OpenAIRE

    Kiehelä, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Consumers’ product assessments are largely based on colour, and a product’s colour can increase consumer satisfaction, awareness and loyalty. However, existing colour research is fragmented and calls for theoretically-enhanced understandings of the role of colour in consumer product perception. The existing colour research mainly focuses on consumers’ immediate reactions when exposed to colours although studies show that consumers evaluate products differently in purchase and in use. There...

  17. A Bayesian Model of the Memory Colour Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Witzel, Christoph; Olkkonen, Maria; Gegenfurtner, Karl R.

    2018-01-01

    According to the memory colour effect, the colour of a colour-diagnostic object is not perceived independently of the object itself. Instead, it has been shown through an achromatic adjustment method that colour-diagnostic objects still appear slightly in their typical colour, even when they are colourimetrically grey. Bayesian models provide a promising approach to capture the effect of prior knowledge on colour perception and to link these effects to more general effects of cue integration....

  18. A Bayesian model of the memory colour effect.

    OpenAIRE

    Witzel, Christoph; Olkkonen, Maria; Gegenfurtner, Karl R.

    2018-01-01

    According to the memory colour effect, the colour of a colour-diagnostic object is not perceived independently of the object itself. Instead, it has been shown through an achromatic adjustment method that colour-diagnostic objects still appear slightly in their typical colour, even when they are colourimetrically grey. Bayesian models provide a promising approach to capture the effect of prior knowledge on colour perception and to link these effects to more general effects of cue integration....

  19. Mutagenesis in naturally coloured cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatod, J.P.; Meshram, L.D.; Jain, P.P.

    2000-01-01

    The seeds of naturally coloured cotton were treated with 15 kR, 20 kR doses of gamma rays and 0.5% Ethyl Methane Sulphonate (EMS) and their combinations. The M 1 and M 2 generations were studied for mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency in inducing the useful mutants, spectrum of mutation and their effects on bract characters. Results obtained revealed that 15 kR and 20 kR doses were more effective in inducing the mutations. In G. hirsutum, significant differences were found for bract size and dry weight of bract was noted in 20 kR dose and low in 0.5% EMS in M 1 . In the M 2 generation increased ratio of bract surface area to lint weight per boll was noted in 20 kR + 0.5% EMS. (author)

  20. Colour isomers in multiquark systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegaasen, H.

    1979-01-01

    If we select configurations where a high angular momentum separates coloured groups of quarks the states can be sufficiently stable to show up as resonances. The kind of states I shall talk about are mesons of the following kind (C=6,7), (C=3 bar,3) and baryons: (C=8,8), (C=6 bar,6). In each state the quarks on each end of the colourelectric flux tube are taken to be in relative s-waves. Models for baryonium and of narrow mesobaryonium states have been proposed on the basis of these configurations. The theoretical input in these models is an extrapolation of what is known about quark-quark interactions from ordinary q anti q and qqq spectroscopy. (author)

  1. Colour screening and quark confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, G.

    1978-03-01

    It is proposed that in Quantum Chromodynamics the colour charge of gluons and of anything with zero triality is screened by a dynamical Higgs mechanism with Higgs scalars made out of gluons. The center Z 3 of the gauge group SU(3) is left unbroken in this way, and single quarks, which have nonzero triality, cannot be screened. Long range forces between them persist therefore. Given that the Higgs mechanism produces a mass gap, the most favorable configuration of field lines between e.g. quark and antiquark will be in strings analogous to magnetic field lines in a superconductor. The strings confine the quarks. The screening mechanism, on the other hand, produces not only the mass gap (which leads to string formation) but is also responsible for saturation of forces, i.e. absence of bound states of six quarks etc. (orig.) [de

  2. Colour screening and quark confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, G.

    1978-01-01

    It is proposed that in quantum chromodynamics the colour charge of gluons and of anything with zero triality is screened by a dynamic Higgs mechanism with Higgs scalars made out of gluons, but the center Z 3 of the gauge group SU(3) is left unbroken, and single quarks, which have nonzero triality, are not screened. Long range forces between them persist therefore. Given that the Higgs mechanism produces a mass gap, the most favourable configuration of field lines between e.g., quark and antiquark will be in strings analogous to magnetic field lines in a superconductor. The string confine the quarks. The screening mechanism, on the other hand, produces not only the mass gap (which leads to string formation) but is also responsible for saturation of forces, i.e. absence of bound states of six quarks, etc. (Auth.)

  3. Effects of the ionizing radiation in natural food colours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosentino, Helio Morrone

    2005-01-01

    The world's fast growing population and its consequent increase in demand for food has driven mankind into improving technologies which ensure a safer supply of such commodities. Both food radiation processing and its constituents are highlighted as a feasible alternative technique capable of meeting food safety standards. Natural dyes are extensively employed in the food industry thanks to their colour enhancing properties on food products. This paper has aimed at studying the effects of ionizing radiation on three natural dyes: carminic acid and its derivatives (cochineal dyes), bixine and its salts (annatto dyes) and curcumin (turmeric dyes), used in the food and cosmetic industries within dilutions and doses those goods might eventually be processed in. It also envisages clarifying the compatibility of the irradiation technique with the keeping of such relevant sensorial attribute which is the product colour. Spectrophotometry and capillary electrophoresis were the analytic methods employed. All in all, a colour decrease proportional to the increase on the applied gamma radiation (1 to 32 kGy) has been observed. The annatto dyes have proven moderately stable whereas turmeric has shown to be highly sensitive to radiation. Those results shall be taken into account as far as the need to alter the formulae additive amount in the product is concerned whenever undergoing radiation processing. (author)

  4. Mapping the timecourse of goal-directed attention to location and colour in human vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Rachel C; Chambers, Christopher D

    2012-03-01

    Goal-directed attention prioritises perception of task-relevant stimuli according to location, features, or onset time. In this study we compared the behavioural timecourse of goal-directed selection to locations and colours by varying the stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA) between cue and target in a strategic cueing paradigm. Participants reported the presence or absence of a target following prior information regarding its location or colour. Results revealed that preparatory selection by colour is more effective at enhancing perceptual sensitivity than selection by location, even though both types of cue provided equivalent overall information. More detailed analysis revealed that this advantage arose due a limitation of spatial attention in maintaining a sufficiently broad focus (>2°) for target detection across multiple stimuli. In contrast, when target stimuli fell within 2° of the spatial attention spotlight, the strategic advantages and speed of spatial and colour attention were equated. Our findings are consistent with the conclusion that, under spatially optimal conditions, prior spatial and colour information are equally proficient at guiding top-down selection. When spatial locations are ambiguous, however, colour-based selection is the more efficient mechanism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) and honeybees (Apis mellifera) prefer similar colours of higher spectral purity over trained colours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Katja; Papiorek, Sarah; Lunau, Klaus

    2013-03-01

    Differences in the concentration of pigments as well as their composition and spatial arrangement cause intraspecific variation in the spectral signature of flowers. Known colour preferences and requirements for flower-constant foraging bees predict different responses to colour variability. In experimental settings, we simulated small variations of unicoloured petals and variations in the spatial arrangement of colours within tricoloured petals using artificial flowers and studied their impact on the colour choices of bumblebees and honeybees. Workers were trained to artificial flowers of a given colour and then given the simultaneous choice between three test colours: either the training colour, one colour of lower and one of higher spectral purity, or the training colour, one colour of lower and one of higher dominant wavelength; in all cases the perceptual contrast between the training colour and the additional test colours was similarly small. Bees preferred artificial test flowers which resembled the training colour with the exception that they preferred test colours with higher spectral purity over trained colours. Testing the behaviour of bees at artificial flowers displaying a centripetal or centrifugal arrangement of three equally sized colours with small differences in spectral purity, bees did not prefer any type of artificial flowers, but preferentially choose the most spectrally pure area for the first antenna contact at both types of artificial flowers. Our results indicate that innate preferences for flower colours of high spectral purity in pollinators might exert selective pressure on the evolution of flower colours.

  6. Most and Least Preferred Colours Differ According to Object Context: New Insights from an Unrestricted Colour Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonauskaite, Domicele; Mohr, Christine; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Spiers, Peter M; Althaus, Betty; Anil, Selin; Dael, Nele

    2016-01-01

    Humans like some colours and dislike others, but which particular colours and why remains to be understood. Empirical studies on colour preferences generally targeted most preferred colours, but rarely least preferred (disliked) colours. In addition, findings are often based on general colour preferences leaving open the question whether results generalise to specific objects. Here, 88 participants selected the colours they preferred most and least for three context conditions (general, interior walls, t-shirt) using a high-precision colour picker. Participants also indicated whether they associated their colour choice to a valenced object or concept. The chosen colours varied widely between individuals and contexts and so did the reasons for their choices. Consistent patterns also emerged, as most preferred colours in general were more chromatic, while for walls they were lighter and for t-shirts they were darker and less chromatic compared to least preferred colours. This meant that general colour preferences could not explain object specific colour preferences. Measures of the selection process further revealed that, compared to most preferred colours, least preferred colours were chosen more quickly and were less often linked to valenced objects or concepts. The high intra- and inter-individual variability in this and previous reports furthers our understanding that colour preferences are determined by subjective experiences and that most and least preferred colours are not processed equally.

  7. Most and Least Preferred Colours Differ According to Object Context: New Insights from an Unrestricted Colour Range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domicele Jonauskaite

    Full Text Available Humans like some colours and dislike others, but which particular colours and why remains to be understood. Empirical studies on colour preferences generally targeted most preferred colours, but rarely least preferred (disliked colours. In addition, findings are often based on general colour preferences leaving open the question whether results generalise to specific objects. Here, 88 participants selected the colours they preferred most and least for three context conditions (general, interior walls, t-shirt using a high-precision colour picker. Participants also indicated whether they associated their colour choice to a valenced object or concept. The chosen colours varied widely between individuals and contexts and so did the reasons for their choices. Consistent patterns also emerged, as most preferred colours in general were more chromatic, while for walls they were lighter and for t-shirts they were darker and less chromatic compared to least preferred colours. This meant that general colour preferences could not explain object specific colour preferences. Measures of the selection process further revealed that, compared to most preferred colours, least preferred colours were chosen more quickly and were less often linked to valenced objects or concepts. The high intra- and inter-individual variability in this and previous reports furthers our understanding that colour preferences are determined by subjective experiences and that most and least preferred colours are not processed equally.

  8. Most and Least Preferred Colours Differ According to Object Context: New Insights from an Unrestricted Colour Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonauskaite, Domicele; Mohr, Christine; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Spiers, Peter M.; Althaus, Betty; Anil, Selin; Dael, Nele

    2016-01-01

    Humans like some colours and dislike others, but which particular colours and why remains to be understood. Empirical studies on colour preferences generally targeted most preferred colours, but rarely least preferred (disliked) colours. In addition, findings are often based on general colour preferences leaving open the question whether results generalise to specific objects. Here, 88 participants selected the colours they preferred most and least for three context conditions (general, interior walls, t-shirt) using a high-precision colour picker. Participants also indicated whether they associated their colour choice to a valenced object or concept. The chosen colours varied widely between individuals and contexts and so did the reasons for their choices. Consistent patterns also emerged, as most preferred colours in general were more chromatic, while for walls they were lighter and for t-shirts they were darker and less chromatic compared to least preferred colours. This meant that general colour preferences could not explain object specific colour preferences. Measures of the selection process further revealed that, compared to most preferred colours, least preferred colours were chosen more quickly and were less often linked to valenced objects or concepts. The high intra- and inter-individual variability in this and previous reports furthers our understanding that colour preferences are determined by subjective experiences and that most and least preferred colours are not processed equally. PMID:27022909

  9. Block colourings of 6-cycle systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Bonacini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Let \\(\\Sigma=(X,\\mathcal{B}\\ be a \\(6\\-cycle system of order \\(v\\, so \\(v\\equiv 1,9\\mod 12\\. A \\(c\\-colouring of type \\(s\\ is a map \\(\\phi\\colon\\mathcal {B}\\rightarrow \\mathcal{C}\\, with \\(C\\ set of colours, such that exactly \\(c\\ colours are used and for every vertex \\(x\\ all the blocks containing \\(x\\ are coloured exactly with \\(s\\ colours. Let \\(\\frac{v-1}{2}=qs+r\\, with \\(q, r\\geq 0\\. \\(\\phi\\ is equitable if for every vertex \\(x\\ the set of the \\(\\frac{v-1}{2}\\ blocks containing \\(x\\ is partitioned in \\(r\\ colour classes of cardinality \\(q+1\\ and \\(s-r\\ colour classes of cardinality \\(q\\. In this paper we study bicolourings and tricolourings, for which, respectively, \\(s=2\\ and \\(s=3\\, distinguishing the cases \\(v=12k+1\\ and \\(v=12k+9\\. In particular, we settle completely the case of \\(s=2\\, while for \\(s=3\\ we determine upper and lower bounds for \\(c\\.

  10. Physicochemical and physiological basis of dichromatic colour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreft, Samo; Kreft, Marko

    2007-11-01

    Out of three perceptual characteristics of the colour of any substance, the hue depends mostly on the spectral properties of a substance, while the brightness and saturation depend also on the concentration of a substance and its thickness. Here, we report that evident change of the hue of the colour (i.e., from green to red) is due to a change in concentration or the thickness of a layer in some exceptional substances such as pumpkin seed oil or an aqueous solution of bromophenol blue. In some regions of Central Europe, salad dressing is made preferably with the pumpkin seed oil, which has a strong characteristic nut-like taste and remarkable properties of the colour: it appears red in a bottle, but green when served as a salad dressing. The colour of the pumpkin seed oil was previously described as brownish yellow, dark green, dark green to red ochre or dark reddish brown to light yellow green. We elucidated the physicochemical and physiological basis of such dichromatism by Beer-Lambert law and by the characteristics of human colour perception. Our concept was corroborated by the outcome of calculations of colour from spectral properties using colour matching functions. We found that dichromatism is observed if the absorption spectrum of any substance has at least two local minima: one wide but shallow and one narrow but deep local minimum.

  11. Colour discrimination and categorisation in Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farran, Emily K; Cranwell, Matthew B; Alvarez, James; Franklin, Anna

    2013-10-01

    Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) present with impaired functioning of the dorsal visual stream relative to the ventral visual stream. As such, little attention has been given to ventral stream functions in WS. We investigated colour processing, a predominantly ventral stream function, for the first time in nineteen individuals with Williams syndrome. Colour discrimination was assessed using the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test. Colour categorisation was assessed using a match-to-sample test and a colour naming task. A visual search task was also included as a measure of sensitivity to the size of perceptual colour difference. Results showed that individuals with WS have reduced colour discrimination relative to typically developing participants matched for chronological age; performance was commensurate with a typically developing group matched for non-verbal ability. In contrast, categorisation was typical in WS, although there was some evidence that sensitivity to the size of perceptual colour differences was reduced in this group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigating students' conceptual change about colour in an innovative research-based teaching sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Lopes Mota

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the second part of a multiphase study investigating the impact of a mathematical model, the Addition Table of Colours (ATC, in the learning of colour phenomena. The ATC instruction was undertaken in several 8th grade classes in three different Portuguese schools (250 students and included collaborative activities through Lab stations model. In the control group (204 students, the colour phenomena were taught in the traditional way, with the goals set by the teachers, without any intervention of the project. The two groups of students were compared in terms of content knowledge acquired in the learning of this subject through comparison and analysis of their pre and post-tests. Quantitative analyses of the pre/post-tests revealed five variants of students’ representations about this phenomenon. We found that the ATC model, inserted in an interactive and carefully designed teaching environment, is more effective in promoting conceptual change and scientific understandings of colour phenomena.

  13. The colour wheels of art, perception, science and physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Nick

    2006-06-01

    Colour is not the domain of any one discipline be it art, philosophy, psychology or science. Each discipline has its own colour wheel and this presentation examines the origins and philosophies behind the colour circles of Art, Perception, Science and Physiology (after image) with reference to Aristotle, Robert Boyle, Leonardo da Vinci, Goethe, Ewald Hering and Albert Munsell. The paper analyses and discusses the differences between the four colour wheels using the Natural Colour System® notation as the reference for hue (the position of colours within each of the colour wheels). Examination of the colour wheels shows the dominance of blue in the wheels of art, science and physiology particularly at the expense of green. This paper does not consider the three-dimensionality of colour space its goal was to review the hue of a colour with regard to its position on the respective colour wheels.

  14. Colour revolutions: criminal-legal aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Alekseyevich Gordeychik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective basing on the analysis of colour revolution technologies in different countries to formulate propositions for improving criminal legislation aimed at counteraction against this phenomenon. Methods general scientific induction deduction analysis synthesis and specific scientific formaljuridical and comparativelegal. Results using the results of colour revolutionsrsquo research carried out by political scientists the author evaluates the character and level of public danger of colour revolutions. The author states that the colour revolutions threaten the normal existence of the country or several countries. The conclusion is made that the colour revolutions must be counteracted by criminallegal means. The article states the absence of norms in the existing criminal legislation which would impose criminal liability on organizers incendiaries and participants of colour revolutions. It is proposed to supplement the existing criminal law with the norm stipulating the liability for such deeds and to insert this norm into Art. 34 ldquoCrimes against peace and security of humanityrdquo thus equating organization preparation and implementing colour revolutions with planning preparation launching and conducting an aggressive war Art. 353 of the Russian Criminal Code. Scientific novelty basing on the existing legal norms modern politological and juridical scientific literature a conclusion is made that the colour revolutions are based on the abuse of law. This allows the organizers of colour revolutions to legally prepare and implement the subversion of undesirable political regimes. The author formulates proposals for supplementing the criminal legislation. Practical value the materials and conclusions of the article can be used in lawmaking activity when elaborating the drafts of legal acts for changing and supplementing the Russian Criminal Code for research activity when preparing monographs and dissertations tutorials and articles when

  15. Kinetics of Texture and Colour Changes in Chicken Sausage during Superheated Steam Cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhameed Asmaa A.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a kinetic model to describe the texture and colour changes of chicken sausage during superheated steam cooking. Chicken sausages were cooked at temperature ranging from 150-200°C with treatment times ranging from 2-6 mins. The texture profile was evaluated in terms of hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness, while the colour parameters were estimated in terms of lightness (L*, redness (a*, yellowness (b*, and total colour difference (∆E. Experimental data showed a gradual reduction in texture parameters as cooking times and temperatures increased. The L* value of the colour showed a linear reduction with cooking condition, while the a*, b*, and ∆E values showed a contrary effects. The decrease in texture parameters and L*-value of colour parameter followed the first-order kinetic model. While, zero-order kinetic model was adapted to fit the a* and b*. The modified first order kinetic showed a good fit for total ∆E. Significant correlations between colour and texture parameters were observed, which showed that a* alone could be used to predict the texture of chicken sausage.

  16. Independent effects of colour on object identification and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Jones, Toby J; Nakabayashi, Kazuyo

    2009-02-01

    We examined the effects of colour on object identification and memory using a study-test priming procedure with a coloured-object decision task at test (i.e., deciding whether an object is correctly coloured). Objects were selected to have a single associated colour and were either correctly or incorrectly coloured. In addition, object shape and colour were either spatially integrated (i.e., colour fell on the object surface) or spatially separated (i.e., colour formed the background to the object). Transforming the colour of an object from study to test (e.g., from a yellow banana to a purple banana) reduced priming of response times, as compared to when the object was untransformed. This utilization of colour information in object memory was not contingent upon colour falling on the object surface or whether the resulting configuration was of a correctly or incorrectly coloured object. In addition, we observed independent effects of colour on response times, whereby coloured-object decisions were more efficient for correctly than for incorrectly coloured objects but only when colour fell on the object surface. These findings provide evidence for two distinct mechanisms of shape-colour binding in object processing.

