Sample records for relevant buddhist concepts

  1. Buddhist concepts as implicitly reducing prejudice and increasing prosociality.

    Clobert, Magali; Saroglou, Vassilis; Hwang, Kwang-Kuo


    Does Buddhism really promote tolerance? Based on cross-cultural and cross-religious evidence, we hypothesized that Buddhist concepts, possibly differing from Christian concepts, activate not only prosociality but also tolerance. Subliminally priming Buddhist concepts, compared with neutral or Christian concepts, decreased explicit prejudice against ethnic, ideological, and moral outgroups among Western Buddhists who valued universalism (Experiment 1, N = 116). It also increased spontaneous prosociality, and decreased, among low authoritarians or high universalists, implicit religious and ethnic prejudice among Westerners of Christian background (Experiment 2, N = 128) and Taiwanese of Buddhist/Taoist background (Experiment 3, N = 122). Increased compassion and tolerance of contradiction occasionally mediated some of the effects. The general idea that religion promotes (ingroup) prosociality and outgroup prejudice, based on research in monotheistic contexts, lacks cross-cultural sensitivity; Buddhist concepts activate extended prosociality and tolerance of outgroups, at least among those with socio-cognitive and moral openness.

  2. Manimekalai: The ancient Buddhist Tamil epic, its relevance to psychiatry

    Somasundaram, Ottilingam; Tejus Murthy, A. G.


    This article refers to materials of psychiatric interest found in the Manimekalai written by the 2nd Century CE Buddhist poet Sathanar. From the early description of a wandering psychotic in the streets of Pukar, the ancient maritime capital of the Cholas it is opined that this description fits that of present-day schizophrenia. A drunkard making fun of a Jain monk and a cross-dressed individual are also found in the same streets. Manimekalai's request to the Chola king to convert the prison to a place of piety with Buddhist monks is mentioned. Lord Buddha's teachings on the compassionate way of life are presented. PMID:27385862

  3. Schopenhauer and Wittgenstein: Assessing the Buddhist influences on their conceptions of ethics

    Vukomanović Milan


    Full Text Available In the first part of this essay, the author discusses certain aspects of the Hindu and Buddhist philosophical and religious conceptions that could have made some impact on the European ethics before Schopenhauer. In the second part, he deals with various channels of possible Buddhist influence on Schopenhauer's ethical thought. Finally, in discussing Buddhist-Wittgenstein relationship, one is confronted with convergent, yet independent, responses to similar sets of problems. Independently, and less systematically than Buddhist philosophical schools, Wittgenstein indicates the way of liberation that cures from the "metaphysical pain " emerging from inappropriate use of language. His own project, however, was not metaphysical, but meta-linguistic in a very specific sense. The philosophical "cure" from the language disease leads ultimately to the "purification " and "decontamination " of thought: in turn, the mind rests in peace and silence before the senseless, paradoxical questions of the moral, esthetical religious or metaphysical character.

  4. Ancient "Observatories" - A Relevant Concept?

    Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    It is quite common, when reading popular books on astronomy, to see a place referred to as "the oldest observatory in the world". In addition, numerous books on archaeoastronomy, of various levels of quality, frequently refer to the existence of "prehistoric" or "ancient" observatories when describing or citing monuments that were certainly not built with the primary purpose of observing the skies. Internet sources are also guilty of this practice. In this chapter, the different meanings of the word observatory will be analyzed, looking at how their significances can be easily confused or even interchanged. The proclaimed "ancient observatories" are a typical result of this situation. Finally, the relevance of the concept of the ancient observatory will be evaluated.

  5. Buddhist psychology, psychotherapy and the brain: a critical introduction.

    Kelly, Brendan D


    Buddhist psychology is increasingly informing psychotherapeutic practice in the western world. This article: (a) provides a general background to Buddhist tradition; (b) outlines the central tenets of Buddhist psychology, with particular emphasis on the practice of meditation; (c) provides an overview of research into the effects of Buddhist practice on the brain; (d) outlines the relationships between Buddhist psychology and existing forms of psychotherapy; (e) provides an overview of Buddhist approaches to specific psychiatric disorders and the psychological aspects of physical disorders; and (f) discusses the emergence of Buddhist psychotherapy in western societies and explores likely future developments. There is a need for further research into the neuroscientific correlates of Buddhist concepts of mind and the evidence-base for the use of specific techniques (e.g., meditation) in psychotherapeutic practice.

  6. Ancient Buddhist Education.

    Pollak, Susan

    Traditional Buddhist education centered solely around the monasteries, since the Buddhist world did not offer educational opportunities apart from its monasteries. All education, religious as well as secular, was controlled by the monks, and involved the initiation ceremony into the Buddhist Order, the education of the monk, the viharus or…

  7. The foundation of the concept of relevance

    Hjørland, Birger


    be termed “the epistemological view”). The concept of relevance, like other basic concepts, is influenced by overall approaches to information science, such as the cognitive view and the domain-analytic view. There is today a trend toward a social paradigm for information science. This paper offers...... that what was regarded as the most fundamental view by Saracevic in 1975 has not since been considered (with very few exceptions). Other views, which are based on less fruitful assumptions, have dominated the discourse on relevance in information retrieval and information science. Many authors have...... reexamined the concept of relevance in information science, but have neglected the subject knowledge view, hence basic theoretical assumptions seem not to have been properly addressed. It is as urgent now as it was in 1975 seriously to consider “the subject knowledge view” of relevance (which may also...

  8. The Bhiksuni Buddhist Ceremonies


    At the Seventh Chuanjie Fahui (a Buddhist meeting to impart monastic disciplines) of the Buddhism Association of Sichuan Province held at Baoguang Temple in Chengdu and attended by 127 bhiksunL Dharmacarya Long Lian leads several bhik suni toward the Buddhist preaching hall to impart Erbuseng Jie (the highest monastic discipline for bhiksuni) to them.

  9. The female body in early Buddhist literature

    Céline Grünhagen


    Full Text Available In this paper the author presents Theravāda Buddhist perceptions of the female body and their impact on sexuality, gender equality and salvation. In doing so the author draws on a selection of texts from the Buddhist canonical literature, which are relevant to the Theravāda tradition. Early Buddhist literature reflects an understanding of the female body as being more closely connected to the material world and the cycle of reincarnation, due to its biological qualities. This has a severe impact on the woman’s status and her chances of attaining enlightenment. Considering the early teaching of individuals possessing equal capacities to attain liberation, no matter what sex or social background, Buddhism as it developed over time failed to translate the equality of the sexes into a social reality. In fact, the perception of a distinct female ‘nature’ which was deemed a hindrance could not easily be erased from the collective consciousness. It is, however, important to note that Buddhist countries are subject to diverse influences that affect attitudes towards the female body, sexuality and the status of women—thus one has to be very careful with generalizations regarding norms and practices. Over time the negative attitudes and restrictions have been questioned; social changes have given way to new interpretations and perspectives. Pondering religious and cultural implications of the Buddhist attitude towards the body and its sex while also considering, for example, modern Mahayana Buddhist interpretations—especially by Western Buddhists and Buddhist Feminists—can lead to an acknowledgement of its potential of interpreting anattā, selflessness and an equality of capacity to practice Dhamma in favour of a general sex and gender equality.

  10. A Vajrayana Buddhist perspective on ministry training.

    Kilts, Thomas


    This article about ministry training in Clinical Pastoral Education (CPE) is written from the perspective of a Vajrayana Buddhist Association for Clinical Pastoral Education (ACPE) Supervisor. It presents basic concepts of the Vajrayana Buddhist tradition that apply to the training process of students in CPE and beyond. The author posits that like the Vajrayana spiritual path, ministry training is something that continues on in a person's ministry, and that ministers should attend to this process as long as they are helping others. The author presents the concept of mandala and the Five Buddha Families to illustrate a Vajrayana perspective on ministry training.

  11. The use of Buddhist mindfulness meditation in psychotherapy: a case report from Sri Lanka.

    de Zoysa, Piyanjali


    Buddhist practices have been increasingly influencing psychotherapy. For over 20 centuries, Buddhism has been the religion of a majority of Sri Lankans. However, there is little documentation of the use of Buddhist practices in psychotherapy in Sri Lanka. This paper presents a case study in which Theravadan Buddhist mindfulness meditation and cognitive therapy practices were used in the treatment of a client with depressive disorder. The paper also summarizes the influence of Buddhist concepts and mindfulness meditation on psychotherapy and illustrate how Buddhist doctrine and practices can be considered a psychotherapeutic method.

  12. Levelized Product Cost: Concept and Decision Relevance

    Reichelstein, Stefan; Rohlfing-Bastian, Anna


    This paper examines a life-cycle cost concept that applies to both manufacturing and service industries in which upfront capacity investments are essential. Borrowing from the energy literature, we refer to this cost measure as the levelized product cost (LC). Per unit of output, the levelized cost aggregates a share of the initial capacity expenditure with periodic fixed and variable operating costs. The resulting cost figure exceeds the full cost of a product, as commonly calculated in mana...

  13. From Buddhist Hippies to Buddhist Geeks: The Emergence of Buddhist Postmodernism?

    Ann Gleig


    Full Text Available Drawing on discourse analysis and ethnography, this paper will critically examine the effects of generational differences emerging in North American Buddhism through an analysis of the Buddhist Geeks network. Buddhist Geeks is an online Buddhist media company and community that launched in 2007. It consists of a weekly audio podcast and a digital magazine component and since 2011, has hosted an annual conference. I will discuss the main characteristics and concerns of the Buddhist Geeks community and explore how it can be situated both in relationship to traditional Buddhism and Buddhist modernism. In conclusion, I reflect on whether Buddhist Geeks signals the emergence of a new, distinctly postmodern stage in the wider assimilation of Buddhism in America.

  14. Loving kindness: the essential Buddhist contribution to primary care.

    Aung, S K H


    Loving kindness (metta), a traditional Buddhist concept, implies acting with compassion toward all sentient beings, with an awareness and appreciation of the natural world. The giving of metta, an integral part of Buddhist medicine, has the potential to enhance modern primary health care. Metta must be given with selflessness (saydana), compassion (karuna), and sympathetic joy (mudita). For the believer, Gautama Siddhartha, the Buddha, is the Supreme Healer. His ancient but timeless message of metta is alive and well today, The Dalai Lama being it key proponent. The Buddhist system features several techniques, such as the Noble Eight-Fold-Path and the metta meditations, to keep physicians moving toward metta. One does not have to be a Buddhist to practice metta, or more humane medicine, and the notion of "tender loving care" is spreading in biomedical circles.

  15. Buddhists' religious and health practices.

    Wiist, W H; Sullivan, B M; St George, D M; Wayment, H A


    A web survey of Buddhists' religious practices and beliefs, and health history and practices was conducted with 886 Buddhist respondents. Eighty-two percent were residents of the USA. Ninety-nine percent practiced Buddhist meditation and 70% had attended a formal retreat for intensive meditation practice. Eighty-six percent were converts to Buddhism and had been a Buddhist for a median of 9 years. Sixty-eight percent of respondents rated their health as very good or excellent. A one-point increase on a Buddhist Devoutness Index was associated with a 15% increase in the odds of being a non-smoker and an 11% increase in the odds of being in good to excellent health.

  16. Relevance as a Subjective and Situational Multidimensional Concept

    Eickhoff, C.


    Relevance is the central concept of information retrieval. Although its important role is unanimously accepted among researchers, numerous different definitions of the term have emerged over the years. Considerable effort has been put into creating consistent and universally applicable descriptions

  17. [Discussion on relevant concepts of mechanism based medicine].

    He, Jun-Yu


    Mechanism based medicine (MBM) is the new medical mode proposed by the author. Relevant concepts of MBM were described in this paper, such as essential mechanism, analysis of MBM, experiments of MBM,clinics of MBM, and diagram of MBM, thus helping readers to understand this new mode.

  18. Early Buddhist Ethics and Modern Science : Methodology of Two Disciplines

    Taniguchi, Shoyo Masako


    A conventional notion regarding ethics and natural scrence is that they are fundamentally different intellectual disciplines, in which ethics is the study of values dealing with the concepts of ought or should (rooted in the dichotomous of good/evil or right/wrong) while natural science is value-free research which attempts to deal with is, facts, or phenomena. This article argues that the above view is one-sided if examined from an Early Buddhist perspective. The Early Buddhist canonical te...

  19. The Application of Buddhist Principles to Lifelong Learning.

    Johnson, Ian


    Defining lifelong learning as conscious learning taking place throughout life, Buddhist meditation, contemplation, and mindfulnes are practices suitable to developing awareness of life experience. This broadens the concept of lifelong learning beyond the narrow vocationalism and economic determinism of much current discourse. (Contains 36…

  20. Buddhism at Crossroads: A Case Study of Six Tibetan Buddhist Monks Navigating the Intersection of Buddhist Theology and Western Science

    Sonam, Tenzin

    Recent effort to teach Western science in the Tibetan Buddhist monasteries has drawn interest both within and outside the quarters of these monasteries. This novel and historic move of bringing Western science in a traditional monastic community began around year 2000 at the behest of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, the spiritual head of Tibetan Buddhism. Despite the novelty of this effort, the literature in science education about learners from non-Western communities suggests various "cognitive conflicts" experienced by these non-Western learners due to fundamental difference in the worldview of the two knowledge traditions. Hence, in this research focuses on how six Tibetan Buddhist monks were situating/reconciling the scientific concepts like the theory of evolution into their traditional Buddhist worldview. The monks who participated in this study were engaged in a further study science at a university in the U.S. for two years. Using case study approach, the participants were interviewed individually and in groups over the two-year period. The findings revealed that although the monks scored highly on their acceptance of evolution on the Measurement of Acceptance of Theory of Evolution (MATE) survey, however in the follow-up individual and focus group interviews, certain conflicts as well as agreement between the theory of evolution and their Buddhist beliefs were revealed. The monks experienced conflicts over concepts within evolution such as common ancestry, human evolution, and origin of life, and in reconciling the Buddhist and scientific notion of life. The conflicts were analyzed using the theory of collateral learning and was found that the monks engaged in different kinds of collateral learning, which is the degree of interaction and resolution of conflicting schemas. The different collateral learning of the monks was correlated to the concepts within evolution and has no correlation to the monks' years in secular school, science learning or their

  1. The concept of branding: is it relevant to nursing?

    Dominiak, Mary C


    This concept exploration examines branding and its relevance to nursing. Branding is used to differentiate products through use of symbols. The symbols are the brands that are designed to communicate the value of products. Nursing has had many identifying symbols, such as the nurse's cap and the white uniform, but these symbols have failed to clearly communicate the essence of nursing. Lack of a distinct nursing brand has led to confusion about the discipline. The Roy adaptation model provides a view of branding as a process for clearly defining the profession, improving its image, and differentiating its role within the healthcare milieu.

  2. Buddhist Revival under State Watch

    André Laliberté


    Full Text Available The Chinese Communist Party has shown tolerance, if not direct support, for the growth of Buddhism over the last few decades. Three explanations for this lenient attitude are explored in this article. The flourishing of Buddhism is encouraged by the state less for its propaganda value in foreign affairs than for its potential to lure tourists who will, in turn, represent a source of revenue for local governments. Buddhist institutions are also establishing their track record in the management of philanthropic activities in impoverished area where local governments lack the resources to offer specific social services. Finally, the development of such activities has contributed to enhance cooperation between China and Taiwan, whose governments have a vested interest in the improvement of relations across the Strait. The article concludes that the growth of Buddhism in China results from the initiatives of Buddhists themselves, and the government supports this growth because it serves local politics well.

  3. Tibetan Buddhist dream yoga and the limits of Western Psychology.

    Rosch, E.


    Lucid dream, lucid dreamless sleep, and lucid death practices are an inherent part of advanced Tibetan Buddhist meditation. These practices are also relevant to ordinary people because they serve as pointers to aspects of everyday experience that are troubling but unrecognized in the usual non-lucid frame of mind. Using a Vajrayana approach in which the development of the mind of the practitioner is said to mirror the historical developmental of Buddhism, I show: a) How lucid dreaming can gro...

  4. Integrating Buddhist Psychology into Grief Counseling

    Wada, Kaori; Park, Jeeseon


    The field of grief counseling has yet to see an integration of Buddhist psychology. Drawing on Buddhist psychology literature and Western models of grief, this article explores possible integrations of two approaches. To lay the foundation for this discussion, the authors introduced a brief overview of the history of Buddhism as well as a Buddhist…

  5. Is mindfulness Buddhist? (and why it matters).

    Sharf, Robert H


    Modern exponents of mindfulness meditation promote the therapeutic effects of "bare attention"--a sort of non-judgmental, non-discursive attending to the moment-to-moment flow of consciousness. This approach to Buddhist meditation can be traced to Burmese Buddhist reform movements of the first half of the 20th century, and is arguably at odds with more traditional Theravāda Buddhist doctrine and meditative practices. But the cultivation of present-centered awareness is not without precedent in Buddhist history; similar innovations arose in medieval Chinese Zen (Chan) and Tibetan Dzogchen. These movements have several things in common. In each case the reforms were, in part, attempts to render Buddhist practice and insight accessible to laypersons unfamiliar with Buddhist philosophy and/or unwilling to adopt a renunciatory lifestyle. In addition, these movements all promised astonishingly quick results. And finally, the innovations in practice were met with suspicion and criticism from traditional Buddhist quarters. Those interested in the therapeutic effects of mindfulness and bare attention are often not aware of the existence, much less the content, of the controversies surrounding these practices in Asian Buddhist history. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Virtual museum of Japanese Buddhist temple features for intercultural communication

    Kawai, Takashi; Takao, Hidenobu; Inoue, Tetsuri; Miyamoto, Hiroyuki; Noro, Kageyu


    This paper describes the production and presentation of an experimental virtual museum of Japanese Buddhist art. This medium can provide an easy way to introduce a cultural heritage to people of different cultures. The virtual museum consisted of a multimedia program that included stereoscopic 3D movies of Buddhist statues; binaural 3D sounds of Buddhist ceremonies and the fragrance of incense from the Buddhist temple. The aim was to reproduce both the Buddhist artifacts and atmosphere as realistically as possible.

  7. Relationship between Values and Religious Identity in Buddhist Adolescents

    Shorokhova V.A.,


    Full Text Available The paper describes results of a social psychological study on religious identity in Buddhist schoolchil- dren. The study involved 184 students of 9—10 classes of a school in the Aginskoye settlement (Aginsky Buryatsky Okrug, Zabaykalsky Krai. According to G. Allport’s concept and R. Gorsuch & S. McPherson measurements, religious identity is considered not only as practicing Buddhism, but as a complex social psychological formation with a four-factor structure base on the following scales: personal/social and in- trinsic/extrinsic. Different components of religious identity are explored in the context of their relation- ship with value orientations (as described by S. Schwartz and G. Hofstede. The following techniques were employed: the adapted version of D. Van Camp’s Individual/Social Religious Identity Measure, Schwartz’s Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ-R2, and Hofstede’s Values Survey Module. As it was revealed, al- most all values related to various components of religious identity of the Buddhist adolescents refer to the social focus. The paper concludes that religious identity in modern Buddhist young people has a distinctive social character.

  8. Buddhist Activism and Chinese Modernity

    Hung-yok Ip


    Full Text Available The history of modern Chinese Buddhism has begun to attract attention in recent years. Some scholars have done inspiring research as they unravel the integration of Buddhism into the highly secularized process of Chinese modernity by drawing on the repository of knowledge on modern China. While this special issue joins this exciting endeavor, it also uses Buddhism as a window to reflect on scholarship on Chinese modernity. Conceptually, this special issue presses scholars in the field of modern China to rethink the place of tradition in the course of modernity. Thematically we show the expansionist impulse of Chinese Buddhism: In addition to envisioning the geographical expansion of their religion, Chinese Buddhists have endeavored to enhance the significance of Buddhism in various dimensions of Chinese society in particular and human life in general.

  9. The Self-Compassion Scale is Not Validated in a Buddhist Sample.

    Zeng, Xianglong; Wei, Jun; Oei, Tian Ps; Liu, Xiangping


    The concept of self-compassion originated from Buddhism, but very little is known about the utility and functions of this concept among Buddhists. Four hundred and eleven individuals (179 Buddhists and 232 non-Buddhists) completed the survey packages using the self-compassion scale (SCS; Neff in Self Identity 2(3):223-250, 2003a. doi: 10.1080/15298860309027 ). Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the original six dimensions of the SCS were not replicated by both samples, and further analysis of the intra-correlations within dimensions of SCS and relationships between SCS and other variables showed unexpected results specific to Buddhists. Among Buddhists, the dimensions of self-kindness and common humanity neither showed negative correlations with their opposite dimensions nor were associated with better emotional outcomes. In addition, these two dimensions were not predicted by the regular practice of loving-kindness meditation. This study argued that the ideas of self-compassion reflected in the SCS are theoretically different from the ideas of Buddhism, and further implications for measuring and clinically applying self-compassion were discussed.

  10. The concept and relevance of existential issues in nursing.

    Udo, Camilla


    The aim of this study was to illuminate and clarify the concept of existential issues in relation to nursing research and nursing practice. This article is a theoretical analysis of existential issues in relation to nursing. Existential issues are becoming more commonly discussed and investigated in nursing research. Thus, it is important to clarify the concept. A clarification of existential issues may contribute to health care quality by increasing awareness of what existential issues are and drawing attention to the importance of discussing and reflecting on these issues, since practitioners in a caring profession will most likely encounter them. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The development of animal personality : relevance, concepts and perspectives

    Stamps, Judy; Groothuis, Ton G.G.


    Recent studies of animal personality have focused on its proximate causation and its ecological and evolutionary significance, but have mostly ignored questions about its development, although an understanding of the latter is highly relevant to these other questions. One possible reason for this ne


    Wiesław Kurpiewski


    Full Text Available The paper supplies an introduction to the systematic comparative analysis of European and Buddhist (mainly from mahâyana tradition philosophies. It elaborates the subject with a general approach as well as expounds individual philosophical views, including Polishthinkers. What seems important, is to stress the need for such intercultural approach in contemporary way of philosophizing, it is a way to widen philosophy itself. Comparative research may be successful only if we try to avoid approach to the questionsdiscussed only from the opacity of one tradition, points of view of both sides should be taken into account. One of important method of such comparative approach is then to expound likeness and differences between the subjects analyzed, differences seems to be more important. More refined and advanced research incorporates interconnected relations: differences among what is similar and similarities among the differences.An analysis of philosophical questions themselves starts with the problems: (1 In what sense we may speak about Buddhist ontology. On one side, there are sufficient reasons to relate this concept to the Buddhist philosophy, on the another, it should be widened, comparing to European thought. (2 Does soteriological metaphysics is still metaphysics?A strict, actual comparative research takes into account such questions as: dharma theory and philosophy of being (to on; mind, consciousness in Buddhism and in phenomenology; emptiness (oeûnyatâ versus being (to on and non-being (to me on; ultimate reality; philosophy of dependent arising (pratîtyasamutpâda in opposition to philosophy of being; two truths (satyadvaya; problem of existence in both traditions. Comparisons are summed up with two kinds of conclusions. Methodological ones point at the significance of hermeneutics for better understanding of Buddhist thought. Content-related ones reveal, first of all, directional differences – so to speak – of both traditions

  13. The PRT Concept -- US Experiences and Their Relevance for Norway


    government has established so-called Afghan Development Zones ( ADZs )Y The ADZ concept is reminiscent of the French oil-spot theory, where the counterin...resistance, Afghan ADZs have been located in turbulent areas (where Taliban or War Lords oppose GOA, and where the international forces face a high number...ofthreats, like Impro- vised Explosive Device - IEDs). The Afghan ADZ approach is like strengthening the position where one meets resistance versus

  14. The PRT Concept: US Experiences and their Relevance for Norway


    government has established so-called Afghan Development Zones ( ADZs )Y The ADZ concept is reminiscent of the French oil-spot theory, where the counterin...resistance, Afghan ADZs have been located in turbulent areas (where Taliban or War Lords oppose GOA, and where the international forces face a high number...ofthreats, like Impro- vised Explosive Device - IEDs). The Afghan ADZ approach is like strengthening the position where one meets resistance versus

  15. Toward A Buddhist Theory of Justice

    James Blumenthal


    Full Text Available For more than twenty years key thinkers of Engaged Buddhism have used terms like “justice” and “social justice” quite freely.  Yet despite more sophisticated discussions of other philosophical topics, Engaged Buddhists have  not clearly defined what they mean by the term justice. Given that the term is one with a rich philosophical history in the West and has no direct parallel in Buddhist thought, it is incumbent upon Engaged Buddhist theorists to define what they mean when they use this term if they are to engage in any sort of meaningful dialog on justice and related issues in the international community. In this paper, to illustrate how Engaged Buddhists might begin this important line of work, I would focus on two cases. First, I will discuss John Rawls' theory of "justice as fairness" and compare that with some traditional Buddhist ideas and explore potential Buddhist thinking, responses, and adaptations. Second, I will discuss a relatively new model known as restorative justice in opposition to the pervasive use of retributive models implemented around the globe and consider the ways that Buddhism seems to lend itself quite well to "restorative" models, particularly with regard to criminal justice.  Both examples are merely beginning points for discussion used to illustrate how and why Engaged Buddhists ought to participate more directly in global philosophical discourse on justice.

  16. Warriors of Buddhism: Buddhism and violence as seen from a Vajrayana Tibetan Buddhist perspective

    Christina Gillberg


    Full Text Available Buddhism is considered by many today as the non-violent religion par excellence. The concept of ahimsa (non-violence coupled with the notion of pratityasamutpada (i.e. that everything is casually interconnected, with the implication that pain inflicted upon others is therefore really done to oneself and thus to be avoided seems to be one of the main arguments for promoting Buddhism as an excellent method for promoting world peace. However this non-violent, serene picture of Buddhism is not the only picture. Buddhists on occasion speak of a need to use violence, and employ it. Buddhists kill. Sometimes they also kill each other. The history as well as the present of Buddhist Asia is bloodstained. How do Buddhists justify approving of and using violence? How do they legitimise their pro-violent utterances and actions when such actions ought to result in excommunication? What are they saying? There are several answers to this, some of which are presented in this article, with the primary focus on Buddhist Tibet.

  17. Spiritual journeys in aging: A buddhist view.

    Nakasone, R Y


    The spiritual journey of a Buddhist devotee is a continual exploration of the truth of interdependence which Siddhartha Gautama realized to become the Buddha, "the Enlightened One." On the morning of the enlightenment, the Buddha apprehended the truth that all things and all beings are interconnected and mutually dependent in time and space. One measure of the spiritual maturity of the Buddhist devotee is his or her appreciation for the profound responsibilities and gratitude we share for all things. To illustrate the significance of interdependence in our lives, the author turns to the wisdom contained inVital Involvement in Old Age by Erik and Joan Erikson and Helen Q. Kivnick.

  18. Conceptualizing Human Nature and the Divine: Qualitative Interviews with Christians and Buddhists from a Mixed-Methods Study

    Crane, Lauren Shapiro; Burns, Emily M.; Johnson, Hannah E.; Brown, Betsy R.; Ufholz, Kelsey E.; Riehle, Jennifer L.


    This study investigated the possibility that a link exists between an individual's concept of Divinity and concept of self. Participants were 12 Christians (6 Catholic, 6 Methodist) and 8 Buddhists. They answered open-ended questions about sacredness, after-death experience, and humanity's relation to the natural world. Content analyses focused on…

  19. Review of the Present and Prospects on Buddhist Music in Recent Five Years%近五年来国内佛教音乐研究述评



    近五年国内对佛教音乐的研究重点主要集中在:佛教音乐的概念和功用、佛教音乐的发展、汉传佛教音乐研究、藏传佛教音乐研究、南传佛教音乐研究、佛教音乐的对比研究、佛教音乐旅游资源的科学开发与创新利用研究和从时间、空间不同的两个维度对佛教音乐进行研究等方面。%Research focuses on domestic Buddhist music during recent five years are as follows:Concepts and functions of Bud-dhist music, development and evolution of Buddhist music, three systems of Buddhist music, comparative study of Buddhist music, development and utilization on tourism resources of Buddhist music, and research on Buddhist music from two different dimensions of time and space.

  20. Evidence-Based Indicators of Neuropsychological Change in the Individual Patient: Relevant Concepts and Methods

    Duff, Kevin


    Repeated assessments are a relatively common occurrence in clinical neuropsychology. The current paper will review some of the relevant concepts (e.g., reliability, practice effects, alternate forms) and methods (e.g., reliable change index, standardized based regression) that are used in repeated neuropsychological evaluations. The focus will be on the understanding and application of these concepts and methods in the evaluation of the individual patient through examples. Finally, some future directions for assessing change will be described. PMID:22382384

  1. How Relevant Is R. S. Peters' Conception of Education to Science Education?

    Hadzigeorgiou, Yannis; Stamatis, Panagiotis


    This paper discusses R. S. Peters' concept of education, particularly his notion of cognitive perspective and its relevance to school science education. In light of the problems inherent in any attempt to define the notion of scientific literacy, it is argued that the development of cognitive perspective can be considered an important, if not the…

  2. The Relevance of Hans-Georg Gadamer's Concept of Tradition to the Philosophy of Education

    Leiviskä, Anniina


    In this article, Anniina Leiviskä argues that the educational relevance of Hans-Georg Gadamer's concept of tradition has remained unacknowledged because of the conservatism that has been associated with Gadamer's hermeneutics, particularly his notion of tradition. Therefore, Leiviskä seeks to reveal the reflective, nonconservative nature of…

  3. How Relevant Is R. S. Peters' Conception of Education to Science Education?

    Hadzigeorgiou, Yannis; Stamatis, Panagiotis


    This paper discusses R. S. Peters' concept of education, particularly his notion of cognitive perspective and its relevance to school science education. In light of the problems inherent in any attempt to define the notion of scientific literacy, it is argued that the development of cognitive perspective can be considered an important, if not the…

  4. The Relevance of Hans-Georg Gadamer's Concept of Tradition to the Philosophy of Education

    Leiviskä, Anniina


    In this article, Anniina Leiviskä argues that the educational relevance of Hans-Georg Gadamer's concept of tradition has remained unacknowledged because of the conservatism that has been associated with Gadamer's hermeneutics, particularly his notion of tradition. Therefore, Leiviskä seeks to reveal the reflective, nonconservative nature of…

  5. The limits of the Buddhist embrace of science. Commentary on "Compassion, ethics, and neuroscience: neuroethics through Buddhist eyes".

    Cho, Francisca


    The readiness of Buddhists to dialogue with and embrace modern science has caused some to worry that this encounter will deform Buddhist traditions for the sake of acceptance by the West. But their strong tradition of epistemological skepticism and intellectual pluralism makes it unlikely that Buddhists will embrace scientific positivism. Given the tensions between religion and science in contemporary western society, it is perhaps this feature of Buddhism that can make the most fruitful contribution in its dialogue with science.

  6. The Mythic Geography of the Northern Polar Regions: Inventio fortunata and Buddhist Cosmology

    Duzer, Chet Van


    This article compares the mythical geography of the northern polar regions in two very distinct traditions: a western European tradition based on a lost 14th century book titled Inventio fortunata, and the traditional Brahmanic Hindu and Buddhist conception of the earth. Both of these traditions involve a high mountain at the top of the world and water flowing in or out from this mountain in four streams that flow as if to the four cardinal points. Both traditions were represented cartographi...

  7. 浅析中国佛教伦理思想及其现代价值%On Chinese Buddhist ethics and its modern value



    Chinese Buddhist ethics is a kind of religious ethics India Buddhist ethics and Confucian ethics combination, mainly to advocate the concept of equality, self concept, merciful and altruistic concept, far-reaching influence in modern life.%中国佛教伦理思想是印度佛教伦理同儒家伦理相结合的一种宗教伦理,主要地倡导了平等观、克己观、慈悲利他观等观念,在现代生活中影响深远。

  8. Do Reincarnation Beliefs Protect Older Adult Chinese Buddhists against Personal Death Anxiety?

    Hui, Victoria Ka-Ying; Coleman, Peter G.


    The aim of this exploratory survey study was to develop and validate a Buddhist reincarnation beliefs scale and explore the relation between Buddhist reincarnation beliefs and personal death anxiety in 141 older adult Hong Kong Chinese Buddhists. Buddhist reincarnation beliefs were unrelated to personal death anxiety. This suggests that not all…


    Adriano Leal Bruni


    Full Text Available Mastering basic Accountancy concepts appropriately and analyzing their characteristics are essential for the development of Accounting Theory. The financial decision making process requires knowledge on adequate economic values, which Accounting users are increasingly demanding. The aim of this research was to ascertain the understanding of some terms explored in the context of the subject Accounting Theory, such as assets, liabilities, goodwill, revenues, expenses, gains and losses. A sample was investigated, comprising 591 students enrolled in Accountancy programs who had already taken the subject Accounting Theory at higher education institutions (HEI located in the city of Salvador (BA, Brazil. Logistic regression analysis of the results indicates that the relation between student performance and the teacher’s degree is more significant than the relation between student performance and type of HEI. In general, however, superficial concepts on the topics addressed in this study were cited at all levels. The results generally disclosed errors in the understanding of relevant accounting concepts for students’ education, mainly reflecting an outdated, or at least conservative view. When compared per type of education institution, the results indicate that students from public institutions better master the concepts considered in this study. The understanding improves further when the teacher’s degree evolves from specialist to M.Sc. and Ph.D.

  10. Locating relevant patient information in electronic health record data using representations of clinical concepts and database structures.

    Pan, Xuequn; Cimino, James J


    Clinicians and clinical researchers often seek information in electronic health records (EHRs) that are relevant to some concept of interest, such as a disease or finding. The heterogeneous nature of EHRs can complicate retrieval, risking incomplete results. We frame this problem as the presence of two gaps: 1) a gap between clinical concepts and their representations in EHR data and 2) a gap between data representations and their locations within EHR data structures. We bridge these gaps with a knowledge structure that comprises relationships among clinical concepts (including concepts of interest and concepts that may be instantiated in EHR data) and relationships between clinical concepts and the database structures. We make use of available knowledge resources to develop a reproducible, scalable process for creating a knowledge base that can support automated query expansion from a clinical concept to all relevant EHR data.

  11. Human body donation programs in Sri Lanka: Buddhist perspectives.

    Subasinghe, Sandeepani Kanchana; Jones, D Gareth


    Considerable attention is being given to the availability of bodies for anatomical education. This raises the question of the manner in which they are obtained, that is, whether they are unclaimed or donated. With increasing emphasis upon the ethical desirability of using body bequests, the spotlight tends to be focused on those countries with factors that militate against donations. However, little attention has been paid to cultures where donations are readily available. One such country is Sri Lanka where the majority of the Buddhist population follows Theravada Buddhism. Within this context, the expectation is that donations will be given selflessly without expecting anything in return. This is because donation of one's body has blessings for a better outcome now and in the afterlife. The ceremonies to honor donors are outlined, including details of the "Pirith Ceremony." The relevance for other cultures of these features of body donation is discussed paying especial attention to the meaning of altruism and consent, and justification for the anonymization of cadavers. The degree to which anatomy is integrated into the surrounding culture also emerges as significant.

  12. Writing History of Buddhist Thought in the Twentieth Century: Yinshun (1906-2005 in the Context of Chinese Buddhist Historiography

    Marcus Bingenheimer


    Full Text Available Venerable Yinshun 印 順 (1906–2005 was the eminent scholar-monk in twentieth-century Chinese Buddhism. This paper is about his historiographical practice and tries to outline his position in Chinese Buddhist historiography especially in reference to the Song dynasty historian Zhipan 志磐 (thirteenth century. It tries to answer the question in what ways Yinshun can be said to have modernized Buddhist historiography for Chinese Buddhism.

  13. De Martino's concept of critical ethnocentrism and its relevance to transcultural psychiatry.

    Stanghellini, Giovanni; Ciglia, Raffaella


    Ethnography and hermeneutics help us think of the clinical encounter as a meeting of cultures. In this paper, we examine Ernesto De Martino's concept of critical ethnocentrism and its relevance for psychiatry, arguing for the necessity of a cultural self-assessment on the part of the clinician as a means of optimizing analyses of the patient's culture. Conceptualizing the clinician as an "ethnologist," we argue that clinicians should be able to describe and acknowledge patients' cultural backgrounds, while remaining aware of their own culturally rooted prejudices. Focusing on the case of persons affected by schizophrenia, we suggest that De Martino's work invites an openness to hermeneutic dialogue that aims for the coconstruction of shared narratives by clinician and patient.

  14. Chemie im Kontext: Situating Learning in Relevant Contexts while Systematically Developing Basic Chemical Concepts

    Nentwig, Peter M.; Demuth, Reinhard; Parchmann, Ilka; Gräsel, Cornelia; Ralle, Bernd


    Inspired by the Salters Approach (UK) and ChemCom (USA), units for a new curriculum for chemistry teaching are being developed in Germany based on theories of scientific literacy, motivation, and situated learning. The curriculum follows a context-based approach. Rather than using the structure of the discipline, it generates basic chemical concepts from issues relevant to the learners, starting with the learners' ideas and questions. The teaching methodology of the course builds strongly on self-directed and cooperative forms of learning activities in the classroom. Currently, a large implementation program is under way with working groups of teachers in 14 of the 16 federal states (Bundesländer) in Germany. This program combines the development of teaching units, their implementation in schools, and the professional development of teachers. Now in its third year, the project has yielded positive results and funds for continuation have been granted.

  15. The Relevance of the Preparation Concept in the Interpretation of Quantum Formalism

    Ferrero, M; Salgado, D; Sánchez-Gómez, J L


    The preparation procedure, an undefined notion in quantum theory, has not had the relevance that it deserves in the interpretation of quantum mechanical formalism. Here we utilize the concepts of identical and similar preparation procedures to show the conceptual differences and mutual interconnections between the statistical and the conventional interpretation of quantum formalism. Although the statistical understanding, and its final logical consequence, hidden variables theories (this connexion being explained in the text), have a great intuitive appeal due to its fewer ontological difficulties, both recent experimental results and some theoretical developments seem to support an epistemic alternative closer to the conventional one. Nevertheless, we must not rule out the possibility that new theorems or new explanatory principles may modify the reigning supremacy of this interpretation.

  16. The strategic relevance of manufacturing technology: An overall quality concept to promote innovation preventing drug shortage.

    Panzitta, Michele; Ponti, Mauro; Bruno, Giorgio; Cois, Giancarlo; D'Arpino, Alessandro; Minghetti, Paola; Mendicino, Francesca Romana; Perioli, Luana; Ricci, Maurizio


    Manufacturing is the bridge between research and patient: without product, there is no clinical outcome. Shortage has a variety of causes, in this paper we analyse only causes related to manufacturing technology and we use shortage as a paradigm highliting the relevance of Pharmaceutical Technology. Product and process complexity and capacity issues are the main challenge for the Pharmaceutical Industry Supply chain. Manufacturing Technology should be acknowledged as a R&D step and as a very important matter during University degree in Pharmacy and related disciplines, promoting collaboration between Academia and Industry, measured during HTA step and rewarded in terms of price and reimbursement. The above elements are not yet properly recognised, and manufacturing technology is taken in to consideration only when a shortage is in place. In a previous work, Panzitta et al. proposed to perform a full technology assessment at the Health Technological Assessment stage, evaluating three main technical aspects of a medicine: manufacturing process, physicochemical properties, and formulation characteristics. In this paper, we develop the concept of manufacturing appraisal, providing a technical overview of upcoming challenges, a risk based approach and an economic picture of shortage costs. We develop also an overall quality concept, not limited to GMP factors but broaden to all elements leading to a robust supply and promoting technical innovation.

  17. Contribution of Buddhist Mindfulness to the Transformation of Conflicts – Dependent Origination (paticca-samuppāda and Deconstruction of Identity

    Anja ZALTA


    Full Text Available The article presents Buddhist mindfulness as a method for conflict transformation. On the basis of the concept of paticca-samuppāda (dependent origination and anatta (nonself the article (deconstructs the phases of identity formation. In Buddhist understanding, conflict is the result of defensiveness and misconceptions, and thus it is central to understand the mechanism by which the idea of “I” or “self” is established. The purpose of mindfulness is (among other things to achieve a radical change in perception, which leads to “de-automatization” of mental mechanisms and suspends the identification with sensory and mental experiences that an individual calls a separate “I”. Since the Buddhist approach to conflict is based on a theory of cognition, this article emphasizes the individual effort needed for conflict transformation. Only later could or should this knowledge be applicable to a wider social environment, taking into account the diversity of socio-cultural conditions.

  18. Irigaray’s Alternative Buddhist Practices of the Self

    Sokthan Yeng


    Full Text Available In lieu of an abstract, here is the opening paragraph of the essay:Luce Irigaray’s critics charge that her attempt to carve out a space for nature and the feminine self through an engagement with Buddhism smacks of Orientalism. Associating Buddhism with a philosophy of nature can lead to feminizing and exoticizing the non-Western other. Because she relies more on lessons learned from yogic teachers than Buddhist texts or scholarship, her work seems to be an appropriation of Buddhist ideas and a critique of Western ideology3 rather than a reflection of Buddhist philosophy. I trace Orientalist readings of Buddhism, including those of Irigaray, back to Hegel’s influence on comparative philosophy. Indeed, her analysis of the feminine self and nature often seem more like a response to Hegel than an examination of Buddhist principles. Some scholars resist Hegel’s reading by arguing that the Buddhist Absolute manifests in the indeterminately disjunctive and alternative versions of reality and self. Others suggest that the meaning of Buddhism can be found in examining its practices rather than its logic.  

  19. 75 FR 80885 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “The Buddhist Heritage of...


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``The Buddhist Heritage of Pakistan... Buddhist Heritage of Pakistan,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United...

  20. Designing and Implementing Basic Sciences Ontology Based on Concepts and Relationships of Relevant Thesauri

    Molouk Sadat Hosseini Beheshti


    Full Text Available Currently, the main portion of knowledge is stored in electronic texts and documents and for transferring that knowledge effectively, we must use proper methods to gather and retrieve relevant information. Ontologies provide means to produce structured documents and use intelligent search instead of keyword search. Ontology defines the common words and concepts used to describe and represent an area of knowledge. However, developing ontologies is a time consuming and labor work, so many ontology developers try to facilitate and speed up this process by reusing other resources. In fact, thesaurus contains semantic information and hierarchical structure that make it an appropriate resource for ontology construction. Therefore, we determined to use the thesauri previously developed at Iranian Research Institute for Information Science and Technology (IRANDOC to construct ontology in basic sciences domain. At first, we synchronized common concepts in thesauri before integrating them as a macro thesaurus and removed inconsistencies. To reduce the amount of time and human resources which were needed for synchronizing process, Thesaurus Synchronizer was developed to illustrate differences between matched cases of two thesauri. It provides powerful tools for demonstrating differences and suggestions for each of the existing matters. Thus, domain experts synchronized each two thesaurus semi-automatically. Then we merged thesauri and transform the data format into ISO 25964 standard. The conceptual model have been designed based on the terms and their relationships in the integrated thesaurus and the concept maps that were designed by domain experts for each of basic sciences (Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Geology and Mathematics. We used the methodology called METHONTOLOGY in this stage. The main activity in this methodology is conceptualization and it enables the construction of ontologies at the knowledge level. Ultimately, the ontology was generated by

  1. "To Take up Your Own Responsibility": The Religiosity of Buddhist Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Yeung, Gustav K. K.; Chow, Wai-yin


    This paper is the report of a study that uses qualitative methods to examine the religiosity of Hong Kong Buddhist adolescents. Twenty-two Buddhist adolescents aged from 13 to 17 studying in Buddhist secondary schools took part in semi-structured interviews. The interviews were voice-recorded and transcribed verbatim, first into Chinese and then…

  2. Using Concept Maps as a Tool for Cross-Language Relevance Determination


    Concept maps, introduced by Novak, aid learnersâ understanding. I hypothesize that concept maps also can function as a summary of large documents, e.g., electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs). I have built a system that automatically generates concept maps from English-language ETDs in the computing field. The system also will provide Spanish translations of these concept maps for native Spanish speakers. Using machine translation techniques, my approach leads to concept maps that could...

  3. Ostrannenie.: On "Strangeness" and the Moving Image: The History, Reception, and Relevance of a Concept

    van den Oever, A.M.A.


    Ostrannenie (‘making it strange’) has become one of the central concepts of modern artistic practice, ranging over movements including Dada, postmodernism, epic theatre, and science fiction, as well as our response to arts. Coined by the ‘Russian Formalist’ Viktor Shklovsky in 1917, ostrannenie has come to resonate deeply in Film Studies, where it entered into dialogue with the Brechtian concept of Verfremdung, the Freudian concept of the uncanny and Derrida's concept of différance. Stri...

  4. The Relevance of Multi Media Skills in Teaching and Learning of Scientific Concepts in Secondary Schools in Lagos State, Nigeria

    Okedeyi, Abiodun S.; Oginni, Aderonke M.; Adegorite, Solomon O.; Saibu, Sakibu O.


    This study investigated the relevance of multi media skills in teaching and learning of scientific concepts in secondary schools. Self constructed questionnaire was administered to 120 students randomly selected in four secondary schools in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos state. Data generated were analyzed using chi-square statistical…

  5. Repressors report fewer intrusions following a laboratory stressor : The role of reduced stressor-relevant concept activation and inhibitory functioning

    Overwijk, Sippie; Wessel, Ineke; de Jong, Peter J.


    This study investigated whether a repressive coping style is associated with fewer intrusions following an experimentally controlled stressor. Furthermore, we examined whether lower activation of stressor-relevant concepts in long-term memory and better inhibitory functioning may contribute to this

  6. Chinese Buddhist Nuns in the Twentieth Century: A Case Study in Wuhan

    Yuan Yuan


    Full Text Available In this paper, through working at the intersection of the works on nationalism and women, and the literature on Buddhist nuns during the Republican period, I aim to take up questions of gender relations in the broader studies of Buddhism and Buddhist modernization. I explore the Buddhist nuns' movement by examining the establishment of various academies for female Buddhists. I also analyze the writings by female Buddhists in the twentieth century. In so doing, I argue that the Buddhist nuns' revival movement fitted into the broader women's liberation discourse and the national modernization project during this time. This paper promises to provide insights into the history of women and nationalism from a Buddhist perspective, and shed light on gender-related issues of modern Chinese Buddhism in the course of China's modernization.

  7. Toward a Buddhist Sociology: Theories, Methods, and Possibilities

    Schipper, Janine


    This article explores potential links between Buddhism and sociology, highlighting the many commonalities between sociology and Buddhism, with an emphasis on ways that Buddhist thought and practice may contribute to the field of sociology. What could Buddhism offer to our understanding of social institutions, social problems, and to the dynamics…

  8. Toward a Buddhist Sociology: Theories, Methods, and Possibilities

    Schipper, Janine


    This article explores potential links between Buddhism and sociology, highlighting the many commonalities between sociology and Buddhism, with an emphasis on ways that Buddhist thought and practice may contribute to the field of sociology. What could Buddhism offer to our understanding of social institutions, social problems, and to the dynamics…

  9. Adult smokers' perception of the role of religion and religious leadership on smoking and association with quitting: a comparison between Thai Buddhists and Malaysian Muslims.

    Yong, Hua-Hie; Hamann, Stephen L; Borland, Ron; Fong, Geoffrey T; Omar, Maizurah


    In recent years, attempts have been made to incorporate religion into tobacco control efforts, especially in countries like Malaysia and Thailand where religion is central to the lives of people. This paper is a prospective examination of the perceived relevance and role of religion and religious authorities in influencing smoking behaviour among Muslims in Malaysia and Buddhists in Thailand. Data were collected from 1482 Muslim Malaysian and 1971 Buddhist Thai adult smokers who completed wave 1 (early 2005) of the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey (ITC-SEA). Respondents were asked about the role of religion and religious leadership on smoking at Wave 1 and among those recontacted, quitting activity at Wave 2. Results revealed that over 90% of both religious groups reported that their religion guides their day-to-day behaviour at least sometimes, but Malaysian Muslims were more likely to report that this was always the case. The majority (79% Muslims and 88% Buddhists) of both groups believed that their religion discourages smoking. About 61% of the Muslims and 58% of the Buddhists reported that their religious leaders had encouraged them to quit before and a minority (30% and 26%, respectively) said they would be an influential source to motivate them to quit. Logistic regression models suggest that these religious factors had a clear independent association with making quitting attempts in both countries and this translated to success for Malaysian Muslims but not for the Thai Buddhists. Taken together, results from this study indicate that religion and religious authorities are both relevant and important drivers of quitting, but whether this is always enough to guarantee success is less clear. Religion can be a culturally relevant vehicle to complement other tobacco control efforts.

  10. Three Fundamental Concepts in Second Language Acquisition and Their Relevance in Multilingual Contexts

    Kramsch, Claire; Whiteside, Anne


    This article considers how 3 fundamental concepts of second language acquisition (SLA), the native speaker, interlanguage, and the language learner have fared since Firth and Wagner (1997). We review the ascendancy of these concepts and their relationship to the traditional dichotomies of language learning versus language use and individual mind…




    Full Text Available The desire to maintain themselves on a particular market, at a higher level of profitability or at a reasonable level at least, can lead the undertakings to adopt an anticompetitive behaviour more easily. This may result from either the existence of anticompetitive agreements and concerted practices, or the tendency to abuse its dominant position which the undertaking has on a certain market. “The undertaking” and “the relevant market” are the key concepts in the analysis of anticompetitive practices. The active subject of anticompetitive practices is “the undertaking”. This concept has a particular significance in the competition law, different from the common law. Competition rules apply to the conduct of undertakings and associations of undertakings so that the concept of undertaking makes it possible to determine the categories of actors to which the competition rules apply. However, the term undertaking is nowhere defined in the EU Treaties; as such, the concept has generated a complex body of jurisprudence."The market" is a term with pronounced economic resonances; synthetically, the market is the place where supply meets demand. In the context of the competition law, "the market" means "relevant market". The relevant market is the market of product/service in terms of demand and supply, and then superimposed on the geographic market.The analysis of these key concepts necessarily entails the conceptual delimitation of the notions. On this purpose, the relevant legal provisions will be identified in the Romanian and EU law, together with the decisions of the European Court of Justice in this matter.

  12. Six key non-controversial concepts which can make population education more personally relevant.

    Sikes, O J; Kerr, B


    The 6 key noncontroversial concepts discussed are related to sexuality and have not been included extensively in the population literature. All 6 concepts are directly related to population education or fertility decisions. Content selection should always be dependent on the project in mind and involve parents and community leaders. The concepts are noncontroversial and universally applicable to all countries. The requirements are that the student have the ability to think, reason, and explore alternatives in a participatory way. The concepts are: 1) the importance of having respect for others, especially persons of the opposite sex; 2) the importance of developing self-esteem for both boys and girls; 3) children should understand that it is possible to plan; 4) the importance of postponing the 1st pregnancy; 5) since individuals can usually control their behavior, they must accept responsibility for these consequences; and 6) how to withstand social pressure. Concept 1 is one of the most important of the gender issues and involves not just teaching boys respect for the rights and feelings of girls and women but developing healthy attitudes and values. Respect for women needs to be emphasized. Concept 2 is particularly important for girls who because of usually low self-esteem may perceive childbearing as the way to achieve something of value and increasing their own worth. Life options need to be presented, and empowerment to cope with one's problems. Concept 3 identifies childbearing as a conscious, carefully thought out decision on the part of loving parents. Children need to learn that it is possible to decide on a pregnancy or to pan for one. Planning as a concept can be introduced to even a young child, with specific details on choice of contraceptive given as the child matures. Concept 4 is related to the evidence that ages 20-30 are the healthiest period for bearing children. The risk of danger to the health of the mother of baby is greatest during the teen

  13. Empathy and alteration: the ethical relevance of a phenomenological species concept.

    Meacham, Darian


    The debate over the ethics of radically, technologically altering the capacities and traditional form of the human body is rife with appeals to and dismissals of the importance of the integrity of the human species. Species-integrist arguments can be found in authors as varied as Annas, Fukuyama, Habermas, and Agar. However, the ethical salience of species integrity is widely contested by authors such as Buchanan, Daniels, Fenton, and Juengst. This article proposes a Phenomenological approach to the question of species-integrity, arguing in favor of a phenomenon of species-recognition that carries an ethical pull. Building on Husserl's Phenomenological account of empathy and the lived-body, as well as Schopenhauer's concept of compassion as an ethical urphenomenon, I develop a "Phenomenological species concept" (PSC), which I argue has the ethical significance that biological species concepts do not. The PSC reorients the debate over human alteration and species integrity.

  14. Himalayan Hermitess:The Life of a Tibetan Buddhist Nun

    Kurtis RSchaeffer; AuthorYang Gongwei


    In 1961 , anthropologist Corneille Jest was conducting fieldwork in Dolpo, the high-land region of the Nepal Himalayan region immedi-ately west of Mustang, when a local Buddhist lead-er told him the tale of a certain woman.Her name, the Tibetan-speaking Buddhist told the anthropol-ogist, was Ani Chokyi, meaning “Chokyi the Nun”.She had lived an exceptional life, and her story was well known throughout Dolpo.Jest noted that a written biography of Ani Chokyi was not a-vailable in the village where he conducted his re-search, though he was told that there was a copy in another temple.

  15. Taking a Concept to Commercialization: Designing Relevant Tests to Address Safety.

    Ferrara, Lisa A


    Taking a product from concept to commercialization requires careful navigation of the regulatory pathway through a series of steps: (A) moving the idea through proof of concept and beyond; (B) evaluating new technologies that may provide added value to the idea; (C) designing appropriate test strategies and protocols; and (D) evaluating and mitigating risks. Moving an idea from the napkin stage of development to the final product requires a team effort. When finished, the product rarely resembles the original design, but careful steps throughout the product life cycle ensure that the product meets the vision.

  16. Buddhist Thought and Several Problems in the World Today

    Yao Weiqun


    Buddhism has not only produced an influence upon the ancient world culture but is also playing an important role in world affairs today.This article analyzes several important problems in the world today:world peace,disarmament,economic justice,human rights,environmental protection,and universal cooperation in world problem solving.The writer holds that,to solve these problems,we should study Buddhist theory and get some helpful ideas from it.

  17. Parentocracy Revisited: Still a Relevant Concept for Understanding Middle Class Educational Advantage?

    Barrett DeWiele, Corinne E.; Edgerton, Jason D.


    In this paper, we revisit Brown's ("Br J Soc Educ" 14: 65-85, 1990) concept of "parentocracy" which has been informatively applied in educational research in a number of studies in various countries internationally--but almost none in North America. We provide an expanded conceptualization of parentocracy and suggest that it…

  18. Six Key Non-Controversial Concepts Which Can Make Population Education More Personally Relevant.

    Sikes, O. J.; Kerr, Beverly


    Suggests a need to change traditional content sources of population education to include population-related concepts in the area of human sexuality. Identifies the following focuses: respecting others, developing self-esteem, postponing the first pregnancy, understanding that it is possible to plan, fostering responsibility for behavior and…

  19. Complex adaptive systems and their relevance for nursing: An evolutionary concept analysis.

    Notarnicola, Ippolito; Petrucci, Cristina; De Jesus Barbosa, Maria Rosimar; Giorgi, Fabio; Stievano, Alessandro; Rocco, Gennaro; Lancia, Loreto


    This study aimed to analyse the concept of "complex adaptive systems." The construct is still nebulous in the literature, and a further explanation of the idea is needed to have a shared knowledge of it. A concept analysis was conducted utilizing Rodgers evolutionary method. The inclusive years of bibliographic search started from 2005 to 2015. The search was conducted at PubMed©, CINAHL© (EBSCO host©), Scopus©, Web of Science©, and Academic Search Premier©. Retrieved papers were critically analysed to explore the attributes, antecedents, and consequences of the concept. Moreover, surrogates, related terms, and a pattern recognition scheme were identified. The concept analysis showed that complex systems are adaptive and have the ability to process information. They can adapt to the environment and consequently evolve. Nursing is a complex adaptive system, and the nursing profession in practice exhibits complex adaptive system characteristics. Complexity science through complex adaptive systems provides new ways of seeing and understanding the mechanisms that underpin the nursing profession. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Buddhist philosophy for the treatment of problem gambling.

    Shonin, Edo; Van Gordon, William; Griffiths, Mark D


    Purpose In the last five years, scientific interest into the potential applications of Buddhist-derived interventions (BDIs) for the treatment of problem gambling has been growing. This paper reviews current directions, proposes conceptual applications, and discusses integration issues relating to the utilisation of BDIs as problem gambling treatments. Method Aliterature search and evaluation of the empirical literature for BDIs as problem gambling treatments was undertaken. Results To date, research has been limited to cross-sectional studies and clinical case studies and findings indicate that Buddhist-derived mindfulness practices have the potential to play an important role in ameliorating problem gambling symptomatology. As an adjunct to mindfulness, other Buddhist-derived practices are also of interest including: (i) insight meditation techniques (e.g., meditation on 'emptiness') to overcome avoidance and dissociation strategies, (ii) 'antidotes' (e.g., patience, impermanence, etc.) to attenuate impulsivity and salience-related issues, (iii) loving-kindness and compassion meditation to foster positive thinking and reduce conflict, and (iv) 'middle-way' principles and 'bliss-substitution' to reduce relapse and temper withdrawal symptoms. In addition to an absence of controlled treatment studies, the successful operationalisation of BDIs as effective treatments for problem gambling may be impeded by issues such as a deficiency of suitably experienced BDI clinicians, and the poor provision by service providers of both BDIs and dedicated gambling interventions. Conclusions Preliminary findings for BDIs as problem gambling treatments are promising, however, further research is required.

  1. A Bridge between Two Cultures: Uncovering the Chemistry Concepts Relevant to the Nursing Clinical Practice

    Brown, Corina E.; Henry, Melissa L. M.; Barbera, Jack; Hyslop, Richard M.


    This study focused on the undergraduate course that covers basic topics in general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry at a mid-sized state university in the western United States. The central objective of the research was to identify the main topics of GOB chemistry relevant to the clinical practice of nursing. The collection of data was…

  2. Increasing retrievability and reusability oflearning material by developing a measure of relevance based onacademic teachers' conceptions

    Hiddink, G.W.; van der Peet, G.; Verhagen, Pleunes Willem; Blanken, Henk

    Web-based or web-supported teaching and learning are fast developing applications of information and communication technologies. One of the latest developments is the use of (multimedia) databases of learning material. One of the key problems concerns the retrieval of relevant units of learning

  3. From Freudian narcissism to the Buddhist notion of anatman, via Jung's idea of identity.

    Martin-Vallas, François


    Starting from the question the youthful Carl Gustav pondered as he sat on 'his' stone - 'Am I he who sits on the stone, or am I the stone on which he sits?' - the author has attempted to show that, for Jung, the idea of identity is founded on a wilful non-determination. This stance results in ethical and methodological repercussions that differentiate it both from the Freudian project and from Hindu and Buddhist thought, while at the same time having much in common with them. The paper refers to the notions of emergence and (Varela et al. 1992) enaction and argues that the concept of the archetype, especially in relation to the self, merits a re-evaluation in light of the new scientific paradigm. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  4. Defining the Concept of Supply Chain Management and its Relevance to Romanian Academics and Practitioners

    Irina Albăstroiu


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe an extended approach to supply chain management by exploring some of the more prevalent Supply Chain Management definitions, frameworks and terminology. As regards the methodology of our study, should be noted that it was based on content analysis of the most important and popular definitions of the Supply Chain Management and associated terms, through a variety of secondary sources consisting of scientific papers and publications of professional organizations and practitioners. In our undertaking, we pursued the study and analysis of the above-mentioned concept’s definitions, to set conceptual delimitations meant to clarify the extent of the Supply Chain Management concept, in the vision of both theorists and practitioners, but also to identify criteria/attributes depending on which has been defined over the years by both academics and business representatives, in order to propose new ways of defining the concept. Moreover, based on Romanian literature as reference, we took into consideration the presentation of the ways in which the term “Supply Chain Management” from English language was adopted and adapted to the Romanian language, which allowed us to identify the proper manner of transposing and defining the concept in the Romanian literature.

  5. A survey of anatomical items relevant to the practice of rheumatology: upper extremity, head, neck, spine, and general concepts.

    Villaseñor-Ovies, Pablo; Navarro-Zarza, José Eduardo; Saavedra, Miguel Ángel; Hernández-Díaz, Cristina; Canoso, Juan J; Biundo, Joseph J; Kalish, Robert A; de Toro Santos, Francisco Javier; McGonagle, Dennis; Carette, Simon; Alvarez-Nemegyei, José


    This study aimed to identify the anatomical items of the upper extremity and spine that are potentially relevant to the practice of rheumatology. Ten rheumatologists interested in clinical anatomy who published, taught, and/or participated as active members of Clinical Anatomy Interest groups (six seniors, four juniors), participated in a one-round relevance Delphi exercise. An initial, 560-item list that included 45 (8.0 %) general concepts items; 138 (24.8 %) hand items; 100 (17.8 %) forearm and elbow items; 147 (26.2 %) shoulder items; and 130 (23.2 %) head, neck, and spine items was compiled by 5 of the participants. Each item was graded for importance with a Likert scale from 1 (not important) to 5 (very important). Thus, scores could range from 10 (1 × 10) to 50 (5 × 10). An item score of ≥40 was considered most relevant to competent practice as a rheumatologist. Mean item Likert scores ranged from 2.2 ± 0.5 to 4.6 ± 0.7. A total of 115 (20.5 %) of the 560 initial items reached relevance. Broken down by categories, this final relevant item list was composed by 7 (6.1 %) general concepts items; 32 (27.8 %) hand items; 20 (17.4 %) forearm and elbow items; 33 (28.7 %) shoulder items; and 23 (17.6 %) head, neck, and spine items. In this Delphi exercise, a group of practicing academic rheumatologists with an interest in clinical anatomy compiled a list of anatomical items that were deemed important to the practice of rheumatology. We suggest these items be considered curricular priorities when training rheumatology fellows in clinical anatomy skills and in programs of continuing rheumatology education.

  6. On the relevance of Gibson's affordance concept for geographical information science (GISc).

    Jonietz, David; Timpf, Sabine


    J. J. Gibson's concept of affordances has provided a theoretical basis for various studies in geographical information science (GISc). This paper sets out to explain its popularity from a GISc perspective. Based on a short review of previous work, it will be argued that its main contributions to GISc are twofold, including an action-centered view of spatial entities and the notion of agent-environment mutuality. Using the practical example of pedestrian behavior simulation, new potentials for using and extending affordances are discussed.

  7. Generation of silver standard concept annotations from biomedical texts with special relevance to phenotypes.

    Anika Oellrich

    Full Text Available Electronic health records and scientific articles possess differing linguistic characteristics that may impact the performance of natural language processing tools developed for one or the other. In this paper, we investigate the performance of four extant concept recognition tools: the clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System (cTAKES, the National Center for Biomedical Ontology (NCBO Annotator, the Biomedical Concept Annotation System (BeCAS and MetaMap. Each of the four concept recognition systems is applied to four different corpora: the i2b2 corpus of clinical documents, a PubMed corpus of Medline abstracts, a clinical trails corpus and the ShARe/CLEF corpus. In addition, we assess the individual system performances with respect to one gold standard annotation set, available for the ShARe/CLEF corpus. Furthermore, we built a silver standard annotation set from the individual systems' output and assess the quality as well as the contribution of individual systems to the quality of the silver standard. Our results demonstrate that mainly the NCBO annotator and cTAKES contribute to the silver standard corpora (F1-measures in the range of 21% to 74% and their quality (best F1-measure of 33%, independent from the type of text investigated. While BeCAS and MetaMap can contribute to the precision of silver standard annotations (precision of up to 42%, the F1-measure drops when combined with NCBO Annotator and cTAKES due to a low recall. In conclusion, the performances of individual systems need to be improved independently from the text types, and the leveraging strategies to best take advantage of individual systems' annotations need to be revised. The textual content of the PubMed corpus, accession numbers for the clinical trials corpus, and assigned annotations of the four concept recognition systems as well as the generated silver standard annotation sets are available from The textual content

  8. Closeness and distance in the nurse-patient relation. The relevance of Edith Stein's concept of empathy.

    Määttä, Sylvia M


    This paper emanates from the concept of empathy as understood by the German philosopher Edith Stein. It begins by highlighting different interpretations of empathy. According to the German philosopher Martin Buber, empathy cannot be achieved as an act of will. In contrast, the psychologist Carl Rogers believes that empathy is identical with dialogue and is the outcome of a cognitive act of active listening. The empathy concept of Edith Stein, philosopher and follower of Edmund Husserl's phenomenology, goes beyond these conflicting views and offers a more complex interpretation, with relevance for both healthcare and nursing education. When studying Stein's three-level model of empathy, a field of tension between perspectives of closeness and distance becomes apparent. The paper concludes by suggesting Stein's model of empathy as a strategy to overcome the tension and meet the demands of empathy.

  9. The type I interferons: Basic concepts and clinical relevance in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases.

    López de Padilla, Consuelo M; Niewold, Timothy B


    There is increasing scientific and clinical interest in elucidating the biology of type I Interferons, which began approximately 60 years ago with the concept of "viral interference", a property that reduces the ability of a virus to infect cells. Although our understanding of the multiple cellular and molecular functions of interferons has advanced significantly, much remains to be learned and type I Interferons remain an active and fascinating area of inquiry. In this review, we cover some general aspects of type I interferon genes, with emphasis on interferon-alpha, and various aspects of molecular mechanisms triggered by type I interferons and toll-like receptor signaling by the Janus activated kinase/signal transducer activation of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway and interferon regulatory factor pathway. We will also describe the role of type I interferons in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, and its potential use as therapeutic agent.

  10. Knowledge of ideas: On design and the politics of relevance in concept development work

    Yoshinaka, Yutaka

    important roles in the selection of ideas for conceptualization and synthesis work in such projects – they at once open up and enable, while also delimit and constrain, the design space in which practitioners may engage their insight and skills. The study explores the translation of knowledge practices......The paper examines the emergent nature of how ideas and problem issues are handled in the organisational processes of project work in design. It addresses the knowledge practices entailed in the (re)association of past projects or activities within a project with ongoing ones (the idea of knowledge...... reuse). This is pursued from the standpoint of the particular and partial framings of knowledge, as localised and situated in character and enactment, through its socio-material ordering and mediation in heterogeneous networks of relations. Network building processes and the drawing of relevance play...

  11. Reconsideration of the Coexistence of Buddhist Temple Education and State Education in Xishuangbanna, China

    Li, Jing; Moore, Danièle


    This paper presents data gathered in interviews with 29 informants in Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture of Yunnan, China--an administrative region with Theravada Buddhist religious identity. The data highlight tensions between the traditional faith-based education provided by Theravada Buddhist temple schools and secular state education. The…

  12. The paraphilia-related disorders: an investigation of the relevance of the concept in sexual murderers.

    Briken, Peer; Habermann, Niels; Kafka, Martin P; Berner, Wolfgang; Hill, Andreas


    Paraphilic disorders (PAs) and sexual preoccupation are known risk factors for recidivism in sexual offenders. Nonparaphilic sexual excessive behaviors-so-called paraphilia-related disorders (PRDs), like paraphilias, are also characterized by sexual preoccupation and volitional impairment and can be diagnosed in paraphilic men. The prevalence and clinical significance of PRDs in sexual homicide perpetrators, however, is unknown. We investigated the relationship between PAs and PRDs retrospectively in a sample of 161 sexual murderers. Four groups were compared: men without a PA or a PRD diagnosis, men with at least one PRD but no PA, men with at least one PA but no PRD, and finally, those with a combination of both (PA+PRD). The PA+PRD group had the most lifetime cumulative sexual impulsivity disorders, more developmental problems, the highest persistent frequency of sexual activity, the highest number of previous sexual offences, more sexual sadism, and compulsive masturbation. Men of the PRD subsample had suffered more from childhood sexual abuse, showed more promiscuity, psychopathy, and alcohol problems. The use of the PRD concept in this special offender group should be further investigated with prospectively designed studies.

  13. [Is ageism a relevant concept for health care practice in the elderly?].

    Masse, Marie; Meire, Philippe


    With the demographic aging, the older adults' needs for assistance and care will inevitably increase. Therefore, it is important to explore the beliefs and attitudes of the health care professionals toward the elderly. This paper discusses the notion of ageism and its paradoxes in health care practices for the elderly. First, the concept of ageism is defined through its cognitive, affective and behavioral components. Second, on the basis of the literature review, different "age biases" induced by ageism are described, which can influence the assessment of health condition of the elderly, the treatment decisions, but also the attitudes of the health care workers with out-patients as with institutionalized subjects. Third, the potential negative effects of ageist stereotypes on the health status and psychological well-being of the elderly are examined. Finally, some propositions are made to oppose ageism in health care practices for the elderly, including continuing education, better knowledge of the diversity of aging processes, reflexion on professionals' own prejudices, values and beliefs, promotion of relational attitudes which sustain autonomy.

  14. Philosophy of mind in the Yogacara Buddhist idealistic school.

    Tola, Fernando; Dragonetti, Carmen


    After some general introduction remarks on Indian philosophy, this essay deals with the structure of mind in the Yogacara Buddhist idealist school. Mind can be conceived as having two 'parts': the receptacle consciousness, constituted by the vasanas, or 'marks' left by any individual experience, which 'remains' in the mind in an unconscious state; and the function consciousness, constituted by these same vasanas transforming themselves into conscious ideas and representations, which are either of a cognizing ego or of congnized objects and beings and similar to the experiences that gave rise to them. Since a beginningless eternity, vasanas have been produced without anything real corresponding to them, in a fantasmagorical process.

  15. Craniofacial Anthropometric Profile of Adult Bangladeshi Buddhist Chakma Females

    Asma Mostafa


    Full Text Available The present descriptive, observational, and cross-sectional study was designed to establish the baseline measurements of the craniofacial anthropometrical parameters and indices of 100 adult Bangladeshi Buddhist Chakma females aged between 25 and 45 years, residing at different locations of Chittagong and Rangamati cities. A total of ten craniofacial variables were measured using physical and photographic procedures. Craniofacial indices were calculated from those craniofacial variables. The craniofacial indices showed that Chakma females are mostly hyperbrachycephalic, hypereuryprosopic, and mesorrhine, with intermediate eyes and long narrow ears.

  16. Monitoring the condition of the Canadian forest environment: The relevance of the concept of 'ecological indicators'.

    Kimmins, J P


    The Canadian forest environment is characterized by high spatial and temporal variability, especially in the west. Our forests vary according to climate, landform, and surficial geology, and according to the type, intensity, extent of, and the time since the last disturbance. Most Canadian forests have had a history of repeated acute, episodic disturbance from fire, insects, wind, diseases and/or logging, with a frequency of disturbance varying from a few decades to many centuries. These sources of variability have resulted in a complex and continually changing mosaic of forest conditions and stages of successional development.Monitoring the 'quality' of this dynamic forested landscape mosaic is extremely difficult, and in most cases the concept of a relatively simple index of forest ecosystem quality or condition (i.e. an 'ecological indicator') is probably inappropriate. Such ecological indicators are better suited for monitoring chronic anthropogenically induced disturbances that are continuous in their effect (e.g. 'acid rain', heavy metal pollution, air pollution, and the 'greenhouse effect') in ecosystems that, in the absence of such chronic disturbance, exhibit very slow directional change (e.g. lakes, higher order streams and rivers). Monitoring the effects of a chronic anthropogenic disturbance to forest ecosystems to determine if it is resulting in a sustained, directional alteration of environmental 'quality' will require a definition of the expected pattern of episodic disturbance and recovery therefrom (i.e. patterns of secondary succession in the absence of the chronic disturbance). Only when we have such a 'temporal fingerprint' of forest ecosystem condition for 'normal' patterns of disturbance and recovery can we determine if the ecosystem condition is being degraded by chronic human-induced alteration of the environment. Thus, degradation is assessed in terms of deviations from the expected temporal pattern of conditions rather than in terms of an

  17. Using neurotechnologies to develop virtues: a Buddhist approach to cognitive enhancement.

    Hughes, James


    Recently, Fenton (2009) has argued that Buddhist ethics can accommodate the use of attention-enhancing drugs, and Walker (2006 , 2009) has argued that future neurotechnologies may be used to enhance happiness and virtue. This paper uses a Western Buddhist perspective, drawing on many Buddhist traditions, to explore how emerging neurotechnologies may be used to suppress vices and enhance happiness and virtue. A Buddhist approach to the authenticity of technologically-mediated spiritual progress is discussed. The potential utility and dangers of mood manipulation for a Buddhist understanding of liberation are outlined. Then the ten paramitas of Theravadan Buddhism are explored to frame an exploration of the potential genes, neurochemicals and brain structures that could be targeted as part of a program of neurotechnological moral enhancement.

  18. The Sinicization of Dunhuang Mogao Cave Buddhist Art

    Ōhashi Katsuaki


    Full Text Available The introduction of Indian Buddhism in China occurred around the Christian era. However, Indian Buddhism was not directly accepted by the Han Chinese as they could not rival the philosophical religions which were already in existence. The existing philosophical religions were Confucianism and Taoism; therefore Indian Buddhism was not a necessity for the Han Chinese. Large volumes of Indian Buddhist scriptures, written in ancient Hindustani, began to be translated into Chinese, known as the ‘Chinese Translation Project.’ Accordingly, Chinese translations of Buddhist scriptures appeared. As for the Chinese translations, it was clear that ancient Chinese philosophies were instilled into these translations in order to make them more easily acceptable by the Han Chinese. It took a long period of time, around 200 years, for Indian Buddhism to assimilate into Chinese culture. Once Indian Buddhism was embraced by East Asia’s largest developed country, the foundations of Chinese civilization such as Chinese characters, paintings, sculptures, crafts, architecture, construction, and casting methods, then were transformed by Chinese Buddhism and Chinese Buddhist art. In the instance when one developed civilized country adopts features of another developed civilization, it takes a long period of time for harmonization to occur. However, within a short period of time, Chinese Buddhism became a significant culture within the East Asia region, and was accepted in the surrounding regions of China, such as the Korean Peninsula and islands of Japan. However, soon after the collapse of the Han Dynasty in 220A.D, the country was divided into three parts and the troubled time of 5 Hu 16 Guo began. Most aristocrats, bureaucrats and people in Chang’an became refugees, escaping towards the southern area of the Gansu River. Among them, painters and sculptors from Chang’an created splendid wall paintings and produced luxurious clay statues in the Mogao Caves. At

  19. Compassion, ethics, and neuroscience: neuroethics through Buddhist eyes.

    Tsomo, Karma Lekshe


    As scientists advance knowledge of the brain and develop technologies to measure, evaluate, and manipulate brain function, numerous questions arise for religious adherents. If neuroscientists can conclusively establish that there is a functional network between neural impulses and an individual's capacity for moral evaluation of situations, this will naturally lead to questions about the relationship between such a network and constructions of moral value and ethical human behavior. For example, if cognitive neuroscience can show that there is a neurophysiological basis for the moral appraisal of situations, it may be argued that the world's religions, which have traditionally been the keepers and purveyors of ethical values, are rendered either spurious or irrelevant. The questions point up broader dilemmas in the interface between science and religion, and raise concerns about the ethics of neurological research and experimentation. Since human beings will still arbitrate what is "moral" or "ethical," how can religious perspectives enrich the dialogue on neuroethical issues and how can neuroscience enrich dialogue on religion? Buddhist views on the nature of consciousness and methods of practice, especially meditation practice, may contribute to discussions on neuroscience and theories about the interrelationship between consciousness and ethical awareness by exploring the role that karma, intentionality, and compassion play in Buddhist understandings of the interrelationship between consciousness and ethics.

  20. Discussion on Relevant Concepts of Mechanism Based Medicine%循因医学相关概念探讨



    循因医学是笔者提出的新的医学模式,本文介绍循因医学的相关概念,如本质机制、循因分析、循因实验、循因临床、循因医学关系图等,希望有利于读者理解这种新模式.%Mechanism based medicine (MBM) is the new medical mode proposed by the author. Relevant concepts of MBM were described in this paper, such as essential mechanism, analysis of MBM, experiments of MBM, clinics of MBM, and diagram of MBM, thus helping readers to understand this new mode.

  1. “Greedy Buyers, Amoral Speculators and Lacking State Control” - Pupils Conceptions about the Crisis and their Relevance for Political and Economic Learning

    Andreas Klee


    Full Text Available This article exemplarily illustrates pupils‘ concepts of the Economic and Financial Crisis. It is especially interesting to examine in how far pupils assign relevance to current crisis phenomena for their daily lives and how these are perceived and explained. Diagnosing and analysing the available concepts is a prerequisite for planning Politics lessons. In the politic and economic classroom researching pupils‘ concepts and paying attention to them can help to show student orientated ways of learning.

  2. Conceptions of Landscape-Ecological Relevance Emerged in the Czech Botany during the Second Half of Twentieth Century

    Kovář Pavel


    Full Text Available This paper summarizes those substantial theoretical concepts or methods for applications within interdisciplinary or practical uses published by Czech autors (geobotanists = ecological botanists, plant ecologists and ecophysiologists during the second half of the 20th century, that were internationally cited. All selected thematical clusters are of landscape-ecological relevance through various contexts. Examples include the concepts of (potential reconstructed vegetation in maps (R. Neuhäusl, Z. Neuhäuslová, linear vegetation features (corridors in landscape and deductive classification of vegetation (K. Kopecký, analysis of soil seed bank (Z. Kropáč, dependency of macrophyte plant stands on ecodynamics (S. Hejný, dynamic periodicity in segetal vegetation (Z. Kropáč, E. Hadač, S. Hejný, anemo-orographic system explaining species richness in mountain regions (J. Jeník, productivity in grassland ecosystems (M. Rychnovská, J. Květ, elementary landscape units based on homogenity and potential vegetation (E. Hadač, landscape dispensation phenomena (V. Ložek, afforestation of coastal sandy dunes – the Netherlands, and polluted areas - the Czech Republic (J. Fanta, invasive plants and invasions into landscapes (M. Rejmánek.

  3. Fire and Water combined: Understanding the Relevance of Working Life Studies through a Concept of Practical Activity

    Keijo Räsänen


    Full Text Available When I presented the basic ideas of this paper at a conference, a Swedish colleague commented: ‘you manage to combine water and fire.’ I understood his kind comment to mean that he used water and fire as metaphors for practice and theory. The comment puzzled me for a while. Water and fire obviously destroy each other, or at least radically transform each other. Then I realized that humans have actually managed to combine water and fire in several ways. One solution is the kettle. It makes possible to use fire in a controlled way for the human purpose of boiling water. Thus, this paper can be taken as an attempt at offering a kettle-like vehicle for bringing together practicetheoretical concepts and vocational practice. My kettle is a concept of practical activity. I am trying to boil up an answer to the following question: in what senses a study of work can be practically relevant to those who are doing the work being studied?

  4. Two Versions of Buddhist Karen History of the Late British Colonial Period in Burma:

    Kazuto Ikeda


    Full Text Available The majority of the Karen people in Burma are in fact Buddhist, in spite of their widespread image as Christian, pro-British, anti-Burman, and separatist. In the last decade of British rule, two Buddhist interpretations of Karen history—virtually the first ethnic self-assertion by the Buddhist Karens—were published along with the first Christian version. Writing in Burmese for Burmese readers, the authors of these Buddhist versions sought to prove that the Karen were a legitimate people (lumyo comparable to the Burman and Mon in the Buddhist world, with dynastic lineages of their own kingship (min reaching back into the remote past, and a group faithful to their religious order (thathana. This linkage of ethnicity=kingship=religion was presented in order to persuade skeptical readers who believed that the Karen, lacking the tradition of Buddhist min, were too primitive to constitute an authentic lumyo of the thathana world. Analysis of these texts will shed light on the social formation of Karen identity among the Buddhists from the 1920s to the 1930s. This will also lead us to consider the historical processes whereby the quasi-ethnic idioms and logic innate to the Burmese-speaking world were transformed in the face of modern and Western notions of race and nation, and consequently the mutation of Burma into an ethnically articulated society.

  5. The solidarization potencies of Buddhist axiological system and humanistic grounding of its priorities

    Stefaniv Maryana Ivanivna


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of the value system of the Buddhist religion in the context of current globalization trends. The author considers the stereotypes about the confrontation in the parameters “West – East” and offers the alternative view on the model of Buddhist values and its solidarization potencies. The author extrapolates her ideas on the intellectual and practical sense of a famous Buddhist philosopher Daisaku Ikeda. The author emphasizes the importance of a practical way of aesthetic and ethical projects initiated by Ikeda and justifies their humanistic social significance.

  6. A character recognition scheme based on object oriented design for Tibetan buddhist texts

    Chen-Yuan Liu


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop a plausible method to code and compile Buddhist texts from original Tibetan scripts into Romanized form. Using GUI (Graphical User Interface based on Object Oriented Design, a dictionary of Tibetan characters can be easily made for Buddhist literature researchers. It is hoped that a computer system capable of highly accurate character recognition will be actively used by all scholars engaged in Buddhist literature research. In the present study, an efficient automatic recognition method for Tibetan characters is established. The result of the experiments performed is that the recognition rate achieved is 99.4% for 28,954 characters.

  7. Brief Analysis of the Ethic Values Embedded in the Buddhist Law of Causality%佛教因果思想的伦理价值浅析



    佛教伦理提倡"行善积德"、"普度众生"、"大慈大悲",体现了其宗教道德的人本性和生态性伦理观。佛教因果观涵括了善恶有报、改恶从善、劝善度人思想,既注重平等、责任、尊严的社会伦理,也具有深刻的重视环保的生态伦理价值和生态伦理实践意义。%The Buddhist understanding of human self-nature and environmental ethics are well reflected in the fundamental doctrines of doing good,saving all sentient beings and cultivating compassion,advocated in Buddhist ethics of the mind.The theory of Karma-the law of causality-in Buddhist teachings and practice,including the concepts of Karma retribution,changing from cruelty to kindness and helping others do well,lays great emphasis not only on such social ethics as equality,responsibility and dignity,but also on the practice of environmental ethics,which is of great value in the protection of our ecological environment.

  8. Global and Domestic Challenges Confronting Buddhist Institutions in Japan

    John Nelson


    Full Text Available With the rise of globalization in the past twenty years, the positioning of religious belief and activity worldwide has become increasingly complicated due to new information technologies, immigration flows, corporate restructuring and transnational finance. This paper identifies five factors that not only characterize late modern societies but also create conditions to which religions must adapt, or ignore at their peril. Using Buddhist temples, priests, and their surrounding communities in Japan as case studies, the paper traces how social forces such as 1 a “crisis of orientation,” 2 corporate and bureaucratic restructuring, 3 consumer culture, 4 individualization within a “risk” society, and 5 experimental approaches to spirituality impact religious practice and institutions. Without a perspective that incorporates the global into the local (but still acknowledges the power of individual agency, our analysis of religious activities remains parochial and sociocentric.

  9. [The tradition of healing with magical spells as seen in Buddhist texts].

    Yamanaka, Yukio; Yamashita, Tsutomu


    Although India has its own traditional medical systems such as Ayurveda, healing through magic spells was also practiced. After the systematization of Ayurveda, these healing spells almost lost their significance and only the spells for specific diseases were further transmitted. On the other hand, Indian Buddhism partially accepted the healing spells, and Buddhist texts which include the healing spells began to appear after the 4th century. These texts were brought into other Asian countries and became popular therein. However, these Buddhist healing spells have not been studied enough by Buddhism scholars and therefore their meaning in the history of medicine in India is not yet sufficiently understood. In this article, we discuss on the origin of these Buddhist healing spells, and thereafter we list and summarize the existing Buddhist texts involving these healing spells.

  10. The monastery rules: buddhist monastic organization in pre-modern Tibet

    Jansen, Berthe Katrien


    This study discusses the position of the monasteries in pre-1950s Tibetan societies and how that position was informed by Buddhist monastic ideology. The point of departure is the huge impact of monastic Buddhism on Tibetan society, economy, law, and culture. This work examines the impact of Buddhist monastic institutions on Tibetan societies by looking at their monastic policies with regard to organization, economy, justice, and public relations. The primary sources in which these policies c...

  11. Is fear of others linked to an uncertain sense of self? The relevance of self-worth, interpersonal self-concepts, and dysfunctional beliefs to paranoia.

    Lincoln, Tania M; Mehl, Stephanie; Ziegler, Michael; Kesting, Marie-Luise; Exner, Cornelia; Rief, Winfried


    The assumption that a low sense of self-worth can give rise to paranoid delusions is relevant from a therapeutic perspective, but research has been inconsistent. The present study sought to investigate how interpersonal self-concepts and global self-worth relate to psychotic and depressive psychopathology in persons with psychosis. Participants with psychosis (n=83) and healthy controls (n=33) were assessed for global self-worth, interpersonal self-concepts, and dysfunctional beliefs using the Frankfurt Self-Concept Scale and the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale. Symptoms were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the Peters et al. Delusions Inventory, the Paranoia Checklist, and the Beck Depression Inventory. We hypothesized that perceived threat to self-worth, as expressed in dysfunctional acceptance beliefs and negative interpersonal self-concepts, would be uniquely associated with persecutory delusions. In contrast, low global self-worth would be strongly associated with symptoms of depression. Multiple regression analyses were used to investigate the association between symptoms and self-concepts. As expected, low global self-worth was associated with depression, whereas the more specific perception of not being accepted by relevant others was most clearly related to psychotic symptoms. Almost half of the variance in paranoia scores was explained by negative interpersonal self-concepts and the interaction between negative interpersonal self-concepts and dysfunctional acceptance beliefs. Thus, cognitive interventions for delusions might be improved by focusing more on interpersonal self-concepts.

  12. The Significance of “mushin”: The Essential Mind of Zen Buddhist Philosophy for Humans in a Contemporary World

    Hisaki HASHI


    Full Text Available In our time of an information highway, digital networks are linked around the clock. Among various data many people are unconsciously depending on IT and digital medias with their body––but without any mind. The human origin, its creative thinking and acting, transmitting one idea to another for reforming and developing something new has been quite forgotten. Against this omnipresent phenomenon the Zen Buddhist Philosophy of Mind shows a dynamic approach to re-create and re-construct a human life, accompanied by the unique concept of the absolute one, “mu” (無, mu-shin (無心, the mind of mu presents a dynamic unity in its flexible activity.

  13. A Review of Concepts from Policy Studies Relevant to the Analysis of EFA in Developing Countries. Create Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 11

    Lall, Marie


    This paper aims to give an introduction to the central concepts and the literature of Policy Studies in education. The first part of the paper addresses the questions of what policy is. How is it made and why is it relevant? It looks in particular at the role of the state and the Policy cycle framework which is an analytical tool that helps to…

  14. Buddhist Philosophy: A Study of Buddha Images for Perpetuating Buddhism in Isan Society

    Thidarat Duangsin


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Buddha image is a symbol which built for representing the Buddha. At present, the majority of people always misinterpret and misevaluate the real value of Buddha image. As a matter of fact, Buddha image enhances social solidarity and social networks of Northeast-Thai people. Appreciating value of Buddha image is necessary for next generation so a study of Buddhist Philosophy towards Buddha images and current problems concerning interpretation and evaluation is a serious study. This research aimed at investigating a body of knowledge of Buddhist Philosophy towards Buddha image and current problems concerning interpretation and evaluation of Buddha image according to Buddhist Philosophy. Approach: Research areas were Ubon Ratchathani Province, Yasothon Province and Maha Sarakham Province. A sample of 116 people consisted of a group of key informants, a group of casual informants and a group of general informants. Research instruments were an observation, a survey, an interview and a focus group interview. Research data were examined by means of a triangulation technique and research results were presented by means of a descriptive analysis. Results: Buddha images reflect Buddhist philosophy towards 7 postures of the Buddha, they are a Buddha image in a posture of overcoming temptations (Pang Mara Wichai, in a posture of sitting under the protection of the hood of the mythical serpent (Pang Nak Prok, in a posture of sitting in meditation (Pang Samati, in a posture of giving a sermon (Pang Prathan Porn, in a posture of sitting with an aureole around the body (Pang Ruean Kaew and in a posture of displaying the Twin Miracles (Pang Yamok Patihan. A main current problem is people are more interested in the miracle power of Buddha image than the practice according to Buddhist Philosophy which conceals in it. Conclusion/Recommendation: Research result reveals the value of Buddhist Philosophy which conceals in Buddha image and point to

  15. The “Depressive” Attributional Style Is Not That Depressive for Buddhists

    Michelle T. Liu


    Full Text Available Numerous studies have shown that depression-prone people are characterized by a chronic style of attributing failures to internal, stable, and global causes, sometimes labeled as the “depressive attributional style.” Much less is known, however, about how social-cultural factors such as religious beliefs might modulate these processes. In the current study, we hypothesized that Buddhism’s view of ultimate internal controllability plays a buffering role against the depressive attributional style and reduces its negative impacts. We administrated measures of attributional styles and psychological adjustments to a sample of Chinese Buddhists as well as a control group recruited in China. Data analyses showed that Buddhists were more likely to attribute bad outcomes to internal, stable, and global causes, but their well-being was less affected by it. Thus, these results indicate that the “depressive” attributional style is not that depressive for Buddhists, after all.

  16. A Phenomenology of Meditation-Induced Light Experiences: Traditional Buddhist and Neurobiological Perspectives

    Jared R. Lindahl


    Full Text Available The scientific study of Buddhist meditation has proceeded without much attention to Buddhist literature that details the range of psychological and physiological changes thought to occur during meditation. This paper presents reports of various meditation-induced light experiences derived from American Buddhist practitioners. The reports of light experiences are classified into two main types: discrete lightforms and patterned or diffuse lights. Similar phenomena are well documented in traditional Buddhist texts but are virtually undocumented in scientific literature on meditation. Within Buddhist traditions, these phenomena are attributed a range of interpretations. However, because it is insufficient and problematic to rely solely upon the textual sources as a means of investigating the cause or significance of these phenomena, these qualitative reports are also considered in relation to scientific research on light-related experiences in the context of sensory deprivation, perceptual isolation, and clinical disorders of the visual system. The typologies derived from these studies also rely upon reports of experiences and closely match typologies derived from the qualitative study of contemporary practitioners and typologies found in Buddhist literary traditions. Taken together, these studies also provide evidence in support of the hypothesis that certain meditative practices—especially those that deliberately decrease social, kinesthetic, and sensory stimulation and emphasize focused attention—have perceptual and cognitive outcomes similar to sensory deprivation. Given that sensory deprivation increases neuroplasticity, meditation may also have an enhanced neuroplastic potential beyond ordinary experience-dependent changes. By providing and contextualizing these reports of meditation-induced light experiences, scientists, clinicians, and meditators gain a more informed view of the range of experiences that can be elicited by contemplative

  17. Who are these Buddhists and How Many of Them are There?

    Borup, Jørn


    Religious demography is generally a challenging endeavor, and counting and defining religions and religious identities in an Asian context is notoriously difficult. Buddhists in both Asia and the West have a long tradition of grey zone religiosity, which means that membership and mono-identity is......Religious demography is generally a challenging endeavor, and counting and defining religions and religious identities in an Asian context is notoriously difficult. Buddhists in both Asia and the West have a long tradition of grey zone religiosity, which means that membership and mono...

  18. A new look at the Flood Pulse Concept : The (ir)relevance of the moving littoral in temperate zone rivers

    Keizer, F. M.; Schot, P. P.; Okruszko, T.; Chormański, J.; Kardel, I.; Wassen, M. J.


    The Flood Pulse Concept links the hydraulic river flood pulse to floodplain nutrient status. The edge of inundation, referred to as the moving littoral, causes wetting and drying and input of river derived nutrients, resulting in high floodplain productivity. If during the floods other water sources

  19. Exploring Relations among Preservice Elementary Teachers' Ideas about Evolution, Understanding of Relevant Science Concepts, and College Science Coursework

    Rice, Diana C.; Kaya, Sibel


    This study investigated the relations among preservice elementary teachers' ideas about evolution, their understanding of basic science concepts and college science coursework. Forty-two percent of 240 participants did not accept the theory of human evolution, but held inconsistent ideas about related topics, such as co-existence of humans and…

  20. Exploring Relations among Preservice Elementary Teachers' Ideas about Evolution, Understanding of Relevant Science Concepts, and College Science Coursework

    Rice, Diana C.; Kaya, Sibel


    This study investigated the relations among preservice elementary teachers' ideas about evolution, their understanding of basic science concepts and college science coursework. Forty-two percent of 240 participants did not accept the theory of human evolution, but held inconsistent ideas about related topics, such as co-existence of humans and…

  1. Developing a contextually relevant concept of regional hegemony: The case of South Africa, Zimbabwe and 'quiet diplomacy'

    Prys, Miriam


    South Africa's 'quiet diplomacy' has been often used to reject the notion of South African leadership or regional hegemony in southern Africa. This article finds that this evaluation is founded on a misguided understanding of regional hegemony, which is based on conventional hegemony theories that are mostly derived from the global role of the United States after World War II. Alternatively, this article uses a concept of hegemony that, for example, takes into account the 'regionality' of Sou...

  2. 佛教生死观在中国的临终关怀语境%Buddhist View of Life and Death in the Chinese Hospice Care Context

    郭文杰; 史铀; 杨林; 王跃锜; 聂坤


    鉴于目前我国在临终照护中频发的医疗纠纷和各种医疗诚信乱象,本文试图从传统文化中佛教与儒学生死哲学观的比对中,探讨佛教生死观念在临终关怀语境下的作用,以资重新确立临终关怀的本土文化概念,希冀能够时本土临终护理事业的理论发展与实践起到一定的帮助。认为借鉴现代临终关·t,r-实施的核心策略——积极构建患者新的人际关系,嵌入佛教生死哲学的悟性,,-aJ-~,;t达成生死抉择上的精神引导作用。通过研究本族文化根基的概念衍生临终关怀的中国理念,是本论证议题援引佛教生死理念及儒学生死哲学的本意。%In view of the frequent occurrences of medical disputes in hospice care and various chaos that devi- ate from medical integrity, this article attempts to explore the role of Buddhist concept of life and death in the hos- pice context through comparison of the traditional philosophy of the life and death of Buddhism and Confucianism for the purpose of re - establishing the hospice concept of local culture and contributing to the theory development and practice of local hospice nursing career. This article holds that the spirit guiding role on the choice of life and death can be reached by learning from the core strategies of the modem hospice implementation, that is, to build new positive relationships with patients and introducing to them the perception of Buddhist philosophy of llfe and death. It is the intention of this argument to initiate the Chinese hospice concept derived through the study of the cultural roots of the family concept on the basis of introduction of the concept of Buddhist and the Confucian philosophies of life and death.

  3. The monastery rules : buddhist monastic organization in pre-modern Tibet

    Jansen, Berthe Katrien


    This study discusses the position of the monasteries in pre-1950s Tibetan societies and how that position was informed by Buddhist monastic ideology. The point of departure is the huge impact of monastic Buddhism on Tibetan society, economy, law, and culture. This work examines the impact of Buddhis

  4. The Noble Path: Buddhist Art of South Asia and Tibet. Teacher's Packet.

    Sierra Community Coll., Rocklin, CA. Mathematics Dept.

    A teaching packet was developed in association with the exhibition, "The Noble Path: Buddhist Art of South Asia and Tibet," held at the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., from October 1, 1989 to March 31, 1990. The packet aims to provide students in middle and secondary schools with introductory…

  5. Awakening is not a metaphor: the effects of Buddhist meditation practices on basic wakefulness.

    Britton, Willoughby B; Lindahl, Jared R; Cahn, B Rael; Davis, Jake H; Goldman, Roberta E


    Buddhist meditation practices have become a topic of widespread interest in both science and medicine. Traditional Buddhist formulations describe meditation as a state of relaxed alertness that must guard against both excessive hyperarousal (restlessness) and excessive hypoarousal (drowsiness, sleep). Modern applications of meditation have emphasized the hypoarousing and relaxing effects without as much emphasis on the arousing or alertness-promoting effects. In an attempt to counterbalance the plethora of data demonstrating the relaxing and hypoarousing effects of Buddhist meditation, this interdisciplinary review aims to provide evidence of meditation's arousing or wake-promoting effects by drawing both from Buddhist textual sources and from scientific studies, including subjective, behavioral, and neuroimaging studies during wakefulness, meditation, and sleep. Factors that may influence whether meditation increases or decreases arousal are discussed, with particular emphasis on dose, expertise, and contemplative trajectory. The course of meditative progress suggests a nonlinear multiphasic trajectory, such that early phases that are more effortful may produce more fatigue and sleep propensity, while later stages produce greater wakefulness as a result of neuroplastic changes and more efficient processing.

  6. Footprints, Imprints: Seeing Environmentalist and Buddhist Marie Byles as an Eastern Australian

    Allison Jane Cadzow


    Full Text Available This paper looks at the Australian author, traveller, conservationist and Buddhist Marie Byles (1900-1979 as “eastern” and Australian at once. It investigates the influence of Buddhist spirituality and travel on her approach to the environment and explores some possibilities arising from looking at her work as part of a broader transnational humanitarian and intellectual identification, moving beyond ethnicity based boundaries. Thinking about eastern Australian identities can encourage consideration of Australia in Asia, Australia as Asian, connections across seas, and links and differences within Australia. The paper explores Marie Byles as an eastern Australian by considering her travel in Sydney and the region (in Australia, China, Vietnam, India and Burma from the 1930s to the 1960s, the design and use of her home as a hub for early Buddhist meetings, her publication of texts discussing Eastern philosophy, and her environmental activism. Throughout the discussion Byles’s understanding of power relations, derived from an entwining of feminist and socialist ideas, a pacifist and Buddhist/spiritualist revaluation of environments emerges. From these influences she provided challenges to her fellow walkers, environmentalists, and society at large to rethink relationships with nature and each other, insights that have yet to be adequately explored and recognised.

  7. Suffering Loves and Needs Company: Buddhist and Daoist Perspectives on the Counsellor as Companion

    Cohen, Avraham; Bai, Heesoon


    Mindful of living in a multicultural and cross-cultural society, this article introduces and presents Buddhist and Daoist philosophy, psychology, and practice along with the potential for their application in psychotherapy within the context of the theme of the psychotherapist or counsellor accompanying the suffering person. The theoretical…

  8. The monastery rules : buddhist monastic organization in pre-modern Tibet

    Jansen, Berthe Katrien


    This study discusses the position of the monasteries in pre-1950s Tibetan societies and how that position was informed by Buddhist monastic ideology. The point of departure is the huge impact of monastic Buddhism on Tibetan society, economy, law, and culture. This work examines the impact of Buddhis

  9. Applying Buddhist Practices to Recovery: What I Learned from Skiing with a Little Buddha Wisdom

    Warren, Jane


    The author describes how 5 Buddhist practices--enlightenment, compassion, acceptance, mindfulness/meditation, and the spiritual community--can serve as a foundation for an integrated recovery model that incorporates numerous perspectives from the 12-step program of Alcoholics Anonymous. An application of the model illustrates how it is applied to…

  10. An HIV/AIDS intervention programme with Buddhist aid in Yunnan Province

    WU Feng; ZHANG Kong-lai; SHAN Guang-liang


    Background The prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Chinese ethnic minorities is an important component of China's AIDS issues. In this study, we launched an intervention programme in Yunnan Province of China, where the Dai people live, to carry out the community-based HIV/AIDS health education and behavioral interventions on ordinary Dai farmers. The Dai people believe in Theravada Buddhism.Methods Four rural communities were randomly divided into two groups. In one group (Buddhist group), HIV/AIDS health education and behavioral intervention were carried out by monks. The other group (women group) was instructed by women volunteers. The intervention continued for one year and the data were collected before and after the intervention project.Results In the Buddhist group, the villagers' AIDS related knowledge score was boosted from 3.11 to 3.65 (P<0.001),and some indices of the villagers' behavior using condoms improved after the intervention. But this improvement was poorer than that in the women group. In the Buddhist group, the villager's attitude score towards the people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) also increased significantly from 1.51 to 2.16 (P<0.001).Conclusion The results suggested that the Buddhist organization has limited success in promoting the use of condoms,but plays an important role in eliminating HIV/AIDS related discrimination.