  17. Solvent-free optical recording of structural colours on pre-imprinted photocrosslinkable nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Rezaei, Mohamad; Abdolahi, Mahssa; Kaminska, Bozena

    2017-09-01

    Optical digital information storage media, despite their ever-increasing storage capacity and data transfer rate, are vulnerable to the potential risk of turning inaccessible. For this reason, long-term eye-readable full-colour optical archival storage is in high demand for preserving valuable information from cultural, intellectual, and scholarly resources. However, the concurrent requirements in recording colours inexpensively and precisely, and preserving colours for the very long term (for at least 100 years), have not yet been met by existing storage techniques. Structural colours hold the promise to overcome such challenges. However, there is still the lack of an inexpensive, rapid, reliable, and solvent-free optical patterning technique for recording structural colours. In this paper, we introduce an enabling technique based on optical and thermal patterning of nanoimprinted SU-8 nanocone arrays. Using photocrosslinking and thermoplastic flow of SU-8, diffractive structural colours of nanocone arrays are recorded using ultra-violet (UV) exposure followed by the thermal development and reshaping of nanocones. Different thermal treatment procedures in reshaping nanocones are investigated and compared, and two-step progressive baking is found to allow the controllable reshaping of nanocones. The height of the nanocones and brightness of diffractive colours are modulated by varying the UV exposure dose to enable grey-scale patterning. An example of recorded full-colour image through half-tone patterning is also demonstrated. The presented technique requires only low-power continuous-wave UV light and is very promising to be adopted for professional and consumer archival storage applications.

  18. Pork quality with special emphasis on colour and its changes during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bocian

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of pork meat, including its colour after 24, 48, and 72 hours from the slaughter and its changes during storage. The meat was obtained from 52 crossbreed porkers F1 (Polish Large White x Polish Landrace, gilts and hogs in equal amounts. The assessment of the quality of the meat was performed in 48 hours after slaughter on the samples of the longissimus lumborum muscle. The meat was analysed in respect to its acidity (pH45 and pH48h, technological properties, and the level of the muscle colours. The sensory evaluation of the meat was conducted in terms of the intensity of colour, marbling, and firmness. The chemical composition of the meat and its tenderness was also evaluated. The colour of meat was measured by the use of the Minolta CR-300 apparatus in CIE L*a*b* system (L* - lightness, a* - participation of redness, b* - participation of yellowness, where the saturation of colour C* was calculated as well as the hue angle ho after 24, 48, and 72 hours from the slaughter. The changes (∆ of colour parameters after 24 h and 48 h of storage were calculated. Results demonstrated that the examined pork had the proper technological properties, it was tender (41.93 N/cm, and low in collagen (0.89%. During the storage of meat after 24, 48, and 72 hours from the slaughter, many significant changes appeared in the parameters of meat colour that is in L*, a*, b*, in saturation with C* and in the hue h° (P<0.01. The values of colour L* were changing into lighter (P<0.01, whereas the participation of colour red a*, yellow b* and the saturation of colour C* and its hue ho showed an increasing trend during storage (P<0.01. It was noticed that there are significant correlation coefficients between the colour parameters L*, a*, b*, its saturation C*, and hue ho, and the technological quality characteristics, the sensory intensity of colour, the content of muscle pigments at 24, 48 and 72 h after slaughter (P<0

  19. Trends In Coloured Nursing Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Venter

    1978-09-01

    Full Text Available Education as a selfgrowth process implies the potential successful adaptation to the world in which one lives; the latter becoming increasingly demanding through the expansion and growth of society as a whole. The Coloured nursing student of today, like all other students, lives in a fantastic era of technological advancement, industrialization, a continual struggle for academic achievement and above all the drive to achieve adjustment within the changing framework of society. The student must therefore be prepared to learn — which is a mental activity by means of which knowledge, skills, attitudes, and ideals are acquired, resulting in the modification of behaviour. The present-day nurse educator, therefore, not only has to be professionally and academically prepared for the educational task in nursing science but has to constantly update knowledge so as to keep abreast of the total interrelated picture of basic human science development. The success or failure of the student when she enters the professional world is an irrevocable reflection of the effectiveness of her teachers.

  20. Optimization of colour quality of LED lighting with reference to memory colours

    OpenAIRE

    Smet, Kevin; Ryckaert, Wouter; Pointer, Michael R.; Deconinck, Geert; Hanselaer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Simulated and real tri- and tetrachromatic light-emitting-diode (LED) clusters were optimized for luminous efficacy of radiation (LER) and the memory colour quality metric developed by the authors. The simulated clusters showed no significant differences in achievable colour quality and LER between the different cluster types investigated. The real clusters (composed of commercially available LEDs) showed substantial differences in achievable colour quality and LER between the different clus...

  1. An evaluation of advanced digital colour technology for colour matching maxillofacial prosthetics.

    OpenAIRE

    Nacher-Garcia, C.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the reliability and reproducibility of the Spectromatch-Pro digital colour system (Spectromatch Ltd. UK) in the reproduction of simulated skin-silicone colour samples; and to determine threshold Delta E (∆E) (CIE L*a*b*) of perceptible and acceptable colour differences for maxillofacial prosthetics. Method: A two phase quantitative research design. Phase 1: tested; (i) the reproducibility of the spectrophotometer for eight subjects (n=48) scans; from four ethnic groups...

  2. How to pass higher English colour

    CERN Document Server

    Bridges, Ann

    2009-01-01

    How to Pass is the Number 1 revision series for Scottish qualifications across the three examination levels of Standard Grade, Intermediate and Higher! Second editions of the books present all of the material in full colour for the first time.

  3. Particle creation in colour-electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjorn, J.; Hughes, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    The decay of the Yang-Mills vacuum in a uniform colour-electric field is calculated using the method of Bogoliubov transformations. The result does not agree with that obtained by summation of the corresponding perturbation series. (orig.)

  4. [Optic mixing of colours in Seurat's painting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernea, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Georges Seurat is the initiator and master of the divisionism. He founds the neoimpressionism current that tries to reproduce the nature exclusively through coloured vibration. Seurat applies the colours in small touches uniformly distributed on the canvas; the colours merge if they are looked by a certain distance, through optical interference. When the spectator approaches from the picture, the special frequency decreases, the optical merging does not appear and the onlooker looks a lot of coloured spots. When the spectator moves away from the picture, the optical interference appears and the clarity of the image becomes perfectly. This current opened the way of the future's modern painting performed by Cézanne, Renoir, Van Gogh.

  5. Colour Management as a Precondition of Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Brues

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Colour management technology has reached a high level of maturity. Only ten years after it first appeared on the market, ICC colour profiles have become indispensable in modern premedia. It can be said without exaggeration that colour management has revolutionised digital proof printing. A whole range of newcomers in the print industry supplier community offer an intelligent combination of a PostScript RIP with integral colour management functions. The quality of these low-priced proofing systems has now reached such a high level that even discerning customers accept such digital proofs as contract proofs. Modular proofing solutions are regularly to be found among the leaders in the digital proofer tests.Working with colour profiles and profiled workflows is still a major problem area. It is no mere chance that notably digital proofing is the field in which users work with colour profiles in virtually all systems, since applications here are locally limited.An important step for the widespread use of colour management technology is the now very extensive implementation of ICC mechanisms in application programs such as Adobe Photoshop. Version 7 is regarded as a model of well thought-out ICC-based colour management implementation. As Microsoft has neglected the ICC standard in recent years, Adobe has created its own colour management interface, called ACE. Based on the ICC standard, it is regarded by many experts as a reference implementation. Adobe products, which are so important for the graphic arts industry, now contain a standard colour management platform across all supported operating systems. Incompatibilities at system level can now be virtually ruled out, at least across the Adobe product line, including the important interfaces with PostScript and PDF.Modern prepress technology is set to move ever further away from exclusive print production for standardised offset print. Multiple use of production data is still at an early stage

  6. Colour and texture associations in voice-induced synaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja eMoos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Voice-induced synaesthesia, a form of synaesthesia in which synaesthetic perceptions are induced by the sounds of people’s voices, appears to be relatively rare and has not been systematically studied. In this study we investigated the synaesthetic colour and visual texture perceptions experienced in response to different types of voice quality (e.g. nasal, whisper, falsetto. Experiences of three different groups – self-reported voice synaesthetes, phoneticians and controls – were compared using both qualitative and quantitative analysis in a study conducted online. Whilst, in the qualitative analysis, synaesthetes used more colour and texture terms to describe voices than either phoneticians or controls, only weak differences, and many similarities, between groups were found in the quantitative analysis. Notable consistent results between groups were the matching of higher speech fundamental frequencies with lighter and redder colours, the matching of whispery voices with smoke-like textures and the matching of harsh and creaky voices with textures resembling dry cracked soil. These data are discussed in the light of current thinking about definitions and categorizations of synaesthesia, especially in cases where individuals apparently have a range of different synaesthetic inducers.

  7. Nuclear physics in colourful worlds. Quantumchromodynamics and nuclear binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muether, H.; Engelbrecht, C.A.; Brown, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    When quantumchromodynamics (QCD) is generalized from SU(3) to an SU(N c ) gauge theory, where N c is the number of colours, it depends on only two parameters: N c and the bare quark mass m q . A more general understanding of nuclear physics can be achieved by considering what it would be like in worlds with the number of colours different from 3, and bare quark masses different from the 'empirical' ones. Such an investigation can be carried out within a framework of meson-exchange interactions. The empirical binding energy of nuclear matter results from a very near cancellation between attractive and repulsive terms which are two orders of magnitude larger and may be expected to depend sensitively on the parameters of QCD. It is indeed found that our world is wedged into a small corner of the two-dimensional manifold of m q versus N c . If the number of colours were decreased by one, or the bare quark masses raised by more than 20%, nuclear matter would become unbound. By tracing the origin of this state of affairs, one obtains a clearer picture of the relative importance of various effects on the behaviour of the bulk nuclear matter. In particular, correlations like those embodied in the Coester band of saturation points appear to have a broader degree of validity than is implied by fits to the actual physical world only. (orig.)

  8. Colour measurement of colostrum for estimation of colostral IgG and colostrum composition in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Josef J; Kessler, Evelyne C; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

    2014-11-01

    Instruments for on-farm determination of colostrum quality such as refractometers and densimeters are increasingly used in dairy farms. The colour of colostrum is also supposed to reflect its quality. A paler or mature milk-like colour is associated with a lower colostrum value in terms of its general composition compared with a more yellowish and darker colour. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between colour measurement of colostrum using the CIELAB colour space (CIE L*=from white to black, a*=from red to green, b*=from yellow to blue, chroma value G=visual perceived colourfulness) and its composition. Dairy cow colostrum samples (n=117) obtained at 4·7±1·5 h after parturition were analysed for immunoglobulin G (IgG) by ELISA and for fat, protein and lactose by infrared spectroscopy. For colour measurements, a calibrated spectrophotometer was used. At a cut-off value of 50 mg IgG/ml, colour measurement had a sensitivity of 50·0%, a specificity of 49·5%, and a negative predictive value of 87·9%. Colostral IgG concentration was not correlated with the chroma value G, but with relative lightness L*. While milk fat content showed a relationship to the parameters L*, a*, b* and G from the colour measurement, milk protein content was not correlated with a*, but with L*, b*, and G. Lactose concentration in colostrum showed only a relationship with b* and G. In conclusion, parameters of the colour measurement showed clear relationships to colostral IgG, fat, protein and lactose concentration in dairy cows. Implementation of colour measuring devices in automatic milking systems and milking parlours might be a potential instrument to access colostrum quality as well as detecting abnormal milk.

  9. Colour Dematerialization in Spiritual Literature and Painting

    OpenAIRE

    Sudrajat, Dadang; Piliang, Yasraf Amir; Sanjaya, Tisna; Kusmara, Andriyanto Rikrik

    2017-01-01

    Colour in variety of art expression can be interpreted differently. This study is aiming at analyzing the colour dematerialization of Javanese spiritual literature “Falsafah Jeroning Warna” by Suprapto Kadis and a painting by Ahmad Sadali entitled “Gunung Mas”. Research was done by employing qualitative research, while data was collected by observation, interview, discussion, and documentation study. The analysis of meanings in the two art works was done in descriptive way by using the theory...

  10. Rockpool gobies change colour for camouflage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Stevens

    Full Text Available Camouflage is found in a wide range of species living in numerous habitat types, offering protection from visually guided predators. This includes many species from the intertidal zone, which must cope with background types diverse in appearance and with multiple predator groups foraging at high and low tide. Many animals are capable of either relatively slow (hours, days, weeks or rapid (seconds and minutes colour change in order to better resemble the background against which they are found, but most work has been restricted to a few species or taxa. It is often suggested that many small intertidal fish are capable of colour change for camouflage, yet little experimental work has addressed this. Here, we test rock gobies (Gobius paganellus for colour change abilities, and whether they can tune their appearance to match the background. In two experiments, we place gobies on backgrounds of different brightness (black or white, and of different colours (red and blue and use digital image analysis and modelling of predator (avian vision to quantify colour and luminance (perceived lightness changes and camouflage. We find that gobies are capable of rapid colour change (occurring within one minute, and that they can change their luminance on lighter or darker backgrounds. When presented on backgrounds of different colours, gobies also change their colour (hue and saturation while keeping luminance the same. These changes lead to predicted improvements in camouflage match to the background. Our study shows that small rockpool fish are capable of rapid visual change for concealment, and that this may be an important mechanism in many species to avoid predation, especially in complex heterogeneous environments.

  11. THE COLOUR GLASS CONDENSATE: AN INTRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IANCU,E.; LEONIDOV,A.; MCLERRAN,L.

    2001-08-06

    In these lectures, the authors develop the theory of the Colour Glass Condensate. This is the matter made of gluons in the high density environment characteristic of deep inelastic scattering or hadron-hadron collisions at very high energy. The lectures are self contained and comprehensive. They start with a phenomenological introduction, develop the theory of classical gluon fields appropriate for the Colour Glass, and end with a derivation and discussion of the renormalization group equations which determine this effective theory.

  12. A gentilionic approach to quark colours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattani, M.S.D.; Fernandes, N.C.

    1984-01-01

    An extended form of Noether's theorem enable us to identify the colour quantum number with the eigenvalue of the invariant of the algebra of S sup((3)). In the gentilionic approach, the composition of the S sup((3)) colour with the symmetric quark model seems to constitute an exact symmetry of Nature. It is also argued some general properties and the universality of Gentile statistics. (Author) [pt

  13. Modelling colour changes during the caramelisation reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Quintas, Mafalda A.C.; Brandão, Teresa R.S.; Silva, Cristina L.M.

    2007-01-01

    Sucrose solutions, with concentrations near or superior to saturation, present high potentialities for the candy and pastry industries. The development of colour in a neutral and highly concentrated sucrose solution (16.32%(w/w) water content) subjected to isothermal heat treatment (in the 100–160 C range) was investigated. Under such conditions, sucrose degrades through caramelisation and 5- hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is formed. Colour development was monitored through lightness/darkening ...

  14. THE COLOUR GLASS CONDENSATE: AN INTRODUCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iancu, E.; Leonidov, A.; McLerran, L.

    2001-01-01

    In these lectures, the authors develop the theory of the Colour Glass Condensate. This is the matter made of gluons in the high density environment characteristic of deep inelastic scattering or hadron-hadron collisions at very high energy. The lectures are self contained and comprehensive. They start with a phenomenological introduction, develop the theory of classical gluon fields appropriate for the Colour Glass, and end with a derivation and discussion of the renormalization group equations which determine this effective theory

  15. Plants and colour: Flowers and pollination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Renee; Owens, Simon J.; Rørslett, Bjørn

    2011-03-01

    While there is a range of colours found in plants the predominant colour is green. Pigments in plants have several roles e.g. photosynthesis and signalling. If colour is to be used as a signal then it must stand out from green. However, one should be aware that there are also coloured compounds where we have not yet fully investigated the role of colour in their functions—they may have roles in, for example, defence or heat exchange. In this paper, we will describe the basic chemistry of the major pigments found in plants and especially floral pigments. We will then discuss their locations in parts of the flower (such as sepals, petals, pollen and nectar), the cells in which they are found and their sub-cellular locations. Floral pigments have a large role to play in pollination of flowers by animals. They can and are modified in many ways during the development of flowers in nature, for example, at emergence and post-pollination. There are a range of biochemical mechanisms of colour change both within flowers and in isolated pigments. Some of the factors influencing colour are temperature, co-pigments, pH, metals, sugars, anthocyanin stacking and cell shape. There is a renewed interest in analysing floral pigments and how they are modified partly because of advances in recombinant DNA technologies, but also because of pollinators and their significance to biodiversity and for evolutionary studies. There is continued strong interest from the horticultural industry for the introduction of new colours e.g. the blue rose and for the exploitation of natural dyes. Funding in this area may impact future research in a potentially beneficial way but it must not deflect us from science-based conservation.

  16. Rockpool gobies change colour for camouflage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Martin; Lown, Alice E; Denton, Alexander M

    2014-01-01

    Camouflage is found in a wide range of species living in numerous habitat types, offering protection from visually guided predators. This includes many species from the intertidal zone, which must cope with background types diverse in appearance and with multiple predator groups foraging at high and low tide. Many animals are capable of either relatively slow (hours, days, weeks) or rapid (seconds and minutes) colour change in order to better resemble the background against which they are found, but most work has been restricted to a few species or taxa. It is often suggested that many small intertidal fish are capable of colour change for camouflage, yet little experimental work has addressed this. Here, we test rock gobies (Gobius paganellus) for colour change abilities, and whether they can tune their appearance to match the background. In two experiments, we place gobies on backgrounds of different brightness (black or white), and of different colours (red and blue) and use digital image analysis and modelling of predator (avian) vision to quantify colour and luminance (perceived lightness) changes and camouflage. We find that gobies are capable of rapid colour change (occurring within one minute), and that they can change their luminance on lighter or darker backgrounds. When presented on backgrounds of different colours, gobies also change their colour (hue and saturation) while keeping luminance the same. These changes lead to predicted improvements in camouflage match to the background. Our study shows that small rockpool fish are capable of rapid visual change for concealment, and that this may be an important mechanism in many species to avoid predation, especially in complex heterogeneous environments.

  17. A gentilion hypothesis for quark colours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattani, M.S.D.; Fernandes, N.C.

    1984-01-01

    Extendind the Noether's theorem it is possible to identify the colour quantum numbers with the eigenvalue of a S sup((3)) algebra invariant. In the gentilion approximation, the composition of the coloured S sup((3)) with the symmetric quark model seems to constitute in an exact symmetry of the nature. Some general properties related with the observationality in Quantum Mechanics are also approached and the Gentile statistical universality is asserted. (L.C.) [pt

  18. Digital Colour Printing on the Way to Offset Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Tribute

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Digital production colour printing is now more than ten years old. The first implementations of this technology from Indigo and Xeikon started the market but they suffered problems with reliability,quality and overall running costs. They produced a very good-looking printed image but it was notcomparable to offset. Quality problems were that tints often were streaky or banded, flat tints did notreproduce well, and the overall image had a somewhat harsh reflective look.Ongoing developments of digital colour printing mainly from Xerox and Canon developed the marketand improved the economics of the process. Certain elements of the quality also improved. Indigoand Xeikon also showed significant quality improvements and better economics. The improvedquality came closer to the look of offset, but in most cases was still obviously printed digitally.New developments are happening in what is termed "Digital Colour Lite." This is a range of new slower presses coming from Japan which run at around 30 pages/minute and cost well under 50.000 Euro. A few of these are getting almost offset quality through the use of new chemical toners that significantly improve printing quality.At the same time as the quality of digital colour printing has improved, so have the cost economics of running the presses. Potential buyers of presses will have to understand the different business models for running these presses. These are the "click" models from most suppliers, or the pay by usage model as offered by Heidelberg with the NexPress.