  11. Royal Buddhist Monasteries in Rattanakosin Period: Potential Development Guidelines for Promoting Cultural Tourism

    Phra Somphop Nasing


    Full Text Available Royal Buddhist Monasteries or Temples are among the world’s most famous cultural attractions, full of magnificent arts such as Murals, stained glass and richly decorated gables, doors and windows panels in which some temples have been included as a world heritage. Apart from the precious architecture and beautiful courtyards, Thai Monasteries have long been the center pillar of social and spiritual guidance to Thai society. The Monastery plays an important role in various areas ranging from being the center for learning the Buddhist way of life, an education center for the young, center for sacred ceremonies for auspicious occasions and the host to various Buddhist ceremonies and local Thai festivals. Throughout its history, The Thai Buddhist monasteries, especially the royal monasteries have become a symbol of the Thai way of life and have attracted visitors from all over the world. Due to its high potential in monetary returns from cultural tourism, The Thai government have implemented various strategies in the past but had never really studied the various issues, status, role and potential of the monasteries in detail. Suggestions for the development of Royal Monasteries into a cultural tourist attraction include improvement in landscaping, security, public conveniences and facilities, attraction sites, potentials in providing services, advertising, public relations, activities and temple’s management.

  12. The Buddhist Stupa Site of Bharhut, and its Sacred and Secular Geographies

    Hawkes, Jason D.


    The remains of the Buddhist stupa at Bharhut have long been the subject of much study. Together they provide some of the first examples of the use of stone for building, sculptural, and epigraphic purposes in the Indian subcontinent. While the remains have been well documented, however, a pre-occ...

  13. Clinically relevant analytical techniques, organizational concepts for application and future perspectives of point-of-care testing.

    Luppa, Peter B; Bietenbeck, Andreas; Beaudoin, Christopher; Giannetti, Ambra


    Applications of near-patient testing have developed rapidly during the last years. It offers quick test results and minimal preanalytical interference, having the potential to improve patient outcomes, even when still under scrutiny by laboratory and healthcare professionals. Near-patient diagnostics are currently also used increasingly in developing countries, due to the burden of inadequate healthcare services in resource-constrained settings. This review describes the underlying emerging techniques that are based on advanced microfluidics and nanomaterials, device miniaturization, and multiplexing the detection mode. The organizational concepts for reasonable applications, contributing significantly to the future perspectives of this nascent diagnostic modality, are supplementary portrayed.

  14. The integrated control concept and its relevance to current integrated pest management in California fresh market grapes.

    Bentley, Walter J


    The foundation of an integrated pest management program involves valid treatment thresholds, accurate and simple monitoring methods, effective natural controls, selective pesticides and trained individuals who can implement the concept. The Integrated Control Concept written by Stern, Smith, van den Bosch and Hagen elucidated each of these points in an alfalfa ecosystem. Alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa L.) has a low per acre value, requires little hand labor and is primarily marketed in the USA. In contrast, fresh market table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) has a high per acre value, requires frequent hand labor operations, suffers unacceptable cosmetic damage and is marketed throughout both the USA and the world. Each of the components of a working IPM program is present in table grape production. Marketing grapes to foreign countries presents special problems with pests considered invasive and where residue tolerances for some selective insecticides are lacking. However, fresh market grape farmers are still able to deal with these special problems and utilize an IPM program that has resulted in a 42% reduction in broad-spectrum insecticide use from 1995 to 2007.

  15. The Rising Frequency of IT Blackouts Indicates the Increasing Relevance of IT Emergency Concepts to Ensure Patient Safety.

    Sax, Ulrich; Lipprandt, M; Röhrig, R


    As many medical workflows depend vastly on IT support, great demands are placed on the availability and accuracy of the applications involved. The cases of IT failure through ransomware at the beginning of 2016 are impressive examples of the dependence of clinical processes on IT. Although IT risk management attempts to reduce the risk of IT blackouts, the probability of partial/total data loss, or even worse, data falsification, is not zero. The objective of this paper is to present the state of the art with respect to strategies, processes, and governance to deal with the failure of IT systems. This article is conducted as a narrative review. Worst case scenarios are needed, dealing with methods as to how to survive the downtime of clinical systems, for example through alternative workflows. These workflows have to be trained regularly. We categorize the most important types of IT system failure, assess the usefulness of classic counter measures, and state that most risk management approaches fall short on exactly this matter. To ensure that continuous, evidence-based improvements to the recommendations for IT emergency concepts are made, it is essential that IT blackouts and IT disasters are reported, analyzed, and critically discussed. This requires changing from a culture of shame and blame to one of error and safety in healthcare IT. This change is finding its way into other disciplines in medicine. In addition, systematically planned and analyzed simulations of IT disaster may assist in IT emergency concept development.

  16. Ronsseau's Concept of Conscience and Relevant Review%卢梭的良心观及评述



    As an old ethical category, conscience played an important role in the history of ethics in the West. Rousseau's concept of conscience deeply rooted in the times, with distinctive features of the Motivation Theory, reflecting its unique understanding on the functions of science and reason, thus having deep theoretical and practical values%良心作为一个古老的伦理范畴在西方伦理史上占有重要的地位,卢梭的良心观深植于当时的时代,具有鲜明的动机论的特点,体现了其对科学和理性作用的独特认识,具有很大的理论和现实价值。

  17. The Concept of Origin in Meister Eckhart and the Philosophical Relevance of his Thought in the Work of Martin Heidegger

    Ricardo Baeza García


    Full Text Available The intention of this article is twofold. In one hand it exposes the issue concerning the response to the question about the origin in Meister Eckhart’s work. In order to answer this question, the article at hand analyzes the concepts of eigenschaft and gêlazenheit, which are fundamental within the Eckhartian thought. The purpose of this first block is to demonstrate to what extent the work of this author stems from the coordinates of the scholastic-medieval discourse, unfolding a thought of great originality and philosophical interest. On the other hand, the present article analyzes, in the third section, the influence of the Eckhartian mysticism in the work of Martin Heidegger. The fundamental aim of this second thematic block is to reveal in what way the work of Eckhart transcends the parameters of what Heidegger understands as metaphysical thought

  18. The varieties of contemplative experience: A mixed-methods study of meditation-related challenges in Western Buddhists

    Jared R Lindahl; Nathan E Fisher; David J Cooper; Rochelle K Rosen; Willoughby B Britton


    .... While meditation programs draw inspiration from Buddhist textual sources for the benefits of meditation, these sources also acknowledge a wide range of other effects beyond health-related outcomes...

  19. The Relevance Concept of Dawn and Twilight in the Book of Al-Qanun al-Mas’udi for Determine Isya’ and Subuh Pray Time

    Nugroho Eko Atmanto


    Full Text Available Morning dawn and phenomenon twilight phenomenon are interesting for the sci- entists not only for weather forecast and navigation but also setting time prayer times for muslims. The concept of the morning dawn and evening twilight were introduced by al-Biruni in the book Al-Qanun al-Mas’udi. Al-Biruni described the scene at morning dawn and evening twilight in the book Al-Qanun al-Mas’udi and concluded that the twilight occur when the position of the sun is at an altitude of -18°. The concept of al-Biruni is recognized by modern science, astronomy, and the prophetic tradition for its conformity. Besides, the discovery of al-Biruni on the height of the sun is so far used by several religious organizations in some coun- tries to set the time for isha and fajr prayers. By using content analysis, this study discussed the relevance of the concept of morning dawn and evening twilight in the book Al-Qanun al-Mas’udi for determining maghrib prayer time, the praying time for isha and fajr as well.

  20. Analyzing Tibetan Monastic Conceptions of the Universe Through Individual Drawings

    Sonam, Tenzin; Impey, Chris David


    Every culture and tradition has its own representation of the universe that continues to evolve due to the influence of new technologies, discoveries, and cultural exchanges. With the recent introduction of Western science into the Tibetan Buddhist monasteries in India, this study explores monastic conceptions of the universe prior to formal instruction in astronomy. The drawings of 59 Buddhist monks and nuns were analyzed using Tversky’s three criteria for drawing analysis—segmentation, order, and hierarchical structure of knowledge. We found that 22 out of 59 monastics drew a geocentric model of the universe with the Solar System as the dominant physical system, reflecting little influence of modern astronomical knowledge. Only six monastics drew the traditional Buddhist model of the world, generally known as the Mount Meru Cosmology. The implication of the monastics' representation of the universe for their assimilation into modern science is discussed.

  1. Analyzing Tibetan Monastics Conception of Universe Through Their Drawings

    Sonam, Tenzin; Chris Impey


    Every culture and tradition has their own representation of the universe that continues to evolve through new technologies and discoveries, and as a result of cultural exchange. With the recent introduction of Western science into the Tibetan Buddhist monasteries in India, this study explores the monastics’ conception of the universe prior to their formal instruction in science. Their drawings were analyzed using Tversky’s three criteria for drawing analysis namely—segmentation, order, and hierarchical structure of knowledge. Among the sixty Buddhist monastics included in this study, we find that most of them draw a geocentric model of the universe with the Solar System as the dominant physical system, reflecting little influence of modern astronomical knowledge. A few monastics draw the traditional Buddhist model of the world. The implications of the monastics' representation of the universe for their assimilation of modern science is discussed.

  2. A Buddhist perspective on industrial engineering and the design of work.

    Lee, Wei-Tau; Blumenthal, James A; Funk, Kenneth H


    The modern way of life is highly dependent upon the production of goods by industrial organizations that are in turn dependent upon their workers for their ongoing operations. Even though more than a century has passed since the dawn of the industrial revolution, many dangerous aspects of work, both physical and mental, remain in the workplace today. Using Buddhist philosophical principles, this paper suggests that although many sources of the problem reside within the larger society, the industrial engineer is still a key factor in bettering work and providing a workplace suitable for their fellow workers. Drawing on these insights, we present a number of work design guidelines that industrial engineers who abide by Buddhist principles could practice to help overcome some of the many sufferings produced by modern work.

  3. Contributions from Christian ethics and Buddhist philosophy to the management of compassion fatigue in nurses.

    Pembroke, Neil


    The aim in the article is to demonstrate how insights from Christian ethics and Buddhist philosophy can make contributions to the management of compassion fatigue. There are already helpful resources available that provide principles, tips, and practical guidelines for self-care. The approach here is centered on attitudinal, ethical, and philosophical issues. From the Christian tradition, the ethical principle of "equal regard" is employed. Equal regard is the notion that agape (disinterested, universal love) requires of a people that they love others neither more nor less than they love themselves. When the ethical principle that a nurse operates out of in her everyday life is self-sacrifice, self-care is much less likely to be set as a personal priority. From the Buddhist tradition, the principle of compassion with equanimity is engaged. The Buddhist ideal is opening oneself to the pain of the other while maintaining calmness or stillness of mind. It is contended that inculcation of this skill means that a nurse can be exposed to suffering without running down their store of compassion.

  4. Buddhistic Concept of Causality%佛教的因果观念




  5. The Dual Role a Buddhist Monk Played in the American South: The Balance between Heritage and Citizenship in the Refugee Community

    Daniel Rhodes


    Full Text Available Buddhist Monks in Vietnam struggle with cultural preservation differently from a monk in the U.S. where the forces of acculturation for new arrivals, often refugees, are extraordinarily overwhelming. The author provides a case study examining how Buddhist leaders engage in cultural preservation and community building in the American South. Fusing ideas of Engaged Buddhism and community building, the author will demonstrate how a Buddhist monk is able to navigate the broader American culture and assist Vietnamese immigrants and refugees to acculturate, while maintaining their own cultural heritage, beliefs and religious traditions; ultimately building a viable and sustainable Buddhist community that contributes greatly to its new host community.

  6. Mulheres budistas como líderes e professoras Buddhist women as leaders and teachers

    Rita M. Gross


    Full Text Available No budismo, o papel do professor de dharma (religioso é a função mais prestigiosa, e o professor de dharma tem mais autoridade do que qualquer outro líder. Apesar de os ensinamentos budistas não conterem nenhuma doutrina que limite essa função ao homem, na prática, em toda a história budista, foram pouquíssimas as mulheres que se tornaram conhecidas como professoras de dharma. Algumas pessoas acham que essas práticas não prejudicam as mulheres, porque estas podem, ainda assim, receber os ensinamentos, fazer as práticas mais avançadas e obter altos níveis de esclarecimento espiritual. Contudo, eu afirmo que o fato de não haver professoras de dharma reconhecidas foi nocivo seja para as mulheres budistas, seja para o próprio budismo. Isso tem a ver com o legado das comunidades de monjas em muitas partes do mundo budista, com os baixos padrões de educação para as mulheres, com o fraco prestígio de que gozam as praticantes mulheres, com a falta de modelos para as mulheres e com a perda da sabedoria feminina na herança do pensamento budista. Até que as professoras de dharma não forem amplamente reconhecidas e honradas, o budismo continuará sendo perseguido por seu passado patriarcal, com o prejuízo de todos.In Buddhism, the role of the dharma (religious teacher is the most prestigious role, and dharma teachers have more authority that any other leaders. Though the Buddhist teachings contain no doctrines that limit this role to men, in practice throughout Buddhist history, very few women have been publicly acknowledged as dharma teachers. Some people claim that this practice does not harm women because women can, nevertheless, receive teachings, do advanced practices, and attain high states of spiritual realization. However, I claim that the practice of not recognizing women as dharma teachers has been very harmful both to Buddhist women and to Buddhism itself. It has lead to the demise of the nuns' community in many parts of

  7. Elder Gongga 貢噶老人 (1903-1997) between China, Tibet and Taiwan : Assessing Life, Mission and Mummification of a Buddhist Woman

    Travagnin, Stefania


    Elder Gongga (1903-1997), a Chinese Buddhist woman native of Beiping, played a crucial role in the transmission of Tibetan Buddhism in China and Taiwan, bridged Dharma traditions, and merged Buddhist and cultural identities; she also became an eminent nun in the history of female Buddhism for life a

  8. Elder Gongga 貢噶老人 (1903-1997) between China, Tibet and Taiwan : Assessing Life, Mission and Mummification of a Buddhist Woman

    Travagnin, Stefania


    Elder Gongga (1903-1997), a Chinese Buddhist woman native of Beiping, played a crucial role in the transmission of Tibetan Buddhism in China and Taiwan, bridged Dharma traditions, and merged Buddhist and cultural identities; she also became an eminent nun in the history of female Buddhism for life a

  9. Ordaining for Learning Culture: Educational Conservation and Development of Buddhist Monk Universities for Isan People with Limited Opportunity

    Sanit Sumhiram


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Buddhist monk universities in Isan (northeast Thailand have problems of lacking Buddhist monk students. The number of people ordained for learning decreases because Isan people do not like ordaining for learning. In order to adjust the condition of problem to catch up with current conditions, this research study was conducted. The purpose of this research was to examine the background, current conditions, problems and process of conserving and developing ordaining for learning at Buddist monk universities for people with limited opportunity in Isan. Approach: The research area covered Khon Kaen, Nakhon Ratchasima and Roi Et provinces. Each of these provinces had campuses of the 2 Buddhist monk universities located in the same province. These universities had continuously been proving education at the undergraduate and graduate studies level up to present. The research procedure used the qualitative research methodology. Data were collected from documents, related literature and field studies using survey, observation, interviews and focus group discussion from a group of totally 208 informants. The findings were presented by means of a descriptive analysis. Results: There were 2 universities: (1 Mahachulalongkornrajavidyalaya University provided education at 3 locations: Khon Kaen Campus, first offered in 1986; Nakhon Ratchasima Campus, first established in 1987 and Roi Et Classroom, first established in 1999 according to the project for classroom extension by Khon Kaen Campus. (2 Mahamakut Buddhist University provided education at 3 locations: Isan Campus, located in Khon Kaen province, first established in 1990; Roi Et Campus, first established in 1994 and Koraj Education Center, located in Nakhon Ratchasima province, first established in 2006. For current conditions and problems of ordaining for learning at Buddhist monk universities for people with limited opportunity in Isan, Mahachulalongkornrajavidyalaya University at

  10. Attenuated associations between increasing BMI and unfavorable lipid profiles in Chinese Buddhist vegetarians.

    Zhang, Hui-Jie; Han, Peng; Sun, Su-Yun; Wang, Li-Ying; Yan, Bing; Zhang, Jin-Hua; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Shu-Yu; Li, Xue-Jun


    Obesity is related to hyperlipidemia and risk of cardiovascular disease. Health benefits of vegetarian diets have well-documented in the Western countries where both obesity and hyperlipidemia were prevalent. We studied the association between BMI and various lipid/lipoprotein measures, as well as between BMI and predicted coronary heart disease probability in lean, low risk populations in Southern China. The study included 170 Buddhist monks (vegetarians) and 126 omnivore men. Interaction between BMI and vegetarian status was tested in the multivariable regression analysis adjusting for age, education, smoking, alcohol drinking, and physical activity. Compared with omnivores, vegetarians had significantly lower mean BMI, blood pressures, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein ratio, triglycerides, apolipoprotein B and A-I, as well as lower predicted probability of coronary heart disease. Higher BMI was associated with unfavorable lipid/lipoprotein profile and predicted probability of coronary heart disease in both vegetarians and omnivores. However, the associations were significantly diminished in Buddhist vegetarians. Vegetarian diets not only lower BMI, but also attenuate the BMI-related increases of atherogenic lipid/ lipoprotein and the probability of coronary heart disease.

  11. The Problem of the Inefficacy of Knowledge in Early Buddhist Soteriology

    Ryan Showler


    Full Text Available Early Buddhism has been described as a “gnostic soteriology” in that itsees the chief cause of life’s unsatisfactoriness to be ignorance of certain metaphysical truths, and that once this ignorance is eliminated through awareness of the true nature of reality, the suffering that is rooted in ignorance goes away with it. In what follows, I will describe a significant problem that early Buddhism faces, as does any gnostic soteriology, and propose a solution to the problem. This is a quasi-analytic study of early Buddhist epistemology in that it applies some of the standard ideas about knowledge that have guided analytic epistemology for some time to a specific problem that confronts the early Buddhist attempt to claim that knowing some truths about reality will transform us in some significant way. When speaking of “early Buddhism” in what follows, I intend those teachings contained in thePali canon, which the Theravada tradition has sought to preserve. Historically Buddhism quickly moves away from the Theravada focus on nirvana and into the various schools of the “Great Vehicle” of the Mahayana Tradition. My characterization of Buddhism as a gnostic soteriology refers only to a form of Buddhism that may be limited to the earliest part of the movement and the conservative wing (Theravada that has sought to preserve its earliest form ever since.

  12. Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research: Ethical Views of Buddhist, Hindu and Catholic Leaders in Malaysia.

    Sivaraman, Mathana Amaris Fiona; Noor, Siti Nurani Mohd


    Embryonic Stem Cell Research (ESCR) raises ethical issues. In the process of research, embryos may be destroyed and, to some, such an act entails the 'killing of human life'. Past studies have sought the views of scientists and the general public on the ethics of ESCR. This study, however, explores multi-faith ethical viewpoints, in particular, those of Buddhists, Hindus and Catholics in Malaysia, on ESCR. Responses were gathered via semi-structured, face-to-face interviews. Three main ethical quandaries emerged from the data: (1) sanctity of life, (2) do no harm, and (3) 'intention' of the research. Concerns regarding the sanctity of life are directed at particular research protocols which interfere with religious notions of human ensoulment and early consciousness. The principle of 'do no harm' which is closely related to ahimsa prohibits all acts of violence. Responses obtained indicate that respondents either discourage research that inflicts harm on living entities or allow ESCR with reservations. 'Intention' of the research seems to be an interesting and viable rationale that would permit ESCR for the Buddhists and Hindus. Research that is intended for the purpose of alleviating human suffering is seen as being ethical. This study also notes that Catholics oppose ESCR on the basis of the inviolability of human life.

  13. Nursing homes: Development of elderly care management in the Buddhist way

    Warakorn Poolswat


    Full Text Available This research aims to study the historical background and current situation of care management in nursing homes for the elderly in Western Thailand and develop care management according to Buddhist principles. This qualitative research analyzes three nursing homes using interview, observation, focus group discussion and workshop as data collection tools. The researchers used a snowball sampling method to identify 109 respondents, made up of 35 key informants, 34 casual informants and 40 general informants. The researchers verified data with a triangulation method and analyzed information descriptively. Results found that the most eminent problems in care management of elderly nursing homes are the image of experts, environment and activity management. Nursing homes do not respond to spiritual requests because of a lack of social and spiritual development. It is necessary to find a new way to emphasize responsibility and respond to spiritual requests by Buddhist means. In this paper, the researchers propose a set of guidelines for the care management of nursing homes in Western Thailand.

  14. On the Genology of Buddhist Literature%佛教文学文类学初探



    中印佛教文学在长期的发展过程中形成了一些独特的文学体式和类型,如诗歌类的偈颂与赞歌、故事类的本生与譬喻、说唱类的唱导与变文等,都特色鲜明而且影响深远,在东方文学文类的发展演变中发挥了重要作用.%Some unique styles have been formed in the process of long-term development of Chinese Buddhist literature and Indian Buddhist literature, such as gatha and stotra in poetry, jātaka and avadāna in narration, changdao and bianwen in talking and singing art. These styles have played an important role in the evolution of Oriental literature genre because of their unique features and profound inlfuence.

  15. A week of Danjiki (Buddhist fasting ritual) on cardiometabolic health: a case report.

    Tanaka, Hirofumi; Tomoto, Tsubasa; Sugawara, Jun


    Danjiki is an ascetic traditional fasting ritual in the Japanese Buddhism training. Here we present a case of a 48-year-old man who underwent a 1-week-long Danjiki fasting ritual in a remote Buddhist temple. The daily ritual consisted of waking up at 3:30 am, hiking strenuously in the steep mountains followed by meditations on the rocks, focused calligraphy of religious drawings and documents, recital of Buddhist prayer chanting, and standing under waterfalls while reciting prayers. He was allowed to drink water ad libitum and a cup of carrot juice a day. After a week of the Danjiki ritual, his body weight decreased by 5 kg. Resting metabolic rate did not change. Fasting blood glucose did not change but plasma triglyceride decreased 35 %. There were no changes in blood pressure. Arterial stiffness increased 15-25 % and endothelium-dependent vasodilation decreased 5 %. These results indicate that the Danjiki ritual produced significant weight loss but unexpectedly reduced vascular functions.

  16. The relevance of the vitamin D endocrine system (VDES) for tumorigenesis, prevention, and treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC): Present concepts and future perspectives.

    Reichrath, Jörg; Reichrath, Sandra


    Solar UV (UV)-B-radiation exerts both beneficial and adverse effects on human health. On the one hand, it is the most important environmental risk factor for the development of non-melanoma skin cancer [NMSC; most importantly basal (BCC) and squamous (SCC) cell carcinomas], that represent the most common malignancies in Caucasian populations. On the other hand, the human body's requirements of vitamin D are mainly achieved by UV-B-induced cutaneous photosynthesis. This dilemma represents a serious problem in many populations, for an association of vitamin D-deficiency and multiple independent diseases including various types of cancer has been convincingly demonstrated. In line with these findings, epidemiologic and laboratory investigations now indicate that vitamin D and its metabolites have a risk reducing effect for NMSC. Potential mechanisms of action include inhibition of the hedgehog signaling pathway (BCC) and modulation of p53-mediated DNA damage response (SCC). As a consequence of these new findings it can be concluded that UV-B-radiation exerts both beneficial and adverse effects on risk and prognosis of NMSC. It can be assumed that many independent factors, including frequency and dose of UV-B exposure, skin area exposed, and individual factors (such as skin type and genetic determinants of the skin`s vitamin D status and of signaling pathways that are involved in the tumorigenesis of NMSC) determine whether UV-B exposure promotes or inhibits tumorigenesis of NMSC. Moreover, these findings may help to explain many of the differential effects of UV-B radiation on risk of NMSC, including variation in the dose-dependent risk for development of SCC in situ (actinic keratosis, AK), invasive SCC, and BCC. In this review, we analyze the relevance of the vitamin D endocrine system (VDES) for tumorigenesis, prevention, and treatment of NMSC and give an overview of present concepts and future perspectives.

  17. The Concept of Self in Buddhism and Brahmanism: Some Remarks

    Andrej ULE


    Full Text Available I contrast briefly the Buddhist concept of Self as a process and a conditional reality with the concept of the substantial metaphysical concept of Self in Brahmanism and Hinduism. I present the criticism of the Buddhist thinkers, such as Nāgārjuna, who criticize any idea of the metaphysical Self. They deny the idea of the Self as its own being or as a possessor of its mental acts. However, they do not reject all sense of Self; they allow a pure process of knowledge (first of all, Self-knowledge without a fixed subject or “owner” of knowledge. This idea is in a deep accord with some Chan stories and paradoxes of the Self and knowledge.

  18. Research on Buddhist Biographical Literature and Its Related Issues%佛教传记文学研究史及相关问题刍议



    Buddhist biographical literature is one of the most important ways of Buddhist expansion and development, consisting of two major parts: Buddha’s biography, and biographies of Buddha's disciples, monks, and household Buddhists. Buddha’s biography can be interpreted in both broad and narrow senses. Buddhist biographical literature can be classified into four categories: Buddha’s biography, bi-ographies of Indian Buddhist saints, biographies of Chinese Buddhist monks and nuns, and biographies of other Buddhist related persons (such as household Buddhists). The author of this article maintains that further discussions are needed for the characteristics and research scope of Buddhist biographical litera-ture, and its relationship with Chinese classical Literature.%佛教传记文学是佛教在汉地阐扬、发展的重要形式,主要包括佛陀传和佛弟子传、僧传、居士护法传两大组成部分,其中佛传有广、狭两种涵义。佛教传记文学具体可分为佛陀传记、印土圣贤传记(佛弟子传)、中国僧尼传记及其他类型传记(如居士传)四种类型。笔者提出,对佛教传记文学的属性、佛教传记文学的研究范畴和佛教传记文学与中国古典文学的关系仍需要进一步深入探讨。

  19. A Study of Transliterated Characters in the Buddhist Scriptures%佛经译音字用字研究



    The transliterated Chinese characters in the Buddhist Scriptures can be divided into two types:Chinese characters with similar Sanskrit pronunciation and created characters based on San-skrit phonetic structures.But one Sanskrit word can be transliterated into different Chinese char-acters,and transliterated characters vary due to translation elision.Different Chinese characters with the same pronunciation also result in varied transliterated words.Mixed Sanskrit vocabulary used by Indian Buddhists,different types of Buddhist Scriptures introduced to China,different types of Sanskrit and inconsistent Buddhist scriptures transliteration rules are the main causes of the different transliterated Characters in the Buddhist Scriptures.%佛经译音字主要包括译经者所选用的与梵音语音相近的汉字和根据梵音构造的译音专用字。但在使用中同一个梵文会对译不同的译音字,由于翻译时的省音也使得同一个梵语词汇的译音字用字量多有差异,同时,汉字异写也造成了虚假译音字用字差异现象。印度佛教所使用的是混合梵语、传入汉地的佛经文本语言类型不尽一致、梵汉语言类型的差异和佛经译音规则不明确等是造成佛经译音字用字出现以上差异的主要原因。

  20. Politiske buddhister

    Borup, Jørn


    Munkene i Myanmar (Burma) er på gaden i politiske protester mod et undertrykkende regime. Den fredelige asiatiske religion er kommet i politikernes bevidsthed, og for en gangs skyld er det ikke islam, der skaber overskrifter i mediernes religionsdækning. Men politik og buddhisme har aldrig været...

  1. The Influence of Buddhist Meditation Traditions on the Autonomic System and Attention.

    Amihai, Ido; Kozhevnikov, Maria


    Cognitive and neuroscience research from the past several years has shed new light on the influences that meditative traditions have on the meditation practice. Here we review new evidence that shows that types of meditation that developed out of certain traditions such as Vajrayana and Hindu Tantric lead to heightened sympathetic activation and phasic alertness, while types of meditation from other traditions such as Theravada and Mahayana elicit heightened parasympathetic activity and tonic alertness. Such findings validate Buddhist scriptural descriptions of heightened arousal during Vajrayana practices and a calm and alert state of mind during Theravada and Mahayana types of meditation and demonstrate the importance of the cultural and philosophical context out of which the meditation practices develop.

  2. The Influence of Buddhist Meditation Traditions on the Autonomic System and Attention

    Amihai, Ido; Kozhevnikov, Maria


    Cognitive and neuroscience research from the past several years has shed new light on the influences that meditative traditions have on the meditation practice. Here we review new evidence that shows that types of meditation that developed out of certain traditions such as Vajrayana and Hindu Tantric lead to heightened sympathetic activation and phasic alertness, while types of meditation from other traditions such as Theravada and Mahayana elicit heightened parasympathetic activity and tonic alertness. Such findings validate Buddhist scriptural descriptions of heightened arousal during Vajrayana practices and a calm and alert state of mind during Theravada and Mahayana types of meditation and demonstrate the importance of the cultural and philosophical context out of which the meditation practices develop. PMID:26146629

  3. A perfusion bioreactor system capable of producing clinically relevant volumes of tissue-engineered bone: in vivo bone formation showing proof of concept

    Janssen, F.W.; Oostra, Jaap; van Oorschot, Arie; van Blitterswijk, Clemens


    In an effort to produce clinically relevant volumes of tissue-engineered bone products, we report a direct perfusion bioreactor system. Goat bone marrow stromal cells (GBMSCs) were dynamically seeded and proliferated in this system in relevant volumes (10 cc) of small sized macroporous biphasic

  4. The Development of Learning Activities in Srijanwittaya General Buddhist Scripture School: A Participatory Action Research

    Phrachakrapol Pongsir


    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to study: 1 the former and present conditions, problem, expectations, possible alternative solutions to solve problems, achieve expectations and the choices made in formulating an action plan for development of learning activity. 2 the results of both expected and unexpected changes from individual, group and organization, also the new knowledge created from learning by doing processes with participatory action research. The 17 participants consist of administrators, teachers, school committee and 5 stakeholders. Such as administrative officer, caretaker, community leader and representative alumni. Research instruments included an observation form, in-depth interview, and document examination. The research finding were as follows: Srijanwittaya general buddhist scripture school lack of equipment for teaching and learning and modern teaching aids. Teachers have not been development for 21st century learning skills. These were the cause of: bored lesson, low student achievement and school has not passed the third quality evaluation by the office for National Education Standards and Quality Assessment (Public Organization Researcher focus on solving problem by 4 projects were Follows: 1 promotion and development of teacher project 2 developing school environment project. 3 encourage collaboration for school development project and 4 improving manage potential for school based management project. After improving found that Srijanwittaya general buddhist scripture school, Loei province passed the quality evaluation and higher students achievement. Moreover, researcher and participants were learnt from research practice such as knowledge and experience. The new knowledge had 3 characteristics as follows: 1 new knowledge on participatory performance of school context 2 new knowledge by 5 steps of participle learning principal and 3 new knowledge by lesson learned visualizing from “SRIJAN Model”.

  5. A Low-Cost, Low-Risk Mission Concept for the Return of Martian Atmospheric Dust: Relevance to Human Exploration of Mars

    Wadhwa, M.; Leshin, L.; Clark, B.; Jones, S.; Jurewicz, A.; McLennan, S.; Mischna, M.; Ruff, S.; Squyres, S.; Westphal, A.


    We present a low-cost, low-risk mission concept for return of martian atmospheric dust. Such a mission would serve as a scientific, technological and operational pathfinder for future surface sample return and human exploration to Mars.

  6. A Reformed perspective on the concept of the ‘common good’ and its relevance for social action in South Africa today

    Jakobus M. Vorster


    Full Text Available This article investigates the idea of the ‘common good’ from a Classic Reformed perspective and the possibilities raised by a fresh approach to the concept for social action by civil society in South Africa today. The central theoretical argument of this article is that the new interest in the concept of natural law, as became evident in modern-day moral reflection in the Classic Reformed moral teaching, can indeed contribute to a new positive assessment of the concept common good and can provide a valuable framework for the foundation of reformed social action in cooperation with civil society in South Africa today. Firstly, the concept is discussed within the framework of the reformed idea of ‘natural law’ and the argument concludes with the finding that the concept can be accommodated in Reformed Theology. Secondly, a case is made for the cooperation between churches, other religious institutions and the broader civil society to cooperate on the basis of the common good and global ethics to address three areas of serious concern in the South African society. These are the promotion of the idea of human dignity within the social sphere with special reference to racism, xenophobia and sexism as well as the development of family life and family values, and the advancement of the idea of neighbourliness as a core ingredient of social healing and reconciliation.

  7. The Tzu Chi Silent Mentor Program: Application of Buddhist Ethics to Teach Student Physicians Empathy, Compassion, and Self-Sacrifice.

    Santibañez, Scott; Boudreaux, Debra; Tseng, Guo-Fang; Konkel, Kimberly


    The Buddhist Tzu Chi Silent Mentor Program promotes the donation of one's body to science as a selfless act by appealing to the Buddhist ethics of compassion and self-sacrifice. Together, faculty, families, and donors help medical students to learn the technical, spiritual, emotional, and psychological aspects of medicine. Students assigned to each "Silent Mentor" visit the family to learn about the donor's life. They see photos and hear family members' stories. Afterwards, students write a brief biography of the donor which is posted on the program website, in the medical school, and on the dissection table. In this paper, we: (1) summarize the Silent Mentor Program; (2) describe findings from an assessment of medical students who recently completed a new version of the program in Malaysia; and (3) explore how healthcare settings could benefit from this innovative program.

  8. Self-perceived role and function of Christian prison chaplains and Buddhist volunteers in Hong Kong prisons.

    Chui, Wing Hong; Cheng, Kevin Kwok-yin


    Although there have been a handful of studies examining the work of chaplains and prison volunteers in a Western setting, few have endeavored to conduct research into the experiences of religious workers in Asian penitentiaries. To fill this gap, this article reports on exploratory research examining the work of a selected group of religious workers in Hong Kong prisons. A total of 17 religious workers were interviewed: 10 prison chaplains and 7 Buddhist volunteers who paid regular prison visits. Qualitative findings generated from in-depth interviews present three themes: the range of religious activities performed, the importance of religion for the rehabilitation of inmates, and the hope of continued religious support to prisoners after discharge. The significance of this research is that it sheds light on the understudied work of prison chaplains and volunteers in Hong Kong and portrays the difference between the works of the Christian ministry and Buddhist volunteers.

  9. Countercurrents from the West: “blue-eyed” Zen masters, Vipassanā meditation, and Buddhist psychotherapy in contemporary Korea.

    Bongseok Joo, Ryan


    One surprising and yet relatively unknown aspect of contemporary Korean Buddhism is the significant influence of American and European Buddhism. Between 1989 and 2009, South Koreans witnessed well-educated “blue-eyed” monastic residents via the Korean media, and the emergence of new bestsellers by authors like Thich Nhat Hahn and Jack Kornfield, written initially for Western audiences but since translated into Korean. The new teachings from the West have inspired a sudden growth of interest in vipassanā meditation as an “alternative” to Kanhwa Sŏn practice, and the emergence of a new academic field: Buddhist psychotherapy. This new wave of transnational influence from the West has changed not only the way Koreans practice Buddhism but also how they perceive Buddhist history and their own identities. In addition, the perceived “prestige” of Buddhism in the West has provided a new rhetorical strategy to defend Buddhism against other religions, particularly Korean evangelical Christianity.

  10. 宋濂佛门交游研究%Research on Song Lian′s Social Activities in Buddhist Circle



    Song lian′s Life could be divided into three periods,i.e.the pre-official,the in-official and the post official,which brought him three circles of friends.He learnt from Huang Jin and made friends with Buddhist monk Qian Yan,for example,before he took office in Nanjing;after he was appointed an official,the friends he made were related to Da Tian Jie Temple;in his retirement,his making friends were based on geographical relationship and reputation and the three circles are interwoven and interconnected.Song′s social inter-actions with the Buddhist monks shapes him as a scholar of Confucius-Buddhist,of which Confucianism was his main research.%宋濂生活阶段分入仕前、仕宦南京和致仕后三个时期。师从黄蟳、结交千岩禅师作为入仕前佛门交友圈,仕宦南京以大天界寺形成交游圈,致仕后则以地缘及名望形成交游圈。这三个佛门交游圈呈现网状互相交织状态。宋濂与僧人的交游互动,形成了他以儒者立命、旁涉佛教的儒释关系。

  11. Introducing the Concept of the Minimally Important Difference to Determine a Clinically Relevant Change on Patient-Reported Outcome Measures in Patients with Intermittent Claudication

    A.P. Conijn (Anne P.); W. Jonkers (Wilma); E.V. Rouwet (Ellen); A. Vahl (Anco); J.A. Reekers (Jim); M.J. Koelemay


    textabstractPurpose: The minimally important difference (MID) represents the smallest change in score on patient-reported outcome measures that is relevant to patients. The aim of this study was to introduce the MID for the Vascular Quality of Life Questionnaire (VascuQol) and the walking impairment

  12. The Question of Evolution in the Buddhist Ecology of Thalia Field’s Bird Lovers, Backyard

    Gillian Parrish


    Full Text Available Thalia Field’s work, which she has described as an “ecology of questions,” inhabitsthe edges of genres, where she grows her verbal environments of researched materialanimated by her asking. Her most recent book, Bird Lovers, Backyard (New Directions,2010, spins itself from the twigs and strands and of terminologies ranging fromarchitecture to zoology as she tracks questions of language, behavior, and relationshipsbetween species. “Whose Umwelt is it anyway?” she asks in this extended study ofhuman behavior and the uses of language in how we interpret and shape the world forourselves and other life forms.Through this exploration of human contradictions and miscommunicationbetween species, Field makes a nest for an egg that is a question of possibilities—forBird Lovers, Backyard is also a kind of future studies for human potential, operating byway of past example, telling tales of what might amount to a “series of mistakes.”Kicking off this inquiry into what we might be, the book opens with an epigraph fromher young son that slyly functions as a kind of crossroads: “What if everyone in theworld wasn’t nice?” asks the child—a question that may serve as a hardnosed premisefor going forth into the world or as a challenge, a call to grow up.And here, for a reader looking, Field’s submerged Buddhist outlook catches thelight. For in her allegiance to an agile balance of “nichelessness,” Field keepsBuddhism—fitting its central idea of interdependent origination—as but one strand inthe weave of her influences. In the book’s third poem-essay “This Crime Has a Name,”which this paper will focus on, Tibetan Buddhist figures and ideas form a part of anecosystem that encompasses industrial design, biosemiotics, and Chinese logicianswherein she thinks through the displacement of sparrow by spaceman, asking whatextinction looks like and what our species might mean.

  13. Within the Meaning of Buddhist Art%佛教艺术的人间所指



    汉藏佛教艺术中蕴藏着国民素质教育的宝贵资源,值得深入发掘和利用。费孝通教授晚年指出,人富了之后需要追求文艺,中国需要从科技兴国转向文艺兴国,这是有道理的。美与善的神韵,以建筑、图像和雕塑的形式,形成光光交彻、物物相指的“生命场”,不仅可以开启民智,推动创新,还可以促发感悟,自觉忘我。汉藏佛教艺术可以帮助我们超越种见,以千灯互照的心态,对待民族共生的现实。从“形物”升华“精神”,以“精神”返指“形物”,这是象似、标指、象征的大圆融,是万物共生、万象互构的大千世界。%Han & Tibetan Buddhist art bears a valuable resource for national quality education, which is worth to explore and use in depth. Professor Fei Xiaotong noted in his later years, people need to pursue art after the richnesss, and rejuvenation in China need to shift from technology to art, which is justified. The charm of beauty and goodness, in the form of architecture, graphics and sculpture, forming light penetration, objects contrast "life course", not only enlightens the people, promotes innovation, and also triggers perception, conscious ecstasy. Han & Tibetan Buddhist art can help us beyond racial prejudice, according to the mentality of greenery, treat reality of ethnic symbiosis. Sublimation From "shaped objects" to "spirit" and then "spirit" refers to "shaped objects", which is iconic, standard finger, a symbol of big harmony, symbiosis,of all things, mutual construction of worlds.

  14. Buddhist Culture and Modern Urban Landscape%禅文化与现代城市景观设计



    In modern urban landscape design,the contents are simple and short of activity.The situation is serious among different design schedules.The design results are similar and it could not say the deeper layer culture development and explanation.As a large country,China has long history and colorful culture.There are a lot of human and history culture which could be exploited and combined with urban environment to improve urban sample.Starting form Buddhist definition,history development and its relative contents,the paper improved Buddhist theory,combined the Buddhist culture with the modern urban landscape construction.From the viewpoint of the Buddhist culture,the modern urban landscape design method,the theory and the combination of landscape and Buddhist were studied.It is sure that the present findings should put a brand new development direction for modern urban landscape design.%当今城市景观设计呆板,缺乏内容,相互之间的照抄照搬情况严重,设计成果雷同感太强,更谈不上深层次的文化积淀以及诠释。中国文化源远流长,渗透的领域甚广,可以供如今的设计工作者去整理挖掘,并将它们注入到现代城市景观设计之中,以彰显城市形象的文化特色。佛教禅宗作为中国历史文化长河中的一颗璀璨明珠,有许多值得发掘的元素。从禅学的角度阐述现代城市景观设计的方法、理念,能够为现如今的城市景观设计提供一个崭新的思考方向。

  15. Liberation through Compassion and Kindness: The Buddhist Eightfold Path as a Philosophy of Life

    William Irwin


    Full Text Available In this essay I offer my interpretation of the Buddhist Eightfold Path as a philosophy of life, beginning with discussion of right views concerning suffering, liberation, compassion, and kindness. Compassion and kindness are virtues that direct us away from ourselves and our craving, and thus free us from suffering. The goal of right thought is to have only the kinds of thoughts we want to have. Right speech is practiced in words that express compassion and kindness. Right action calls us to be slow to react, and thoughtfully do the next right thing. Right livelihood means that any work that directly or indirectly causes others to suffer is work to avoid. Right effort recognizes that we live well only with effort. Right mindfulness is doing one thing and thinking only of it. Right concentration — clearing the mind in meditation — is both the culmination and the second beginning of the Eightfold Path. No one graduates from the Eightfold Path; living well is an ongoing process.

  16. Periodic Glacial Lake Outburst Floods threatening the oldest Buddhist monastery in north-west Nepal

    J. Kropáček


    Full Text Available Since 2004 Halji Village, home of the oldest Buddhist Monastery in north-west Nepal has suffered from recurrent Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs. Studies of recent satellite images identified a supra-glacial lake, located at a distance of 6.5 km from the village, as a possible source of the flood. During a field survey in 2013, the finding was confirmed and several entrances to en-glacial conduits which are draining the lake were found. The topography of the lake basin was then mapped by combining Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS measurements with a Structure From Motion (SFM approach from terrestrial photographs. From this model the maximum filling capacity of the lake has been estimated as 1.06 × 106 m3 with a maximum discharge of 77.8 m3 s−1 calculated using an empirical relation. The flooded area in the valley has been estimated by employing a raster-based hydraulic model considering six scenarios of discharge volume and surface roughness. To understand the changes in glacier geometry in the last decade the thinning and retreat of Halji Glacier have been analysed by geodetic mass balance measurements and a time series of satellite images respectively. The GLOF occurrences have further been correlated with cumulative temperature and cumulative liquid precipitation calculated from the High Asia Reanalysis (HAR dataset. Finally, effective mitigation measures and adaption strategies for Halji village have been discussed.

  17. 概念设计在游戏美术制作的关联性%Relevance of Concept Design in Game Art Production



    Concept design plays a key role in the art of game,through the concept design to maximize meet the needs of game users,which can also make the whole process of game art production meet the requirements of efficient,orderly and organised.Con-ceptual design at the same time as a full and comprehensive design process,through the design concept,it makes complex sensibility and the momentˊs thought of the designers in the game art production rise to the rational unity of thinking throughout the game art pro-duction process.%概念设计在游戏美术制作中起着关键作用,通过概念设计能够最大限度地满足游戏用户的需求,还能让整个的游戏美术制作过程满足高效、有序、组织性强的要求。同时概念设计作为完整而全面的设计过程,是通过设计概念这一手段,把设计者在游戏美术制作中复杂的感性以及瞬间的思维,上升为理性统一的思维后,贯穿于整个的游戏美术制作过程中。

  18. 康复性景观及其相关概念辨析%Analysis of the Healing Landscape and Its Relevant Conceptions

    王晓博; 李金凤


    通过介绍康复性景观基本概念及相关名词,分析康复性景观的特点,同时对康复性景观与一般性景观进行比较分析,并且将康复性景观与园艺疗法、景观疗法的概念及其之间的关系进行辨析,试图理清康复性景观的内涵和外延.%As more and more studies on healing landscape appeared, the analysis of the conception of healing landscape became necessary. This paper introduced the basic conception of healing landscape and its related nouns, and analysed the features of healing landscape. The differences between healing Landscape and general landscape, and the relationship among healing landscape and horticultural therapy, landscape therapy were discussed in the essay. The clearness of the connotation and extension of healing landscape was helpful for the future study on this field.

  19. Buddhism between Asia and Europe: The Concept of Mindfulness through a Historical Lens

    Tamara DITRICH


    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the twentieth century mindfulness has been positioned at the core of modern Buddhism and viewed by many modern interpreters as an essential component of Buddhist doctrine and practices. More recently, the practice of mindfulness has become rapidly popularised, radically secularised and removed from its Buddhist context, employed mainly as a therapeutic tool or applied for the enhancement of well-being. This paper examines the concept of mindfulness using an historical lens, aiming to identify some of the main parameters and consequent implications involved in the changes and developments of this Buddhist contemplative method—from its early beginnings over 2,500 years ago to the present day. Special attention is given to the historical developments in the colonial period, when various Buddhist traditions encountered the main European discourses of the time, resulting in the birth of modern Buddhism. In this period, particularly in Burma, meditation was positioned at the centre of Buddhist teachings and thus provided the grounds and conditions for the subsequent popularisation and secularisation of mindfulness in the late twentieth century. Through an examination of the concept of mindfulness through history, the paper explores whether a critical awareness of historical facts provides a better understanding of the current ubiquity of mindfulness practices worldwide. In addition, mindfulness has recently become an object of scientific research and, hence, it is important to investigate it in different contexts and discourses throughout history, and understand the implications of various definitions, interpretations and applications of mindfulness for the development of modern research approaches and methodologies.

  20. Local illness concepts and their relevance for the prevention and control of malaria during pregnancy in Ghana, Kenya and Malawi: findings from a comparative qualitative study.

    Menaca, Arantza; Pell, Christopher; Manda-Taylor, Lucinda; Chatio, Samuel; Afrah, Nana A; Were, Florence; Hodgson, Abraham; Ouma, Peter; Kalilani, Linda; Tagbor, Harry; Pool, Robert


    In sub-Saharan Africa, the burden of morbidity and mortality linked to malaria during pregnancy (MiP) is significant and compounded by its unclear symptoms and links with other health problems during pregnancy. Mindful of the biomedical and social complexity of MiP, this article explores and compares local understandings of MiP and their links with other pregnancy-related health problems. A comparative qualitative study was undertaken at four sites in three countries: Ghana, Malawi and Kenya. Individual and group interviews were conducted with pregnant women, their relatives, opinion leaders, other community members and health providers. MiP-related behaviours were also observed at health facilities and in local communities. Across the four sites, local malaria concepts overlapped with biomedically defined malaria. In terms of symptoms, at-risk groups, outcomes and aetiology of malaria during pregnancy, this overlap was however both site-specific and partial. Moreover, the local malaria concepts were not monolithic and their descriptions varied amongst respondents. The symptoms of pregnancy and malaria also overlapped but, for respondents, symptom severity was the distinguishing factor. Malaria was generally, though not universally, perceived as serious for pregnant women. Miscarriage was the most widely known outcome, and links with anaemia, low birth weight and congenital malaria were mentioned. Nonetheless, amongst many potential causes of miscarriage, malaria was not recognized as the most important, but rather interacted with other pregnancy-related problems. Given the overlap of common pregnancy problems with the symptoms of malaria, and the limited association of malaria with its main outcomes, a comprehensive antenatal care programme is the most appropriate strategy for the provision of health education, prevention and treatment for MiP. Variations in locally shared understandings of MiP must however be taken into account when designing and promoting Mi

  1. Repeated glacial lake outburst flood threatening the oldest Buddhist monastery in north-western Nepal

    Kropáček, J.; Neckel, N.; Tyrna, B.; Holzer, N.; Hovden, A.; Gourmelen, N.; Schneider, C.; Buchroithner, M.; Hochschild, V.


    Since 2004, Halji village, home of the oldest Buddhist Monastery in north-western Nepal, has suffered from recurrent glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). A sudden englacial drainage of a supraglacial lake, located at a distance of 6.5 km from the village, was identified as the source of the flood. The topography of the lake basin was mapped by combining differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) measurements with a structure-from-motion (SFM) approach using terrestrial photographs. From this model the maximum filling capacity of the lake has been estimated as 1.06 ×106 m3 with a maximum discharge of 77.8 m3 s-1, calculated using the empiric Clague-Mathews formula. A simulation of the flooded area employing a raster-based hydraulic model considering six scenarios of discharge volume and surface roughness did not result in a flooding of the village. However, both the village and the monastery are threatened by undercutting of the river bank formed by unconsolidated sediments, as it already happened in 2011. Further, the comparison of the GLOF occurrences with temperature and precipitation from the High Asia Reanalysis (HAR) data set for the period 2001-2011 suggests that the GLOF is climate-driven rather than generated by an extreme precipitation event. The calculation of geodetic mass balance and the analysis of satellite images showed a rapid thinning and retreat of Halji Glacier which will eventually lead to a decline of the lake basin. As the basin will persist for at least several years, effective mitigation measures should be considered. A further reinforcement of the gabion walls was suggested as an artificial lake drainage is not feasible given the difficult accessibility of the glacier.

  2. The nutritional status of iron, folate, and vitamin B-12 of Buddhist vegetarians.

    Lee, Yujin; Krawinkel, Michael


    Nutritional status of iron, folate, and vitamin B-12 in vegetarians were assessed and compared with those of non- vegetarians in Korea. The vegetarian subjects were 54 Buddhist nuns who ate no animal source food except for dairy products. The non-vegetarians were divided into two groups: 31 Catholic nuns and 31 female college students. Three-day dietary records were completed, and the blood samples were collected for analyzing a complete blood count, and serum levels of ferritin, folate, and vitamin B-12. There was no difference in hemoglobin among the diet groups. The serum ferritin and hematocrit levels of vegetarians did not differ from that of non- vegetarian students with a high intake of animal source food but low intake of vitamin C, and the levels were lower than that of non-vegetarian Catholic nuns with a modest consumption of animal source food and a high intake of vitamin C. The serum vitamin B-12 levels of all subjects except one vegetarian and the serum folate levels of all subjects except one non-vegetarian student fell within a normal range. In vegetarians, there was a positive correlation between the vitamin C intake and serum ferritin levels as well as between the laver intake and serum vitamin B-12 levels. In order to achieve an optimal iron status, both an adequate amount of iron intake and its bioavailability should be considered. Sufficient intake of vegetables and fruits was reflected in adequate serum folate status. Korean laver can be a good source of vitamin B-12 for vegetarians.

  3. “文镜”发微%A Buddhist Inquiry into the Phrase Bunkyo of Kakai' s Bunkyo Hifuron



    《文镜秘府论》的书名与结构都独具特色,我们认为这一独特性应与空海大师醇厚的佛学修养密不可分。本文旨在结合佛教文献中禅宗、华严宗以及密宗对“镜”的意象的分析,试析“文镜”除去文学层面的表义之外,所含佛教方面的深意,并结合空海大师其他作品中所流露的弘法志向,阐发《文镜秘府论》一书所寄托的教化意图。%Kakai, who had intended to study in Tang for 20 years, got abhiksema given by Master Huiguo and was instructed to return to Japan soon, so that he left China after two - year study to spread Tantric Buddhism. Krlkai devoted himself to exercising and spreading Buddhism and left us many Buddhist works, among which there is a book on the writing art of poems and composi- tion, that is, the famous Bunkyo Hifuron. why did he edit such a book? Surely it shows his love of Han Culture. What's more, the uique title and structure speaks out his minds of buddhism. This article is ready to make an thourough inquiry into the Buddhist meanings of the unique phrase Bunkyo appearing in the title in order to expose K@ai' s Buddhist thoughts and devotion and to expose a new understanding of the book.

  4. The varieties of contemplative experience: A mixed-methods study of meditation-related challenges in Western Buddhists

    Fisher, Nathan E.; Cooper, David J.; Rosen, Rochelle K.


    Buddhist-derived meditation practices are currently being employed as a popular form of health promotion. While meditation programs draw inspiration from Buddhist textual sources for the benefits of meditation, these sources also acknowledge a wide range of other effects beyond health-related outcomes. The Varieties of Contemplative Experience study investigates meditation-related experiences that are typically underreported, particularly experiences that are described as challenging, difficult, distressing, functionally impairing, and/or requiring additional support. A mixed-methods approach featured qualitative interviews with Western Buddhist meditation practitioners and experts in Theravāda, Zen, and Tibetan traditions. Interview questions probed meditation experiences and influencing factors, including interpretations and management strategies. A follow-up survey provided quantitative assessments of causality, impairment and other demographic and practice-related variables. The content-driven thematic analysis of interviews yielded a taxonomy of 59 meditation-related experiences across 7 domains: cognitive, perceptual, affective, somatic, conative, sense of self, and social. Even in cases where the phenomenology was similar across participants, interpretations of and responses to the experiences differed considerably. The associated valence ranged from very positive to very negative, and the associated level of distress and functional impairment ranged from minimal and transient to severe and enduring. In order to determine what factors may influence the valence, impact, and response to any given experience, the study also identified 26 categories of influencing factors across 4 domains: practitioner-level factors, practice-level factors, relationships, and health behaviors. By identifying a broader range of experiences associated with meditation, along with the factors that contribute to the presence and management of experiences reported as challenging

  5. The varieties of contemplative experience: A mixed-methods study of meditation-related challenges in Western Buddhists.

    Lindahl, Jared R; Fisher, Nathan E; Cooper, David J; Rosen, Rochelle K; Britton, Willoughby B


    Buddhist-derived meditation practices are currently being employed as a popular form of health promotion. While meditation programs draw inspiration from Buddhist textual sources for the benefits of meditation, these sources also acknowledge a wide range of other effects beyond health-related outcomes. The Varieties of Contemplative Experience study investigates meditation-related experiences that are typically underreported, particularly experiences that are described as challenging, difficult, distressing, functionally impairing, and/or requiring additional support. A mixed-methods approach featured qualitative interviews with Western Buddhist meditation practitioners and experts in Theravāda, Zen, and Tibetan traditions. Interview questions probed meditation experiences and influencing factors, including interpretations and management strategies. A follow-up survey provided quantitative assessments of causality, impairment and other demographic and practice-related variables. The content-driven thematic analysis of interviews yielded a taxonomy of 59 meditation-related experiences across 7 domains: cognitive, perceptual, affective, somatic, conative, sense of self, and social. Even in cases where the phenomenology was similar across participants, interpretations of and responses to the experiences differed considerably. The associated valence ranged from very positive to very negative, and the associated level of distress and functional impairment ranged from minimal and transient to severe and enduring. In order to determine what factors may influence the valence, impact, and response to any given experience, the study also identified 26 categories of influencing factors across 4 domains: practitioner-level factors, practice-level factors, relationships, and health behaviors. By identifying a broader range of experiences associated with meditation, along with the factors that contribute to the presence and management of experiences reported as challenging

  6. The Potential Clash of Social Relationship between Muslim and Buddhist (Case Study on the Conflict of Buddha Statue in Tanjungbalai City, North Sumatra

    Irwansyah Irwansyah


    Full Text Available Socio-religious conflicts that occurred in Tanjungbalai City allegedly caused by the establishment of Buddha Statue. This research aims to reveal how relations between Muslim and Buddhist in Tanjungbalai. This study classified as qualitative research. Fact were obtained through observation, interviews, and document review. The results showed social conflict occurred after the establishment of Buddha Statue. Tanjungbalai as one of “China town”, to trigger the social jealousy. In addition to the economic factors are controlled by China,  Tanjungbalai City the majority of Muslims, did not accept the establishment of 6 metre tall Buddha Statue that was on the fourth floor of the building Vihara Tri Ratna. Muslims aliancy movement asking for removal of the statue. Buddhists being defensive and worried that the Malays (Muslims think that the Buddhist same with “the Chinese”.

  7. Examining Different Regions of Relevance: From Highly Relevant to Not Relevant.

    Spink, Amanda; Greisdorf, Howard; Bateman, Judy


    Proposes a useful concept of relevance as a relationship and an effect on the movement of a user through the iterative stages of their information seeking process, and that users' relevance judgments can be plotted on a Three-Dimensional Spatial Model of Relevance Level, Degree and Time. Discusses implications for the development of information…


    Travagnin, Stefania


    Education reforms have played a key role in the turning points of Chinese history. Slogans like jiaoyu jiuguo 教育救國 became well-known when the first Republic succeeded the Empire, at the dawn of the Mao era, and with Deng Xiaoping in the 1980s. China used to base her reinvention on education reforms,

  9. Unearthing Nusantara’s Concept of Religious Pluralism: Harmonization and Syncretism in Hindu-Buddhist and Islamic Classical Texts

    Al Makin


    [Artikel ini mencoba menemukan rumusan pluralisme dengan membaca ulang teks klasik Jawa dengan memilih bagian tertentu dari sastra Hindu-Buddha yang disebut kakawin dan karya Islami yang disebut serat dan babad. Praktik dinamis sinkretisme dan penyelarasan antara tradisi keagamaan lokal dan asing ditemui dalam Sutasoma, Kertagama, Dewa Ruci, Babad Tanah Jawa, dan Centini. Dari hasil bacaan teks-teks di atas, tulisan ini menemukan bahwa sejak masa kuno Singasari dan Majapahit, penyelarasan dan sinkretisme antara banyak tradisi keagamaan telah dipraktikkan sebagai bagian penting dari konsep pluralisme. Hindu-Buddha datang pertama lalu disusul oleh karya Islam yang menambah nuansa sinkretis. Studi ini juga menemukan bahwa tokoh Hindu-Buddha diceritakan ulang dalam karya Islam dengan berbagai modifikasi. Cerita tentang Sunan Kalijaga mencerminkan sumber yang lebih tua seperti Sutasoma, Ken Arok, Bhima, dan tokoh-tokoh lain. Kisah mereka mengajarkan kepada kita tentang relativitas antara kejahatan dan kebaikan; kejahatan tidak dimusnahkan tetapi diubah menjadi kebaikan. Artikel ini merupakan contoh usaha  untuk merumuskan konsep pluralisme berdasarkan kebijakan lokal dengan membaca kembali teks-teks klasik dengan semangat penafsiran ulang ajaran lokal dengan perspektif baru.

  10. "Perception":as a Buddhist Concept%“观”:作为一个佛学概念



    中国文化从作为“群经之首”的《周易》到从印度传来而后中国化了的佛教,都是以“观”而不是“听”为方法来建构的。就佛教而言,观世音菩萨就是“观”这种方法的化身,而中国佛教中的千手千眼观音,其中的“千眼”乃是象征着佛教多种多样的“观”。虽然在佛教中“观”的方法林林总总,但不管是什么样的“观”,最终都要归结到“观心”,也就是天台宗所倡导的“观一念心”。%The Chinese culture ,from the"head of classics"The Book of Changes to the Sinicized Bud-dhism ,is built on perception instead of "listening".As far as Buddhism is concerned ,Goddess Guanyin in the incarnation of "perception",while the Goddess of Thousand Hands and Thousand Eyes symbolizes vari-ous kinds of "perception"in Buddhism .In spite of the diverse ways of "perception"in Buddhism ,it can al-ways fall upon"perceiving the heart",as promoted by the Tiantai sect .

  11. Promotion,Overcoming and Creative Transformation-Tibetan Buddhist Philosophy as Ideological Source for Developing Chinese Philosophy

    Liu Junzhe


    There are two fundamental factors in the development of modern Chinese philosophy:The first one is the Chinese people’s great social practice. the second one is the rich philosophical thought both at home and abroad. The former one is based upon the experiences in developing mod ̄ern Chinese philosophy, which is an exhaustible source. However,it still needs to absorb or draw on the experience from the excellent philosophies from ancient and modern times and from both Chinese and foreign. Among these, Tibetan Buddhist phi ̄losophy is an important ideological source that is worthy of being absorbed.

  12. Introducing the Concept of the Minimally Important Difference to Determine a Clinically Relevant Change on Patient-Reported Outcome Measures in Patients with Intermittent Claudication

    Conijn, Anne P., E-mail: [Academic Medical Center, Departments of Vascular Surgery and Interventional Radiology (Netherlands); Jonkers, Wilma, E-mail: [Achmea Insurances, Division of Health Care (Netherlands); Rouwet, Ellen V., E-mail: [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Vascular Surgery (Netherlands); Vahl, Anco C., E-mail: [Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Department of Vascular Surgery (Netherlands); Reekers, Jim A., E-mail: [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Koelemay, Mark J. W., E-mail: [Academic Medical Center, Department of vascular surgery (Netherlands)


    PurposeThe minimally important difference (MID) represents the smallest change in score on patient-reported outcome measures that is relevant to patients. The aim of this study was to introduce the MID for the Vascular Quality of Life Questionnaire (VascuQol) and the walking impairment questionnaire (WIQ) for patients with intermittent claudication (IC).MethodsIn this multicenter study, we recruited 294 patients with IC between July and October 2012. Patients completed the VascuQol, with scores ranging from 1 to 7 (worst to best), and the WIQ, with scores ranging from 0 to 1 (worst to best) at first visit and after 4 months follow-up. In addition, patients answered an anchor-question rating their health status compared to baseline, as being improved, unchanged, or deteriorated. The MID for improvement and deterioration was calculated by an anchor-based approach, and determined with the upper and lower limits of the 95 % confidence interval of the mean change of the group who had not changed according to the anchor-question.ResultsFor the MID analyses of the VascuQol and WIQ, 163 and 134 patients were included, respectively. The MID values for the VascuQol (mean baseline score 4.25) were 0.87 for improvement and 0.23 for deterioration. For the WIQ (mean baseline score 0.39), we found MID values of 0.11 and −0.03 for improvement and deterioration, respectively.ConclusionIn this study, we calculated the MID for the VascuQol and the WIQ. Applying these MID facilitates better interpretation of treatment outcomes and can help to set treatment goals for individual care.

  13. Is Information Still Relevant?

    Ma, Lia


    Introduction: The term "information" in information science does not share the characteristics of those of a nomenclature: it does not bear a generally accepted definition and it does not serve as the bases and assumptions for research studies. As the data deluge has arrived, is the concept of information still relevant for information…

  14. On-line coupling of physiologically relevant bioaccessibility testing to inductively coupled plasma spectrometry: Proof of concept for fast assessment of gastrointestinal bioaccessibility of micronutrients from soybeans.

    Herrera, Mónica Alejandra; Rosende, María; Arruda, Marco Aurélio Zezzi; Miró, Manuel


    In-vitro physiologically relevant gastrointestinal extraction based on the validated Unified BARGE Method (UBM) is in this work hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry in a batch-flow configuration for real-time monitoring of oral bioaccessibility assays with high temporal resolution. A fully automated flow analyzer is designed to foster in-line filtration of gastrointestinal extracts at predefined times (≤15 min) followed by on-line multi-elemental analysis of bioaccessible micro-nutrients, viz., Cu, Fe and Mn, in well-defined volumes of extracts (300 μL) of transgenic and non-transgenic soybean seeds taken as model samples. The hyphenated flow setup allows for recording of temporal extraction profiles to gain full knowledge of the kinetics of the gastrointestinal digestion processes, including element leaching and concomitant precipitation and complexation reactions hindering bioavailability. Simplification of the overall standard procedure is also feasible by identification of steady-state extraction conditions. Our findings indicate that reliable measurement of oral bioaccessible pools of Cu, Fe and Mn in soybean might be obtained in less than 180 min rather than 240 min as endorsed by UBM. Using a matrix-matched external calibration, limits of detection according to the 3s criteria were 0.5 μg/g for Mn, 0.6 μg/g for Cu and 2.3 μg/g for Fe. Trueness of the automatic bioaccessibility method was confirmed by mass balance validation with recoveries ranging from 87 to 116% regardless of the target element and sample. Cu was the micronutrient with the highest oral bioaccessibility ranging from 73% to 83% (7.5-7.9 μg/g) for non-transgenic and transgenic soybeans, respectively, followed by Mn and Fe within the ranges of 29-31% (10.8-11.4 μg/g) and 11-15% (8-14 μg/g), respectively, regardless of transgenesis. The proposed kinetic method is proven suitable for fast and expedient estimation of the nutritional value of

  15. On the Contemporary Relevance of Greek παιδεία to the Concept of a Balanced Education: Aristotle, Nietzsche, Camus, H. Arendt

    Valentin Kalan


    Full Text Available Contemporary education systems are in a constant process of restructuring, thus requiring philosophy to reconsider the basic assumptions of education. The phenomenon of education can only be defined and clarified historically, i.e. with reference to the ancient Greek paideia. The Greek culture created a comprehensive system of both education and pedagogy as a theory of education, teaching, and knowledge (Dilthey.  (1 A phenomenological approach to Aristotle's pedagogy. Aristotle's theory of physical, moral, and political education (Nicomachean Ethics and Politics is founded upon the notion of the natural development of every being. In addition, Aristotle creates the concept of philosophical pedagogy. A philosophically educated person (ho pepaideumenos has the competence to treat problems emerging with the formation of particular sciences, and to reflect on the method of each scientific discipline. This philosophical culture is also connected with dialectic, rhetoric, and politics.  (2 Nietzsche's ideas on education and culture are presented in two of his early works: On the Future of Our Educational Institutions and We Philologists. In his criticism of the German education system of his time, he explains his basic historical assumption that the real homeland of education is the Hellenic world. A restructuring of the education system cannot be carried out without the Greek and Roman antiquity as the embodied categorical imperative of all culture. A general education which disregards antiquity is considered barbaric. However, Nietzsche's philosophy of education remains unfinished, giving no definite conclusions.  (3 Camus’ philosophy describes the modern West European culture as nihilistic. The essence of nihilism is a systematic ignorance of the limits of human nature, which can lead to historical crimes and to destroying the conditions for the human existence in the world. The formation of a world that will not be subdued by the

  16. Public Willingness to Pay for Transforming Jogyesa Buddhist Temple in Seoul, Korea into a Cultural Tourism Resource

    Seul-Ye Lim


    Full Text Available The Jogyesa Buddhist Temple (JBT, located in Seoul, Korea, is the chief temple of the Jogye Order, which represents Korean Buddhism. The Seoul government plans to transform the JBT into a cultural tourism resource and a historical site. This study attempts to analyze the willingness to pay (WTP for implementing the transformation, which includes building a new shopping arcade for Buddhist culture and tourism, constructing a museum for the teaching of history and an experience center for Korean traditional culture in the precincts of JBT, and making an open space for domestic and/or foreign visitors. To this end, the study looks into the WTP for the implementation, reporting on a contingent valuation (CV survey that was conducted with 500 Seoul households. The single-bounded dichotomous choice CV model and a spike model were applied to derive the WTP responses and analyze the WTP data with zero observations, respectively. The mean yearly WTP was computed to be KRW 7129 (USD 6.30 per household for the next five years, with the estimate being statistically significant at the 1% level. Expanding the value to the Seoul population gives us KRW 25.4 billion (USD 22.5 million per year. The present value of the total WTP amounts to KRW 114.6 billion (USD 101.3 million using a social discount rate of 5.5%. We can conclude that Seoul households are ready to shoulder some of the financial burden of implementing the transformation.

  17. Towards Sustainable Agricultural Stewardship: Evolution and Future Directions of the Permaculture Concept

    Jungho Suh


    This paper traces the origins of the concept of permaculture and discusses the sustainability of permaculture itself as a form of alternative agriculture. The principles of permaculture are shown to have many views and perspectives in common with Taoism and with Buddhist ecology and economics. The amalgamation of these Oriental traditions can be translated into the Kaya equation and beyond. It is argued that future permaculture movements should focus on revitalising the communitarian spirit o...

  18. The Buddhist Stupa Mandala of Nepal (2)%尼泊尔佛塔曼荼罗考述(下)



    Kathmandu Basin of Nepal has stone stupas everywhere.Except some large stupas such as Swayamb-hu,there are also many Votive stupas scattering in the streets and temples,which are carved with four-side Bud-dhas around.According to the clockwise order,they are Akshobhya,Ratnasambhava,Amitabha and Amoghasid-dhi.Together with the Great Day Tathagata ,they composed the mandala five Buddha belief system.Some Bodhi-sattva,heavenly kings and Dharma are also carved.Similar stupas can be found in China as well,echoing with the Tantra Buddhist scriptures in Chinese .With the further development of the Tantrism,the concept of Adi-buddha come into being ,which was symbolized by the prime stupa.Samantabhadra,which stayed in the centre, then retired to the middle of Akshobhya and Ratnasambhava,and located in the south-east of the stupa.This type of stupa mandala originated in India and prospered in Nepal ,and similar stupas can also be found in the Tang hatem Buddha paintings in Tibet.Nepal's Stupa mandala is in the middle zone of the Buddhist arts spreading from India to China,and combines some characteristics of the two countries.%散布尼泊尔加德满都盆地的大量的石制佛塔,除了斯瓦扬布等大型佛塔之外,在街头巷尾和佛寺内的石制还愿塔通常在塔身四方雕刻四方佛,按照右旋顺序,从东方起雕造阿"佛、宝生佛、阿弥陀佛和不空成就佛,以佛塔自身作为大日佛的象征,共同形成金刚界曼荼罗五佛信仰系统。部分佛教也雕造了佛母、天王和护法忿怒像。这类佛塔在中国内地多有表现,并可与中国汉译密教佛典相互照应。随着密教的进一步发展,在尼泊尔等地又形成了本初佛的概念,以佛塔自身象征本初佛,原先居于中间主位的大日佛反而退居于阿"佛与宝生佛之间,位于佛塔的东南隅。类似的佛塔曼荼罗起源于印度,而极盛于尼泊尔,在中国西藏也有类似的造作,并出现

  19. Concept - or no concept

    Thorsteinsson, Uffe


    Discussion about concept in industrial companies. A method for mapping of managerial concept in specific area is shown......Discussion about concept in industrial companies. A method for mapping of managerial concept in specific area is shown...

  20. Measuring the Immeasurables: Development and Initial Validation of the Self-Other Four Immeasurables (SOFI) Scale Based on Buddhist Teachings on Loving Kindness, Compassion, Joy, and Equanimity

    Kraus, Sue; Sears, Sharon


    Multiple measures exist that examine the attentional aspects of meditation practice, but measurement of the compassion component is relatively understudied. This paper describes the development and initial validation of a scale designed to measure application of the four immeasurable qualities at the heart of Buddhist teachings: loving kindness,…

  1. Women with shaved heads: western Buddhist nuns and Haredi Jewish wives: polysemy, universalism and misinterpretations of hair symbolism in pluralistic societies

    Mira Niculescu


    Full Text Available This article focuses on female hair, or rather the absence of hair: it compares the symbols attached to shaved heads for Western Buddhist nuns and for Jewish married women from various Haredi or ‘ultra-orthodox’ groups, and the (mainly negative representations of these in the external, secular society.The comparison is based on fieldwork research undertaken by the author. When interviewing Western nuns of Jewish origin, it appeared that their shaved heads had been very difficult to cope with for their families, to whom it was a reminder of the Holocaust. The same body treatment can thus represent, on one side, bliss (for the Buddhist nun for whom it is a symbol of libertation and spiritual engagement, and on the other side, horror (for her family and sometimes, out of a Buddhist context, society. Also, the same body treatment can be used to express celibacy for the Buddhist nun, or marriage for the Haredi, or ultra-orthodox woman. Therefore the meaning of head shaving seems to be fluctuating and contextual: it can mean either­ religious commitment, or punishment, or disease.

  2. 西安地区部分尼寺调查、稽考%Investigation,verification and exploitation of the Buddhist nun temples around Xi'an area

    郭海文; 景亚鹂; 杨戬


    Cultural resource of Buddhist nun temples around Xi'an area is quite rich in quantity but it has not been largely recognized for a long time.By means of fact finding,the authors investigated the current preservation condition of Buddhist nun temples.The results show that the Buddhist nun temples around Xi'an area have the longest-running history,precious and noted cultural relics and etc..The research tends to protect the resources of Buddhist nun temples in Xi'an area,develop religion tourism and strengthen the soft power of Xi'an.%西安地区尼寺文化资源丰富,但长期以来并未受到足够的重视。通过实地考察了解尼寺的存藏现状,考察后发现西安地区尼寺历史悠久、文物珍贵、人物著名,为有效保护西安地区的尼寺资源,守护珍贵的宗教文化,开发宗教旅游,增强西安城市发展的软实力而提供了前提。

  3. 基于佛教世界观进路的人工智能体开发探究%Buddhist approach to artificial intelligence



    The Buddhist world view becomes shift because of the development of cognitive science. The ethical issues of Buddhist reflect the model of self-creation and self-organization. Buddhists believe that the artificial intelligence will have an individual sense of independence because of the cross-integration of Buddhism and cognitive science. It is possible that such an approach can be used for editting program with Buddhist in the process of transformation to artificial intelligence so as to extend the emotional characteristics of Buddhist compassion. In Buddhism’s unique sense of compassion and wisdom, the artificial intelligence is expected to go beyond itself. So the relationship of human and artificial intelligence is likely to break ethical boundaries of mere agent, and move towards the prospect of man-machine harmony in the future.%佛教认识中关于伦理问题的研究体现了生命体自我创生、自我组织的模式。佛教与认知科学的交叉融合,促使佛教世界观确信人工智能可以发展到具有独立意识的个体。编辑具有佛教特色的程序促使佛教世界观向人工智能体转化,可能代表了人工智能体开发的一条进路。在佛教独特的慈悲心与智慧的感应下,人工智能有望超越自我,因此人类与人工智能未来发展的关系很有可能会突破单纯的智能体伦理界限,而走向人机和谐共生的前景。

  4. 论佛典譬喻的“两柄多边”%The Two Handles and Many Sides of Metaphor in Buddhist Scriptures



    Metaphor is a common method of reasoning in the Buddhist scriptures, and the theory that a metaphor has two handles and many sides was put forward by Qian Zhong-shu in his Compilations of Tubes and Awls, which is an important original theory in the research of metaphor rhetoric that makes enlightening sense to the metaphor research of Buddhist scriptures. By the examples of‘Wind’ and‘Flower’ in Buddhist scriptures, we can see that the phenomenon that a metaphor has two handles and many sides is ubiquitous in Buddhist scriptures. This phenomenon is caused by the thing that serves as the vehicle of the subject that uses the metaphor, besides it also connects with the two elements division of dharma, the nature of Buddhist scriptures and the addiction to metaphor in the culture of India.%譬喻是佛典中常用的说理方法。钱钟书在《管锥编》中提出了譬喻“两柄多边”的理论,是譬喻修辞研究的一项重要的理论创见,对于佛典譬喻研究极具启示意义。通过佛典中“风”“花”譬喻之举隅,可以得出譬喻“两柄多边”现象在佛典中是普遍存在的。而这种现象形成的原因,除受制于譬喻事物本身和取譬者之外,更与佛“法”之二元分殊、佛典的性质以及印度文化的譬喻癖有关。

  5. Secular versus religious norms against smoking: which is more important as a driver of quitting behaviour among Muslim Malaysian and Buddhist Thai smokers?

    Yong, Hua-Hie; Savvas, Steven; Borland, Ron; Thrasher, James; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Omar, Maizurah


    This paper prospectively examined two kinds of social normative beliefs about smoking, secular versus religious norms. The purpose of this paper is to determine the relative importance of these beliefs in influencing quitting behaviour among Muslim Malaysian and Buddhist Thai smokers. Data come from 2,166 Muslim Malaysian and 2,463 Buddhist Thai adult smokers who participated in the first three waves of the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia project. Respondents were followed up about 18 months later with replenishment. Respondents were asked at baseline about whether their society disapproved of smoking and whether their religion discouraged smoking, and those recontacted at follow-up were asked about their quitting activity. Majority of both religious groups perceived that their religion discouraged smoking (78% Muslim Malaysians and 86% Buddhist Thais) but considerably more Buddhist Thais than Muslim Malaysians perceived that their society disapproved of smoking (80% versus 25%). Among Muslim Malaysians, religious, but not societal, norms had an independent effect on quit attempts. By contrast, among the Buddhist Thais, while both normative beliefs had an independent positive effect on quit attempts, the effect was greater for societal norms. The two kinds of normative beliefs, however, were unrelated to quit success among those who tried. The findings suggest that religious norms about smoking may play a greater role than secular norms in driving behaviour change in an environment, like Malaysia where tobacco control has been relatively weak until more recently, but, in the context of a strong tobacco control environment like Thailand, secular norms about smoking become the dominant force.

  6. AHP 21: Review: Tibetan Buddhists in the Making of Modern China (Chinese Edition

    Dan Smyer Yu 郁丹


    Full Text Available 腾华睿(Gray Tuttle的著作《建构现代中国的藏传佛教徒》(Tibetan Buddhists in the Making of Modern China 之英文版在 2005 年由哥伦比亚大学出版社出版后很快成了一部畅销学术性作品,在中国的藏学界、佛学界都引起了极大的反响。懂英文的学者大多通过各种渠道购买到该著作的英文版,继而腾华睿书中的关键论点:“佛教是现代汉藏民族之间的桥梁”在中国汉藏学者之间被反复引用,或在高等院校及科研单位的专题研讨中被频繁提及。 时过六年之后其汉语版终于与中文读者见面了,无论在中国还是在欧美,当下“藏学热”的重心日趋转移到有关现今汉藏文化多层次互动的研究视角上,因此腾华睿的著作给中国学者带来了有关历史的新解读。作为译者和当代藏学家的陈波在翻译及编辑出版过程中,表现了极其孜孜不倦的精神,令读者感到万分钦佩。在译文中他提到在 2006 年时就已经完成此书的中文版翻译,但“由于诸多原因,公开出版一直拖延下来”(陈 2012:xv。在全球化发展的背景下,中国的藏学国情也在不断地积极、主动的变迁着。不得不提的是,陈波在“译者的话”里讲到在此书地翻译过程中,不仅得到了原作者腾华睿的大力支持外,还得到了中国重量级的社会学家马戎先生及藏学家陈庆英先生等人的鼎立支持及审阅,因此我们说,此书中文版的最终问世实属不易。

  7. Gurjun-Oil Tree: Buddhist Way and the Conservation and Revitalization of Gurjun-Oil Trees in Isan Cultural Forests

    Chatchawan Kaewsaen


    Full Text Available Problem statement: This research aimed at investigating the background of gurjun-oil trees in Iran cultural forests, the present situation and difficulties of gurjun-oil tress and the Buddhist way concerning the conservation and revitalization of them in Iran cultural forests. Approach: A qualitative research was applied to find the data in 7 forest areas of the province of Yasothon, Roi ET, Sisaket, Ubonratchathani, Burirum, Mahasarakham and Kakasin. The sample of 147 people was selected by means of a purposive sampling consisted of 42 key-informants, 70 people involved the conservation and revitalization of gurjun-oil trees and 35 general informants. The data were collected by survey, a participative observation, a non-participative observation, a structured in-depth interview, a non-structured in depth interview, a focus-group interview, a workshop and an evaluation of planting activity. Research data were analyzed according to research purposes and presented by means of a descriptive analysis. Results: The results revealed that gurjun-oil trees in Iran cultural forests (cultural forests in the north-east of Thailand were native trees which gave people a lot of useful thing; for example people used oil of gurjun-oil trees for tinder, torches and putty. The present situation is a sharp reduction in the number of trees, the forests deteriorated into denuded forests, the people degenerated into selfish persons and competed in using natural resources for living and commercial purposes. The Buddhist way concerning the conservation and revitalization of gurjun-oil trees was the participation of three sectors; they were community leaders, state leaders and monk leaders. Necessarily, all community members must do their right duties in order to conserve and revitalize gurjun-oil trees. Conclusion/Recommendations: In conclusion, the conservation and revitalization of Gurjun-oil trees must support by the participation of all social sectors then it will

  8. Research of ecological buddhist temple architecture design%生态佛寺建筑设计研究

    吴永诚; 甘甜; 吴冠烨; 张琦


    佛寺建筑在国内已形成中国自己的佛教寺院建筑。生态佛寺建筑是佛学思想与生态学思想契合的结果。生态佛寺建筑设计,需要一个设计目标。在设计内容中,需要研究佛寺建筑的文化属性和传承以及文化的相融和共生;研究佛寺建筑与人和自然环境的相互影响和内容;研究适宜的经济建设和运营方式;研究技术的适宜性、经济性和可行性;整体协调是一个重要的研究内容。%In the design of content,need to study cultural property and heritage of Buddhist architecture,considering a variety of cultural blending and symbiotic,researching buddhist temples、human and natural environment interaction,the impact of approach and content,researching favorable economic construction and the way they operate,forming a virtuous circle of economic operation of the system,researching suitability of technical,economic and feasibility.Whole coordination is an important research.Under the governing design goal,it coordinates all design elements into a whole eco-system of temple architecture.

  9. Exploration of Buddhist Culture and Thought in Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio by Pu Songling%蒲松龄小说《聊斋志异》中的佛教文化思想探析



    蒲松龄在构建《聊斋志异》鬼狐仙怪世界故事时多以佛教文化思想中的"因果报应"观,用隐喻的方式表现,一定程度上体现佛教提倡"众生平等"思想及佛学的神秘观,因而使小说中鬼狐仙怪"独于详尽之外,示以平常,或花妖狐魅多具人情,和易可亲,妄为异类,而又偶见鹘突,乎知非人"。%Pu Songling was inclined to express "Karma" in Buddhist culture and thought metaphorically when he described ghost and fox stories in his Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio,advocating the idea of "Everyone is equal",and the mysterious concept of Buddhism to some extent.Therefore,ghost and fox figures in his stories were "independent to display to be normal,or a human fox more charming,amiable,and heterogeneous,but occasionally contradictory and almost inhuman".

  10. Culture-centered engagement with delivery of health services: co-constructing meanings of health in the Tzu Chi Foundation through Buddhist philosophy.

    Dillard, Sydney J; Dutta, Mohan; Sun, Wei-San


    The shift in health communication scholarship from the narrow focus on curing to the complexly intertwined spaces of health, illness, healing, and curing attends to the dynamic cultural contexts within which meanings and practices are negotiated, directing scholarship toward alternative spaces of health care delivery. This study utilized the culture-centered approach as a theoretical lens for providing a discursive space for understanding meanings of health constituted in the practices of the Tzu Chi Foundation, an organization that offers biomedical services within the larger philosophical understandings of Buddhism with 10 million members in over 50 different countries. The emerging perspective promotes non-biomedical meanings of health through selfless giving and assistance founded in Buddhist principles, simultaneously seeking purity of the mind, body, and soul holistically. Through the negotiation of the principles driving Buddhist philosophy and the principles that shape biomedical health care delivery, this study seeks to understand the interpretive frames that circulate among foundation staff and care recipients.

  11. Cultural Socialization and Its Relation to the Attitude of Religious Tolerance among Muslim and Buddhist Students in Prince of Songkhla University

    Jaffary Awang; Mutsalem Khareng


    Interaction and communication between religions often develop a harmony culture. Without a good interaction and communication, it can emerge prejudice. It means that interaction in the context of a different culture and religion plays an important role in shaping the integration value. In the context of students at Prince of Songkhla University consisting of Muslims and Buddhists who often interact among each other. The question is how far the conflict in Southern Thai has influenced the comm...

  12. Buddhist kepan and literary theory of the early Tang Dynasty%佛经科判与初唐文学理论



    The term kepan 科判 means to divide a text into chapters andparagraphs.By explicating the context of Buddhist kepan and its influence on theexplanation of Confucian classics,this paper tries to demonstrate how wideand profound this influence was on literary criticism in three aspects:literarycriticism,fluency and coherence of writing,and relationships between the authorsof literary theories and Buddhism in the early Tang Dynasty.

  13. A vegetarian diet does not protect against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): A cross-sectional study between Buddhist priests and the general population.

    Choi, Sung Hun; Oh, Dong Jun; Kwon, Ki Hwan; Lee, Jun Kyu; Koh, Moon Soo; Lee, Jin Ho; Kang, Hyoun Woo


    There is limited data that supports a role for a vegetarian diet in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between vegetarian diets and NAFLD, considering metabolic syndrome and obesity. This is a cross-sectional, retrospective study comparing the prevalence of NAFLD of 615 Buddhist priests and age-, sex-, Body mass index (BMI)-and presence/absence of metabolic syndrome-matched controls who underwent routine health checkups in a health promotion center. Diagnosis and severity of NAFLD was determined based on ultrasonographic findings. The prevalence of NAFLD was not statistically significantly different between the Buddhist priests and the general population (29.9% vs. 25.05%, p=0.055). The Buddhist priest group had higher serum albumin, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and serum triglyceride levels and lower serum total bilirubin, serum fasting glucose, and serum high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels than the general population group. In univariate analysis and multivariate analysis, NAFLD was associated with old age, male gender, increased BMI, increased waist circumference, metabolic syndrome, high albumin, high glucose, high AST, high ALT, high gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), high triglycerides, low HDL, high low density lipoprotein (LDL), and high total cholesterol. The vegetarian diet does not protect against NAFLD.

  14. Buddhist Art in the Context of Visual Design%佛教艺术背景下的视觉设计



    文章从视觉设计的思维及创作过程来探究佛教艺术对于现代设计的启示与影响,对佛教艺术中大量尚待了解的视觉图形是否能转化为视觉设计素材进行分析研究。在了解学习的基础上立足于设计实践,并从设计实践的过程中对佛教艺术的表现及影响进行探索性研究。%In this paper, visual design thinking and creative process are used to explore the Buddhist art of the modern design inspiration and influence, yet there is an analysis of a large number of Buddhist art in the understanding of whether the visual graphic design material can be transferred into a visual design material. In understanding the basis of learning based on the design practice and the process from the design practice of Buddhist art, the paper explores its performance and its impacts.

  15. A Buddhist Way of Drug Rehabilitation in Thailand - Approaching Drug Addiction With Loving Kindness: An Interview With Phra Maha Narong Chaiyatha

    Carina Pichler


    Full Text Available Narong Chaiyatha has worked at the Quality Development of Life Center for 12 years and is engaged in diverse social projects as a Buddhist monk. The Quality Development of Life Center is an alternative program of dealing with drug addiction in Thailand and was established in 1993. On the premises of a Buddhist temple, the participants live together with monks, practice meditation, join chanting and dhamma talks, and help cultivate the temple. The program is part of the implementation of restorative justice in the criminal justice system. Depending on the severity of the drug addiction andthe social background of the person, the Department of Probation of the Ministry of Justice sends clients to the center to take part in the Buddhist rehabilitation program for two months. This interviewis based on the experiences of Narong Chaiyatha at the Quality Development of Life Center in Thep Mongkol temple, Amnat Charoen, Thailand, and gives an overview of some of the central elementsof the program, positive impacts for the community as well as challenges in its implementation. The interview was conducted at the same location on 28 January 2013.

  16. An Overview of Zhangye Giant Buddhist Temple and Its Historical Relics%张掖大佛寺及其寺藏文物概述

    王虹; 王康


    Zhangye Giant Buddhist Temple is a comprehensive art museum where you can feel all the charms of religion, architecture, calligraphy, sculpture, and painting. The well conserved Buddhist scriptures and thousands of precious historical relics can help us understand and study the local historical development of Buddhism during Ming dynasty and Qing dynasty. There is also great value in both culture and art inheritance. Here the paper gives us an overview of architectural style of Zhangye Giant Buddhist Temple and its rich and colorful historical relics.%张掖大佛寺是一所集宗教、建筑、书法、雕塑、绘画于一身的综合艺术博物馆。其寺内保存完整的佛教经籍,数以万计的文物珍品,对后人了解和研究佛教在明清两代当地的发展历史及文化艺术传承具有极高的指导意义。文章概述了张掖大佛寺的历史和建筑风格及其丰富多彩的寺藏文物。

  17. The Limits to Relevance

    Averill, M.; Briggle, A.


    Science policy and knowledge production lately have taken a pragmatic turn. Funding agencies increasingly are requiring scientists to explain the relevance of their work to society. This stems in part from mounting critiques of the "linear model" of knowledge production in which scientists operating according to their own interests or disciplinary standards are presumed to automatically produce knowledge that is of relevance outside of their narrow communities. Many contend that funded scientific research should be linked more directly to societal goals, which implies a shift in the kind of research that will be funded. While both authors support the concept of useful science, we question the exact meaning of "relevance" and the wisdom of allowing it to control research agendas. We hope to contribute to the conversation by thinking more critically about the meaning and limits of the term "relevance" and the trade-offs implicit in a narrow utilitarian approach. The paper will consider which interests tend to be privileged by an emphasis on relevance and address issues such as whose goals ought to be pursued and why, and who gets to decide. We will consider how relevance, narrowly construed, may actually limit the ultimate utility of scientific research. The paper also will reflect on the worthiness of research goals themselves and their relationship to a broader view of what it means to be human and to live in society. Just as there is more to being human than the pragmatic demands of daily life, there is more at issue with knowledge production than finding the most efficient ways to satisfy consumer preferences or fix near-term policy problems. We will conclude by calling for a balanced approach to funding research that addresses society's most pressing needs but also supports innovative research with less immediately apparent application.

  18. Socratic Knowledge, Christian Love, Confucian Virtue and Buddhist Emptiness: Guiding Principles for Education

    Clarken, Rodney


    Socrates' view of knowledge, Jesus' conception of love, Confucius' idea of virtue and Buddha's path of emptiness provide valuable insights and guiding principles to help us achieve a well-rounded education. Each of these individuals caused a transformation in the individual and collective lives of their followers and their respective societies…

  19. Informational Competence: A Relevant Conception to Take into Consideration in Higher Education La competencia informacional: concepción relevante a considerar en la Educación Superior

    Ana María Molina Gómez


    Full Text Available Competence is today a relevant conception to take into consideration. It implies more integration between strategy, study system, work and organizational culture, along with information management and knowledge. It offers potential to people and their development. The management of roles by competences is focused in development; it looks for what people are capable of doing in the future. Present day scenarios demand for a new educative arquitecture following learning for life, what implies: teaching to learn and, overall, to use information in an adequate manner. In this work we lay stress on the topic as an essential element to consider in Higher Medical Education, given the constant changes in medicine and the need for knowledge and skills for an adequate practice.
    La competencia informacional es hoy una concepción relevante a considerar; implica mayor integración entre estrategia, sistema de estudio, trabajo y cultura organizacional; junto al manejo de la información y el conocimiento proporciona potencialidad en las personas y su desarrollo. La gestión del desempeño por competencias se enfoca en esencia hacia el desarrollo, busca lo que las personas sean capaces de hacer en el futuro. Los escenarios actuales demandan una nueva arquitectura educativa que apunte al aprendizaje de por vida, lo que implica: enseñar a aprender y sobre todo utilizar adecuadamente la información. En este trabajo se enfatiza en el tema como elemento indispensable a considerar en la Educación Médica Superior, dado a los cambios constantes de la medicina y la necesidad de conocimientos y habilidades para una adecuada práctica.

  20. [The relevance of zen-buddhism for dialectic-behavioral therapy].

    Huppertz, Michael


    Dialectic-Behavioral Therapy is a specific psychotherapeutic approach to answer the needs of patients with Borderline Personality Disorder. It uses concepts and techniques of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and of Humanistic Psychotherapies. For a deeper understanding, it is necessary to include also its Zen-Buddhistic background. The experience of Zen-meditation and the basic philosophy of Zen-Buddhism will be explained. In the context of the historical relation between Zen-Buddhism and Psychotherapy, the position of the DBT will be specified. Finally it will be demonstrated how Zen-Buddhism inspired the practice of DBT and what kinds of problems arise when a modern psychotherapy uses the concept of a premodern conception of the world and human existence.

  1. 玄奘大师佛经翻译的价值和启示%Values and Enlightenments from Xuan Zang’s Translation of Buddhist Scriptures



    玄奘首先是一个最伟大的、最爱国的、最有成就的留学生,其次是一个最伟大的佛经翻译家。他在国内最认真地研习了佛法,声名远扬;在古印度留学的十余年,他又继续深入地钻研大乘佛法,其最终的佛法成就使他威震国内外。他的佛法研习成就是他从事佛经翻译的坚实知识基础,而他的佛经翻译事业也证明了是前无古人、后无来者的伟大创举。他的翻译成就不仅改写和丰富了中国的翻译史,而且为后代译者留下了难以磨灭的珍贵遗产,从而给予现代译者以珍贵的理论和实践启示。%Xuan Zang was, first of all, the greatest, most patriotic, most accomplished international student. He was also the greatest Buddhist translator. In Tang Dynasty, young Xuan Zang studied Buddhism seriously, and his fame spread throughout the country very quickly. When he made deeper studies of Buddhism in ancient India for over ten years, his ulti-mate Buddhist achievements greatly shocked the world. His Buddhist achievements ifnally became the solid foundation for his translation of Buddhist Scriptures. And his career proved to be an unprecedented and great initiative. His achievements in the Buddhist translation not only rewrote and enriched the history of Chinese translation, but also left indelible translation theory for future translators, giving the precious theoretical revelation to the other translators.

  2. 论佛教因果报应思想%On Idea of Karma in Buddhist Scripture



    Idea of karma is the one of the basic theories in Buddhist scripture. Buddhism believes that all beings are in the chain of twelve karmas, in the state of life and death and predestined fate before they reach Heaven. Life and death, fortune and misfortune, and richness and poverty are all retributions. Deeds individuals have done are sorted to different karmas. The thoughts, related to religion and superstition, have the great and lasting impact on the development of human civilization.%因果报应思想是佛教的基本理论之一。佛教认为,众生在未达到“神界”之前,总是循着“十二因缘”所指的因果链条,始终处在生死流转、类劫轮回的痛苦中。生死福祸,富贵贫贱,都是报应。人们的思想行为作“业”不同,所受果报亦自不同。这一宗教迷信思想,在人类历史发展过程中产生过重要而深刻的影响。

  3. Radiocarbon dating of charred human bone remains preserved in urns excavated from medieval Buddhist cemetery in Japan

    Nakamura, Toshio, E-mail: [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Sagawa, Shinichi; Yamada, Tetsuya [Gangoji Institute for Research of Cultural Properties, Nakain, Nara 630-8392 (Japan); Kanehara, Masaaki [School of Science Education, Nara University of Education, Takabatake, Nara 630-8528 (Japan); Tsuchimoto, Norio [Ichinomiya City Museum, Yamato, Ichinomiya 491-0922 (Japan); Minami, Masayo [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Omori, Takayuki [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Okuno, Mitsuru [Faculty of Science, Fukuoka University, Jonan, Fukuoka 814-0180 (Japan); Ohta, Tomoko [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)


    For a preliminary test of {sup 14}C dating of cremated human remains, we have collected charred bone and wood-charcoal fragments from cremated remains contained in cinerary urns that had been excavated from medieval Buddhist cemetery at the Hoenji temple in Aichi prefecture, central Japan. More than 230 urn vessels were discovered from the excavated area of ca. 14 m wide and 14 m long. The identification of charred bone or charcoal fragments among the remains was performed by observation of surface appearance, inspection of fine structures by a microscope, bubble formation during the HCl treatments in preparing target material for AMS {sup 14}C dating, carbon and nitrogen contents, delta{sup 13}C and delta{sup 15}N values of the fragments. All {sup 14}C ages obtained for the samples that were identified as charred bone remains were almost consistent with the archeological age estimated based on typological analysis of respective urns. On the other hand, some {sup 14}C ages for the remains identified as wood charcoal, which had been produced from firewood or a wooden coffin during the cremation, were not consistent with archeological estimation, shifting toward older {sup 14}C ages, most probably as the result of old wood effect.

  4. Interpretation of the Classic Exposition on Water in the Buddhist Classics%佛籍经典水论解读



    In this paper, the classic analysis of the classic exposition on water in the Buddhist classics pointed out that the origin of the world view of the water culture is the diversity, the theory of human mind can be interpreted with water-based interpretation, practice and epiphany can be carried out with the water thinking and the water bath, water culture view of the river has religion and in- trospection, water culture view of the ocean has romanticism and imagination and religion.%通过佛籍中的经典水论的分析,指出其水文化的世界本原观的多元性,以水性观诠释“心性”论,借助水观、水浴进行修炼、顿悟,水文化的河流观的宗教性、内省性,水文化的海洋观具有浪漫性、想象性、宗教性。

  5. Regularization in Matrix Relevance Learning

    Schneider, Petra; Bunte, Kerstin; Stiekema, Han; Hammer, Barbara; Villmann, Thomas; Biehl, Michael


    A In this paper, we present a regularization technique to extend recently proposed matrix learning schemes in learning vector quantization (LVQ). These learning algorithms extend the concept of adaptive distance measures in LVQ to the use of relevance matrices. In general, metric learning can displa

  6. Kierkegaard's concepts: Hypocrisy

    Fauth Hansen, Thomas Martin


    Kierkegaard’s Concepts is a comprehensive, multi-volume survey of the key concepts and categories that inform Kierkegaard’s writings. Each article is a substantial, original piece of scholarship, which discusses the etymology and lexical meaning of the relevant Danish term, traces the development...