  19. Laser-induced plasmonic colours on metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, Jean-Michel; Calà Lesina, Antonino; Côté, Guillaume; Charron, Martin; Poitras, Daniel; Ramunno, Lora; Berini, Pierre; Weck, Arnaud

    2017-07-01

    Plasmonic resonances in metallic nanoparticles have been used since antiquity to colour glasses. The use of metal nanostructures for surface colourization has attracted considerable interest following recent developments in plasmonics. However, current top-down colourization methods are not ideally suited to large-scale industrial applications. Here we use a bottom-up approach where picosecond laser pulses can produce a full palette of non-iridescent colours on silver, gold, copper and aluminium. We demonstrate the process on silver coins weighing up to 5 kg and bearing large topographic variations (~1.5 cm). We find that colours are related to a single parameter, the total accumulated fluence, making the process suitable for high-throughput industrial applications. Statistical image analyses of laser-irradiated surfaces reveal various nanoparticle size distributions. Large-scale finite-difference time-domain computations based on these nanoparticle distributions reproduce trends seen in reflectance measurements, and demonstrate the key role of plasmonic resonances in colour formation.

  20. Fundamentals of colour awareness: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rubin

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A description of some of the basic or funda-mental aspects of the colour sensory mechanism will be provided here, based on modern ideas and literature, with reference specifically to the likely origins and evolution of colour vision.  The mo-lecular basis for colour awareness and the human colour pathway will also be considered in some detail. This paper intends to provide the theoreti-cal and philosophical basis for further papers that will introduce a modern and original computer- based  method  for  more  comprehensive  colour vision  assessment.    This  new  approach,  to  be fully described in later manuscripts, may contrib-ute towards improvements in understanding and knowledge of human colour perception and its measurement, still perhaps a relatively under-ex-plored or neglected field of study within optom-etry and ophthalmology.

  1. Healthy full-term infants' brain responses to emotionally and linguistically relevant sounds using a multi-feature mismatch negativity (MMN) paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostilainen, Kaisamari; Wikström, Valtteri; Pakarinen, Satu; Videman, Mari; Karlsson, Linnea; Keskinen, Maria; Scheinin, Noora M; Karlsson, Hasse; Huotilainen, Minna

    2018-03-23

    We evaluated the feasibility of a multi-feature mismatch negativity (MMN) paradigm in studying auditory processing of healthy newborns. The aim was to examine the automatic change-detection and processing of semantic and emotional information in speech in newborns. Brain responses of 202 healthy newborns were recorded with a multi-feature paradigm including a Finnish bi-syllabic pseudo-word/ta-ta/as a standard stimulus, six linguistically relevant deviant stimuli and three emotionally relevant stimuli (happy, sad, angry). Clear responses to emotional sounds were found already at the early latency window 100-200 ms, whereas responses to linguistically relevant minor changes and emotional stimuli at the later latency window 300-500 ms did not reach significance. Moreover, significant interaction between gender and emotional stimuli was found in the early latency window. Further studies on using multi-feature paradigms with linguistic and emotional stimuli in newborns are needed, especially those containing of follow-ups, enabling the assessment of the predictive value of early variations between subjects. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. An Urban Colour Space in the Context of Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Zheleznyak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A colour space is seen as an actual discourse when discussing problems of formation and inhabitation of the modern city environment. The key aspect of such understanding is an activity-cultural interpretation of the urban environment colouristics proposed by the author, which allows building of an integral sphere of colour existence. This model of working with colour includes basic components and structures a colour space, while matching up all the elements (basic paradigms that provide proper functioning and development of the colour space; mechanisms of formation of colour paradigms; processes of formation and transformation of cultural norms and stereotypes; the culture of colour as a holistic unit that penetrates the variety of colour space forms, as well as the reality of colour establishment in the framework of human culture; the urban colouristics as a material and virtual, artificial and natural, organized and spontaneously appearing colour reality together with professional and conventional visions of it, etc..

  3. An assessment of the impact of the long term evolution of engineered structures on the safety-relevant functions of the bentonite buffer in a HLW repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, D.

    2014-07-01

    Bentonite is important as a near-field buffer and backfill for a spent fuel/high level waste (SF/HLW) repository in Opalinus Clay, because of swelling and low solute transport rates. These properties should be preserved in the long-term (up to a million years). A number of processes could perturb them, such as thermal gradients from the decay heat of waste packages and chemical gradients due to thermodynamically unstable materials (steel, concrete). The potential interactions of bentonite with engineered components have been assessed. They are characterized by a complex interplay between fluid transport, clay ion exchange and dissolution, secondary mineral growth, and consequent changes in physical properties (porosity, permeability, swelling pressure). The near-field evolution will be curtailed well within the timeframe of a million years by mass transport constraints (porosity decreasing to zero) or mass balance limitations (reactants completely consumed). For bentonite alteration at 100 ka limited by mass transport constraints, there will be a thin (5 cm thick; 1 vol.-% total bentonite) alteration layer around the canister, derived partly through thermal redistribution of minerals and aqueous solutes, and partly due to interaction of the steel canister with bentonite. This results in a thin zone with zero porosity and zero swelling pressure (montmorillonite totally altered) around the canister, but with an unaltered hydraulic conductivity (potential minor fracturing cancels out the effects of decreased porosity). The mineralogical composition of the thin zone consists of a layer of calcite, gypsum/anhydrite and magnetite on the canister, with montmorillonite in the altered bentonite replaced by Fe-silicates such as cronstedtite, berthierine and chlorite. Beyond this inner alteration zone is an annulus of 68 cm (92 vol.-%) of unaltered bentonite. The potential interaction of metallic engineered structures other than the canister with bentonite is relatively minor

  4. An assessment of the impact of the long term evolution of engineered structures on the safety-relevant functions of the bentonite buffer in a HLW repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, D.

    2014-07-15

    Bentonite is important as a near-field buffer and backfill for a spent fuel/high level waste (SF/HLW) repository in Opalinus Clay, because of swelling and low solute transport rates. These properties should be preserved in the long-term (up to a million years). A number of processes could perturb them, such as thermal gradients from the decay heat of waste packages and chemical gradients due to thermodynamically unstable materials (steel, concrete). The potential interactions of bentonite with engineered components have been assessed. They are characterized by a complex interplay between fluid transport, clay ion exchange and dissolution, secondary mineral growth, and consequent changes in physical properties (porosity, permeability, swelling pressure). The near-field evolution will be curtailed well within the timeframe of a million years by mass transport constraints (porosity decreasing to zero) or mass balance limitations (reactants completely consumed). For bentonite alteration at 100 ka limited by mass transport constraints, there will be a thin (5 cm thick; 1 vol.-% total bentonite) alteration layer around the canister, derived partly through thermal redistribution of minerals and aqueous solutes, and partly due to interaction of the steel canister with bentonite. This results in a thin zone with zero porosity and zero swelling pressure (montmorillonite totally altered) around the canister, but with an unaltered hydraulic conductivity (potential minor fracturing cancels out the effects of decreased porosity). The mineralogical composition of the thin zone consists of a layer of calcite, gypsum/anhydrite and magnetite on the canister, with montmorillonite in the altered bentonite replaced by Fe-silicates such as cronstedtite, berthierine and chlorite. Beyond this inner alteration zone is an annulus of 68 cm (92 vol.-%) of unaltered bentonite. The potential interaction of metallic engineered structures other than the canister with bentonite is relatively minor

  5. Is Information Still Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The term "information" in information science does not share the characteristics of those of a nomenclature: it does not bear a generally accepted definition and it does not serve as the bases and assumptions for research studies. As the data deluge has arrived, is the concept of information still relevant for information…

  6. A Handheld LED Coloured-Light Mixer for Students to Learn Collaboratively the Primary Colours of Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nopparatjamjomras, Suchai; Chitaree, Ratchapak; Panijpan, Bhinyo

    2009-01-01

    To overcome students' inaccurate prior knowledge on primary additive colours, a coloured-light mixer has been constructed to enable students to observe directly the colours produced and reach the conclusion by themselves that the three primary colours of light are red, green, and blue (NOT red, yellow, and blue). Three closely packed tiny…

  7. Regulation of eye and jaw colouration in three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Belussi, L; De Oliveira, C; Sköld, H N

    2018-03-25

    Fish can change their skin and eye colour for background matching and signalling. Males of Gasterosteus aculeatus develop ornamental blue eyes and a red jaw during the reproductive season, colours that are further enhanced during courtship. Here, the effects of different hormones on physiological colour changes in the eyes and jaws of male and female G. aculeatus were investigated in vitro. In an in vivo experiment, G. aculeatus were injected with a receptor blocker of a pivotal hormone (noradrenaline) that controls colour change. In males, noradrenaline had aggregating effects on melanophore and erythrophore pigments resulting in blue eyes and a pale jaw, whereas melanocyte-concentrating hormone (MCH) and melatonin resulted in a pale jaw only. When noradrenalin was combined with melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) or prolactin, the jaw became red, while the eyes remained blue. In vivo injection of yohimbine, an alpha-2 adrenoreceptor blocker, resulted in dispersion of melanophore pigment in the eyes and inhibited the blue colouration. Altogether, the data suggest that noradrenalin has a pivotal role in the short-term enhancement of the ornamental colouration of male G. aculeatus, potentially together with MSH or prolactin. This study also found a sex difference in the response to MCH, prolactin and melatonin, which may result from different appearance strategies in males, versus the more cryptic females. © 2018 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  8. Envelope colour on thermal load in hot humid Hong Kong: Effect of hue, value, and chroma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VickyCHENG; EdwardNG

    2003-01-01

    Cooling energy consumption of a building can be significantly reduced by limiting solar heat gain through envelope, in which depends on the intensity of impinging solar radiation and on the colour of external surface. Albedo, from the thermal point of view, is the prime parameter of interest; however, it does appear to be too conceptual in practice. Architects, when considering choices of envelope colour, the actual decision is between various colours: yellow, blue, or green rather than a single numerical albedo. This study is to investigate the effect and magnitude of colour, in terms of visual qualities hue, value (lightness), and chroma (saturation), on thermal load of buildings. In the experiment, air temperatures inside test cells painted into different colours were measured, the results suggest that colour attribute: chroma has negligible effect on thermal performance of building envelope, while value has significant thermal effect. The effect of hue, as shown in this study, was insignificant, however further study might be needed as to obtain a clearer picture of its effect.

  9. Choice reaching with a LEGO arm robot (CoRLEGO): The motor system guides visual attention to movement-relevant information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Soeren; Woodgate, Philip J W; Sami, Saber A; Heinke, Dietmar

    2015-12-01

    We present an extension of a neurobiologically inspired robotics model, termed CoRLEGO (Choice reaching with a LEGO arm robot). CoRLEGO models experimental evidence from choice reaching tasks (CRT). In a CRT participants are asked to rapidly reach and touch an item presented on the screen. These experiments show that non-target items can divert the reaching movement away from the ideal trajectory to the target item. This is seen as evidence attentional selection of reaching targets can leak into the motor system. Using competitive target selection and topological representations of motor parameters (dynamic neural fields) CoRLEGO is able to mimic this leakage effect. Furthermore if the reaching target is determined by its colour oddity (i.e. a green square among red squares or vice versa), the reaching trajectories become straighter with repetitions of the target colour (colour streaks). This colour priming effect can also be modelled with CoRLEGO. The paper also presents an extension of CoRLEGO. This extension mimics findings that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the motor cortex modulates the colour priming effect (Woodgate et al., 2015). The results with the new CoRLEGO suggest that feedback connections from the motor system to the brain's attentional system (parietal cortex) guide visual attention to extract movement-relevant information (i.e. colour) from visual stimuli. This paper adds to growing evidence that there is a close interaction between the motor system and the attention system. This evidence contradicts the traditional conceptualization of the motor system as the endpoint of a serial chain of processing stages. At the end of the paper we discuss CoRLEGO's predictions and also lessons for neurobiologically inspired robotics emerging from this work. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Colours as Non-Verbal Signs on Packages

    OpenAIRE

    Kauppinen, Hannele

    2005-01-01

    Colour is an essential aspect of our daily life, and still, it is a neglected issue within marketing research. The main reason for studying colours is to understand the impact of colours on consumer behaviour, and thus, colours should be studied when it comes to branding, advertising, packages, interiors, and the clothes of the employees, for example. This was an exploratory study about the impact of colours on packages. The focus was on low-involvement purchasing, where the consumer puts...

  11. Colour relations for Mira and Semiregular (SR) type stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guney, Yavuz; Yesilyaprak, Cahit

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the period-colour relations, the colour-colour relations and the effective temperature were examined for Semiregular (SR) and Mira type variable stars. SR variables show an obvious period-colour relations, especially in infrared (IR). There are differences between SR and Mira type variable stars with respect to their colour relations. It has been thought that these differencies are caused by their mass loss rates and their effective temperatures. (paper)

  12. Scalable, full-colour and controllable chromotropic plasmonic printing

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Jiancai; Zhou, Zhang-Kai; Wei, Zhiqiang; Su, Rongbin; Lai, Juan; Li, Juntao; Li, Chao; Zhang, Tengwei; Wang, Xue-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic colour printing has drawn wide attention as a promising candidate for the next-generation colour-printing technology. However, an efficient approach to realize full colour and scalable fabrication is still lacking, which prevents plasmonic colour printing from practical applications. Here we present a scalable and full-colour plasmonic printing approach by combining conjugate twin-phase modulation with a plasmonic broadband absorber. More importantly, our approach also demonstrates ...

  13. Flower colour and cytochromes P450.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Brugliera, Filippa

    2013-02-19

    Cytochromes P450 play important roles in biosynthesis of flavonoids and their coloured class of compounds, anthocyanins, both of which are major floral pigments. The number of hydroxyl groups on the B-ring of anthocyanidins (the chromophores and precursors of anthocyanins) impact the anthocyanin colour, the more the bluer. The hydroxylation pattern is determined by two cytochromes P450, flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) and thus they play a crucial role in the determination of flower colour. F3'H and F3'5'H mostly belong to CYP75B and CYP75A, respectively, except for the F3'5'Hs in Compositae that were derived from gene duplication of CYP75B and neofunctionalization. Roses and carnations lack blue/violet flower colours owing to the deficiency of F3'5'H and therefore lack the B-ring-trihydroxylated anthocyanins based upon delphinidin. Successful redirection of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway to delphinidin was achieved by expressing F3'5'H coding regions resulting in carnations and roses with novel blue hues that have been commercialized. Suppression of F3'5'H and F3'H in delphinidin-producing plants reduced the number of hydroxyl groups on the anthocyanidin B-ring resulting in the production of monohydroxylated anthocyanins based on pelargonidin with a shift in flower colour to orange/red. Pelargonidin biosynthesis is enhanced by additional expression of a dihydroflavonol 4-reductase that can use the monohydroxylated dihydrokaempferol (the pelargonidin precursor). Flavone synthase II (FNSII)-catalysing flavone biosynthesis from flavanones is also a P450 (CYP93B) and contributes to flower colour, because flavones act as co-pigments to anthocyanins and can cause blueing and darkening of colour. However, transgenic plants expression of a FNSII gene yielded paler flowers owing to a reduction of anthocyanins because flavanones are precursors of anthocyanins and flavones.

  14. Changes in Histopathology, Enzyme Activities, and the Expression of Relevant Genes in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Following Long-Term Exposure to Environmental Levels of Thallium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Li-Ping; Yang, Yang; Shu, Hu; Ying, Guang-Guo; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Chen, Yi-Bing; Chen, Yong-Heng; Fang, Gui-Zhen; Li, Xin; Liu, Ji-Sheng

    2017-11-01

    Thallium is a rare-earth element, but widely distributed in water environments, posing a potential risk to our health. This study was designed to investigate the chronic effects of thallium based on physiological responses, gene expression, and changes in the activity of relevant enzymes in adult zebra fish exposed to thallium at low doses. The endpoints assessed include mRNA expression of metallothionein (MT)2 and heat shock protein HSP70; enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Na + /K + -ATPase; and the histopathology of gill, gonad, and liver tissues. The results showed significant increases in HSP70 mRNA expression following exposure to 100 ng/L thallium and in MT2 expression following exposure to 500 ng/L thallium. Significantly higher activities were observed for SOD in liver and Na + /K + -ATPase activity in gill in zebra fish exposed to thallium (20 and 100 ng/L, respectively) in comparison to control fish. Gill, liver, and gonad tissues displayed different degrees of damage. The overall results imply that thallium may cause toxicity to zebra fish at environmentally relevant aqueous concentrations.

  15. Minimum Colour Differences Required To Recognise Small Objects On A Colour CRT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Peter L.

    1985-05-01

    Data is required to assist in the assessment, evaluation and optimisation of colour and other displays for both military and general use. A general aim is to develop a mathematical technique to aid optimisation and reduce the amount of expensive hardware development and trials necessary when introducing new displays. The present standards and methods available for evaluating colour differences are known not to apply to the perception of typical objects on a display. Data is required for irregular objects viewed at small angular subtense ((1°) and relating the recognition of form rather than colour matching. Therefore laboratory experiments have been carried out using a computer controlled CRT to measure the threshold colour difference that an observer requires between object and background so that he can discriminate a variety of similar objects. Measurements are included for a variety of background and object colourings. The results are presented in the CIE colorimetric system similar to current standards used by the display engineer. Apart from the characteristic small field tritanopia, the results show that larger colour differences are required for object recognition than those assumed from conventional colour discrimination data. A simple relationship to account for object size and background colour is suggested to aid visual performance assessments and modelling.

  16. Memory colours and colour quality evaluation of conventional and solid-state lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smet, Kevin A G; Ryckaert, Wouter R; Pointer, Michael R; Deconinck, Geert; Hanselaer, Peter

    2010-12-06

    A colour quality metric based on memory colours is presented. The basic idea is simple. The colour quality of a test source is evaluated as the degree of similarity between the colour appearance of a set of familiar objects and their memory colours. The closer the match, the better the colour quality. This similarity was quantified using a set of similarity distributions obtained by Smet et al. in a previous study. The metric was validated by calculating the Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients between the metric predictions and the visual appreciation results obtained in a validation experiment conducted by the authors as well those obtained in two independent studies. The metric was found to correlate well with the visual appreciation of the lighting quality of the sources used in the three experiments. Its performance was also compared with that of the CIE colour rendering index and the NIST colour quality scale. For all three experiments, the metric was found to be significantly better at predicting the correct visual rank order of the light sources (p < 0.1).

  17. Research Opportunities in Corrosion Science for Long-Term Prediction of Materials Performance: A Report of the DOE Workshop on ''Corrosion Issues of Relevance to the Yucca Mountain Waste Repository''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payer, Joe H.; Scully, John R.

    2003-01-01

    The report summarizes the findings of a U.S. Department of Energy workshop on ''Corrosion Issues of Relevance to the Yucca Mountain Waste Repository''. The workshop was held on July 29-30, 2003 in Bethesda, MD, and was co-sponsored by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences and Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The workshop focus was corrosion science relevant to long-term prediction of materials performance in hostile environments, with special focus on relevance to the permanent disposal of nuclear waste at the Yucca Mountain Repository. The culmination of the workshop is this report that identifies both generic and Yucca Mountain Project-specific research opportunities in basic and applied topic areas. The research opportunities would be realized well after the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's initial construction-authorization licensing process. At the workshop, twenty-three invited scientists deliberated on basic and applied science opportunities in corrosion science relevant to long-term prediction of damage accumulation by corrosive processes that affect materials performance.

  18. Research Opportunities in Corrosion Science for Long-Term Prediction of Materials Performance: A Report of the DOE Workshop on “Corrosion Issues of Relevance to the Yucca Mountain Waste Repository”.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payer, Joe H. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Scully, John R. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2003-07-29

    The report summarizes the findings of a U.S. Department of Energy workshop on “Corrosion Issues of Relevance to the Yucca Mountain Waste Repository”. The workshop was held on July 29-30, 2003 in Bethesda, MD, and was co-sponsored by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences and Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The workshop focus was corrosion science relevant to long-term prediction of materials performance in hostile environments, with special focus on relevance to the permanent disposal of nuclear waste at the Yucca Mountain Repository. The culmination of the workshop is this report that identifies both generic and Yucca Mountain Project-specific research opportunities in basic and applied topic areas. The research opportunities would be realized well after the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s initial construction-authorization licensing process. At the workshop, twenty-three invited scientists deliberated on basic and applied science opportunities in corrosion science relevant to long-term prediction of damage accumulation by corrosive processes that affect materials performance.

  19. Poseidon's paintbox : historical archives of ocean colour in global-change perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernand, M. R.

    2011-11-01

    In the thesis introduction issues are discussed on the historical background of marine optics and on marine optical devices that were used over the past centuries to observe and measure; as in all sciences, in marine optics we can see a steady development: that of ‘measuring’, beginning many centuries ago, to 'knowing' and since less than a century to the understanding of the phenomenon. Hereafter, six themes are treated successively. The first theme, ‘Ocean optics from 1600 (Hudson) to 1930 (Raman), shift in interpretation of natural water colouring’, addresses the question of why it took so long a time to explain the phenomenon ‘the colouring of the sea’, especially the blue colour, despite the age-long interest of sailors, for practical purposes of navigation and detection of fish - of which more later. The second theme ‘On the history of the Secchi disc’, describes the search to establish methods for the determination of (sea) water clarity concerning purposes of navigation (near coast colour changes) just mentioned to detect shoals, and for a more basic purpose, tracing lost objects. The search to determine the clarity of lakes and seas culminated in the invention of the Secchi disc, used since the late 19th century. The third theme, ‘Spectral analysis of the Forel-Ule ocean colour comparator scale’, addresses the accuracy of a colour scale proposed, used in limnology and oceanography. Scale observations are put into perspective with contemporary measurements on the colour of the sea. The fourth theme, ‘Ocean colour changes in the North Pacific since 1930’, handles the question whether long-term ocean colour changes using historic Forel-Ule observations, in this part of the ocean made very frequently over time, can be determined in relation to global change. In principal global warming may cause a gradual change in ocean colour due to the effect of biological, chemical and physical aspects of the ocean-surface. The fifth theme,

  20. Generalized Fokker-Planck equations for coloured, multiplicative Gaussian noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetto, A.M.; Pena, L. de la; Velasco, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    With the help of Novikov's theorem, it is possible to derive a master equation for a coloured, multiplicative, Gaussian random process; the coefficients of this master equation satisfy a complicated auxiliary integro-differential equation. For small values of the Kubo number, the master equation reduces to an approximate generalized Fokker-Planck equation. The diffusion coefficient is explicitly written in terms of correlation functions. Finally, a straightforward and elementary second order perturbative treatment is proposed to derive the same approximate Fokker-Planck equation. (author)

  1. Genetic analyses of the human eye colours using a novel objective method for eye colour classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe D.; Johansen, Peter; Harder, Stine

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we present a new objective method for measuring the eye colour on a continuous scale that allows researchers to associate genetic markers with different shades of eye colour. With the use of the custom designed software Digital Iris Analysis Tool (DIAT), the iris was automatically...... and TYR rs1393350) on the eye colour. We evaluated the two published prediction models for eye colour (IrisPlex [1] and Snipper[2]) and compared the predictions with the PIE-scores. We found good concordance with the prediction from individuals typed as HERC2 rs12913832 G. However, both methods had......-score ranged from −1 to 1 (brown to blue). The software eliminated the need for user based interpretation and qualitative eye colour categories. In 94% (570) of 605 analyzed eye images, the iris region was successfully extracted and a PIE-score was calculated. A very high correlation between the PIE...

  2. The dual rod system of amphibians supports colour discrimination at the absolute visual threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yovanovich, Carola A M; Koskela, Sanna M; Nevala, Noora; Kondrashev, Sergei L; Kelber, Almut; Donner, Kristian

    2017-04-05

    The presence of two spectrally different kinds of rod photoreceptors in amphibians has been hypothesized to enable purely rod-based colour vision at very low light levels. The hypothesis has never been properly tested, so we performed three behavioural experiments at different light intensities with toads ( Bufo ) and frogs ( Rana ) to determine the thresholds for colour discrimination. The thresholds of toads were different in mate choice and prey-catching tasks, suggesting that the differential sensitivities of different spectral cone types as well as task-specific factors set limits for the use of colour in these behavioural contexts. In neither task was there any indication of rod-based colour discrimination. By contrast, frogs performing phototactic jumping were able to distinguish blue from green light down to the absolute visual threshold, where vision relies only on rod signals. The remarkable sensitivity of this mechanism comparing signals from the two spectrally different rod types approaches theoretical limits set by photon fluctuations and intrinsic noise. Together, the results indicate that different pathways are involved in processing colour cues depending on the ecological relevance of this information for each task.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in dim light'. © 2017 The Authors.

  3. Background colour matching by a crab spider in the field: a community sensory ecology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defrize, Jérémy; Théry, Marc; Casas, Jérôme

    2010-05-01

    The question of whether a species matches the colour of its natural background in the perspective of the correct receiver is complex to address for several reasons; however, the answer to this question may provide invaluable support for functional interpretations of colour. In most cases, little is known about the identity and visual sensory abilities of the correct receiver and the precise location at which interactions take place in the field, in particular for mimetic systems. In this study, we focused on Misumena vatia, a crab spider meeting the criteria for assessing crypsis better than many other models, and claimed to use colour changes for both aggressive and protective crypsis. We carried out a systematic field survey to quantitatively assess the exactness of background colour matching in M. vatia with respect to the visual system of many of its receivers within the community. We applied physiological models of bird, bee and blowfly colour vision, using flower and spider spectral reflectances measured with a spectroradiometer. We observed that crypsis at long distance is systematically achieved, exclusively through achromatic contrast, in both bee and bird visions. At short distance, M. vatia is mostly chromatically detectable, whatever the substrate, for bees and birds. However, spiders can be either poorly discriminable or quite visible depending on the substrate for bees. Spiders are always chromatically undetectable for blowflies. We discuss the biological relevance of these results in both defensive and aggressive contexts of crypsis within a community sensory perspective.

  4. Coevolution of coloration and colour vision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Olle; Henze, Miriam J; Kelber, Almut; Osorio, Daniel

    2017-07-05

    The evolutionary relationship between signals and animal senses has broad significance, with potential consequences for speciation, and for the efficacy and honesty of biological communication. Here we outline current understanding of the diversity of colour vision in two contrasting groups: the phylogenetically conservative birds, and the more variable butterflies. Evidence for coevolution of colour signals and vision exists in both groups, but is limited to observations of phenotypic differences between visual systems, which might be correlated with coloration. Here, to illustrate how one might interpret the evolutionary significance of such differences, we used colour vision modelling based on an avian eye to evaluate the effects of variation in three key characters: photoreceptor spectral sensitivity, oil droplet pigmentation and the proportions of different photoreceptor types. The models predict that physiologically realistic changes in any one character will have little effect, but complementary shifts in all three can substantially affect discriminability of three types of natural spectra. These observations about the adaptive landscape of colour vision may help to explain the general conservatism of photoreceptor spectral sensitivities in birds. This approach can be extended to other types of eye and spectra to inform future work on coevolution of coloration and colour vision.This article is part of the themed issue 'Animal coloration: production, perception, function and application'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. Colour dematerialization in spiritual literature and painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadang Sudrajat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Colour in variety of art expression can be interpreted differently. This study is aiming at analyzing the colour dematerialization of Javanese spiritual literature “Falsafah Jeroning Warna” by Suprapto Kadis and a painting by Ahmad Sadali entitled “Gunung Mas”. Research was done by employing qualitative research, while data was collected by observation, interview, discussion, and documentation study. The analysis of meanings in the two art works was done in descriptive way by using the theory and the knowledge of tasawwuf or sufism, the aesthetics, and arts. Results showed that both sufis, Ahmad Sadali and Suprapto Kadis, share similarities in doing dematerialization towards colour. For them, colour was initially taken from nature (the external territory which then experienced dematerialization when it made contact with inspiration that was created from the internal area (mental. On the other hand, the difference between the two art works lies on an understanding that colour in FJW is naturalistic mimesis in nature, meanwhile, the painting of Ahmad Sadali is naturaly abstract.

  6. Sensory evaluation of meat colour using photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi Destefanis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Five m. longissimus thoracis steaks from different breeds, purchased at retail, were cut into samples and simultaneously photographed under standard shooting conditions. The first photo was taken on samples just arrived at the laboratory, the second one on a freshly cut surface after blooming. Two consumer panels evaluated beef colour using respectively photo 1 and photo 2. Each consumer was asked to rank samples in order of preference. Rank sums were evaluated with Fridman’s test. Immediately after taking the photos, colour was measured with a colorimeter. Regarding photo 1, consumers were able to discriminate one sample, the worst, from all the others. Concerning photo 2, consumers discriminated the worst sample, as in photo 1, but also the best one. Therefore a more accurate colour evaluation can be obtained if the assessment is carried out on a fresh cut surface after blooming. In general consumers preferred samples with high lightness and a relatively high yellowness. The sensory evaluation of meat colour using photographs is a promising tool to overcome the difficulties when the meat is directly evaluated. But it is very important to standardize the shooting conditions to obtain a true reproduction of the meat. For this purpose the use of a colour target is useful to check the validity of the adopted parameters.

  7. Visual awareness of objects and their colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, Michael; Gellatly, Angus

    2011-10-01

    At any given moment, our awareness of what we 'see' before us seems to be rather limited. If, for instance, a display containing multiple objects is shown (red or green disks), when one object is suddenly covered at random, observers are often little better than chance in reporting about its colour (Wolfe, Reinecke, & Brawn, Visual Cognition, 14, 749-780, 2006). We tested whether, when object attributes (such as colour) are unknown, observers still retain any knowledge of the presence of that object at a display location. Experiments 1-3 involved a task requiring two-alternative (yes/no) responses about the presence or absence of a colour-defined object at a probed location. On this task, if participants knew about the presence of an object at a location, responses indicated that they also knew about its colour. A fourth experiment presented the same displays but required a three-alternative response. This task did result in a data pattern consistent with participants' knowing more about the locations of objects within a display than about their individual colours. However, this location advantage, while highly significant, was rather small in magnitude. Results are compared with those of Huang (Journal of Vision, 10(10, Art. 24), 1-17, 2010), who also reported an advantage for object locations, but under quite different task conditions.

  8. Scalable, full-colour and controllable chromotropic plasmonic printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jiancai; Zhou, Zhang-Kai; Wei, Zhiqiang; Su, Rongbin; Lai, Juan; Li, Juntao; Li, Chao; Zhang, Tengwei; Wang, Xue-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic colour printing has drawn wide attention as a promising candidate for the next-generation colour-printing technology. However, an efficient approach to realize full colour and scalable fabrication is still lacking, which prevents plasmonic colour printing from practical applications. Here we present a scalable and full-colour plasmonic printing approach by combining conjugate twin-phase modulation with a plasmonic broadband absorber. More importantly, our approach also demonstrates controllable chromotropic capability, that is, the ability of reversible colour transformations. This chromotropic capability affords enormous potentials in building functionalized prints for anticounterfeiting, special label, and high-density data encryption storage. With such excellent performances in functional colour applications, this colour-printing approach could pave the way for plasmonic colour printing in real-world commercial utilization. PMID:26567803

  9. Influence of drug colour on perceived drug effects and efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Da; Wang, Tieyan; Wang, Tieshan; Qu, Xingda

    2018-02-01

    A drug's physical characteristics, such as colour, could be factors influencing its therapeutic effects. It is not well understood whether people's expectations on drug effects and efficacy are affected by colour, especially among Chinese population. This study was conducted to examine people's expectations on drug effects and efficacy on the basis of drug colour, and to reveal possible gender differences in colour-related drug expectations. Participants (n = 224) were asked to classify seven single-coloured and six two-coloured capsules into one of four categories of drug effects, and to indicate the strength of drug efficacy. It is found that all the coloured capsules yielded non-chance distributions in classifications of drug effects, with six single-coloured and four two-coloured capsules associated with specific drug effects. Colour also conveyed differential strengths of drug efficacy in general and in relation to specific drug effects. There were gender differences in drug expectations for some colours and colour combinations. Practitioner Summary: Drug colour was found to have impacts on perceived drug effects and efficacy. The findings from the present study can be used by ergonomics practitioners to design appropriate drug colours in support of drug differentiation, therapeutic effects and medication adherence.

  10. Innate colour preference, individual learning and memory retention in the ant Camponotus blandus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ayse; Dyer, Adrian G; Rössler, Wolfgang; Spaethe, Johannes

    2017-09-15

    Ants are a well-characterized insect model for the study of visual learning and orientation, but the extent to which colour vision is involved in these tasks remains unknown. We investigated the colour preference, learning and memory retention of Camponotus blandus foragers under controlled laboratory conditions. Our results show that C. blandus foragers exhibit a strong innate preference for ultraviolet (UV, 365 nm) over blue (450 nm) and green (528 nm) wavelengths. The ants can learn to discriminate 365 nm from either 528 nm or 450 nm, independent of intensity changes. However, they fail to discriminate between 450 nm and 528 nm. Modelling of putative colour spaces involving different numbers of photoreceptor types revealed that colour discrimination performance of individual ants is best explained by dichromacy, comprising a short-wavelength (UV) receptor with peak sensitivity at about 360 nm, and a long-wavelength receptor with peak sensitivity between 470 nm and 560 nm. Foragers trained to discriminate blue or green from UV light are able to retain the learned colour information in an early mid-term (e-MTM), late mid-term (l-MTM), early long-term (e-LTM) and late long-term (l-LTM) memory from where it can be retrieved after 1 h, 12 h, 24 h, 3 days and 7 days after training, indicating that colour learning may induce different memory phases in ants. Overall, our results show that ants can use chromatic information in a way that should promote efficient foraging in complex natural environments. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. A long-term three dimensional liver co-culture system for improved prediction of clinically relevant drug-induced hepatotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinova, Radina; Boess, Franziska; Applegate, Dawn; Suter, Laura; Weiser, Thomas; Singer, Thomas; Naughton, Brian; Roth, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is the major cause for liver failure and post-marketing drug withdrawals. Due to species-specific differences in hepatocellular function, animal experiments to assess potential liabilities of drug candidates can predict hepatotoxicity in humans only to a certain extent. In addition to animal experimentation, primary hepatocytes from rat or human are widely used for pre-clinical safety assessment. However, as many toxic responses in vivo are mediated by a complex interplay among different cell types and often require chronic drug exposures, the predictive performance of hepatocytes is very limited. Here, we established and characterized human and rat in vitro three-dimensional (3D) liver co-culture systems containing primary parenchymal and non-parenchymal hepatic cells. Our data demonstrate that cells cultured on a 3D scaffold have a preserved composition of hepatocytes, stellate, Kupffer and endothelial cells and maintain liver function for up to 3 months, as measured by the production of albumin, fibrinogen, transferrin and urea. Additionally, 3D liver co-cultures maintain cytochrome P450 inducibility, form bile canaliculi-like structures and respond to inflammatory stimuli. Upon incubation with selected hepatotoxicants including drugs which have been shown to induce idiosyncratic toxicity, we demonstrated that this model better detected in vivo drug-induced toxicity, including species-specific drug effects, when compared to monolayer hepatocyte cultures. In conclusion, our results underline the importance of more complex and long lasting in vitro cell culture models that contain all liver cell types and allow repeated drug-treatments for detection of in vivo-relevant adverse drug effects. - Highlights: ► 3D liver co-cultures maintain liver specific functions for up to three months. ► Activities of Cytochrome P450s remain drug- inducible accross three months. ► 3D liver co-cultures recapitulate drug-induced liver toxicity

  12. A long-term three dimensional liver co-culture system for improved prediction of clinically relevant drug-induced hepatotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostadinova, Radina; Boess, Franziska [Non-Clinical Safety, Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Grenzacherstrasse 124, Building 73 / Room 117b, 4070 Basel (Switzerland); Applegate, Dawn [RegeneMed, 9855 Towne Centre Drive Suite 200, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Suter, Laura; Weiser, Thomas; Singer, Thomas [Non-Clinical Safety, Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Grenzacherstrasse 124, Building 73 / Room 117b, 4070 Basel (Switzerland); Naughton, Brian [RegeneMed, 9855 Towne Centre Drive Suite 200, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Roth, Adrian, E-mail: adrian_b.roth@roche.com [Non-Clinical Safety, Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Grenzacherstrasse 124, Building 73 / Room 117b, 4070 Basel (Switzerland)

    2013-04-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is the major cause for liver failure and post-marketing drug withdrawals. Due to species-specific differences in hepatocellular function, animal experiments to assess potential liabilities of drug candidates can predict hepatotoxicity in humans only to a certain extent. In addition to animal experimentation, primary hepatocytes from rat or human are widely used for pre-clinical safety assessment. However, as many toxic responses in vivo are mediated by a complex interplay among different cell types and often require chronic drug exposures, the predictive performance of hepatocytes is very limited. Here, we established and characterized human and rat in vitro three-dimensional (3D) liver co-culture systems containing primary parenchymal and non-parenchymal hepatic cells. Our data demonstrate that cells cultured on a 3D scaffold have a preserved composition of hepatocytes, stellate, Kupffer and endothelial cells and maintain liver function for up to 3 months, as measured by the production of albumin, fibrinogen, transferrin and urea. Additionally, 3D liver co-cultures maintain cytochrome P450 inducibility, form bile canaliculi-like structures and respond to inflammatory stimuli. Upon incubation with selected hepatotoxicants including drugs which have been shown to induce idiosyncratic toxicity, we demonstrated that this model better detected in vivo drug-induced toxicity, including species-specific drug effects, when compared to monolayer hepatocyte cultures. In conclusion, our results underline the importance of more complex and long lasting in vitro cell culture models that contain all liver cell types and allow repeated drug-treatments for detection of in vivo-relevant adverse drug effects. - Highlights: ► 3D liver co-cultures maintain liver specific functions for up to three months. ► Activities of Cytochrome P450s remain drug- inducible accross three months. ► 3D liver co-cultures recapitulate drug-induced liver toxicity

  13. Induced mutation altering flower colour in Chrysanthemum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, S K [National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow (India)

    1989-01-01

    Full text: 'Flirt' is a double Korean type, small flowered Chrysanthemum of red colour. Rooted cuttings were treated with 1.5-2.5 krad gamma rays. A chimeral flower colour mutant was detected after 1.5 krad treatment. After purification through repeated cuttings a mutant clone was developed and released as commercial cultivar 'Man Bhawan'. It produces bi-coloured flower-heads: yellow and red at full bloom stage becoming completely yellow later on. By chromatography, 6 pigment spots could be identified in the variety 'Flirt' but only 5 in the mutant, violet (hRf 69.83) being absent. Spectrophotometric analysis of petal extracts showed presence of three peaks in both 'Flirt' and 'Man Bhawan' at full bloom stage but only two in 'Man Bhawan' at fading stage. (author)

  14. Colour vision experimental studies in teaching of optometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozolinsh, Maris; Ikaunieks, Gatis; Fomins, Sergejs

    2005-10-01

    Following aspects related to human colour vision are included in experimental lessons for optometry students of University of Latvia. Characteristics of coloured stimuli (emitting and reflective), determination their coordinates in different colour spaces. Objective characteristics of transmitting of colour stimuli through the optical system of eye together with various types of appliances (lenses, prisms, Fresnel prisms). Psychophysical determination of mono- and polychromatic stimuli perception taking into account physiology of eye, retinal colour photoreceptor topography and spectral sensitivity, spatial and temporal characteristics of retinal receptive fields. Ergonomics of visual perception, influence of illumination and glare effects, testing of colour vision deficiencies.

  15. A familial factor in the development of colour agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijboer, Tanja C W; van Zandvoort, Martine J E; de Haan, Edward H F

    2007-04-09

    An important aspect of research into the link between genes and behaviour concerns the identification of familial determination. There is evidence for familial factors in selective deficits, such as developmental dyslexia and developmental prosopagnosia. Colour agnosia concerns a selective neuropsychological condition in which colour perception is intact, while the identification and naming of colour is disrupted. We recently demonstrated that this deficit can occur as a developmental deficit. Here, we show that there is a familial factor in the development of colour agnosia by reporting the colour processing abilities of the mother and the daughters of a man with developmental colour agnosia.