  7. Goal relevance as a quantitative model of human task relevance.

    Tanner, James; Itti, Laurent


    The concept of relevance is used ubiquitously in everyday life. However, a general quantitative definition of relevance has been lacking, especially as pertains to quantifying the relevance of sensory observations to one's goals. We propose a theoretical definition for the information value of data observations with respect to a goal, which we call "goal relevance." We consider the probability distribution of an agent's subjective beliefs over how a goal can be achieved. When new data are observed, its goal relevance is measured as the Kullback-Leibler divergence between belief distributions before and after the observation. Theoretical predictions about the relevance of different obstacles in simulated environments agreed with the majority response of 38 human participants in 83.5% of trials, beating multiple machine-learning models. Our new definition of goal relevance is general, quantitative, explicit, and allows one to put a number onto the previously elusive notion of relevance of observations to a goal. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. The Investigation of Buddhist Nunneries in Sui and Tang Dynasty in Chang'an%隋唐长安地区尼寺杂考

    郭海文; 程悦然; 张雯迪


    In Sui and Tang Dynasty period , the development of Buddhism was very prosperous. There were lots of temples and monks in the eaptial city of Chang'an which was known as the Buddhistic kingdom. Among the temples , there are 40 buddhist nunneries. But the historical documents exist some gaps, leaving a lot of controversial topics. Some of issues have had clear conclusions, however, the others are not,such as the discussion about the buddhist nunneries of Fayun, Zijing, Fajie,Chongjing, Longhua, etc. A correct under- standing of these issues are very important for the history of Buddhism study and Research on the historical geography.%隋唐时期,佛教发展极为鼎盛,都城长安名僧汇集、寺庙林立,有"佛都"之称。其间,尼寺共计40座之多,却由于种种原因资料甚简且错漏诸多,许多问题众说纷纭。其中部分寺庙已有定论,然法云尼寺、资敬尼寺、法界尼寺、崇敬尼寺、龙华尼寺的相关问题仍旧不甚明确,然而对于这些问题的正确认识无论在对佛教史或是历史地理研究方面都是十分必要的。

  9. The Significance of Buddhistic Auspicious Lying in TCM Health Preservation%佛教吉祥卧在中医睡眠养生中的意义

    俞裕天; 刘焕兰


    Insomnia has become the most common problem of the urban population in China.Therefore,a promotion of an easy way to prevent insomnia would play an important role in preserving physical and mental health in the people.Buddhistic culture of health preservation and TCM culture of health preservation cleverly combined since ancient times,and Buddhistic auspi-cious lying is the excellent representative.In this article,we described the relationship between good sleeps and proper sleeping posture,summed up the significance of Buddhistic auspicious Lying in TCM health preservation,and proposed that this sleeping posture should be strongly promoted in the people.%失眠现已成为中国大城市人口的普遍问题,因此推广一种简便的防治失眠的养生方式将对现代人的身心健康起到重要作用。佛教的养生文化与中医传统养生文化自古就巧妙结合,其中佛教吉祥卧的睡眠养生方式是其优秀的代表。本文介绍了良好的睡眠与正确睡姿之间的关系,总结了佛教吉祥卧在中医睡眠养生中的重要意义,并提出了应在人群中大力推广佛教吉祥卧。

  10. The Logic of “Mutual Transmission” in Huayan and Zen Buddhist Philosophy – Toward the Logic of Co-existence in a Globalized World

    Hisaki HASHI


    Full Text Available Is it true that in the history of East Asian cultures there was less “philosophy”, less “logic” and “rationality” before the process of modernization began in the nineteenth century? A number of scholars of East Asian Studies believe this is a form of prejudice. For example, Nishida Kitarō stated that in East Asian cultures there is another form of logic, which can be called the “logicus spiritus” (心の論理. This article examines the essential parts of this logic with regard to Huayan and Zen Buddhist philosophy, and is thus an effort at comparative philosophy.

  11. Sufi, Christian or Buddhist? Richard Francis Burton’s “Parameters of Belief”

    John Wallen


    Full Text Available Richard Burton has been interpreted and misinterpreted by literary critics as eminent as Edward Said and Louisa Pratt as well as by others such as Rana Kabbani and Reina Lewis. Biographers like Fawn Brody, Edward Rice, Mary Lovell and Jon Godsall have also had their say. Burton has been variously described as imperialist, sexist, gay, obssessed with pornography, racist, plagiarist, sexual libertine, scatologist, expert sociologist, profoundly deceitful and impotent. In spite of this negative press, interest in Burton is always high as his life and times are relevant to many scholars interested in the 19th century origins of modern thought and postcolonial ideas. In this paper presentation I will attempt to get beyond the confused and contradictory portrayals of Burton over the last 50 or so years by looking in some detail at Burton’s two long poems: Stone Talk and The Kasidah. In these works, published 15 years apart, Burton writes under pseudonyms and, as I will argue, is able to express many of his deepest beliefs, especially in The Kasidah where he is playing the part of Hadji Abu Al Yezid, a Sufi like-wise man who possesses some startling similarities to Burton himself. What emerges from this close examination of the texts is a sensitive relativist who, while adhering to the scientific method in all his practical dealings, is yet able to consider the possibility that everything we see around us and all our experience of the world might be, finally, nothing more than Maya and illusion. Keywords: Burton, Victorian poetry, Eastern philosophy, Travel literature, Victorian literature, 19th century philosophy, Buddhism, Hinduism, Postcolonial literature, Elegies, Sufism, Belief systems, Religion

  12. 圣经与佛经汉译中的译者与翻译策略比较%A Comparative Study of Translators and Translation Strategies of the Chinese Translation of Bible and Buddhist Scriptures



    The Chinese translation of Bible and Buddhist Scriptures had a profound impact on Chinese culture. This paper will com⁃pare the translators of and translation strategies adopted in the Chinese translation of Bible and Buddhist Scriptures.%圣经与佛经的汉译对中华文化产生了深远影响,该文从译者和翻译策略两个方面对圣经与佛经汉译进行比较研究,分析其异同。

  13. Passage relevance models for genomics search

    Frieder Ophir


    Full Text Available Abstract We present a passage relevance model for integrating syntactic and semantic evidence of biomedical concepts and topics using a probabilistic graphical model. Component models of topics, concepts, terms, and document are represented as potential functions within a Markov Random Field. The probability of a passage being relevant to a biologist's information need is represented as the joint distribution across all potential functions. Relevance model feedback of top ranked passages is used to improve distributional estimates of query concepts and topics in context, and a dimensional indexing strategy is used for efficient aggregation of concept and term statistics. By integrating multiple sources of evidence including dependencies between topics, concepts, and terms, we seek to improve genomics literature passage retrieval precision. Using this model, we are able to demonstrate statistically significant improvements in retrieval precision using a large genomics literature corpus.

  14. Relevance ranking for vertical search engines

    Chang, Yi


    In plain, uncomplicated language, and using detailed examples to explain the key concepts, models, and algorithms in vertical search ranking, Relevance Ranking for Vertical Search Engines teaches readers how to manipulate ranking algorithms to achieve better results in real-world applications. This reference book for professionals covers concepts and theories from the fundamental to the advanced, such as relevance, query intention, location-based relevance ranking, and cross-property ranking. It covers the most recent developments in vertical search ranking applications, such as freshness-based relevance theory for new search applications, location-based relevance theory for local search applications, and cross-property ranking theory for applications involving multiple verticals. It introduces ranking algorithms and teaches readers how to manipulate ranking algorithms for the best results. It covers concepts and theories from the fundamental to the advanced. It discusses the state of the art: development of ...

  15. Acculturation and Enculturation of Hakka Music on the Buddhist Music in Sichuan Style:a Case Study of Buddhist Singing at Luohan Temple in Chongqing City%论客家音乐对川腔佛乐的涵化与濡化--以重庆罗汉寺瑜伽焰口唱腔为例



    佛乐唱腔归属佛教“五明”之“声明”,乃弘扬佛法之舟楫,在佛教仪式活动中有着举足轻重的重要功能。作为活态文化,巴渝地区的川腔佛乐在长期的传承演变中受到来自历史战争、宗教活动、移民运动、政治制度、个人创造、社会维护等因素的直接影响。巴渝地区位处大西南咽喉,是巴蜀交通要塞,音乐文化受到来自全国各地包括客家音乐的深刻影响。重庆罗汉寺瑜伽焰口唱腔是川腔佛乐的重要代表,本文从客家方言语音的影响、核心音调的借入、旋律框架的摄受以及整体旋律形态的移植等几方面剖析客家音乐文化作为外来音乐文化对巴渝地区川腔佛乐的深刻影响,揭示其在整体音乐形态与风格上对川腔佛乐实施的涵化与濡化功能。%The singing in Buddhist music belongs to “Sheng-ming” as one of the five knowledge systems in Bud-dhism that plays a significant role in the Buddhist ceremony to promote Buddhism. As a living culture, Buddhist music a-round Bayu area has been directly influenced by the war, religious activity, immigration movement, political system, in-dividual creation and social preservation because it is located as the transportation hub in the southwest and Bashu area. Its music culture was deeply influenced by all types of music around the country, including Hakka music. The Buddhist singing at Luohan Temple in Chongqing City is an important representative of Buddhist music in Sichuan style. This paper analyzes the influence of Hakka music on the Buddhist music around Bayu area from Hakka vernacular pronunciation, the borrowing of core tone, the reception of melody framework and the transplantation of the overall melody form to demon-strate its acculturation and enculturation on the whole music form and style of Buddhist music in Sichuan style.

  16. 北宋佛教的世俗化及其表现%The Buddhist Secularization and Its Expression in Northern Song Dynasty



    自唐以来,佛教世俗化明显,至宋则日益突出。北宋佛教的世俗化在僧人身上有着明显反映,主要表现在四端:强调礼乐,以伦常落实于丛林;强调以释归儒,对世俗权力的依附加强;佛门戒律松弛,僧人物质欲望扩展;诗僧追名逐利,入世情深。%Since Tang Dynasty,the Buddhist secularization has become increasingly obvious.In Song Dynasty,it was especially striking.Such secularization had its apparent reflection on monks in Northern Song Dynasty,which is shown in four aspects:emphasis on rites with seniority practiced among common people,stress on returning of Buddhism to Confucianism with the increasing attachment to secular power,lenient Buddhist disciplines with expansion of monks’material craving,and monk poets’pursuit of name and profit with great wish to enter the secular world.

  17. Cultural Socialization and Its Relation to the Attitude of Religious Tolerance among Muslim and Buddhist Students in Prince of Songkhla University

    Jaffary Awang


    Full Text Available Interaction and communication between religions often develop a harmony culture. Without a good interaction and communication, it can emerge prejudice. It means that interaction in the context of a different culture and religion plays an important role in shaping the integration value. In the context of students at Prince of Songkhla University consisting of Muslims and Buddhists who often interact among each other. The question is how far the conflict in Southern Thai has influenced the communication patterns? Hence, this article discusses the patterns of interaction and communication between Muslims and Buddhists at universities. In addition, how far the interaction and communication among both side have created a religious tolerance. The methodology used in the study is qualitative and quantitative approach using questionnaires and interviews. This study shows that most students have a good interaction and communication. In addition, this study also shows that there are a relationship between interaction and communication with the attitude of religious tolerance at a strong level.

  18. The relevance of cosmopolitanism for moral education

    Merry, M.S.; de Ruyter, D.J.


    In this article we defend a moral conception of cosmopolitanism and its relevance for moral education. Our moral conception of cosmopolitanism presumes that persons possess an inherent dignity in the Kantian sense and therefore they should be recognised as ends-in-themselves. We argue that

  19. The Relevance of Cosmopolitanism for Moral Education

    Merry, Michael S.; de Ruyter, Doret J.


    In this article we defend a moral conception of cosmopolitanism and its relevance for moral education. Our moral conception of cosmopolitanism presumes that persons possess an inherent dignity in the Kantian sense and therefore they should be recognised as ends-in-themselves. We argue that cosmopolitan ideals can inspire moral educators to awaken…

  20. Concept Maps

    Schwendimann, Beat Adrian


    A concept map is a node-link diagram showing the semantic relationships among concepts. The technique for constructing concept maps is called "concept mapping". A concept map consists of nodes, arrows as linking lines, and linking phrases that describe the relationship between nodes. Two nodes connected with a labeled arrow are called a proposition. Concept maps are versatile graphic organizers that can represent many different forms of relationships between concepts. The relationship between...

  1. Why relevance theory is relevant for lexicography

    Bothma, Theo; Tarp, Sven


    , socio-cognitive and affective relevance. It then shows, at the hand of examples, why relevance is important from a user perspective in the extra-lexicographical pre- and post-consultation phases and in the intra-lexicographical consultation phase. It defines an additional type of subjective relevance...... that is very important for lexicography as well as for information science, viz. functional relevance. Since all lexicographic work is ultimately aimed at satisfying users’ information needs, the article then discusses why the lexicographer should take note of all these types of relevance when planning a new...... dictionary project, identifying new tasks and responsibilities of the modern lexicographer. The article furthermore discusses how relevance theory impacts on teaching dictionary culture and reference skills. By integrating insights from lexicography and information science, the article contributes to new...

  2. The Impact of Politics on the Minnan Buddhist Institute : Sanmin zhuyi 三民主义 and aiguo zhuyi 爱国主义 in the Context of Sangha Education

    Travagnin, Stefania


    This article analyzes patterns in the direct and indirect influence of the Chinese government on the redefinition of Sangha education during the twentieth century. My research examines three moments in the history of the Minnan Buddhist Institute (minnan foxueyuan 闽南佛学院, hereafter MBI): the foundati

  3. Concepts of classical optics

    Strong, John


    An intermediate course in optics, this volume explores both experimental and theoretical concepts, offering practical knowledge of geometrical optics that will enhance students' comprehension of any relevant applied science. Its exposition of the concepts of classical optics is presented with a minimum of mathematical detail but presumes some knowledge of calculus, vectors, and complex numbers.Subjects include light as wave motion; superposition of wave motions; electromagnetic waves; interaction of light and matter; velocities and scattering of light; polarized light and dielectric boundarie

  4. 项目前期投资管理中相关概念、术语的诠释与表见%Interpreting and Expounding of the Relevance Concepts and Terminology in Investment Management of Pre-project



    Economic Evaluation Method and Parameter of Construction,published in 2006,3rd.Based on the book,this paper interprets the basic concepts,investment terminology,concept and connotation of economic evaluation index in investment consultation and project decision-making management,expounds the understanding of it,in order to facilitate the scientization and standardization of decision-making management.%以2006年出版的《建设项目经济评价方法与参数》第三版为基准,对投资咨询和项目决策管理中的一些基本概念、投资术语、经济评价指标的内涵和概念进行诠释,表见作者的理解与认识,以促进项目投资决策管理工作的科学化、规范化。

  5. 佛教教育理念中“身教”内涵探析%An Analysis of "Personal Example" in the Buddhism Educational Concept



    "身教"是中国古代僧才培养中重要的教育形式,是中国佛教教育的精髓。"身教"教育理念历史悠久、内涵丰富、意义深远,儒、道、释三家思想中都有关于"身教"的论述。在当前佛教僧才培养方面,继承"身教"的传统教育理念,并不断创新,是僧才教育中的重要环节。但既然是"身教",意义的表达就相对深隐,所以,"身教"内涵及其意义值得深入探讨。%Teaching by one' s own example is an important Chinese ancient educational modality for train- ing exceUent Buddhists and the essence of Chinese Buddhist education. It has a very long history, abun- dant connotation and great significance. There is much discussion about it in the thinking of Confucian- ism, Taoism and Buddhism. It is an important step in inheriting the traditional educational concept and continual innovation for the training of excellent Buddhists. However, because of its abstruseness and ob- scurity, the idea of "Teaching by one' s own example" needs to be further discussed.

  6. Relevance: An Interdisciplinary and Information Science Perspective

    Howard Greisdorf


    Full Text Available Although relevance has represented a key concept in the field of information science for evaluating information retrieval effectiveness, the broader context established by interdisciplinary frameworks could provide greater depth and breadth to on-going research in the field. This work provides an overview of the nature of relevance in the field of information science with a cursory view of how cross-disciplinary approaches to relevance could represent avenues for further investigation into the evaluative characteristics of relevance as a means for enhanced understanding of human information behavior.

  7. The Graeco-Buddhist style of Gandhara – a “Storia ideologica”, or: how a discourse makes a global history of art

    Michael Falser


    Full Text Available This paper is embedded in the new methodological – transcultural – approach of Global Art History: it questions the taxonomies and values built into the discipline since its inception, with their claim to universal validity, and tries to constitute new units of investigation by contextualizing the multiple processes of the appropriation and reconfiguration of artworks through the participating agents in changing institutional regimes. As a case-study, this paper investigates what art historians and archaeologists between 1850 and 2015 had negotiated under the umbrella-term Graeco-Buddhist Style of Gandhara as it historically emerged in an area of today’s North Pakistan between the first and fifth centuries CE. Bypassing the Area Studies approach to describe this Eurasian hybrid of architectural and sculptural style along its formal characteristics, this paper investigates how it was ideologically exploited for different (postcolonial purposes by operating with the classic art historical terminologies of influence and transfer, purity and decadence.

  8. Reduced risk for metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance associated with ovo-lacto-vegetarian behavior in female Buddhists: a case-control study.

    Chiang, Jui-Kun; Lin, Ying-Lung; Chen, Chi-Ling; Ouyang, Chung-Mei; Wu, Ying-Tai; Chi, Yu-Chiao; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Yang, Wei-Shiung


    The association of vegetarian status with the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is not clear. In Asia, Buddhists often have vegetarian behavior for religious rather than for health reasons. We hypothesize that the vegetarian in Buddhism is associated with better metabolic profiles, lower risk for the MetS and insulin resistance (IR). We enrolled 391 female vegetarians (~80% lacto-ovo-vegetarians) and 315 non-vegetarians from health-checkup clinics at a Buddhist hospital in Taiwan. The vegetarian status was associated with lower body mass index, smaller waist circumference, lower total cholesterol, lower low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and lower HDL-C in multivariate linear regression analyses. Despite having lower HDL-C level, the vegetarians had significantly lower total cholesterol/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios. After adjusting the other covariates, the risks for the MetS were lower for ovo-lacto-vegetarians of 1-11 years and >11 years respectively by 54% (odds ratio [OR] =0.46, 95%C.I.:0.26-0.79) and 57% (OR=0.43, 95%C.I.:0.23-0.76) compared to non-vegetarians by the IDF criteria. Likewise, they were lower respectively by 45% (OR=0.55, 95%C.I.:0.32-0.92) and 42% (OR=0.58, 95%C.I.:0.33-0.997), for the MetS by the modified NCEP criteria. In the subgroup of non-diabetic subjects, the vegetarians also had lower risk for IR by HOMA compared to the non-vegetarians (OR=0.71, 95%C.I.:0.48-1.06). The vegetarian behavior, mainly lacto-ovo-vegetarian, related to Buddhism, although not meant for its health effects, is associated with reduced risk for the MetS and IR and may potentially provide metabolic and cardiovascular protective effects in women.

  9. 论现代服装设计中的“禅意美学”%Concerning the Modern Fashion Design of“Buddhist Meaning Aesthetics”



    With the rich material life constantly, the rapid accumulation of wealth to human desires business rising inflation, every national cultural differences of weakening, traditional handicraft to the designer started withering a reflection. They started from the east plain“Buddhist”culture draw nutrition, use“Buddhist Meaning Aesthetics”design idea of the creation. Taking“B uddhist Meaning Aesthetics”in the clothing design of application as the leadership, system introduced “Buddhist Meaning Aesthetics”context and by the example analysis its use manner for promotion in the area of design simplicity, broad-minded philosophy of life design view provides guidance.%随着物质生活的不断丰盈,迅速积聚的商业财富令人类欲望不断膨胀,各民族文化差异的弱化,传统手工艺凋零令一众设计师开始反思。他们开始从东方质朴的“禅”文化中汲取营养,运用“禅意美学”的设计理念进行创作。文章以“禅意美学”在服装设计中的应用为主导,系统地阐述了“禅意美学”的发展脉络并通过实例分析其运用方式,为在设计领域推广简朴、旷达的生活设计观提供指导。

  10. Concept Modeling with Superwords

    El-Arini, Khalid; Guestrin, Carlos


    In information retrieval, a fundamental goal is to transform a document into concepts that are representative of its content. The term "representative" is in itself challenging to define, and various tasks require different granularities of concepts. In this paper, we aim to model concepts that are sparse over the vocabulary, and that flexibly adapt their content based on other relevant semantic information such as textual structure or associated image features. We explore a Bayesian nonparametric model based on nested beta processes that allows for inferring an unknown number of strictly sparse concepts. The resulting model provides an inherently different representation of concepts than a standard LDA (or HDP) based topic model, and allows for direct incorporation of semantic features. We demonstrate the utility of this representation on multilingual blog data and the Congressional Record.

  11. Concept Vector for Similarity Measurement Based on Hierarchical Domain Structure

    Hong Zhe Liu; Hong Bao; Xu


    The concept vector model generalizes standard representations of similarity concept in terms of tree-like structure. In the model, each concept node in the hierarchical tree has ancestor and descendent concept nodes composing its relevancy nodes, thus a concept node is represented as a concept vector according to its relevancy nodes' density and the similarity of the two concepts is obtained by computing cosine similarity between their vectors. In addition, the model is adjusted in terms of l...

  12. User's Relevance of PIR System Based on Cloud Models

    KANG Hai-yan; FAN Xiao-zhong


    A new method to evaluate fuzzily user's relevance on the basis of cloud models has been proposed.All factors of personalized information retrieval system are taken into account in this method. So using this method for personalized information retrieval (PIR) system can efficiently judge multi-value relevance, such as quite relevant, comparatively relevant, commonly relevant, basically relevant and completely non-relevant,and realize a kind of transform of qualitative concepts and quantity and improve accuracy of relevance judgements in PIR system. Experimental data showed that the method is practical and valid. Evaluation results are more accurate and approach to the fact better.

  13. Entropy, a Protean Concept

    Balian, Roger

    We review at a tutorial level the many aspects of the concept of entropy and their interrelations, in thermodynamics, information theory, probability theory and statistical physics. The consideration of relevant entropies and the identification of entropy with missing information enlighten the paradoxes of irreversibility and of Maxwell's demon.

  14. Concepts of formal concept analysis

    Žáček, Martin; Homola, Dan; Miarka, Rostislav


    The aim of this article is apply of Formal Concept Analysis on concept of world. Formal concept analysis (FCA) as a methodology of data analysis, information management and knowledge representation has potential to be applied to a verity of linguistic problems. FCA is mathematical theory for concepts and concept hierarchies that reflects an understanding of concept. Formal concept analysis explicitly formalizes extension and intension of a concept, their mutual relationships. A distinguishing feature of FCA is an inherent integration of three components of conceptual processing of data and knowledge, namely, the discovery and reasoning with concepts in data, discovery and reasoning with dependencies in data, and visualization of data, concepts, and dependencies with folding/unfolding capabilities.

  15. The Buddhist Story of Siddhartha’s Bath:The Shift from Texts to Images%佛传中的洗浴太子:从经文到图像的转变



    浴佛节为纪念释迦诞生而设,是佛教的一个重要节日。摩耶夫人怀胎十月,于四月初八(一说二月初八)在一处花园里生下了释迦,多数佛经记载当时还有两条龙从空中口吐温水、凉水,为他洗浴,是为“二龙灌顶”。二龙灌顶图流行于藏传佛教和西域地区。只有一部佛经记载是九龙灌顶,但中国佛教却流传九龙灌顶之说,早在北魏时期九龙灌顶在当时已经得到普遍认同,佛教造像中频见九龙灌顶图像,佛教文献中也有记载。本文对二龙灌顶、九龙灌顶的佛经记载和图像流传进行了分析,提出从经文的二龙灌顶到图像的九龙灌顶的转变是佛教中国化的一个绝好例证。%The festival of Buddha’s birthday, which was established to memorize the birth of Sakyamuni, is an important Buddhist festival. Lady Maya gave birth to Sakyamuni in a garden on the eighth of April ( or February) of the lunar calendar after ten months’ pregnancy. According to the records of most Buddhist sutras, there were two nagas in the sky spraying water to bathe Sakyamuni at that time, known in the texts as “two nagas spraying water over Siddhartha.” The image is popular in both Tibetan Buddhism and in the Western Regions. Only one Buddhist sutra records that there were nine nagas, but this version of the story spread through Chinese Buddhism and had been widely accepted as early as the time of the Northern Wei dynasties. In addition to the records of Buddhist texts, the image of nine nagas spraying water over Siddhartha frequently appeared in Buddhist paintings and engravings. This paper analyzes the records in Buddhist sutras and the images of both versions of the story, considering that the shift from two nagas in written texts to nine nagas as depicted through images well exemplifies the sinicization of Buddhism.

  16. Pedagogical Viewpoints of "Buddhist Culture" Compul-sory Course in Chinese Universities%高校“佛教文化”选修课教学之我见



    As a compulsory course on Chinese traditional culture in universities,"Buddhist Culture"is located in brief introduction to Buddhist culture. Its pedagogical content should constitute a complete knowledge system, and fit the contemporary under-graduate's request and levels. Therefore, the pedagogical content knowledge is designed to include nine aspects, i.e. the origin of Buddhism, the basic idea of Buddhism, Chinese Buddhism de-nominations, the introduction to Buddhist scriptures, Buddhist history, Buddhism characters and stories, Buddhist architecture and relics, and Buddhist influence on Chinese culture. Pedagogi-cal practice should follow the several principles, such as teaching students in accordance with their aptitude, gradual improvement, combining theory with practice, and integrating Chinese and Western cultures. Several pedagogical methods are considered to be suitable for the course, including narration method, reading and reciting method, practice method, and intuitive teaching method.%作为高校传统文化的通识类选修课程“,佛教文化”定位于从文化和知识角度,对佛教文化进行解读和欣赏,并挖掘其精神内涵。教学内容应契合当代大学生基础和要求,并构成一个完整的学科体系。教学内容大致包括:佛教之缘起、佛教的基本思想、汉传佛教各宗派、佛教典籍与佛经导读、佛教史、佛教的人物与故事、佛教艺术、佛教建筑与遗迹、佛教对祖国文化的影响等。教学过程应贯彻因材施教、循序渐进、知行合一、中西融通四大教育教学原则,可采用讲述法、朗读法、实践法和直观式教学法等合适教学方法。

  17. Deep learning relevance

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Petersen, Casper


    train a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) on existing relevant information to that query. We then use the RNN to "deep learn" a single, synthetic, and we assume, relevant document for that query. We design a crowdsourcing experiment to assess how relevant the "deep learned" document is, compared......What if Information Retrieval (IR) systems did not just retrieve relevant information that is stored in their indices, but could also "understand" it and synthesise it into a single document? We present a preliminary study that makes a first step towards answering this question. Given a query, we...... to existing relevant documents. Users are shown a query and four wordclouds (of three existing relevant documents and our deep learned synthetic document). The synthetic document is ranked on average most relevant of all....


    Ciprian-Dan COSTEA


    The research in accounting with specific application on capital markets represents a special resort of accounting research. The development of such studies was favored by the evolution and strong growth of capital markets in our daily contemporary life and by the extention of base accounting concepts to international level. In such circumstances, studies regarding the evolution of concepts like value relevance, efficient markets, accounting information and its dissemination, fair value, are ...

  19. New Concepts in Industrial Arts.

    American Industrial Arts Association, Washington, DC.

    The 30th annual American Industrial Arts Association (AIAA) Convention was held in Minneapolis in 1968. Topics for the AIAA general session addresses were: (1) "A Fresh Look at Industrial Arts," (2) "New Curricular Concepts," (3) "Making Education Relevant," (4) "Industrial Arts in an Educational System for the Seventies," (5) "New Concepts in…

  20. “基督佛教徒”或者“佛教基督徒”——论默多克小说《海,海》中佛教的价值%"Christian Buddhist" or "Buddhist Christian" : On the Value of Buddhism in Murdoch's The Sea, The Sea



    默多克在《海,海》中从西方人比较陌生的佛教传统的角度,反观生活在基督教文化中的中产人士,使他们的弊病或者说道德缺陷更为清晰可见,而佛教在某种程度上却能提供一剂良药。本文尝试从佛教“四谛”的核心概念出发,从小说主人公查尔斯·阿洛比及其堂弟詹姆斯·阿洛比的道德成长两方面,对上述观点加以论述。%This essay explores how Iris Murdoch reflects, from the perspective of Buddhism, on the life of the middle class in the Christian world in The Sea, The Sea. She believes that Buddhism can somehow act as an antidote. In the pilgrimage to the Good, Buddhism can provide spiritual power, while its magic elements in Tibetan Buddhism should be criticized. This essay analyses, from the viewpoint of the core Buddhist concepts of the Four Noble Truths, the moral growth of Charles and his cousin James.

  1. Intellect and Concept

    Gurpreet Rattan


    Full Text Available The connections between theories of concepts and issues of knowledge and epistemic normativity are complex and controversial. According to the general, broadly Fregean, view that stands in the background of this paper, these connections are taken not only to exist, but also to be fundamental to issues about the individuation of concepts. This kind of view fleshed out should clarify the nature and role of epistemic norms, and of different kinds of epistemic norms, in concept individuation. This paper takes up an aspect of this general task and tries to make explicit the nature and role of intellectual norms, and to argue that extant paradigms for theorizing concepts fail because they fail to recognize the nature and individuative relevance of intellectual norms.

  2. Fuzziness and Relevance Theory

    Grace Qiao Zhang


    This paper investigates how the phenomenon of fuzzy language, such as `many' in `Mary has many friends', can be explained by Relevance Theory. It is concluded that fuzzy language use conforms with optimal relevance in that it can achieve the greatest positive effect with the least processing effort. It is the communicators themselves who decide whether or not optimal relevance is achieved, rather than the language form (fuzzy or non-fuzzy) used. People can skillfully adjust the deployment of different language forms or choose appropriate interpretations to suit different situations and communication needs. However, there are two challenges to RT: a. to extend its theory from individual relevance to group relevance; b. to embrace cultural considerations (because when relevance principles and cultural protocols are in conflict, the latter tends to prevail).

  3. Perceptions of document relevance

    Peter eBruza


    Full Text Available This article presents a study of how humans perceive the relevance of documents.Humans are adept at making reasonably robust and quick decisions about what information is relevant to them, despite the ever increasing complexity and volume of their surrounding information environment. The literature on document relevance has identified various dimensions of relevance (e.g., topicality, novelty, etc., however little is understood about how these dimensions may interact.We performed a crowdsourced study of how human subjects judge two relevance dimensions in relation to document snippets retrieved from an internet search engine.The order of the judgement was controlled.For those judgements exhibiting an order effect, a q-test was performed to determine whether the order effects can be explained by a quantum decision model based on incompatible decision perspectives.Some evidence of incompatibility was found which suggests incompatible decision perspectives is appropriate for explaining interacting dimensions of relevance.

  4. Relevance Theory in Translation

    Shao Jun; Jiang Min


    In perspective of relevance theory, translation is regarded as communication. According to relevance theory, communication not only requires encoding, transfer and decoding processes, but also involves inference in addition. As communication, translation decision-making is also based on the human beings' inferential mental faculty. Concentrating on relevance theory, this paper tries to analyze and explain some translation phenomena in two English versions of Cai Gen Tan-My Crude Philosophy of Life.

  5. Dosimetry for small size beams such as IMRT and stereotactic radiotherapy, is the concept of the dose at a point still relevant? proposal for a new methodology; Dosimetrie pour les faisceaux de petites dimensions pour la RCMI et la stereotaxie. Le concept de dose en un point est il adapte? proposition pour une nouvelle methodologie

    Ostrowsky, A.; Bordy, J.M.; Daures, J.; De Carlan, L.; Delaunay, F.


    Solving the problem of traceability of the absorbed dose to the tumour for the radiation fields of small and very small dimensions, like those used for new treatment modality usually results in the use of dosemeters of much smaller size than those of the beam. For the realisation of the reference in primary standards laboratories, the absence of technology likely to produce absolute small-size dosemeters leaves no possibility for the direct measurement of the absorbed dose at a point and implies the use of passive or active small-size transfer dosemeters. This report intends to introduce a new kind of dose quantity for radiotherapy similar do the Dose Area Product concept used in radiology. Such a new concept has to be propagated through the metrology chain, including the TPS, to the calculation of the absorbed dose to the tumour. (authors)

  6. 山地蚀源区的沉积类型及其相关概念的系统梳理与厘定%Review of sedimentation types and relevant concepts in mountain provenance



    By systematically reviewing the research results of sedimentation types in exhumation prov-enance during recent decades to centuries at home and abroad,combined field study in modern sediments of Quaternary,based on whether sediments transport,transportation mechanism,sedimentation location, gradient and landform,etc.,the sedimentation types in exhumation provenance can be divided into eluvi-um,deluvium, colluvium, fluvial deposits in mountain-girt valley, pluvium, alluvium, etc.Various types have obvious differences in basic conception and connotation.Eluvium is sedimentation in-situ of the parent rock weathering product on the gentle landform (3°,but no more than 30°).Colluvium is the deposits formed only under the impact of gravity by sliding or rolling to the foot of the slopes in the way of caving or fall or collapse on the steep landform (>30°).Fluvial deposits in mountain-girt valley form when eluvium,deluvium,colluvium are carried to valley or channel in mountains by overland flow.Pluvium forms during flood period when plenty of parent rock weathering products carried by intermountain flood current are located in mountain pass.Al-luvium forms during normal river flow period when plenty of parent rock weathering products carried by in-termountain flood current are located in mountain pass.In addition,gravity flow deposits such as land-slide,slump,debris flow,etc.,also exist in exhumation provenance.%通过对国内外近100多年来山地蚀源区沉积类型的研究成果系统梳理,结合第四系现代沉积的野外考察,根据沉积物是否发生搬运、搬运机制、沉积位置、沉积部位的坡度以及地貌特征等,将山地蚀源区沉积类型划分为残积物、坡积物、坠(崩/塌)积物、山间河流沉积物、洪积物和冲积物等6种类型,各种类型在基本概念及其内涵上存在明显差异。残积物是母岩风化的产物在较平缓的地貌上(<3°)形成的原地堆积;坡积物是

  7. 韩国朝鲜时代“甘露帧”内容和风格之考察%On the Content and Style of Buddhist Paintings of Nectar Ritual in Korea



    “甘露帧”即汉语中的“水陆画”,在韩国历史上曾经盛板一时,“甘露帧”分为上、中、下三坛结构。综合考察韩国现存“甘露帧”之图像内容,并分期对其风格论断,画面运用具有典型化特征。受画师的风格,地方风格因素的影响,多样的图像发展。其画面又不断形成新的画风。%"Buddhist paintings of Nectar Ritual" refers to "landscape painting" in Chinese and was once very popular in Korean history. Its frame is divided into three structures: upper, middle and bottom. Combining the Buddhist texts and theories, this paper studies the image content and styles of the existing Buddhist paintings of Nectar Ritual, aiming to explore the typification of screen using. The appearance of new images and disappearance of old images are influenced by many factors, such as the times, painter' s style and regional style. This diversification of image development formed a new painting style in the screen using.

  8. 梁僧伽婆罗译《孔雀王经》“梁言”词例释%Explanations of the“Liangyan”(梁言) Words in Buddhist Scriptures Compiled or Translated in the Southern Liang Dynasty



    提南朝梁代撰译佛典中的“梁言”词皆为构成音译—意译对应关系的佛教名物术语词,共计200多例。无论从数量还是从类别上看,这些梁言词都具有考释研究的价值与可行性。本文从音译用字特点、语音特点及音译意译关系对南朝梁僧伽婆罗译《孔雀王呪经》中16则“梁言”词进行释证。%The Liangyan (梁言) words in Buddhist Scriptures compiled or translated in the Southern Liang Dynasty are the Buddhist substantives and terms which form the corresponding relations between transliteration and free translation, totaling more than 200 cases. These Buddhist substantives and terms have high research value and   feasibility. Regardless from quantity and category, the paper mainly researches into the 16 Liangyan(梁言) words in Kongquewangzhoujing(《孔雀王呪经》) translated by Sam3 gha-Pāla(僧伽婆罗) from the perspective of transliterating characters, features of pronunciation and the corresponding relations between transliteration and free translation.

  9. Reduced risk for metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance associated with ovo-lacto-vegetarian behavior in female Buddhists: a case-control study.

    Jui-Kun Chiang

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The association of vegetarian status with the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS is not clear. In Asia, Buddhists often have vegetarian behavior for religious rather than for health reasons. We hypothesize that the vegetarian in Buddhism is associated with better metabolic profiles, lower risk for the MetS and insulin resistance (IR. METHODS: We enrolled 391 female vegetarians (~80% lacto-ovo-vegetarians and 315 non-vegetarians from health-checkup clinics at a Buddhist hospital in Taiwan. RESULTS: The vegetarian status was associated with lower body mass index, smaller waist circumference, lower total cholesterol, lower low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, and lower HDL-C in multivariate linear regression analyses. Despite having lower HDL-C level, the vegetarians had significantly lower total cholesterol/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios. After adjusting the other covariates, the risks for the MetS were lower for ovo-lacto-vegetarians of 1-11 years and >11 years respectively by 54% (odds ratio [OR] =0.46, 95%C.I.:0.26-0.79 and 57% (OR=0.43, 95%C.I.:0.23-0.76 compared to non-vegetarians by the IDF criteria. Likewise, they were lower respectively by 45% (OR=0.55, 95%C.I.:0.32-0.92 and 42% (OR=0.58, 95%C.I.:0.33-0.997, for the MetS by the modified NCEP criteria. In the subgroup of non-diabetic subjects, the vegetarians also had lower risk for IR by HOMA compared to the non-vegetarians (OR=0.71, 95%C.I.:0.48-1.06. CONCLUSION: The vegetarian behavior, mainly lacto-ovo-vegetarian, related to Buddhism, although not meant for its health effects, is associated with reduced risk for the MetS and IR and may potentially provide metabolic and cardiovascular protective effects in women.

  10. Reduced Risk for Metabolic Syndrome and Insulin Resistance Associated with Ovo-Lacto-Vegetarian Behavior in Female Buddhists: A Case-Control Study

    Chiang, Jui-Kun; Lin, Ying-Lung; Chen, Chi-Ling; Ouyang, Chung-Mei; Wu, Ying-Tai; Chi, Yu-Chiao; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Yang, Wei-Shiung


    Introduction The association of vegetarian status with the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is not clear. In Asia, Buddhists often have vegetarian behavior for religious rather than for health reasons. We hypothesize that the vegetarian in Buddhism is associated with better metabolic profiles, lower risk for the MetS and insulin resistance (IR). Methods We enrolled 391 female vegetarians (∼80% lacto-ovo-vegetarians) and 315 non-vegetarians from health-checkup clinics at a Buddhist hospital in Taiwan. Results The vegetarian status was associated with lower body mass index, smaller waist circumference, lower total cholesterol, lower low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and lower HDL-C in multivariate linear regression analyses. Despite having lower HDL-C level, the vegetarians had significantly lower total cholesterol/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios. After adjusting the other covariates, the risks for the MetS were lower for ovo-lacto-vegetarians of 1–11 years and >11 years respectively by 54% (odds ratio [OR] = 0.46, 95%C.I.:0.26–0.79) and 57% (OR = 0.43, 95%C.I.:0.23–0.76) compared to non-vegetarians by the IDF criteria. Likewise, they were lower respectively by 45% (OR = 0.55, 95%C.I.:0.32–0.92) and 42% (OR = 0.58, 95%C.I.:0.33–0.997), for the MetS by the modified NCEP criteria. In the subgroup of non-diabetic subjects, the vegetarians also had lower risk for IR by HOMA compared to the non-vegetarians (OR = 0.71, 95%C.I.:0.48–1.06). Conclusion The vegetarian behavior, mainly lacto-ovo-vegetarian, related to Buddhism, although not meant for its health effects, is associated with reduced risk for the MetS and IR and may potentially provide metabolic and cardiovascular protective effects in women. PMID:23951247

  11. Making Science Relevant

    Eick, Charles; Deutsch, Bill; Fuller, Jennifer; Scott, Fletcher


    Science teachers are always looking for ways to demonstrate the relevance of science to students. By connecting science learning to important societal issues, teachers can motivate students to both enjoy and engage in relevant science (Bennet, Lubben, and Hogarth 2007). To develop that connection, teachers can help students take an active role in…

  12. Is Enterprise Education Relevant to Social Enterprise?

    Bridge, Simon


    Purpose: Both enterprise education and social enterprise have become fashionable but what, if any, should be the connections between them? The purpose of this paper is to explore those connections and to reflect on what relevance the two concepts might have for each other. Design/methodology/approach: Both enterprise education and social…

  13. Is Enterprise Education Relevant to Social Enterprise?

    Bridge, Simon


    Purpose: Both enterprise education and social enterprise have become fashionable but what, if any, should be the connections between them? The purpose of this paper is to explore those connections and to reflect on what relevance the two concepts might have for each other. Design/methodology/approach: Both enterprise education and social…

  14. On Architectural Layout of Chinese Buddhist Temples in the Perspec-tive of Environmental Psychology%环境心理学视域下的佛寺建筑布局--以中国汉传佛寺为例



    Environmental psychology studies the relationships between environment and people��s psychological state,thinking and behaviors. Environment includes natural environment and social environment. Human being is part of the environment. Environmental determinism,interaction theory and mutual penetration theory explain the relationships between people��s psychology and the environment. The ultimate aim of deciding sites,halls layout and Buddhist figures layout of temples is to make the power of Buddha stand out,and to make Buddha taller,more dignified and more compassionate in the heart of believers. For believers,all the layouts of the Buddhist temples are their external environmental factors,which combined with the cultural factors construct a specific psychological field,thus affecting the psychology and behaviors of the believers. Buddhist temples�� sites,halls layout and Buddhist figures layout are also affected by the social,cultural psychology and behaviors of the builders. The Buddhist temples�� architectural layouts show the complexity of relationships between people��s psychology and environment.%环境心理学主要研究环境(包括自然环境和社会环境)与人的心理状态、思维活动及生产行为等之间的关系。人是环境的一部分,环境决定论、相互作用论和相互渗透论分别解释了人的心理与环境的关系。佛寺选址、佛殿布局和佛像布局的最终意义是为了烘托出佛的威力,使佛在信奉者心中具有高大、威严、慈悲的形象。对信奉者而言,佛寺的一切布局都是外在于他的环境因素,这个外在的环境结合文化因素组成特定的心理场从而影响信奉者的心理和行为;而对佛寺选址、佛殿布局和佛像布局而言,同样也受到建造者社会文化心理与行为的影响。佛寺建筑布局体现出人的心理与环境关系的复杂性。

  15. Buddhist Music Zen Meditation & Edutainment- Investigating Report on Tiantai Temple of Hong’an, Hubei, China%佛乐禅思寓教于乐--来自中国湖北红安天台寺的调研报告



    Buddhist abbot Shi Wu Yue of Tiantai temple is a disciple of Buddhist monk Hong Yi’s disciple, so he vow to inherit the legacy of the Master; Buddhist music is the musical trib-utes and praise to the Buddha by Chinese Buddhist temples and believers; Compared with the pure solemn traditional Buddhist music, the Hubei Hong’an Tiantai temple“new Buddhist mu-sic”not only contain a merciful feelings, but also quite moving, immediately making the person love and joyful, and getting an idea of goodwill; the temple keep up with the times, formed Buddhism ensemble, carrying forward the Buddhist ideas to civilize the monk-students. To en-gage the outstanding teachers, to create a music college, inheriting Master Hong Yi’s great as-pirations to influence upon the believers.%天台寺方丈释悟乐为弘一法师再传弟子,故发愿承袭师祖衣钵;佛乐是中国佛教寺庙及信众对佛陀的音声供养与赞颂;较之庄严清净的传统佛乐,湖北红安天台寺的“新佛乐”,既蕴涵慈悲之情,又使人动容之至,从而顿起欢喜之心,亦动善意之念;寺院与时俱进,组建佛教乐团,继人间佛教之理念教化学僧。聘请名师,创建音乐学院,承弘一法师之宏愿感化信众。

  16. Pedodiversity: a controversial concept


    The concept of pedodiversity and its measurement methodology proposed and developed by Ibá?ez research term is introduced. An attempt to apply pedodiversity to analyze spatial soil variation and distribution patterns on the global scale is briefly demonstrated. Furthermore, constructive comments and criticisms on pedodiversity and its measurement from the noted pedologists and ecologists are outlined. Finally, potential applications of pedodiversity in soil science and other relevant disciplines are discussed.

  17. 佛教文化影响下的藏族卓舞艺术%Tibetan Zhuo dance art under Buddhist culture influence



      Zhuo Dance become an Tibetan folk dance art, this paper expounds the Tibetan Zhuo dance art of Buddhism influence factors, through the Buddhist culture in Zhuo dance, formation of the embodiment and culture of Buddhism and Tibetan agriculture and animal husbandry culture upon binding to Zhuo dance art influence three aspects, shows Tibetan Zhuo dance in the process of development and innovation, still retains a strong national characteristics and the Tibetan religious psychological factors.%  卓舞是藏区独树一帜的民间歌舞艺术,本文通过佛教文化在卓舞歌词、队形中的体现和佛教文化与藏区农牧文化结合后对卓舞艺术的影响三方面阐述藏族卓舞艺术中的佛教影响因素,说明藏族卓舞在继承发展与创新的过程中,仍保留着浓郁的民族特色和藏族人民虔诚的宗教心理因素。

  18. Forensic STR loci reveal common genetic ancestry of the Thai-Malay Muslims and Thai Buddhists in the deep Southern region of Thailand.

    Kutanan, Wibhu; Kitpipit, Thitika; Phetpeng, Sukanya; Thanakiatkrai, Phuvadol


    Among the people living in the five deep Southern Thai provinces, Thai-Malay Muslims (MUS) constitute the majority, while the remaining are Thai Buddhists (BUD). Cultural, linguistic and religious differences between these two populations have been previously reported. However, their biological relationship has never been investigated. In this study, we aimed to reveal the genetic structure and genetic affinity between MUS and BUD by analyzing 15 autosomal short tandem repeats. Both distance and model-based clustering methods showed significant genetic homogeneity between these two populations, suggesting a common biological ancestry. After Islamization in this region during the fourteenth century AD, gradual albeit nonstatistically significant genetic changes occurred within these two populations. Cultural barriers possibly influenced these genetic changes. MUS have closer admixture to Malaysian-Malay Muslims than BUD countrywide. Admixture proportions also support certain degree of genetic dissimilarity between the two studied populations, as shown by the unequal genetic contribution from Malaysian-Malay Muslims. Cultural transformation and recent minor genetic admixture are the likely processes that shaped the genetic structure of both MUS and BUD.

  19. An Unknown Tradition of Han Chinese Conversions to Tibetan Buddhism:Han Chinese Incarnate Lamas and Parishioners of Tibetan Buddhist Monasteries in Amdo

    Gray Tuttle


    AbstrActThis article examines Han Chinese who has historically practiced Tibetan Buddhism in the Qinghai-Gansu border region. The main primary sources were published in the 1990s, based on surveys by Chinese social scientists who were sent around in the 1950s to collect data on Tibetan Buddhist institutions as well as additional independent surveys from the 1980s and my own site visits in 2006. On the basis of these sources, I argue that there are at least 100,000 and probably as many as 200,000 Han Chinese on the borders of Qinghai and Gansu (part of the Amdo cultural region for Tibetans) practicing Tibetan Buddhism, following traditions that seem to have been in place for centuries. I also discuss the sixteen historic cases of Han Chinese reincarnate lamas and the over one hundred monasteries in this region affiliated with Han Chinese. Finally, I note the sectarian affiliations (jiaopai: Nyingma, Geluk, etc.) and religious practices of these Chinese communities practicing Tibetan Buddhism.

  20. Analysis of the Evolution and Characteristics of the Chinese Buddhist Sculpture%浅析中国佛教雕塑艺术的演变与特征



    Sculpture is a kind of plastic arts, three-dimensional form in space on the performance of human thought and life. Since the Eastern Han Buddhism came to China, combining with the Chinese sculpture. After the evolution of years of history and continue to nationalization, secularization, the original Buddhism with exotic flavor exudes the artistic features of the style of the Chinese nation, ultimately the formation of Chinese Buddhist art shine through the ages.%雕塑是一种空间造型艺术,以立体的形式在空间上表现着人类的思想和生活,是雕、刻、塑三种制作方法的总称。佛教自东汉传入中国后,便与中国雕塑艺术相结合。经过历史岁月的演变以及不断地民族化、世俗化,具有异域风格的印度佛教艺术逐渐与中华民族艺术特征相融合,最终形成了光耀千古的中国佛教艺术风格。

  1. Concept theory

    Hjørland, Birger


      Concept theory is an extremely broad, interdisciplinary and complex field of research related to many deep fields with very long historical traditions without much consensus. However, information science and knowledge organization cannot avoid relating to theories of concepts. Knowledge...... organizing systems (e.g. classification systems, thesauri and ontologies) should be understood as systems basically organizing concepts and their semantic relations. The same is the case with information retrieval systems. Different theories of concepts have different implications for how to construe......, evaluate and use such systems. Based on "a post-Kuhnian view" of paradigms this paper put forward arguments that the best understanding and classification of theories of concepts is to view and classify them in accordance with epistemological theories (empiricism, rationalism, historicism and pragmatism...

  2. Culturally Relevant Teaching and the Concept of Education

    Beckett, Kelvin


    In this article, the author addresses a problem that first occurred to him almost 40 years ago. Having finally arrived at a possible solution, he would like to share it with others. The issue was raised by John Dewey and taken up again by Richard Peters and Paulo Freire. It was not their main concern, however; nor has it been a major concern of…

  3. Criticisms of Relevance Theory

    尚静; 孟晔; 焦丽芳


    This paper briefly introduces first the notion of Sperber and Wilson's Relevance Theory. Then, the motivation of S & W putting forward their RT is also mentioned. Secondly, the paper gives some details about the methodology of RT, in which ostensive-inferential communication, context and optimal relevance are highlighted. Thirdly, the paper focuses on the criticisms of RT from different areas of research on human language and communication. Finally, the paper draws a conclusion on the great importance of RT in pragmatics.

  4. Fundamental Concepts Bridging Education and the Brain

    Masson, Steve; Foisy, Lorie-Marlène Brault


    Although a number of papers have already discussed the relevance of brain research for education, the fundamental concepts and discoveries connecting education and the brain have not been systematically reviewed yet. In this paper, four of these concepts are presented and evidence concerning each one is reviewed. First, the concept of…

  5. Travelling Concepts

    Simonsen, Karen-Margrethe


    Review of "Travelling Concepts, Metaphors, and Narratives: Literary and Cultural Studies in an Age of Interdisciplinary Research" ed. by Sibylle Baumgarten, Beatrice Michaelis and Ansagar Nünning, Trier; Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2012......Review of "Travelling Concepts, Metaphors, and Narratives: Literary and Cultural Studies in an Age of Interdisciplinary Research" ed. by Sibylle Baumgarten, Beatrice Michaelis and Ansagar Nünning, Trier; Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2012...