  16. Short and long term bystander effect induction by fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas, Rafinesque, 1820) injected with environmentally relevant whole body doses of 226Ra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Richard W.; Seymour, Colin B.; Mothersill, Carmel E.

    2013-01-01

    Bystander effect induction by fathead minnows injected with environmentally relevant doses of 226 Ra was investigated. Twenty four h and 6 months after injection with a single dose of 21, 210 or 2100 μBq, fin tissue samples emitted a pro-apoptotic signal, which reduced the clonogenic survival of an apoptosis sensitive reporter cell line. Twenty four h and 10 weeks after injection explants from non-injected bystander fish, swum with the injected fish, also emitted a pro-apoptotic signal. However 6 months after injection the bystander fish to 21 and 210 μBq injected fish emitted an anti-apoptotic signal. This demonstrates that extremely low dose irradiation can have effects outside of the irradiated fish. This has implications for population and ecosystem responses to contamination. -- Highlights: • Non-injected fish, swum with injected fish, gave the same response for up to 10 weeks. • After 6 months this response by non-injected fish changed to an anti-apoptotic signal. • This shows that 226 Ra contamination can have effects outside of the irradiated fish

  17. Colour intransparency and the cross sections for colour-singlet and colour-octet hadrons in the Low-Nussinov model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolejsi, J.; Huefner, J.

    1992-01-01

    The dependence of cross sections on the colour state of the colliding hadrons is investigated within the Low-Nussinov model of two-gluon exchange. The total cross sections for colour-octet hadrons are practically constant as functions of the hadronic radii, while they tend to zero when the radii of the colour-singlet hadrons approach zero. The slope parameter of the differential elastic cross sections for small momentum transfers is rather insensitive to the colour structure of the colliding hadrons. The integrated colour exchange cross section is calculated. (orig.)

  18. Colour-Temperature Correspondences: When Reactions to Thermal Stimuli Are Influenced by Colour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hsin-Ni; Van Doorn, George H.; Kawabe, Takahiro; Watanabe, Junji; Spence, Charles

    2014-01-01

    In our daily lives, information concerning temperature is often provided by means of colour cues, with red typically being associated with warm/hot, and blue with cold. While such correspondences have been known about for many years, they have primarily been studied using subjective report measures. Here we examined this correspondence using two more objective response measures. First, we used the Implicit Association Test (IAT), a test designed to assess the strength of automatic associations between different concepts in a given individual. Second, we used a priming task that involved speeded target discrimination in order to assess whether priming colour or thermal information could invoke the crossmodal association. The results of the IAT confirmed that the association exists at the level of response selection, thus indicating that a participant’s responses to colour or thermal stimuli are influenced by the colour-temperature correspondence. The results of the priming experiment revealed that priming a colour affected thermal discrimination reaction times (RTs), but thermal cues did not influence colour discrimination responses. These results may therefore provide important clues as to the level of processing at which such colour-temperature correspondences are represented. PMID:24618675

  19. Consumer exposures to anthocyanins from colour additives, colouring foodstuffs and from natural occurrence in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, David R; Klingenberg, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Anthocyanins are responsible for the red/blue colour of grapes, currants, and other fruits and vegetables. They may also be extracted for use as colour additives (E163) or concentrated for use as colouring foods. Consumer exposures have been assessed using data on natural occurrence, use levels and frequencies from food manufacturers and European food consumption data. Intakes from natural occurrence can be up to 4 mg kg bw(-1) day(-1) at the mean and up to 17 mg kg bw(-1) day(-1) for children who are high level consumers of red/black berries and small fruits. High-level intakes for children from food colour and colouring food applications lie in the range 0.3-6.3 mg kg bw(-1) day(-1) and for adults at 0.6-2.8 mg kg bw(-1) day(-1). Exposures from food colour use and colouring foods separately or combined are therefore lower than those from natural occurrence in foods.

  20. The concept of oversight, its connection to memory keeping and its relevance for the medium term: The findings of the RK and M initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotzel, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    The medium term was introduced as the period of indirect oversight after repository closure, with timescales in the order of a few hundred years. While the importance of intrinsic control or 'passive' safety features in the post-closure phase of a geological repository has been recognised and stressed before, the role of oversight, by providing the capability to reduce or avoid some exposures, has come to the fore only recently. Oversight for the time being generally refers to 'watchful care' and society 'keeping an eye' on the technical system and the actual implementation of plans and decisions. In some regulatory frameworks oversight is indirectly required, for instance when mandating the creation of a land exclusion zone. In other frameworks, oversight is directly required, as illustrated, for instance, by the long-term stewardship concept of the US Environmental Protection Agency. Although sheer memory of the presence of the facility cannot be enough to constitute oversight, oversight and RK and M preservation do go hand in hand. For example, monitoring after repository closure fosters RK and M preservation, and vice versa. The presenter focused on terminology, potential oversight measures, and on roles and responsibilities of different stakeholders

  1. Self-healing juvenile cutaneous mucinosis: Clinical and histopathologic findings of 9 patients: The relevance of long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchsinger, Isabelle; Coulombe, Jérôme; Rongioletti, Franco; Haspeslagh, Marc; Dompmartin, Anne; Melki, Isabelle; Dagher, Rawane; Bader-Meunier, Brigitte; Fraitag, Sylvie; Bodemer, Christine

    2018-06-01

    Self-healing juvenile cutaneous mucinosis (SHJCM) is a rare disorder, and its pathogenesis and long-term prognosis are unknown. To elucidate the clinical and histopathologic characteristics, pathogenesis, and outcome in patients with SHJCM. Retrospective study of 9 patients with SHCJM. To complement initial findings, data collection forms were sent to the referring physicians. All patients had an acute onset of firm nodules. Of the 9 patients, 6 presented initially with waxy papules on the dorsum of the hands; 5 suffered from periorbital edema, and 6 had a febrile prodrome. Histopathologic assessment of the papules revealed dermal mucin deposition, whereas the nodules showed proliferative fasciitis-like features or nonspecific chronic lobular panniculitis. Laboratory studies elicited evidence of active viral infection in 2 patients (human herpes virus 6 and rotavirus). Seven cases had spontaneous resolution within 6 months, and 2 patients with incomplete resolution showed subsequent transition to fibroblastic rheumatism and an autoinflammatory rheumatologic disease, respectively. This was a retrospective study with incomplete data from referring physicians. Although spontaneous complete regression is expected, patients with SHJCM need long-term follow-up because of the possible development of dematorheumatolgic conditions. The pathogenetic role of microbial agents deserves further investigation. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Organic Colouring Agents in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šuleková M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Food dyes are largely used in the process of manufacturing pharmaceutical products. The aim of such a procedure is not only to increase the attractiveness of products, but also to help patients distinguish between pharmaceuticals. Various dyes, especially organic colouring agents, may in some cases have a negative impact on the human body. They are incorporated into pharmaceutical products including tablets, hard gelatine capsules or soft gelatine capsules, lozenges, syrups, etc. This article provides an overview of the most widely used colouring agents in pharmaceuticals, their characteristics and the EU legislation which regulates their use.

  3. The colours in Lithuanian and French proverbs

    OpenAIRE

    Kosova, Svetlana; Klanauskaitė, Paula

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the article is a comparison of Lithuanian and French proverbs by choosing the names of colours as the main aspect. This is to some extent a new way of analysing proverbs with colour as the key word. Seven main aspects of proverbs are mentioned in the article supported by an analysis and comparison of proverbs in both languages. Two different dictionaries have been used for the research: K. Grigas, L. Kudirkienė, R. Kašetienė, G. Radvilas ir D. Zaikauskienė Lietuvių P...

  4. The phenomenology of scalar colour octets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnikov, N.V.

    1995-01-01

    The phenomenology of color scalar octet particles is discussed. Namely, the discovery potential of scalar octets at LEP, FNAL and LHC is discussed. It appears that new hadrons composed from scalar colour octets are rather longlived (Γ≤O(10) keV). The current experimental data don't contradict to the existence of light (M∼O(1) GeV) scalar octets. Light scalar colour octets give additional contribution to the QCD β-function and allow to improve agreement between deep inelastic and LEP data. 10 refs.; 2 figs

  5. PHILOSOPHIES OF COLOUR: GENDER AND ACCULTURATION

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew, Helen V

    2003-01-01

    Merged with duplicate record 10026.1/658 on 06.20.2017 by CS (TIS) My hypothesis is that 'Colour' as idea acts as a dynamic in the production of meaning and as such is part of what Le Doeuff (1991: 46-49) argues are deeply held epistemes that structure and govern our ways of thinking. I have dealt with the difficulties attendant on the analysis of a phenomenon as insubstantial as colour (as idea and as precept) by assuming Goethe's (1810: 305-323) concept of the enrobement o...

  6. Pitfalls in colour photography of choroidal tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalenbourg, A; Zografos, L

    2013-01-01

    Colour imaging of fundus tumours has been transformed by the development of digital and confocal scanning laser photography. These advances provide numerous benefits, such as panoramic images, increased contrast, non-contact wide-angle imaging, non-mydriatic photography, and simultaneous angiography. False tumour colour representation can, however, cause serious diagnostic errors. Large choroidal tumours can be totally invisible on angiography. Pseudogrowth can occur because of artefacts caused by different methods of fundus illumination, movement of reference blood vessels, and flattening of Bruch's membrane and sclera when tumour regression occurs. Awareness of these pitfalls should prevent the clinician from misdiagnosing tumours and wrongfully concluding that a tumour has grown. PMID:23238442

  7. Pitfalls in colour photography of choroidal tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalenbourg, A; Zografos, L

    2013-02-01

    Colour imaging of fundus tumours has been transformed by the development of digital and confocal scanning laser photography. These advances provide numerous benefits, such as panoramic images, increased contrast, non-contact wide-angle imaging, non-mydriatic photography, and simultaneous angiography. False tumour colour representation can, however, cause serious diagnostic errors. Large choroidal tumours can be totally invisible on angiography. Pseudogrowth can occur because of artefacts caused by different methods of fundus illumination, movement of reference blood vessels, and flattening of Bruch's membrane and sclera when tumour regression occurs. Awareness of these pitfalls should prevent the clinician from misdiagnosing tumours and wrongfully concluding that a tumour has grown.

  8. The Limits to Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averill, M.; Briggle, A.

    2006-12-01

    Science policy and knowledge production lately have taken a pragmatic turn. Funding agencies increasingly are requiring scientists to explain the relevance of their work to society. This stems in part from mounting critiques of the "linear model" of knowledge production in which scientists operating according to their own interests or disciplinary standards are presumed to automatically produce knowledge that is of relevance outside of their narrow communities. Many contend that funded scientific research should be linked more directly to societal goals, which implies a shift in the kind of research that will be funded. While both authors support the concept of useful science, we question the exact meaning of "relevance" and the wisdom of allowing it to control research agendas. We hope to contribute to the conversation by thinking more critically about the meaning and limits of the term "relevance" and the trade-offs implicit in a narrow utilitarian approach. The paper will consider which interests tend to be privileged by an emphasis on relevance and address issues such as whose goals ought to be pursued and why, and who gets to decide. We will consider how relevance, narrowly construed, may actually limit the ultimate utility of scientific research. The paper also will reflect on the worthiness of research goals themselves and their relationship to a broader view of what it means to be human and to live in society. Just as there is more to being human than the pragmatic demands of daily life, there is more at issue with knowledge production than finding the most efficient ways to satisfy consumer preferences or fix near-term policy problems. We will conclude by calling for a balanced approach to funding research that addresses society's most pressing needs but also supports innovative research with less immediately apparent application.

  9. Exposure of Polish children to Southampton food colours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajda-Wyrębek, J; Kuźma, K; Świtka, A; Jarecka, J; Beresińska, M; Postupolski, J

    2017-01-01

    A study published in 2007 showed that the intake of six food colours (the so-called 'Southampton colours') may have an adverse effect on activity and attention in children. The present study set out to assess the exposure of Polish children (3 and 8-9 years old, n = 149) to six of the target colours. Two methods were used to evaluate colour consumption by children: scenario 1 using the maximum permitted levels (MPLs) and actual food consumption data; and scenario 2 using the actual levels in food and actual food consumption data. The data on the actual consumption of food containing the colours was collected using a 7-day questionnaire survey. The results of laboratory analysis of food consumed by children provided data on the actual levels of the colours in food. Consumption of the colours estimated by scenario 1 in any case did not exceed the acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) of the colours in both age groups of children. For more refined colour intake (scenario 2), isolated cases exceeding the ADI were recorded for four colours, but assuming that manufacturers comply with the current legislation on MPL of colours in food, the intake of the colours assessed in scenario 2 should not be a reason for exceeding of ADIs for the target food colours.

  10. Determinants of Colour Constancy and the Blue Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegenfurtner, Karl

    2017-01-01

    We investigated several sensory and cognitive determinants of colour constancy across 40 illumination hues. In the first experiment, we measured colour naming for the illumination and for the colour induced by the illumination on the colorimetric grey. Results confirmed that the induced colours are approximately complementary to the colour of the illumination. In the second experiment, we measured colour constancy using achromatic adjustments. Average colour constancy was perfect under the blue daylight illumination and decreased in colour directions away from the blue daylight illumination due to undershooting and a strong blue bias. Apart from this blue bias, colour constancy was not related to illumination discrimination and to chromatic detection measured previously with the same setup and stimuli. We also observed a strong negative relationship between the degree of colour constancy and the consensus of naming the illumination colour. Constancy coincided with a low naming consensus, in particular because bluish illumination colours were sometimes seen as achromatic. Blue bias and category consensus alone explained >68%, and all determinants together explained >94% of the variance of achromatic adjustments. These findings suggest that colour constancy is optimised for blue daylight. PMID:29348910

  11. Geographical variation in colour of female threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Connor M; Ingram, Travis; Bolnick, Daniel I

    2018-01-01

    The ecological multifunctionality of colour often results in multiple selective pressures operating on a single trait. Most research on colour evolution focuses on males because they are the most conspicuous sex in most species. This bias can limit inferences about the ecological drivers of colour evolution. For example, little is known about population divergence in colour of female threespine stickleback ( Gasterosteus aculeatus ), which is among the most intensively-studied model vertebrates in evolution, ecology, and behaviour. In contrast, the evolution and ecology of colour in male stickleback has received considerable attention. One aspect of female colouration that is lacking previous research is non-ornamental body colour. Non-ornamental colour can play defensive and social roles, and indicate other aspects of female stickleback ecology. To remedy this knowledge gap, we measured the colour and brightness of one dorsal and one ventral lateral area on female stickleback from nine lake populations on Vancouver Island. We found that lake populations varied in overall colour brightness and dorso-ventral contrast. In addition, we found that female brightness increased with lake size, indicating potential ecological drivers of these colour differences. Our results demonstrate that there is substantial scope for future research on female colour diversification, which has been overlooked because past researchers focused on dramatic male nuptial colours.

  12. Geographical variation in colour of female threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connor M. French

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The ecological multifunctionality of colour often results in multiple selective pressures operating on a single trait. Most research on colour evolution focuses on males because they are the most conspicuous sex in most species. This bias can limit inferences about the ecological drivers of colour evolution. For example, little is known about population divergence in colour of female threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus, which is among the most intensively-studied model vertebrates in evolution, ecology, and behaviour. In contrast, the evolution and ecology of colour in male stickleback has received considerable attention. One aspect of female colouration that is lacking previous research is non-ornamental body colour. Non-ornamental colour can play defensive and social roles, and indicate other aspects of female stickleback ecology. To remedy this knowledge gap, we measured the colour and brightness of one dorsal and one ventral lateral area on female stickleback from nine lake populations on Vancouver Island. We found that lake populations varied in overall colour brightness and dorso-ventral contrast. In addition, we found that female brightness increased with lake size, indicating potential ecological drivers of these colour differences. Our results demonstrate that there is substantial scope for future research on female colour diversification, which has been overlooked because past researchers focused on dramatic male nuptial colours.

  13. Exploring factors relevant in the assessment of the return-to-work process of employees on long-term sickness absence due to a depressive disorder: a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muijzer Anna

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efforts undertaken during the Return-to-Work (RTW process need to be sufficient in order to optimize the quality of the RTW process. The purpose of this study was to explore factors relevant to Return-to-Work Effort Sufficiency (RTW-ES in cases of sick-listed employees with a Depressive Disorder (DD. Method A case of a long-term sick-listed employee with a DD applying for disability benefits was used to gather arguments and grounds relevant to the assessment of RTW-ES. Two focus group meetings were held, consisting of Labor Experts working at the Dutch Social Insurance Institute. Factors were collected and categorized using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF model. Results Sixteen factors relevant to RTW-ES assessment in a case of DD were found, categorized in the ICF-model under activities (e.g. functional capacity, personal (e.g. competencies, attitude and environmental domain (e.g. employer-employee relationship, or categorized under interventions, job accommodations and measures. Conclusions This study shows that 16 factors are relevant in the assessment of RTW-ES in employees sick-listed due to DD. Further research is necessary to expand this knowledge to other health conditions, and to investigate the impact of these results on the quality of the RTW-ES assessment.

  14. Extrapolation of short term observations to time periods relevant to the isolation of long lived radioactive waste. Results of a co-ordinated research project 1995-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-09-01

    This report addresses safety analysis of the whole repository life-cycle that may require long term performance assessment of its components and evaluation of potential impacts of the facility on the environment. Generic consideration of procedures for the development of predictive tools are completed by detailed characterization of selected principles and methods that were applied and presented within the co-ordinated research project (CRP). The project focused on different approaches to extrapolation, considering radionuclide migration/sorption, physical, geochemical and geotechnical characteristics of engineered barriers, irradiated rock and backfill performance, and on corrosion of metallic and vitreous materials. This document contains a comprehensive discussion of the overall problem and the practical results of the individual projects preformed within the CRP. Each of the papers on the individual projects has been indexed separately

  15. Automaticity and localisation of concurrents predicts colour area activity in grapheme-colour synaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould van Praag, Cassandra D; Garfinkel, Sarah; Ward, Jamie; Bor, Daniel; Seth, Anil K

    2016-07-29

    In grapheme-colour synaesthesia (GCS), the presentation of letters or numbers induces an additional 'concurrent' experience of colour. Early functional MRI (fMRI) investigations of GCS reported activation in colour-selective area V4 during the concurrent experience. However, others have failed to replicate this key finding. We reasoned that individual differences in synaesthetic phenomenology might explain this inconsistency in the literature. To test this hypothesis, we examined fMRI BOLD responses in a group of grapheme-colour synaesthetes (n=20) and matched controls (n=20) while characterising the individual phenomenology of the synaesthetes along dimensions of 'automaticity' and 'localisation'. We used an independent functional localiser to identify colour-selective areas in both groups. Activations in these areas were then assessed during achromatic synaesthesia-inducing, and non-inducing conditions; we also explored whole brain activations, where we sought to replicate the existing literature regarding synaesthesia effects. Controls showed no significant activations in the contrast of inducing > non-inducing synaesthetic stimuli, in colour-selective ROIs or at the whole brain level. In the synaesthete group, we correlated activation within colour-selective ROIs with individual differences in phenomenology using the Coloured Letters and Numbers (CLaN) questionnaire which measures, amongst other attributes, the subjective automaticity/attention in synaesthetic concurrents, and their spatial localisation. Supporting our hypothesis, we found significant correlations between individual measures of synaesthetic phenomenology and BOLD responses in colour-selective areas, when contrasting inducing against non-inducing stimuli. Specifically, left-hemisphere colour area responses were stronger for synaesthetes scoring high on phenomenological localisation and automaticity/attention, while right-hemisphere colour area responses showed a relationship with localisation

  16. Model-Based Requirements Analysis for Reactive Systems with UML Sequence Diagrams and Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjell, Simon; Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a formal foundation for a specialized approach to automatically checking traces against real-time requirements. The traces are obtained from simulation of Coloured Petri Net (CPN) models of reactive systems. The real-time requirements are expressed in terms of a derivat...

  17. Technical note: Towards a continuous classification of climate using bivariate colour mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teuling, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Climate is often defined in terms of discrete classes. Here I use bivariate colour mapping to show that the global distribution of K¨oppen-Geiger climate classes can largely be reproduced by combining the simple means of two key states of the climate system 5 (i.e., air temperature and relative

  18. Prognostic relevance of the interaction between short-term, metronome-paced heart rate variability, and inflammation: results from the population-based CARLA cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medenwald, Daniel; Swenne, Cees A; Loppnow, Harald; Kors, Jan A; Pietzner, Diana; Tiller, Daniel; Thiery, Joachim; Nuding, Sebastian; Greiser, Karin H; Haerting, Johannes; Werdan, Karl; Kluttig, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    To determine the interaction between HRV and inflammation and their association with cardiovascular/all-cause mortality in the general population. Subjects of the CARLA study (n = 1671; 778 women, 893 men, 45-83 years of age) were observed for an average follow-up period of 8.8 years (226 deaths, 70 cardiovascular deaths). Heart rate variability parameters were calculated from 5-min segments of 20-min resting electrocardiograms. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and soluble tumour necrosis factor-alpha receptor type 1 (sTNF-R1) were measured as inflammation parameters. The HRV parameters determined included the standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN), the root-mean-square of successive normal-interval differences (RMSSD), the low- and high-frequency (HF) power, the ratio of both, and non-linear parameters [Poincaré plot (SD1, SD2, SD1/SD2), short-term detrended fluctuation analysis]. We estimated hazard ratios by using covariate-adjusted Cox regression for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality incorporating an interaction term of HRV/inflammation parameters. Relative excess risk due to interactions (RERIs) were computed. We found an interaction effect of sTNF-R1 with SDNN (RERI: 0.5; 99% confidence interval (CI): 0.1-1.0), and a weaker effect with RMSSD (RERI: 0.4; 99% CI: 0.0-0.9) and HF (RERI: 0.4; 99% CI: 0.0-0.9) with respect to cardiovascular mortality on an additive scale after covariate adjustment. Neither IL-6 nor hsCRP showed a significant interaction with the HRV parameters. A change in TNF-α levels or the autonomic nervous system influences the mortality risk through both entities simultaneously. Thus, TNF-α and HRV need to be considered when predicating mortality. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Mineral vs. organic amendments: microbial community structure, activity and abundance of agriculturally relevant microbes are driven by long-term fertilization strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Francioli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil management is fundamental to all agricultural systems and fertilization practices have contributed substantially to the impressive increases in food production. Despite the pivotal role of soil microorganisms in agro-ecosystems, we still have a limited understanding of the complex response of the soil microbiota to organic and mineral fertilization in the very long-term. Here we report the effects of different fertilization regimes (mineral, organic and combined mineral and organic fertilization, carried out for more than a century, on the structure and activity of the soil microbiome. Organic matter content, nutrient concentrations and microbial biomass carbon were significantly increased by mineral, and even more strongly by organic fertilization. Pyrosequencing revealed significant differences between the structures of bacterial and fungal soil communities associated to each fertilization regime. Organic fertilization increased bacterial diversity, and stimulated microbial groups (Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Zygomycota that are known to prefer nutrient-rich environments, and that are involved in the degradation of complex organic compounds. In contrast, soils not receiving manure harbored distinct microbial communities enriched in oligotrophic organisms adapted to nutrient-limited environments, as Acidobacteria. The fertilization regime also affected the relative abundances of plant beneficial and detrimental microbial taxa, which may influence productivity and stability of the agroecosystem. As expected, the activity of microbial exoenzymes involved in carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous mineralization were enhanced by both types of fertilization. However, in contrast to comparable studies, the highest chitinase and phosphatase activities were observed in the solely mineral fertilized soil. Interestingly, these two enzymes showed also a particular high biomass-specific activities and a strong negative relation with soil pH. As many soil

  20. Achieving Harmonious Colour Relationship in Art/Design: Towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    2011-12-06

    Dec 6, 2011 ... Phone: +2348033205662. Abstract ... problematic. Therefore, as a panacea, ... usage and achieve harmonious colour relationship. This is ..... Gender and the meaning of colour in interior environments in mobile color matters.

  1. Whorfian effects on colour memory are not reliable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Oliver; Davies, Ian R L; Franklin, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The Whorfian hypothesis suggests that differences between languages cause differences in cognitive processes. Support for this idea comes from studies that find that patterns of colour memory errors made by speakers of different languages align with differences in colour lexicons. The current study provides a large-scale investigation of the relationship between colour language and colour memory, adopting a cross-linguistic and developmental approach. Colour memory on a delayed matching-to-sample (XAB) task was investigated in 2 language groups with differing colour lexicons, for 3 developmental stages and 2 regions of colour space. Analyses used a Bayesian technique to provide simultaneous assessment of two competing hypotheses (H1-Whorfian effect present, H0-Whorfian effect absent). Results of the analyses consistently favoured H0. The findings suggest that Whorfian effects on colour memory are not reliable and that the importance of such effects should not be overestimated.

  2. Classical confining solutions of a tensor gauge theory incorporating colour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, A.; Strathdee, J.

    1977-04-01

    A mass-modified Einstein-Weyl gauge theory of colour carrying spin-two mesons is formulated. A classical solution is exhibited for the case of internal SU(2) symmetry which may confine quarks in colour singlets

  3. Carotenoid-based breast plumage colour, body condition and clutch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dependent ornamental trait. In some species of birds, red, orange and yellow feather colouration reflects male quality and advertises the carotenoid concentration of feathers. Such colouration is an important aspect of mate selection by females.

  4. Application of Modern Colour Measurement Dervices in Coloration Industries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHUNG Y.S.; XIN John H.; SIN K.M.

    2002-01-01

    In colour measurement ralated industry, reflectance spectrophotometer is the one of the popular measuring machine for measutring colour and quality control. Colour communications is frequently confusing. This is because the colour appearance is subject to the influence of at least three different phenomena: the light source, the object and the visual system. The variation in either the radiant quantity or the spectral distribution of the source can alter the observed colour. Because of this reason,the objective quantitative tool, colour measurement equipment and communication method; become more important in evaluating of the colour. In fact, based on the advanced in computer system and electronic device,the colour measurement becomes more and more accuracy, especiany in spectrophotometer measurement.In this paper, we will focus on the review of modern spectrophotometers in coloration industries.

  5. Study of structural colour of Hebomoia glaucippe butterfly wing scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shur, V. Ya; Kuznetsov, D. K.; Pryakhina, V. I.; Kosobokov, M. S.; Zubarev, I. V.; Boymuradova, S. K.; Volchetskaya, K. V.

    2017-10-01

    Structural colours of Hebomoia glaucippe butterfly wing scales have been studied experimentally using high resolution scanning electron microscopy. Visualization of scales structures and computer simulation allowed distinguishing correlation between nanostructures on the scales and their colour.

  6. Selective interference reveals dissociation between memory for location and colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuontela, V; Rämä, P; Raninen, A; Aronen, H J; Carlson, S

    1999-08-02

    The aim was to study whether there is indication of a dissociation in processing of visuospatial and colour information in working memory in humans. Experimental subjects performed visuospatial and colour n-back tasks with and without visuospatial and colour distractive stimuli presented in the middle of the delay period to specifically affect mnemonic processing of task-related information. In the high memory-load condition, the visuospatial, but not the colour, task was selectively disrupted by visuospatial but not colour distractors. When subvocal rehearsal of the memoranda in the colour task was prevented by articulatory suppression; colour task performance was also selectively disrupted by distractors qualitatively similar to the memoranda. The results support the suggestion that visual working memory for location is processed separate from that for colour.

  7. Floral colour versus phylogeny in structuring subalpine flowering communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Jamie R; Vamosi, Jana C

    2010-10-07

    The relative number of seeds produced by competing species can influence the community structure; yet, traits that influence seed production, such as pollinator attraction and floral colour, have received little attention in community ecology. Here, we analyse floral colour using reflectance spectra that include near-UV and examined the phylogenetic signal of floral colour. We found that coflowering species within communities tended to be more divergent in floral colour than expected by chance. However, coflowering species were not phylogenetically dispersed, in part due to our finding that floral colour is a labile trait with a weak phylogenetic signal. Furthermore, while we found that locally rare and common species exhibited equivalent floral colour distances from their coflowering neighbours, frequent species (those found in more communities) exhibited higher colour distances from their coflowering neighbours. Our findings support recent studies, which have found that (i) plant lineages exhibit frequent floral colour transitions; and (ii) traits that influence local population dynamics contribute to community structure.

  8. Colour is more than hue: preferences for compiled colour traits in the stingless bees Melipona mondury and M. quadrifasciata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koethe, Sebastian; Bossems, Jessica; Dyer, Adrian G; Lunau, Klaus

    2016-10-01

    The colour vision of bees has been extensively analysed in honeybees and bumblebees, but few studies consider the visual perception of stingless bees (Meliponini). In a five-stage experiment the preference for colour intensity and purity, and the preference for the dominant wavelength were tested by presenting four colour stimuli in each test to freely flying experienced workers of two stingless bee species, Melipona mondury and Melipona quadrifasciata. The results with bee-blue, bee-UV-blue and bee-green colours offered in four combinations of varying colour intensity and purity suggest a complex interaction between these colour traits for the determination of colour choice. Specifically, M. mondury preferred bee-UV-blue colours over bee-green, bee-blue and bee-blue-green colours while M. quadrifasciata preferred bee-green colour stimuli. Moreover in M. mondury the preferences were different if the background colour was changed from grey to green. There was a significant difference between species where M. mondury preferred UV-reflecting over UV-absorbing bee-blue-green colour stimuli, whereas M. quadrifasciata showed an opposite preference. The different colour preferences of the free flying bees in identical conditions may be caused by the bees' experience with natural flowers precedent to the choice tests, suggesting reward partitioning between species.

  9. Colour thresholding and objective quantification in bioimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermin, C. D.; Gerber, M. A.; Torre-Bueno, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Computer imaging is rapidly becoming an indispensable tool for the quantification of variables in research and medicine. Whilst its use in medicine has largely been limited to qualitative observations, imaging in applied basic sciences, medical research and biotechnology demands objective quantification of the variables in question. In black and white densitometry (0-256 levels of intensity) the separation of subtle differences between closely related hues from stains is sometimes very difficult. True-colour and real-time video microscopy analysis offer choices not previously available with monochrome systems. In this paper we demonstrate the usefulness of colour thresholding, which has so far proven indispensable for proper objective quantification of the products of histochemical reactions and/or subtle differences in tissue and cells. In addition, we provide interested, but untrained readers with basic information that may assist decisions regarding the most suitable set-up for a project under consideration. Data from projects in progress at Tulane are shown to illustrate the advantage of colour thresholding over monochrome densitometry and for objective quantification of subtle colour differences between experimental and control samples.

  10. New Evidence for Infant Colour Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Anna; Davies, Ian R. L.

    2004-01-01

    Bornstein, Kessen, and Weiskopf (1976) reported that pre-linguistic infants perceive colour categorically for primary boundaries: Following habituation, dishabituation only occurred if the test stimulus was from a different adult category to the original. Here, we replicated this important study and extended it to include secondary boundaries,…

  11. Jottings on protective colour in animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beaufort, de L.F.

    1964-01-01

    I have often been puzzled about the remarkable change of colour in the roedeer, a species that I can watch almost daily from my house. In the winter the greyish brown coat can hardly be distinguished against the dull, brownish shrubby wood, at the border of which they come to feed. The only visible

  12. Central Limit Theorem for Coloured Hard Dimers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Simonetta Bernabei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the central limit theorem for a class of coloured graphs. This means that we investigate the limit behavior of certain random variables whose values are combinatorial parameters associated to these graphs. The techniques used at arriving this result comprise combinatorics, generating functions, and conditional expectations.

  13. ATLAS Experiment Colouring Book in Arabic

    CERN Multimedia

    Anthony, Katarina

    2018-01-01

    Language: Arabic - The ATLAS Experiment Colouring Book is a free-to-download educational book, ideal for kids aged 5-9. It aims to introduce children to the field of High-Energy Physics, as well as the work being carried out by the ATLAS Collaboration.

  14. A Brief Introduction to Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1997-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets or CPN) is a graphical oriented language for design, specification, simulation and verification of systems. It is in particular well- suited for systems in which communication, synchronisation and resource sharing are important. Typical examples of application areas a...

  15. All the colours of the rainbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithson, Hannah E.; Gasper, Giles E. M.; McLeish, Tom C. B.

    2014-08-01

    Our perception of colour has always been a source of fascination, so it's little wonder that studies of the phenomenon date back hundreds of years. What, though, can modern scientists learn from medieval literature -- and how do we go about it?

  16. Kac's ring: The case of four colours

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present an instance from nonequilibrium statistical mechanics which combines increase in entropy and finite Poincaré recurrence time. The model we consider is a variation of the well-known Kac's ring where we consider balls of four colours. As is known, Kac introduced this model where balls arranged between lattice ...

  17. Colour connections in e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friberg, C.; Gustafson, G.; Haekkinen, J.

    1997-01-01

    We have very limited knowledge about how the confinement mechanism works in processes like e + e - →qqg..g, when there are identical colour charges. In this case the partons can be colour connected by a string or a cluster chain in several different ways. We do not know if in such a situation Nature chooses a particular configuration at random, or if some configuration is dynamically favoured. Also in the perturbative parton cascade we have no well-founded recipe for describing the interference effects, which correspond to non-planar diagrams and are caused by identical colour charges. We have studied two different models, and are in particular interested in the possibility that a colour singlet gluon system hadronizes isolated from the remainder of the state. Using double tagged events with heavy cc or bb quarks, it appears to be possible to find a significant signal, if such events appear in Nature. If this type of (re)connected states appear in Z decays it may also be an indication that reconnection might appear between the decay products of two W's in the reaction e + e - →W + W - →q 1 q 2 Q 1 Q 2 at LEP2. This would be important, e.g. for a precision measurement of the W mass. (orig.)

  18. ELECTROCOAGULATION METHOD FOR COLOUR REMOVAL IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    is a multi-stage process that requires considerable land area and a continual supply of chemicals ... In view of this, it was necessary to develop and optimize an effective electrochemical method for colour removal using a two-electrode system.

  19. The dark side of galaxy colour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearin, Andrew P.; Watson, Douglas F.

    2013-10-01

    We present age distribution matching, a theoretical formalism for predicting how galaxies of luminosity L and colour C occupy dark matter haloes. Our model supposes that there are just two fundamental properties of a halo that determine the colour and brightness of the galaxy it hosts: the maximum circular velocity Vmax and the redshift zstarve that correlates with the epoch at which the star formation in the galaxy ceases. The halo property zstarve is intended to encompass physical characteristics of halo mass assembly that may deprive the galaxy of its cold gas supply and, ultimately, quench its star formation. The new, defining feature of the model is that, at fixed luminosity, galaxy colour is in monotonic correspondence with zstarve, with the larger values of zstarve being assigned redder colours. We populate an N-body simulation with a mock galaxy catalogue based on age distribution matching and show that the resulting mock galaxy distribution accurately describes a variety of galaxy statistics. Our model suggests that halo and galaxy assembly are indeed correlated. We make publicly available our low-redshift, Sloan Digital Sky Survey Mr < -19 mock galaxy catalogue, and main progenitor histories of all z = 0 haloes, at http://logrus.uchicago.edu/~aphearin

  20. Colour-magnitude diagram of NGC 5053

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, M F; Pike, C D [California Univ., Santa Cruz (USA). Lick Observatory; McGee, J D

    1976-06-01

    The colour-magnitude diagram of NGC 5053 has been derived to V = 21.1 from photographic and electronographic observations. The electronographic observations were obtained with an experimental Spectracon image-converter, having photocathode and exit window dimensions of 20 x 30 mm, mounted at the prime-focus of the 120-in. Lick reflector. The photographic observations were obtained with the 20-in. Carnegie astrograph and the 36-in. Crossley reflector. The colour-magnitude diagram resembles that of M92, with the difference that a red horizontal branch is more pronounced than the asymptotic branch in NGC 5053. The topology of the horizontal branch is that of clusters with an intermediate metal content and is thus at variance with the mean period of the RR Lyr stars and the unreddened colour of the subgiant branch read at the magnitude level of the horizontal branch, both of which would indicate an extremely low metal content. If comparison of the colour-magnitude diagrams of NGC 5053 and M92 is valid, then the reddening of NGC 5053 is Esub(B-V) = 0.02 and the apparent distance modulus is m-M = 16.08 +- 0.08.

  1. [r,s,t]-colourings of paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Salvador Villà

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of \\([r,s,t]\\-colourings was recently introduced by Hackmann, Kemnitz and Marangio [A. Kemnitz, M. Marangio, \\([r,s,t]\\-Colorings of Graphs, Discrete Math., to appear] as follows: Given non-negative integers \\(r\\, \\(s\\ and \\(t\\, an \\([r,s,t]\\-colouring of a graph \\(G=(V(G,E(G\\ is a mapping \\(c\\ from \\(V(G \\cup E(G\\ to the colour set \\(\\{1,2,\\ldots ,k\\}\\ such that \\(|c(v_i-c(v_j| \\geq r\\ for every two adjacent vertices \\(v_i\\, \\(v_j\\, \\(|c(e_i-c(e_j| \\geq s\\ for every two adjacent edges \\(e_i\\, \\(e_j\\, and \\(|c(v_i-c(e_j| \\geq t\\ for all pairs of incident vertices and edges, respectively. The \\([r,s,t]\\-chromatic number \\(\\chi_{r,s,t}(G\\ of \\(G\\ is defined to be the minimum \\(k\\ such that \\(G\\ admits an \\([r,s,t]\\-colouring. In this paper, we determine the \\([r,s,t]\\-chromatic number for paths.

  2. Measuring colour rivalry suppression in amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofeldt, T S; Hofeldt, A J

    1999-11-01

    To determine if the colour rivalry suppression is an index of the visual impairment in amblyopia and if the stereopsis and fusion evaluator (SAFE) instrument is a reliable indicator of the difference in visual input from the two eyes. To test the accuracy of the SAFE instrument for measuring the visual input from the two eyes, colour rivalry suppression was measured in six normal subjects. A test neutral density filter (NDF) was placed before one eye to induce a temporary relative afferent defect and the subject selected the NDF before the fellow eye to neutralise the test NDF. In a non-paediatric private practice, 24 consecutive patients diagnosed with unilateral amblyopia were tested with the SAFE. Of the 24 amblyopes, 14 qualified for the study because they were able to fuse images and had no comorbid disease. The relation between depth of colour rivalry suppression, stereoacuity, and interocular difference in logMAR acuity was analysed. In normal subjects, the SAFE instrument reversed temporary defects of 0.3 to 1. 8 log units to within 0.6 log units. In amblyopes, the NDF to reverse colour rivalry suppression was positively related to interocular difference in logMAR acuity (beta=1.21, psuppression as measured with the SAFE was found to agree closely with the degree of visual acuity impairment in non-paediatric patients with amblyopia.