  6. Relevance Theory and Its Implications to Second Language Teaching



    Relevance Theory Regards human communication as an intentional activity, and as an ostensive-inferential cognitive process. Based on the three key concepts of RT, the present paper shows the implications of this theory in second language teaching.


    Ciprian-Dan COSTEA


    Full Text Available The research in accounting with specific application on capital markets represents a special resort of accounting research. The development of such studies was favored by the evolution and strong growth of capital markets in our daily contemporary life and by the extention of base accounting concepts to international level. In such circumstances, studies regarding the evolution of concepts like value relevance, efficient markets, accounting information and its dissemination, fair value, are welcomed on the field of accounting research with applicability to the capital markets. This study comes to outline some positions regarding this topic of accounting research.


    Ciprian-Dan COSTEA


    Full Text Available The research in accounting with specific application on capital markets represents a special resort of accounting research. The development of such studies was favored by the evolution and strong growth of capital markets in our daily contemporary life and by the extention of base accounting concepts to international level. In such circumstances, studies regarding the evolution of concepts like value relevance, efficient markets, accounting information and its dissemination, fair value, are welcomed on the field of accounting research with applicability to the capital markets. This study comes to outline some positions regarding this topic of accounting research.

  9. The Relevance of Literature.

    Dunham, L. L.


    The "legacy" of the humanities is discussed in terms of relevance, involvement, and other philosophical considerations. Reasons for studying foreign literature in language classes are developed in the article. Comment is also made on attitudes and ideas culled from the writings of Clifton Fadiman, Jean Paul Sartre, and James Baldwin. (RL)

  10. Relevant Subspace Clustering

    Müller, Emmanuel; Assent, Ira; Günnemann, Stephan


    . We prove that computation of this model is NP-hard. For RESCU, we propose an approximative solution that shows high accuracy with respect to our relevance model. Thorough experiments on synthetic and real world data show that RESCU successfully reduces the result to manageable sizes. It reliably...... achieves top clustering quality while competing approaches show greatly varying performance....

  11. Relevant Subspace Clustering

    Müller, Emmanuel; Assent, Ira; Günnemann, Stephan;


    Subspace clustering aims at detecting clusters in any subspace projection of a high dimensional space. As the number of possible subspace projections is exponential in the number of dimensions, the result is often tremendously large. Recent approaches fail to reduce results to relevant subspace c...

  12. Lateral Concepts

    Christopher Gad


    Full Text Available This essay discusses the complex relation between the knowledges and practices of the researcher and his/her informants in terms of lateral concepts. The starting point is that it is not the prerogative of the (STS scholar to conceptualize the world; all our “informants” do it too. This creates the possibility of enriching our own conceptual repertoires by letting them be inflected by the concepts of those we study. In a broad sense, the lateral means that there is a many-to-many relation between domains of knowledge and practice. However, each specific case of the lateral is necessarily immanent to a particular empirical setting and form of inquiry. In this sense lateral concepts are radically empirical since it locates concepts within the field. To clarify the meaning and stakes of lateral concepts, we first make a contrast between lateral anthropology and Latour’s notion of infra-reflexivity. We end with a brief illustration and discussion of how lateral conceptualization can re-orient STS modes of inquiry, and why this matters.

  13. Relevance Feedback in Content Based Image Retrieval: A Review

    Manesh B. Kokare


    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the technical achievements in the research area of relevance feedback (RF in content-based image retrieval (CBIR. Relevance feedback is a powerful technique in CBIR systems, in order to improve the performance of CBIR effectively. It is an open research area to the researcher to reduce the semantic gap between low-level features and high level concepts. The paper covers the current state of art of the research in relevance feedback in CBIR, various relevance feedback techniques and issues in relevance feedback are discussed in detail.

  14. Buddhist Meditation:An Epitome of China’s Psychological Research Methodology%佛教禅定:中国本土心理学研究方法的典型代表



    Buddhist meditation, as“alternative voice” of psychological research methodology, is a key link in the construction of the system of China’s psychology. Firstly, Buddhist meditation has“introversive intuition” and“firsthand experience” of the inner evidence features, which differs from Western psychology research methods. Secondly, Buddhist meditation includes not only distinctive operating procedures and methods, but also clear and steady psychological principles and mechanisms. The meditation practice is divided into part“samatha” and part“vipassana”: the former is the premise of promoting mental function while the latter is the key of mental function’s breakthrough . Finally, the paper makes a comparison of the pros and cons of Chinese and western research methods in order to clarify the unique values of the Buddhist meditation in psychological research methodology.%佛教禅定作为心理学研究方法的“另一种声音”,是中国本土心理学体系构建的关键一环。首先,佛教禅定具有“内求”及“证知”的内证特色,区别于西方心理学研究方法。其次,佛教禅定不仅包括层次清晰的操作程序与方法,更有明确扎实的心理原理及机制。禅定实践分为“止”与“观”两个部分:“修定”是提升心理功能的必备前提;“观慧”则是心理功能实现突破的关键所在。最后通过中西两种研究方法的优劣比较,进一步明确佛教禅定在心理学研究方法上的独特价值。

  15. Constructing Contracts: Making Discrete Mathematics Relevant to Beginning Programmers

    Gegg-Harrison, Timothy S.


    Although computer scientists understand the importance of discrete mathematics to the foundations of their field, computer science (CS) students do not always see the relevance. Thus, it is important to find a way to show students its relevance. The concept of program correctness is generally taught as an activity independent of the programming…

  16. The ICNP's relevance in the US.

    Henry, S B; Elfrink, V; McNeil, B; Warren, J


    Efforts to develop an International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP) were initiated nearly a decade ago. To update nurses on progress, below is a critical review of the ICNP using the Computer-based Patient Record Institute (CPRI) Features Framework and a discussion of its relevance to current US efforts: 1) the activities of the American Nurses' Association (ANA) Steering Committee on Databases To Support Clinical Nursing Practice; 2) implementation of formal approaches for representing nursing concepts and 3) Health Level 7 standards.

  17. Clinical Relevance of Adipokines

    Matthias Blüher


    Full Text Available The incidence of obesity has increased dramatically during recent decades. Obesity increases the risk for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and may therefore contribute to premature death. With increasing fat mass, secretion of adipose tissue derived bioactive molecules (adipokines changes towards a pro-inflammatory, diabetogenic and atherogenic pattern. Adipokines are involved in the regulation of appetite and satiety, energy expenditure, activity, endothelial function, hemostasis, blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, energy metabolism in insulin sensitive tissues, adipogenesis, fat distribution and insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. Therefore, adipokines are clinically relevant as biomarkers for fat distribution, adipose tissue function, liver fat content, insulin sensitivity, chronic inflammation and have the potential for future pharmacological treatment strategies for obesity and its related diseases. This review focuses on the clinical relevance of selected adipokines as markers or predictors of obesity related diseases and as potential therapeutic tools or targets in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.

  18. Korrek, volledig, relevant

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Gouws, Rufus


    as detrimental to the status of a dictionary as a container of linguistic knowledge. This paper shows that, from a lexicographic perspective, such a distinction is not relevant. What is important is that definitions should contain information that is relevant to and needed by the target users of that specific......In explanatory dictionaries, both general language dictionaries and dictionaries dealing with languages for special purposes, the lexicographic definition is an important item to present the meaning of a given lemma. Due to a strong linguistic bias, resulting from an approach prevalent in the early...... phases of the development of theoretical lexicography, a distinction is often made between encyclopaedic information and semantic information in dictionary definitions, and dictionaries had often been criticized when their definitions were dominated by an encyclopaedic approach. This used to be seen...

  19. Information Needs/Relevance

    Wildemuth, Barbara M.


    A user's interaction with a DL is often initiated as the result of the user experiencing an information need of some kind. Aspects of that experience and how it might affect the user's interactions with the DL are discussed in this module. In addition, users continuously make decisions about and evaluations of the materials retrieved from a DL, relative to their information needs. Relevance judgments, and their relationship to the user's information needs, are discussed in this module. Draft

  20. The Concept "System of Philosophy"

    Catana, Leo


    In this article I shall examine and discuss the concept ‘system of philosophy’ as a methodological tool in the history of philosophy. I shall do so in two moves. First I shall analyze the historical origin of the concept in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Thereafter I shall undertake...... a discussion of its methodological weaknesses — a discussion, which is not only relevant to the writing of history of philosophy in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, but also to the writing of history of philosophy in our times, where the concept remains an important methodological tool. My first move...

  1. An Introduction to Statistical Concepts

    Lomax, Richard G


    This comprehensive, flexible text is used in both one- and two-semester courses to review introductory through intermediate statistics. Instructors select the topics that are most appropriate for their course. Its conceptual approach helps students more easily understand the concepts and interpret SPSS and research results. Key concepts are simply stated and occasionally reintroduced and related to one another for reinforcement. Numerous examples demonstrate their relevance. This edition features more explanation to increase understanding of the concepts. Only crucial equations are included. I

  2. Concept-Based Problem Solving: Making Concepts the Language of Physics. Technical Report.

    Leonard, William J.; Gerace, William J.; Dufresne, Robert J.

    This document identifies five types of learning experiences which are relevant to understanding students' understanding of concepts and principles. These include exploring existing concepts, honing and clustering concepts, developing analytical and reasoning skills, developing problem solving skills, and structuring knowledge in memory. Each of…

  3. The Dissemination and Influence of Buddhist Retribution, Hell and Confession during the Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties%魏晋南北朝时期佛教报应、地狱及忏悔观念的传播与影响



    With the dissemination and development of Buddhism in China during the Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties, the religious concepts of karma, the punishments in the hell, confession and exemption from punishment were introduced into China. As a religious ritual of Buddhism, confession has great influence on Chinese monks and nuns as well as the common people. The introduction of confession, to some extent, has made up for some loss of moral self-discipline of Confucianism. Confession is an important cultural product of Buddhist sinicization, moreover, it has became a crucial factor that influences the cultural character of Chinese scholars and social psychology.%魏晋南北朝时期随着佛教在中国的传播和发展,因果报应、地狱受过和忏悔负罪等宗教观念也传入了中国。忏悔之法,作为佛教的一种宗教仪规,对中国一般僧尼乃至普通士人和民众的历史影响十分突出。忏悔观念的传入,在一定程度上弥补了中国儒学道德自律的某种缺失,是佛教中国化的重要文化产物,成为影响中国士人文化品格和社会心理的重要因素。

  4. [Freud's narcissism concept].

    Palmowski, B


    The conception of narcissism according to Freud involves a number of different issues and hypotheses. Historically, the numerous contradictions and obscurities in the various psychoanalytical theories of narcissism were clear from the beginning. In this study it was attempted to define four central concepts and critically revise their clinical and theoretical relevance. Following a historical survey on the development of the term by Freud, the problems of defining narcissism by means of the theory of drive and libido are described. The corresponding hypothesis concerning developmental psychology will then be examined with regard to the results of recent infant research. Then the first (and for Freud most important) narcissism concept is represented, narcissism as a mode of object relation and a type of object choice. In conclusion, the new theories, which emphasize narcissism in terms of sense of one's self and self-esteem will be dealt with. Thus this study contributes to the differentiation of the various concepts in the clinical theory of narcissism, especially concerning the unravelling of the object relation- and self-theories from energetic-economical models and developmental speculation of primary narcissism.

  5. Astrophysical Concepts

    Harwit, Martin


    This classic text, aimed at senior undergraduates and beginning graduate students in physics and astronomy, presents a wide range of astrophysical concepts in sufficient depth to give the reader a quantitative understanding of the subject. Emphasizing physical concepts, the book outlines cosmic events but does not portray them in detail: it provides a series of astrophysical sketches. For this fourth edition, nearly every part of the text has been reconsidered and rewritten, new sections have been added to cover recent developments, and others have been extensively revised and brought up to date. The book begins with an outline of the scope of modern astrophysics and enumerates some of the outstanding problems faced in the field today. The basic physics needed to tackle these questions are developed in the next few chapters using specific astronomical processes as examples. The second half of the book enlarges on these topics and shows how we can obtain quantitative insight into the structure and evolution of...

  6. Relationship marketing as a modern marketing concept

    Bolotnaya Oksana


    Full Text Available The article presents the results of scientific and practical justification of the relevance of using the concept of marketing of relations in modern market conditions and identifies the content and factors of customer loyalty.

  7. Rebel and P ..ilgrimaging Buddhist---the DuP ..licity of Sun Wukong’s Image%造反者与取经人--孙悟空形象的双重性

    常业安; 汤焰; 陈钰


    孙悟空具有造反者与取经人的双重性:作为一个造反者,他的宗旨是反对传统的束缚,要求最大的自由;作为一个取经人,他的宗旨是实现理想,造福人类。在很大程度上,孙悟空体现了吴承恩对现实的态度、对理想的追求以及无力改变社会的矛盾心理。%Sun Wu-kong has the du P. . licity of a rebel as well as a P. . ilgrimaging Buddhist .As a rebel ,he tries to be against the traditional bondage and wants to maximize his freedom ,while as a P. . ilgrimaging Buddhist ,his aims to real-ize his dream and benefit other P. . eo P. . le .To a large extent ,Sun Wu-kong stands for Wu Cheng’en’s attitude towards reality ,which tries to P. . ursue his dream but cannot change the society .




    十六国时代所译佛经中提供了大量梵汉对音的材料,梵语汉语虽然在语音系统上存在差异,但仍然可以为构拟汉语韵部提供参考。文章利用宾三藏佛陀耶舍等人的八部译作,构拟了十六国时代长安音的韵母系统,从中可以看到汉语从上古到中古发展的线索。%There is much material of Sino-Sanskrit transliterations in the Buddhist scriptures in the 16 Kingdoms(304—439),which may provide references to reconstructing Chinese rhyme endings despite the differences between Chinese and Sanskrit.By using the 8 Buddhist scriptures by Kasperirian monk Buddhaya'sa and other translators the system of rhyme endings of Chang'an dialect in the 16 Kingdoms is reconstructed.

  9. Vygotsky's Crisis: Argument, context, relevance.

    Hyman, Ludmila


    Vygotsky's The Historical Significance of the Crisis in Psychology (1926-1927) is an important text in the history and philosophy of psychology that has only become available to scholars in 1982 in Russian, and in 1997 in English. The goal of this paper is to introduce Vygotsky's conception of psychology to a wider audience. I argue that Vygotsky's argument about the "crisis" in psychology and its resolution can be fully understood only in the context of his social and political thinking. Vygotsky shared the enthusiasm, widespread among Russian leftist intelligentsia in the 1920s, that Soviet society had launched an unprecedented social experiment: The socialist revolution opened the way for establishing social conditions that would let the individual flourish. For Vygotsky, this meant that "a new man" of the future would become "the first and only species in biology that would create itself." He envisioned psychology as a science that would serve this humanist teleology. I propose that The Crisis is relevant today insofar as it helps us define a fundamental problem: How can we systematically account for the development of knowledge in psychology? I evaluate how Vygotsky addresses this problem as a historian of the crisis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Zen Buddhist Spirituality (A espiritualidade zen budista - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2012v10n27p704en

    Faustino Luiz Couto Teixeira


    Full Text Available The comparative study of mysticism and inter-religious spirituality has gained more space in universities and research centers that radiate everywhere. They are also research involving Eastern religions, in its peculiar mystical trait. Also in the context of Buddhism one can talk on spirituality, understood as a search path of liberation. This article presents the theme of Zen Buddhist spirituality based on the reflection of Eihei Dogen Zenji (1200 – 1253, one of the most important and prominent teachers of the Soto Zen Tradition.  This text aims to show the richness of spirituality and its peculiarity concerning the everyday reality. To promote understanding of the central question presented, the theme of spirituality was situated within the historical context of the birth of Zen Buddhism and the insertion of the presence of Dogen in its field of action. The theme of Zen spirituality was becoming evident in the approach to the problem of search of the Dharma in Dogen and his attention to small signs of everyday life. Keywords: Spirituality. Buddhism. Zen. Daily life. Religions. ResumoOs estudos de mística comparada e de espiritualidade interreligiosa vão ganhando espaço cada vez mais singular nas universidades e núcleos de pesquisa que se irradiam por toda parte. São pesquisas que envolvem também as religiões orientais, em seu traço místico peculiar. Também no âmbito do budismo pode-se falar em espiritualidade, entendida como um caminho de busca da libertação. Esse artigo visa apresentar o tema da espiritualidade zen budista, com base na reflexão de Eihei Dôgen Zenji (1200-1253, um dos mais importantes e destacados mestres da tradição Soto Zen. O objetivo é mostrar a riqueza dessa espiritualidade e sua peculiaridade de adesão à realidade cotidiana. Para favorecer a compreensão da questão central apresentada, visou-se situar a temática no âmbito do contexto histórico do nascimento do zen budismo e da inserção da

  11. Effect of Buddhist Awareness on Ancient Japanese Fictions and Culture Cause%日本古代小说的佛学烙印与文化成因



    Buddhist awareness had a large influence on ancient Japanese fictions, the Pure Land, Anicca and Karma are three most typical aspects. The Pure Land belief is the mainstream of Japanese Buddhism with obvious characteristics of "this life". In Heian tales, Pure Land becomes spiritual support to redeem people from the suffering. In Middle - Age war tales, Pure Land belief is closely linked with death, as people' s ultimate concern for a happy afterlife in war turmoil. Anicca, an important factor in Middle -Age war tales, is not only a perceptual sigh for impermanent human lives but also theoretically explains the social law, that is to say,"when a thing reaches its extreme, it reverses its course", what' s more, it becomes warriers views of life and death stemmed from personal experiences. The history of Japanese fictions is permeated with the thought of Karma. Karma, Samsara, Reincarnation and other Buddhism factors bred Japanese popular teratology. These teratologies shows a trend to combine with the Confucian viewpoint of encouraging virtue and punishing evils.%日本古代小说大都具有浓郁的佛学色彩,净土、无常、果报是最典型的三个侧面。净土思想是日本佛教的主流且具有明显的现世特征:平安物语的净土信仰成为救赎宫廷贵族脱离苦难的精神支柱;中世战记物语的净土信仰多与死亡紧密相连,成为对战乱中人们渴求来世幸福的终极关怀。无常是日本小说尤其是中世物语中最浓墨重彩的一笔,无常既是对人间永无常住的感性叹息,也是对盛者必衰社会法则的理论解释,更成为武家社会切身感受的“生死观”。因果报应思想贯穿日本小说史的始终,它与宿世、轮回、转生等观念互为表里,成为孕育日本怪异小说流行的土壤之一,并表现出与儒家劝惩观念相结合的世俗化趋势。

  12. The LAILAPS search engine: relevance ranking in life science databases.

    Lange, Matthias; Spies, Karl; Bargsten, Joachim; Haberhauer, Gregor; Klapperstück, Matthias; Leps, Michael; Weinel, Christian; Wünschiers, Röbbe; Weissbach, Mandy; Stein, Jens; Scholz, Uwe


    Search engines and retrieval systems are popular tools at a life science desktop. The manual inspection of hundreds of database entries, that reflect a life science concept or fact, is a time intensive daily work. Hereby, not the number of query results matters, but the relevance does. In this paper, we present the LAILAPS search engine for life science databases. The concept is to combine a novel feature model for relevance ranking, a machine learning approach to model user relevance profiles, ranking improvement by user feedback tracking and an intuitive and slim web user interface, that estimates relevance rank by tracking user interactions. Queries are formulated as simple keyword lists and will be expanded by synonyms. Supporting a flexible text index and a simple data import format, LAILAPS can easily be used both as search engine for comprehensive integrated life science databases and for small in-house project databases. With a set of features, extracted from each database hit in combination with user relevance preferences, a neural network predicts user specific relevance scores. Using expert knowledge as training data for a predefined neural network or using users own relevance training sets, a reliable relevance ranking of database hits has been implemented. In this paper, we present the LAILAPS system, the concepts, benchmarks and use cases. LAILAPS is public available for SWISSPROT data at

  13. Chronobiology: relevance for tuberculosis.

    Santos, Lígia Gabrielle; Pires, Gabriel Natan; Azeredo Bittencourt, Lia Rita; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica Levy


    Despite the knowledge concerning the pathogenesis of tuberculosis, this disease remains one of the most important causes of mortality worldwide. Several risk factors are well-known, such poverty, HIV infection, and poor nutrition, among others. However, some issues that may influence tuberculosis warrant further investigation. In particular, the chronobiological aspects related to tuberculosis have garnered limited attention. In general, the interface between tuberculosis and chronobiology is manifested in four ways: variations in vitamin D bioavailability, winter conditions, associated infections, and circannual oscillations of lymphocytes activity. Moreover, tuberculosis is related to the following chronobiological factors: seasonality, latitude, photoperiod and radiation. Despite the relevance of these topics, the relationship between them has been weakly reviewed. This review aims to synthesize the studies regarding the association between tuberculosis and chronobiology, as well as urge critical discussion and highlight its applicability to health policies for tuberculosis.

  14. Strolling Toward New Concepts.

    Ito, Koreaki


    For more than four decades now, I have been studying how genetic information is transformed into protein-based cellular functions. This has included investigations into the mechanisms supporting cellular localization of proteins, disulfide bond formation, quality control of membranes, and translation. I tried to extract new principles and concepts that are universal among living organisms from our observations of Escherichia coli. While I wanted to distill complex phenomena into basic principles, I also tried not to overlook any serendipitous observations. In the first part of this article, I describe personal experiences during my studies of the Sec pathway, which have centered on the SecY translocon. In the second part, I summarize my views of the recent revival of translation studies, which has given rise to the concept that nonuniform polypeptide chain elongation is relevant for the subsequent fates of newly synthesized proteins. Our studies of a class of regulatory nascent polypeptides advance this concept by showing that the dynamic behaviors of the extraribosomal part of the nascent chain affect the ongoing translation process. Vibrant and regulated molecular interactions involving the ribosome, mRNA, and nascent polypeptidyl-tRNA are based, at least partly, on their autonomously interacting properties.

  15. 扩大中国文学版图 建构中国佛教诗学——《中国佛教文学史》编撰刍议%Modest Proposal on the Compilation of A History of Chinese Buddhist Literature



    中国佛教文学史就是中国佛教徒创作的文学的历史,就是佛教实践即佛教修持与佛教弘传过程中产生的文学的历史,就是用汉语、西域胡语、藏语、蒙古语、傣语等语种写成的大中华佛教文学的历史。"中国佛教文学史"的书写应该禀持民族本位立场和教派史视野,全面清理中国佛教文学的历史进程,并进而提炼民族精神、建构宗教诗学。"中国佛教文学史"的书写特别要关注印度佛教在中国各民族地区的本土化进程以及汉语佛教在东北亚、东南亚地区的本土化进程,在民族互动和国际交流中探讨宗教实践对社会和谐、文明演进的重大贡献。%The history of Chinese Buddhist literature is the history when Chinese Buddhists produce literary works, the history when in the procedure of Buddhism practice and dissemination Chinese Buddhists produce literary accomplishments, and is the history of the Great China Buddhist literature written by Chinese, " Hu language of western region, Tibetan, Mongolian, Dai and other branches of languages. The position of national culture and the sight of sects ought to be kept when writing A History of Chinese Buddhist Literature, and meanwhile the historical course of Buddhist literature is to be straightened all sidedly, helping to extract the national spirit and to construct religious poetics. When writing A History of Chinese Buddhist Literature, two points should be paid close attention that the localization of Indian Buddhism in all localities and all ethnic groups of China and the localization of Buddhism written in Chinese in northeastern Asia, and also that the sig- nificant contribution to the social harmony and the progress in the civilization achievedby, Southeasten Asia, ethnic interaction and international communication investigating religious practices.

  16. Deep understanding of electromagnetism using crosscutting concepts

    De Poorter, John; De Lange, Jan; Devoldere, Lies; Van Landeghem, Jouri; Strubbe, Katrien


    Crosscutting concepts like patterns and models are fundamental parts in both the American framework of science education (from the AAAS) and our proposals for a new science education framework in Flanders. These concepts deepen the insight of both students and teachers. They help students to ask relevant questions during an inquiry and they give an understanding in how scientists built up their scientific theories. We illustrate the didactical possibilities of crosscutting concepts within the field of electromagnetism.

  17. Buddhist Activism and Chinese Modernity


    The history of modern Chinese Buddhism has begun to attract attention in recent years. Some scholars have done inspiring research as they unravel the integration of Buddhism into the highly secularized process of Chinese modernity by drawing on the repository of knowledge on modern China. While this special issue joins this exciting endeavor, it also uses Buddhism as a window to reflect on scholarship on Chinese modernity. Conceptually, this special issue presses scholars in the field of mode...

  18. Sea voyages of Buddhist monks

    Gaur, A.S.

    stream_size 5 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Facets_Indian_Civilization_1997_551.pdf.txt stream_source_info Facets_Indian_Civilization_1997_551.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  19. "孝顺相承,戒行俱高"——论中晚唐五代宋敦煌佛教高张孝道%"Inheritance of Filial Piety, Highness of Buddhist Discipline":On Dunhuang Buddhist Reverence of Filial Piety from the Period of Middle-and-Late Tang and Five Dynasties to Song Dynasty



    佛教本不讲孝道,传入中国后,三国时期开始吸收中国的孝道观念,此后,中国佛教才有了孝道观念.吐蕃占领敦煌后,敦煌人民不忘家国宗祖,将家国之思、宗祖之念融入佛教信行,建家窟以代宗祠家庙,将唐宗及父祖同祀于佛窟.晚唐至北宋,敦煌佛教进一步倡扬孝道,事佛与孝亲共容,进一步入世合俗,实际上突破了释迦摩尼弃世脱俗的教义.%The original Buddhism did not include filial piety, but after its introduciton into China, especially during the period of the Three Kingdoms, Buddhism began to assimilate Chinese filial piety, and whereafter, the Chinese Buddhism contained filial piety. In the ruling of the Tibetan regime, the people of Dunhuang never forgot their country and ancestors and conbined the reminiscence of their country and ancestors with Buddhist discipline so that they built home grottoes substituting for ancestral halls or temples, where they offered sacrifices to the Tang emperors and their forefathers. From the late Tang to north Song dynasty, Dunhuang Buddhism further advocated filial piety and the reverence of Budda and filial piety were in harmony, which virtually broke through Buddha Shakjamuni's discipline of being free from the secular world and vulgarity.

  20. Buddhist Bibliographer SHI SENGYOU and His Book Compilation of Notes on the Translation of the Tripitaka%论佛教目录学家释僧祐及其《出三藏记集》



    Shi Sengyou was an eminent monk with wealth knowledge of vinaya of Southern dynasties in China. He was an export in Sarvastivada - vinaya. He was very famous for his research and preaching vinaya, which helped him get the worship from the government and the public. His contributions to Chinese Buddhism are various, such as preaching vinaya, Restoration of temples, helping people become monks, building Buddha, collecting Tripitaka and so forth. Most important is his masterpiece Compilation of Notes on the Translation of the Tripitaka, which made him well known in Chinese history of Buddhism and academic History. This masterpiece is well preserved and the oldest Buddhist scriptures catalogue in exist- ence, which covers large amount of Buddhist sutras, prologues of sutra, and biographies of eminent monks. It still is the most valuable reference book for academicians and Buddhists. This book make great inovation of its content, bibliographic system, and method of categories. In its bibliographical porspoctive, this book serves as a connecting link between the preceding and the following in Chinese bibliographic research.%僧祐是我国南朝时期的律学高僧,他精通萨婆多部的《十诵律》,以研究、讲习律学著名于齐梁,受到当时朝野的崇敬。僧祐对中国佛教的贡献是多方面的,如研讲戒律、修缮寺院、度僧人、塑佛像、建立经藏等。然而,真正奠定僧祐在中国佛教史、学术史上地位的则是其编撰的《出三藏记集》。该录是我国现存最早的保存完整的佛教目录,录中著录了大量珍贵的佛经、经序、高僧传记,时至今日仍然是僧俗各界研究、学习佛学的重要工具书。从目录学的角度而言,该录在著录内容、著录体例、分类方法上都有很明显的发展和创新,是我国目录学宝库中一部承前启后的力作。

  1. 星云大师佛教财富观对现代经济学的超越∗%Grand Master Hsing Yun's Buddhist View of Wealth as an Overstepping of Modern Economics



    佛教在两千多年的发展中,尽管蕴含着丰富的经济学思想,但几乎很少有佛教学者敢于正面直视“经济问题”,造成了诸多的误读。星云大师以其几十年的弘法体验,向公众“开示”佛教的“财富课”,对现代经济学而言既是一种纠偏,也是一种超越。星云大师从“经世济民”的高度综合地看待经济问题,用“圣财”、“净财”来界定财富,用“因果法则”来指导“经商伦理”,并用“惜福”、“环保”来理财,不仅涵盖了富兰克林提出的"赚钱格言",而且颠覆了“韦伯难题”。也许人们并不承认有所谓的“佛教经济学”,但对于佛教的财富观念、生财、理财之道,当一定不敢轻视。%In the course of development for thousands of years,few Buddhist scholars chose to face di-rectly the economic issue,though there did exist abundant economical ideas in Buddhism,which led to a-mounts of misunderstanding.Grand Master Hsing Yun shed light upon economic ideas in Buddhism based on his experiences in Buddhism promotion for decades,which is undoubtedly a rectification,even a tran-scendence to modern economics.Grand Master Hsing Yun dissects economic issues aiming at benefiting the people.All these ideas define wealth by “Sheng Cai”or “Jing Cai”,and instruct business ethics by the law of cause and effect,while conducting financial management through treasuring blessings and environ-mental protection.Buddhist economic ideas proposed by Grand Master Hsing Yun not only cover money-making motto by Franklin,but also a subversion to Weber Puzzle.Maybe so-called Buddhist Economics has never been admitted,however,the idea about wealth,money-making,and financial management in Buddhism can never be neglected.

  2. Mathematical concepts

    Jost, Jürgen


    The main intention of this book is to describe and develop the conceptual, structural and abstract thinking of mathematics. Specific mathematical structures are used to illustrate the conceptual approach; providing a deeper insight into mutual relationships and abstract common features. These ideas are carefully motivated, explained and illustrated by examples so that many of the more technical proofs can be omitted. The book can therefore be used: ·         simply as an overview of the panorama of mathematical structures and the relations between them, to be supplemented by more detailed texts whenever you want to acquire a working knowledge of some structure ·         by itself as a first introduction to abstract mathematics ·         together with existing textbooks, to put their results into a more general perspective ·         to gain a new and hopefully deeper perspective after having studied such textbooks Mathematical Concepts has a broader scope and is less detaile...

  3. Sustainable Enterprise Excellence and the Continuously Relevant and Responsible Organization

    Edgeman, Rick; Bøllingtoft, Anne; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær


    issues surrounding enterprise innovation and sustainability efforts and capabilities. Innovation and sustainability of the necessary trajectory, scale, and velocity are strategically integrated to deliver what we refer to as innovating sustainability. This provides an accelerated means path toward...... sustainable enterprise excellence, and hence toward the asymptotic aspiration of being a continuously relevant and responsible organization. Introduced are the concepts of innovating sustainability, sustainable enterprise excellence (SEE), and continuously relevant and responsible organizations (CRRO)....

  4. The semantic richness of abstract concepts.

    Recchia, Gabriel; Jones, Michael N


    We contrasted the predictive power of three measures of semantic richness-number of features (NFs), contextual dispersion (CD), and a novel measure of number of semantic neighbors (NSN)-for a large set of concrete and abstract concepts on lexical decision and naming tasks. NSN (but not NF) facilitated processing for abstract concepts, while NF (but not NSN) facilitated processing for the most concrete concepts, consistent with claims that linguistic information is more relevant for abstract concepts in early processing. Additionally, converging evidence from two datasets suggests that when NSN and CD are controlled for, the features that most facilitate processing are those associated with a concept's physical characteristics and real-world contexts. These results suggest that rich linguistic contexts (many semantic neighbors) facilitate early activation of abstract concepts, whereas concrete concepts benefit more from rich physical contexts (many associated objects and locations).

  5. 唐传奇之“感应母题”与佛经故事%On the Induction Motif in the Chuanqi Fiction of Tang Dynasty and Buddhist Stories

    王永丹; 谭晓闯


    The induction motif is one of the common motifs in the Chinese and foreign literature. This motif appears in the early Classical Chinese literature. It also occurs in the Indian folktales and Buddhist stories. The ex-aggeration and absurdity and illusion reflected in the Buddhist stories related to the induction,have greatly influ-enced the Chuanqi fiction in Tang dynasty. And the combination between karma advocated by Buddhism and the Chinese traditional induction has greatly promoted the popularization of this motif.%“感应母题”是中外文学共有的文化母题。中国古代早期的文史记载中便蕴含了“天人感应”母题。从印度传入的大量佛经及民间故事中也蕴含了这一母题。佛经“感应”故事所具有的印度神话的夸张性、荒诞性、神异性及虚幻性对唐传奇小说母题起到了很大的触媒作用。此外,佛教“感应母题”所宣扬的果报思想与中国传统的“天人感应”思想的有机融合,亦极大地催化了“感应母题”的风靡。

  6. Application of the Efficacious Stories in Buddhist Preaching Activities Based on Dunhuang Documents%从敦煌文献论灵验故事在唱导活动中的运用



    灵验故事的记述是宗教的弘传文学,既是宗教的见证,也是宗教的宣传。汉魏六朝以来,道教流行,佛教传入中土,各类灵验事迹广为流传。此外,传统儒家忠孝感通的灵验故事,也每每见于各类史籍、载录。这些灵验故事在各种宣唱教化活动中作为宣教的重要材料被广为运用。本文以敦煌文献为核心,分别就灵应故事传播的途径、手段及其在佛教唱导活动、道教讲经及儒家宣讲等方面,论证灵验故事在高僧、道士、儒生宣唱教化,开导信众时运用之实况。%The efficacious stories serve as a literature for religious transmission, which not only bear witness to religion, but also promote religion. Since the Han-Wei and the Six Dynasties, the popularity of Taoism and the transmission of Buddhism into the Central Plains led to the wide dissemination of various efficacious stories. In addition, stories about the filial piety of traditional Confucianism had been recorded in various historical records. These stories were widely circulated and then were extensively used in Buddhist lectures and sermons as important materials. Focusing on Dunhuang documents, this paper discusses how these efficacious stories were spread and how they were used by Buddhist masters, Taoist priests and Confucian scholars in lectures and sermons to their followers.

  7. Conceptions of teaching. Contributions to teacher training

    Fuensanta Hernández Pina


    Full Text Available Conceptions of teaching is becoming a topical subject because of its impact on the quality of learning. In the last two decades there has been an exponential growth in the number of research studies focused on developing a corpus of knowledge and results. From the review of some of these studies, we find a number of taxonomies that help classify hierarchically the conceptions teachers have regardless of the subject or academic level they teach. Conceptions are either teacher- or student-oriented. This paper presents the most relevant features of the conceptions teachers may develop when teaching.

  8. User perspectives on relevance criteria

    Maglaughlin, Kelly L.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.


    matter, thought catalyst), full text (e.g., audience, novelty, type, possible content, utility), journal/publisher (e.g., novelty, main focus, perceived quality), and personal (e.g., competition, time requirements). Results further indicate that multiple criteria are used when making relevant, partially...... relevant, and not-relevant judgments, and that most criteria can have either a positive or negative contribution to the relevance of a document. The criteria most frequently mentioned by study participants were content, followed by criteria characterizing the full text document. These findings may have...... implications for relevance feedback in information retrieval systems, suggesting that systems accept and utilize multiple positive and negative relevance criteria from users. Systems designers may want to focus on supporting content criteria followed by full text criteria as these may provide the greatest cost...

  9. Relevance-driven Pragmatic Inferences



    Relevance theory, an inferential approach to pragmatics, claims that the hearer is expected to pick out the input of op-timal relevance from a mass of alternative inputs produced by the speaker in order to interpret the speaker ’s intentions. The de-gree of the relevance of an input can be assessed in terms of cognitive effects and the processing effort. The input of optimal rele-vance is the one yielding the greatest positive cognitive effect and requiring the least processing effort. This paper attempts to as-sess the degrees of the relevance of a mass of alternative inputs produced by an imaginary speaker from the perspective of her cor-responding hearer in terms of cognitive effects and the processing effort with a view to justifying the feasibility of the principle of relevance in pragmatic inferences.

  10. Chronic prostatitis: Current concepts

    Ram Vaidyanathan


    Full Text Available Purpose: Chronic prostatitis (CP is a common condition. It causes significant suffering to the patients and constitutes a sizeable workload for the urologists. The purpose of this review is to describe the currently accepted concepts regarding the aspects of CP. Materials and Methods: Relevant papers on the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, evaluation and management of CP were identified through a search of MEDLINE using text terms "prostatitis", "chronic prostatitis" and "chronic pelvic pain syndrome". The list of articles thus obtained was supplemented by manual search of bibliographies of the identified articles and also by exploring the MEDLINE option "Related Articles". Results: The salient points of the relevant articles on each aspect of CP have been summarized in the form of a non-systematic narrative review. Conclusion: Chronic prostatitis is caused by a variety of infective and non-infective factors and is characterized by a rather long remitting and relapsing clinical course. The diagnosis is based on symptoms comprising pain and nonspecific urinary and/or ejaculatory disturbances and microbiological tests to localize bacteria and/or leucocytes in segmented urinary tract specimens. The contemporary classification was proposed by the National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Diabetes Digestive Kidney Diseases (NIH/NIDDK. National Institutes of Health - Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI is the patient evaluation tool used extensively in clinical practice and research. Management should be individualized, multimodal and of an appropriate duration.

  11. Relevant or determinant: Importance in certified sustainable food consumption

    Dam, van Y.K.; Trijp, van J.C.M.


    Perceived relevance and determinance are two distinct constructs, underlying the overall concept of attribute importance. The present study proposes a survey based measure of attribute determinance. Based on construal level theory it is argued and empirically shown that actual choices of certified

  12. 51 Relevance and Commitment in Ezenwa-Ohaeto's Pidgin Poetry ...


    The question of relevance and commitment is a recurring one in African literature written .... revision is that the concept of classical Marxism as a two way division and ... Eagleton notes; “significant development in literary form, then, result from ...

  13. Relevant or determinant: Importance in certified sustainable food consumption

    Dam, van Y.K.; Trijp, van J.C.M.


    Perceived relevance and determinance are two distinct constructs, underlying the overall concept of attribute importance. The present study proposes a survey based measure of attribute determinance. Based on construal level theory it is argued and empirically shown that actual choices of certified ‘

  14. High Altitude Venus Operational Concept (HAVOC): Proofs of Concept

    Jones, Christopher A.; Arney, Dale C.; Bassett, George Z.; Clark, James R.; Hennig, Anthony I.; Snyder, Jessica C.


    The atmosphere of Venus is an exciting destination for both further scientific study and future human exploration. A recent internal NASA study of a High Altitude Venus Operational Concept (HAVOC) led to the development of an evolutionary program for the exploration of Venus, with focus on the mission architecture and vehicle concept for a 30-day crewed mission into Venus's atmosphere at 50 kilometers. Key technical challenges for the mission include performing the aerocapture maneuvers at Venus and Earth, inserting and inflating the airship at Venus during the entry sequence, and protecting the solar panels and structure from the sulfuric acid in the atmosphere. Two proofs of concept were identified that would aid in addressing some of the key technical challenges. To mitigate the threat posed by the sulfuric acid ambient in the atmosphere of Venus, a material was needed that could protect the systems while being lightweight and not inhibiting the performance of the solar panels. The first proof of concept identified candidate materials and evaluated them, finding FEP-Teflon (Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene-Teflon) to maintain 90 percent transmittance to relevant spectra even after 30 days of immersion in concentrated sulfuric acid. The second proof of concept developed and verified a packaging algorithm for the airship envelope to inform the entry, descent, and inflation analysis.

  15. Species concepts and species delimitation.

    De Queiroz, Kevin


    The issue of species delimitation has long been confused with that of species conceptualization, leading to a half century of controversy concerning both the definition of the species category and methods for inferring the boundaries and numbers of species. Alternative species concepts agree in treating existence as a separately evolving metapopulation lineage as the primary defining property of the species category, but they disagree in adopting different properties acquired by lineages during the course of divergence (e.g., intrinsic reproductive isolation, diagnosability, monophyly) as secondary defining properties (secondary species criteria). A unified species concept can be achieved by treating existence as a separately evolving metapopulation lineage as the only necessary property of species and the former secondary species criteria as different lines of evidence (operational criteria) relevant to assessing lineage separation. This unified concept of species has several consequences for species delimitation, including the following: First, the issues of species conceptualization and species delimitation are clearly separated; the former secondary species criteria are no longer considered relevant to species conceptualization but only to species delimitation. Second, all of the properties formerly treated as secondary species criteria are relevant to species delimitation to the extent that they provide evidence of lineage separation. Third, the presence of any one of the properties (if appropriately interpreted) is evidence for the existence of a species, though more properties and thus more lines of evidence are associated with a higher degree of corroboration. Fourth, and perhaps most significantly, a unified species concept shifts emphasis away from the traditional species criteria, encouraging biologists to develop new methods of species delimitation that are not tied to those properties.

  16. 河北临漳县邺城遗址东魏北齐佛寺塔基的发现与发掘%Discovery and Excavation of the Pagoda Foundation Vestiges in the Buddhist Temple of the Eastern Qi and Northern Wei period on the Yecheng City-site in Linzhang County, Hebei

    中国社会科学院考古研究所邺城考古队; 河北省文物研究所邺城考古队


    The pagoda-foundation vestiges of the Buddhist temple on the southern Yecheng city-site were discovered about 200m southwest of Zhaopengcheng village in Xiwen Township, Linzhang County. They lie some 1300m to the south of the southern wall of southern Yecheng City and to the east of the line extended from thecentral axis of the southern Yecheng City and Zhumingmen-gate Road. Judging from the stratigraphical evidence and objects unearthed, the rammed earth of the pagoda foundations goes back to the Eastern Wei and Northern Qiperiod. The vestiges revealed include remains of the pagoda body above the ground and those of the foundation ex-cavations under the ground. The pagoda body can be inferred to be square, with the sides measuring about 30m.This is the only ruined square wooden Buddhist pagoda of the Eastern Wei and Northern Qi period discovered so far in China.

  17. "Gastric cytoprotection" is still relevant.

    Szabo, Sandor


    Although Andre Robert's historic article on "gastric cytoprotection" in 1979 introduced this new name and concept, gastroprotective drugs (e.g. sofalcone, sucralfate), which prevent and/or accelerate healing of gastric ulcers without inhibiting acid secretion, were known in Japan before or around that time. But since Robert's studies were solely focused on prostaglandins (PG), they became the center of gastrointestinal research for more than 30 years. As endogenous products, PG were implicated in mediating the gastroprotective effect of other drugs such as sofalcone and sucralfate, despite that the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin diminished but never abolished gastroprotection by other drugs. Another group of endogenous substances, that is, sulfhydryls (SH), investigated in parallel with PG, also seem to play a mechanistic role in gastroprotection, especially since SH alkylators like N-ethylmaleimide counteract virtually any form of gastroprotection. In Robert's terms of "prevention of chemically induced acute mucosal lesions," so far no single mechanism could explain the beneficial effects of diverse protective agents, but I argue that these two endogenous substances (i.e. PG, SH), in addition to histamine, are the main mechanistic mediators of acute gastroprotection: PG and histamine, because as mediators of acute inflammation, they increase vascular permeability (VP), and SH scavenge free radicals. This is contrary to the search for a single mechanism of action, long focused on enhanced secretion of mucus and/or bicarbonate that may contribute but cannot explain all forms of gastroprotection. Nevertheless, based on research work of the last 30 years, in part from our lab, a new mechanistic explanation of gastroprotection may be formulated: it's a complex but orderly and evolution-based physiologic response of the gastric mucosa under pathologic conditions. Namely, one of the first physiologic defense responses of any organ is inflammation that starts with

  18. The Concept of Paraphrenia and Its Actuality

    Nuno Borja-Santos


    Full Text Available This paper initially reviews the historical development of the concept of paraphrenia, stressing Kraepelin’s important contribution, as well as the progressive fading out of this diagnosis during the XXth century. Then, a recent study supportting the validity of the diagnosis of paraphrenia is pointed out. Concepts, such as “late paraphrenia” and “affective paraphrenia”, are mentioned. In the conclusions, the relevance of paraphrenia diagnosis is discussed.

  19. Lexicography and the Relevance Criterion

    This will be done within the framework of the function theory .... work and made accessible through a rhyming system for the characters as well as a complex .... lexicographically relevant user characteristics — an open list to which new charac-.

  20. Relevance theory: pragmatics and cognition.

    Wearing, Catherine J


    Relevance Theory is a cognitively oriented theory of pragmatics, i.e., a theory of language use. It builds on the seminal work of H.P. Grice(1) to develop a pragmatic theory which is at once philosophically sensitive and empirically plausible (in both psychological and evolutionary terms). This entry reviews the central commitments and chief contributions of Relevance Theory, including its Gricean commitment to the centrality of intention-reading and inference in communication; the cognitively grounded notion of relevance which provides the mechanism for explaining pragmatic interpretation as an intention-driven, inferential process; and several key applications of the theory (lexical pragmatics, metaphor and irony, procedural meaning). Relevance Theory is an important contribution to our understanding of the pragmatics of communication.

  1. Relevance theory and pragmatic impairment.

    Leinonen, E; Kerbel, D


    This paper summarizes aspects of relevance theory that are useful for exploring impairment of pragmatic comprehension in children. It explores data from three children with pragmatic language difficulties within this framework. Relevance theory is seen to provide a means of explaining why, in a given context, a particular utterance is problematic. It thus enables one to move on from mere description of problematic behaviours towards their explanation. The theory provides a clearer delineation between the explicit and the implicit, and hence between semantics and pragmatics. This enables one to place certain difficulties more firmly within semantics and others within pragmatics. Relevance, and its maximization in communication, are squarely placed within human cognition, which suggests a close connection between pragmatic and cognitive (dis)functioning. Relevance theory thus emerges as a powerful tool in the exploration and understanding of pragmatic language difficulties in children and offers therapeutically valuable insight into the nature of interactions involving individuals with such impairments.

  2. Clinical relevance in anesthesia journals

    Lauritsen, Jakob; Møller, Ann M


    The purpose of this review is to present the latest knowledge and research on the definition and distribution of clinically relevant articles in anesthesia journals. It will also discuss the importance of the chosen methodology and outcome of articles.......The purpose of this review is to present the latest knowledge and research on the definition and distribution of clinically relevant articles in anesthesia journals. It will also discuss the importance of the chosen methodology and outcome of articles....

  3. Women's Faith in Harmonious Society——Take Female Buddhists in Guanzhong Zone%和谐社会视野下的女性信仰问题——以关中地区女性佛教信仰者为例



    历史上关中地区佛教非常兴盛,对地域文化、民众精神生活产生了重要影响。落实政策30年来,在关中地区佛教的恢复发展中,妇女佛教信仰恢复发展取得了巨大成绩,女性佛教教职人员人数、素质、社会影响方面都有了很大改变。佛教有助于一般在家信佛妇女克服对死亡的恐惧,提升精神生活质量,同时,信佛妇女无偿提供的经济、劳动力支持为佛教发展提供了重要物质保证。%In history Buddhism was quite popular in Guanzhong Zone which exerted great influence on local culture and people's spirits.In the past thirty years,female Buddhists attained great achievements in their faith revival,and female Buddhist teachers changed a lot in number,qualification and social influence.Buddhism is of great help in assisting housewives to overcome horror towards death and promote life quality.Meanwhile,economic and labor support from female Buddhists offer important material guarantee to the development of Buddhism.

  4. On the Architectural Characteristics and religion of the Dharani Buddhist Stone Pillar in Taoyuan Temple of Nan'an,Quanzhou%泉州南安桃源宫陀罗尼经幢的建筑特征及其宗教作用



    回顾我国石经幢的起源,进而探究南安桃源宫陀罗尼经幢的建筑特征以及雕刻艺术的文化内涵,并把它与泉州及江南和中原地区的石经幢进行对比,探索其建筑样式演变的历程,分析其宗教作用。%This paper takes a look back on the origin of the Buddhist stone pil ar in China and makes a thorough inquiry into the architectural characteristics of the Dharani Buddhist stone pil ar in Taoyuan Temple of Nan’an and the cultural connotation of its sculptural art. This paper also makes a comparison between it and other Buddhist stone pil ars in South of the Yangtze River and the Central Plains region, explores the evolution of its architectural style and analyses its The role of religion.

  5. Criminal policy: Basic concepts

    Jovašević Dragan


    Full Text Available In the contemporary literature on law, politicology and security, there have been various attempts in both scientific and applied disciplines to define the notion and content of the crime suppression policy. The differences underlying these diverse views are based on the different starting points, i.e. whether the criminal policy is perceived as: 1] a scientific (academic] discipline; b] a practical daily activity of competent state authorities and other relevant bodies; 3] an activity of combating crime as a set of most dangerous human behaviors which imperil the most important personal assets and social values; and 4] an activity aimed at suppressing all types of illegal behavior (felonies, misdemeanors, delinquency, economic crimes, etc]. Some authors view the policy of crime suppression as a scientific discipline which provides for the appropriate use of existing tools in combating crime. Concurrently, on the basis of defined body of knowledge and analysis, the science (including some sciences outside the field of law] suggests relevant measures for efficient suppression of crime. Another conception is based on the idea that criminal policy has a dual meaning, i.e. that it may be understood as: 1] a practical social activity aimed at accomplishing the envisaged goals (also known as a practical dimension of crime policy], and 2] a scientific discipline which explores, analyses and proposes measures of social reaction towards criminal behavior. In practice, criminal policy encompasses a system of purposeful, consciously planned and coordinated social activities aimed at preventing crime and protecting the society at large. When perceived in this way, criminal policy is the basic element of the general public policy in a specific society. Just like the criminal law of an individual state, criminal policy is based on specific principles (governing rules].