  3. Spectral sensitivity of a colour changing spider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defrize, Jérémy; Lazzari, Claudio R; Warrant, Eric J; Casas, Jérôme

    2011-04-01

    Vision plays a paramount role in some spider families such as the Salticidae, Lycosidae and Thomisidae, as it is involved in prey hunting, orientation or choice of substrate. In the thomisid Misumena vatia, for which the substrate colour affects the body colour, vision seems to mediate morphological colour changes. However, nothing is known about which component of visual signals from the substrate might be perceived, nor whether M. vatia possesses the physiological basis for colour vision. The aim of this study is thus to investigate the vision of this spider species by measuring the spectral sensitivities of the different pairs of eyes using electrophysiological methods. Extra- and intracellular electrophysiological recordings combined with selective adaptation revealed the presence of two classes of photoreceptor cells, one sensitive in the UV region of the spectrum (around 340 nm) and one sensitive in the green (around 520 nm) regions in the four pairs of eyes. We conclude that M. vatia possesses the physiological potential to perceive both chromatic and achromatic components of the environment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Performance evaluation of local colour invariants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouts, G.J.; Geusebroek, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we compare local colour descriptors to grey-value descriptors. We adopt the evaluation framework of Mikolayzcyk and Schmid. We modify the framework in several ways. We decompose the evaluation framework to the level of local grey-value invariants on which common region descriptors are

  5. Quarkonium suppression: Gluonic dissociation vs. colour screening

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mechanism comes into play for the initial conditions taken from the self screened parton cascade model in these studies. Keywords. Quark gluon plasma; J ψ; suppression; dissociation; colour screening. PACS No. 12.38.M. 1. Introduction. The last two decades have seen hectic activity towards identifying unique signatures ...

  6. Edges, colour and awareness in blindsight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Iona; Cowey, Alan

    2010-06-01

    It remains unclear what is being processed in blindsight in response to faces, colours, shapes, and patterns. This was investigated in two hemianopes with chromatic and achromatic stimuli with sharp or shallow luminance or chromatic contrast boundaries or temporal onsets. Performance was excellent only when stimuli had sharp spatial boundaries. When discrimination between isoluminant coloured Gaussians was good it declined to chance levels if stimulus onset was slow. The ability to discriminate between instantaneously presented colours in the hemianopic field depended on their luminance, indicating that wavelength discrimination totally independent of other stimulus qualities is absent. When presented with narrow-band colours the hemianopes detected a stimulus maximally effective for S-cones but invisible to M- and L-cones, indicating that blindsight is mediated not just by the mid-brain, which receives no S-cone input, or that the rods contribute to blindsight. The results show that only simple stimulus features are processed in blindsight. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A colourful approach to string topology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bargheer, Tarje

    to be a coloured En􀀀1-operad. We twist this structure by the orthogonal group SOpn 􀀀 1q to obtain an operad whose actions prescribe non-unital pn 􀀀 1q-Batalin-Vilkovisky algebras. We show that the action through correspondences transfers to a spectral action on MSn ^ SdimpMq. This action...

  8. Colour reconnection in DELPHI at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, P.

    2003-01-01

    The preliminary results of two different methods for the search of colour reconnection effects (CR), used in the DELPHI experiment at LEP are presented. The methods were found to be largely uncorrelated, and a combined likelihood for values of the κ strength parameter in the SK-I model is given

  9. Colourful, Courageous and Community-building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Torben Elgaard

    2015-01-01

    The 2nd Nordic STS conference, held in Copenhagen 2015, was an occassion to take stock of the current trends and developments of Nordic STS. In this paper, the leading organizer reflects on the event and characterises contemporary Nordic STS as colourful (spanning a wide range of perspectives...

  10. Formal Requirements Modeling for Reactive Systems with Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjell, Simon

    This dissertation presents the contributions of seven publications all concerned with the application of Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) to requirements modeling for reactive systems. The publications are introduced along with relevant background material and related work, and their contributions...... to take into concern that the behavior of human actors is less likely to be predictable than the behavior of e.g. mechanical components.   In the second approach, the CPN model is parameterized and utilizes a generic and reusable CPN module operating as an SD interpreter. In addition to distinguishing...... and events. A tool is presented that allows automated validation of the structure of CPN models with respect to the guidelines. Next, three publications on integrating Jackson's Problem Frames with CPN requirements models are presented: The first publication introduces a method for systematically structuring...

  11. Putting the colours into chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, J

    2006-09-01

    Recurrent genomic alterations are the hallmarks of particular cancers. Application of molecular cytogenetic technologies to tumour material in order to detect these alterations has become important for molecular diagnostics and research. A dual-colour chromogenic in situ hybridization (dc-CISH) method described recently in the Journal of Pathology has the advantage of visualizing two probes simultaneously with the ability to discern morphological features. In addition, the bright field microscopy required is readily accessible to many laboratories. The approach has been validated by comparison of results with standard analyses for HER-2 amplification status in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded breast cancers and is applicable to the analysis of other clinically relevant genomic aberrations as well as of use in research investigations. Copyright (c) 2006 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. The Werner gap in the presence of simple coloured noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong Tran, Minh; Laskowski, Wiesław; Paterek, Tomasz

    2014-10-01

    The ‘Werner gap’ is the range of relevant parameters characterizing a quantum state for which it is both entangled and admits a local hidden variable model. Werner showed that the gap becomes maximal for entanglement mixed with white noise if subsystems have infinitely many levels. Here we study pure entangled states mixed with simple coloured noise modelled as a single pure product state. We provide an explicit local hidden variable model for quantum correlations of some states of this family and provide hints that there is probably a model for all quantum predictions. This demonstrates essentially a maximal Werner gap already for just two qubits. Additionally to its fundamental interest, the study has implications for quantum computation and communication. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’.

  13. The cause of 50 million-year-old colour.

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Andrew R; McKenzie, David R

    2003-01-01

    Multilayer reflectors cause structural, 'metallic' colours in a diversity of animals today, yet are unknown in extinct species. We identify a multilayer reflector, causing structural colour, in a 50-million-year-old beetle from Messel, Germany. It is proposed that the original material of this reflector has been preserved, although this is not a precondition for determining original colours from ancient multilayer reflectors. Therefore, the potential exists to reveal the original colours of o...

  14. Radiation-reversible material carriers of different colour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, G.

    1976-01-01

    A suggestion is made instead of using coloured material carriers - the cones and cylindrical tubes in spinning mills and weaving mills are given as example - to use such ones which change colour with irradiation and keep this colour until a new radiation impulse causes a new colour which differs well from the first one. (No data on material or type of radiation are given.) (UWI) [de

  15. Dynamic Colour Possibilities and Functional Properties of Thermochromic Printing Inks

    OpenAIRE

    Rahela Kulcar; Marta Klanjsek Gunde; Nina Knesaurek

    2012-01-01

    Thermochromic printing inks change their colour regarding the change in temperature and they are one of the major groups of colour-changing inks. One of the most frequently used thermochromic material in printing inks are leuco dyes. The colour of thermochromic prints is dynamic, it is not just temperature-dependent, but it also depends on thermal history. The effect is described by colour hysteresis. This paper aims at discussing general aspects of thermochromic inks, dynamic colorimetric pr...

  16. Memory colour segmentation and classification using class-specific eigenregions

    OpenAIRE

    Fredembach, Clement; Estrada, Francisco; Süsstrunk, Sabine

    2009-01-01

    Memory colours refer to the colour of specific image regions that have the essential attribute of being perceived in a consistent manner by human observers. In colour correction-or rendering-tasks, this consistency implies that they have to be faithfully reproduced; their importance, in that respect, is greater than for other regions in an image. There are various schemes and attributes to detect memory colours, but the preferred method remains to segment the images into meaningful regions, a...

  17. From spectral information to animal colour vision: experiments and concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Kelber, Almut; Osorio, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Many animals use the spectral distribution of light to guide behaviour, but whether they have colour vision has been debated for over a century. Our strong subjective experience of colour and the fact that human vision is the paradigm for colour science inevitably raises the question of how we compare with other species. This article outlines four grades of ‘colour vision’ that can be related to the behavioural uses of spectral information, and perhaps to the underlying mechanisms. In the fir...

  18. Colour preference of online consumers: a cross-cultural perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Broeder, Peter; Scherp, Evelien

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the influence of colour on the online purchasing intention of consumers. The literature review about colour associations showed that several factors could play a mediating role in the relationship between colour and purchasing intention. Two of these factors are emotion and trust, which have been shown in previous studies to have a relationship both with certain colours and with online purchasing intention. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between...

  19. The cause of 50 million-year-old colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Andrew R; McKenzie, David R

    2003-11-07

    Multilayer reflectors cause structural, 'metallic' colours in a diversity of animals today, yet are unknown in extinct species. We identify a multilayer reflector, causing structural colour, in a 50-million-year-old beetle from Messel, Germany. It is proposed that the original material of this reflector has been preserved, although this is not a precondition for determining original colours from ancient multilayer reflectors. Therefore, the potential exists to reveal the original colours of other (particularly arthropod) extinct species.

  20. Floral colour versus phylogeny in structuring subalpine flowering communities

    OpenAIRE

    McEwen, Jamie R.; Vamosi, Jana C.

    2010-01-01

    The relative number of seeds produced by competing species can influence the community structure; yet, traits that influence seed production, such as pollinator attraction and floral colour, have received little attention in community ecology. Here, we analyse floral colour using reflectance spectra that include near-UV and examined the phylogenetic signal of floral colour. We found that coflowering species within communities tended to be more divergent in floral colour than expected by chanc...

  1. Geographical variation in colour of female threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Connor M. French; Travis Ingram; Daniel I. Bolnick

    2018-01-01

    The ecological multifunctionality of colour often results in multiple selective pressures operating on a single trait. Most research on colour evolution focuses on males because they are the most conspicuous sex in most species. This bias can limit inferences about the ecological drivers of colour evolution. For example, little is known about population divergence in colour of female threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), which is among the most intensively-studied model vertebrates...

  2. The "Human Colour" Crayon: Investigating the Attitudes and Perceptions of Learners regarding Race and Skin Colour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeske Alexander

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Some coloured and black learners in South Africa use a light orange or pink crayon to represent themselves in art. Many learners name this colour “human colour” or “skin colour”. This is troublesome, because it could reflect exclusionary ways of representing race in images and language. This case study, conducted with two schools in the Western Cape, investigated Grade 3 learners’ attitudes and perceptions regarding race and skin colour through art processes and discussion. The aim was to promote critical engagement with race in Foundation Phase educational contexts. Suggestions include changing the language used to describe skin colour, just recognition and representation of races in educational resources and the promotion of critical citizenship education. This research indicates the need to create practical curriculum guidelines to discuss race issues in the South African classroom.

  3. Red, green, blue equals 1, 2, 3 : Investigating the bidirectionality of digit-colour synaesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teichmann, A Lina; Nieuwenstein, Mark; Rich, Anina N

    In grapheme-colour synaesthesia, letters and digits elicit vivid and highly consistent experiences of colour. Typically, the conscious experience is unidirectional: digits elicit colours but colours do not elicit digits. If synaesthesia reflects an involuntary connection between representations,

  4. The guidance of spatial attention during visual search for colour combinations and colour configurations

    OpenAIRE

    Berggren, Nick; Eimer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Representations of target-defining features (attentional templates) guide the selection of target objects in visual search. We used behavioural and electrophysiological measures to investigate how such search templates control the allocation of attention in search tasks where targets are defined by the combination of two colours or by a specific spatial configuration of these colours. Target displays were preceded by spatially uninformative cue displays that contained items in one or both tar...

  5. Energy losses (gains) of massive coloured particles in stochastic colour medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonidov, A.; Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Moscow

    1995-01-01

    The propagation of massive coloured particles in stochastic background chromoelectric field is studied using the semiclassical equations of motion. Depending on the nature of the stochastic background we obtain the formulae for the energy losses of heavy coloured projectile in nonperturbative hadronic medium and for the energy gains in the stochastic field present, e.g., in the turbulent plasma. The result appears to be significantly dependent on the form of the correlation function of stochastic external field. (orig.)

  6. Colour constancy in natural images through colour naming and sensor sharpening

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Corral, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Advisors: Maria Vanrell, Graham Finlayson. Date and location of PhD thesis defense: 28 February 2011, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona Colour is derived from three physical properties: incident light, object reflectance and sensor sensitivities. Incident light varies under natural conditions; hence, recovering scene illuminant is an important issue in computational colour. One way to deal with this problem under calibrated conditions is by following three steps, 1) building a narrow-band ...

  7. The colour of ochres explained by their composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias, M.; Chartier, C.; Prevot, G.; Garay, H.; Vignaud, C.

    2006-01-01

    The first purpose of this paper is to underline a relevant colorimetric co-ordinate characterizing the colour of ochres within their extremely wide range, from pale yellow to dark red. The second purpose is to link together quantitatively the variations of this colorimetric co-ordinate and the various chemical compositions of the samples, mainly hematite, goethite and white pigments. A group of 30 modern ochres and a group of 20 ancient ochres have been investigated. All these natural pigments have been commercialized. Diffuse reflectance spectrometry allows to calculate the colorimetric co-ordinates in the CIE-L * a * b * space and the position of the absorption band of each sample. Physico-chemical analysis has been obtained by quantitative X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmitting electronic microscopy and particle-size analysis by laser diffraction. The positive a * co-ordinate (redness) has been underlined, for the first time, to be the only relevant colorimetric parameter to characterize the colour of the ochres. Its variations are quantitatively connected to the shift of the absorption band due to the charge transfer between the ligand (OH - or O 2- ) and the Fe 3+ ion contained in goethite and/or hematite. For ochres containing both hematite and goethite, the a * co-ordinate linearly increases with the relative amount of hematite while the absorption band progressively shifts towards the high wavelengths. Such a linear shift of the absorption band has never been underlined before. For ochres containing only one iron oxide, a * linearly decreases with the amount of white pigments, whatever the nature of the white charges. Moreover, this study gives the opportunity to show that only the nature, the amount and the size distribution of the white charges allow to discriminate the ochres according to their geographic origin

  8. Teaching the Absorption of Light Colours Using an Artificial Rainbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurumezoglu, Kemal; Isik, Hakan; Arikan, Gizem; Kabay, Gozde

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental activity based on the absorption of light colours by pigments. The activity is constructed using a stepwise design and offers an opportunity for students and teachers to compare and generalize the interactions between light and pigment colours. The light colours composing an artificial rainbow produced in the…

  9. Inheritanceof seed coat colour pattern in cowpea [ Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hybridization experiments were conducted in the screen house to study the inheritance of seed colour pattern in cowpea. Cowpea varieties of varying seed coat colour were used as parents for the investigation. Parental, F1 and segregating F2 populations were raised in the field and the study revealed that self colour ...

  10. Forbidden Structures for Planar Perfect Consecutively Colourable Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borowiecka-Olszewska Marta

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A consecutive colouring of a graph is a proper edge colouring with posi- tive integers in which the colours of edges incident with each vertex form an interval of integers. The idea of this colouring was introduced in 1987 by Asratian and Kamalian under the name of interval colouring. Sevast- janov showed that the corresponding decision problem is NP-complete even restricted to the class of bipartite graphs. We focus our attention on the class of consecutively colourable graphs whose all induced subgraphs are consecutively colourable, too. We call elements of this class perfect consecutively colourable to emphasise the conceptual similarity to perfect graphs. Obviously, the class of perfect consecutively colourable graphs is induced hereditary, so it can be characterized by the family of induced forbidden graphs. In this work we give a necessary and sufficient conditions that must be satisfied by the generalized Sevastjanov rosette to be an induced forbid- den graph for the class of perfect consecutively colourable graphs. Along the way, we show the exact values of the deficiency of all generalized Sevastjanov rosettes, which improves the earlier known estimating result. It should be mentioned that the deficiency of a graph measures its closeness to the class of consecutively colourable graphs. We motivate the investigation of graphs considered here by showing their connection to the class of planar perfect consecutively colourable graphs.

  11. n-Colour even self-inverse compositions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An -colour even self-inverse composition is defined as an -colour self-inverse composition with even parts. In this paper, we get generating functions, explicit formulas and recurrence formulas for -colour even self-inverse compositions. One new binomial identity is also obtained.

  12. From spectral information to animal colour vision: experiments and concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelber, Almut; Osorio, Daniel

    2010-06-07

    Many animals use the spectral distribution of light to guide behaviour, but whether they have colour vision has been debated for over a century. Our strong subjective experience of colour and the fact that human vision is the paradigm for colour science inevitably raises the question of how we compare with other species. This article outlines four grades of 'colour vision' that can be related to the behavioural uses of spectral information, and perhaps to the underlying mechanisms. In the first, even without an (image-forming) eye, simple organisms can compare photoreceptor signals to locate a desired light environment. At the next grade, chromatic mechanisms along with spatial vision guide innate preferences for objects such as food or mates; this is sometimes described as wavelength-specific behaviour. Here, we compare the capabilities of di- and trichromatic vision, and ask why some animals have more than three spectral types of receptors. Behaviours guided by innate preferences are then distinguished from a grade that allows learning, in part because the ability to learn an arbitrary colour is evidence for a neural representation of colour. The fourth grade concerns colour appearance rather than colour difference: for instance, the distinction between hue and saturation, and colour categorization. These higher-level phenomena are essential to human colour perception but poorly known in animals, and we suggest how they can be studied. Finally, we observe that awareness of colour and colour qualia cannot be easily tested in animals.

  13. Colour preference of online consumers : a cross-cultural perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeder, Peter; Scherp, Evelien

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the influence of colour on the online purchasing intention of consumers. The literature review about colour associations showed that several factors could play a mediating role in the relationship between colour and purchasing intention. Two of these factors are emotion and

  14. The evolutionary history of colour polymorphism in Ischnura damselflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Guillén, Rosa A; Cordero-Rivera, Adolfo; Rivas-Torres, Anais; Wellenreuther, Maren; Bybee, Seth; Hansson, Bengt; Velasquez-Vélez, María I; Realpe, Emilio; Chávez-Ríos, Jesús R; Villalobos, Fabricio; Dumont, Henri

    2018-05-10

    A major challenge in evolutionary biology consists of understanding how genetic and phenotypic variation is created and maintained. In the present study, we investigated the origin(s) and evolutionary patterns of the female-limited colour polymorphism in ischnuran damselflies. These consist of the presence of one to three colour morphs: one androchrome morph with a colouration that is similar to the male, and two gynochrome morphs (infuscans and aurantiaca) with female-specific colouration. We (i) documented the colour and mating system of 44 of the 75 taxa within the genus Ischnura, (ii) reconstructed the evolutionary history of colour and mating system to identify the ancestral state, (iii) evaluated the stability of the colour morph status over time, and (iv) tested for a correlation between colour and mating system. We found that the ances tral female colour of Ischnura was monomorphic and aurantiaca and that colour morph status changed over time; characterised by many gains and losses across the species tree. Our results further showed that colour polymorphism is significantly more frequent among polyandric species, whereas monandric species tend to be monomorphic. Research on some Ischnura species has shown that colour morphs have evolved to reduce male mating harassment, and our finding that the same phenotypic morphs have evolved multiple times (convergent evolution) suggests that several species in this genus might be experiencing similar selective pressures. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. An Interaction of Screen Colour and Lesson Task in CAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clariana, Roy B.

    2004-01-01

    Colour is a common feature in computer-aided learning (CAL), though the instructional effects of screen colour are not well understood. This investigation considers the effects of different CAL study tasks with feedback on posttest performance and on posttest memory of the lesson colour scheme. Graduate students (n=68) completed a computer-based…

  16. A Bayesian Model of the Memory Colour Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Christoph; Olkkonen, Maria; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2018-01-01

    According to the memory colour effect, the colour of a colour-diagnostic object is not perceived independently of the object itself. Instead, it has been shown through an achromatic adjustment method that colour-diagnostic objects still appear slightly in their typical colour, even when they are colourimetrically grey. Bayesian models provide a promising approach to capture the effect of prior knowledge on colour perception and to link these effects to more general effects of cue integration. Here, we model memory colour effects using prior knowledge about typical colours as priors for the grey adjustments in a Bayesian model. This simple model does not involve any fitting of free parameters. The Bayesian model roughly captured the magnitude of the measured memory colour effect for photographs of objects. To some extent, the model predicted observed differences in memory colour effects across objects. The model could not account for the differences in memory colour effects across different levels of realism in the object images. The Bayesian model provides a particularly simple account of memory colour effects, capturing some of the multiple sources of variation of these effects.

  17. The control of attentional target selection in a colour/colour conjunction task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Nick; Eimer, Martin

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the time course of attentional object selection processes in visual search tasks where targets are defined by a combination of features from the same dimension, we measured the N2pc component as an electrophysiological marker of attentional object selection during colour/colour conjunction search. In Experiment 1, participants searched for targets defined by a combination of two colours, while ignoring distractor objects that matched only one of these colours. Reliable N2pc components were triggered by targets and also by partially matching distractors, even when these distractors were accompanied by a target in the same display. The target N2pc was initially equal in size to the sum of the two N2pc components to the two different types of partially matching distractors and became superadditive from approximately 250 ms after search display onset. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the superadditivity of the target N2pc was not due to a selective disengagement of attention from task-irrelevant partially matching distractors. These results indicate that attention was initially deployed separately and in parallel to all target-matching colours, before attentional allocation processes became sensitive to the presence of both matching colours within the same object. They suggest that attention can be controlled simultaneously and independently by multiple features from the same dimension and that feature-guided attentional selection processes operate in parallel for different target-matching objects in the visual field.

  18. Counting with Colours? Effect of Colours on the Numerical Abilities of House Crows (Corvus splendens) and Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis)

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Nor Amira Abdul; Ali, Zalila; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Fadzly, Nik

    2016-01-01

    We conducted several aviary experiments to investigate the influence of colours in quantity judgments of two species of birds; house crow (Corvus splendens) and common myna (Acridotheres tristis). Different quantity (in seven different food proportions) of mealworms were presented nonsequentially to all birds using artificially coloured red mealworms, for experiment 1, and using artificially coloured green mealworms, for experiment 2. Both red and green coloured mealworms have no significant ...

  19. The kinetics of colour change in textiles and fibres treated with detergent solutions Part II - Spectrophotometric measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Was-Gubala, Jolanta; Grzesiak, Edyta

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess colour variations that occur in several types of textiles and their constituent fibres, resulting from the long-term influence of various laundry detergents. A 14-day experiment was conducted using blue, red and grey/black cotton, wool, acrylic and polyester textiles. The spectrophotometric measurement of colour changes in fabric samples and test solutions, as well as the microspectrophotometric analysis of colour changes in single fibres were described. An evaluation of the observed colour changes from a forensic fibre analysis expert's point of view, as well as that of an average user/consumer of the textiles and laundry detergents is also provided. Copyright 2009 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Colour correct: the interactive effects of food label nutrition colouring schemes and food category healthiness on health perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyilasy, Gergely; Lei, Jing; Nagpal, Anish; Tan, Joseph

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of food label nutrition colouring schemes in interaction with food category healthiness on consumers' perceptions of food healthiness. Three streams of colour theory (colour attention, colour association and colour approach-avoidance) in interaction with heuristic processing theory provide consonant predictions and explanations for the underlying psychological processes. A 2 (food category healthiness: healthy v. unhealthy)×3 (food label nutrient colouring schemes: healthy=green, unhealthy=red (HGUR) v. healthy=red, unhealthy=green (HRUG) v. no colour (control)) between-subjects design was used. The research setting was a randomised-controlled experiment using varying formats of food packages and nutritional information colouring. Respondents (n 196) sourced from a national consumer panel, USA. The findings suggest that, for healthy foods, the nutritional colouring schemes reduced perceived healthiness, irrespective of which nutrients were coloured red or green (healthinesscontrol=4·86; healthinessHGUR=4·10; healthinessHRUG=3·70). In contrast, for unhealthy foods, there was no significant difference in perceptions of food healthiness when comparing different colouring schemes against the control. The results make an important qualification to the common belief that colour coding can enhance the correct interpretation of nutrition information and suggest that this incentive may not necessarily support healthier food choices in all situations.

  1. Tight lower and upper bounds for the complexity of canonical colour refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkholz, Christoph; Bonsma, P.S.; Grohe, Martin; Bodlaender, H.L.; Italiano, G.F.

    An assignment of colours to the vertices of a graph is stable if any two vertices of the same colour have identically coloured neighbourhoods. The goal of colour refinement is to find a stable colouring that uses a minimum number of colours. This is a widely used subroutine for graph isomorphism

  2. The Symbolism of Colour in the Modern German Youth Slang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Shavlovska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of one of the most interesting for the research group of words – colour definitions – in the modern German youth slang. Different peoples created definite symbols of colours, still existing nowadays. Even at present time the problem of colour symbolism is one of the most significant while studying the interrelation between the colour and the psychic of a person. Youth is the most progressive, emotional and creative group of the society, that is why the study of such phenomenon as colour symbolism as the example of youth slang – is especially important for the modern linguocultural study and social linguistics.

  3. ON f-EDGE COVER-COLOURING OF SIMPLE GRAPHS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Huimin; Liu Guizhen

    2005-01-01

    An f-edge cover-colouring of a graph G = (V, E) is an assignment of colours to the edges of G such that every colour appears at each vertex υ∈ V at least f(υ) times.The maximum number of colours needed to f-edge cover colour G is called the f-edge cover chromatic index of G, denoted by χfc(G). This paper gives that min[d(ν)-1/f(ν)] ≤χfc(G) ≤min[d(υ)/f(υ)].

  4. Costs of storing colour and complex shape in visual working memory: Insights from pupil size and slow waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kursawe, Michael A; Zimmer, Hubert D

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the impact of perceptual processing demands on visual working memory of coloured complex random polygons during change detection. Processing load was assessed by pupil size (Exp. 1) and additionally slow wave potentials (Exp. 2). Task difficulty was manipulated by presenting different set sizes (1, 2, 4 items) and by making different features (colour, shape, or both) task-relevant. Memory performance in the colour condition was better than in the shape and both condition which did not differ. Pupil dilation and the posterior N1 increased with set size independent of type of feature. In contrast, slow waves and a posterior P2 component showed set size effects but only if shape was task-relevant. In the colour condition slow waves did not vary with set size. We suggest that pupil size and N1 indicates different states of attentional effort corresponding to the number of presented items. In contrast, slow waves reflect processes related to encoding and maintenance strategies. The observation that their potentials vary with the type of feature (simple colour versus complex shape) indicates that perceptual complexity already influences encoding and storage and not only comparison of targets with memory entries at the moment of testing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Colour of the Young Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    VLT study gives insight on the evolution of the star formation rate Summary An international team of astronomers [1] has determined the colour of the Universe when it was very young. While the Universe is now kind of beige, it was much bluer in the distant past , at a time when it was only 2,500 million years old. This is the outcome of an extensive and thorough analysis of more than 300 galaxies seen within a small southern sky area, the so-called Hubble Deep Field South. The main goal of this advanced study was to understand how the stellar content of the Universe was assembled and has changed over time. Dutch astronomer Marijn Franx , a team member from the Leiden Observatory (The Netherlands), explains: "The blue colour of the early Universe is caused by the predominantly blue light from young stars in the galaxies. The redder colour of the Universe today is caused by the relatively larger number of older, redder stars." The team leader, Gregory Rudnick from the Max-Planck Institut für Astrophysics (Garching, Germany) adds: "Since the total amount of light in the Universe in the past was about the same as today and a young blue star emits much more light than an old red star, there must have been significantly fewer stars in the young Universe than there is now. Our new findings imply that the majority of stars in the Universe were formed comparatively late, not so long before our Sun was born, at a moment when the Universe was around 7,000 million years old." These new results are based on unique data collected during more than 100 hours of observations with the ISAAC multi-mode instrument at ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), as part of a major research project, the Faint InfraRed Extragalactic Survey (FIRES) . The distances to the galaxies were estimated from their brightness in different optical near-infrared wavelength bands. PR Photo 34/03 : The Evolving Colour of the Universe . Observing the early Universe It is now well known that the Sun was formed

  6. Synaesthetic colour in the brain: beyond colour areas. A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of synaesthetes and matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Tessa M; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Hagoort, Peter

    2010-08-10

    In synaesthesia, sensations in a particular modality cause additional experiences in a second, unstimulated modality (e.g., letters elicit colour). Understanding how synaesthesia is mediated in the brain can help to understand normal processes of perceptual awareness and multisensory integration. In several neuroimaging studies, enhanced brain activity for grapheme-colour synaesthesia has been found in ventral-occipital areas that are also involved in real colour processing. Our question was whether the neural correlates of synaesthetically induced colour and real colour experience are truly shared. First, in a free viewing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment, we located main effects of synaesthesia in left superior parietal lobule and in colour related areas. In the left superior parietal lobe, individual differences between synaesthetes (projector-associator distinction) also influenced brain activity, confirming the importance of the left superior parietal lobe for synaesthesia. Next, we applied a repetition suppression paradigm in fMRI, in which a decrease in the BOLD (blood-oxygenated-level-dependent) response is generally observed for repeated stimuli. We hypothesized that synaesthetically induced colours would lead to a reduction in BOLD response for subsequently presented real colours, if the neural correlates were overlapping. We did find BOLD suppression effects induced by synaesthesia, but not within the colour areas. Because synaesthetically induced colours were not able to suppress BOLD effects for real colour, we conclude that the neural correlates of synaesthetic colour experience and real colour experience are not fully shared. We propose that synaesthetic colour experiences are mediated by higher-order visual pathways that lie beyond the scope of classical, ventral-occipital visual areas. Feedback from these areas, in which the left parietal cortex is likely to play an important role, may induce V4 activation and the percept of

  7. Synaesthetic colour in the brain: beyond colour areas. A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of synaesthetes and matched controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa M van Leeuwen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In synaesthesia, sensations in a particular modality cause additional experiences in a second, unstimulated modality (e.g., letters elicit colour. Understanding how synaesthesia is mediated in the brain can help to understand normal processes of perceptual awareness and multisensory integration. In several neuroimaging studies, enhanced brain activity for grapheme-colour synaesthesia has been found in ventral-occipital areas that are also involved in real colour processing. Our question was whether the neural correlates of synaesthetically induced colour and real colour experience are truly shared. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: First, in a free viewing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiment, we located main effects of synaesthesia in left superior parietal lobule and in colour related areas. In the left superior parietal lobe, individual differences between synaesthetes (projector-associator distinction also influenced brain activity, confirming the importance of the left superior parietal lobe for synaesthesia. Next, we applied a repetition suppression paradigm in fMRI, in which a decrease in the BOLD (blood-oxygenated-level-dependent response is generally observed for repeated stimuli. We hypothesized that synaesthetically induced colours would lead to a reduction in BOLD response for subsequently presented real colours, if the neural correlates were overlapping. We did find BOLD suppression effects induced by synaesthesia, but not within the colour areas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Because synaesthetically induced colours were not able to suppress BOLD effects for real colour, we conclude that the neural correlates of synaesthetic colour experience and real colour experience are not fully shared. We propose that synaesthetic colour experiences are mediated by higher-order visual pathways that lie beyond the scope of classical, ventral-occipital visual areas. Feedback from these areas, in which the left parietal

  8. Super-leading logarithms in non-global observables in QCD colour basis independent calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Forshaw, J R; Seymour, M H

    2008-01-01

    In a previous paper we reported the discovery of super-leading logarithmic terms in a non-global QCD observable. In this short update we recalculate the first super-leading logarithmic contribution to the 'gaps between jets' cross-section using a colour basis independent notation. This sheds light on the structure and origin of the super-leading terms and allows them to be calculated for gluon scattering processes for the first time.

  9. Synaesthetic colours do not camouflage form in visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheri, C; Chopping, S; Morgan, M J

    2008-04-07

    One of the major issues in synaesthesia research is to identify the level of processing involved in the formation of the subjective colours experienced by synaesthetes: are they perceptual phenomena or are they due to memory and association learning? To address this question, we tested whether the colours reported by a group of grapheme-colour synaesthetes (previously studied in an functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment) influenced them in a visual search task. As well as using a condition where synaesthetic colours should have aided visual search, we introduced a condition where the colours experienced by synaesthetes would be expected to make them worse than controls. We found no evidence for differences between synaesthetes and normal controls, either when colours should have helped them or where they should have hindered. We conclude that the colours reported by our population of synaesthetes are not equivalent to perceptual signals, but arise at a cognitive level where they are unable to affect visual search.

  10. Relationship between natural tooth shade and skin colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourbakhsh, M; Mousavinejad, N; Adli, A R; Harati, M

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation of skin colour and tooth shade. One hundred and twenty six individuals aging between 18 to 25 years participated in this study. Colour of the maxillary central incisors was examined by VITA easy shade. Tooth shades were assigned to four ordinal values. Nivea Beauty Protect Foundation shade sample was used as a guide to assess facial skin colour Shin colours were also assigned to four ordinal values. Spearman test revealed that there was a significant relationship between tooth shade and skin colour Total co-relation factor was 51.6% (p men (p <0 .01). The highest tooth shade prevalence belonged to the second group and the highest skin colour prevalence was also in the second skin colour group.

  11. Colour how we see it and sow we use it

    CERN Document Server

    Woolfson, Michael Mark

    2016-01-01

    Colour makes our lives more interesting how dull it would be in a black-and-white world! It pleases us aesthetically, entertains us and is useful to us. This unique book aims to describe the scientific nature of colour and light, and how we see it, in an accessible and easily understandable style. The evolution of the eye, science of colour and technical visual systems are all broken down into readable chapters, with clear images and illustrations provided for reference. The book then goes on to discuss the innate tendency of humankind to produce artistic works as conceived, realised and augmented through the use of colour. Focussing on broad forms of artistic entertainment painting with pigments and dyes, colour and light in photography and cinematography, light displays and colour in television this book then delivers a comprehensive review of what colour means and has meant in the creative arts.

  12. The theory and phenomenology of coloured quark models

    CERN Document Server

    Close, F E

    1975-01-01

    A general introduction to coloured quark models is given and their phenomenology is described with particular reference to the new particles. It is shown that there are essentially three types of colour models with colour excitation when the colour group is SU(3)- Han-Nambu, Greenberg and a model which has the same charges as that of Tati and which can be thought of as the Gell-Mann colour scheme with excitation of the colour degrees of freedom. Particular attention is paid to the four problems of colour models for psi phenomenology-the radiative decays, the G parity conservation, the lack of deep inelastic threshold phenomena and the apparent discovery of dileptons at SPEAR. (40 refs).

  13. The theory and phenomenology of coloured quark models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, F.E.

    1975-01-01

    A general introduction to coloured quark models is given and their phenomenology is described with particular reference to the new particles. It is shown that there are essentially three types of colour models with colour excitation when the colour group is SU(3) - Han-Nambu, Greenberg and a model which has the same charges as that of Tati and which can be thought of as the Gell-Mann colour scheme with excitation of the colour degrees of freedom. Particular attention is paid to the four problems of colour models for PSI phenomenology - the radiative decays, the G parity conservation, the lack of deep inelastic threshold phenomena and the apparent discovery of dileptons at SPEAR. (author)

  14. Colour centre-free perovskite single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, Pierre-Olivier; Petit, Johan; Goldner, Philippe; Viana, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    Yb 3+ :YAlO 3 (YAP) and Yb 3+ :GdAlO 3 (GAP) are interesting 1 μm high-power laser media thanks to their very good thermo-mechanical properties. However, as-grown perovskite single crystals exhibit colour centres. Parasitic thermal load generated by these centres is deleterious for high-power laser action and can lead to crystal damages. Moreover these defects decrease Yb 3+ lifetime. They are related to trapped holes on the oxygen network. In the present work, several schemes to remove colour centres are presented. Attention is focused on cerium codoping, thermal annealing under reducing atmosphere and growth of non-stoechiometric compounds.

  15. [Systems analysis of colour music corrective effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumeniuk, V A; Batova, N Ia; Mel'nikova, T S; Glazachev, O S; Golubeva, N K; Klimina, N V; Hubner, P

    1998-01-01

    In the context of P. K. Anokhin's theory of functional systems, the corrective effects of various combinations of medical therapeutical resonance music (MTRM) and dynamic colour exposure were analyzed. As compared to rehabilitative music programmes, MRTM was shown to have a more pronounced relaxing effect as manifested both in the optimization of emotion and in the activity of autonomic regulation of cardiovascular functions. On combined MRTM and dynamic colour flow exposures, the relaxing effect is most marked. In the examinees, the personality and situation anxieties diminish, mood improves, cardiovascular parameters become normal, the rate of metabolic processes and muscular rigidity reduce, the spectral power of alpha-rhythm increases, these occurring predominantly in the anterior region of the brain. The findings suggest the high efficiency of the chosen way of normalizing the functional status of man.

  16. Colour based sorting station with Matlab simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Victor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the design process and manufacturing elements of a colour-based sorting station. The system is comprised of a gravitational storage, which also contains the colour sensor. Parts are extracted using a linear pneumatic motor and are fed onto an electrically driven conveyor belt. Extraction of the parts is done at 4 points, using two pneumatic motors and a geared DC motor, while the 4th position is at the end of the belt. The mechanical parts of the system are manufactured using 3D printer technology, allowing for easy modification and adaption to the geometry of different parts. The paper shows all of the stages needed to design, optimize, test and implement the proposed solution. System optimization was performed using a graphical Matlab interface which also allows for sorting algorithm optimization.

  17. Colour dielectric model of the proton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jen, P.K.; Pradhan, T.

    1984-01-01

    A model of the proton with its constituent quarks bound in a colour polarizable medium with dielectric constant varying as (a/r - b 2 ) from a fixed centre, is presented. The Dirac equation modified by the colour polarization is solved and the analytic expression for the wavefunction of the quarks obtained shows that quarks with higher energy lie closer to the fixed centre. The energy spectrum is equispaced without any continuum. A semiclassical approximation scheme yields closed orbits for quarks which have smaller size for higher energies and no orbits with size bigger than a certain maximum, thereby rendering the quarks permanently confined. The wavefunctions of the three quarks constituting the proton are used to calculate physical parameters of the proton such as its mass, charge radius and weak coupling constant which with suitable choice of the constants a and b appearing in the dielectric constant agree fairly well with experimental results. (author)

  18. Colour deconfinement in hot and dense matter

    CERN Document Server

    Satz, Helmut

    1996-01-01

    We first introduce the conceptual basis of critical behaviour in strongly interacting matter, with colour deconfinement as QCD analog of the insulator-conductor transition and chiral symmetry restoration as special case of the associated shift in the mass of the constituents. Next we summarize quark-gluon plasma formation in finite temperature lattice QCD. We consider the underlying symmetries and their spontaneous breaking/restoration in the transition, as well as the resulting changes in thermodynamic behaviour. Finally, we turn to the experimental study of strongly interacting matter by high energy nuclear collisions, using charmonium production to probe the confinement status of the produced primordial medium. Recent results from Pb-Pb collisions at CERN may provide first evidence for colour deconfinement.

  19. Performance Analysis using Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wells, Lisa Marie

    Performance is often a central issue in the design, development, and configuration of systems. It is not always enough to know that systems work properly, they must also work effectively. There are numerous studies, e.g. in the areas of computer and telecommunication systems, manufacturing......, military, health care, and transportation, that have shown that time, money, and even lives can be saved if the performance of a system is improved. Performance analysis studies are conducted to evaluate existing or planned systems, to compare alternative configurations, or to find an optimal configuration...... of a system. There are three alternative techniques for analysing the performance of a system: measurement, analytical models, and simulation models. This dissertation focuses on the the use of coloured Petri nets for simulationbased performance analysis of industrial-sized systems. Coloured Petri nets...

  20. Fast Synthesis of Dynamic Colour Textures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filip, Jiří; Haindl, Michal; Chetverikov, D.

    -, č. 66 (2006), s. 53-54 ISSN 0926-4981 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2075302; GA AV ČR 1ET400750407; GA MŠk 1M0572 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 507752 - MUSCLE Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : dynamic colour texture * texture synthesis * texture modelling Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://www.ercim.org/publication/Ercim_News/enw66/haindl.html