  6. Conceptions of Parents, Conceptions of Self, and Conceptions of God.

    Buri, John R.; Mueller, Rebecca A.

    Different theorists have suggested that an individual's view of God may be related to one's view of one's father, one's mother, or one's self. A study was conducted to examine the relationship of college students' conceptions of the wrathfulness-kindliness of God to their conceptions of their father's and mother's permissiveness, authoritarianism,…

  7. Serial concept maps: tools for concept analysis.

    All, Anita C; Huycke, LaRae I


    Nursing theory challenges students to think abstractly and is often a difficult introduction to graduate study. Traditionally, concept analysis is useful in facilitating this abstract thinking. Concept maps are a way to visualize an individual's knowledge about a specific topic. Serial concept maps express the sequential evolution of a student's perceptions of a selected concept. Maps reveal individual differences in learning and perceptions, as well as progress in understanding the concept. Relationships are assessed and suggestions are made during serial mapping, which actively engages the students and faculty in dialogue that leads to increased understanding of the link between nursing theory and practice. Serial concept mapping lends itself well to both online and traditional classroom environments.

  8. Relevance Feedback in Conceptual Image Retrieval: A User Evaluation

    Torres, Jose


    The Visual Object Information Retrieval (VOIR) system described in this paper implements an image retrieval approach that combines two layers, the conceptual and the visual layer. It uses terms from a textual thesaurus to represent the conceptual information and also works with image regions, the visual information. The terms are related with the image regions through a weighted association enabling the execution of concept-level queries. VOIR uses region-based relevance feedback to improve the quality of the results in each query session and to discover new associations between text and image. This paper describes a user-centred and task-oriented comparative evaluation of VOIR which was undertaken considering three distinct versions of VOIR: a full-fledge version; one supporting relevance feedback only at image level; and a third version not supporting relevance feedback at all. The evaluation performed showed the usefulness of region based relevance feedback in the context of VOIR prototype.

  9. Mining Concepts Relationship Based on Numeric Grades

    Mohammed Al-Sarem


    Full Text Available With vigorous development of the Internet, e-learning system has become more and more popular and many adaptive learning systems have been developed. In recent years, researchers have proposed various approaches for developing adaptive learning systems based on concept maps. Nevertheless, most of them deal only with binary grades of each test item, furthermore, the existing methods that based on fuzzy set theory do not take in consideration the conceptual weight of concept in each question that might be cause to construct incorrectly relationships or exaggerate the degree of relationship. To cope with this problem, this study proposes an innovative approach to automatically construct concept maps. Firstly, we use look ahead fuzzy association rule mining algorithm to mind some information about the relationships between questions, then we construct the questions-relationships mapping. After that, we calculate the relevance degree between concepts in each question to obtain the final concept maps.

  10. The Concept of 'Radio Music'

    Fjeldsøe, Michael


    In the late 1920s, young composers and musicians turned towards new fields of activity and new media in order to reach a larger audience. In Germany, this effort was part of the movement of Neue Sachlichkeit, and for a short period of time, Radiomusik was considered the ideal means for a democratic......, as discussed by Kurt Weill and Paul Hindemith, was at first greeted with great expectations, but soon a more realistic attitude prevailed. Weill, himself a radio critic as well, composed Der Lindberghflug (1929) as a piece of ‘radio music theatre’, but then changed some of its features in order to turn...... it into a didactical play for amateurs, a so-called Lehrstück. The article will present the concept of ‘radio music’ developed within German Neue Sachlichkeit and discuss the relevance of such a concept for current research in the field of radio and music....

  11. Culturally Relevant Pedagogy 20 Years Later: Progress or Pontificating? What Have We Learned, and Where Do We Go?

    Howard, Tyrone C.; Rodriguez-Scheel, Andrea


    In this paper, the authors discuss the concept of culturally relevant pedagogy 20 years after its introduction to the professional literature. The authors discuss key tenets of culturally relevant pedagogy, examine empirical examples of it, and makes recommendations on how the concept may inform and influence the outcomes of culturally diverse…

  12. Admire LVQ—adaptive distance measures in Relevance Learning Vector quantization

    Biehl, Michael


    The extension of Learning Vector Quantization by Matrix Relevance Learning is presented and discussed. The basic concept, essential properties, and several modifications of the scheme are outlined. A particularly successful application in the context of tumor classification highlights the usefulness

  13. Death preparedness: a concept analysis.

    McLeod-Sordjan, Renee


    To report analysis of the concept death preparedness in the context of end-of-life shared decisions and communication. Forty percent of older people require decision-making and communication in the final days of life. Elaborate defence mechanisms have yielded a public consciousness that no longer passively views death acceptance, but instead has a defensive orientation of preparedness. The term 'death preparedness' depicts this death attitude. Concept analysis. Data were collected over 3 months in 2013. A series of searches of scholarly peer-reviewed literature published in English were conducted of multiple databases. Specific keywords included such phrases as: death acceptance, death avoidance, death rejection, death preparedness, resolution of life, breaking bad news and readiness to die. Walker and Avant's method was chosen as a deductive method to distinguish between the defining attributes of death preparedness and its relevant attributes. Death preparedness involves a transition of facilitated communication with a healthcare provider that leads to awareness and/or acceptance of end of life, as evidenced by an implementation of a plan. An appraisal of attitudes towards death and one's mortality precedes the concept, followed by an improved quality of death and dignity at end of life. The concept of death preparedness in the process of dying should be the focus of research to explore areas to improve advanced directive planning and acceptance of palliation for chronic health conditions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A Comparison of Relationship between Buddhist Thoughts of Mind with Fictions and Operas’ Theory During the Ming and Qing Dynasties%论明清小说戏曲理论与佛教心性论的关系



    There were rich Buddhist thoughts of mind in fictions and operas ’ theory during the Ming and Qing dynasties .Thinkers generally agreed that ,fabrication of arts come from creative mind .Thus ,they had a high regard for writing with real spirit .They made many theories straightly about creative mind ,such as writing -heart ,opera meanings one’s mind and they stood for carrying on aesthetic activity with an ordinary mood .One shouldn’t neglect the spirit of Prajna about observing emptiness when it comes to discuss the relationship between them .%明清小说戏曲理论具有丰富的佛教心性论内涵。明清小说戏曲思想家认为,艺术的虚构性出于创造之心,因而推重真实性情的书写,提出“写心”、“曲为心曲”等直切心源的学说,主张以平常心境进行审美活动。探讨明清小说戏曲理论与佛教心性论的关系,不能忽视贯穿其中的般若空观精神。

  15. Interpretation of the Classic Exposition on Water in the Buddhist Classics%澳大利亚中国学研究的历史进程及其反思



    In this paper, the classic analysis of the classic exposition on water in the Buddhist classics pointed out that the origin of the world view of the water culture is the diversity, the theory of human mind can be interpreted with water-based interpretation, practice and epiphany can be carried out with the water thinking and the water bath, water culture view of the river has religion and in- trospection, water culture view of the ocean has romanticism and imagination and religion.%澳大利亚中国学研究是海外汉学(中国学)的重要组成部分,然而西方汉学研究的主阵地是在欧美和日本等国家,国内对澳大利亚的中国学研究关注并不够。总体看来,由于各种历史和现实的原因,澳大利亚中国学具有起步晚、发展迅速和应用性强等特点。

  16. 北宋法远禅师与浮山佛教文化的兴盛%Buddhist Monk Fayuan in Northern Song Dynasty and Flourishing of Buddhism Culture in Fushan Mountain



    安徽枞阳浮山佛教历史悠久,始于晋梁,北宋时达到鼎盛。法远禅师对浮山佛教道场的声名传扬厥功甚伟。法远禅师实乃禅宗临济宗法系,而非见诸方志所载为曹洞宗传人。法远与欧阳修“因棋说法”使得欧阳修对佛教由排斥转而护持,也促使浮山佛教文化走向鼎盛,名满天下。法远禅师晚年于浮山会圣岩著《九带》传世,叙佛祖奥义,以阐扬佛法。%Buddhism in Zongyang Fushan Mountain in Anhui has a long history, which began from Jin and Liang Dynasties and reached its peak in Northern Song Dynasty. Fayuan, from Rinzai Zen instead of Caodong Sect, makes great contribution to the development of Buddhism in Fushan Mountain. Fayuan preached Buddhism by playing chess with Ouyang Xiu,which helps Fushan Buddhist culture promoted its peak. Fayuan Monk wrote Jiudai in his old age, elaborating Buddhism.

  17. The Improved Relevance Voxel Machine

    Ganz, Melanie; Sabuncu, Mert; Van Leemput, Koen

    The concept of sparse Bayesian learning has received much attention in the machine learning literature as a means of achieving parsimonious representations of features used in regression and classification. It is an important family of algorithms for sparse signal recovery and compressed sensing...

  18. Beyond Categories: A Structural Analysis of the Social Representations of Information Users' Collective Perceptions on 'Relevance'

    Ju, Boryung


    Full Text Available Relevance has a long history of scholarly investigation and discussion in information science. One of its notable concepts is that of 'user-based' relevance. The purpose of this study is to examine how users construct their perspective on the concept of relevance; to analyze what the constituent elements (facets of relevance are, in terms of core-periphery status; and to compare the difference of constructions of two groups of users (information users vs. information professionals as applied with a social representations theory perspective. Data were collected from 244 information users and 123 information professionals through use of a free word association method. Three methods were employed to analyze data: (1 content analysis was used to elicit 26 categories (facets of the concept of relevance; (2 structural analysis of social representations was used to determine the core-periphery status of those facets in terms of coreness, sum of similarity, and weighted frequency; and, (3 maximum tree analysis was used to present and compare the differences between the two groups. Elicited categories in this study overlap with the ones from previous relevance studies, while the findings of a core-periphery analysis show that Topicality, User-needs, Reliability/Credibility, and Importance are configured as core concepts for the information user group, while Topicality, User-needs, Reliability/Credibility, and Currency are core concepts for the information professional group. Differences between the social representations of relevance revealed that Topicality was similar to User-needs and to Importance. Author is closely related to Title while Reliability/Credibility is linked with Currency. Easiness/Clarity is similar to Accuracy. Overall, information users and professionals function with a similar social collective of shared meanings for the concept of relevance. The overall findings identify the core and periphery concepts of relevance and their

  19. Formal Concept Analysis for Information Retrieval

    Qadi, Abderrahim El; Ennouary, Yassine


    In this paper we describe a mechanism to improve Information Retrieval (IR) on the web. The method is based on Formal Concepts Analysis (FCA) that it is makes semantical relations during the queries, and allows a reorganizing, in the shape of a lattice of concepts, the answers provided by a search engine. We proposed for the IR an incremental algorithm based on Galois lattice. This algorithm allows a formal clustering of the data sources, and the results which it turns over are classified by order of relevance. The control of relevance is exploited in clustering, we improved the result by using ontology in field of image processing, and reformulating the user queries which make it possible to give more relevant documents.

  20. The Extended Enterprise concept

    Larsen, Lars Bjørn; Vesterager, Johan; Gobbi, Chiara


    This paper provides an overview of the work that has been done regarding the Extended Enterprise concept in the Common Concept team of Globeman 21 including references to results deliverables concerning the development of the Extended Enterprise concept. The first section presents the basic concept...... picture from Globeman21, which illustrates the Globeman21 way of realising the Extended Enterprise concept. The second section presents the Globeman21 EE concept in a life cycle perspective, which to a large extent is based on the thoughts and ideas behind GERAM (ISO/DIS 15704)....

  1. Toward a Theory of Culturally Relevant Leadership for School-Community Culture

    Fraise, Nicole Jaenee; Brooks, Jeffrey S.


    The purpose of this article is to explore concepts related to culturally relevant pedagogy and connect them to nascent theoretical work in the field of educational leadership. The article begins with a review of literature on educational leadership and culture and then suggests shortcomings in the way these concepts are currently conceptualized.…

  2. Relevance of Indian religious traditions for international leadership wisdom.

    De Vylder, Gerrit


    Relevance of Holistic Interpretations of Indian Classical Traditions for Modern Socio-Economic Leadership Wisdom This contribution will explore the holistic interpretations of Indian philosophical and religious traditions and apply them to modern socio-economic leadership wisdom. Other interpretations have already been considered in a previous contribution. Traditions like Sikhism, Sufi Islam, Buddhism, Jainism and Hinduism (Vedic traditions and Vedanta) contain concepts and rituals which can...

  3. Learning under Concept Drift: an Overview

    e, Indr\\ e Žliobait\\


    Concept drift refers to a non stationary learning problem over time. The training and the application data often mismatch in real life problems. In this report we present a context of concept drift problem 1. We focus on the issues relevant to adaptive training set formation. We present the framework and terminology, and formulate a global picture of concept drift learners design. We start with formalizing the framework for the concept drifting data in Section 1. In Section 2 we discuss the adaptivity mechanisms of the concept drift learners. In Section 3 we overview the principle mechanisms of concept drift learners. In this chapter we give a general picture of the available algorithms and categorize them based on their properties. Section 5 discusses the related research fields and Section 5 groups and presents major concept drift applications. This report is intended to give a bird's view of concept drift research field, provide a context of the research and position it within broad spectrum of research fi...

  4. Civil And Arbitration Proceedings Unification In Russia: Relevance, Problems, Prospects

    Ksenia M. Belikova


    Full Text Available In the present article authors, by analyzing provisions of the applicable civil and arbitration codes of Russia (hereinafter - the Code of Civil Procedure and the Code of Arbitration Procedure of the Russian Federation justify the relevance of the procedural reform and indicate its future prospects. Considerable attention is paid to the recently adopted Concept of a Code of Civil Procedure of the Russian Federation (hereinafter - the Concept. According to the author's position, now the creation and adoption of a united Code of Civil Procedure is not only relevant, but necessary phenomenon. In connection with this, the subject of analysis of the proposed concept is improved procedure for handling the application for disqualification of a judge, in comparison with the similar provisions of the existing Code of Civil Procedure and of the Code of Arbitration Procedure stand out its advantages. In addition, authors focus on other existing problems of legal regulation of various issues in the current Code of Civil Procedure and of the Code of Arbitration Procedure. Thus, in the view of the author in this article falls consideration of the problems associated with the absentee in civil proceedings, as well as the sole consideration (some provided by the Code of Civil Procedure, and the cases of the Code of Arbitration Procedure appeal against the decision of the trial court. The article also contains a disagreement with the position of the proposed by the concept for the recovery of legal costs for the services of their representatives to the proof in full and invited author's position on this issue. In addition to the analysis of the issues authors also offer some options for their solutions. At the end of the article authors make conclusions regarding the relevance of the Concept, its strengths and weaknesses in the regulation of the studied issues and the prospects of unification of civil and arbitration proceedings in Russia.

  5. Key concepts in energy

    Madureira, Nuno Luis


    Highlights how key energy concepts surfaced, tracing their evolution throughout history to encompasses four economic concepts and four technological-engineering concepts developed through their history to conclude with current economic and environmental sciences Considers the process of energy-substitutions through complementary usages, hybridization and technological mixes Combines a conceptual approach with key theoretical concepts from engineering, geological and economic sciences providing cross disciplinary overview of energy fundamentals in a short and focused reading

  6. A rejoinder to Nicolaisen’s (2016) refutation of Hjørland’s relevance definition

    Hjørland, Birger


    Dr. Nicolaisen (2016) has claimed a refutation of the definition of relevance as provided by the present author. This present paper examines Nicolaisen’s arguments and finds that Nicolaisen has failed to consider the differences between defining the concept of relevance and the measurement instan...... cannot fly. As a result, it is concluded that the relevance definition under discussion is still valid and it is the most fruitful one that has been suggested so far....

  7. A rejoinder to Nicolaisen’s (2016) refutation of Hjørland’s relevance definition

    Hjørland, Birger

    Dr. Nicolaisen (2016) has claimed a refutation of the definition of relevance as provided by the present author. This present paper examines Nicolaisen’s arguments and finds that Nicolaisen has failed to consider the differences between defining the concept of relevance and the measurement...... cannot fly. As a result, it is concluded that the relevance definition under discussion is still valid and it is the most fruitful one that has been suggested so far....

  8. Brief Review on the Relevance Theory

    龚腾龙; 阿勒腾


    Relevance theory has had an impact on the study in various disciplines including linguistics,literature and so on. This paper gives a brief review of the relevance theory and two principles of relevance.

  9. Concept Image Revisited

    Bingolbali, Erhan; Monaghan, John


    Concept image and concept definition is an important construct in mathematics education. Its use, however, has been limited to cognitive studies. This article revisits concept image in the context of research on undergraduate students' understanding of the derivative which regards the context of learning as paramount. The literature, mainly on…

  10. Threshold Concepts in Biochemistry

    Loertscher, Jennifer


    Threshold concepts can be identified for any discipline and provide a framework for linking student learning to curricular design. Threshold concepts represent a transformed understanding of a discipline, without which the learner cannot progress and are therefore pivotal in learning in a discipline. Although threshold concepts have been…

  11. Conceptions of Ability.

    Jagacinski, Carolyn M.; Nicholls, John G.

    Two different conceptions of ability are proposed. The first conception of ability is more differentiated and generally employed by adults and older children. Here ability level is defined with reference to the performance of others assuming that optimum effort was employed. High ability means higher than others. The second conception of ability…

  12. Handheld Theodolite Concept


    Handheld Theodolite Concept by Alan E. Wetmore ARL-TN-0430 April 2011 the originator. Army Research Laboratory Adelphi, MD 20783-1197 ARL-TN-0430 April 2011 Handheld Theodolite Concept Alan E...2011 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 1 October 2009 to 30 September 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Handheld Theodolite Concept

  13. An Exploration of Students' Conceptions of Accounting Work

    Sin, Samantha; Reid, Anna; Jones, Alan


    This study, undertaken at an Australian university, investigates undergraduate accounting students' conceptions of accounting work and discusses the relevance of such conceptions for the work readiness of graduates. Findings based on a phenomenographic investigation show variations in students' awareness of the functional and human aspects of…

  14. A Contribution to Transparency of Scientific and Engineering Concepts

    Abhary, K; Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Begovac, F


    Knowledge management is of outmost importance in organisations. This treatise aims to contribute in improving the transferability and transparency of some basic concepts relevant to science, education and engineering. Knowledge sharing can be adversely affected by concepts and specific terms which...

  15. Roles of Animation Tools in Understanding Programming Concepts

    Moreno, Andres; Joy, Mike; Sutinen, Erkki


    Computer generated animations are resources used to explain how programs are executed in order to clarify the relevant programming concepts. However, whilst trying to understand new programming concepts it is not clear how and when students benefit from an animation if they are using the tool on their own. To clarify the role of an animation tool…

  16. An Exploration of Students' Conceptions of Accounting Work

    Sin, Samantha; Reid, Anna; Jones, Alan


    This study, undertaken at an Australian university, investigates undergraduate accounting students' conceptions of accounting work and discusses the relevance of such conceptions for the work readiness of graduates. Findings based on a phenomenographic investigation show variations in students' awareness of the functional and human aspects of…

  17. Roles of Animation Tools in Understanding Programming Concepts

    Moreno, Andres; Joy, Mike; Sutinen, Erkki


    Computer generated animations are resources used to explain how programs are executed in order to clarify the relevant programming concepts. However, whilst trying to understand new programming concepts it is not clear how and when students benefit from an animation if they are using the tool on their own. To clarify the role of an animation tool…

  18. Causal and Epistemic Relevance in Appeals to Authority

    Sebastiano Lommi


    Full Text Available Appeals to authority have a long tradition in the history of argumentation theory. During the Middle Age they were considered legitimate and sound arguments, but after Locke’s treatment in the Essay Concerning Human Understanding their legitimacy has come under question. Traditionally, arguments from authority were considered informal arguments, but since the important work of Charles Hamblin (Hamblin, 1970 many attempts to provide a form for them have been done. The most convincing of them is the presumptive form developed by Douglas Walton and John Woods (Woods, Walton, 1974 that aims at taking into account the relevant contextual aspects in assessing the provisional validity of an appeal to authority. The soundness of an appeal depends on its meeting the adequacy conditions set to scrutinize all the relevant questions. I want to claim that this approach is compatible with the analysis of arguments in terms of relevance advanced by David Hitchcock (Hitchcock, 1992. He claims that relevance is a triadic relation between two items and a context. The first item is relevant to the second one in a given context. Different types of relevance relation exist, namely causal relevance and epistemic relevance. “Something is [causally] relevant to an outcome in a given situation if it helps to cause that outcome in the situation” (Hitchcock, 1992, p. 253, whereas it is epistemically relevant when it helps to achieve an epistemic goal in a given situation. I claim that we can adapt this conception to Walton and Krabbe’s theory of dialogue type (Walton, Krabbe, 1995, seeing the items of a relevance relation as the argument and its consequence and the context as the type of dialogue in which these arguments are advanced. According to this perspective, an argument from authority that meets the adequacy conditions has to be considered legitimate because it is an epistemically relevant relation. Therefore, my conclusion is that an analysis of appeals to

  19. Quantum Structure in Cognition: Why and How Concepts are Entangled

    Aerts, Diederik


    One of us has recently elaborated a theory for modelling concepts that uses the state context property (SCoP) formalism, i.e. a generalization of the quantum formalism. This formalism incorporates context into the mathematical structure used to represent a concept, and thereby models how context influences the typicality of a single exemplar and the applicability of a single property of a concept. The notion of 'state of a concept' is introduced to account for this contextual influence, which proposes a solution for the {\\it Pet-Fish problem} and several difficulties occurring in concept theory. Then, a quantum model has been worked out which reproduces the membership weights of several exemplars of concepts and their combinations. We show in this paper that a further relevant effect appears in a natural way whenever two or more concepts combine, namely, 'entanglement'. The presence of entanglement is explicitly revealed by considering a specific example with two concepts, constructing some Bell's inequalitie...

  20. Heterodox Autonomy Doctrine: realism and purposes, and its relevance

    Raúl Bernal-Meza


    Full Text Available The Autonomy Doctrine, elaborated by Juan Carlos Puig, is a realist point of view of International Relations. It is an analysis, from the periphery, about the structure of world power, and a roadmap (from a theoretical point of view for the longing process of autonomization-regarding hegemonic power-for a country whose ruling class would decide to overcome dependency. The elements its author took into account when analyzing its own context are explained in this text and, afterwards, are reflected over its relevance nowadays. For that purpose, it is necessary to answer certain questions, such as which are the concepts and categories that may explain its relevance, its applicability to regional integration and cooperation models and projects, and what would be the analytical method to compare reality versus ideas, among others. The methodological proposal to analyze the relevance of Puig's doctrine is to compare it to different visions of regionalism that are currently in effect in Latin America.

  1. Reconstructing Concept Lattices Usingnth-Order Context Kernels

    SHEN Xiajiong; XU Bin; LIU Zongtian


    To be different from traditional algorithms for concept lattice constructing, a method based on nth-order context kernel is suggested in this paper.The context kernels support generating small lattices for sub-contexts split by a given context.The final concept lattice is reconstructed by combining these small lattices.All relevant algorithms are implemented in a system IsoFCA.Test shows that the method yields concept lattices in lower time complexity than Godin algorithm in practical case.

  2. A Generalised Concept of Dominance in Linear Programming Models

    Drynan, Ross G.


    The notion of dominance most familiar to agricultural economists is perhaps the decision theoretic concept entailed in comparing one risky prospect to others. But dominance concepts are also relevant in the linear programming context, for example in identifying redundant constraints. In this note, the standard concept of dominance in linear programming is generalized by defining dominance with respect to differing levels of information about the programming problem.

  3. KALIMER design concept report

    Park, Chang Kyu; Kim, Young Cheol; Kim, Young In; Kim, Young Gyun; Kim, Eui Kwang; Song, Hoon; Chung, Hyun Tai; Hwang, Woan; Nam, Cheol; Sim Yoon Sub; Kim, Yeon Sik; Wim Myung Whan; Min, Byung Tae; Yoo, Bong; Lee, Jae Han; Lee, Hyeong Yeon; Kim, Jong Bum; Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Ham, Chang Shik; Kwon, Kee Choon; Kim, Jung Taek; Park, Jae Chang; Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Kim, Chang Hwoi; Sim, Bong Shick; Hahn, Do Hee; Choi, Jong Hyeun; Kwon, Sang Woon


    KAERI is working for the development of KALIMER and work is being done for methodology development, experimental facility set up and design concept development. The development target of KALIMER has been set as to make KALIMER safer, more economic, more resistant to nuclear proliferation, and yield less impact on the environment. To achieve the target, study has been made for setting up the design concept of KALIMER including the assessment of various possible design alternatives. This report is the results of the study for the KALIMER concept study and describes the design concept of KALIMER. The developed design concept study and describes the design concept of KALIMER. The developed design concept is to be used as the starting point of the next development phase of conceptual design and the concept will be refined and modified in the conceptual design phase. The scope of the work has been set as the NSSS and essential BOP systems. For systems, NSSS and functionally related major BOP are covered. Sizing and specifying conceptual structure are covered for major equipment. Equipment and piping are arranged for the parts where the arrangement is critical in fulfilling the foresaid intention of setting up the KALIMER design concept. This report consists of 10 chapters. Chapter 2 is for the top level design requirements of KALIMER and it serves as the basis of KALIMER design concept development. Chapter 3 summarizes the KALIMER concept and describes the general design features. The remaining chapters are for specific systems. (author). 29 tabs., 37 figs.

  4. 袁宏道美学思想的转变与儒释道精神的循环%Transformation of YUAN Hong-dao's Aesthetic Thought & Cycle of Confucian, Taoist and Buddhist Philosophy



    There is a marked difference between YUAN Hong-dao's aesthetic thinking of the later stage and of the earlier stage, the former is combined by the Chan sect philosophy with the Taoist philosophy while the latter is combined by the Confucian philosophy with the Taoist philosophy. The transformation had its external factor such as the change of the social situation at that time, however, the logic of YUAN's thinking was its principal factor. Making a general survey of YUAN Hong-dao' aesthetic thinking we can reach a conclusion that it had never break through the traditional framework for the Confucian, Taoist and Buddhist philosophy and it had not modern significance similar to the Enlightenment.%袁宏道后期美学思想与前期差别很大,前期主要是禅道思想的融合,而后期则基本上是儒道思想的结合。这种转变的发生,既有当时社会形势的变化等外在原因,但更主要的是袁氏思想发展的内在必然。综观袁宏道美学思想发展的全过程,可以看出,它始终没有突破传统的儒释道精神的框架,并不具有近代式的启蒙意义。

  5. 北朝佛传故事龙浴太子形象演变%Evolution of the Image of the Nagas Bathing Siddhartha in the Buddhist Life Story of the Northern Dynasties



    The image of the nagas spraying water over Siddhartha, a theme very common in the Western Regions, Central Plains, Buddhist cave temples and steles in north China during the Northern Dynasties, is a visual form intended to preach Buddhism, which exhibits characteristics of various times and regions. The development of the pictures of Siddhartha with the nagas suggests the images were first influenced by Gandharan art and gradually absorbed elements from traditional Chinese culture. The changes in the central Buddha and surrounding Buddhas and nagas spraying water over Siddhartha indicate a transition from Hinayana Buddhism to Mahayana. This change to Mahayana Buddhism seems consistent with the psychological needs of a time when the common people wished for social stability in the chaos of wars.%佛传故事龙浴太子形象在北朝时期的西域、中原及北方佛教造像碑、石窟寺中比较常见,这是运用图像宣扬佛教的一种形式,具有一定的时代性和地域特点。从该图像中太子与龙的形象演变能够看出曾经受到犍陀罗艺术的影响,并逐渐与汉文化因素相融合。根据与龙浴太子形象并存的佛像主尊和其他佛像身份变化,体现出佛教信仰由小乘向大乘的转变,符合当时战乱频仍状况下人们希冀社会安定的心理需求。

  6. Situating relevance: exploring individual relevance assessments in context

    Theresa Dirndorfer Anderson


    Full Text Available This paper discusses some of the challenges encountered whilst researching and writing a thesis that explores individual understandings of relevance and topic. It is based upon a discussion paper and presentation prepared as part of the Doctoral Workshop held during the ISIC 2000 Conference in Borås, Sweden. The focus of this paper is the doing of qualitative research. To provide a framework for this discussion, the key assumptions that have shaped the author's thesis are presented in the first section of this paper. The paper then focuses on some of the dilemmas of qualitative research encountered during the research and writing of this thesis, giving particular attention to the notion of context and the writing of qualitative research. Forthcoming results from the thesis are mentioned in the closing section. A Thesis Summary is also provided at the end of this paper.

  7. Towards a concept of community artifact ecology in HCI?

    Saad-Sulonen, Joanna; Korsgaard, Henrik

    or workplaces do. This has implications on understanding how to research and design HCI for communities but also on refining the ecological perspective in HCI. We look in particular at examples from preliminary research on a local self-organised urban community and discuss what existing concepts in the ecology......In this paper we introduce the concept of community artifact ecology. We argue that taking a community perspective on the concept of artifact ecologies is relevant in HCI because communities are also dealing with multitudes of artifacts, in ways di↵erent that individuals, organizations...... literature are relevant to consider and how they change with the community perspective....

  8. Not being a Catcher Is a Catcher:A probe into the Buddhist Zen thought in The catcher in the Rye%非守望则守望--《麦田里的守望者》禅宗思想探析



    The Buddhist Zen thought gives us the teaching:work out your own salvation with dili-gence,extinct the self and worldly desires as in the whole world that that is not,is;that that is,is not.Holden Caulfield,a protagonist in The Catcher in the Rye,well represents such Buddhist para-dox:not being a catcher is a catcher,and he wants to be a responsible member of society,to guide and protect those younger than him.When our world has become a mechanical,scientific and dualis-tic one,in this condition,the Buddhist thought presented in The Catcher in the Rye is surely a major way to find the lost spiritual garden.%禅宗教诲世人要奋发独立自救,放下法执我执,皆因世间万物虚则实、实亦虚。《麦田里的守望者》主人公霍尔顿·考尔菲德很好体现了这种悖论---非守望则守望,他想成为一个对社会负责的人,去指引和保护那些比他年幼者,但他没有去实践。当我们这个世界已变成一个机械的、科学的、二元论的世界时,我们内在的精神日见迷茫。在此境遇中,《麦田里的守望者》所体现出的禅宗思想,无疑是一种找回失落精神家园的重要途径。

  9. Phenomenon of Life and Death by Dōgen and Heidegger––In View of “Embodied Cognition” in Buddhist Philosophy and Phenomenology

    Hisaki HASHI


    Full Text Available Contrary to occidental philosophy, which is to grasp and solidify the principles of essential being (ontos on, Buddhism seeks to understand the existence of human beings and the significance of suffering in human life. In the East Asian languages human beings are described as “inter-beings” in that they are enveloped by the topos of life and death. From breath to breath, our life is bound to the moments of emerging and vanishing, being and non-being in an essential unity. Dōgen’s philosophical thinking integrated this conception with the embodied cognition of both the thinking and the acting self. In the phenomenological point of view, Heidegger, in his early work, emphasizes that being is bound to a fundamental substantiality, which borders on the Abgrund, falling into nothingness. With Dōgen, the unity-within-contrast of life and death is exemplified in our breathing because it achieves a unity of body and cognition which can be called “corpus”. In perfect contrast, the essential reflection for Heidegger is that of grasping the fundament of being in the world, which represents the actualization of a thinking-being-unity. The goal of this comparison is to fundamentally grasp what is the essentiality of being, life, and recognition (jikaku 自覚, bound to embodied cognition in our globalized world.

  10. Clinically Relevant Anticancer Polymer Paclitaxel Therapeutics

    Danbo Yang


    Full Text Available The concept of utilizing polymers in drug delivery has been extensively explored for improving the therapeutic index of small molecule drugs. In general, polymers can be used as polymer-drug conjugates or polymeric micelles. Each unique application mandates its own chemistry and controlled release of active drugs. Each polymer exhibits its own intrinsic issues providing the advantage of flexibility. However, none have as yet been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. General aspects of polymer and nano-particle therapeutics have been reviewed. Here we focus this review on specific clinically relevant anticancer polymer paclitaxel therapeutics. We emphasize their chemistry and formulation, in vitro activity on some human cancer cell lines, plasma pharmacokinetics and tumor accumulation, in vivo efficacy, and clinical outcomes. Furthermore, we include a short review of our recent developments of a novel poly(L-g-glutamylglutamine-paclitaxel nano-conjugate (PGG-PTX. PGG-PTX has its own unique property of forming nano-particles. It has also been shown to possess a favorable profile of pharmacokinetics and to exhibit efficacious potency. This review might shed light on designing new and better polymer paclitaxel therapeutics for potential anticancer applications in the clinic.

  11. Is Lamarckian evolution relevant to medicine?

    Handel Adam E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background 200 years have now passed since Darwin was born and scientists around the world are celebrating this important anniversary of the birth of an evolutionary visionary. However, the theories of his colleague Lamarck are treated with considerably less acclaim. These theories centre on the tendency for complexity to increase in organisms over time and the direct transmission of phenotypic traits from parents to offspring. Discussion Lamarckian concepts, long thought of no relevance to modern evolutionary theory, are enjoying a quiet resurgence with the increasing complexity of epigenetic theories of inheritance. There is evidence that epigenetic alterations, including DNA methylation and histone modifications, are transmitted transgenerationally, thus providing a potential mechanism for environmental influences to be passed from parents to offspring: Lamarckian evolution. Furthermore, evidence is accumulating that epigenetics plays an important role in many common medical conditions. Summary Epigenetics allows the peaceful co-existence of Darwinian and Lamarckian evolution. Further efforts should be exerted on studying the mechanisms by which this occurs so that public health measures can be undertaken to reverse or prevent epigenetic changes important in disease susceptibility. Perhaps in 2059 we will be celebrating the anniversary of both Darwin and Lamarck.

  12. Clinically Relevant Anticancer Polymer Paclitaxel Therapeutics

    Yang, Danbo [Biomedical Engineering and Technology Institute, Institutes for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai, 200062 (China); Yu, Lei, E-mail: [Biomedical Engineering and Technology Institute, Institutes for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai, 200062 (China); Biomedical Group, Nitto Denko Technical Corporation, 501 Via Del Monte, Oceanside, CA 92058 (United States); Van, Sang [Biomedical Group, Nitto Denko Technical Corporation, 501 Via Del Monte, Oceanside, CA 92058 (United States)


    The concept of utilizing polymers in drug delivery has been extensively explored for improving the therapeutic index of small molecule drugs. In general, polymers can be used as polymer-drug conjugates or polymeric micelles. Each unique application mandates its own chemistry and controlled release of active drugs. Each polymer exhibits its own intrinsic issues providing the advantage of flexibility. However, none have as yet been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. General aspects of polymer and nano-particle therapeutics have been reviewed. Here we focus this review on specific clinically relevant anticancer polymer paclitaxel therapeutics. We emphasize their chemistry and formulation, in vitro activity on some human cancer cell lines, plasma pharmacokinetics and tumor accumulation, in vivo efficacy, and clinical outcomes. Furthermore, we include a short review of our recent developments of a novel poly(l-γ-glutamylglutamine)-paclitaxel nano-conjugate (PGG-PTX). PGG-PTX has its own unique property of forming nano-particles. It has also been shown to possess a favorable profile of pharmacokinetics and to exhibit efficacious potency. This review might shed light on designing new and better polymer paclitaxel therapeutics for potential anticancer applications in the clinic.

  13. The Need for Culturally Relevant Dance Education

    McCarthy-Brown, Nyama


    There is a need for culturally relevant teaching in dance education. Many dance teachers have heard the buzz words "culturally relevant teaching methods." Yet these dance educators acknowledge that the "dance culture" is not always synonymous with "culturally relevant." This paper examines the issue of culturally relevant teaching methods in dance…

  14. Crew coordination concepts: Continental Airlines CRM training

    Christian, Darryl; Morgan, Alice


    The outline of the crew coordination concepts at Continental airlines is: (1) Present relevant theory: Contained in a pre-work package and in lecture/discussion form during the work course, (2) Discuss case examples: Contained in the pre-work for study and use during the course; and (3) Simulate practice problems: Introduced during the course as the beginning of an ongoing process. These concepts which are designed to address the problem pilots have in understanding the interaction between situations and their own theories of practice are briefly discussed.

  15. Resilience - A Concept


    same construct. If resil- iency of a system equates to the health of a person , then maybe there should be resiliency indices similar to health ... Image designed by Diane Fleischer Resilience—A CONCEPT Col Dennis J. Rensel, USAF (Ret.) Resilience takes on many definitions and ideas biomedical indices provide an indication, a concept of a person’s health . This process or concept of assessing one’s health can be equated to

  16. Making Wave Concept Tangible

    Bülbül, Mustafa Şahin


    This study includes efficiency of some designed materials and activities for the students with special needs (blind students) about wave concept. In 9th grade Turkish High School Physics Curriculum, all the students have to learn wave concept because physics course is compulsory and wave concept was prepared as a unit. Generally, blind students only memorize some definitions about period, frequency and amplitude in that unit. This seems the easiest way for both teacher and students. Observing...

  17. Fundamental concepts of geometry

    Meserve, Bruce E


    Demonstrates relationships between different types of geometry. Provides excellent overview of the foundations and historical evolution of geometrical concepts. Exercises (no solutions). Includes 98 illustrations.

  18. Organic photovoltaics concepts and realization

    Dyakonov, Vladimir; Parisi, Jürgen; Sariciftci, Niyazi


    Achieving efficient solar energy conversion at both large scale and low cost is among the most important technological challenges for the near future. The present volume describes and explains the fundamentals of organic/plastic solar cells in a manner accessible to both researchers and students. It provides a comprehensive analysis of the operational principles underlying several types of solar cells that have absorber layers based on polymer materials and small molecules. It addresses competing approaches, such as polymer solar cells and dye-sensitized cells, while considering the thermodynamic principles within the context of these schemes. Organic Photovoltaics also analyzes in detail the charge-transfer processes in the bulk-heterojunction devices corresponding to the relevant mechanism of carrier generation. Emphasized throughout is the concept of interpenetrating polymer-fullerene networks, due to their high potential for improving power efficiency.

  19. Four concepts of Africa


    May 12, 2015 ... concepts of Africa is shown to be based on a particular logic with both strengths and weaknesses. ... Introduction .... In this section I argue that it is indeed possible to conceive of .... early history does one find evidence of a conception of Africa .... the King ceded all his land to the French in return for their.

  20. Modeling concept drift

    Borchani, Hanen; Martinez, Ana Maria; Masegosa, Andrés R.


    An often used approach for detecting and adapting to concept drift when doing classification is to treat the data as i.i.d. and use changes in classification accuracy as an indication of concept drift. In this paper, we take a different perspective and propose a framework, based on probabilistic ...

  1. Integral Fast Reactor concept

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.


    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative LMR concept, being developed at Argonne National Laboratory, that fully exploits the inherent properties of liquid metal cooling and metallic fuel to achieve breakthroughs in economics and inherent safety. This paper describes key features and potential advantages of the IFR concept, technology development status, fuel cycle economics potential, and future development path.

  2. Tools and Concepts.

    Artis, Margaret, Ed.; And Others

    This guide provides enrichment for students to develop tools and concepts used in various areas of mathematics. The first part presents arithmetic progressions, geometric progressions, and harmonic progression. In the second section, the concept of mathematic induction is developed from intuitive induction, using concrete activities, to the…

  3. Hedging structured concepts

    Koolen, W.M.; Warmuth, M.K.; Kivinen, J.; Kalai, A.T.; Mohri, M.


    We develop an online algorithm called Component Hedge for learning structured concept classes when the loss of a structured concept sums over its components. Example classes include paths through a graph (composed of edges) and partial permutations (composed of assignments). The algorithm maintains

  4. Threshold Concepts in Economics

    Shanahan, Martin


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine threshold concepts in the context of teaching and learning first-year university economics. It outlines some of the arguments for using threshold concepts and provides examples using opportunity cost as an exemplar in economics. Design/ Methodology/Approach: The paper provides an overview of the…

  5. The LDC detector concept

    Ties Behnke; LDC Concept Group


    In preparation of the experimental program at the international linear collider (ILC), the large detector concept (LDC) is being developed. The main points of the LDC are a large volume gaseous tracking system, combined with high precision vertex detector and an extremely granular calorimeter. The main design force behind the LDC is the particle flow concept.

  6. The relevance of ontological commitments

    Echenique-Robba, Pablo


    In this introductory note, I describe my particular view of the notion of ontological commitments as honest and pragmatic working hypotheses that assume the existence (out there) of certain entities represented by the symbols in our theory. I argue that this is not naive, in the sense that it does not entail the belief that the hypotheses could ever be proved to be true (or false), but it is nevertheless justified by the success and predictive power of the theory that contains the concepts assumed to exist. I also claim that the ontological commitments one holds (even if tacitly so) have a great influence on what kind of science is produced, how it is used, and how it is understood. Not only I justify this claim, but I also propose a sketch of a possible falsification of it. As a natural conclusion, I defend the importance of identifying, clarifying and making explicit one's ontological commitments if fruitful scientific discussions are to be had. Finally, I compare my point of view with that of some philosop...

  7. Intuitive Direction Concepts

    Alexander Klippel


    Full Text Available Experiments in this article test the hypothesis that formal direction models used in artificial intelligence correspond to intuitive direction concepts of humans. Cognitively adequate formal models of spatial relations are important for information retrieval tasks, cognitive robotics, and multiple spatial reasoning applications. We detail two experiments using two objects (airplanes systematically located in relation to each other. Participants performed a grouping task to make their intuitive direction concepts explicit. The results reveal an important, so far insufficiently discussed aspect of cognitive direction concepts: Intuitive (natural direction concepts do not follow a one-size-fits-all strategy. The behavioral data only forms a clear picture after participants' competing strategies are identified and separated into categories (groups themselves. The results are important for researchers and designers of spatial formalisms as they demonstrate that modeling cognitive direction concepts formally requires a flexible approach to capture group differences.

  8. [Health Technology Dependency: A Concept Analysis].

    Chen, Miao-Yi; Chen, Ting-Yu; Kao, Chi-Wen


    Health technology dependence is a widely recognized concept that refers to the utilization of technology, including drugs, equipment, instruments, and related devices, to compensate for a physical disability or to prevent the progression of a disability. Although technology may significantly prolong the life of a patient, technology may also increase the psychological pressure of these patients and the burdens of their caregivers. There is a current dearth of related research and discussions related to the concept of "health technology dependency". Therefore, the present paper uses the strategies of concept analysis described by Walker & Avant (2010) to analyze this concept. The characteristic definition of health technology dependence addresses individuals who: (1) currently live with health technology, (2) may perceive physical or psychological burdens due to health technology, and (3) feel physical and psychological well-being when coping positively with their health technology dependency and, further, regard health technology as a part of their body. Further, the present paper uses case examples to help analyze the general concept. It is hoped that nurses may better understand the concept of "health technology dependency", consider the concerns of health-technology-dependent patients and their families, and develop relevant interventions to promote the well-being of these patients and their families.

  9. 意境的空间结构及其审美特征%On the Space Structure and Aesthetic Characteristics of Artistic Conception



    Artistic conception is a poetic category with spatiality. The word ring indudes space meaning originally but it changes into mind space through the interpretation of Buddhist Sutra. Afterwards, ring becomes a poetic concept to express the aesthetic feelings in poetry. From the text point of view, artistic conception is a structural category formed by two major factors :feeling and scene. As an "intentional" text, it contains the vivid sense of life and aesthetic values, and presents the extending and flowing beauty of spatiality.%意境是一个具有空间性特质的诗学范畴。“境”原本包含空间涵义,在佛典适用中意义虚化,进入诗学话语后则用来概括诗歌的审美感受空间。从文本视域出发理解意境,意味着意境是一种结构性存在,情与景两大因素构成了意境的“意向性”文本空间,这一文本空间蕴含着生动的人生意识和审美价值,呈现出延展、流动的空间之美。

  10. Does relevance matter in academic policy research?

    Dredge, Dianne


    A reflection on whether relevance matters in tourism policy research. A debate among tourism scholars.......A reflection on whether relevance matters in tourism policy research. A debate among tourism scholars....

  11. Cost Concept Model and Gateway Specification

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad


    This document introduces a Framework supporting the implementation of a cost concept model against which current and future cost models for curating digital assets can be benchmarked. The value built into this cost concept model leverages the comprehensive engagement by the 4C project with various...... to ensure that the curation and preservation solutions and services that will inevitably arise from the commercial sector as ‘supply’ respond to a much better understood ‘demand’ for cost-effective and relevant tools. To meet acknowledged gaps in current provision, a nested model of curation which addresses...... user communities and builds upon our understanding of the requirements, drivers, obstacles and objectives that various stakeholder groups have relating to digital curation. Ultimately, this concept model should provide a critical input to the development and refinement of cost models as well as helping...

  12. Concept mapping enhances learning of biochemistry.

    Surapaneni, KrishnaM; Tekian, Ara


    Teaching basic science courses is challenging in undergraduate medical education because of the ubiquitous use of didactic lectures and reward for recall of factual information during examinations. The purpose of this study is to introduce concept maps with clinical cases (the innovative program) to improve learning of biochemistry course content. Participants were first year medical students (n=150) from Saveetha Medical College and Hospital (India); they were randomly divided into two groups of 75, one group attending the traditional program, the other the innovative program. Student performance was measured using three written knowledge tests (each with a maximum score of 20). The students also evaluated the relevance of the learning process using a 12-item questionnaire. Students in the innovative program using concept mapping outperformed those in the traditional didactic program (means of 7.13-8.28 vs. 12.33-13.93, p<0.001). The students gave high positive ratings for the innovative course (93-100% agreement). The new concept-mapping program resulted in higher academic performance compared to the traditional course and was perceived favorably by the students. They especially valued the use of concept mapping as learning tools to foster the relevance of biochemistry to clinical practice, and to enhance their reasoning and learning skills, as well as their deeper understanding for biochemistry.

  13. Statistical significance versus clinical relevance.

    van Rijn, Marieke H C; Bech, Anneke; Bouyer, Jean; van den Brand, Jan A J G


    In March this year, the American Statistical Association (ASA) posted a statement on the correct use of P-values, in response to a growing concern that the P-value is commonly misused and misinterpreted. We aim to translate these warnings given by the ASA into a language more easily understood by clinicians and researchers without a deep background in statistics. Moreover, we intend to illustrate the limitations of P-values, even when used and interpreted correctly, and bring more attention to the clinical relevance of study findings using two recently reported studies as examples. We argue that P-values are often misinterpreted. A common mistake is saying that P < 0.05 means that the null hypothesis is false, and P ≥0.05 means that the null hypothesis is true. The correct interpretation of a P-value of 0.05 is that if the null hypothesis were indeed true, a similar or more extreme result would occur 5% of the times upon repeating the study in a similar sample. In other words, the P-value informs about the likelihood of the data given the null hypothesis and not the other way around. A possible alternative related to the P-value is the confidence interval (CI). It provides more information on the magnitude of an effect and the imprecision with which that effect was estimated. However, there is no magic bullet to replace P-values and stop erroneous interpretation of scientific results. Scientists and readers alike should make themselves familiar with the correct, nuanced interpretation of statistical tests, P-values and CIs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  14. Unpacking the Meaning of the Mole Concept for Secondary School Teachers and Students

    Fang, Su-Chi; Hart, Christina; Clarke, David


    The "mole" is a fundamental concept in quantitative chemistry, yet research has shown that the mole is one of the most perplexing concepts in the teaching and learning of chemistry. This paper provides a survey of the relevant literature, identifies the necessary components of a sound understanding of the mole concept, and unpacks and…

  15. Theravada Buddhist Education and National Identity of Dai People in Ruili City%小乘佛教教育与瑞丽傣族的民族认同



    The society, whether the daily life and ethics standard , or the life rituals and festivals , have been entrusted with rich religious content after Buddhists introduced Theravada Buddhism to Dai people of Ruili city. The common religious belief has raised the strong ownership of emotion and the cohesive force, and become the symbols of identity and difference of local Dai people, which has not only Played an important roll in cultural spread and reconstruction, but also strengthened national identity during traditional society. With the all-inclusive opening up of city, abundant material life made local Dai people abandon their religious belief gradually, which resulted in phenomenon with empty temple or immigration monks from Burma. Therefore, we should acquire cultural compensation of right system in accordance with their own national and religious characteristics, and seek cultural continuation and expansion of Dai people in Ruili city guided by the Communist party's religious policy.%小乘佛教与瑞丽傣族社会契合后,无论是生产生活和伦理规范,还是人生礼仪和节日庆典,均被赋予了丰富的宗教内容。共同的宗教信仰培养了当地傣族浓厚的情感归属和凝聚力,成为对内认同和对外区分的民族符号,不仅对民族文化的传承和重构起到重要作用,还增强了传统社会时期瑞丽傣族的民族认同。随着瑞丽全方位的开放,对现世求得福祉和物质生活的吸引使当地傣族的宗教观念日趋淡薄,有寺无僧和缅僧入境现象甚为严重。因此,应在党的宗教政策引导下,根据宗教和民族自身的特点,在健全的taCIT获得Y.A~b偿,以寻求瑞丽傣族民族文化在时间上的延续和空间上的拓展。

  16. A Revise of Buddhist Thoughts to the Theory of Utility in Economics%论佛教思想对经济学效用理论的修正



    佛教思想对经济学效用理论进行修正,是将效用重新归入和欲望相一致的“趋乐避苦”的伦理道德范畴,进而说明欲望理论在幸福方程式中的缺位使得效用理论对幸福最大化的指向独臂难支,最终通过建立相应的欲望理论范式来实现。欲望理论范式的关键是在同类物质的生产中减少物品的品种,以至于当边际欲望品种恒等于零时,达到同类物质中物品品种的单一化。由于“六触入处”无常,同类物质中单种物品的情况下,幸福最大化的情形并非是永恒的,只有当单种物品的边际欲望和边际效用恒等于零时,才能实现幸福恒常化。%Buddhist thoughts revises utility theory through putting utility back into an ethics category of “a-way from sufferings and getting happiness” ,that is consistent with desire correspondingly ,then explaining that desire theory in the absence of happiness equation makes utility theory hardly support maximization of happiness ,and at last establishes an indispensable desire theory .Desire theory states an important conclu-sion that varieties of congener items must be reduced in production ,so that w hen marginal desire of varie-ties is identically vanishing , single species in congener items is realized . Due to impermanence of mankind’s feelings in six touches (i .e .eyes ,ears ,nose ,tongue ,body ,mind) ,maximization of happiness under single species in congener items can hardly keep eternal .Constant happiness arises only w hen mar-ginal desire and marginal utility of single kinds of items are identically vanishing .

  17. Ancient Indian Buddhist View of Four Caste Equal Theory and Its Thought System of Pluralistic Tendency%古印度佛教的四姓平等观及多元倾向的思想体系



    The formation of Buddhist theoretical characteristics has an important relationship with ancient Indian caste system. The main founders and original followers of early Buddhism usually had a negative attitude towards the caste system which had a great influence on ancient Indian society, and explicitly rejected the social inequality formed under caste system.This exerts a direct influence on the pluralistically-oriented theories, such as theories of dependent origination, five skandhas, no-self and im-permanence.Even after its spreading into many countries outside India, Buddhism still stressed the equality of all living beings and many corresponding theories.Therefore, in order to understand the causes of some important theories of Buddhism, we should study the social development form or basic structure in ancient India in the period of early Buddhism.%佛教理论特色的形成与古印度的种姓制有着重要的关系。佛教在产生时的主要创立者及最初的信众通常对于古印度社会中影响极大的种姓制具有抵触态度,对于种姓制下形成的社会不平等明确表示反对。这对于佛教在理论上提出缘起观、五蕴说、无我说与无常观等具多元倾向的思想有直接的影响。甚至在传入印度外的许多国家后,佛教仍然强调众生平等和许多与之相应的理论。因此,要明了佛教的一些重要教义或理论提出的原因时,就必须要考察此教产生时的古印度的社会发展形态或基本结构。

  18. The Personal Relevance of the Social Studies.

    VanSickle, Ronald L.


    Conceptualizes a personal-relevance framework derived from Ronald L. VanSickle's five areas of life integrated with four general motivating goals from Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Richard and Patricia Schmuck's social motivation theory. Illustrates ways to apply the personal relevance framework to make social studies more relevant to…

  19. Science and the struggle for relevance

    Hessels, L.K.


    This thesis deals with struggles for relevance of university researchers, their efforts to make their work correspond with ruling standards of relevance and to influence these standards. Its general research question is: How to understand changes in the struggle for relevance of Dutch academic resea

  20. Relevance Measures Using Geographic Scopes and Types

    Andogah, Geoffrey; Bouma, Gosse; Peters, C; Jikoun,; Mandl, T; Muller, H; Oard, DW; Penas, A; Petras,; Santos, D


    This paper proposes two kinds of relevance measures to rank documents by geographic restriction: scope-based and type-based. The non-geographic and geographic relevance scores are combined using a weighted harmonic mean. The proposed relevance measures and weighting schemes are evaluated on GeoCLEF

  1. The Personal Relevance of the Social Studies.

    VanSickle, Ronald L.


    Conceptualizes a personal-relevance framework derived from Ronald L. VanSickle's five areas of life integrated with four general motivating goals from Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Richard and Patricia Schmuck's social motivation theory. Illustrates ways to apply the personal relevance framework to make social studies more relevant to…

  2. Science and the struggle for relevance

    Hessels, L.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304832863


    This thesis deals with struggles for relevance of university researchers, their efforts to make their work correspond with ruling standards of relevance and to influence these standards. Its general research question is: How to understand changes in the struggle for relevance of Dutch academic

  3. Strategic approach to branding of nations: Relevancy for Serbia

    Rakita Branko


    Full Text Available Building and managing brands becomes very important marketing tool in nowadays business. Branding is being pulled out from a strictly marketing area and becomes business component of a strategic importance. It is applying to products, services, companies, but also to events, people, ideas, institutions, destinations. Basically, almost everything can be branded. The subject of this paper is strategic approach to branding of nations. The paper contains review of relevant literature for the topic. Specifics of this type of branding have been analyzed. Detailed concept of strategic approach to branding of nations is a vital part of the paper. Relevancy of strategic approach to branding for Serbia is discussed at the end.

  4. Fundamental concepts of mathematics

    Goodstein, R L

    Fundamental Concepts of Mathematics, 2nd Edition provides an account of some basic concepts in modern mathematics. The book is primarily intended for mathematics teachers and lay people who wants to improve their skills in mathematics. Among the concepts and problems presented in the book include the determination of which integral polynomials have integral solutions; sentence logic and informal set theory; and why four colors is enough to color a map. Unlike in the first edition, the second edition provides detailed solutions to exercises contained in the text. Mathematics teachers and people

  5. Epileptic neuronal networks: methods of identification and clinical relevance.

    Stefan, Hermann; Lopes da Silva, Fernando H


    The main objective of this paper is to examine evidence for the concept that epileptic activity should be envisaged in terms of functional connectivity and dynamics of neuronal networks. Basic concepts regarding structure and dynamics of neuronal networks are briefly described. Particular attention is given to approaches that are derived, or related, to the concept of causality, as formulated by Granger. Linear and non-linear methodologies aiming at characterizing the dynamics of neuronal networks applied to EEG/MEG and combined EEG/fMRI signals in epilepsy are critically reviewed. The relevance of functional dynamical analysis of neuronal networks with respect to clinical queries in focal cortical dysplasias, temporal lobe epilepsies, and "generalized" epilepsies is emphasized. In the light of the concepts of epileptic neuronal networks, and recent experimental findings, the dichotomic classification in focal and generalized epilepsy is re-evaluated. It is proposed that so-called "generalized epilepsies," such as absence seizures, are actually fast spreading epilepsies, the onset of which can be tracked down to particular neuronal networks using appropriate network analysis. Finally new approaches to delineate epileptogenic networks are discussed.

  6. The Application of Relevance Theory in NCEⅡTeaching



    New Concept EnglishⅡwith the accurate pronunciation, strong practicality, and many short and interesting stories as its content,has gained a global reputation as the most enduring and the most classic English teaching materials, which has been fairly popular among a great majority of English learners, especially the beginners. At present there are few researches on NCEⅡteaching, let alone any study from the pragmatics perspective. To have more effective learning and teaching of this book, the rele-vance theory of cognitive pragmatic plays an essential role.

  7. [work motivation -- assessment instruments and their relevance for medical care].

    Fiedler, Rolf G; Ranft, Andreas; Greitemann, Bernhard; Heuft, Gereon


    The relevance of work motivation for medical research and healthcare, in particular rehabilitation, is described. Four diagnostic instruments in the German language are introduced which can assess work motivation using a scale system: AVEM, JDS, LMI and FBTM. Their possible application and potential usage for the clinical area are discussed. Apart from the FBTM, none of these instruments can be directly used as a general instrument in a normal medical clinical setting. Finally, a current model for work motivation (compensatory model of work motivation and volition) is presented that contains basis concepts, which are judged as important for future research questions concerning the development of motivation diagnostic instruments.

  8. Some Fundamental Cybersecurity Concepts

    Wilson, Kelce S; Kiy, Muge Ayse


    The results of successful hacking attacks against commercially available cybersecurity protection tools that had been touted as secure are distilled into a set of concepts that are applicable to many...

  9. Concepts in Change

    Rusanen, Anna-Mari; Pöyhönen, Samuli


    In this article we focus on the concept of concept in conceptual change. We argue that (1) theories of higher learning must often employ two different notions of concept that should not be conflated: psychological and scientific concepts. The usages for these two notions are partly distinct and thus straightforward identification between them is unwarranted. Hence, the strong analogy between scientific theory change and individual learning should be approached with caution. In addition, we argue that (2) research in psychology and cognitive science provides a promising theoretical basis for developing explanatory mechanistic models of conceptual change. Moreover, we argue that (3) arguments against deeper integration between the fields of psychology and conceptual change are not convincing, and that recent theoretical developments in the cognitive sciences might prove indispensable in filling in the details in mechanisms of conceptual change.

  10. Common tester platform concept.

    Hurst, Michael James


    This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

  11. Decoding Astronomical Concepts

    Durisen, Richard H.; Pilachowski, Catherine A.


    Two astronomy professors, using the Decoding the Disciplines process, help their students use abstract theories to analyze light and to visualize the enormous scale of astronomical concepts. (Contains 5 figures.)

  12. The Concept of Alexithymia

    Miray Sasioglu


    Full Text Available The concept of alexithymia, which means “no words for emotions”, emerged in order to explain the symptoms of psychosomatic patients and gained a quick recognition among psychiatrists. However, current studies indicate that alexithymia may be a personality trait seen both in different pathological groups and even in healthy population. At this point, many researches have been made in order to distinguish alexithymia from existing constructs and diagnosis, and to remove the questions on reliability and validity of the con-cept and its measurement. Ongoing discussions on alexithymia will be re-viewed in this study. The controversial concept of alexithymia will be exam-ined in terms of characteristics, theoretical background, relationship with the other disorders, measurement and the critique of the measurement and the concept.

  13. Concept medium programme

    Bjerrum, Peter


    The present essay is an attempt to determine the architectural project of the 21st century in relation to a modern conception of space as the medium of architecture, and of sociality as its program......The present essay is an attempt to determine the architectural project of the 21st century in relation to a modern conception of space as the medium of architecture, and of sociality as its program...

  14. The AERA Concept.


    electrgnic tabular displays ( ETABS ). - , This concept document was prepared by a team of ATC experts to review prior work, the on-going AERA program, and to...Address Beacon System (DABS), trajectory modeling and planning algorithms, and electronic tabular displays ( ETABS ). This concept document was...capability, and a Flight Management System. The development of AERA requires major efforts in system design and software and man-machine interface

  15. Data governance implementation concept

    Ullrichová, Jana


    This master´s thesis discusses concept of implementation for data governance. The theoretical part of this thesis is about data governance. It explains why data are important for company, describes definitoons of data governance, its history, its components, its principles and processes and fitting in company. Theoretical part is amended with examples of data governance failures and banking specifics. The main goal of this thesis is to create a concept for implementing data governance and its...

  16. The Musical Self-Concept of Chinese Music Students

    Suse ePetersen


    Full Text Available The relationship between self-concept and societal settings has been widely investigated in several Western and Asian countries, with respect to the academic self-concept in an educational environment. Although the musical self-concept is highly relevant to musical development and performance, there is a lack of research exploring how the musical self-concept evolves in different cultural settings and societies. In particular, there have been no enquiries yet in the Chinese music education environment. This study’s goal was the characterization of musical self-concept types among music students at a University in Beijing, China. The Musical Self-Concept Inquiry (MUSCI—including ability, emotional, physical, cognitive, and social facets—was used to assess the students’ musical self-concepts (N=97. The data analysis led to three significantly distinct clusters and corresponding musical self-concept types. The types were especially distinct, in the students’ perception of their musical ambitions and abilities; their movement, rhythm and dancing affinity; and the spiritual and social aspects of music. The professional aims and perspectives, and the aspects of the students’ sociodemographic background also differed between the clusters. This study is one of the first research endeavors addressing musical self-concepts in China. The empirical identification of the self-concept types offers a basis for future research on the connections between education, the development of musical achievement, and the musical self-concept in societal settings with differing understandings of the self.

  17. The Musical Self-Concept of Chinese Music Students.

    Petersen, Suse; Camp, Marc-Antoine


    The relationship between self-concept and societal settings has been widely investigated in several Western and Asian countries, with respect to the academic self-concept in an educational environment. Although the musical self-concept is highly relevant to musical development and performance, there is a lack of research exploring how the musical self-concept evolves in different cultural settings and societies. In particular, there have been no enquiries yet in the Chinese music education environment. This study's goal was the characterization of musical self-concept types among music students at a University in Beijing, China. The Musical Self-Concept Inquiry-including ability, emotional, physical, cognitive, and social facets-was used to assess the students' musical self-concepts (N = 97). The data analysis led to three significantly distinct clusters and corresponding musical self-concept types. The types were especially distinct, in the students' perception of their musical ambitions and abilities; their movement, rhythm and dancing affinity; and the spiritual and social aspects of music. The professional aims and perspectives, and the aspects of the students' sociodemographic background also differed between the clusters. This study is one of the first research endeavors addressing musical self-concepts in China. The empirical identification of the self-concept types offers a basis for future research on the connections between education, the development of musical achievement, and the musical self-concept in societal settings with differing understandings of the self.

  18. [Mindfulness: A Concept Analysis].

    Chen, Tsai-Ling; Chou, Fan-Hao; Wang, Hsiu-Hung


    "Mindfulness" is an emerging concept in the field of healthcare. Ranging from stress relief to psychotherapy, mindfulness has been confirmed to be an effective tool to help individuals manage depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and other health problems in clinical settings. Scholars currently use various definitions for mindfulness. While some of these definitions overlap, significant differences remain and a general scholarly consensus has yet to be reached. Several domestic and international studies have explored mindfulness-related interventions and their effectiveness. However, the majority of these studies have focused on the fields of clinical medicine, consultation, and education. Mindfulness has rarely been applied in clinical nursing practice and no related systematic concept analysis has been conducted. This paper conducts a concept analysis of mindfulness using the concept analysis method proposed by Walker and Avant (2011). We describe the defining characteristics of mindfulness, clarify the concept, and confirm the predisposing factors and effects of mindfulness using examples of typical cases, borderline cases, related cases, and contrary case. Findings may provide nursing staff with an understanding of the concept of mindfulness for use in clinical practice in order to help patients achieve a comfortable state of body and mind healing.

  19. An Algorithm on Generating Lattice Based on Layered Concept Lattice

    Zhang Chang-sheng


    Full Text Available Concept lattice is an effective tool for data analysis and rule extraction, a bottleneck factor on impacting the applications of concept lattice is how to generate lattice efficiently. In this paper, an algorithm LCLG on generating lattice in batch processing based on layered concept lattice is developed, this algorithm is based on layered concept lattice, the lattice is generated downward layer by layer through concept nodes and provisional nodes in current layer; the concept nodes are found parent-child relationships upward layer by layer, then the Hasse diagram of inter-layer connection is generated; in the generated process of the lattice nodes in each layer, we do the pruning operations dynamically according to relevant properties, and delete some unnecessary nodes, such that the generating speed is improved greatly; the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has good performance.


    Oana DRĂGAN


    Full Text Available Concept maps, viewed as an innovative method for learning and evolution, are used to synthesize the knowledge of the participants to the learning process and are based on the main concepts and the relationship between them. They offer a visual representation of the information held by an individual, caught through his ability to synthesize the notions/the key concepts. The current study intends to show the importance and efficiency of using the concept maps in economics, especially in the accounting department, a method designed to settle the learning process and, also, to offer a sustainable value. The current empirical study is based on the manner in which the accounting knowledge is displayed by a sample group of 19 practitioners. The originality, the relevance of the concept maps method is underlined by the idea of the practitioners creating their own concept maps designed to point out the importance of the cognitive structure when describing the relationships between different accounting principles.

  1. Threshold concepts in finance: conceptualizing the curriculum

    Hoadley, Susan; Tickle, Leonie; Wood, Leigh N.; Kyng, Tim


    Graduates with well-developed capabilities in finance are invaluable to our society and in increasing demand. Universities face the challenge of designing finance programmes to develop these capabilities and the essential knowledge that underpins them. Our research responds to this challenge by identifying threshold concepts that are central to the mastery of finance and by exploring their potential for informing curriculum design and pedagogical practices to improve student outcomes. In this paper, we report the results of an online survey of finance academics at multiple institutions in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa and the United Kingdom. The outcomes of our research are recommendations for threshold concepts in finance endorsed by quantitative evidence, as well as a model of the finance curriculum incorporating finance, modelling and statistics threshold concepts. In addition, we draw conclusions about the application of threshold concept theory supported by both quantitative and qualitative evidence. Our methodology and findings have general relevance to the application of threshold concept theory as a means to investigate and inform curriculum design and delivery in higher education.

  2. The concept of magic circle: a critical reading

    Arlete dos Santos Petry


    Full Text Available This article deals with establishing and discussing the concept of magic circle - often present in game studies - and ponder the possible relations with the concept of liminality, worked in cultural anthropology from the rites of passage standpoint in Van Gennep and Victor Turner and with the concept of transitional phenomenon by psychoanalyst Donald Winnicott. Towards that, we seek references in studies of the respective areas of knowledge, in order to reflect on the experience of play. The establishment of the relationship between the concepts mentioned - magic circle, liminality, transitional phenomenon - takes a step forward on the path that seeks to answer what play is and its relevance in contemporary life. Thus, given the large access to digital games today, this article provides a relevant contribution to Communication studies.

  3. On effectiveness and efficiency in education. Operationalizing the concepts

    Grin, Francois


    The author, first recalls "the theoretical meaning of the concepts of effectiveness and efficiency, and then briefly discusses the traditional, but still perfectly relevant, analytical distinction between internal and external evaluation. Section 3 is devoted to a brief presentation of some of the problems of identification and measurement raised by these concepts, particularly with respect to appropriately defining the inputs and the outputs on which effectiveness and efficiency rest. Sectio...

  4. Semantic Concept Discovery for Large Scale Zero Shot Event Detection


    aggregation has a long history in social choice theory and we mention the influential work of [Dwork et al., 2001]. Our work is inspired by the pairwise...weight vector w is incorporated to take into account the concept relevance. This is essentially the Borda count that is widely studied in social choice ... theory . As we show in the experiment, this approach does work reasonably well, but it suffers from the following drawbacks: 1). Each concept score

  5. The concept of fractal cosmos, I: Anaxagoras’ cosmology

    Grujić P.V.


    Full Text Available The concept of a fractal cosmos occupies a prominent position in the modern cosmology. We trace the development of this concept from the presocratic Greece to the present state of affairs. In this first part we consider the original idea due to Anaxagoras and elucidate a number of points with regard to possible interpretation of his cosmological ideas. A comparison has been made with the cosmology of Abderian school and relevance to the modern cosmology discussed.

  6. Concept Analysis: Music Therapy.

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Bekhet, Abir K


    Down through the ages, music has been universally valued for its therapeutic properties based on the psychological and physiological responses in humans. However, the underlying mechanisms of the psychological and physiological responses to music have been poorly identified and defined. Without clarification, a concept can be misused, thereby diminishing its importance for application to nursing research and practice. The purpose of this article was for the clarification of the concept of music therapy based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy. A review of recent nursing and health-related literature covering the years 2007-2014 was performed on the concepts of music, music therapy, preferred music, and individualized music. As a result of the search, the attributes, antecedents, and consequences of music therapy were identified, defined, and used to develop a conceptual model of music therapy. The conceptual model of music therapy provides direction for developing music interventions for nursing research and practice to be tested in various settings to improve various patient outcomes. Based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy, model and contrary cases are included. Implications for future nursing research and practice to use the psychological and physiological responses to music therapy are discussed.

  7. Creating Heliophysics Concept Maps

    Ali, N. A.; Peticolas, L. M.; Paglierani, R.; Mendez, B. J.


    The Center for Science Education at University of California Berkeley's Space Sciences Laboratory is creating concept maps for Heliophysics and would like to get input from scientists. The purpose of this effort is to identify key concepts related to Heliophysics and map their progression to show how students' understanding of Heliophysics might develop from Kindergarten through higher education. These maps are meant to tie into the AAAS Project 2061 Benchmarks for Scientific Literacy and National Science Education Standards. It is hoped that the results of this effort will be useful for curriculum designers developing Heliophysics-related curriculum materials and classroom teachers using Heliophysics materials. The need for concept maps was identified as a result of product analysis undertaken by the NASA Heliophysics Forum Team. The NASA Science Education and Public Outreach Forums have as two of their goals to improve the characterization of the contents of the Science Mission Directorate and Public Outreach (SMD E/PO) portfolio (Objective 2.1) and assist SMD in addressing gaps in the portfolio of SMD E/PO products and project activities (Objective 2.2). An important part of this effort is receiving feedback from solar scientists regarding the inclusion of key concepts and their progression in the maps. This session will introduce the draft concept maps and elicit feedback from scientists.

  8. Application of Relevance theory to translation



    Within the framework of relevance theory, translation is regarded as a relevance-seeking communication. It involves three participant relationships:the source speaker, the translator and the target hearers. The translator is supposed to create a context that the target hearer can infer the intention of the source speaker. Comparing translation theories which fail to pay attention to the relevance between the source speakers and the target hearers, Relevance Theory is a relatively overall account of translation. For one thing, some points concerning the Relevance Theory are capable of facilitating the researches to the present translation field. For another, the information of the original text will be understood and comprehended accurately and promptly on the basis of the relevant theory.

  9. Ecological concepts and strategies with relevance to energy-conscious spatial planning and design

    Stremke, S.; Koh, J.


    Sustainable systems utilise renewable energy sources and recycle materials effectively. In theory, solar radiation provides abundant energy to sustain humanity. Our capacity to utilise available sources, however, is limited and competition for resources is expected to increase in the future. Spatial

  10. Teachers' Conceptions of Gifted and Average-Ability Students on Achievement-Relevant Dimensions

    Baudson, Tanja Gabriele; Preckel, Franzis


    Stereotyping of gifted students may not only hinder identification and actualization of potential but also personality development ("stigma of giftedness"). This is obvious in the case of negative stereotyping (e.g., the disharmony hypothesis, which sees gifted students as intellectually strong, but emotionally and socially inferior),…

  11. The Concept of "Calling" and Its Relevance to the Military Professional


    Calvin College in Grand Rapids, MI explains further that “Vocation implies a relationship with the one who calls us. Biblically, that caller is the...that expertise.12 Calling in the Bible Os Guinness describes what he calls “four essential strands” of calling in the Bible . First, he explains...are related: “in the Bible , one’s name frequently sums up the divinely given purpose or identity to which God calls that person.”15 Third

  12. Concept Based Tie-breaking and Maximal Marginal Relevance Retrieval in Microblog Retrieval


    more appropriate order could further improve the performance. 3. TWEET TIMELINE GENERATION 1 twitter - tools/wiki/TREC-2013- API ...were used to search against the API , and the number of results required to return was set to 10,000. The returned tweets were then used to build

  13. The home-range concept: are traditional estimators still relevant with modern telemetry technology?

    Kie, John G; Matthiopoulos, Jason; Fieberg, John; Powell, Roger A; Cagnacci, Francesca; Mitchell, Michael S; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Moorcroft, Paul R


    Recent advances in animal tracking and telemetry technology have allowed the collection of location data at an ever-increasing rate and accuracy, and these advances have been accompanied by the development of new methods of data analysis for portraying space use, home ranges and utilization distributions. New statistical approaches include data-intensive techniques such as kriging and nonlinear generalized regression models for habitat use. In addition, mechanistic home-range models, derived from models of animal movement behaviour, promise to offer new insights into how home ranges emerge as the result of specific patterns of movements by individuals in response to their environment. Traditional methods such as kernel density estimators are likely to remain popular because of their ease of use. Large datasets make it possible to apply these methods over relatively short periods of time such as weeks or months, and these estimates may be analysed using mixed effects models, offering another approach to studying temporal variation in space-use patterns. Although new technologies open new avenues in ecological research, our knowledge of why animals use space in the ways we observe will only advance by researchers using these new technologies and asking new and innovative questions about the empirical patterns they observe.

  14. Fundamental aspects of stress corrosion cracking of copper relevant to the Swedish deep geologic repository concept

    Bhaskaran, Ganesh; Carcea, Anatolie; Ulaganathan, Jagan; Wang, Shengchun; Huang, Yin; Newman, Roger C. [Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Univ. of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)


    Phosphorus-doped oxygen-free copper will be used as the outer barrier in canisters that will contain spent nuclear fuel in the proposed Swedish underground repository. The possibility of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is a concern, in view of isolated reports of cracking or intergranular corrosion of pure copper in sulfide solutions. This concern was addressed in the present work using copper tensile specimens provided by SKB. Methods included slow strain rate testing, constant strain tensile testing, electrochemical and surface analytical studies of corrosion products, and electron backscatter diffraction analysis of grain orientation effects on corrosion. The base solutions were prepared from NaCl or synthetic sea water with addition of varying amounts of sodium sulfide at room temperature and 80 degree Celsius. No SCC was found in any of the testing, for a range of sulfide concentrations from 5-50 mM at room temperature or 8 C, including tests where small anodic or cathodic potential displacements were applied from the open-circuit (corrosion) potential. Neither was SCC found in constant-strain immersion testing with very large strain. The Cu2S corrosion product is generally very coarse, fragile, and easily spalled off in severe corrosion environments, i.e. high sulfide concentration, high temperature, less perfect de aeration, etc. But it could also consist of very fine grains, relatively compact and adherent, on particular grain orientations when it was formed on an electro polished surface in a very well-deaerated solution. These orientations have not yet been identified statistically, although some preference for thin, adherent films was noted on orientations close to (100). The notion that the corrosion reaction is always controlled by inward aqueous-phase diffusion of sulfide may thus not be unconditionally correct for this range of sulfide concentrations; however it is hard to distinguish the role of diffusion within pores in the film. In the actual repository, the limiting flux of sulfide to the canister surface will be some orders of magnitude lower, in view of the bentonite barrier which imposes a lower diffusivity and much longer diffusion length. Preferential corrosion along grain boundaries was rarely observed, which is considered to be important for SCC resistance since there was usually a fairly rapid general corrosion, at least on one side of the grain boundary. Severe plastic deformation was not found to cause any particular localization of corrosion, but may promote general corrosion in the deformed area. On the basis of this work, SCC of copper in sulfide solution, obtained by Japanese workers using slow strain rate testing of copper sheet, appears not to be reproducible in the SKB copper using normal tensile specimens. Neither can we rationalize, on the basis of our results, the findings of Finnish workers on intergranular corrosion emanating from a fatigue crack tip. Some complexities related to these other studies are discussed, including the possible effect of poor de aeration or inappropriate potential control; however a discrepancy remains nonetheless.

  15. Rethinking the concept of economic man and its relevance to the future of Islamic economics

    Mohd Mahyudi


    Full Text Available This study sheds light on the philosophical underpinnings of Islamic economics, especially its version of a social and moral economic system. The prospect of value-laden economics, the gap between the theory and practice of the Islamic economic system, and an epistemological exposition on the observed gap are discussed. On the first aspect, the study indicates that the future for Islamic economics as one alternative of a value-based approach is indeed promising with the ongoing replacement of Robbin’s fact/value dichotomy with Putnam’s entanglement of fact and value notion. Interestingly, the widely reported gap, in the form of non-achievement of social goals, has led the study to identify a serious flaw in the micro-foundational aspect of Islamic economics; one that has not been noticed before. A more holistic reading of the Qur’ān could solve this micro-foundation issue. Therefore, the study calls for a fresh epistemological approach in Islamic economics methodology that could set in motion a renewed interest in the Islamic economic system discourse.

  16. Reliability and Qualitative Data: Are Psychometric Concepts Relevant within an Interpretivist Research Paradigm?

    Daniel, Larry G.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    Reliability is one of the chief characteristics researchers consider when judging the quality of data used in their studies. Within the positivist paradigm, data are typically quantified, and thus it is relatively easy to derive estimates of reliability. Within the interpretivist paradigm, however, the idea of data reliability is a looser science.…

  17. Does the new conceptual framework provide adequate concepts for reporting relevant information about performance?

    Brouwer, A.; Faramarzi, A; Hoogendoorn, M.


    The basic question we raise in this paper is whether the 2013 Discussion Paper (DP 2013) on the Conceptual Framework provides adequate principles for reporting an entity’s performance and what improvements could be made in light of both user needs and evidence from academic literature. DP 2013 propo

  18. Relevance of communications at sale points in the modern concept of merchandising

    Kataev Andrey


    Full Text Available Owners of brands spend a large amount of money to promote their products. However, communication at sale points usually does not meet the overall strategy of integrated marketing communication as communication and sales are the question of competence of different managers. If not to pay proper attention to this question today, thousands of advertising budgets, PR and other campaigns will not bring effect under conditions of inconsistent sales strategies and tactics. The article gives the theoretical grounding of integration of communications at sale points into the structure of retail marketing communications.

  19. The relevance of the concepts of affordance and behavior setting for housing research

    Coolen, H.C.C.H.


    The housing field has been characterized as the set of relationships involved in the demand, supply, distribution and price of housing. Although many conceptual frameworks have been used to describe and understand this set of relationships, most of these approaches lack a convincing focus on the

  20. Early-life effects on adult physical activity: Concepts, relevance, and experimental approaches

    Locomotion is a defining characteristic of animal life and plays a crucial role in most behaviors. Locomotion involves physical activity, which can have far-reaching effects on physiology and neurobiology, both acutely and chronically. In human populations and in laboratory rodents, higher levels of...

  1. Implications of Relevance Theory to English Reading



    Reading is a style of communication between reader and writer while relevance theory is a new approach to communi⁃cation. Based on relevance theory, we can paraphrase reading as followings: reading comprehension is a process of communica⁃tion between reader and writer; a process of making inference from the ostensive-inference communication; a process of seeking optimal relevance on the part of the reader.



    The illustrations for Tibetan sutras are coloured in two ways:in black and white or colours-the monotone illustrations accompanying Tibetan characters and usually engraved on woodblocks.The illustrations are often showed on the cover pages or two sides of the head pages of sutras; they are frequently displayed at two frames and in the middle of end pages.In this paper,I am going to introduce the

  3. LABRANG MONASTERY: Living Buddhas And Buddhist Scriptures



  4. Electroacupuncture Combined with Buddhist Music for the Treatment of Depression after Stroke:Clinical Observation of Its Efficacy and Safety%电针结合佛曲音乐治疗中风后抑郁症的疗效及安全性临床观察

    张雪; 丁文涛; 屈天青


    Objective:To use electro-acupuncture combined with buddhist music therapy for depression after stroke in order to observe its efficacy and safety .Methods:60 cases of PSD were randomly divided into the treat-ment group with 30 cases and control group with 30 cases.The treatment group was given acupuncture combined with buddhist music ,one time per day; the control group was given fluoxetine oral treatment , and both of the two groups were treated for four weeks .Before and after treatment guys and meal depression scale integral judgement , side effects evaluation and the onset time of evaluation were conducted .Resu lts:Before and after treatment in the two groups ,HAMD scale score showed no significant difference ( P>0 .05 );two groups of inci-dence of side effects had a significant difference (P<0.05), and the incidence of side effects was significantly lower in the treatment group than that in control group .Concluison :Electroacupuncture combined with buddhist music in the treatment of post stroke depression treated for four weeks has the similar efficacy to the medica -tions,with less side effect .%目的:验证电针结合佛曲音乐治疗中风后抑郁( PSD)的有效性及安全性。方法:将60例PSD患者随机分为治疗组30例和对照组30例,治疗组给予电针结合佛曲音乐治疗,1次/天;对照组给予氟西汀口服治疗,两组连续治疗4周。治疗前、治疗4周后进行汉密尔顿抑郁量表( HAMD )积分判定、副作用评定。结果:治疗前后两组HAMD积分无显著差异( P>0.05),两组副作用发生率有明显差异( P<0.05),电针结合佛曲疗法副作用发生率明显低于药物组。结论:电针结合佛曲治疗中风后抑郁4周后疗效与药物相当,但副作用小。

  5. Communication, concepts and grounding.

    van der Velde, Frank


    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain and communication between humans or between humans and machines. In the first form of communication, a concept is activated by sensory input. Due to grounding, the information provided by this communication is not just determined by the sensory input but also by the outgoing connection structure of the conceptual representation, which is based on previous experiences and actions. The second form of communication, that between humans or between humans and machines, is influenced by the first form. In particular, a more successful interpersonal communication might require forms of situated cognition and interaction in which the entire representations of grounded concepts are involved.

  6. The CLIC Detector Concept

    Pitters, Florian Michael


    CLIC is a concept for a future linear collider that would provide e+e- collisions at up to 3 TeV. The physics aims require a detector system with excellent jet energy and track momentum resolution, highly efficient flavour-tagging and lepton identification capabilities, full geometrical coverage extending to low polar angles and timing information in the order of nanoseconds to reject beam-induced background. To deal with those requirements, an extensive R&D programme is in place to overcome current technological limits. The CLIC detector concept includes a low-mass all-silicon vertex and tracking detector system and fine-grained calorimeters designed for particle flow analysis techniques, surrounded by a 4 T solenoid magnet. An overview of the requirements and design optimisations for the CLIC detector concept is presented.

  7. Being there with others: how people make environments norm-relevant.

    Stapel, Diederik A; Joly, Janneke F; Lindenberg, Siegwart M


    In two studies we show that people make environments norm-relevant and this increases the likelihood that environments influence norm-relevant judgments. When people see environments without having people on their mind, this effect does not occur. Specifically, when exposed to an environment (a library), people's perceived importance of environment-relevant norms (be silent in libraries) increases, when the concept of 'people' is primed compared to when this is not the case. The impact on normative judgments of priming significant others (Study 1) is stronger than priming people in general (Study 2). Additional effects on conformism and public self-consciousness are discussed, as well as implications for future studies.

  8. Teaching power concepts.

    Heineken, J; McCloskey, J C


    Concepts and strategies presented here provide nurses with a new perspective from which to analyze and interact with power dynamics. Understanding fundamental concepts of power will help nurses enjoy a more equal status and bargaining position within the community of health professionals and in health care delivery systems. As nurses integrate and utilize this content for enhancing professional practices and client services, our public image will also continue to be strengthened. In so doing, our power base and sphere of influence will also be broadened.

  9. Introduction: Bridging Concepts.

    Davids, Karel


    How can those in the history of science, history of technology, and economics communicate more with each other than they are accustomed? How can they become more globally oriented? While these three disciplines today have more convergent interests than in the past, there is still a large potential for further exchange and involvement to explore and exploit. The contributors to this Focus section discuss a number of concepts that may serve as tools to bring these three disciplines more closely together and ease their evolution in a less Eurocentric direction. These concepts include trading zones, interaction and formalization, production, and machines and self-organization.

  10. Loneliness: a concept analysis.

    Bekhet, Abir K; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A; Nakhla, Wagdy E


    Loneliness is a universal human experience recognized since the dawn of time, yet it is unique for every individual. Loneliness can lead to both depression and low self-esteem. This article explicates the concept of loneliness through the examination of its conceptual definition and uses, defining attributes, related concepts, and empirical referents. Literature review using hand search and database were used as sources of information. Because loneliness is commonly encountered in nursing situations, the information provided will serve as a framework for assessment, planning, intervention, and evaluation of clients.

  11. [Concepts of rational taxonomy].

    Pavlinov, I Ia


    The problems are discussed related to development of concepts of rational taxonomy and rational classifications (taxonomic systems) in biology. Rational taxonomy is based on the assumption that the key characteristic of rationality is deductive inference of certain partial judgments about reality under study from other judgments taken as more general and a priory true. Respectively, two forms of rationality are discriminated--ontological and epistemological ones. The former implies inference of classifications properties from general (essential) properties of the reality being investigated. The latter implies inference of the partial rules of judgments about classifications from more general (formal) rules. The following principal concepts of ontologically rational biological taxonomy are considered: "crystallographic" approach, inference of the orderliness of organismal diversity from general laws of Nature, inference of the above orderliness from the orderliness of ontogenetic development programs, based on the concept of natural kind and Cassirer's series theory, based on the systemic concept, based on the idea of periodic systems. Various concepts of ontologically rational taxonomy can be generalized by an idea of the causal taxonomy, according to which any biologically sound classification is founded on a contentwise model of biological diversity that includes explicit indication of general causes responsible for that diversity. It is asserted that each category of general causation and respective background model may serve as a basis for a particular ontologically rational taxonomy as a distinctive research program. Concepts of epistemologically rational taxonomy and classifications (taxonomic systems) can be interpreted in terms of application of certain epistemological criteria of substantiation of scientific status of taxonomy in general and of taxonomic systems in particular. These concepts include: consideration of taxonomy consistency from the

  12. Concepts of quantum optics

    Knight, P L


    Concepts of Quantum Optics is a coherent and sequential coverage of some real insight into quantum physics. This book is divided into six chapters, and begins with an overview of the principles and concepts of radiation and quanta, with an emphasis on the significance of the Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light. The next chapter describes first the properties of the radiation field in a bounded cavity, showing how each cavity field mode has the characteristics of a simple harmonic oscillator and how each can be quantized using known results for the quantum harmonic oscillator. This chapte

  13. Innatism, Concept Formation, Concept Mastery and Formal Education

    Winch, Christopher


    This article will consider the claim that the possession of concepts is innate rather than learned. Innatism about concept learning is explained through consideration of the work of Fodor and Chomsky. First, an account of concept formation is developed. Second the argument against the claim that concepts are learned through the construction of a…

  14. Innatism, Concept Formation, Concept Mastery and Formal Education

    Winch, Christopher


    This article will consider the claim that the possession of concepts is innate rather than learned. Innatism about concept learning is explained through consideration of the work of Fodor and Chomsky. First, an account of concept formation is developed. Second the argument against the claim that concepts are learned through the construction of a…

  15. 两种佛家静功脑电近似熵及复杂度的比较%Comparative study of EEG approximate entropy and vomplexity on two buddhist qigong

    陈昌乐; 张松; 夏雨欣; 魏玉龙; 吴晓芸; 刘天君


    Objective: To compare the differences of the practice's EEG of different Buddhist Qigong. Methods: To collect the data of 12 mantra cases and 12 chanting Buddha cases, including before practice, in practice and after practice three State. Using the methods of approximate entropy and complexity to analysis the difference of EEG, and using T test to compare the difference between groups. Results: Before the state of practice the numerical value of approximate entropy of chanting Buddha group in channel Fp1-A1, Fz-A1, Fp2-A2, F7-A1, F3-A1, FCz-A1, F4-A2, T3-A1, C1-A1, FCz-A2, CPz-A2, C2-A2, C4-A2, T4-A2, Pz-A1, P4-A2, T6-A2 are much larger than that of mantra group(P<0.05). Before the state of practice the numerical value of complexity of chanting Buddha group in channel Fp1-A1, Fz-A1, Fp2-A2, F7-A1, F3-A1, FCz-A1, F4-A2, T3-A1, C1-A1, FCz-A2, C2-A2, C4-A2, T4-A2, Ts-A1, P4-A2, T6-A2 are much larger than that of mantra group(P<0.05). Conclusion: The numerical value of approximate entropy and complexity during chanting Buddha state is much larger than that of mantra state.%目的:比较习练不同佛家静功时的的脑电差异.方法:选取持咒组与念佛组各12例,脑电采集分为练功前、练功中、练功后3个阶段,运用近似熵及复杂度2种方法分析其脑电特征,采用t检验比较比较组间差异.结果:练功过程中念佛组Fp1-A1、Fz-A1、Fp2-A2、F7-A1、F3-A1、FCz-A1、F4-A2、T3-A1、C1-A1、FCz-A2、CPz-A2、C2-A2、C4-A2、T4-A2、Pz-A1、P4-A2、T6-A2导联的近似熵显著大于持咒组(P<0.05),念佛组Fp1-A1、Fz-A1、Fp2-A2、F7-A1、F3-A1、FCz-A1、F4-A2、T3-A1、C1-A1、FCz-A2、C2-A2、C4-A2、T4-A2、T5-A1、P4-A2、T6-A2导联的复杂度显著大于持咒组(P<0.05),结论:念佛状态的脑电近似熵及复杂度显著大于持咒状态.

  16. [Pleasure: Neurobiological conception and Freudian conception].

    Chenu, A; Tassin, J-P


    Despite many controversies the debate between psychoanalysis and neuroscience remains intense, all the more since the Freudian theory stands as a reference for a number of medical practitioners and faculty psychiatrists, at least in France. Instead of going on arguing we think that it may be more constructive to favour dialogue through the analysis of a precise concept developed in each discipline. The Freudian theory of pleasure, because it is based on biological principles, appears an appropriate topic to perform this task. In this paper, we aim at comparing Freud's propositions to those issued from recent findings in Neuroscience. Like all emotions, pleasure is acknowledged as a motivating factor in contemporary models. Pleasure can indeed be either rewarding when it follows satisfaction, or incentive when it reinforces behaviours. The Freudian concept of pleasure is more univocal. In Freud's theory, pleasure is assumed to be the result of the discharge of the accumulated excitation which will thus reduce the tension. This quantitative approach corresponds to the classical scheme that associates satisfaction and pleasure. Satisfaction of a need would induce both a decrease in tension and the development of pleasure. However, clinical contradictions to this model, such as the occasional co-existence between pleasure and excitation, drove Freud to suggest different theoretical reversals. Freud's 1905 publication, which describes how preliminary sexual pleasures contribute to an increased excitation and a sexual satisfaction, is the only analysis which provides an adapted answer to the apparent paradox of pleasure and excitation co-existence. Studies on the neurobiological mechanisms responsible for the development of pleasure may help to fill this gap in the Freudian theory. Activity of the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway is strongly associated with the reward system. Experimental studies performed in animals have shown that increased dopaminergic activity in the

  17. Is Vygotsky Relevant? Vygotsky's Marxist Psychology

    Packer, Martin J.


    This article explores the connections between Vygotsky's psychology and Marxism, arguing that his was a "Marxist psychology" in its "historical foundation": a specific conception of history. This conception of history is evident in Vygotsky's analysis and diagnosis of the crisis in psychology. The creation of a Marxist, general psychology was the…

  18. Is Vygotsky Relevant? Vygotsky's Marxist Psychology

    Packer, Martin J.


    This article explores the connections between Vygotsky's psychology and Marxism, arguing that his was a "Marxist psychology" in its "historical foundation": a specific conception of history. This conception of history is evident in Vygotsky's analysis and diagnosis of the crisis in psychology. The creation of a Marxist, general psychology was the…

  19. Relevant Pages in semantic Web Search Engines using Ontology

    Jemimah Simon


    Full Text Available In general, search engines are the most popular means of searching any kind of information from the Internet. Generally, keywords are given to the search engine and the Web database returns the documents containing specified keywords. In many situations, irrelevant results are given as results to the user query since different keywords are used in different forms in various documents. The development of the next generation Web, Semantic Web, will change this situation. This paper proposes a prototype of relation-based search engine which ranks the page according to the user query and on annotated results. Page sub graph is computed for each annotated page in the result set by generating all possible combinations for the relation in the sub graph. A relevance score is computed for each annotated page using a probability measure. A relation based ranking model is used which displays the pages in the final result set according to their relevance score. This ranking is provided by considering keyword-concept associations. Thus, the final result set contains pages in the order of their constrained relevant scores.

  20. An Effective Concept Extraction Method for Improving Text Classification Performance

    ZHANG Yuntao; GONG Ling; WANG Yongcheng; YIN Zhonghang


    This paper presents anew way to extract concept that can beused to improve text classification per-formance (precision and recall). Thecomputational measure will be dividedinto two layers. The bottom layercalled document layer is concernedwith extracting the concepts of parti-cular document and the upper layercalled category layer is with findingthe description and subject concepts ofparticular category. The relevant im-plementation algorithm that dramatic-ally decreases the search space is dis-cussed in detail. The experiment basedon real-world data collected from Info-Bank shows that the approach is supe-rior to the traditional ones.

  1. Ranking Music Data by Relevance and Importance

    Ruxanda, Maria Magdalena; Nanopoulos, Alexandros; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard


    the music based on its relevance and importance. The fusion is controlled by a single parameter, which can be intuitively tuned by the user. The notion of authoritative music among relevant music is introduced, and social media mined from the Web is used in an innovative manner to determine both...

  2. Modelling Complex Relevance Spaces with Copulas

    C. Eickhoff (Carsten); A.P. de Vries (Arjen)


    htmlabstractModern relevance models consider a wide range of criteria in order to identify those documents that are expected to satisfy the user's information need. With growing dimensionality of the underlying relevance spaces the need for sophisticated score combination and estimation schemes

  3. Alligning vertical collection relevance with user intent

    Zhou, Ke; Demeester, Thomas; Nguyen, Dong; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Trieschnigg, Dolf


    Selecting and aggregating different types of content from multiple vertical search engines is becoming popular in web search. The user vertical intent, the verticals the user expects to be relevant for a particular information need, might not correspond to the vertical collection relevance, the vert

  4. Relevance and problem choice in design science

    Wieringa, Roelf J.


    The supposed opposition of rigor versus relevance is based on the mistaken idea that rigor consists of linear technology transfer combined with positivistic science, and ignores the context-dependence of relevance as well as the incorporation of conditions of practice necessary for applicability of

  5. CMIC@TREC-2009: Relevance Feedback Track


    Carbonell and Goldstein [2] suggested the so-called Maximal Marginal Relevance (MMR) which attempts to reduce redundancy while maintaining relevance...Search and Data Mining, (Barcelona, Spain: ACM, 2009), pp. 5-14. 2. Carbonell , J. and Goldstein, J. The use of MMR, diversity-based reranking for

  6. Alligning Vertical Collection Relevance with User Intent

    Zhou, Ke; Demeester, Thomas; Nguyen, Dong-Phuong; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Trieschnigg, Rudolf Berend

    Selecting and aggregating different types of content from multiple vertical search engines is becoming popular in web search. The user vertical intent, the verticals the user expects to be relevant for a particular information need, might not correspond to the vertical collection relevance, the

  7. 49 CFR 1150.13 - Relevant dates.


    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relevant dates. 1150.13 Section 1150.13 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT... Designated Operators § 1150.13 Relevant dates. The exact dates of the period of operation which have...

  8. Two Conceptions of Virtue

    Hill, Thomas E., Jr.


    The general questions are: what is virtue and how can it be cultivated? The specific focus is on the conceptions of virtue in the works of Immanuel Kant and John Rawls. Kant regarded virtue as a good will that is also strong enough to resist contrary passions, impulses, and inclinations. Childhood training can prepare children for virtue, but…

  9. Some Core Contested Concepts

    Chomsky, Noam


    Core concepts of language are highly contested. In some cases this is legitimate: real empirical and conceptual issues arise. In other cases, it seems that controversies are based on misunderstanding. A number of crucial cases are reviewed, and an approach to language is outlined that appears to have strong conceptual and empirical motivation, and…

  10. Concept medium program

    Bjerrum, Peter


    The present essays is an attempt to dertermine the architecural project of the 21st century in realation to a modern conception of space as the medium of architecture, and of society as its program. This attempt adopts the internal point of view of an architect in describing a modern architectural...

  11. Sound Search Engine Concept


    Sound search is provided by the major search engines, however, indexing is text based, not sound based. We will establish a dedicated sound search services with based on sound feature indexing. The current demo shows the concept of the sound search engine. The first engine will be realased June...

  12. The Concept of "Teachability."

    Tubbs, Nigel


    Asserts that "teachability" is a speculative concept that has for its form and content the absolute, suggesting that its dialectical movement and speculative significance are mis-recognized when the illusionary nature of its constitutive moments is suppressed. The essay outlines the speculative nature of the master/slave relationship in Hegel's…

  13. Higgs Factory Concepts

    Zimmermann, Frank


    Designs for future high-energy circular electron-positron colliders are based on both established and novel concepts. An appropriate design will enable these facilities to serve not only as “Higgs factories”, but also as Z, W and top factories, and, in addition, to become a possible first step to a higher-energy hadron collider.

  14. Two Conceptions of Virtue

    Hill, Thomas E., Jr.


    The general questions are: what is virtue and how can it be cultivated? The specific focus is on the conceptions of virtue in the works of Immanuel Kant and John Rawls. Kant regarded virtue as a good will that is also strong enough to resist contrary passions, impulses, and inclinations. Childhood training can prepare children for virtue, but…

  15. Understanding the Agribusiness Concept.

    Lee, Jasper S.

    Designed to aid in learning the main ideas of the agribusiness concept, this document answers the following questions, treating each answer in a separate explanatory section: (1) What is the meaning of the terms "agriculture" and "agribusiness"? (2) What is the relationship of agriculture and agribusiness? (3) What is involved in tracing an…

  16. Advanced tokamak concepts

    Oomens, A. A. M.


    From a discussion of fusion reactor designs based on today's well-established experience gained in the operation of large tokamaks, it is concluded that such reactors are economically not attractive. The physics involved in the various options for concept improvement is described and the main e

  17. SMRF architecture concepts

    Rossum, W.L. van; Wit, J.J.M. de; Otten, M.P.G.; Huizing, A.G.


    This presents three valuable applications of scalable multifunction RF (SMRF) systems. These systems allow radar, ESM, and communication functionality using a single front-end architecture. With the use of a novel system design tool, concepts for SMRF architectures for airborne, ground-based and nav

  18. Advanced tokamak concepts

    Oomens, A. A. M.


    From a discussion of fusion reactor designs based on today's well-established experience gained in the operation of large tokamaks, it is concluded that such reactors are economically not attractive. The physics involved in the various options for concept improvement is described and the main e

  19. The Concept of "Teachability."

    Tubbs, Nigel


    Asserts that "teachability" is a speculative concept that has for its form and content the absolute, suggesting that its dialectical movement and speculative significance are mis-recognized when the illusionary nature of its constitutive moments is suppressed. The essay outlines the speculative nature of the master/slave relationship in Hegel's…

  20. [Current concepts on gastroschisis].

    Castrejón García, J M; Vivar Ferrer, I; Bautista, M L


    Present day concepts about history, etiology, embriology, and management of gastroschisis are reviewed and a case is reported; it was treated in two surgical steps. A silastic net was applied and the intestinal loops were gradually introduced until the abdominal defect closed completely. Parenteral feeding was also given.